Science.gov

Sample records for radiation effects dosimetry

  1. Radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the basic facts about the measurement of ionizing radiation, usually referred to as radiation dosimetry. The article defines the common radiation quantities and units; gives typical levels of natural radiation and medical exposures; and describes the most important biological effects of radiation and the methods used to measure radiation. Finally, a proposal is made for a new radiation risk unit to make radiation risks more understandable to nonspecialists. PMID:2040250

  2. Distribution effectiveness for space radiation dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    A simplified risk basis and a theory of hematological response are presented and applied to the problem of dosimetry in the manned space program. Unlike previous studies, the current work incorporates radiation exposure distribution effects into its definition of dose equivalent. The fractional cell lethality model for prediction of hematological response is integral in the analysis.

  3. Radiation dosimetry and biophysical models of space radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu; Shavers, Mark R.; George, Kerry

    2003-01-01

    Estimating the biological risks from space radiation remains a difficult problem because of the many radiation types including protons, heavy ions, and secondary neutrons, and the absence of epidemiology data for these radiation types. Developing useful biophysical parameters or models that relate energy deposition by space particles to the probabilities of biological outcomes is a complex problem. Physical measurements of space radiation include the absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra. In contrast to conventional dosimetric methods, models of radiation track structure provide descriptions of energy deposition events in biomolecules, cells, or tissues, which can be used to develop biophysical models of radiation risks. In this paper, we address the biophysical description of heavy particle tracks in the context of the interpretation of both space radiation dosimetry and radiobiology data, which may provide insights into new approaches to these problems.

  4. Effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Estimation of the radiation dose to internal organs is essential for the assessment of radiation risks and benefits to patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures including PET. Respiratory motion induces notable internal organ displacement, which influences the absorbed dose for external exposure to radiation. However, to their knowledge, the effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry has never been reported before. Methods: Thirteen computational models representing the adult male at different respiratory phases corresponding to the normal respiratory cycle were generated from the 4D dynamic XCAT phantom. Monte Carlo calculations were performed using the MCNP transport code to estimate the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of monoenergetic photons/electrons, the S-values of common positron-emitting radionuclides (C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, Cu-64, Ga-68, Rb-82, Y-86, and I-124), and the absorbed dose of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) in 28 target regions for both the static (average of dynamic frames) and dynamic phantoms. Results: The self-absorbed dose for most organs/tissues is only slightly influenced by respiratory motion. However, for the lung, the self-absorbed SAF is about 11.5% higher at the peak exhale phase than the peak inhale phase for photon energies above 50 keV. The cross-absorbed dose is obviously affected by respiratory motion for many combinations of source-target pairs. The cross-absorbed S-values for the heart contents irradiating the lung are about 7.5% higher in the peak exhale phase than the peak inhale phase for different positron-emitting radionuclides. For {sup 18}F-FDG, organ absorbed doses are less influenced by respiratory motion. Conclusions: Respiration-induced volume variations of the lungs and the repositioning of internal organs affect the self-absorbed dose of the lungs and cross-absorbed dose between organs in internal radiation dosimetry. The dynamic anatomical model provides more accurate internal radiation dosimetry estimates for the lungs and abdominal organs based on realistic modeling of respiratory motion. This work also contributes to a better understanding of model-induced uncertainties in internal radiation dosimetry.

  5. Standard Practice for Dosimetry of Proton Beams for use in Radiation Effects Testing of Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Blackmore, Ewart; Cascio, Ethan W.; Castaneda, Carlos; von Przewoski, Barbara; Eisen, Harvey

    2008-07-25

    Representatives of facilities that routinely deliver protons for radiation effect testing are collaborating to establish a set of standard best practices for proton dosimetry. These best practices will be submitted to the ASTM International for adoption.

  6. A Novel Biological Dosimetry Method for Monitoring Occupational Radiation Exposure in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Wards: From Radiation Dosimetry to Biological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Heydarheydari, S.; Haghparast, A.; Eivazi, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Professional radiation workers are occupationally exposed to long-term low levels of ionizing radiation. Occupational health hazards from radiation exposure, in a large occupational segment of the population, are of special concern. Biological dosimetry can be performed in addition to physical dosimetry with the aim of individual dose assessment and biological effects. Methods In this biodosimetry study, some hematological parameters have been examined in 40 exposed and 40 control subjects who were matched by gender, age and occupational records (±3 years) in Kermanshah hospitals in Iran (2013-2014). The occupational radiation dose was measured by personal dosimetry device (film badges). The data was analyzed using SPSS V.20 and statistical tests such as two-sided Student’s t-test. Results Exposed subjects had a median exposure of 0.68±1.58 mSv/year by film badge dosimetry. Radiation workers with at least a 10-year record showed lower values of Mean Hemoglobin (Hb) and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) compared to the control group (p<0.05). The mean value of Red Blood Cells (RBCs) in personnel working in Radiology departments seemed to show decrease in comparison with other radiation workers. Conclusion Although the radiation absorbed doses were below the permissible limits based on the ICRP, this study showed the role of low-level chronic exposure in decreasing Hb and MCV in the blood of radiation workers with at least 10 years records. Therefore, the findings from the present study suggest that monitoring of hematological parameters of radiation workers can be useful as biological dosimeter, and also the exposed medical personnel should carefully follow the radiation protection instructions and radiation exposure should be minimized as possible. PMID:27026951

  7. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-05

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  8. Dosimetry for quantitative analysis of low dose ionizing radiation effects on humans in radiation therapy patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, J; Stern, R L; Daly, T P; Schwieter, C W; Jones, G E; Arnold, M L; Hartmann-Siantar, C L; Goldberg, Z

    2004-04-20

    We have successfully developed a practical approach to predicting the location of skin surface dose at potential biopsy sites that receive 1 cGy and 10 cGy, respectively, in support of in vivo biologic dosimetry in humans. This represents a significant technical challenge as the sites lie on the patient surface out side the radiation fields. The PEREGRINE Monte Carlo simulation system was used to model radiation dose delivery and TLDs were used for validation on a phantom and confirmation during patient treatment. In the developmental studies the Monte Carlo simulations consistently underestimated the dose at the biopsy site by approximately 15% for a realistic treatment configuration, most likely due to lack of detail in the simulation of the linear accelerator outside the main beam line. Using a single, thickness-independent correction factor for the clinical calculations, the average of 36 measurements for the predicted 1 cGy point was 0.985 cGy (standard deviation: 0.110 cGy) despite patient breathing motion and other real world challenges. Since the 10 cGy point is situated in the region of high dose gradient at the edge of the field, patient motion had a greater effect and the six measured points averaged 5.90 cGy (standard deviation: 1.01 cGy), a difference that is equivalent to approximately a 6 mm shift on the patient's surface.

  9. Radiation effects on MOS devices - dosimetry, annealing, irradiation sequence, and sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Brucker, G. J.; Van Gunten, O.; Knudson, A. R.; Jordan, T. M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on some investigations of dosimetry, annealing, irradiation sequences, and radioactive sources, involved in the determination of radiation effects on MOS devices. Results show that agreement in the experimental and theoretical surface to average doses support the use of thermo-luminescent dosimeters (manganese activated calcium fluoride) in specifying the surface dose delivered to thin gate insulators of MOS devices. Annealing measurements indicate the existence of at least two energy levels,,s or a activation energies, for recovery of soft oxide MOS devices after irradiation by electrons, protons, and gammas. Damage sensitivities of MOS devices were found to be independent of combinations and sequences of radiation type or energies. Comparison of various gamma sources indicated a small dependence of damage sensitivity on the Cobalt facility, but a more significant dependence in the case of the Cesium source. These results were attributed to differences in the spectral content of the several sources.

  10. Analysis of MIR-18 results for physical and biological dosimetry: radiation shielding effectiveness in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Williams, J. R.; Dicello, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    We compare models of radiation transport and biological response to physical and biological dosimetry results from astronauts on the Mir space station. Transport models are shown to be in good agreement with physical measurements and indicate that the ratio of equivalent dose from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) to protons is about 3/2:1 and that this ratio will increase for exposures to internal organs. Two biological response models are used to compare to the Mir biodosimetry for chromosome aberration in lymphocyte cells; a track-structure model and the linear-quadratic model with linear energy transfer (LET) dependent weighting coefficients. These models are fit to in vitro data for aberration formation in human lymphocytes by photons and charged particles. Both models are found to be in reasonable agreement with data for aberrations in lymphocytes of Mir crew members: however there are differences between the use of LET dependent weighting factors and track structure models for assigning radiation quality factors. The major difference in the models is the increased effectiveness predicted by the track model for low charge and energy ions with LET near 10 keV/micrometers. The results of our calculations indicate that aluminum shielding, although providing important mitigation of the effects of trapped radiation, provides no protective effect from the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in low-earth orbit (LEO) using either equivalent dose or the number of chromosome aberrations as a measure until about 100 g/cm 2 of material is used.

  11. Small fields: Nonequilibrium radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Indra J.; Ding, George X.; Ahnesjoe, Anders

    2008-01-15

    Advances in radiation treatment with beamlet-based intensity modulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery (including specialized equipments like CyberKnife, Gamma Knife, tomotherapy, and high-resolution multileaf collimating systems) have resulted in the use of reduced treatment fields to a subcentimeter scale. Compared to the traditional radiotherapy with fields {>=}4x4 cm{sup 2}, this can result in significant uncertainty in the accuracy of clinical dosimetry. The dosimetry of small fields is challenging due to nonequilibrium conditions created as a consequence of the secondary electron track lengths and the source size projected through the collimating system that are comparable to the treatment field size. It is further complicated by the prolonged electron tracks in the presence of low-density inhomogeneities. Also, radiation detectors introduced into such fields usually perturb the level of disequilibrium. Hence, the dosimetric accuracy previously achieved for standard radiotherapy applications is at risk for both absolute and relative dose determination. This article summarizes the present knowledge and gives an insight into the future procedures to handle the nonequilibrium radiation dosimetry problems. It is anticipated that new miniature detectors with controlled perturbations and corrections will be available to meet the demand for accurate measurements. It is also expected that the Monte Carlo techniques will increasingly be used in assessing the accuracy, verification, and calculation of dose, and will aid perturbation calculations of detectors used in small and highly conformal radiation beams.

  12. World radiation therapy dosimetry network.

    PubMed

    Lanzl, L H

    1982-09-01

    The ultimate responsibility for the standardization of radiation exposures and doses within a country lies with the country's national standardizing laboratory, provided that the country has such a laboratory. In the late 1960's, only 17 countries had primary national standards laboratories, whereas more than 100 countries did not. Therefore, the International Atomic Energy Agency undertook a program of developing a network of secondary standards dosimetry laboratories (SSDL) and was later joined in the project by the World Health Organization. By 1982, the network consisted of SSDL's in 35 countries. The United States has three secondary or regional dosimetry laboratories for instrument calibration traceable to the U.S. National Bureau of Standards. Studies of radiation responses of biological systems, including normal and tumor tissue, provide information on the accuracy of dose measurements required for assessment of these responses. PMID:7141936

  13. Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1983-09-01

    The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed. (ACR)

  14. Ultrasensitive Human Radiation Dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammen, Richard

    1985-01-01

    The problem we are addressing concerns the astronauts, and their exposure to radiation during spaceflight. The amount of this radiation is a variable depending on solar events and orbital characteristics. Our goal is to measure the total integrated quantity of radiation damage to the cell nucleus in astronauts or other people exposed to radiation. In my lab, we are turning up the microscope from the level of the chromosome, about eight orders of magnitude, to the molecular level. It is well known that radiation causes DNA and chromosome damage. We are developing methods to measure a specific molecular lesion. The lesion that we have selected to measure is thymidine diol, which is created by hydroxyl radicals adding across the 5.6 double bond of thymidine in DNA.

  15. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Braunlich, Peter F.; Tetzlaff, Wolfgang; Hegland, Joel E.; Jones, Scott C.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission.

  16. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

    1991-03-12

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

  17. Hydroxyanthraquinone dye solutions for radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Bedear El-Assy, N; Alian, A; Abdel Rahim, F; Roushdy, H

    1982-06-01

    An investigation has been carried out on the effect of gamma-radiation on the absorption spectra of aqueous solutions of the hydroxyanthraquinone dyes, alizarin and alizarin red S. Ionizing radiation at absorbed doses over the range 10(5)-3 x 10(6) rad brought about gradual bleaching of aerated (oxygenated) dye solutions. The radiolytic bleaching was enhanced through addition of hydrogen peroxide, as expected. A mechanism for the radiolytic reaction is proposed, based on chemical attack of the chromophore by radicals and radical ions as aqueous radiolysis products. Suggestions are made for possible radiation dosimetry by means of spectrophotometric analysis of the absorption spectra. PMID:7107037

  18. [Dosimetry and radiation dose distribution in tumors for radioimmunotherapy: the effect of tumor size].

    PubMed

    Fujimori, K; Furudate, M

    1994-03-01

    For aiding to optimize the efficiency of radio-immunotherapy with beta-emitter-labeled monoclonal antibody (MAb), radiation absorbed dose in a small tumor was calculated using a mathematical model for 67Cu, 90Y, 131I, 186Re, and 188Re. MAb distributions were assumed to be uniform or exponential to investigate the tumor size effect on absorbed dose. The salient results are 1) with longer range beta-emitters, radiation absorbed dose is increased with the tumor size increases and the fraction of radiation dose to the outside of the tumor is large; 2) with shorter range beta-emitters, the tumor size effect on absorbed dose is small. The fraction of radiation dose to the tumor is large and small tumors will be irradiated effectively; 3) when MAb distribution is non-uniform, absorbed dose is more homogeneous with longer range beta-emitters. PMID:8176862

  19. EDITORIAL: Special issue on radiation dosimetry Special issue on radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Peter

    2009-04-01

    This special issue of Metrologia on radiation dosimetry is the second in a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurements, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The work of Section II, on radionuclide metrology, was covered in issue 44(4), published in 2007, and that of Section III, on neutron metrology, will be covered in a special issue to be published shortly. This issue covers the work of Section I (x-rays and γ rays, and charged particles). The proposal to publish special issues of Metrologia covering the work of the CCRI Sections was first made in 2003 and refined at the two subsequent meetings of the CCRI in 2005 and 2007. The overall aim is to present the work of the CCRI to a wider metrological audience and to highlight the relevance and importance of the field. The main focus of our special issue on dosimetry metrology is on the 'state of the art' in the various areas covered, with an indication of the current developments taking place and the problems and challenges that remain. Where appropriate, this is set in a brief historical context, although it is not the aim to give a historical review. The need for accurate measurement has been appreciated from the pioneering days of the use of ionizing radiation in the early 20th century, particularly in the fields of diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. Over the years, the range of applications for ionizing radiation has expanded both in scope and in the types and energies of radiation employed. This has led to the need to develop a wide variety of measurement techniques and standards covering fields ranging from the low doses experienced in environmental and protection applications to the extremely high doses used in industrial processing. The different types of radiation employed give rise to the need for dose measurements in radiation beams whose effective penetration through a material such as water ranges from a few micrometres to several metres. The wide variety of radiation types and dose ranges posed a particular problem in selecting the topics to be included in this special issue and has inevitably meant that some fields of application have received less attention than others. It is hoped, however, that the topics covered are broad and varied enough to provide useful information for those with an interest in radiation dosimetry, both experienced practitioners and those entering the field. The extensive reference lists also provide a valuable resource. The issue begins with the important topic of mutual recognition of dosimetry standards and the procedures that have been put in place to achieve this, and continues with contributions on the principal measurement techniques employed: free-air chambers, air-kerma cavity standards, photon absorbed-dose standards and absorbed-dose standards for electron beams. The topics of brachytherapy and radiation protection dosimetry are covered in separate articles, and the issue concludes with a review of the mathematical modelling techniques that underpin much of the recent work described in the preceding sections. The work involved in the production of a document such as this is considerable and we have been extremely fortunate in securing the involvement of many of the acknowledged experts in the field of ionizing radiation dosimetry, both as named authors and serving as anonymous referees. The editors would like to thank all those who have given their time and commitment to producing this special issue, and particularly Professor Georgio Moscati, former President of the CCRI, and Dr Penny Allisy-Roberts, Executive Secretary of the CCRI, for their support and encouragement.

  20. Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables.

  1. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  2. Techniques for radiation measurements: microdosimetry and dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Waker, A J

    2006-01-01

    Experimental microdosimetry is concerned with the determination of radiation quality and how this can be specified in terms of the distribution of energy deposition arising from the interaction of a radiation field with a particular target site. This paper discusses various techniques that have been developed to measure radiation energy deposition over the three orders of magnitude of site-size; nanometer, micrometer and millimetre, which radiation biology suggests is required to fully account for radiation quality. Inevitably, much of the discussion will concern the use of tissue-equivalent proportional counters and variants of this device, but other technologies that have been studied, or are under development, for their potential in experimental microdosimetry are also covered. Through an examination of some of the quantities used in radiation metrology and dosimetry the natural link with microdosimetric techniques will be shown and the particular benefits of using microdosimetric methods for dosimetry illustrated. PMID:17223638

  3. Proton minibeam radiation therapy: Experimental dosimetry evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Peucelle, C.; Martínez-Rovira, I.; Prezado, Y.; Nauraye, C.; Patriarca, A.; Hierso, E.; Fournier-Bidoz, N.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy (pMBRT) is a new radiotherapy (RT) approach that allies the inherent physical advantages of protons with the normal tissue preservation observed when irradiated with submillimetric spatially fractionated beams. This dosimetry work aims at demonstrating the feasibility of the technical implementation of pMBRT. This has been performed at the Institut Curie - Proton Therapy Center in Orsay. Methods: Proton minibeams (400 and 700 μm-width) were generated by means of a brass multislit collimator. Center-to-center distances between consecutive beams of 3200 and 3500 μm, respectively, were employed. The (passive scattered) beam energy was 100 MeV corresponding to a range of 7.7 cm water equivalent. Absolute dosimetry was performed with a thimble ionization chamber (IBA CC13) in a water tank. Relative dosimetry was carried out irradiating radiochromic films interspersed in a IBA RW3 slab phantom. Depth dose curves and lateral profiles at different depths were evaluated. Peak-to-valley dose ratios (PVDR), beam widths, and output factors were also assessed as a function of depth. Results: A pattern of peaks and valleys was maintained in the transverse direction with PVDR values decreasing as a function of depth until 6.7 cm. From that depth, the transverse dose profiles became homogeneous due to multiple Coulomb scattering. Peak-to-valley dose ratio values extended from 8.2 ± 0.5 at the phantom surface to 1.08 ± 0.06 at the Bragg peak. This was the first time that dosimetry in such small proton field sizes was performed. Despite the challenge, a complete set of dosimetric data needed to guide the first biological experiments was achieved. Conclusions: pMBRT is a novel strategy in order to reduce the side effects of RT. This works provides the experimental proof of concept of this new RT method: clinical proton beams might allow depositing a (high) uniform dose in a brain tumor located in the center of the brain (7.5 cm depth, the worst scenario), while a spatial fractionation of the dose is retained in the normal tissues in the beam path, potentially leading to a gain in tissue sparing. This is the first complete experimental implementation of this promising technique. Biological experiments are needed in order to confirm the clinical potential of pMBRT.

  4. NCRP Program Area Committee 6: Radiation Measurements and Dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Simon, Steven L; Zeman, Gary H

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee (PAC) 6 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation measurements and dosimetry--one of the most fundamental scientific areas of the Council's expertise. Seminal reports published by PAC 6 over many decades have documented the scientific and technical foundations of radiation measurements and dosimetry for generations of radiation scientists and radiation protection professionals. Ongoing work of PAC 6 is driven by advancing technology, such as development of new types of instruments, biodosimetry and nanotechnology; by evolving understanding of radiation hazards, such as effects on the lens of the eye and risks as from some high-dose medical imaging procedures; and by new situations faced in the modern socio-political environment including radiological and nuclear threats. The activities of PAC 6 are intended to formulate and document the dosimetric framework for radiological science to address these ever-emerging challenges. PMID:26717161

  5. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Peter G. Groer

    2002-09-29

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed compartmental activities. From the estimated probability densities of the model parameters we were able to derive the densities for compartmental activities for a two compartment catenary model at different times. We also calculated the average activities and their standard deviation for a simple two compartment model.

  6. Radiation accident dosimetry on plastics by EPR spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Trompier, F; Bassinet, C; Clairand, I

    2010-02-01

    In case of acute exposure to ionizing radiation, the dose absorbed by the victims has to be rapidly and accurately assessed in order to choose an appropriate medical treatment. Tooth enamel and bone biopsies measured by EPR spectrometry are often used as dose indicators, due to the good radiation sensitivity and the stability of EPR radiation-sensitive signals. Nevertheless, the invasive sampling of teeth and bones limits the application of this technique to retrospective dosimetry. Therefore, we have investigated an alternative non-invasive methodology. We have surveyed with EPR spectrometry the dosimetric properties of the plastics that can be found in personal effects such as glasses (CR-39, polycarbonate), mobile phones (PMMA, polycarbonate), watches and buttons. Dose response, signal stability and effects of storage conditions were investigated. Significant signal fading limits the use for radiation accident dosimetry. Few plastics present the required characteristics to be used in case of a radiation accident. PMID:20065710

  7. Subwavelength films for standoff radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2015-05-22

    We present optical subwavelength nanostructure architecture suitable for standoff radiation dosimetry with remote optical readout in the visible or infrared spectral regions. To achieve this, films of subwavelength structures are fabricated over several square inches via the creation of a 2D non-close packed (NCP) array template of radiation-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles, followed by magnetron sputtering of a metallic coating to form a 2D array of separated hemispherical nanoscale metallic shells. The nanoshells are highly reflective at resonance in the visible or infrared depending on design. These structures and their behavior are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant inductive-capacitive (LC) circuits, which display a resonance wavelength that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any modification of the nanostructure material properties due to radiation alters the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which in turn changes their optical properties resulting in a shift in the optical resonance. This shift in resonance may be remotely interrogated actively using either laser illumination or passively by hyperspectral or multispectral sensing with broadband illumination. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also offer polarization-sensitive interrogation. We present experimental measurements of a radiation induced shift in the optical resonance of a subwavelength film after exposure to an absorbed dose of gamma radiation from 2 Mrad up to 62 Mrad demonstrating the effect. Interestingly the resonance shift is non-monotonic for this material system and possible radiation damage mechanisms to the nanoparticles are discussed.

  8. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lima, C M A; Lima, A R; Degenhardt, Ä L; Valverde, N J; Silva, F C A da

    2015-10-01

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry. PMID:26445332

  9. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lima, C.M.A.; Lima, A.R.; Degenhardt, Ä.L.; Valverde, N.J.; Da Silva, F.C.A.

    2015-01-01

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry. PMID:26445332

  10. Subwavelength films for standoff radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2015-05-01

    We present optical subwavelength nanostructure architecture suitable for standoff radiation dosimetry with remote optical readout in the visible or infrared spectral regions. To achieve this, films of subwavelength structures are fabricated over several square inches via the creation of a 2D non-close packed (NCP) array template of radiationsensitive polymeric nanoparticles, followed by magnetron sputtering of a metallic coating to form a 2D array of separated hemispherical nanoscale metallic shells. The nanoshells are highly reflective at resonance in the visible or infrared depending on design. These structures and their behavior are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant inductive-capacitive (LC) circuits, which display a resonance wavelength that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any modification of the nanostructure material properties due to radiation alters the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which in turn changes their optical properties resulting in a shift in the optical resonance. This shift in resonance may be remotely interrogated actively using either laser illumination or passively by hyperspectral or multispectral sensing with broadband illumination. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also offer polarization-sensitive interrogation. We present experimental measurements of a radiation induced shift in the optical resonance of a subwavelength film after exposure to an absorbed dose of gamma radiation from 2 Mrad up to 62 Mrad demonstrating the effect. Interestingly the resonance shift is non-monotonic for this material system and possible radiation damage mechanisms to the nanoparticles are discussed.

  11. Effect of Cerebellum Radiation Dosimetry on Cognitive Outcomes in Children With Infratentorial Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Sharma, Shelly; Xiong, Xiaoping; Wu, Shengjie; Conklin, Heather

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Cognitive decline is a recognized effect of radiation therapy (RT) in children treated for brain tumors. The importance of the cerebellum and its contribution to cognition have been recognized; however, the effect of RT on cerebellum-linked neurocognitive deficits has yet to be explored. Methods and Materials: Seventy-six children (39 males) at a median 3.3 years of age (range, 1-17 years old) were irradiated for infratentorial ependymoma from 1997 to 2008. The total prescribed dose was 54 to 59.4 Gy administered to the postoperative tumor bed with 5- or 10-mm clinical target volume margin. Age-appropriate cognitive and academic testing was performed prior to the start of RT and was then repeated at 6 months and annually throughout 5 years. The anterior and posterior cerebellum and other normal brain volumes were contoured on postcontrast, T1-weighted postoperative magnetic resonance images registered to treatment planning computed tomography images. Mean doses were calculated and used with time after RT and other clinical covariates to model their effect on neurocognitive test scores. Results: Considering only the statistically significant rates in longitudinal changes for test scores and models that included mean dose, there was a correlation between mean infratentorial dose and intelligence quotient (IQ; −0.190 patients/Gy/year; P=.001), math (−0.164 patients/Gy/year; P=.010), reading (−0.137 patients/Gy/year; P=.011), and spelling scores (−0.147 patients/Gy/year; P=.012), where Gy was measured as the difference between the mean dose received by an individual patient and the mean dose received by the patient group. There was a correlation between mean anterior cerebellum dose and IQ scores (−0.116 patients/Gy/year; P=.042) and mean posterior cerebellum dose and IQ (−0.150 patients/Gy/year; P=.002), math (−0.120 patients/Gy/year; P=.023), reading (−0.111 patients/Gy/year; P=.012), and spelling (−0.117 patients/Gy/year; P=.015) scores. Conclusions: Sparing portions of the cerebellum should be considered in RT planning for children with infratentorial ependymoma because of the potential impact of radiation dose on cognitive function.

  12. Biologically effective dose of solar ultraviolet radiation estimated by spore dosimetry in Tokyo since 1980.

    PubMed

    Munakata, N

    1993-09-01

    The biologically effective dose of solar UV radiation has been measured in Tokyo since 1980 using Bacillus subtilis spores. To determine the cumulative dose in a half day, several samples of UV-sensitive spores were exposed in successive intervals from the solar-noon time. Because fluence-survival curves were exponential, the number of lethal hits received by the spores was calculated for each interval and termed inactivation dose (ID). The total number of hits obtained in a half day (half-day ID) was correlated with the amount of global insolation by a power-function regression. The regression analyses were performed for the data collected on 35 days from 1980 to 1986 and for the data collected on 53 days from 1989 to 1991. The latter data set yielded significantly larger estimates of half-day ID relative to the insolation than the former. These analyses suggested that the biologically effective dose relative to the insolation increased about 30% at some time in the later part of 1980s at this location. Changes of solar activity, air pollution and stratospheric ozone layer were considered as potentially responsible for this increase, but identification of the causative factors requires further efforts. PMID:8234473

  13. Radiation dosimetry and spectrometry with superheated emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Errico, Francesco

    2001-09-01

    Detectors based on emulsions of overexpanded halocarbon droplets in tissue equivalent aqueous gels or soft polymers, known as "superheated drop detectors" or "bubble (damage) detectors", have been used in radiation detection, dosimetry and spectrometry for over two decades. Recent technological advances have led to the introduction of several instruments for individual and area monitoring: passive integrating meters based on the optical or volumetric registration of the bubbles, and active counters detecting bubble nucleations acoustically. These advances in the instrumentation have been matched by the progress made in the production of stable and well-specified emulsions of superheated droplets. A variety of halocarbons are employed in the formulation of the detectors, and this permits a wide range of applications. In particular, halocarbons with a moderate degree of superheat, i.e. a relatively small difference between their operating temperature and boiling point, can be used in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry since they are only nucleated by energetic heavy ions such as those produced by fast neutrons. More recently, halocarbons with an elevated degree of superheat have been utilised to produce emulsions that nucleate with much smaller energy deposition and detect low linear energy transfer radiations, such as photons and electrons. This paper reviews the detector physics of superheated emulsions and their applications in radiation measurements, particularly in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry.

  14. Internal dosimetry for systemic radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R. )

    1999-12-01

    The key to effective use of the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) schema in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is to understand how it works and what the essential data input requirements are. The fundamental data are acquired from medical imaging. Image interpretation involves (1) collecting data to determine the source-organ activities, (2) plotting the source-organ time-activity curves, (3) integrating the time-activity curves for an estimate of the residence time, and (4) applying the residence time values (for each important source organ) within the MIRD schema to calculate the tissue absorbed dose to target organs and tumors of interest. This article reviews methods for calculating internal dose. It also describes methods for selecting sampling times, integrating the area under the data curves, and customizing a dose assessment for a patient who does not resemble the MIRD phantom. A sample dose assessment is given, together with common mistakes to avoid. Three approaches to red marrow dosimetry are described. With the increased use of RIT agents for cancer treatment, a solid understanding of internal dose methods is essential for treatment planning and follow-up evaluations.

  15. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, H. IV

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab.

  16. EURADOS strategic research agenda: vision for dosimetry of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Fantuzzi, E; Harrison, R; Schuhmacher, H; Vanhavere, F; Alves, J; Bottollier Depois, J F; Fattibene, P; Knežević, Ž; Lopez, M A; Mayer, S; Miljanić, S; Neumaier, S; Olko, P; Stadtmann, H; Tanner, R; Woda, C

    2016-02-01

    Since autumn 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been developing its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which is intended to contribute to the identification of future research needs in radiation dosimetry in Europe. The present article summarises-based on input from EURADOS Working Groups (WGs) and Voting Members-five visions in dosimetry and defines key issues in dosimetry research that are considered important for the next decades. The five visions include scientific developments required towards (a) updated fundamental dose concepts and quantities, (b) improved radiation risk estimates deduced from epidemiological cohorts, (c) efficient dose assessment for radiological emergencies, (d) integrated personalised dosimetry in medical applications and (e) improved radiation protection of workers and the public. The SRA of EURADOS will be used as a guideline for future activities of the EURADOS WGs. A detailed version of the SRA can be downloaded as a EURADOS report from the EURADOS website (www.eurados.org). PMID:25752758

  17. The radiation dosimetry of Re-186 HEDP

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Graham, M.C.; Scher, H.J.

    1995-05-01

    Patients suffering from metastatic bone cancer may be offered some relief of bone pain by several palliative agents currently under study. One such agent is Re-186 HEDP (etidronate). We gathered biodistribution data from 27 patients receiving this agent for palliation of bone pain. Skeletal activity was estimated as that portion of administered activity not recovered in urine or measured in kidneys or extracellular fluid (ECF) space. Activity in kidneys was estimated through scintigraphic imaging. Activity in urine and blood were estimated by direct counting of samples; activity in ECF was approximated as blood activity divided by the plasmacrit, multiplied by 0.2 times body weight. All retention data were fit to a sum of exponentials for estimation of residence times. Activity in the urinary bladder contents was estimated from the urinary excretion data using the dynamic bladder model of Cloutier et al. Estimated residence times were kidneys 0.538 hr, bone 33.3 hr (divided evenly between cortical and trabecular bone for dosimetry purposes), urinary bladder contents 1.18 hr, and remainder of body 6.52hr. Radiation dose estimates were developed, using the MIRDOSE 3 software. Radiation dose estimates for bone surfaces and red marrow are 1.9 and 0.82 mGy/MBq, respectively. The estimate for the urinary bladder wall is 0.57 mGy/MBq. Most other organs` estimates were around 0.02 mGy/MBq. The new marrow dose model presented in MIRDOSE 3 was used to look at the distribution of marrow dose in different bones, and to develop a dose-volume histogram. These data should be used as the basis for the radiation dosimetry of this agent.

  18. A practical three-dimensional dosimetry system for radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Pengyi; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2006-10-15

    There is a pressing need for a practical three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry system, convenient for clinical use, and with the accuracy and resolution to enable comprehensive verification of the complex dose distributions typical of modern radiation therapy. Here we introduce a dosimetry system that can achieve this challenge, consisting of a radiochromic dosimeter (PRESAGE trade mark sign ) and a commercial optical computed tomography (CT) scanning system (OCTOPUS trade mark sign ). PRESAGE trade mark sign is a transparent material with compelling properties for dosimetry, including insensitivity of the dose response to atmospheric exposure, a solid texture negating the need for an external container (reducing edge effects), and amenability to accurate optical CT scanning due to radiochromic optical contrast as opposed to light-scattering contrast. An evaluation of the performance and viability of the PRESAGE trade mark sign /OCTOPUS, combination for routine clinical 3D dosimetry is presented. The performance of the two components (scanner and dosimeter) was investigated separately prior to full system test. The optical CT scanner has a spatial resolution of {<=}1 mm, geometric accuracy within 1 mm, and high reconstruction linearity (with a R{sup 2} value of 0.9979 and a standard error of estimation of {approx}1%) relative to independent measurement. The overall performance of the PRESAGE trade mark sign /OCTOPUS system was evaluated with respect to a simple known 3D dose distribution, by comparison with GAFCHROMIC[reg] EBT film and the calculated dose from a commissioned planning system. The 'measured' dose distribution in a cylindrical PRESAGE trade mark sign dosimeter (16 cm diameter and 11 cm height) was determined by optical-CT, using a filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm. A three-way Gamma map comparison (4% dose difference and 4 mm distance to agreement), between the PRESAGE trade mark sign , EBT and calculated dose distributions, showed full agreement in measurable region of PRESAGE trade mark sign dosimeter ({approx}90% of radius). The EBT and PRESAGE trade mark sign distributions agreed more closely with each other than with the calculated plan, consistent with penumbral blurring in the planning data which was acquired with an ion chamber. In summary, our results support the conclusion that the PRESAGE trade mark sign optical-CT combination represents a significant step forward in 3D dosimetry, and provides a robust, clinically effective and viable high-resolution relative 3D dosimetry system for radiation therapy.

  19. Mixed-radiation-field dosimetry utilizing Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Hintenlang, D.E.; Jamil, K.; Iselin, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation effects on urea, thiourea, guanidine carbonate and guanine sulfate were evaluated for both photon and neutron irradiations. Hydration of these materials typically provides a greatly increased sensitivity to both forms of radiation exposure, although not all materials lend themselves to this treatment without changing the chemical structure of the compound. Urea was found to be the most stable hydrated compound and provides the best sensitivity for quantifying radiation effects using NQR techniques. Urea permits a straight-forward quantification of each of the important parameters of the observed NQR signal, the FID. Several advanced data analysis methods were developed to assist in quantifying NQR spectra, both from urea and materials having more complex molecular structures, such as thiourea and guanidine sulfate. Unfortunately, these analysis techniques are frequently quite time consuming for the complex NQR spectra that result from some of these materials. The simpler analysis afforded by urea has therefore made it the prime candidate for an NQR dosimetry material. The moderate sensitivity of hydrated urea to photon irradiation does not permit this material to achieve the levels of performance required for a personnel dosimeter. It does, however, demonstrate acceptable sensitivity over dose ranges where it could provide a good biological dosimeter for several areas of radiation processing. The demonstrated photon sensitivity could permit hydrated urea to be used in applications such as food irradiation dosimetry. This material also exhibits a good sensitivity to neutron irradiation. The precise correlation between neutron exposure and the parameters of the resulting NQR spectra are currently being developed.

  20. Summary of current radiation dosimetry results on manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that the experimental data existing on radiation levels inside orbiting spacecraft are currently limited. However, it is recognized that perhaps the single most important constraint to long-term manned space activity may be related to the complex space radiation environment. For this reason, it is important to know the radiological parameters which determine the biological effects of space radiation on humans. Attention is given to radiation dose measurements, LET (linear energy transfer) spectra for HZE particles, and dosimetry data from U.S. manned spaceflights. In particular, data are now available on dose rates in spacecraft at low altitudes (less than 300 km), while insufficient measurements exist for high altitude and high inclination orbits, geostationary orbits, and many orbits in between. Very little data exist on neutron dose and spectra.

  1. Film Dosimetry for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benites-Rengifo, J.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.; Celis, M.; Lárraga, J.

    2004-09-01

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is an oncology treatment technique that employs non-uniform beam intensities to deliver highly conformal radiation to the targets while minimizing doses to normal tissues and critical organs. A key element for a successful clinical implementation of IMRT is establishing a dosimetric verification process that can ensure that delivered doses are consistent with calculated ones for each patient. To this end we are developing a fast quality control procedure, based on film dosimetry techniques, to be applied to the 6 MV Novalis linear accelerator for IMRT of the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (INNN) in Mexico City. The procedure includes measurements of individual fluence maps for a limited number of fields and dose distributions in 3D using extended dose-range radiographic film. However, the film response to radiation might depend on depth, energy and field size, and therefore compromise the accuracy of measurements. In this work we present a study of the dependence of Kodak EDR2 film's response on the depth, field size and energy, compared with those of Kodak XV2 film. The first aim is to devise a fast and accurate method to determine the calibration curve of film (optical density vs. doses) commonly called a sensitometric curve. This was accomplished by using three types of irradiation techniques: Step-and-shoot, dynamic and static fields.

  2. The MCART Radiation Physics Core: The Quest for Radiation Dosimetry Standardization

    PubMed Central

    Kazi, Abdul M.; MacVittie, Thomas J.; Lasio, Giovanni; Lu, Wei; Prado, Karl L.

    2013-01-01

    Dose-related radiobiological research results can only be meaningfully compared when radiation dosimetry is standardized. To this purpose, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-sponsored Medical Countermeasures Against Radiological Threats (MCART) consortium recently created a Radiation Physics Core (RPC) as an entity to assume responsibility of standardizing radiation dosimetry practices among its member laboratories. The animal research activities in these laboratories utilize a variety of ionizing photon beams from several irradiators such as 250–320 kVp x-ray generators, 137Cs irradiators, 60Co teletherapy machines, and medical linear accelerators (LINACs). In addition to this variety of sources, these centers utilize a range of irradiation techniques and make use of different dose calculation schemes to conduct their experiments. An extremely important objective in these research activities is to obtain a Dose Response Relationship (DRR) appropriate to their respective organ-specific models of acute and delayed radiation effects. A clear and unambiguous definition of the DRR is essential for the development of medical countermeasures. It is imperative that these DRRs are transparent between centers. The MCART RPC has initiated the establishment of standard dosimetry practices among member centers and is introducing a Remote Dosimetry Monitoring Service (RDMS) to ascertain ongoing quality assurance. In this paper we will describe the initial activities of the MCART RPC toward implementing these standardization goals. It is appropriate to report a summary of initial activities with the intent of reporting the full implementation at a later date. PMID:24276553

  3. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  4. Applications of Cherenkov Light Emission for Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Adam Kenneth

    Since its discovery in the 1930's, the Cherenkov effect has been paramount in the development of high-energy physics research. It results in light emission from charged particles traveling faster than the local speed of light in a dielectric medium. The ability of this emitted light to describe a charged particle's trajectory, energy, velocity, and mass has allowed scientists to study subatomic particles, detect neutrinos, and explore the properties of interstellar matter. However, only recently has the phenomenon been considered in the practical context of medical physics and radiation therapy dosimetry, where Cherenkov light is induced by clinical x-ray photon, electron, and proton beams. To investigate the relationship between this phenomenon and dose deposition, a Monte Carlo plug-in was developed within the Geant4 architecture for medically-oriented simulations (GAMOS) to simulate radiation-induced optical emission in biological media. Using this simulation framework, it was determined that Cherenkov light emission may be well suited for radiation dosimetry of clinically used x-ray photon beams. To advance this application, several novel techniques were implemented to realize the maximum potential of the signal, such as time-gating for maximizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and Cherenkov-excited fluorescence for generating isotropic light release in water. Proof of concept experiments were conducted in water tanks to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method for two-dimensional (2D) projection imaging, three-dimensional (3D) parallel beam tomography, large field of view 3D cone beam tomography, and video-rate dynamic imaging of treatment plans for a number of common radiotherapy applications. The proposed dosimetry method was found to have a number of unique advantages, including but not limited to its non-invasive nature, water-equivalence, speed, high-resolution, ability to provide full 3D data, and potential to yield data in-vivo. Based on these preliminary results, it is expected that Cherenkov light emission may prove to be a useful tool for radiation dosimetry with both research and clinical applications.

  5. Medical Radiation Dosimetry: Concepts and Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Kron, Tomas

    2011-05-05

    Radiation is used widely used in medicine for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Both the desired effects and the potential detrimental side effects depend on the radiation dose delivered. As such it is essential to determining the radiation dose received by patients as accurately as needed to optimise the radiation procedure. Solid state dosimeters are increasingly used in medicine because of their small physical size, high sensitivity and usually low cost. Combining multiple detectors allows the detection of radiation dose distributions, an application where the distinction between radiation dosimeter and image detector starts to blur. Given the rapid development of detector technology it can be expected that the utilisation of solid-state dosimeters in medicine will continue to increase.

  6. Radiation dosimetry using three-dimensional optical random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moscovitch, M.; Phillips, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional optical random access memories (3D ORAMs) are a new generation of high-density data storage devices. Binary information is stored and retrieved via a light induced reversible transformation of an ensemble of bistable photochromic molecules embedded in a polymer matrix. This paper describes the application of 3D ORAM materials to radiation dosimetry. It is shown both theoretically and experimentally, that ionizing radiation in the form of heavy charged particles is capable of changing the information originally stored on the ORAM material. The magnitude and spatial distribution of these changes are used as a measure of the absorbed dose, particle type and energy. The effects of exposure on 3D ORAM materials have been investigated for a variety of particle types and energies, including protons, alpha particles and 12C ions. The exposed materials are observed to fluoresce when exposed to laser light. The intensity and the depth of the fluorescence is dependent on the type and energy of the particle to which the materials were exposed. It is shown that these effects can be modeled using Monte Carlo calculations. The model provides a better understanding of the properties of these materials. which should prove useful for developing systems for charged particle and neutron dosimetry/detector applications. c2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond.

    PubMed

    Benton, E R; Benton, E V

    2001-09-01

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars. PMID:11863032

  8. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.

    2001-01-01

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation dosimetry for the Gemini program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The principal source of radiation for low-earth-orbit, low inclination space flights is in the area of the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly. None of the Gemini dose measurements reported in the paper are of high enough intensity to be considered hazardous. There is a trend toward larger doses as missions are flown higher and longer. Extended orbital operations between 1400 and 4400 kilometers would encounter high interior radiation levels. Pronounced spacecraft geometry effects have been measured in manned spacecraft. Instrumentation for radiation measurements on Gemini spacecraft is described.

  10. Recommended improvements to the DS02 dosimetry system's calculation of organ doses and their potential advantages for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    PubMed

    Cullings, Harry M

    2012-03-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) uses a dosimetry system to calculate radiation doses received by the Japanese atomic bomb survivors based on their reported location and shielding at the time of exposure. The current system, DS02, completed in 2003, calculates detailed doses to 15 particular organs of the body from neutrons and gamma rays, using new source terms and transport calculations as well as some other improvements in the calculation of terrain and structural shielding, but continues to use methods from an older system, DS86, to account for body self-shielding. Although recent developments in models of the human body from medical imaging, along with contemporary computer speed and software, allow for improvement of the calculated organ doses, before undertaking changes to the organ dose calculations, it is important to evaluate the improvements that can be made and their potential contribution to RERF's research. The analysis provided here suggests that the most important improvements can be made by providing calculations for more organs or tissues and by providing a larger series of age- and sex-specific models of the human body from birth to adulthood, as well as fetal models. PMID:22262817

  11. Twenty new ISO standards on dosimetry for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, H., IV

    2000-03-01

    Twenty standards on essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing were published as new ISO standards in December 1998. The standards are based on 20 standard practices and guides developed over the past 14 years by Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The transformation to ISO standards using the 'fast track' process under ISO Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85) commenced in 1995 and resulted in some overlap of technical information between three of the new standards and the existing ISO Standard 11137 Sterilization of health care products — Requirements for validation and routine control — Radiation sterilization. Although the technical information in these four standards was consistent, compromise wording in the scopes of the three new ISO standards to establish precedence for use were adopted. Two of the new ISO standards are specifically for food irradiation applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, X-ray, and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruit, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes, and paper. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties using the new ISO Type A and Type B evaluations. Unfortunately, nine of the 20 standards just adopted by the ISO are not the most recent versions of these standards and are therefore already out of date. To help solve this problem, efforts are being made to develop procedures to coordinate the ASTM and ISO development and revision processes for these and future ASTM-originating dosimetry standards. In the meantime, an additional four dosimetry standards have recently been published by the ASTM but have not yet been submitted to the ISO, and six more dosimetry standards are under development.

  12. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  13. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry.

  14. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  15. Radiation protection and dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    The technological advances that occurred during the last few decades paved the way to the dissemination of CT-based procedures in radiology, to an increasing number of procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology as well as to new techniques and hybrid modalities in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy. These technological advances encompass the exposure of patients and medical staff to unprecedentedly high dose values that are a cause for concern due to the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation to the human health. As a consequence, new issues and challenges in radiological protection and dosimetry in the medical applications of ionizing radiation have emerged. The scientific knowledge of the radiosensitivity of individuals as a function of age, gender and other factors has also contributed to raising the awareness of scientists, medical staff, regulators, decision makers and other stakeholders (including the patients and the public) for the need to correctly and accurately assess the radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Pediatric exposures and their late effects became a cause of great concern. The scientific communities of experts involved in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have made a strong case about the need to undertake low dose radiation research and the International System of Radiological Protection is being challenged to address and incorporate issues such as the individual sensitivities, the shape of dose-response relationship and tissue sensitivity for cancer and non-cancer effects. Some of the answers to the radiation protection and dosimetry issues and challenges in the medical applications of ionizing radiation lie in computational studies using Monte Carlo or hybrid methods to model and simulate particle transport in the organs and tissues of the human body. The development of sophisticated Monte Carlo computer programs and voxel phantoms paves the way to an accurate dosimetric assessment of the medical applications of ionizing radiation. In this paper, the aforementioned topics will be reviewed. The current status and the future trends in the implementation of the justification and optimization principles, pillars of the International System of Radiological Protection, in the medical applications of ionizing radiation will be discussed. Prospective views will be provided on the future of the system of radiological protection and on dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation.

  16. NVLAP Program handbook: Personnel radiation dosimetry. Requirements for accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Gladhill, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    The document explains the operation and technical requirements of the Laboratory Accreditation Program for Personnel Radiation Dosimetry. All of the steps leading to accreditation are discussed. Technical requirements are explained indicating how the NVLAP criteria are applied. It is intended for use by staff of accredited laboratories, those seeking accreditation, other laboratory accreditation systems, and others needing information on the requirements for NVLAP accreditation.

  17. Age-dependent small-animal internal radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2013-09-01

    Rats at various ages were observed to present with different radiosensitivity and bioavailability for radiotracers commonly used in preclinical research. We evaluated the effect of age-induced changes in body weight on radiation dose calculations. A series of rat models at different age periods were constructed based on the realistic four-dimensional digital rat whole-body (ROBY) computational model. Particle transport was simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Absorbed fractions (AFs) and specific absorbed fraction (SAFs) of monoenergetic photons/electrons and S values of eight positron-emitting radionuclides were calculated. The SAFs and S values for most source-target pairs were inversely correlated with body weight. Differences between F-18 S values for most source-target pairs were between -1.5% and -2%/10 g difference in body weight for different computational models. For specific radiotracers, the radiation dose to organs presents a negative correlation with rat body weight. The SAFs for monoenergetic photons/electrons and S values for common positron-emitting radionuclides can be exploited in the assessment of radiation dose delivered to rats at different ages and weights. The absorbed dose to organs is significantly higher in the low-weight young rat model than in the adult model, which would result in steep secondary effects and might be a noteworthy issue in laboratory animal internal dosimetry. PMID:23981782

  18. Effect of Brain Stem and Dorsal Vagus Complex Dosimetry on Nausea and Vomiting in Head and Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ciura, Katherine; McBurney, Michelle; Nguyen, Baongoc; Pham, Mary; Rebueno, Neal; Fuller, Clifton D.; Guha-Thakurta, Nandita; Rosenthal, David I.

    2011-04-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is becoming the treatment of choice for many head and neck cancer patients. IMRT reduces some toxicities by reducing radiation dose to uninvolved normal tissue near tumor targets; however, other tissues not irradiated using previous 3D techniques may receive clinically significant doses, causing undesirable side effects including nausea and vomiting (NV). Irradiation of the brainstem, and more specifically, the area postrema and dorsal vagal complex (DVC), has been linked to NV. We previously reported preliminary hypothesis-generating dose effects associated with NV in IMRT patients. The goal of this study is to relate brainstem dose to NV symptoms. We retrospectively studied 100 consecutive patients that were treated for oropharyngeal cancer with IMRT. We contoured the brainstem, area postrema, and DVC with the assistance of an expert diagnostic neuroradiologist. We correlated dosimetry for the 3 areas contoured with weekly NV rates during IMRT. NV rates were significantly higher for patients who received concurrent chemotherapy. Post hoc analysis demonstrated that chemoradiation cases exhibited a trend towards the same dose-response relationship with both brainstem mean dose (p = 0.0025) and area postrema mean dose (p = 0.004); however, both failed to meet statistical significance at the p {<=} 0.002 level. Duration of toxicity was also greater for chemoradiation patients, who averaged 3.3 weeks with reported Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTC-AE), compared with an average of 2 weeks for definitive RT patients (p = 0.002). For definitive RT cases, no dose-response trend could be ascertained. The mean brainstem dose emerged as a key parameter of interest; however, no one dose parameter (mean/median/EUD) best correlated with NV. This study does not address extraneous factors that would affect NV incidence, including the use of antiemetics, nor chemotherapy dose schedule specifics before and during RT. A prospective study will be required to depict exactly how IMRT dose affects NV.

  19. WHOLE-BODY DOSIMETRY OF MICROWAVE RADIATION IN SMALL ANIMALS: THE EFFECT OF BODY MASS AND EXPOSURE GEOMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whole-body absorption of 2450-MHz radiation was measured in rats that ranged from 6 to 440 grams and mice that ranged from 30 to 50 grams. Simultaneous exposure of groups of animals in varying numbers and various configurations were made under free-field conditions in an electric...

  20. Fostering a culture of interprofessional education for radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, Charlotte Miller, Seth; Church, Jessica; Chen, Ronald C.; Muresan, Petronella A.; Adams, Robert D.

    2014-04-01

    A less-studied aspect of radiation therapy and medical dosimetry education is experiential learning through attendance at interprofessional conferences. University of North Carolina radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students regularly attended morning conferences and daily pretreatment peer review, including approximately 145 hours of direct interaction with medical attending physicians and residents, medical physicists, and other faculty. We herein assessed the effect of their participation in these interprofessional conferences on knowledge and communication. The students who graduated from our radiation therapy and medical dosimetry programs who were exposed to the interprofessional education initiative were compared with those who graduated in the previous years. The groups were compared with regard to their knowledge (as assessed by grades on end-of-training examinations) and team communication (assessed via survey). The results for the 2 groups were compared via exact tests. There was a trend for the examination scores for the 2012 cohort to be higher than for the 2007 to 2011 groups. Survey results suggested that students who attended the interprofessional education sessions were more comfortable speaking with attending physicians, residents, physicists, and faculty compared with earlier students who did not attend these educational sessions. Interprofessional education, particularly vertical integration, appears to provide an enhanced educational experience both in regard to knowledge (per the examination scores) and in building a sense of communication (via the survey results). Integration of interprofessional education into radiation therapy and medical dosimetry educational programs may represent an opportunity to enrich the learning experience in multiple ways and merits further study.

  1. Fostering a culture of interprofessional education for radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Charlotte; Miller, Seth; Church, Jessica; Chen, Ronald C; Muresan, Petronella A; Adams, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    A less-studied aspect of radiation therapy and medical dosimetry education is experiential learning through attendance at interprofessional conferences. University of North Carolina radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students regularly attended morning conferences and daily pretreatment peer review, including approximately 145 hours of direct interaction with medical attending physicians and residents, medical physicists, and other faculty. We herein assessed the effect of their participation in these interprofessional conferences on knowledge and communication. The students who graduated from our radiation therapy and medical dosimetry programs who were exposed to the interprofessional education initiative were compared with those who graduated in the previous years. The groups were compared with regard to their knowledge (as assessed by grades on end-of-training examinations) and team communication (assessed via survey). The results for the 2 groups were compared via exact tests. There was a trend for the examination scores for the 2012 cohort to be higher than for the 2007 to 2011 groups. Survey results suggested that students who attended the interprofessional education sessions were more comfortable speaking with attending physicians, residents, physicists, and faculty compared with earlier students who did not attend these educational sessions. Interprofessional education, particularly vertical integration, appears to provide an enhanced educational experience both in regard to knowledge (per the examination scores) and in building a sense of communication (via the survey results). Integration of interprofessional education into radiation therapy and medical dosimetry educational programs may represent an opportunity to enrich the learning experience in multiple ways and merits further study. PMID:24332484

  2. Internal radiation dosimetry for clinical testing of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Durham, J.S.; Hui, T.E.; Hill, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    In gauging the efficacy of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in cancer treatment, it is important to know the amount of radiation energy absorbed by tumors and normal tissue per unit administered activity. This paper describes methods for estimating absorbed doses to human tumors and normal tissues, including intraperitoneal tissue surfaces, red marrow, and the intestinal tract from incorporated radionuclides. These methods use the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) scheme; however, they also incorporate enhancements designed to solve specific dosimetry problems encountered during clinical studies, such as patient-specific organ masses obtained from computerized tomography (CT) volumetrics, estimates of the dose to tumor masses within normal organs, and multicellular dosimetry for studying dose inhomogeneities in solid tumors. Realistic estimates of absorbed dose are provided within the short time requirements of physicians so that decisions can be made with regard to patient treatment and procurement of radiolabeled antibodies. Some areas in which further research could improve dose assessment are also discussed. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  3. METHOD AND MEANS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    DOEpatents

    Shulte, J.W.; Suttle, J.F.

    1958-02-18

    This patent relates to a method and device for determining quantities of gamma radiation and x radiation by exposing to such radiation a mature of a purified halogenated hydrocarbon chosen from the class consisting of chloroform, bromoform, tetrachloroethane and 1,1,2trichloroethane, and a minor quantity of a sensitizer chosen from the class consisting of oxygen, benzoyl peroxide, sodium peroxide, and nitrobenzene, the proportion of the sensitizer being at least about 10/sup -5/ moles per cubic centimeter of halogenated hydrocarbon, the total amount of sensitizer depending upon the range of radiation to be measured, and chemically measuring the amount of decomposition generated by the irradiation of the sensitized halogenated hydrocarbon.

  4. Effect of Normal Lung Definition on Lung Dosimetry and Lung Toxicity Prediction in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weili; Xu, Yaping; Schipper, Matthew; Matuszak, Martha M.; Ritter, Timothy; Cao, Yue; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Kong, Feng-Ming

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare lung dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters such as mean lung dose (MLD) and the lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (V20) of commonly used definitions of normal lung in terms of tumor/target subtraction and to determine to what extent they differ in predicting radiation pneumonitis (RP). Methods and Materials: One hundred lung cancer patients treated with definitive radiation therapy were assessed. The gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical planning target volume (PTV{sub c}) were defined by the treating physician and dosimetrist. For this study, the clinical target volume (CTV) was defined as GTV with 8-mm uniform expansion, and the PTV was defined as CTV with an 8-mm uniform expansion. Lung DVHs were generated with exclusion of targets: (1) GTV (DVH{sub G}); (2) CTV (DVH{sub C}); (3) PTV (DVH{sub P}); and (4) PTV{sub c} (DVH{sub Pc}). The lung DVHs, V20s, and MLDs from each of the 4 methods were compared, as was their significance in predicting radiation pneumonitis of grade 2 or greater (RP2). Results: There are significant differences in dosimetric parameters among the various definition methods (all Ps<.05). The mean and maximum differences in V20 are 4.4% and 12.6% (95% confidence interval 3.6%-5.1%), respectively. The mean and maximum differences in MLD are 3.3 Gy and 7.5 Gy (95% confidence interval, 1.7-4.8 Gy), respectively. MLDs of all methods are highly correlated with each other and significantly correlated with clinical RP2, although V20s are not. For RP2 prediction, on the receiver operating characteristic curve, MLD from DVH{sub G} (MLD{sub G}) has a greater area under curve of than MLD from DVH{sub C} (MLD{sub C}) or DVH{sub P} (MLD{sub P}). Limiting RP2 to 30%, the threshold is 22.4, 20.6, and 18.8 Gy, for MLD{sub G}, MLD{sub C}, and MLD{sub P}, respectively. Conclusions: The differences in MLD and V20 from various lung definitions are significant. MLD from the GTV exclusion method may be more accurate in predicting clinical significant radiation pneumonitis.

  5. Effect of Normal Lung Definition on Lung Dosimetry and Lung Toxicity Prediction in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weili; Xu, Yaping; Schipper, Matthew; Matuszak, Martha M.; Ritter, Timothy; Cao, Yue; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Kong, Feng-Ming (Spring)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to compare lung dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters such as mean lung dose (MLD) and the lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (V20) of commonly used definitions of normal lung in terms of tumor/target subtraction and to determine to what extent they differ in predicting radiation pneumonitis (RP). Methods and Materials One hundred lung cancer patients treated with definitive radiation therapy were assessed. The gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical planning target volume (PTVc) were defined by the treating physician and dosimetrist. For this study, the clinical target volume (CTV) was defined as GTV with 8-mm uniform expansion, and the PTV was defined as CTV with an 8-mm uniform expansion. Lung DVHs were generated with exclusion of targets: (1) GTV (DVHG); (2) CTV (DVHC); (3) PTV (DVHP); and (4) PTVc (DVHPc). The lung DVHs, V20s, and MLDs from each of the 4 methods were compared, as was their significance in predicting radiation pneumonitis of grade 2 or greater (RP2). Results There are significant differences in dosimetric parameters among the various definition methods (all Ps<.05). The mean and maximum differences in V20 are 4.4% and 12.6% (95% confidence interval 3.6%–5.1%), respectively. The mean and maximum differences in MLD are 3.3 Gy and 7.5 Gy (95% confidence interval, 1.7–4.8 Gy), respectively. MLDs of all methods are highly correlated with each other and significantly correlated with clinical RP2, although V20s are not. For RP2 prediction, on the receiver operating characteristic curve, MLD from DVHG (MLDG has a greater area under curve of than MLD from DVHC (MLDC) or DVHP (MLDP). Limiting RP2 to 30%, the threshold is 22.4, 20.6, and 18.8 Gy, for MLDG, MLDC, and MLDP, respectively. Conclusions The differences in MLD and V20 from various lung definitions are significant. MLD from the GTV exclusion method may be more accurate in predicting clinical significant radiation pneumonitis. PMID:23845844

  6. High LET, passive space radiation dosimetry and spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Keegan, R. P.; Frigo, L. A.; Sanner, D.; Rowe, V.

    1995-01-01

    The development of high linear energy transfer (LET), passive radiation dosimetry and spectrometry is needed for the purpose of accurate determination of equivalent doses and assessment of health risks to astronauts on long duration missions. Progress in the following research areas is summerized: intercomparisons of cosmic ray equivalent dose and LET spectra measurements between STS missions and between astronauts; increases LET spectra measurement accuracy with ATAS; space radiation measurements for intercomparisons of passive (PNTD, TLD, TRND, Emulsion) and active (TEPC, RME-111) dosimeters; interaction of cosmic ray particles with nuclei in matter; radiation measurements after long duration space exposures; ground based dosimeter calibrations; neutron detector calibrations; radiation measurements on Soviet/Russian spacecraft; space radiation measurements under thin shielding; and space radiation.

  7. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  8. Method and means for radiation dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Shulte, J. W.; Suttle, J. F.

    1960-10-18

    A precise dosimeter for and x radiations is designed in which a reproducible response to radiation is achieved by controlling the amount of sensitizer. The sensitizer is present in a halogenated hydrocarbon system and is a leuco base of certain dyestuffs. This patent is related to U. S. Patent No. 2,824,234. (D.L.C.)

  9. METHOD AND MEANS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    DOEpatents

    Schulte, J.W.; Suttle, J.F.

    1960-10-11

    A precise dosimeter for and x radiations is designed in which a reproducible response to radiation is achieved by controlling the amount of sensitizer. The sensitizer is present in a halogenated hydrocarbon system and is a leuco base of certain dyestuffs. This patent is related to U. S. Patent No. 2,824,234. (D.L.C.)

  10. Electromagnetic and heat transfer computations for non-ionizing radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Samaras, T; Regli, P; Kuster, N

    2000-08-01

    Reliable information on the heat distribution inside biological tissues is essential for the planning and optimization of experiments which aim to study the effects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR). In electrodynamics, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique has become the dominant technique for radiofrequency dosimetry. In order to obtain the electromagnetic field and heat distributions within the same simulation run without changing discretization, a heat diffusion solver has been directly integrated into an advanced electrodynamic FDTD kernel. The implementation enables both coupled and sequential simulations. It also includes the ability to work with complex bodies and to accelerate heat diffusion. This paper emphasizes the importance of this combination in the field of NIR dosimetry. Two examples from this area are given: the validation of dosimetry with temperature probes and the estimation of the highest thermal load during bioexperiments. PMID:10958191

  11. Phantom dosimetry calculations for use in radiation-effects correlations. Technical report, 1 April 1983-30 July 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, D.C.; Roberts, J.A.; Egbert, S.D.

    1984-07-30

    Models corresponding to an adult Rhesus Monkey and a simple analogue were created in combinatorial geometry for use in Monte Carlo radiation-transport calculations. The complex monkey phantom is based on anatomical measurements of a sectioned cadaver. Adjoint Monte Carlo calculations were performed to obtain the energy- and angle-differential adjoint fluence for the mid-head, mid-thorax locations in both phantoms and active marrow in the complex monkey phantom. The results were also convoluted with free-field spectra for two TRIGA reactor exposure room configurations at the Armed Forces Radiobiological Research Institute, using the VCS code system. Comparisons are made between calculated and measured KERMA values in the simple phantom. Good agreement is obtained. However, it is found that good agreement cannot be obtained using simple scalar coupling.

  12. Electron paramagnetic resonance biophysical radiation dosimetry with tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Rao F. H.

    This thesis deals with advancements made in the field of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) for biophysical dosimetry with tooth enamel for accident, emergency and retrospective radiation dose reconstruction. A methodology has been developed to measure retrospective radiation exposures in human tooth enamel. This entails novel sample preparation procedures with minimum mechanical treatment to reduce the preparation induced uncertainties, establish optimum measurement conditions inside the EPR cavity, post process the measured spectrum with functional simulation of dosimetric and other interfering signals, and reconstruct dose. By using this technique, retrospective gamma radiation exposures as low as 80 +/- 30 mGy have been successfully deciphered. The notion of dose modifier was introduced in EPR biodosimetry for low dose measurements. It has been demonstrated that by using the modified zero added dose (MZAD) technique for low radiation exposures, doses in the 100 mGy range can be easily reconstructed in teeth which were previously thought useless for EPR dosimetry. Also the use of a dose modifier makes robust dose reconstruction possible for higher radiation exposures. The EPR dosimetry technique was also developed for tooth samples extracted from rodents, which represent small tooth sizing. EPR doses in the molars, extracted from mice irradiated with whole body exposures, were reassessed and shown to be correct within the experimental uncertainty. The sensitivity of human tooth enamel for neutron irradiation, obtained from the 3 MV McMaster K. N. Van de Graaff accelerator, was also studied. For the first time this work has shown that the neutron sensitivity of the tooth enamel is approximately 1/10th of the equivalent gamma sensitivity. Parametric studies for neutron dose rate and neutron energy within the available range of the accelerator, showed no impact on the sensitivity of the tooth enamel. Therefore, tooth enamel can be used as a dosimeter for both neutrons as well as gamma radiation. We will continue experiments to develop this endpoint as a sensitive accident or emergency tool for our response capabilities.

  13. Nuclear data needs for radiation protection and therapy dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Haight, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    New nuclear data are required for improved neutron and proton radiotherapy treatment planning as well as future applications of high-energy particle accelerators. Modern neutron radiotherapy employs energies extending to 70 MeV, while industrial applications such as transmutation and tritium breeding may generate neutrons exceeding energies of 100 MeV. Secondary neutrons produced by advanced proton therapy facilities can have energies as high as 250 MeV. Each use requires nuclear data for transport calculations and analysis of radiation effects (dosimetry). We discuss the nuclear data needs supportive of these applications including the different information requirements. As data in this energy region are sparse and likely to remain so, advanced nuclear model calculations can provide some of the needed information. ln this context, we present new evaluated nuclear data for C, N, and O. Additional experimental information, including integral and differential data, are required to confirm these results and to bound further calculations. We indicate the required new data to be measured and the difficulties in carrying out such experiments.

  14. Radiation dosimetry properties of smartphone CMOS sensors.

    PubMed

    Van Hoey, Olivier; Salavrakos, Alexia; Marques, Antonio; Nagao, Alexandre; Willems, Ruben; Vanhavere, Filip; Cauwels, Vanessa; Nascimento, Luana F

    2016-03-01

    During the past years, several smartphone applications have been developed for radiation detection. These applications measure radiation using the smartphone camera complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor. They are potentially useful for data collection and personal dose assessment in case of a radiological incident. However, it is important to assess these applications. Six applications were tested by means of irradiations with calibrated X-ray and gamma sources. It was shown that the measurement stabilises only after at least 10-25 min. All applications exhibited a flat dose rate response in the studied ambient dose equivalent range from 2 to 1000 μSv h(-1). Most applications significantly over- or underestimate the dose rate or are not calibrated in terms of dose rate. A considerable energy dependence was observed below 100 keV but not for the higher energy range more relevant for incident scenarios. Photon impact angle variation gave a measured signal variation of only about 10 %. PMID:26041476

  15. Effect of processor temperature on film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.

    2012-07-01

    Optical density (OD) of a radiographic film plays an important role in radiation dosimetry, which depends on various parameters, including beam energy, depth, field size, film batch, dose, dose rate, air film interface, postexposure processing time, and temperature of the processor. Most of these parameters have been studied for Kodak XV and extended dose range (EDR) films used in radiation oncology. There is very limited information on processor temperature, which is investigated in this study. Multiple XV and EDR films were exposed in the reference condition (d{sub max.}, 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2}, 100 cm) to a given dose. An automatic film processor (X-Omat 5000) was used for processing films. The temperature of the processor was adjusted manually with increasing temperature. At each temperature, a set of films was processed to evaluate OD at a given dose. For both films, OD is a linear function of processor temperature in the range of 29.4-40.6 Degree-Sign C (85-105 Degree-Sign F) for various dose ranges. The changes in processor temperature are directly related to the dose by a quadratic function. A simple linear equation is provided for the changes in OD vs. processor temperature, which could be used for correcting dose in radiation dosimetry when film is used.

  16. Development of a portable graphite calorimeter for radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Sakama, Makoto; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Fukumura, Akifumi

    2008-01-01

    We developed and performance-tested a portable graphite calorimeter designed to measure the absolute dosimetry of various beams including heavy-ion beams, based on a flexible and convenient means of measurement. This measurement system is fully remote-controlled by the GPIB system. This system uses a digital PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) control method based on the LabVIEW software. It was possible to attain stable conditions in a shorter time by this system. The standard deviation of the measurements using the calorimeter was 0.79% at a dose rate of 0.8 Gy/min in 17 calorimeter runs for a (60)Co photon beam. The overall uncertainties for the absorbed dose to graphite and water of the (60)Co photon beam using the developed calorimeter were 0.89% and 1.35%, respectively. Estimations of the correction factors due to vacuum gaps, impurities in the core, the dose gradient and the radiation profile were included in the uncertainties. The absorbed doses to graphite and water irradiated by the (60)Co photon beam were compared with dosimetry measurements obtained using three ionization chambers. The absorbed doses to graphite and water estimated by the two dosimetry methods agreed within 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively. PMID:21976250

  17. Radiation Dosimetry via Automated Fluorescence Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, Kenneth R.; Schulze, Mark

    2005-01-01

    A developmental instrument for assessment of radiation-induced damage in human lymphocytes includes an automated fluorescence microscope equipped with a one or more chargecoupled- device (CCD) video camera(s) and circuitry to digitize the video output. The microscope is also equipped with a three-axis translation stage that includes a rotation stage, and a rotary tray that holds as many as thirty specimen slides. The figure depicts one version of the instrument. Once the slides have been prepared and loaded into the tray, the instrument can operate unattended. A computer controls the operation of the stage, tray, and microscope, and processes the digital fluorescence-image data to recognize and count chromosomes that have been broken, presumably by radiation. The design and method of operation of the instrument exploit fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of metaphase chromosome spreads, which is a technique that has been found to be valuable for monitoring the radiation dose to circulating lymphocytes. In the specific FISH protocol used to prepare specimens for this instrument, metaphase lymphocyte cultures are chosen for high mitotic index and highly condensed chromosomes, then several of the largest chromosomes are labeled with three of four differently colored whole-chromosome-staining dyes. The three dyes, which are used both individually and in various combinations, are fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), Texas Red (or equivalent), and Cy5 (or equivalent); The fourth dye 4',6-diamidino- 2-phenylindole (DAPI) is used as a counterstain. Under control by the computer, the microscope is automatically focused on the cells and each slide is scanned while the computer analyzes the DAPI-fluorescence images to find the metaphases. Each metaphase field is recentered in the field of view and refocused. Then a four-color image (more precisely, a set of images of the same view in the fluorescent colors of the four dyes) is acquired. By use of pattern-recognition software developed specifically for this instrument, the images in the various colors are processed to recognize the metaphases and count the chromosome fragments of each color within the metaphases. The intermediate results are then further processed to estimate the proportion of cells that have suffered genetic damage. The prototype instrument scans at an average areal rate of 4.7 mm2/h in unattended operation, finding about 14 metaphases per hour. The false-alarm rate is typically less than 3 percent, and the metaphase-miss rate has been estimated to be less than 5 percent. The counts of chromosomes and fragments thereof are 50 to 70 percent accurate.

  18. Passive multi-layer neutron spectrometer for neutron radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciak, Maciej; Golnik, Natalia; Dworecki, Konrad; Domański, Szymon; Tulik, Piotr; Araszkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-09-01

    Paper describes the method of neutron radiation dosimetry using polyethylene moderator and thermoluminescent detectors. Mechanisms of neutrons' slowing down, detection and measurement steps using TLD are presented. The paper contains a description of the construction and the arrangements of the multi-moderator with possibility of placing passive detectors at different thicknesses in the sphere. Additionally, there is presented a possibility of ionization chamber utilization as an active part of the spectrometer. Results of geometrical modelling and Monte Carlo simulations are presented. Response matrices for deconvolution purpose were obtained.

  19. Computer Aided Dosimetry and Verification of Exposure to Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Edward; Stodilka, Robert Z.; Leach, Karen E.; Lalonde, Louise

    2002-06-01

    In the timeframe following the September 11th attacks on the United States, increased emphasis has been placed on Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) preparedness. Of prime importance is rapid field assessment of potential radiation exposure to Canadian Forces field personnel. This work set up a framework for generating an 'expert' computer system for aiding and assisting field personnel in determining the extent of radiation insult to military personnel. Data was gathered by review of the available literature, discussions with medical and health physics personnel having hands-on experience dealing with radiation accident victims, and from experience of the principal investigator. Flow charts and generic data fusion algorithms were developed. Relationships between known exposure parameters, patient interview and history, clinical symptoms, clinical work-ups, physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry, and dose reconstruction as critical data indicators were investigated. The data obtained was examined in terms of information theory. A main goal was to determine how best to generate an adaptive model (i.e. when more data becomes available, how is the prediction improved). Consideration was given to determination of predictive algorithms for health outcome. In addition. the concept of coding an expert medical treatment advisor system was developed (U)

  20. Novel Multicompartment 3-Dimensional Radiochromic Radiation Dosimeters for Nanoparticle-Enhanced Radiation Therapy Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Alqathami, Mamdooh; Blencowe, Anton; Yeo, Un Jin; Doran, Simon J.; Qiao, Greg; Geso, Moshi

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Gold nanoparticles (AuNps), because of their high atomic number (Z), have been demonstrated to absorb low-energy X-rays preferentially, compared with tissue, and may be used to achieve localized radiation dose enhancement in tumors. The purpose of this study is to introduce the first example of a novel multicompartment radiochromic radiation dosimeter and to demonstrate its applicability for 3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry of nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A novel multicompartment phantom radiochromic dosimeter was developed. It was designed and formulated to mimic a tumor loaded with AuNps (50 nm in diameter) at a concentration of 0.5 mM, surrounded by normal tissues. The novel dosimeter is referred to as the Sensitivity Modulated Advanced Radiation Therapy (SMART) dosimeter. The dosimeters were irradiated with 100-kV and 6-MV X-ray energies. Dose enhancement produced from the interaction of X-rays with AuNps was calculated using spectrophotometric and cone-beam optical computed tomography scanning by quantitatively comparing the change in optical density and 3D datasets of the dosimetric measurements between the tissue-equivalent (TE) and TE/AuNps compartments. The interbatch and intrabatch variability and the postresponse stability of the dosimeters with AuNps were also assessed. Results: Radiation dose enhancement factors of 1.77 and 1.11 were obtained using 100-kV and 6-MV X-ray energies, respectively. The results of this study are in good agreement with previous observations; however, for the first time we provide direct experimental confirmation and 3D visualization of the radiosensitization effect of AuNps. The dosimeters with AuNps showed small (<3.5%) interbatch variability and negligible (<0.5%) intrabatch variability. Conclusions: The SMART dosimeter yields experimental insights concerning the spatial distributions and elevated dose in nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy, which cannot be performed using any of the current methods. The authors concluded that it can be used as a novel independent method for nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy dosimetry.

  1. Real-time dosimetry in external beam radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, Ramachandran

    2013-01-01

    With growing complexity in radiotherapy treatment delivery, it has become mandatory to check each and every treatment plan before implementing clinically. This process is currently administered by an independent secondary check of all treatment parameters and as a pre-treatment quality assurance (QA) check for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans. Although pre-treatment IMRT QA is aimed to ensure the correct dose is delivered to the patient, it does not necessarily predict the clinically relevant patient dose errors. During radiotherapy, treatment uncertainties can affect tumor control and may increase complications to surrounding normal tissues. To combat this, image guided radiotherapy is employed to help ensure the plan conditions are mimicked on the treatment machine. However, it does not provide information on actual delivered dose to the tumor volume. Knowledge of actual dose delivered during treatment aid in confirming the prescribed dose and also to replan/reassess the treatment in situations where the planned dose is not delivered as expected by the treating physician. Major accidents in radiotherapy would have been averted if real time dosimetry is incorporated as part of the routine radiotherapy procedure. Of late real-time dosimetry is becoming popular with complex treatments in radiotherapy. Real-time dosimetry can be either in the form of point doses or planar doses or projected on to a 3D image dataset to obtain volumetric dose. They either provide entrance dose or exit dose or dose inside the natural cavities of a patient. In external beam radiotherapy, there are four different established platforms whereby the delivered dose information can be obtained: (1) Collimator; (2) Patient; (3) Couch; and (4) Electronic Portal Imaging Device. Current real-time dosimetric techniques available in radiotherapy have their own advantages and disadvantages and a combination of one or more of these methods provide vital information about the actual dose delivered to radiotherapy patients. PMID:24179630

  2. ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE DOSIMETRY FOR A LARGE-SCALE RADIATION INCIDENT

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Harold M.; Flood, Ann Barry; Williams, Benjamin B.; Dong, Ruhong; Swarts, Steven G.; He, Xiaoming; Grinberg, Oleg; Sidabras, Jason; Demidenko, Eugene; Gui, Jiang; Gladstone, David J.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Kmiec, Maciej M.; Kobayashi, Kyo; Lesniewski, Piotr N.; Marsh, Stephen D.P.; Matthews, Thomas P.; Nicolalde, Roberto J.; Pennington, Patrick M.; Raynolds, Timothy; Salikhov, Ildar; Wilcox, Dean E.; Zaki, Bassem I.

    2013-01-01

    With possibilities for radiation terrorism and intensified concerns about nuclear accidents since the recent Fukushima Daiichi event, the potential exposure of large numbers of individuals to radiation that could lead to acute clinical effects has become a major concern. For the medical community to cope with such an event and avoid overwhelming the medical care system, it is essential to identify not only individuals who have received clinically significant exposures and need medical intervention but also those who do not need treatment. The ability of electron paramagnetic resonance to measure radiation-induced paramagnetic species, which persist in certain tissues (e.g., teeth, fingernails, toenails, bone, and hair), has led this technique to become a prominent method for screening significantly exposed individuals. Although the technical requirements needed to develop this method for effective application in a radiation event are daunting, remarkable progress has been made. In collaboration with General Electric, and through funding committed by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, electron paramagnetic resonance tooth dosimetry of the upper incisors is being developed to become a Food and Drug Administration-approved and manufacturable device designed to carry out triage for a threshold dose of 2 Gy. Significant progress has also been made in the development of electron paramagnetic resonance nail dosimetry based on measurements of nails in situ under point-of-care conditions, and in the near future this may become a second field-ready technique. Based on recent progress in measurements of nail clippings, we anticipate that this technique may be implementable at remotely located laboratories to provide additional information when the measurements of dose on site need to be supplemented. We conclude that electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry is likely to be a useful part of triage for a large-scale radiation incident. PMID:22850230

  3. Radiation Dosimetry Using Three-Dimensional Optical Random Access Memories

    SciTech Connect

    Moscovitch, M

    2001-08-20

    The ability to determine particle type and energy plays an important role in the dosimetry of heavy charged particles (HCP) and neutrons. A new approach to radiation dosimetry is presented, which is shown to be capable of particle type and energy discrimination. This method is based on utilizing radiation induced changes in the digital information stored on three-dimensional optical random access memories (3D ORAM). 3D ORAM is a small cube (a few mm{sup 3}) composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with a photochromic dye, and it was originally proposed as a memory device in high speed parallel computers. A Nd:YAG laser system is used to write and read binary information (bits) on the ORAM, which functions as a charged particle detector. Both the read and the write processes use two laser beams that simultaneously strike the material to cause a color change at their intersection (similar to the darkening of light-sensitive sunglasses when exposed to sunlight.) The laser produces color changes in the ORAM, which then reverts to the original color (''bit-flips'') at sites where energy is deposited from interaction with incident HCP or neutron-recoil protons. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. Calculations based on track structure theory (TST) predict that when HCP interact with the ORAM material, the local energy deposition is capable of inducing measurable ''bit-flips''. These predictions were recently confirmed experimentally using two types of ORAM systems, one based on spirobenzopyran and the other on anthracene, as the photochromic dyes.

  4. Mixed-radiation-field dosimetry utilizing Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hintenlang, D.E.; Jamil, K.; Iselin, L.H.

    1992-12-31

    Radiation effects on urea, thiourea, guanidine carbonate and guanine sulfate were evaluated for both photon and neutron irradiations. Hydration of these materials typically provides a greatly increased sensitivity to both forms of radiation exposure, although not all materials lend themselves to this treatment without changing the chemical structure of the compound. Urea was found to be the most stable hydrated compound and provides the best sensitivity for quantifying radiation effects using NQR techniques. Urea permits a straight-forward quantification of each of the important parameters of the observed NQR signal, the FID. Several advanced data analysis methods were developed to assist in quantifying NQR spectra, both from urea and materials having more complex molecular structures, such as thiourea and guanidine sulfate. Unfortunately, these analysis techniques are frequently quite time consuming for the complex NQR spectra that result from some of these materials. The simpler analysis afforded by urea has therefore made it the prime candidate for an NQR dosimetry material. The moderate sensitivity of hydrated urea to photon irradiation does not permit this material to achieve the levels of performance required for a personnel dosimeter. It does, however, demonstrate acceptable sensitivity over dose ranges where it could provide a good biological dosimeter for several areas of radiation processing. The demonstrated photon sensitivity could permit hydrated urea to be used in applications such as food irradiation dosimetry. This material also exhibits a good sensitivity to neutron irradiation. The precise correlation between neutron exposure and the parameters of the resulting NQR spectra are currently being developed.

  5. A semiconductor radiation imaging pixel detector for space radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Kroupa, Martin; Bahadori, Amir; Campbell-Ricketts, Thomas; Empl, Anton; Hoang, Son Minh; Idarraga-Munoz, John; Rios, Ryan; Semones, Edward; Stoffle, Nicholas; Tlustos, Lukas; Turecek, Daniel; Pinsky, Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Progress in the development of high-performance semiconductor radiation imaging pixel detectors based on technologies developed for use in high-energy physics applications has enabled the development of a completely new generation of compact low-power active dosimeters and area monitors for use in space radiation environments. Such detectors can provide real-time information concerning radiation exposure, along with detailed analysis of the individual particles incident on the active medium. Recent results from the deployment of detectors based on the Timepix from the CERN-based Medipix2 Collaboration on the International Space Station (ISS) are reviewed, along with a glimpse of developments to come. Preliminary results from Orion MPCV Exploration Flight Test 1 are also presented. PMID:26256630

  6. Radiation shielding and dosimetry experiments updates in the SINBAD database.

    PubMed

    Kodeli, I; Hunter, H; Sartori, E

    2005-01-01

    The Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD) is an internationally established set of radiation shielding and dosimetry data related to experiments relevant in reactor shielding, fusion blanket neutronics and accelerator shielding. In addition to the characterisation of the radiation source, it describes shielding materials and instrumentation and the relevant detectors. The experimental results, be it dose or reaction rates, or unfolded spectra, are presented in tabular ASCII form that can easily be exported to different computer environments for further use. Most sets in SINBAD also contain the computer model used for the interpretation of the experiment and, where available, results from uncertainty analysis. This is an international effort between the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank (http://www.nea.fr/html/databank/) (OECD/NEA Data Bank) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (http://www-rsicc.ornl.gov/rsic.html) (ORNL/RSICC). Cooperation from many organisations, authors and benchmark analysts have helped SINBAD become a 'living database'--one which involves continuous information updates, preservation and additions of nuclear benchmarks in the areas of fusion, fission and accelerator science and engineering. This paper focuses on the increased comprehensiveness of experiments that have been carried out in recent years and the validation of computer code and cross section library using these experiments. PMID:16604698

  7. Genetic and molecular dosimetry of HZE radiation (US-1 RADIAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Schubert, W. W.; Kazarians, G. A.; Richards, G. F.; Benton, E. V.; Benton, E. R.; Henke, R. P.

    1995-01-01

    In order to estimate radiation exposure in space, experiments were conducted during the 1st International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) mission in order to isolate genetic changes in animal cells caused by cosmic rays. The space measurements were evaluated against results from synthetic cosmic rays produced by particle accelerators on the ground. The biological material used was the tiny soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. The measurements were made by thermoluminescent detectors and plastic nuclear track detectors. The development and the chromosome mechanics in microgravity were studied, and the mutagenesis induced by radiation exposure was analyzed. The results showed that there are no obvious differences in the development, behavior and chromosome mechanics, as a function of gravity unloading (reproduction, self-fertilization and mating of males with hermaphrodites, gross anatomy, symmetry and gametogenesis, pairing, disjoining and recombination of chromosomes). A variety of mutants were isolated, and it was noted that mutants isolated from regions of identified high particles were more severely affected than those isolated by random screening. Linear energy transfer particles seem to favor large scale genetic lesions.

  8. Dosimetry for ultraviolet radiation exposure of the eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliney, David H.

    1994-07-01

    The eye is exposed daily to UVR from skylight and ground reflections when outdoors in sunlight. Additional exposure occurs daily from artificial sources such as fluorescent lamps. Some workers, notably welders, are exposed to industrial sources of UVR. The geometry of exposure critically influences the actual UVR dose to the cornea and lens. When exposed to bright light, squinting reduces UVR exposure. the optical properties of the eye and behavioral responses to bright light both contribute to limiting actual UVR exposure. The actual daily dos of UVR is considerably less than what many previous investigators have assumed. The geometrical, as well as temporal and spectral, aspects of ocular dosimetry will be reviewed in order to allow participants a better insight into the practical impact of many laboratory studies of UVR effects upon ocular tissues.

  9. GENII (Generation II): The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-09-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. GENII: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 2, Users' manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-11-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). The purpose of this coupled system of computer codes is to analyze environmental contamination of, air, water, or soil. This is accomplished by calculating radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The third volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the user who requires knowledge of code detail. It includes logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets, example hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. 27 refs., 17 figs., 23 tabs.

  11. Designing and Dosimetry of a Shield for Photon Fields of Radiation Therapy in Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Keyvan; Senobari, Somayeh; Roayaei, Mahnaz; Rostampour, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    The cancer of oral cavity is related to lesions of mucous membrane of tongue and gum that can be treated with radiation therapy. A lateral photon field can be used to treat this kind of tumor, which has a side-effect on normal tissue in the opposite side of the oral cavity. In this study the dosimetric effect of the various shields in oral cavity is evaluated. In this study, a special phantom similar to the structure of oral cavity with capability of film dosimetry was designed and constructed. The various shield slabs were made of five materials: Lead, Plexiglas, Acrylic resin, Silicon and Plaster. For irradiation, Cobalt 60 (60Co) and 6 MV photon beams were used. The film dosimetry before and after the shield was performed using GAFCHROMIC EBT2 films. The film before the shield measures the magnitude of backscattering radiation from the shield. The prescribed dose was 150 cGy. Results showed that 3 cm of the lead in both energies had the maximum absorption of radiation. The absorbed dose to opposite side of shield for 6 MV photon beams and 60Co were 21 and 32 cGy, respectively. The minimum attenuation on radiation was observed in silicon shield for which the dose of opposite side were 116 and 147 cGy for 6 MV and 60Co respectively. The maximum backscattered dose was measured 177 cGy and 219 cGy using 3 cm thickness of lead, which was quite considerable. The minimum backscattering where for acrylic resin 101 and 118 cGy for 6 MV and cobalt. In this study, it was concluded that the amount of backscattering for 3 cm Lead shield is quite considerable and increases the dose significantly. A composite layer of shield with 1–2 cm lead and 1 cm acrylic resin can have the protective effect and low backscattering radiation at the same time. PMID:26120570

  12. Intrinsic Dosimetry: Elemental Composition Effects on the Thermoluminescence of Commercial Borosilicate Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Clark; J. David Robertson; Jon M. Schwantes

    2013-12-01

    Intrinsic dosimetry is the method of measuring total absorbed dose received by the walls of a container holding radioactive material. By considering this dose in tandem with the physical characteristics of the radioactive material housed within the container, this method can provide enhanced pathway information for interdicted radioactive samples. Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry was used to measure ionizing radiation dose effects on stock borosilicate glass. Differences in TL glow curve shape and intensity were observed for glasses from different geographical origins. The different TL signatures strongly correlated with the concentration of alkaline earth metals and the ratio of sodium to the total amount of alkali metal present in the borosilicate glass.

  13. Intrinsic Dosimetry. Elemental Composition Effects on the Thermoluminescence of Commercial Borosilicate Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Richard A.; Robertson, J. David; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-07-05

    Intrinsic dosimetry is the method of measuring total absorbed dose received by the walls of a container holding radioactive material. By considering this dose in tandem with the physical characteristics of the radioactive material housed within the container, this method can provide enhanced pathway information for interdicted radioactive samples. Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry was used to measure ionizing radiation dose effects on stock borosilicate glass. Differences in TL glow curve shape and intensity were observed for glasses from different geographical origins. The different TL signatures strongly correlated with the concentration of alkaline earth metals and the ratio of sodium to the total amount of alkali metal present in the borosilicate glass.

  14. Three-dimensional radiation dosimetry for gamma knife using a gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Kazi Muazzam

    The use of three-dimensional radiation dosimetry has been limited. With the use of water phantoms and ionization chambers, it has been possible to determine three dimensional dose distributions on a gross scale for cobalt 60 and linear accelerator sources. This method has been somewhat useful for traditional radiotherapy. There is, however, a need for more precise dosimetry, particularly with stereotactic radiosurgery. Most gamma knife facilities use either thermoluminescant dosimetry or film, neither of which provides three dimensional dose distributions. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a gel dosimetry system that relies on the production of a ferric ion-xylenol orange colored complex. This work demonstrates the use of laser light and a detector to quantify radiation-induced colorimetric changes in absorbance for the gel dosimeter. The absorbance has been reconstructed by the back projection technique to demonstrate the applicability of the gel dosimeter to gamma knife 3D-dose distributions.

  15. Preparation of (K:Eu) NaSO4 phosphor for lyoluminescence dosimetry of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Dhoble, S J

    2002-01-01

    Gamma ray dosimetry using lyoluminescence is a low cost and simple system. As sulphate based phosphors are used for TL radiation dosimetry they therefore seem to be a promising material for LL gamma ray dosimetry. A study on LL properties of Eu activated KNaSO4 and K3Na(SO4)2 gamma irradiated materials is reported. Eu doped KNaSO4 shows maximum LL yield in the above system. It shows a linear response from 0.06 to 10 C.kg(-1) and there is not much fading of LL intensity, indicating the phosphor to be suitable as a lyoluminescence dosimetry phosphor of ionising radiation. The doped Eu ion acts as an activator and thus enhances the LL intensity of the phosphor. PMID:12382879

  16. Radiation hardness of the storage phosphor europium doped potassium chloride for radiation therapy dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Driewer, Joseph P.; Chen, Haijian; Osvet, Andres; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: An important property of a reusable dosimeter is its radiation hardness, that is, its ability to retain its dosimetric merits after irradiation. The radiation hardness of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu2+), a storage phosphor material recently proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry, is examined in this study. Methods: Pellet-style KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The pellets were exposed by a 6 MV photon beam or in a high dose rate 137Cs irradiator. Macroscopic properties, such as radiation sensitivity, dose response linearity, and signal stability, were studied with a laboratory photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout system. Since phosphor performance is related to the state of the storage centers and the activator, Eu2+, in the host lattice, spectroscopic and temporal measurements were carried out in order to explore radiation-induced changes at the microscopic level. Results: KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters retained approximately 90% of their initial signal strength after a 5000 Gy dose history. Dose response was initially supralinear over the dose range of 100–700 cGy but became linear after 60 Gy. Linearity did not change significantly in the 0–5000 Gy dose history spanned in this study. Annealing high dose history chips resulted in a return of supralinearity and a recovery of sensitivity. There were no significant changes in the PSL stimulation spectra, PSL emission spectra, photoluminescence spectra, or luminescence lifetime, indicating that the PSL signal process remains intact after irradiation but at a reduced efficiency due to reparable radiation-induced perturbations in the crystal lattice. Conclusions: Systematic studies of KCl:Eu2+ material are important for understanding how the material can be optimized for radiation therapy dosimetry purposes. The data presented here indicate that KCl:Eu2+ exhibits strong radiation hardness and lends support for further investigations of this novel material. PMID:21928642

  17. Radiation hardness of the storage phosphor europium doped potassium chloride for radiation therapy dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Driewer, Joseph P.; Chen, Haijian; Osvet, Andres; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: An important property of a reusable dosimeter is its radiation hardness, that is, its ability to retain its dosimetric merits after irradiation. The radiation hardness of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu{sup 2+}), a storage phosphor material recently proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry, is examined in this study. Methods: Pellet-style KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The pellets were exposed by a 6 MV photon beam or in a high dose rate {sup 137}Cs irradiator. Macroscopic properties, such as radiation sensitivity, dose response linearity, and signal stability, were studied with a laboratory photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout system. Since phosphor performance is related to the state of the storage centers and the activator, Eu{sup 2+}, in the host lattice, spectroscopic and temporal measurements were carried out in order to explore radiation-induced changes at the microscopic level. Results: KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters retained approximately 90% of their initial signal strength after a 5000 Gy dose history. Dose response was initially supralinear over the dose range of 100-700 cGy but became linear after 60 Gy. Linearity did not change significantly in the 0-5000 Gy dose history spanned in this study. Annealing high dose history chips resulted in a return of supralinearity and a recovery of sensitivity. There were no significant changes in the PSL stimulation spectra, PSL emission spectra, photoluminescence spectra, or luminescence lifetime, indicating that the PSL signal process remains intact after irradiation but at a reduced efficiency due to reparable radiation-induced perturbations in the crystal lattice. Conclusions: Systematic studies of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} material are important for understanding how the material can be optimized for radiation therapy dosimetry purposes. The data presented here indicate that KCl:Eu{sup 2+} exhibits strong radiation hardness and lends support for further investigations of this novel material.

  18. SU-D-213-06: Dosimetry of Modulated Electron Radiation Therapy Using Fricke Gel Dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Gawad, M Abdel; Elgohary, M; Hassaan, M; Emam, M; Desouky, O; Eldib, A; Ma, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) has been proposed as an effective modality for treatment of superficial targets. MERT utilizes multiple beams of different energies which are intensity modulated to deliver optimized dose distribution. Energy independent dosimeters are thus needed for quantitative evaluations of MERT dose distributions and measurements of absolute doses delivered to patients. Thus in the current work we study the feasibility of Fricke gel dosimeters in MERT dosimetry. Methods: Batches of radiation sensitive Fricke gel is fabricated and poured into polymethyl methacrylate cuvettes. The samples were irradiated in solid water phantom and a thick layer of bolus was used as a buildup. A spectrophotometer system was used for measuring the color changes (the absorbance) before and after irradiation and then we calculate net absorbance. We constructed calibration curves to relate the measured absorbance in terms of absorbed dose for all available electron energies. Dosimetric measurements were performed for mixed electron beam delivery and we also performed measurement for segmented field delivery with the dosimeter placed at the junction of two adjacent electron beams of different energies. Dose measured by our gel dosimetry is compared to that calculation from our precise treatment planning system. We also initiated a Monte Carlo study to evaluate the water equivalence of our dosimeters. MCBEAM and MCSIM codes were used for treatment head simulation and phantom dose calculation. PDDs and profiles were calculated for electron beams incident on a phantom designed with 1cm slab of Fricke gel. Results: The calibration curves showed no observed energy dependence with all studied electron beam energies. Good agreement was obtained between dose calculated and that obtained by gel dosimetry. Monte Carlo results illustrated the tissue equivalency of our Gel dosimeters. Conclusion: Fricke Gel dosimeters represent a good option for the dosimetric quality assurance prior to MERT application.

  19. Workshop report on atomic bomb dosimetry-residual radiation exposure: recent research and suggestions for future studies.

    PubMed

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Beck, Harold L; Cullings, Harry M; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Kaul, Dean C; Maruyama, Satoshi; Reeves, Glen I; Ruehm, Werner; Sakaguchi, Aya; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stram, Daniel O; Tonda, Tetsuji; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Young, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report. PMID:23799498

  20. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  1. International Standardization of the Clinical Dosimetry of Beta Radiation Brachytherapy Sources: Progress of an ISO Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    In 2004 a new work item proposal (NWIP) was accepted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 85 (TC85 -- Nuclear Energy), Subcommittee 2 (Radiation Protection) for the development of a standard for the clinical dosimetry of beta radiation sources used for brachytherapy. To develop this standard, a new Working Group (WG 22 - Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry and Protocols in Medical Applications) was formed. The standard is based on the work of an ad-hoc working group initiated by the Dosimetry task group of the Deutsches Insitiut für Normung (DIN). Initially the work was geared mainly towards the needs of intravascular brachytherapy, but with the decline of this application, more focus has been placed on the challenges of accurate dosimetry for the concave eye plaques used to treat ocular melanoma. Guidance is given for dosimetry formalisms, reference data to be used, calibrations, measurement methods, modeling, uncertainty determinations, treatment planning and reporting, and clinical quality control. The document is currently undergoing review by the ISO member bodies for acceptance as a Committee Draft (CD) with publication of the final standard expected by 2007. There are opportunities for other ISO standards for medical dosimetry within the framework of WG22.

  2. Dose reduction in computed tomography: the effect of eye and testicle shielding on radiation dose measured in patients with beryllium oxide-based optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Grobe, Henrik; Sommer, Marian; Koch, Arne; Hietschold, Volker; Henniger, Jürgen; Abolmaali, Nasreddin

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of eye and testicle shielding on radiation dose to the lens and the testes of patients undergoing CT examinations. Fifty-one male patients underwent CT twice with identical protocols initially without, the second time with protective garments. Doses to the testes and the lenses were recorded with beryllium oxide-based dosimeters. The dose to the testes and lenses from CT exposure was reduced by 96.2% +/- 1.7% and 28.2% +/- 18.5%, when testicle and eye shielding was used, respectively. The effect of the eye shielding on the eye lens dose was found to depend on the x-ray tube position when the eye is primarily exposed during the scan. The maximum eye lens dose reduction achieved was found to be 43.2% +/- 6.5% corresponding to the anterior position of the tube. A significant correlation between the patient's body mass index and dose exposure could not be found. Eye and testicle shields, apart from being inexpensive and easy to use, were proven to be effective in reducing eye lens and testicle radiation dose burden from CT exposures. PMID:19082601

  3. Quantitative megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry using the storage phosphor KCl: Eu2+.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhaohui; Driewer, Joseph P; Zheng, Yuanshui; Low, Daniel A; Li, H Harold

    2009-08-01

    This work, for the first time, reports the use of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu2+) storage phosphor for quantitative megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry. In principle, KCl:Eu2+ functions using the same photostimulatated luminescence (PSL) mechanism as commercially available BaFBr0.85I0.15:Eu2+ material that is used for computed radiography (CR) but features a significantly smaller effective atomic number--18 versus 49--making it a potentially useful material for nearly tissue-equivalent radiation dosimetry. Cylindrical KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters, 7 mm in diameter and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house. Dosimetric properties, including radiation hardness, response linearity, signal fading, dose rate sensitivity, and energy dependence, were studied with a laboratory optical reader after irradiation by a linear accelerator. The overall experimental uncertainty was estimated to be within +/-2.5%. The findings were (1) KCl:Eu2+ showed satisfactory radiation hardness. There was no significant change in the stimulation spectra after irradiation up to 200 Gy when compared to a fresh dosimeter, indicating that this material could be reused at least 100 times if 2 Gy per use was assumed, e.g., for patient-specific IMRT QA. (2) KCl:Eu2+ exhibited supralinear response to dose after irradiation from 0 to 800 cGy. (3) After x ray irradiation, the PSL signal faded with time and eventually reached a fading rate of about 0.1 % /h after 12 h. (4) The sensitivity of the dosimeter was independent of the dose rate ranging from 15 to 1000 cGy/min. (5) The sensitivity showed no beam energy dependence for either open x ray or megavoltage electron fields. (6) Over-response to low-energy scattered photons was comparable to radiographic film, e.g., Kodak EDR2 film. By sandwiching dosimeters between low-energy photon filters (0.3 mm thick lead foils) during irradiation, the over-response was reduced. The authors have demonstrated that KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters have many desirable dosimetric characteristics that make the material conducive to radiation therapy dosimetry. In the future, a large-area KCl:Eu2+-based CR plate with a thickness of the order of a few microns, created using modern thin film techniques, could provide a reusable, quantitative, high-resolution two-dimensional dosimeter with minimal energy dependence. PMID:19746808

  4. Quantitative megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry using the storage phosphor KCl:Eu2+

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhaohui; Driewer, Joseph P.; Zheng, Yuanshui; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold

    2009-01-01

    This work, for the first time, reports the use of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu2+) storage phosphor for quantitative megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry. In principle, KCl:Eu2+ functions using the same photostimulatated luminescence (PSL) mechanism as commercially available BaFBr0.85I0.15:Eu2+ material that is used for computed radiography (CR) but features a significantly smaller effective atomic number—18 versus 49—making it a potentially useful material for nearly tissue-equivalent radiation dosimetry. Cylindrical KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters, 7 mm in diameter and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house. Dosimetric properties, including radiation hardness, response linearity, signal fading, dose rate sensitivity, and energy dependence, were studied with a laboratory optical reader after irradiation by a linear accelerator. The overall experimental uncertainty was estimated to be within ±2.5%. The findings were (1) KCl:Eu2+ showed satisfactory radiation hardness. There was no significant change in the stimulation spectra after irradiation up to 200 Gy when compared to a fresh dosimeter, indicating that this material could be reused at least 100 times if 2 Gy per use was assumed, e.g., for patient-specific IMRT QA. (2) KCl:Eu2+ exhibited supralinear response to dose after irradiation from 0 to 800 cGy. (3) After x ray irradiation, the PSL signal faded with time and eventually reached a fading rate of about 0.1%∕h after 12 h. (4) The sensitivity of the dosimeter was independent of the dose rate ranging from 15 to 1000 cGy∕min. (5) The sensitivity showed no beam energy dependence for either open x ray or megavoltage electron fields. (6) Over-response to low-energy scattered photons was comparable to radiographic film, e.g., Kodak EDR2 film. By sandwiching dosimeters between low-energy photon filters (0.3 mm thick lead foils) during irradiation, the over-response was reduced. The authors have demonstrated that KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters have many desirable dosimetric characteristics that make the material conducive to radiation therapy dosimetry. In the future, a large-area KCl:Eu2+-based CR plate with a thickness of the order of a few microns, created using modern thin film techniques, could provide a reusable, quantitative, high-resolution two-dimensional dosimeter with minimal energy dependence. PMID:19746808

  5. Thermoluminescence characteristics of Ge-doped optical fibers with different dimensions for radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Begum, Mahfuza; Rahman, A K M Mizanur; Abdul-Rashid, H A; Yusoff, Z; Begum, Mahbuba; Mat-Sharif, K A; Amin, Y M; Bradley, D A

    2015-06-01

    Important thermoluminescence (TL) properties of five (5) different core sizes Ge-doped optical fibers have been studied to develop new TL material with better response. These are drawn from same preform applying different speed and tension during drawing phase to produce Ge-doped optical fibers with five (5) different core sizes. The results of the investigations are also compared with most commonly used standard TLD-100 chips (LiF:Mg,Ti) and commercial multimode Ge-doped optical fiber (Yangtze Optical Fiber, China). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and EDX analysis of the fibers are also performed to map Ge distribution across the deposited region. Standard Gamma radiation source in Secondary Standard Dosimetry Lab (SSDL) was used for irradiation covering dose range from 1Gy to 10Gy. The essential dosimetric parameters that have been studied are TL linearity, reproducibility and fading. Prior to irradiation all samples ∼0.5cm length are annealed at temperature of 400°C for 1h period to standardize their sensitivities and background. Standard TLD-100 chips are also annealed for 1h at 400°C and subsequently 2h at 100°C to yield the highest sensitivity. TL responses of these fibers show linearity over a wide gamma radiation dose that is an important property for radiation dosimetry. Among all fibers used in this study, 100μm core diameter fiber provides highest response that is 2.6 times than that of smallest core (20μm core) optical fiber. These fiber-samples demonstrate better response than commercial multi-mode optical fiber and also provide low degree of fading about 20% over a period of fifteen days for gamma radiation. Effective atomic number (Zeff) is found in the range (13.25-13.69) which is higher than soft tissue (7.5) however within the range of human-bone (11.6-13.8). All the fibers can also be re-used several times as a detector after annealing. TL properties of the Ge-doped optical fibers indicate promising applications in ionizing radiation dosimetry. PMID:25468288

  6. Radiation dosimetry predicts IQ after conformal radiation therapy in pediatric patients with localized ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E. . E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org; Kiehna, Erin N.; Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the effects of radiation dose-volume distribution on the trajectory of IQ development after conformal radiation therapy (CRT) in pediatric patients with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study included 88 patients (median age, 2.8 years {+-} 4.5 years) with localized ependymoma who received CRT (54-59.4 Gy) that used a 1-cm margin on the postoperative tumor bed. Patients were evaluated with tests that included IQ measures at baseline (before CRT) and at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. Differential dose-volume histograms (DVH) were derived for total-brain, supratentorial-brain, and right and left temporal-lobe volumes. The data were partitioned into three dose intervals and integrated to create variables that represent the fractional volume that received dose over the specified intervals (e.g., V{sub 0-20Gy}, V{sub 20-40Gy}, V{sub 40-65Gy}) and modeled with clinical variables to develop a regression equation to estimate IQ after CRT. Results: A total of 327 IQ tests were performed in 66 patients with infratentorial tumors and 20 with supratentorial tumors. The median follow-up was 29.4 months. For all patients, IQ was best estimated by age (years) at CRT; percent volume of the supratentorial brain that received doses between 0 and 20 Gy, 20 and 40 Gy, and 40 and 65 Gy; and time (months) after CRT. Age contributed significantly to the intercept (p > 0.0001), and the dose-volume coefficients were statistically significant (V{sub 0-20Gy}, p = 0.01; V{sub 20-40Gy}, p < 0.001; V{sub 40-65Gy}, p = 0.04). A similar model was developed exclusively for patients with infratentorial tumors but not supratentorial tumors. Conclusion: Radiation dosimetry can be used to predict IQ after CRT in patients with localized ependymoma. The specificity of models may be enhanced by grouping according to tumor location.

  7. The Application of FLUKA to Dosimetry and Radiation Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Andersen, Victor; Pinsky, Lawrence; Ferrari, Alfredo; Battistoni, Giusenni

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo transport codes like FLUKA are useful for many purposes, and one of those is the simulation of the effects of radiation traversing the human body. In particular, radiation has been used in cancer therapy for a long time, and recently this has been extended to include heavy ion particle beams. The advent of this particular type of therapy has led to the need for increased capabilities in the transport codes used to simulate the detailed nature of the treatment doses to the Y O U S tissues that are encountered. This capability is also of interest to NASA because of the nature of the radiation environment in space.[l] While in space, the crew members bodies are continually being traversed by virtually all forms of radiation. In assessing the risk that this exposure causes, heavy ions are of primary importance. These arise both from the primary external space radiation itself, as well as fragments that result from interactions during the traversal of that radiation through any intervening material including intervening body tissue itself. Thus the capability to characterize the details of the radiation field accurately within a human body subjected to such external 'beams" is of critical importance.

  8. Using polyvinyl chloride dyed with bromocresol purple in radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Kattan, Munzer; al Kassiri, Haroun; Daher, Yarob

    2011-02-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dyed with bromocresol purple was investigated as a high-dose radiation dosimeter. The absorbance at 417 nm depends linearly on the dose below 50 kGy. The response depends neither on dose rate nor on the irradiation temperature. The effects of post-irradiation storage in the dark and in indirect sunlight are also discussed. PMID:21109445

  9. Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

  10. The PUR Experiment on the EXPOSE-R facility: biological dosimetry of solar extraterrestrial UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérces, A.; Egyeki, M.; Fekete, A.; Horneck, G.; Kovács, G.; Panitz, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our experiment Phage and Uracil Response was to extend the use of bacteriophage T7 and uracil biological dosimeters for measuring the biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) dose in the harsh extraterrestrial radiation conditions. The biological detectors were exposed in vacuum-tightly cases in the European Space Agency (ESA) astrobiological exposure facility attached to the external platform of Zvezda (EXPOSE-R). EXPOSE-R took off to the International Space Station (ISS) in November 2008 and was installed on the External platform of the Russian module Zvezda of the ISS in March 2009. Our goal was to determine the dose-effect relation for the formation of photoproducts (i.e. damage to phage DNA and uracil, respectively). The extraterrestrial solar UV radiation ranges over the whole spectrum from vacuum-UV (λ<200 nm) to UVA (315 nm<λ<400 nm), which causes photolesions (photoproducts) in the nucleic acids/their components either by photoionization or excitation. However, these wavelengths cause not only photolesions but in a wavelength-dependent efficiency the reversion of some photolesions, too. Our biological detectors measured in situ conditions the resultant of both reactions induced by the extraterrestrial UV radiation. From this aspect the role of the photoreversion in the extension of the biological UV dosimetry are discussed.

  11. Photon dosimetry using plastic scintillators in pulsed radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; Brandon W. Blackburn; James T. Johnson; Scott W. Watson

    2007-04-01

    Simulations and experiments have been carried out to explore using a plastic scintillator as a dosimetry probe in the vicinity of a pulsed bremsstrahlung source in the range 4 to 20 MeV. Taking advantage of the tissue-equivalent properties of this detector in conjunction with the use of a fast digital signal processor near real-time dosimetry was shown to be possible. The importance of accounting for a broad energy electron beam in bremsstrahlung production, and photon scattering and build-up, in correctly interpreting dosimetry results at long stand-off distances is highlighted by comparing real world experiments with ideal geometry simulations. Close agreement was found between absorbed energy calculations based upon spectroscopic techniques and calculations based upon signal integration, showing a ratio between 10 MeV absorbed dose to 12 MeV absorbed dose of 0.66 at a distance of 91.4 m from the accelerator. This is compared with an idealized model simulation with a monoenergetic electron beam and without scattering, where the ratio was 0.46.

  12. Micro-Fabricated Solid-State Radiation Detectors for Active Personal Dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Chen, Liang-Yu

    2007-01-01

    Active radiation dosimetry is important to human health and equipment functionality for space applications outside the protective environment of a space station or vehicle. This is especially true for long duration missions to the moon, where the lack of a magnetic field offers no protection from space radiation to those on extravehicular activities. In order to improve functionality, durability and reliability of radiation dosimeters for future NASA lunar missions, single crystal silicon carbide devices and scintillating fiber detectors are currently being investigated for applications in advanced extravehicular systems. For many years, NASA Glenn Research Center has led significant efforts in silicon carbide semiconductor technology research and instrumentation research for sensor applications under extreme conditions. This report summarizes the technical progress and accomplishments toward characterization of radiation-sensing components for the recommendation of their fitness for advanced dosimetry development.

  13. Impact of Track Structure Effects on Shielding and Dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Schimmerling, W.; Kim, M. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) consisting of nuclei of all the known elements with kinetic energies extending from tens to millions of MeV pose a significant health hazard to future deep space operations. Even half of the radiation exposures expected in ISS will result from GCR components. The biological actions of these radiations are known to depend on the details of the energy deposition (not just linear energy transfer, LET, but the lateral dispersion of energy deposition about the particle track). Energy deposits in tissues are dominated by the transfer of tens to hundreds of eV to the tissue's atomic electrons. In the case of low LET radiations, the collisions are separated by large dimensions compared to the size of important biomolecular structures. If such events are also separated in time, then the radiation adds little to the background of radicals occurring from ordinary metabolic processes and causes little or no biological injury. Hence, dose rate is a strong determinant of the action of low LET exposures. The GCR exposures are dominated by ions of high charge and energy (HZE) characterized by many collisions with atomic electrons over biomolecular dimensions, resulting in high radical- density events associated with a few isolated ion paths through the cell and minimal dose rate dependence at ordinary exposure levels. The HZE energy deposit declines quickly laterally and merges with the background radical density in the track periphery for which the exact lateral distribution of the energy deposit is the determinant of the biological injury. Although little data exists on human exposures from HZE radiations, limited studies in mice and mammalian cell cultures allow evaluation of the effects of track structure on shield attenuation properties and evaluation of implications for dosimetry. The most complete mammalian cell HZE exposure data sets have been modeled including the C3H10T1/2 survival and transformation data of Yang et al., the V79 survival and mutation data of various groups, and the Harderian gland tumor data of Alpen et al. Model results for the Harderian gland tumor data in comparison with data from Alpen et al. The Harderian target cell initiation cross section compares closely with the transformation cross section found for the C3H10T1/2 cell transformation data of Yang et al. The most notable feature of the cross sections are the multivalued cross sections for a given LET which implies the corresponding relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is dependent not only on the LET but also the ion type. This fact is at variance with the latest ICRP recommended quality factor which is a defined function of only the LET.

  14. On the Retirement of E.P. Goldfinch, Founder of Radiation Protection Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Joseph C.; Horowitz, Yigal S.

    2004-08-01

    This special issue of Radiation Protection Dosimetry commemorates the many years of service Eddie has dedicated to the international radiation protection community. Beginning with its first issue in 1981, Eddie led RPD to its current prominence with a guiding hand and Solomon-like wisdom, coupled with keen common sense which will be sorely missed. But, there is no doubt that the journal he created will continue to flourish in the foreseeable future.

  15. PREFACE: 7th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry (IC3DDose)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thwaites, David; Baldock, Clive

    2013-06-01

    IC3DDose 2013, the 7th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry held in Sydney, Australia from 4-8 November 2012, grew out of the DosGel series, which began as DosGel99, the 1st International Workshop on Radiation Therapy Gel Dosimetry in Lexington, Kentucky. Since 1999 subsequent DoSGel conferences were held in Brisbane, Australia (2001), Ghent, Belgium (2004), Sherbrooke, Canada (2006) and Crete, Greece (2008). In 2010 the conference was held on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina and underwent a name-change to IC3DDose. The aim of the first workshop was to bring together individuals, both researchers and users, with an interest in 3D radiation dosimetry techniques, with a mix of presentations from basic science to clinical applications, which has remained an objective for all of the meetings. One rationale of DosGel99 was stated as supporting the increasing clinical implementation of gel dosimetry, as the technique appeared, at that time, to be leaving the laboratories of gel dosimetry enthusiasts and entering clinical practice. Clearly by labelling the first workshop as the 1st, there was a vision of a continuing series, which has been fulfilled. On the other hand, the expectation of widespread clinical use of gel dosimetry has perhaps not been what was hoped for and anticipated. Nevertheless the rapidly increasing demand for advanced high-precision 3D radiotherapy technology and techniques has continued apace. The need for practical and accurate 3D dosimetry methods for development and quality assurance has only increased. By the 6th meeting, held in South Carolina in 2010, the Conference Scientific Committee recognised the wider developments in 3D systems and methods and decided to widen the scope, whilst keeping the same span from basic science to applications. This was signalled by a change of name from 'Dosgel' to 'IC3DDose', a name that has continued to this latest conference. The conference objectives were: to enhance the quality and accuracy of radiation therapy treatment through improved clinical dosimetry to investigate and understand the dosimetric challenges of modern radiation treatments to provide a forum to discuss the latest research and developments in 3D and advanced radiation dosimetry to energise and diversify dosimetry research and clinical practice by encouraging interaction and synergy between advanced, 3D and semi-3D dosimetry techniques We believe the conference program, with its excellent range of expert and specialist speakers, met these objectives. Thanks are due to all invited speakers for their participation, to the Local Organising Committee members for all their hard work in making the conference happen, particularly the small core administrative support group, and to the range of academic, organisation and commercial sponsors who generously supported the meeting. The Scientific Committee members are also thanked for reviewing the submitted manuscripts and for assisting in the editorial process. Finally, all who travelled to Sydney, Australia for the meeting are acknowledged for choosing to attend and contribute to making this a successful conference. Local Conference Organising Committee David Thwaites (Conference Convener) Clive Baldock Leanne Price Elizabeth Starkey May Whitaker Peter Greer Lois Holloway Phil Vial Robin Hill Conference Scientific Committee Sven Back (Sweden) Clive Baldock (Australia) Cheng-Shie Wuu (USA) Yves de Deene (Belgium) Simon Doran (UK) Geoffrey Ibbott (USA) Andrew Jirasek (Canada) Kevin Jordan (Canada) Martin Lepage (Canada) Mark Oldham (USA) Evangelos Pappas (Greece) John Schreiner (Canada) David Thwaites (Australia) David ThwaitesClive Baldock DirectorExecutive Dean Institute of Medical PhysicsFaculty of Science School of PhysicsMacquarie University University of SydneyNorth Ryde NSW 2006NSW 2109 AustraliaAustralia The PDF also contains the conference program.

  16. Investigation of thermal and temporal responses of ionization chambers in radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    AlMasri, Hussein; Funyu, Akira; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2012-07-01

    The ionization chamber is a primary dosimeter that is used in radiation dosimetry. Generally, the ion chamber response requires temperature/pressure correction according to the ideal gas law. However, this correction does not consider the thermal volume effect of chambers. The temporal and thermal volume effects of various chambers (CC01, CC13, NACP parallel-plate, PTW) with different wall and electrode materials have been studied in a water phantom. Measurements were done after heating the water with a suitable heating system, and chambers were submerged for a sufficient time to allow for temperature equilibrium. Temporal results show that all chambers equilibrate quickly in water. The equilibration time was between 3 and 5 min for all chambers. Thermal results show that all chambers expanded in response to heating except for the PTW, which contracted. This might be explained by the differences in the volumes of all chambers and also by the difference in wall material composition of PTW from the other chambers. It was found that the smallest chamber, CC01, showed the greatest expansion. The magnitude of the expansion was ~1, 0.8, and 0.9% for CC01, CC13, and parallel-plate chambers, respectively, in the temperature range of 295-320 K. The magnitude of the detected contraction was <0.3% for PTW in the same temperature range. For absolute dosimetry, it is necessary to make corrections for the ion chamber response, especially for small ion chambers like the CC01. Otherwise, room and water phantom temperatures should remain within a close range. PMID:22467281

  17. The Impact of Iterative Reconstruction on Computed Tomography Radiation Dosimetry: Evaluation in a Routine Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Moorin, Rachael E.; Gibson, David A. J.; Forsyth, Rene K.; Fox, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of introduction of iterative reconstruction as a mandated software upgrade on radiation dosimetry in routine clinical practice over a range of computed tomography examinations. Methods Random samples of scanning data were extracted from a centralised Picture Archiving Communication System pertaining to 10 commonly performed computed tomography examination types undertaken at two hospitals in Western Australia, before and after the introduction of iterative reconstruction. Changes in the mean dose length product and effective dose were evaluated along with estimations of associated changes to annual cancer incidence. Results We observed statistically significant reductions in the effective radiation dose for head computed tomography (22–27%) consistent with those reported in the literature. In contrast the reductions observed for non-contrast chest (37–47%); chest pulmonary embolism study (28%), chest/abdominal/pelvic study (16%) and thoracic spine (39%) computed tomography. Statistically significant reductions in radiation dose were not identified in angiographic computed tomography. Dose reductions translated to substantial lowering of the lifetime attributable risk, especially for younger females, and estimated numbers of incident cancers. Conclusion Reduction of CT dose is a priority Iterative reconstruction algorithms have the potential to significantly assist with dose reduction across a range of protocols. However, this reduction in dose is achieved via reductions in image noise. Fully realising the potential dose reduction of iterative reconstruction requires the adjustment of image factors and forgoing the noise reduction potential of the iterative algorithm. Our study has demonstrated a reduction in radiation dose for some scanning protocols, but not to the extent experimental studies had previously shown or in all protocols expected, raising questions about the extent to which iterative reconstruction achieves dose reduction in real world clinical practice. PMID:26381145

  18. Phosphor-based fiber optic microprobes for ionizing beam radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darafsheh, Arash; Liu, Haoyang; Najmr, Stan; Tenuto, Michael; Murray, Christopher B.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.

    2015-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and characterized a fiberoptic probe composed of terbium-based phosphors for ionizing radiation dosimetry. Fiber optic probes consisting of ~1 mm layer of TbF3 covering the tip embedded in tissue-mimicking phantoms were irradiated with electron beams produced by a medical linear accelerator. Optical spectra of irradiated tips were taken using a fiber spectrometer. The luminescence signal from the phosphors was spectrally separated from the ?erenkov radiation generated in the fiber. In order to obtain the percent depth dose curve, the resultant decomposed spectra corresponding to the emission from the phosphors were considered as a measure of the absorbed dose. The measured depth dose curves using our fiber probes are in agreement with measurements performed by an electron diode, indicating the feasibility of using such fiber probes for ionizing radiation dosimetry.

  19. Accurate patient dosimetry of kilovoltage cone-beam CT in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, George X.; Duggan, Dennis M.; Coffey, Charles W.

    2008-03-15

    The increased utilization of x-ray imaging in image-guided radiotherapy has dramatically improved the radiation treatment and the lives of cancer patients. Daily imaging procedures, such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), for patient setup may significantly increase the dose to the patient's normal tissues. This study investigates the dosimetry from a kilovoltage (kV) CBCT for real patient geometries. Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the kV beams from a Varian on-board imager integrated into the Trilogy accelerator. The Monte Carlo calculated results were benchmarked against measurements and good agreement was obtained. The authors developed a novel method to calibrate Monte Carlo simulated beams with measurements using an ionization chamber in which the air-kerma calibration factors are obtained from an Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory. The authors have introduced a new Monte Carlo calibration factor, f{sub MCcal}, which is determined from the calibration procedure. The accuracy of the new method was validated by experiment. When a Monte Carlo simulated beam has been calibrated, the simulated beam can be used to accurately predict absolute dose distributions in the irradiated media. Using this method the authors calculated dose distributions to patient anatomies from a typical CBCT acquisition for different treatment sites, such as head and neck, lung, and pelvis. Their results have shown that, from a typical head and neck CBCT, doses to soft tissues, such as eye, spinal cord, and brain can be up to 8, 6, and 5 cGy, respectively. The dose to the bone, due to the photoelectric effect, can be as much as 25 cGy, about three times the dose to the soft tissue. The study provides detailed information on the additional doses to the normal tissues of a patient from a typical kV CBCT acquisition. The methodology of the Monte Carlo beam calibration developed and introduced in this study allows the user to calculate both relative and absolute absorbed doses.

  20. Operation Upshot-Knothole. Project 29. 1. Comparison and evaluation of dosimetry methods applicable to gamma radiation, Nevada Proving Ground. Report for March-June 1953

    SciTech Connect

    Taplin, G.V.; Sigoloff, S.C.; Douglas, C.H.; Paglia, D.E.; Heller, C.J.

    1984-10-31

    The three major objectives and parts of this project were to compare and evaluate the accuracy and practicality of chemical vs film and other methods of gamma dosimetry for radiations encountered under bomb conditions at sites receiving (1) either prompt- or residual-gamma exposures or mixtures of both, (2) only residualgamma radiations, either neutron induced or from fission-product fallout, and (3) mixed neutron-gamma irradiation plus correlation with biological effects.

  1. Effect of recent changes in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on cancer mortality risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Preston, Dale L; Pierce, Donald A; Shimizu, Yukiko; Cullings, Harry M; Fujita, Shoichiro; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kodama, Kazunori

    2004-10-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has recently implemented a new dosimetry system, DS02, to replace the previous system, DS86. This paper assesses the effect of the change on risk estimates for radiation-related solid cancer and leukemia mortality. The changes in dose estimates were smaller than many had anticipated, with the primary systematic change being an increase of about 10% in gamma-ray estimates for both cities. In particular, an anticipated large increase of the neutron component in Hiroshima for low-dose survivors did not materialize. However, DS02 improves on DS86 in many details, including the specifics of the radiation released by the bombs and the effects of shielding by structures and terrain. The data used here extend the last reported follow-up for solid cancers by 3 years, with a total of 10,085 deaths, and extends the follow-up for leukemia by 10 years, with a total of 296 deaths. For both solid cancer and leukemia, estimated age-time patterns and sex difference are virtually unchanged by the dosimetry revision. The estimates of solid-cancer radiation risk per sievert and the curvilinear dose response for leukemia are both decreased by about 8% by the dosimetry revision, due to the increase in the gamma-ray dose estimates. The apparent shape of the dose response is virtually unchanged by the dosimetry revision, but for solid cancers, the additional 3 years of follow-up has some effect. In particular, there is for the first time a statistically significant upward curvature for solid cancer on the restricted dose range 0-2 Sv. However, the low-dose slope of a linear-quadratic fit to that dose range should probably not be relied on for risk estimation, since that is substantially smaller than the linear slopes on ranges 0-1 Sv, 0-0.5 Sv, and 0- 0.25 Sv. Although it was anticipated that the new dosimetry system might reduce some apparent dose overestimates for Nagasaki factory workers, this did not materialize, and factory workers have significantly lower risk estimates. Whether or not one makes allowance for this, there is no statistically significant city difference in the estimated cancer risk. PMID:15447045

  2. PREFACE: 8th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry (IC3DDose)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Lars E.; Bäck, S.; Ceberg, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    IC3DDose 2014, the 8th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry was held in Ystad, Sweden, from 4-7 September 2014. This grew out of the DosGel series, which began as DosGel99, the 1st International Workshop on Radiation Therapy Gel Dosimetry in Lexington, Kentucky. Since 1999 subsequent DoSGel conferences were held in Brisbane, Australia (2001), Ghent, Belgium (2004), Sherbrooke, Canada (2006) and Crete, Greece (2008). In 2010 the conference was held on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina and underwent a name-change to IC3DDose. The 7th and last meeting was held in Sydney, Australia from 4-8 November 2012. It is worth remembering that the conference series started at the very beginning of the intensity modulated radiotherapy era and that the dosimeters being developed then were, to some extent, ahead of the clinical need of radiotherapy. However, since then the technical developments in radiation therapy have been dramatic, with dynamic treatments, including tracking, gating and volumetric modulated arc therapy, widely introduced in the clinic with the need for 3D dosimetry thus endless. This was also reflected by the contributions at the meeting in Ystad. Accordingly the scope of the meeting has also broadened to IC3DDOSE - I See Three-Dimensional Dose. A multitude of dosimetry techniques and radiation detectors are now represented, all with the common denominator: three-dimensional or 3D. Additionally, quality assurance (QA) procedures and other aspects of clinical dosimetry are represented. The implementation of new dosimetric techniques in radiotherapy is a process that needs every kind of caution, carefulness and thorough validation. Therefore, the clinical needs, reformulated as the aims for IC3DDOSE - I See Three-Dimensional Dose, are: • Enhance the quality and accuracy of radiation therapy treatments through improved clinical dosimetry. • Investigate and understand the dosimetric challenges of modern radiation treatment techniques. • Provide a forum to discuss the latest research and developments in 3D and advanced radiation dosimetry. • Energize and diversify dosimetry research and clinical practice by encouraging interaction and synergy between advanced, 3D, and semi-3D dosimetry techniques. We commend these IC3Dose 2014 conference proceedings to you and strongly believe they include significant contributions to scientific progress in this field. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to everybody involved in making the conference possible, the Scientific committee for their work on the general planning, paper review and program formulation, the distinguished invited speakers for their contributions and the local organizing committee members for all their hard work on the practical preparation for the meeting. Lars E. Olsson, Sven Bäck and Sofie Ceberg Lund University and Skåne University Hospital, Sweden International Scientific Committee Sven Bäck, Sweden (chair) Clive Baldock, Australia Sam Beddar, USA Crister Ceberg, Sweden Yves de Deene, Belgium/Australia Simon Doran, UK Geoffrey Ibbott, USA Andrew Jirasek, Canada Kevin Jordan, Canada Martin Lepage, Canada Daniel Low, USA Mark Oldham, USA Tony Popescu, Canada John Schreiner, Canada Cheng-Shie Wuu, USA David Thwaites, Australia Local Organizing Committee Sofie Ceberg (chair) Lars E. Olsson (conference chair) Fredrik Nordstrom Anneli Edvardsson Anna Karlsson Hauer Anna Bäck

  3. Monte Carlo modeling in CT-based geometries: dosimetry for biological modeling experiments with particle beam radiation

    PubMed Central

    Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Dolney, Derek; Schaettler, Maximilian; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Mcdonough, James; Cengel, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    The space radiation environment imposes increased dangers of exposure to ionizing radiation, particularly during a solar particle event (SPE). These events consist primarily of low energy protons that produce a highly inhomogeneous dose distribution. Due to this inherent dose heterogeneity, experiments designed to investigate the radiobiological effects of SPE radiation present difficulties in evaluating and interpreting dose to sensitive organs. To address this challenge, we used the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation framework to develop dosimetry software that uses computed tomography (CT) images and provides radiation transport simulations incorporating all relevant physical interaction processes. We found that this simulation accurately predicts measured data in phantoms and can be applied to model dose in radiobiological experiments with animal models exposed to charged particle (electron and proton) beams. This study clearly demonstrates the value of Monte Carlo radiation transport methods for two critically interrelated uses: (i) determining the overall dose distribution and dose levels to specific organ systems for animal experiments with SPE-like radiation, and (ii) interpreting the effect of random and systematic variations in experimental variables (e.g. animal movement during long exposures) on the dose distributions and consequent biological effects from SPE-like radiation exposure. The software developed and validated in this study represents a critically important new tool that allows integration of computational and biological modeling for evaluating the biological outcomes of exposures to inhomogeneous SPE-like radiation dose distributions, and has potential applications for other environmental and therapeutic exposure simulations. PMID:24309720

  4. EBT GAFCHROMIC{sup TM} film dosimetry in compensator-based intensity modulated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vaezzadeh, Seyedali; Allahverdi, Mahmoud; Nedaie, Hasan A.; Ay, Mohammadreza; Shirazi, Alireza; Yarahmadi, Mehran

    2013-07-01

    The electron benefit transfer (EBT) GAFCHROMIC films possess a number of features making them appropriate for high-quality dosimetry in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Compensators to deliver IMRT are known to change the beam-energy spectrum as well as to produce scattered photons and to contaminate electrons; therefore, the accuracy and validity of EBT-film dosimetry in compensator-based IMRT should be investigated. Percentage-depth doses and lateral-beam profiles were measured using EBT films in perpendicular orientation with respect to 6 and 18 MV photon beam energies for: (1) different thicknesses of cerrobend slab (open, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 cm), field sizes (5×5, 10×10, and 20×20 cm{sup 2}), and measurement depths (D{sub max}, 5.0 and 10.0 cm); and (2) step-wedged compensator in a solid phantom. To verify results, same measurements were implemented using a 0.125 cm{sup 3} ionization chamber in a water phantom and also in Monte Carlo simulations using the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code. The mean energy of photons was increased due to beam hardening in comparison with open fields at both 6 and 18 MV energies. For a 20×20 cm{sup 2} field size of a 6 MV photon beam and a 6.0 cm thick block, the surface dose decreased by about 12% and percentage-depth doses increased up to 3% at 30.0 cm depth, due to the beam-hardening effect induced by the block. In contrast, at 18 MV, the surface dose increased by about 8% and depth dose reduced by 3% at 30.0 cm depth. The penumbral widths (80% to 20%) increase with block thickness, field size, and beam energy. The EBT film results were in good agreement with the ionization chamber dose profiles and Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code simulation behind the step-wedged compensator. Also, there was a good agreement between the EBT-film and the treatment-planning results on the anthropomorphic phantom. The EBT films can be accurately used as a 2D dosimeter for dose verification and quality assurance of compensator-based C-IMRT.

  5. An Absorbed-Dose/Dose-Rate Dependence for the Alanine-EPR Dosimetry System and Its Implications in High-Dose Ionizing Radiation Metrology

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, M. F.; Puhl, J. M.; Cooper, S. L.

    2008-01-01

    NIST developed the alanine dosimetry system in the early 1990s to replace radiochromic dye film dosimeters. Later in the decade the alanine system was firmly established as a transfer service for high-dose radiation dosimetry and an integral part of the internal calibration scheme supporting these services. Over the course of the last decade, routine monitoring of the system revealed a small but significant observation that, after examination, led to the characterization of a previously unknown absorbed-dose-dependent, dose-rate effect for the alanine system. Though the potential impact of this effect is anticipated to be extremely limited for NIST’s customer-based transfer dosimetry service, much greater implications may be realized for international measurement comparisons between National Measurement Institutes.

  6. Cerium-activated sol–gel silica glasses for radiation dosimetry in harsh environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hamzaoui, Hicham; Capoen, Bruno; Helou, Nissrine Al; Bouwmans, Géraud; Ouerdane, Youcef; Boukenter, Aziz; Girard, Sylvain; Marcandella, Claude; Duhamel, Olivier; Chadeyron, Geneviève; Mahiou, Rachid; Bouazaoui, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Cerium-doped silica glass has been prepared for ionizing radiation dosimetry applications, using the sol–gel route and densification under different atmospheres. In comparison with the glass densified under air atmosphere, the one obtained after sintering the xerogel under helium gas presents improved optical properties, with an enhancement of the photoluminescence quantum yield up to 33%, which is attributed to a higher Ce3+ ions concentration. Such a glassy rod has been jacketed in a quartz tube and then drawn at high temperature to a cane, which has been used as active material in a fibered remote x-ray radiation dosimeter. The sample exhibited a reversible linear radioluminescence intensity response versus the dose rate up to 30 Gy s‑1. These results confirm the potentialities of this material for in vivo or high rate dose remote dosimetry measurements.

  7. Small Radiation Beam Dosimetry for Radiosurgery of Trigeminal Neuralgia: One Case Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Garduno, O. A.; Larraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Suarez-Campos, J. J.; Celis, M. A.

    2008-08-11

    The use of small radiation beams for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) treatment requires high precision and accuracy in dose distribution calculations and delivery. Special attention must be kept on the type of detector to be used. In this work, the use of GafChromic EBT registered radiochromic and X-OMAT V2 radiographic films for small radiation beam characterization is reported. The dosimetric information provided by the films (total output factors, tissue maximum ratios and off axis ratios) is compared against measurements with a shielded solid state (diode) reference detector. The film dosimetry was used for dose distribution calculations for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery. Comparison of the isodose curves shows that the dosimetry produced with the X-OMAT radiographic film overestimates the dose distributions in the penumbra region.

  8. Small Radiation Beam Dosimetry for Radiosurgery of Trigeminal Neuralgia: One Case Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Garduño, O. A.; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, J. M.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martínez-Dávalos, A.; Moreno-Jiménez, S.; Suárez-Campos, J. J.; Celis, M. A.

    2008-08-01

    The use of small radiation beams for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) treatment requires high precision and accuracy in dose distribution calculations and delivery. Special attention must be kept on the type of detector to be used. In this work, the use of GafChromic EBT® radiochromic and X-OMAT V2 radiographic films for small radiation beam characterization is reported. The dosimetric information provided by the films (total output factors, tissue maximum ratios and off axis ratios) is compared against measurements with a shielded solid state (diode) reference detector. The film dosimetry was used for dose distribution calculations for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery. Comparison of the isodose curves shows that the dosimetry produced with the X-OMAT radiographic film overestimates the dose distributions in the penumbra region.

  9. BREN Tower: A Monument to the Material Culture of Radiation Dosimetry Research

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Edwards

    2008-05-30

    With a height of more than 1,500 feet, the BREN (Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada) Tower dominates the surrounding desert landscape of the Nevada Test Site. Associated with the nuclear research and atmospheric testing programs carried out during the 1950s and 1960s, the tower was a vital component in a series of experiments aimed at characterizing radiation fields from nuclear detonations. Research programs conducted at the tower provided the data for the baseline dosimetry studies crucial to determining the radiation dose rates received by the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Today, BREN Tower stands as a monument to early dosimetry research and one of the legacies of the Cold War.

  10. High resolution 3D dosimetry for microbeam radiation therapy using optical CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McErlean, C.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Adamovics, J.; Leach, M. O.; Doran, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Optical Computed Tomography (CT) is a promising technique for dosimetry of Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), providing high resolution 3D dose maps. Here different MRT irradiation geometries are visualised showing the potential of Optical CT as a tool for future MRT trials. The Peak-to-Valley dose ratio (PVDR) is calculated to be 7 at a depth of 3mm in the radiochromic dosimeter PRESAGE®. This is significantly lower than predicted values and possible reasons for this are discussed.

  11. Energy absorption buildup factors, exposure buildup factors and Kerma for optically stimulated luminescence materials and their tissue equivalence for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vishwanath P.; Badiger, N. M.

    2014-11-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) materials are sensitive dosimetric materials used for precise and accurate dose measurement for low-energy ionizing radiation. Low dose measurement capability with improved sensitivity makes these dosimeters very useful for diagnostic imaging, personnel monitoring and environmental radiation dosimetry. Gamma ray energy absorption buildup factors and exposure build factors were computed for OSL materials using the five-parameter Geometric Progression (G-P) fitting method in the energy range 0.015-15 MeV for penetration depths up to 40 mean free path. The computed energy absorption buildup factor and exposure buildup factor values were studied as a function of penetration depth and incident photon energy. Effective atomic numbers and Kerma relative to air of the selected OSL materials and tissue equivalence were computed and compared with that of water, PMMA and ICRU standard tissues. The buildup factors and kerma relative to air were found dependent upon effective atomic numbers. Buildup factors determined in the present work should be useful in radiation dosimetry, medical diagnostics and therapy, space dosimetry, accident dosimetry and personnel monitoring.

  12. Space radiation shielding analysis and dosimetry for the Space Shuttle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Beever, E. R.; Hardy, A. C.; Richmond, R. G.; Cash, B. L.

    1989-01-01

    Active and passive radiation dosimeters have been flown on every Space Shuttle mission to measure the naturally-occurring, background Van Allen and galactic cosmic radiation doses that astronauts and radiation-sensitive experiments and payloads receive. A review of the various models utilized at the NASA/Johnson Space Center, Radiation Analysis and Dosimetry is presented. An analytical shielding model of the Shuttle was developed as an engineering tool to aid in making premission radiation dose calculations and is discussed in detail. The anatomical man models are also discussed. A comparison between the onboard dosimeter measurements for the 24 Shuttle missions to date and the dose calculations using the radiation environment and shielding models is presented.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE RADIATION DOSES FOR THE TECHA RIVER DOSIMETRY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Shagina, N. B.

    2009-10-23

    In order to provide more accurate and precise estimates of individual dose (and thus more precise estimates of radiation risk) for the members of the ETRC, a new dosimetric calculation system, the Techa River Dosimetry System-2009 (TRDS-2009) has been prepared. The deterministic version of the improved dosimetry system TRDS-2009D was basically completed in April 2009. Recent developments in evaluation of dose-response models in light of uncertain dose have highlighted the importance of different types of uncertainties in the development of individual dose estimates. These include uncertain parameters that may be either shared or unshared within the dosimetric cohort, and also the nature of the type of uncertainty as aleatory or epistemic and either classical or Berkson. This report identifies the nature of the various input parameters and calculational methods incorporated in the Techa River Dosimetry System (based on the TRDS-2009D implementation), with the intention of preparing a stochastic version to estimate the uncertainties in the dose estimates. This report reviews the equations, databases, and input parameters, and then identifies the author’s interpretations of their general nature. It presents the approach selected so that the stochastic, Monte-Carlo, implementation of the dosimetry System - TRDS-2009MC - will provide useful information regarding the uncertainties of the doses.

  14. GENII: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 1, Conceptual representation

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). The purpose of this coupled system of computer codes is to analyze environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil. This is accomplished by calculating radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. The third volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the user who requires knowledge of code detail. It includes code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets, example hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. 72 refs., 15 figs., 34 tabs.

  15. Dosimetry associated with exposure to non-ionizing radiation: very low frequency to microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, A.W.

    1987-12-01

    The interpretation of the effects in biological systems exposed to electromagnetic (EM) fields requires knowledge of the internal fields and absorbed energy. The quantification of the specific absorption rate (SAR) is called dosimetry. The SAR given in units of watts per kilogram is a complex function of the source configuration, shape and size of the exposed subjects, orientation of the subject with respect to the source, and the frequency. The average and maximum SAR in the exposed subject may vary over many orders of magnitude for a given exposure level. In order to relate observed biological effects in exposed laboratory animals to safe exposure levels for man, both the fields within the environment and SAR within the exposed tissues must be determined. The environmental fields and the SAR can often be determined from EM theory, but in most cases one must rely on instrumentation such as field survey meters for quantifying the exposure fields and electric field probes, thermocouples, thermistors, fiber optic probes, thermography, and calorimetry for quantifying the SAR in the tissues or equivalent models. A combination of techniques, each valid for a particular model over a particular frequency range, have been used to determine average and peak SARs in humans and animals exposed to plane wave radiation. Though it has been considerably more difficult to quantify these quantities for near field and partial-body exposure conditions, progress is continually being made in this area.

  16. Three-dimensional dosimetry of small megavoltage radiation fields using radiochromic gels and optical CT scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babic, Steven; McNiven, Andrea; Battista, Jerry; Jordan, Kevin

    2009-04-01

    The dosimetry of small fields as used in stereotactic radiotherapy, radiosurgery and intensity-modulated radiation therapy can be challenging and inaccurate due to partial volume averaging effects and possible disruption of charged particle equilibrium. Consequently, there exists a need for an integrating, tissue equivalent dosimeter with high spatial resolution to avoid perturbing the radiation beam and artificially broadening the measured beam penumbra. In this work, radiochromic ferrous xylenol-orange (FX) and leuco crystal violet (LCV) micelle gels were used to measure relative dose factors (RDFs), percent depth dose profiles and relative lateral beam profiles of 6 MV x-ray pencil beams of diameter 28.1, 9.8 and 4.9 mm. The pencil beams were produced via stereotactic collimators mounted on a Varian 2100 EX linear accelerator. The gels were read using optical computed tomography (CT). Data sets were compared quantitatively with dosimetric measurements made with radiographic (Kodak EDR2) and radiochromic (GAFChromic® EBT) film, respectively. Using a fast cone-beam optical CT scanner (Vista™), corrections for diffusion in the FX gel data yielded RDFs that were comparable to those obtained by minimally diffusing LCV gels. Considering EBT film-measured RDF data as reference, cone-beam CT-scanned LCV gel data, corrected for scattered stray light, were found to be in agreement within 0.5% and -0.6% for the 9.8 and 4.9 mm diameter fields, respectively. The validity of the scattered stray light correction was confirmed by general agreement with RDF data obtained from the same LCV gel read out with a laser CT scanner that is less prone to the acceptance of scattered stray light. Percent depth dose profiles and lateral beam profiles were found to agree within experimental error for the FX gel (corrected for diffusion), LCV gel (corrected for scattered stray light), and EBT and EDR2 films. The results from this study reveal that a three-dimensional dosimetry method utilizing optical CT-scanned radiochromic gels allows for the acquisition of a self-consistent volumetric data set in a single exposure, with sufficient spatial resolution to accurately characterize small fields.

  17. Micrometer-resolved film dosimetry using a microscope in microbeam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bartzsch, Stefan Oelfke, Uwe; Lott, Johanna; Welsch, Katrin; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a still preclinical tumor therapy approach that uses arrays of a few tens of micrometer wide parallel beams separated by a few 100 μm. The production, measurement, and planning of such radiation fields are a challenge up to now. Here, the authors investigate the feasibility of radiochromic film dosimetry in combination with a microscopic readout as a tool to validate peak and valley doses in MRT, which is an important requirement for a future clinical application of the therapy. Methods: Gafchromic{sup ®} HD-810 and HD-V2 films are exposed to MRT fields at the biomedical beamline ID17 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and are afterward scanned with a microscope. The measured dose is compared with Monte Carlo calculations. Image analysis tools and film handling protocols are developed that allow accurate and reproducible dosimetry. The performance of HD-810 and HD-V2 films is compared and a detailed analysis of the resolution, noise, and energy dependence is carried out. Measurement uncertainties are identified and analyzed. Results: The dose was measured with a resolution of 5 × 1000 μm{sup 2} and an accuracy of 5% in the peak and between 10% and 15% in the valley region. As main causes for dosimetry uncertainties, statistical noise, film inhomogeneities, and calibration errors were identified. Calibration errors strongly increase at low doses and exceeded 3% for doses below 50 and 70 Gy for HD-V2 and HD-810 films, respectively. While the grain size of both film types is approximately 2 μm, the statistical noise in HD-V2 is much higher than in HD-810 films. However, HD-810 films show a higher energy dependence at low photon energies. Conclusions: Both film types are appropriate for dosimetry in MRT and the microscope is superior to the microdensitometer used before at the ESRF with respect to resolution and reproducibility. However, a very careful analysis of the image data is required. Dosimetry at low photon energies should be performed with great caution due to the energy sensitivity of the films. In this respect, HD-V2 films showed to have an advantage over HD-810 films. However, HD-810 films have a lower statistical noise level. When a higher resolution is required, e.g., for the dosimetry of pencil beam irradiations, noise may render HD-V2 films inapplicable.

  18. Comparison of high-dose dosimetry systems for radiation damage studies in collider detectors and accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coninckx, F.; Schönbacher, H.; Tavlet, M.; Paic, G.; Razem, D.

    1993-10-01

    Measurements of absorbed dose in accelerator tunnels around primary beam areas are carried out on a routine basis at CERN. Dosimetric surveillance of high-energy particle accelerators has a great importance for the assessment of the radiation induced damage to materials and components used in high-level radiation areas. Standard dosimeters used at CERN for this purpose are polymer-alanine dosimeters (PAD) and radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters (RPL). Ethanol-chlorobenzene dosimeters (ECB) for high-dose dosimetry, developed at the Ruder Boskovic Institute (RBI), have several interesting properties making their use in future multi-TeV colliders and detectors promising. These and RPL dosimeters were compared using the CERN alanine dosimetry as the reference system and 60Co gamma rays as the reference radiation. A very good agreement between the ECB and PAD was obtained for 60Co gamma irradiation whereas RPL overestimated the dose by about 15%. In mixed accelerator radiation fields the combination of the three dosimeters opens the possibility to estimate the total dose and the quality of the principal radiations contributing to the total radiation field.

  19. Advances in dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Guan, Hui; Dong, Yuanli; Xing, Ligang; Li, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarize the research progress about the dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis. Methods We performed a systematic literature review addressing radiation esophagitis in the treatment of lung cancer published between January 2009 and May 2015 in the PubMed full-text database index systems. Results Twenty-eight eligible documents were included in the final analysis. Many clinical factors were related to the risk of radiation esophagitis, such as elder patients, concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and the intense radiotherapy regimen (hyperfractionated radiotherapy or stereotactic body radiotherapy). The parameters including Dmax, Dmean, V20, V30, V50, and V55 may be valuable in predicting the occurrence of radiation esophagitis in patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Genetic variants in inflammation-related genes are also associated with radiation-induced toxicity. Conclusion Dosimetry and biological factors of radiation-induced esophagitis provide clinical information to decrease its occurrence and grade during radiotherapy. More prospective studies are warranted to confirm their prediction efficacy. PMID:26869804

  20. Computational dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Siebert, B.R.L.; Thomas, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a definition of the term ``Computational Dosimetry`` that is interpreted as the sub-discipline of computational physics which is devoted to radiation metrology. It is shown that computational dosimetry is more than a mere collection of computational methods. Computational simulations directed at basic understanding and modelling are important tools provided by computational dosimetry, while another very important application is the support that it can give to the design, optimization and analysis of experiments. However, the primary task of computational dosimetry is to reduce the variance in the determination of absorbed dose (and its related quantities), for example in the disciplines of radiological protection and radiation therapy. In this paper emphasis is given to the discussion of potential pitfalls in the applications of computational dosimetry and recommendations are given for their avoidance. The need for comparison of calculated and experimental data whenever possible is strongly stressed.

  1. A method for estimating occupational radiation dose to individuals, using weekly dosimetry data

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.J.; Ostrouchov, G.; Frome, E.L.; Kerr, G.D.

    1993-12-01

    Statistical analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to radiation have been based on recorded annual radiation doses. It is usually assumed that the annual dose values are known exactly, although it is generally recognized that the data contain uncertainty due to measurement error and bias. We propose the use of a probability distribution to describe an individual`s dose during a specific period of time. Statistical methods for estimating this dose distribution are developed. The methods take into account the ``measurement error`` that is produced by the dosimetry system, and the bias that was introduced by policies that lead to right censoring of small doses as zero. The method is applied to a sample of dose histories obtained from hard copy dosimetry records at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The result of this evaluation raises serious questions about the validity of the historical personnel dosimetry data that is currently being used in low-dose studies of nuclear industry workers. In particular, it appears that there was a systematic underestimation of doses for ORNL workers. This could result in biased estimates of dose-response coefficients and their standard errors.

  2. An EPR dosimetry method for rapid scanning of children following a radiation accident using deciduous teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, E.H.; Hayes, R.B.; Kenner, G.H.

    1999-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry may be applied to whole deciduous teeth of children. This makes it feasible to make direct measurement of absorbed gamma ray dose in the days and weeks following a nuclear accident, particularly if used in conjunction with a public awareness program. The technique reported here requires little sample preparation and has resulted in precision of approximately 30 mGy (1 {sigma}) for a deciduous incisor. Under conditions for rapid screening procedures, the methodology is estimated to provide 0.5 Gy accuracy. The largest error in the process is the determination of an appropriate background native signal for subtraction from the whole tooth spectrum. The native signal is superimposed on the radiation-induced signal, and the subtraction requires knowledge of a sample`s relative content of enamel and dentin along with their relative native signal intensities. Using a composite background standard, an equivalent absorbed dose of 70 {+-} 38 mGy (1 {sigma}) was determined. The lower detection limit of the technique was achieved by the elimination of anisotropic effects through rotation of the sample during measurement, together with subtraction of the standard native background signal and empty tube background spectra from the sample spectra.

  3. Space radiation dosimetry on US and Soviet manned missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.; Benton, E. V.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation measurements obtained on board U.S. and Soviet spacecraft are presented and discussed. A considerable amount of data has now been collected and analyzed from measurements with a variety of detector types in low-Earth orbit. The objectives of these measurements have been to investigate the dose and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra within the complex shielding of large spacecraft. The shielding modifies the external radiation (trapped protons, electrons, cosmic ray nuclei) which, in turn, is quite dependent on orbital parameters (altitude, inclination). For manned flights, these measurements provide a crew exposure record and a data base for future spacecraft design and flight planning. For the scientific community they provide useful information for planning and analyzing data from experiments with high sensitivity to radiation. In this paper, results of measurements by both passive and active detectors are described. High-LET spectra measurements were obtained by means of plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's) while thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) measured the dose.

  4. X-Tream: a novel dosimetry system for Synchrotron Microbeam Radiation Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petasecca, M.; Cullen, A.; Fuduli, I.; Espinoza, A.; Porumb, C.; Stanton, C.; Aldosari, A. H.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Requardt, H.; Bravin, A.; Perevertaylo, V.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Lerch, M. L. F.

    2012-07-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) is a radiation treatment technique under development for inoperable brain tumors. MRT is based on the use of a synchrotron generated X-ray beam with an extremely high dose rate ( ~ 20 kGy/sec), striated into an array of X-ray micro-blades. In order to advance to clinical trials, a real-time dosimeter with excellent spatial resolution must be developed for absolute dosimetry. The design of a real-time dosimeter for such a radiation scenario represents a significant challenge due to the high photon flux and vertically striated radiation field, leading to very steep lateral dose gradients. This article analyses the striated radiation field in the context of the requirements for temporal dosimetric measurements and presents the architecture of a new dosimetry system based on the use of silicon detectors and fast data acquisition electronic interface. The combined system demonstrates micrometer spatial resolution and microsecond real time readout with accurate sensitivity and linearity over five orders of magnitude of input signal. The system will therefore be suitable patient treatment plan verification and may also be expanded for in-vivo beam monitoring for patient safety during the treatment.

  5. Effective Management of FXG Gel Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olding, T.; Darko, J.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2010-11-01

    The details of a calibration basis for the Fricke-xylenol orange-gelatin (FXG) gel dosimeter combined with the fast, easily accessible readout tool of cone beam optical computed tomography (CT) are described in this report. With proper controls in place, the results from a test intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plan evaluation indicate that greater than 95% Low's gamma function agreement between plan and gel-measured dose using 3% dose and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criteria is achievable.

  6. Description of modular devices for the measurement of external dosimetry in radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Genicot, Jean Louis; Boogers, Eric; Van Iersel, Mark

    2015-04-01

    In 2002 the Group of Radiation Dosimetry and Calibration of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN) has developed an experimental device based on the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) working with Al2O3:C detectors (TLD-500 and Luxel) stimulated with an argon laser. A set of devices made from different modules have been developed to permit external dosimetry measurements with thermoluminescence (TL) and OSL techniques under different conditions. This study describes these measurement devices that can be made with these modules and some of the characteristics of the different systems. These devices present several advantages in terms of measurement possibilities: a small number of modules allow the use of different detection materials (Al2O3:C, BeO, quartz electronic components and tiles) and different measurement methods (TL, CW-OSL and pulsed OSL). Some applications are commented. PMID:25236335

  7. Construction of mouse phantoms from segmented CT scan data for radiation dosimetry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, D.; Harken, A. D.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Brenner, D. J.

    2015-05-01

    We present the complete construction methodology for an anatomically accurate mouse phantom made using materials which mimic the characteristics of tissue, lung, and bone for radiation dosimetry studies. Phantoms were constructed using 2 mm thick slices of tissue equivalent material which was precision machined to clear regions for insertion of lung and bone equivalent material where appropriate. Images obtained using a 3D computed tomography (CT) scan clearly indicate regions of tissue, lung, and bone that match their position within the original mouse CT scan. Additionally, radiographic films are used with the phantom to demonstrate dose mapping capabilities. The construction methodology presented here can be quickly and easily adapted to create a phantom of any specific small animal given a segmented CT scan of the animal. These physical phantoms are a useful tool to examine individual organ dose and dosimetry within mouse systems that are complicated by density inhomogeneity due to bone and lung regions.

  8. Automation of radiation dosimetry using PTW dosemeter and LabVIEW™

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, C.; Al-Frouh, K.; Anjak, O.

    2011-10-01

    Automation of UNIDOS "Dosemeter" using personal computer (PC) is discussed in this paper. In order to save time and eliminate human operation errors during the radiation dosimetry, suitable software, using LabVIEW™ graphical programming language, was written to automate and facilitate the processes of measurements, analysis and data storage. The software calculates the calibration factor of the ionization chamber in terms of air kerma or absorbed dose to water according to IAEA dosimetry protocols. It also has the ability to print a calibration certificate. The obtained results using this software are found to be more reliable and flexible than those obtained by manual methods previously employed. Using LabVIEW™ as a development tool is extremely convenient to make things easier when software modifications and improvements are needed.

  9. An investigation of PRESAGE® 3D dosimetry for IMRT and VMAT radiation therapy treatment verification

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jake; Juang, Titania; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize three formulations of PRESAGE® dosimeters (DEA-1, DEA-2, and DX) and to identify optimal readout timing and procedures for accurate in-house 3D dosimetry. The optimal formulation and procedure was then applied for the verification of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment technique. PRESAGE® formulations were studied for their temporal stability postirradiation, sensitivity, and linearity of dose response. Dosimeters were read out using a high-resolution optical-CT scanner. Small volumes of PRESAGE® were irradiated to investigate possible differences in sensitivity for large and small volumes (‘volume effect’). The optimal formulation and read-out technique was applied to the verification of two patient treatments: an IMRT plan and a VMAT plan. A gradual decrease in post-irradiation optical-density was observed in all formulations with DEA-1 exhibiting the best temporal stability with less than 4% variation between 2–22 h post-irradiation. A linear dose response at the 4 h time point was observed for all formulations with an R2 value >0.99. A large volume effect was observed for DEA-1 with sensitivity of the large dosimeter being ~63% less than the sensitivity of the cuvettes. For the IMRT and VMAT treatments, the 3D gamma passing rates for 3%/3 mm criteria using absolute measured dose were 99.6 and 94.5% for the IMRT and VMAT treatments, respectively. In summary, this work shows that accurate 3D dosimetry is possible with all three PRESAGE® formulations. The optimal imaging windows post-irradiation were 3–24 h, 2–6 h, and immediately for the DEA-1, DEA-2, and DX formulations, respectively. Because of the large volume effect, small volume cuvettes are not yet a reliable method for calibration of larger dosimeters to absolute dose. Finally, PRESAGE® is observed to be a useful method of 3D verification when careful consideration is given to the temporal stability and imaging protocols for the specific formulation used. PMID:25683902

  10. Analysis of the DS86 atomic bomb radiation dosimetry methods using data on severe epilation

    SciTech Connect

    Stram, D.O.; Mizuno, S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a reanalysis of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki data on severe epilation as an acute radiation effect using both the new DS86 and the old T65D dosimetries. The focus of the report is on several aspects of the data which have previously been examined by Jablon et al. The report examines the uniformity of epilation response across shielding category, across sex and age, and in terms of interactions between city, sex, age, and shielding category; it also investigates the apparent relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons in the DS86 dose compared with the T65D dose, using both within- and between-city information. In addition the report discusses evidence for nonlinearity in epilation response. The epilation response function exhibits nonlinearity in terms of both a marked increase in slope at about 0.75 Gy, and then, beginning at about 2.5 Gy, a leveling off and eventual decrease in response. The principal conclusions of the report are as follows. The use of the DS86 dosimetry rather than T65D increases the apparent RBE of neutrons compared with gamma dose from approximately 5 to 10. At these values of RBE the slope of the dose response, in a middle range from 0.75-2.5 Gy, is about 165% greater using DS86 than T65D. With respect to the interactions of sex, city, and shielding method, the size and significance of virtually all nonuniformities in epilation response seem using T65D are also evident with DS86. Additionally it seems difficult to find any evidence that DS86 is an improved predictor of epilation response over T65D. Finally, the fact that the nonlinearity in dose response and apparent actual downturn in epilation occurrence rate at the high end of dose is more striking with DS86 than with T65D is found to be due primarily to the common practice of truncating all T65D doses to 600 rad.

  11. An investigation of PRESAGE® 3D dosimetry for IMRT and VMAT radiation therapy treatment verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Jake; Juang, Titania; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize three formulations of PRESAGE® dosimeters (DEA-1, DEA-2, and DX) and to identify optimal readout timing and procedures for accurate in-house 3D dosimetry. The optimal formulation and procedure was then applied for the verification of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment technique. PRESAGE® formulations were studied for their temporal stability post-irradiation, sensitivity, and linearity of dose response. Dosimeters were read out using a high-resolution optical-CT scanner. Small volumes of PRESAGE® were irradiated to investigate possible differences in sensitivity for large and small volumes (‘volume effect’). The optimal formulation and read-out technique was applied to the verification of two patient treatments: an IMRT plan and a VMAT plan. A gradual decrease in post-irradiation optical-density was observed in all formulations with DEA-1 exhibiting the best temporal stability with less than 4% variation between 2-22 h post-irradiation. A linear dose response at the 4 h time point was observed for all formulations with an R2 value >0.99. A large volume effect was observed for DEA-1 with sensitivity of the large dosimeter being ~63% less than the sensitivity of the cuvettes. For the IMRT and VMAT treatments, the 3D gamma passing rates for 3%/3 mm criteria using absolute measured dose were 99.6 and 94.5% for the IMRT and VMAT treatments, respectively. In summary, this work shows that accurate 3D dosimetry is possible with all three PRESAGE® formulations. The optimal imaging windows post-irradiation were 3-24 h, 2-6 h, and immediately for the DEA-1, DEA-2, and DX formulations, respectively. Because of the large volume effect, small volume cuvettes are not yet a reliable method for calibration of larger dosimeters to absolute dose. Finally, PRESAGE® is observed to be a useful method of 3D verification when careful consideration is given to the temporal stability and imaging protocols for the specific formulation used.

  12. 1987 Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, Snowmass Village, CO, July 28-31, 1987, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Various papers on nuclear and space radiation effects are presented. The general topics addressed include: basic mechanisms of radiation effects, single-event phenomena, temperature and field effects, modeling and characterization of radiation effects, IC radiation effects and hardening, and EMP/SGEMP/IEMP phenomena. Also considered are: dosimetry/energy-dependent effects, sensors in and for radiation environments, spacecraft charging and space radiation effects, radiation effects and devices, radiation effects on isolation technologies, and hardness assurance and testing techniques.

  13. Dosimetry around metallic ports in tissue expanders in patients receiving postmastectomy radiation therapy: an ex vivo evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Moni, Janaki; Graves-Ditman, Maria; Cederna, Paul; Griffith, Kent; Krueger, Editha A.; Fraass, Benedick A.; Pierce, Lori J

    2004-03-31

    Postmastectomy breast reconstruction can be accomplished utilizing tissue expanders and implants. However, in patients who require postoperative radiotherapy, the complication rate with tissue expander/implant reconstruction can exceed 50%. One potential cause of this high complication rate may be the metallic port in the tissue expander producing altered dosimetry in the region of the metallic device. The purpose of this study was to quantify the radiation dose distribution in the vicinity of the metallic port and determine its potential contribution to this extremely high complication rate. The absolute dosimetric effect of the tissue expander's metallic port was quantified using film and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) studies with a single beam incident on a metallic port extracted from an expander. TLD measurements were performed at 11 reproducible positions on an intact expander irradiated with tangential fields. A computed tomography (CT)-based treatment plan without inhomogeneity corrections was used to derive expected doses for all TLD positions. Multiple irradiation experiments were performed for all TLD data. Confidence intervals for the dose at TLD sites with the metallic port in place were compared to the expected dose at the site without the metallic port. Film studies did not reveal a significant component of scatter around the metallic port. TLD studies of the extracted metallic port revealed highest doses within the casing of the metallic port and no consistent increased dose at the surface of the expander. No excess dose due to the metallic port in the expander was noted with the phantom TLD data. Based upon these results, it does not appear that the metallic port in tissue expanders significantly contributes to the high complication rate experienced in patients undergoing tissue expander breast reconstruction and receiving radiation therapy. Strategies designed to reduce the breast reconstruction complication rate in this clinical setting will need to focus on factors other than adjusting the dosimetry around the tissue expander metallic port.

  14. Experimental assessment of gold nanoparticle-mediated dose enhancement in radiation therapy beams using electron spin resonance dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, T.; Guidelli, E. J.; Gómez, J. A.; Baffa, O.; Nicolucci, P.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we aim to experimentally assess increments of dose due to nanoparticle-radiation interactions via electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry performed with a biological-equivalent sensitive material. We employed 2-Methyl-Alanine (2MA) in powder form to compose the radiation sensitive medium embedding gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) 5 nm in diameter. Dosimeters manufactured with 0.1% w/w of AuNPs or no nanoparticles were irradiated with clinically utilized 250 kVp orthovoltage or 6 MV linac x-rays in dosimetric conditions. Amplitude peak-to-peak (App) at the central ESR spectral line was used for dosimetry. Dose-response curves were obtained for samples with or without nanoparticles and each energy beam. Dose increments due to nanoparticles were analyzed in terms of absolute dose enhancements (DEs), calculated as App ratios for each dose/beam condition, or relative dose enhancement factors (DEFs) calculated as the slopes of the dose-response curves. Dose enhancements were observed to present an amplified behavior for small doses (between 0.1-0.5 Gy), with this effect being more prominent with the kV beam. For doses between 0.5-5 Gy, dose-independent trends were observed for both beams, stable around (2.1   ±   0.7) and (1.3   ±   0.4) for kV and MV beams, respectively. We found DEFs of (1.62   ±   0.04) or (1.27   ±   0.03) for the same beams. Additionally, we measured no interference between AuNPs and the ESR apparatus, including the excitation microwaves, the magnetic fields and the paramagnetic radicals. 2MA was demonstrated to be a feasible paramagnetic radiation-sensitive material for dosimetry in the presence of AuNPs, and ESR dosimetry a powerful experimental method for further verifications of increments in nanoparticle-mediated doses of biological interest. Ultimately, gold nanoparticles can cause significant and detectable dose enhancements in biological-like samples irradiated at both kilo or megavoltage beams.

  15. Experimental assessment of gold nanoparticle-mediated dose enhancement in radiation therapy beams using electron spin resonance dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, T; Guidelli, E J; Gómez, J A; Baffa, O; Nicolucci, P

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we aim to experimentally assess increments of dose due to nanoparticle-radiation interactions via electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry performed with a biological-equivalent sensitive material.We employed 2-Methyl-Alanine (2MA) in powder form to compose the radiation sensitive medium embedding gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) 5 nm in diameter. Dosimeters manufactured with 0.1% w/w of AuNPs or no nanoparticles were irradiated with clinically utilized 250 kVp orthovoltage or 6 MV linac x-rays in dosimetric conditions. Amplitude peak-to-peak (App) at the central ESR spectral line was used for dosimetry. Dose-response curves were obtained for samples with or without nanoparticles and each energy beam. Dose increments due to nanoparticles were analyzed in terms of absolute dose enhancements (DEs), calculated as App ratios for each dose/beam condition, or relative dose enhancement factors (DEFs) calculated as the slopes of the dose-response curves.Dose enhancements were observed to present an amplified behavior for small doses (between 0.1-0.5 Gy), with this effect being more prominent with the kV beam. For doses between 0.5-5 Gy, dose-independent trends were observed for both beams, stable around (2.1   ±   0.7) and (1.3   ±   0.4) for kV and MV beams, respectively. We found DEFs of (1.62   ±   0.04) or (1.27   ±   0.03) for the same beams. Additionally, we measured no interference between AuNPs and the ESR apparatus, including the excitation microwaves, the magnetic fields and the paramagnetic radicals.2MA was demonstrated to be a feasible paramagnetic radiation-sensitive material for dosimetry in the presence of AuNPs, and ESR dosimetry a powerful experimental method for further verifications of increments in nanoparticle-mediated doses of biological interest. Ultimately, gold nanoparticles can cause significant and detectable dose enhancements in biological-like samples irradiated at both kilo or megavoltage beams. PMID:25988912

  16. Genetic and molecular dosimetry of HZE radiation (7-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to determine the kinetics of production and to characterize the unique aspects of genetic and developmental lesion induced in animal cells by radiation present in the space environment. Special attention is given to heavy charged particles. The organism Caenorhabditis elegans, a simple nematode, is used as a model system for a coordinated set of ground-based and flight experiments.

  17. The radiation oncology workforce: A focus on medical dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Gregg F.; Mobile, Katherine; Yu, Yan

    2014-07-01

    The 2012 Radiation Oncology Workforce survey was conducted to assess the current state of the entire workforce, predict its future needs and concerns, and evaluate quality improvement and safety within the field. This article describes the dosimetrist segment results. The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Workforce Subcommittee, in conjunction with other specialty societies, conducted an online survey targeting all segments of the radiation oncology treatment team. The data from the dosimetrist respondents are presented in this article. Of the 2573 dosimetrists who were surveyed, 890 responded, which resulted in a 35% segment response rate. Most respondents were women (67%), whereas only a third were men (33%). More than half of the medical dosimetrists were older than 45 years (69.2%), whereas the 45 to 54 years age group represented the highest percentage of respondents (37%). Most medical dosimetrists stated that their workload was appropriate (52%), with respondents working a reported average of 41.7 ± 4 hours per week. Overall, 86% of medical dosimetrists indicated that they were satisfied with their career, and 69% were satisfied in their current position. Overall, 61% of respondents felt that there was an oversupply of medical dosimetrists in the field, 14% reported that supply and demand was balanced, and the remaining 25% felt that there was an undersupply. The medical dosimetrists' greatest concerns included documentation/paperwork (78%), uninsured patients (80%), and insufficient reimbursement rates (87%). This survey provided an insight into the dosimetrist perspective of the radiation oncology workforce. Though an overwhelming majority has conveyed satisfaction concerning their career, the study allowed a spotlight to be placed on the profession's current concerns, such as insufficient reimbursement rates and possible oversupply of dosimetrists within the field.

  18. Ultrasound Thermometry for Therapy-level Radiation Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Courtney

    2010-03-01

    Radiation oncology is the process of administering a specified dose of radiation to a patient currently receiving treatment for a form of cancer. In this process, it is vital to know the delivered dose for a given radiation beam to correctly treat a patient. The primary reference standard for absorbed dose is established using water calorimetry. The absorbed dose, typically of order 1 Gy (J/kg) at therapy levels, is realized by measuring sub-millikelvin temperature changes using a thermistor in a sensitive Wheatstone bridge. Ultrasound technology has been investigated as an alternative to thermistor measurements since the speed of sound propagation in water varies with temperature. With ultrasonic time-of-flight and highly sensitive phase detection techniques, temperature sensitivity comparable to that of the thermistor bridge has been achieved without introducing non-water materials into the test area. A single ultrasound transducer transmitting and receiving at 5.0 MHz throughout the length of the water phantom, and the phase change of the sound wave was used to determine temperature increase from an irradiative source at specified depths of the phantom. In this experiment, the exposure period was varied from 15s to 160s cyclically by modulating a heat lamp, and a profile of the measured temperature response as a function of the period was obtained using Fourier analysis. Due to the large temperature gradient in the water phantom, measurements are prone to convection which was indeed observed and will be discussed.

  19. A Novel Technique for Performing Space Based Radiation Dosimetry Using DNA-Results from GRaDEx-I and the Design of GRaDEx-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, Joe; Branly, R.; Theodorakis, C.; Bickham, J.; Swartz, C.; Friedfeld, R.; Ackerman, E.; Carruthers, C.; DiGirolamo, A.; Faranda, J.

    1999-01-01

    Because of the large amounts of cosmic radiation in the space environment relative to that on earth, the effects of radiation on the physiology of astronauts is of major concern. Doses of radiation which can cause acute or chronic biological effects are to be avoided, therefore determination of the amount of radiation exposure encountered during space flight and assessment of its impact on biological systems is critical. Quantifying the radiation dosage and damage to biological systems, especially to humans during repetitive high altitude flight and during long duration space flight is important for several reasons. Radiation can cause altered biosynthesis and long term genotoxicity resulting in cancer and birth defects etc. Radiation damage to biological systems depends in a complex way on incident radiation species and their energy spectra. Typically non-biological, i.e. film or electronic monitoring systems with narrow energy band sensitivity are used to perform dosimetry and then results are extrapolated to biological models. For this reason it may be desirable to perform radiation dosimetry by using biological molecules e.g. DNA or RNA strands as passive sensors. A lightweight genotoxicology experiment was constructed to determine the degree to which in vitro naked DNA extracted from tissues of a variety of vertebrate organisms is damaged by exposure to radiation in a space environment. The DNA is assayed by means of agarose gel electrophoresis to determine damage such as strand breakage caused by high momentum particles and photons, and base oxidation caused by free radicals. The length distribution of DNA fragments is directly correlated with the radiation dose. It is hoped that a low mass, low cost, passive biological system to determine dose response relationship (increase in strand breaks with increase in exposure) can be developed to perform radiation dosimetry in support of long duration space flight, and to predict negative effects on biological systems (e.g. astronauts and greenhouses) in space. The payload was flown in a 2.5 cubic foot Get Away Special (GAS) container through NASA's GAS program. It was subjected to the environment of the space shuttle cargo bay for the duration of the STS-91 mission (9 days). Results of the genotoxicology and radiation dosimetry experiment (GRaDEx-1) as well as the design of an improved follow on payload are presented.

  20. A Novel Technique for Performing Space Based Radiation Dosimetry Using DNA: Results from GRaDEx-I and the Design of GRaDEx-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, Joe; Branly, R.; Theodorakis, C.; Bickham, J.; Swartz, C.; Friedfeld, R.; Ackerman, E.; Carruthers, C.; DiGirolamo, A.; Faranda, J.; Howard, E.; Bruno, C.

    1999-01-01

    Because of the large amounts of cosmic radiation in the space environment relative to that on earth, the effects of radiation on the physiology of astronauts is of major concern. Doses of radiation which can cause acute or chronic biological effects are to be avoided, therefore determination of the amount of radiation exposure encountered during space flight and assessment of its impact on biological systems is critical. Quantifying the radiation dosage and damage to biological systems, especially to humans during repetitive high altitude flight and during long duration space flight is important for several reasons. Radiation can cause altered biosynthesis and long term genotoxicity resulting in cancer and birth defects, etc. Radiation damage to biological systems depends in a complex way on incident radiation species and their energy spectra. Typically non-biological, i.e. film or electronic monitoring systems with narrow energy band sensitivity are used to perform dosimetry and then results are extrapolated to biological models. For this reason it may be desirable to perform radiation dosimetry by using biological molecules e.g. DNA or RNA strands as passive sensors. A lightweight genotoxicology experiment was constructed to determine the degree to which in-vitro naked DNA extracted from tissues of a variety of vertebrate organisms is damaged by exposure to radiation in a space environment. The DNA is assayed by means of agarose gel electrophoresis to determine damage such as strand breakage caused by high momentum particles and photons, and base oxidation caused by free radicals. The length distribution of DNA fragments is directly correlated with the radiation dose. It is hoped that a low mass, low cost, passive biological system to determine dose-response relationship (increase in strand breaks with increase in exposure) can be developed to perform radiation dosimetry in support of long duration space flight, and to predict negative effects on biological systems (e.g. astronauts and greenhouses) in space. The payload was flown in a 2.5 cubic foot Get Away Special (GAS) container through NASA's GAS program. It was subjected to the environment of the space shuttle cargo bay for the duration of the STS-91 mission (9 days). Results of the genotoxicology and radiation dosimetry experiment (GRaDEx-I) as well as the design of an improved follow on payload are presented.

  1. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-08-29

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database.

  2. Biological effects of radiation accidents on humans. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the impact of radiation accidents on humans. Citations discuss exposure assessment, malfunction and misuse of radiation sources, dosimetry, radiation epidemiology, radiation-induced neoplasms, and nuclear facility licensing. Environmental and occupational exposures, case studies, nuclear fallout, and radiation effects on food chains are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Geometric correction for spherical ion chambers. [space radiation dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, G. S.; Costner, C. M.; Wilson, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The dose at the center and the average dose of a spherical ion chamber were calculated for various inner and outer radii for a radiation spectrum described by E raised to a negative exponent, where the exponent ranges from 2.5 to 7. When the ratio of the chamber's inner radius to the wall thickness is small, the dose at the center does not deviate significantly from the average dose. However, when the ratio equals 5, the center dose exceeds the average dose by about 100% for an exponent of 7, and by about 30% for an exponent of 2.5.

  4. Radiation dosimetry at the BNL Medical Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.; Reciniello, R.N.; Greenberg, D.D.; Hu, J.P.

    1998-11-01

    The Medical Research Reactor, BMRR, at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, BNL, is a three megawatt, 3 MW, heterogeneous, tank-type, light water cooled and moderated, graphite reflected reactor, which was designed for biomedical studies, and became operational in 1959. It provides thermal and epithermal neutron beams suitable for research studies such as radiation therapy of various types of tumors. At the present time, the major program at BMRR is Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT. Modifications have been made to the BMRR to significantly increase the available epithermal neutron flux density to a patient in clinical trials of BNCT. The data indicate that the flux density and dose rate are concentrated in the center of the beam, the patient absorbs neutrons rather than gamma radiation and as noted previously even with the increasing flux values, gamma-ray dose received by the attending personnel has remained minimal. Flux densities in the center of the thermal port and epithermal port beams have been characterized with an agreement between the measurements and the calculations.

  5. Gene Expression-Based Dosimetry by Dose and Time in Mice Following Acute Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, James D.; Divine, George W.; Grever, William E.; Thomas, Robert A.; Joiner, Michael C.; Smolinski, Joseph M.; Auner, Gregory W.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and reliable methods for performing biological dosimetry are of paramount importance in the event of a large-scale nuclear event. Traditional dosimetry approaches lack the requisite rapid assessment capability, ease of use, portability and low cost, which are factors needed for triaging a large number of victims. Here we describe the results of experiments in which mice were acutely exposed to 60Co gamma rays at doses of 0 (control) to 10 Gy. Blood was obtained from irradiated mice 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days after exposure. mRNA expression levels of 106 selected genes were obtained by reverse-transcription real time PCR. Stepwise regression of dose received against individual gene transcript expression levels provided optimal dosimetry at each time point. The results indicate that only 4–7 different gene transcripts are needed to explain ≥ 0.69 of the variance (R2), and that receiver-operator characteristics, a measure of sensitivity and specificity, of ≥ 0.93 for these statistical models were achieved at each time point. These models provide an excellent description of the relationship between the actual and predicted doses up to 6 Gy. At doses of 8 and 10 Gy there appears to be saturation of the radiation-response signals with a corresponding diminution of accuracy. These results suggest that similar analyses in humans may be advantageous for use in a field-portable device designed to assess exposures in mass casualty situations. PMID:24358280

  6. Alanine-EPR as a transfer standard dosimetry system for low energy X radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, H. J.; da Silva, E. J.; Mehta, K.; de Barros, V. S.; Asfora, V. K.; Guzzo, P. L.; Parker, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the use of alanine-EPR as a transfer standard dosimetry system for low energy X radiation, such as that in RS-2400, which operates in the range from 25 to 150 kV and 2 to 45 mA. Two types of alanine dosimeters were investigated. One is a commercial alanine pellets from Aérial-Centre de Ressources Technologiques, France and one was prepared in our laboratory (LMRI-DEN/UFPE). The EPR spectra of the irradiated dosimeters were recorded in the Nuclear Energy Department of UFPE, using a Bruker EMX10 EPR spectrometer operating in the X-band. The alanine-EPR dosimetry system was calibrated in the range of 20-220 Gy in this X-ray field, against an ionization chamber calibrated at the relevant X-ray energy with traceability to PTB. The results showed that both alanine dosimeters presented a linear dose response the same sensitivity, when the EPR signal was normalized to alanine mass. The total uncertainty in the measured dose was estimated to be about 3%. The results indicate that it is possible to use the alanine-EPR dosimetry system for validation of a low-energy X ray irradiator, such as RS-2400.

  7. The new radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1988-08-18

    Extensive work has been conducted over the past few years to reassess all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This work has included reviews of the bomb yields, source terms, air transport of neutrons and gamma rays, neutron-induced radioactivity and thermoluminescence in exposed materials, shielding of individuals by buildings, and calculations of organ doses. The results of these theoretical and experimental activities have led to the development of a new dosimetry system which is designated as the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). New DS86 estimates of tissue kerma in air and absorbed dose to fifteen organs are available for 94,787 survivors who were either outside and unshielded, outside and shielded by houses, or inside and shielded by houses (64,408 in Hiroshima and 30,379 in Nagasaki). The organ doses are calculated on an age-dependent basis as follows: infants (less than 3 years old at the time of bombing, ATB), children (3 to 12 years old ATB), and adults (more than 12 years old ATB). Work in progress includes the extension of the DS86 system to Nagasaki survivors who were shielded either by terrain or by factory buildings.

  8. Gene expression-based dosimetry by dose and time in mice following acute radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Tucker, James D; Divine, George W; Grever, William E; Thomas, Robert A; Joiner, Michael C; Smolinski, Joseph M; Auner, Gregory W

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and reliable methods for performing biological dosimetry are of paramount importance in the event of a large-scale nuclear event. Traditional dosimetry approaches lack the requisite rapid assessment capability, ease of use, portability and low cost, which are factors needed for triaging a large number of victims. Here we describe the results of experiments in which mice were acutely exposed to (60)Co gamma rays at doses of 0 (control) to 10 Gy. Blood was obtained from irradiated mice 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days after exposure. mRNA expression levels of 106 selected genes were obtained by reverse-transcription real time PCR. Stepwise regression of dose received against individual gene transcript expression levels provided optimal dosimetry at each time point. The results indicate that only 4-7 different gene transcripts are needed to explain ≥ 0.69 of the variance (R(2)), and that receiver-operator characteristics, a measure of sensitivity and specificity, of ≥ 0.93 for these statistical models were achieved at each time point. These models provide an excellent description of the relationship between the actual and predicted doses up to 6 Gy. At doses of 8 and 10 Gy there appears to be saturation of the radiation-response signals with a corresponding diminution of accuracy. These results suggest that similar analyses in humans may be advantageous for use in a field-portable device designed to assess exposures in mass casualty situations. PMID:24358280

  9. 2.3.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, A.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Subsection '2.3.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations' of the Section '2.3 Biological Effects' of the Chapter '2 Radiation and Biological Effects' with the comtents:

  10. Ion-kill dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  11. Evaluation of 133Xe radiation exposure dosimetry for workers in nuclear medicine laboratories.

    PubMed

    Piltingsrud, H V; Gels, G L

    1982-06-01

    Evaluation of past studies of 133Xe dosimetry and nuclear medicine laboratory air concentrations of 133Xe indicates that significant levels of 133Xe may exist in routine operational environments of a nuclear medicine laboratory. This leads to the question of whether present health physics radiation control methods are adequate to keep occupational personnel exposures within acceptable levels. It would appear that if personnel dosimeters (film and TLD badges) respond properly to the radiation of 133Xe, normal health physics control procedures are probably adequate. If they do not respond adequately, personnel exposures may exceed recommended levels and special instrumentation or administrative procedures are called for. Therefore, the first step in studying potential problems in the subject area is to evaluate the response of a variety of personnel radiation dosimeters to 133Xe. This paper describes the methods and materials used to expose personnel dosimeters to known amounts of 133Xe radiations in an exposure chamber constructed at the BRH Nuclear Medicine Laboratory. Also presented are calculated values for Dose Equivalents (D.E.) in a phantom from external radiation resulting from immersion in clouds having a constant concentration of 133Xe but varying cloud radii. This implies the relative importance of the beta and the X + gamma radiation responses of the personnel dosimeters under various exposure conditions. Results of this study indicate that none of the dosimeter systems evaluated provide adequate performance for use as a primary indicator of the D.E. resulting from 133Xe radiations for a worker in a nuclear medicine laboratory, and that personnel dosimetry considerations in 133Xe-containing atmospheres are very dependent on the radii of the 133Xe clouds. PMID:7107291

  12. Radiochromic film dosimetry of HDR {sup 192}Ir source radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    Aldelaijan, Saad; Mohammed, Huriyyah; Tomic, Nada; Liang Liheng; DeBlois, Francois; Sarfehnia, Arman; Abdel-Rahman, Wamied; Seuntjens, Jan; Devic, Slobodan

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: A radiochromic film based dosimetry system for high dose rate (HDR) Iridium-192 brachytherapy source was described. A comparison between calibration curves established in water and Solid Water was provided. Methods: Pieces of EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film were irradiated in both water and Solid Water with HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source in a dose range from 0 to 50 Gy. Responses of EBT-2 GAFCHROMIC film were compared for irradiations in water and Solid Water by scaling the dose between media through Monte Carlo calculated conversion factor for both setups. To decrease uncertainty in dose delivery due to positioning of the film piece with respect to the radiation source, traceable calibration irradiations were performed in a parallel-opposed beam setup. Results: The EBT-2 GAFCHROMIC film based dosimetry system described in this work can provide an overall one-sigma dose uncertainty of 4.12% for doses above 1 Gy. The ratio of dose delivered to the sensitive layer of the film in water to the dose delivered to the sensitive layer of the film in Solid Water was calculated using Monte Carlo simulations to be 0.9941 {+-} 0.0007. Conclusions: A radiochromic film based dosimetry system using only the green color channel of a flatbed document scanner showed superior precision if used alone in a dose range that extends up to 50 Gy, which greatly decreases the complexity of work. In addition, Solid Water material was shown to be a viable alternative to water in performing radiochromic film based dosimetry with HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources.

  13. Review on the characteristics of radiation detectors for dosimetry and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seco, Joao; Clasie, Ben; Partridge, Mike

    2014-10-01

    The enormous advances in the understanding of human anatomy, physiology and pathology in recent decades have led to ever-improving methods of disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Many of these achievements have been enabled, at least in part, by advances in ionizing radiation detectors. Radiology has been transformed by the implementation of multi-slice CT and digital x-ray imaging systems, with silver halide films now largely obsolete for many applications. Nuclear medicine has benefited from more sensitive, faster and higher-resolution detectors delivering ever-higher SPECT and PET image quality. PET/MR systems have been enabled by the development of gamma ray detectors that can operate in high magnetic fields. These huge advances in imaging have enabled equally impressive steps forward in radiotherapy delivery accuracy, with 4DCT, PET and MRI routinely used in treatment planning and online image guidance provided by cone-beam CT. The challenge of ensuring safe, accurate and precise delivery of highly complex radiation fields has also both driven and benefited from advances in radiation detectors. Detector systems have been developed for the measurement of electron, intensity-modulated and modulated arc x-ray, proton and ion beams, and around brachytherapy sources based on a very wide range of technologies. The types of measurement performed are equally wide, encompassing commissioning and quality assurance, reference dosimetry, in vivo dosimetry and personal and environmental monitoring. In this article, we briefly introduce the general physical characteristics and properties that are commonly used to describe the behaviour and performance of both discrete and imaging detectors. The physical principles of operation of calorimeters; ionization and charge detectors; semiconductor, luminescent, scintillating and chemical detectors; and radiochromic and radiographic films are then reviewed and their principle applications discussed. Finally, a general discussion of the application of detectors for x-ray nuclear medicine and ion beam imaging and dosimetry is presented.

  14. Dosimetry protocol for the forthcoming clinical trials in synchrotron stereotactic radiation therapy (SSRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Prezado, Y.; Vautrin, M.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; and others

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: An adequate dosimetry protocol for synchrotron radiation and the specific features of the ID17 Biomedical Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility are essential for the preparation of the forthcoming clinical trials in the synchrotron stereotactic radiation therapy (SSRT). The main aim of this work is the definition of a suitable protocol based on standards of dose absorbed to water. It must allow measuring the absolute dose with an uncertainty within the recommended limits for patient treatment of 2%-5%. Methods: Absolute dosimetry is performed with a thimble ionization chamber (PTW semiflex 31002) whose center is positioned at 2 g cm{sup -2} equivalent depth in water. Since the available synchrotron beam at the ESRF Biomedical Beamline has a maximum height of 3 mm, a scanning method was employed to mimic a uniform exposition of the ionization chamber. The scanning method has been shown to be equivalent to a broad beam irradiation. Different correction factors have been assessed by using Monte Carlo simulations. Results: The absolute dose absorbed to water at 80 keV was measured in reference conditions with a 2% global uncertainty, within the recommended limits. The dose rate was determined to be in the range between 14 and 18 Gy/min, that is to say, a factor two to three times higher than the 6 Gy/min achievable in RapidArc or VMAT machines. The dose absorbed to water was also measured in a RW3 solid water phantom. This phantom is suitable for quality assurance purposes since less than 2% average difference with respect to the water phantom measurements was found. In addition, output factors were assessed for different field sizes. Conclusions: A dosimetry protocol adequate for the specific features of the SSRT technique has been developed. This protocol allows measuring the absolute dose absorbed to water with an accuracy of 2%. It is therefore satisfactory for patient treatment.

  15. Ce{sup 3+}-doped fibers for remote radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Vedda, A.; Chiodini, N.; Di Martino, D.; Fasoli, M.; Keffer, S.; Lauria, A.; Martini, M.; Moretti, F.; Spinolo, G.; Nikl, M.; Solovieva, N.; Brambilla, G.

    2004-12-27

    A radioluminescent (RL) dosimetric system, based on a SiO{sub 2} optical fiber with the core doped by Ce{sup 3+} ions as luminescent activators has been investigated. Structural and optical properties of the luminescent fiber have been studied by Raman, refractive index, RL and scintillation time decay measurements, and compared to those obtained on bulk material. The RL response of a composite fiber made of a short portion of active Ce-doped fiber coupled to a long commercial one has been investigated by x-ray irradiation. A linear RL intensity response has been found in the dose rate interval 6x10{sup -3}-40 mGy/s together with a good radiation hardness, suggesting possible application in low-dose monitoring.

  16. Initial Results from the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) Balloon Flight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) high-altitude balloon mission was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico USA on 25 September, 2015. Over 15 hours of science data were obtained from four dosimeters at altitudes above about 25 km. The four dosimeters flown on the RaD-X science payload are a Hawk version 3.0 Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) manufactured by Far West Technologies, a Liulin dosimeter-spectrometer produced by the Solar Research and Technology Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, a total ionizing dose detector manufactured by Teledyne Microelectronic Technologies, and the RaySure detector provided by the University of Surrey.

  17. Radiation dosimetry in digital breast tomosynthesis: report of AAPM Tomosynthesis Subcommittee Task Group 223.

    PubMed

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Sabol, John M; Berglund, Johan; Bolch, Wesley E; Brateman, Libby; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Flynn, Michael; Geiser, William; Goodsitt, Mitchell; Jones, A Kyle; Lo, Joseph Y; Maidment, Andrew D A; Nishino, Kazuyoshi; Nosratieh, Anita; Ren, Baorui; Segars, W Paul; Von Tiedemann, Miriam

    2014-09-01

    The radiation dose involved in any medical imaging modality that uses ionizing radiation needs to be well understood by the medical physics and clinical community. This is especially true of screening modalities. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently been introduced into the clinic and is being used for screening for breast cancer in the general population. Therefore, it is important that the medical physics community have the required information to be able to understand, estimate, and communicate the radiation dose levels involved in breast tomosynthesis imaging. For this purpose, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 223 on Dosimetry in Tomosynthesis Imaging has prepared this report that discusses dosimetry in breast imaging in general, and describes a methodology and provides the data necessary to estimate mean breast glandular dose from a tomosynthesis acquisition. In an effort to maximize familiarity with the procedures and data provided in this Report, the methodology to perform the dose estimation in DBT is based as much as possible on that used in mammography dose estimation. PMID:25186375

  18. Radiation dosimetry in digital breast tomosynthesis: Report of AAPM Tomosynthesis Subcommittee Task Group 223

    SciTech Connect

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Sabol, John M.; Berglund, Johan; Bolch, Wesley E.; Brateman, Libby; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Goodsitt, Mitchell; Flynn, Michael; Geiser, William; Kyle Jones, A.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Paul Segars, W.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Nishino, Kazuyoshi; Nosratieh, Anita; and others

    2014-09-15

    The radiation dose involved in any medical imaging modality that uses ionizing radiation needs to be well understood by the medical physics and clinical community. This is especially true of screening modalities. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently been introduced into the clinic and is being used for screening for breast cancer in the general population. Therefore, it is important that the medical physics community have the required information to be able to understand, estimate, and communicate the radiation dose levels involved in breast tomosynthesis imaging. For this purpose, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 223 on Dosimetry in Tomosynthesis Imaging has prepared this report that discusses dosimetry in breast imaging in general, and describes a methodology and provides the data necessary to estimate mean breast glandular dose from a tomosynthesis acquisition. In an effort to maximize familiarity with the procedures and data provided in this Report, the methodology to perform the dose estimation in DBT is based as much as possible on that used in mammography dose estimation.

  19. Hanford Technical Basis for Multiple Dosimetry Effective Dose Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Robin L.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-08-01

    The current method at Hanford for dealing with the results from multiple dosimeters worn during non-uniform irradiation is to use a compartmentalization method to calculate the effective dose (E). The method, as documented in the current version of Section 6.9.3 in the 'Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual, PNL-MA-842,' is based on the compartmentalization method presented in the 1997 ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard, 'Criteria for Performing Multiple Dosimetry.' With the adoption of the ICRP 60 methodology in the 2007 revision to 10 CFR 835 came changes that have a direct affect on the compartmentalization method described in the 1997 ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard, and, thus, to the method used at Hanford. The ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard committee is in the process of updating the standard, but the changes to the standard have not yet been approved. And, the drafts of the revision of the standard tend to align more with ICRP 60 than with the changes specified in the 2007 revision to 10 CFR 835. Therefore, a revised method for calculating effective dose from non-uniform external irradiation using a compartmental method was developed using the tissue weighting factors and remainder organs specified in 10 CFR 835 (2007).

  20. Application of the planar-scanning technique to the near-field dosimetry of millimeter-wave radiators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianxun; Lu, Hongmin; Deng, Jun

    2015-02-01

    The planar-scanning technique was applied to the experimental measurement of the electric field and power flux density (PFD) in the exposure area close to the millimeter-wave (MMW) radiator. In the near-field region, the field and PFD were calculated from the plane-wave spectrum of the field sampled on a scan plane far from the radiator. The measurement resolution was improved by reducing the spatial interval between the field samples to a fraction of half the wavelength and implementing multiple iterations of the fast Fourier transform. With the reference to the results from the numerical calculation, an experimental evaluation of the planar-scanning measurement was made for a 50 GHz radiator. Placing the probe 1 to 3 wavelengths from the aperture of the radiator, the direct measurement gave the near-field data with significant differences from the numerical results. The planar-scanning measurement placed the probe 9 wavelengths away from the aperture and effectively reduced the maximum and averaged differences in the near-field data by 70.6% and 65.5%, respectively. Applied to the dosimetry of an open-ended waveguide and a choke ring antenna for 60 GHz exposure, the technique proved useful to the measurement of the PFD in the near-field exposure area of MMW radiators. PMID:25644219

  1. Physical and biological dosimetries of Cf-252 radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, H.; Wada, M.; Dokiya, T.; Hashimoto, S.

    1986-01-01

    With a greater availability of Cf-252, more extensive use of Cf-252 as a fast neutron source has become possible. Recently Cf-252 sources containing 300 ..mu..g have become available in a size identical to 1 Ci of Cs-137 and with the use of remotely controlled afterloading apparatus, safe therapy with little exposure to the therapist is now possible. Radiation leakage from the Cf-252 apparatus and from the treatment room was measured with REM-meter and it was possible to reduce the leakage from the treatment room to less than 1 mrem/h (gamma rays) and 0.5 mrem/h (neutrons). Measurement of fast neutrons was made with a twin chamber composed of a tissue equivalent ionization chamber and a carbon ionization chamber. The neutron dose in air and the absorbed dose in tissue equivalent water tank were measured, which showed that in air, neutrons were 70% and photons were 30% of dose. In water, greater distances from the source, neutrons attenuate and gamma rays increase in dose. The results of studies on the skin reaction of mice and sperm cleavage delay time of sea urchins indicated that the RBE ranges from 1.5 to 3.0 using the authors' high dose rate system. Neutrons are remarkably affected by a time factor. With the use of high dose rate sources, the dose rate has become higher, but the overall time has been extended through dose fractionation and the authors have considered it advisable to employ an RBE of 3-4 in their studies.

  2. Radiation dosimetry for intrasynovial administration of Sm-153 particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Brodack, J.W.; Deutsch, K.F.

    1994-05-01

    Radiation therapy to the synovial joint using Sm-153 is a promising area of inquiry. A particulate agent under development at Mallinckrodt Medical, Inc. was evaluated in eleven rabbits (six normals and five with antigen-induced-arthritis (AIA)). Radioactivity was assayed in eight tissues plus blood and urine, after injection of activity into the stifle, with samples gathered as late as 6 days. The tissue data, as fraction of injection of activity into the stifle, with samples gathered as late as 6 days. The tissue data, as fraction of injected activity per organ, were used directly for human dose estimates, without extrapolation or kinetic analysis, with the maximum fraction of injected activity at any time for an organ assigned to that organ with a clearance half time equal to the physical half life of Sm-153. Urine clearance averaged 0.022% in AIA rabbits and 0.105% in normals. This activity was assumed to be uniformly distributed within the body and cleared through the urinary bladder with a 0.6 day biological half time. Activity in the knee joint, which was 99.4% in AIA rabbits and 99.2% in normals, was modeled as being within a 5 cm section of the leg bone in the adult male phantom, as implemented in the ALGAMP computer codes of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 10{sup 5} histories were run for 12 discrete photon energies; absorbed dose to organs of the body from activity in the knee joint for Sm-153 were obtained by interpolation. Only the testes, urinary bladder wall, and lower large intestine received enough hits to produce statistically reliable dose estimates. The doses to these organs were between 1.5 x 10{sup -5} and 2.3 x 10{sup -4} mGy/MBq injected into the knee joint from Sm-153 are also provided, based on results generated by an electron transport computer code, and using a model similar to that employed by Johnson and Yanch.

  3. Measurements of the radiation dose to LDEF by means of passive dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, J. B.; Imamoto, S. S.

    1992-01-01

    A very simple experiment was fielded on LDEF to measure the energetic radiation dose by means of passive dosimetry. It consisted of two identical packets of 16 LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) arranged in planar arrays. One array was placed on the leading edge of the spacecraft, the other on the trailing edge. These arrays were installed in opaque packets of 1 mil Al foil and Kapton tape mounted behind an Al plate of 30 mils thickness. The nominal energy thresholds were 14 MeV for protons and 650 keV for electrons. In addition to the flight arrays, two control arrays were prepared which were kept with the flight arrays as long as possible during experimental integration and then stored in the lab. The flight and control arrays were read out alternating in groups of four; it was found that the control dose was negligible. The flight and control detectors were exposed to a 55 MeV proton beam in order to provide a recalibration of the detectors. It was found that the post-flight and pre-flight calibrations were in good agreement. A comparison of results with the prediction shows that the measured dose was a factor of 4 to 5 low. It is possible that there was in-flight annealing of the TLDs as a result of the long mission and perhaps temperature excursions of the sensors. The East-West effect was larger than expected. The ratio of 1.65 is approximately what was expected for the protons alone. Electrons should reduce the dose ratio since electrons add equally to the leading and trailing edge dose. A possible explanation is that the electron dose was negligible compared to the proton dose.

  4. Optically stimulated luminescence in fluoride phosphate glass optical fibres for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnins, Christopher A. G.; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Spooner, Nigel A.; Monro, Tanya M.

    2012-02-01

    A novel approach to distributed radiation dosimetry is presented. Our approach uses optically stimulated luminescence in optical fibres to detect ionising radiation. This system is unique in that the optically stimulated luminescence mechanism occurs within the optical fibre itself, which then guides the resulting optical signal to a detector. Fluoride phosphate glass was identified as a suitable material, showing a strong optically stimulated luminescence response to ionising radiation. Optical fibres were fabricated from this glass and radiation-detection measurements performed. Radiation exposure was performed with a 90Sr/90Y beta source, optical stimulation was provided by a 532nm, 25mW diode laser. The luminescence signal was isolated using two Corning 7-59 filters and detected with an EMI 9635 QA photomultiplier tube. Detection of optically stimulated luminescence produced within the optical fibres is demonstrated. A relationship is shown between the intensity of the luminescence signal, and the applied radiation exposure. The optical fibres are shown to have a consistent response after repeated radiation exposures of 1380.5 +/- 37.2 counts/sec. This demonstrates the capacity of the fibres to provide continuous and real-time detection.

  5. [New dosimetry system based on the thermoluminescence method for evaluation of ionizing radiation doses to workers of the health centers].

    PubMed

    Urban, Paweł; Skubacz, Krystian

    2015-01-01

    In different areas of industry, science and in the greater extend medicine, plenty of devices intended for production of ionizing radiation or containing sources of such radiation found application. Such situation causes the necessity to control such kind of hazards. Currently, the most popular technique for detection of ionizing radiation is the method based on the thermoluminescence phenomena. Within the frame of this work, a new Panasonic's dosimetry system based on thermoluminescence dosimeters, intended for assessment of doses in mixed radiation fields of various energies is presented. In addition, the measured dosimetry quantities and problems connected with monitoring of radiation hazard in mixed fields (commonly present in medical sector) are characterized. In orderto verify measurement capabilities of the new system the irradiations of dosimeters with ionizing radiation of different energies have been done. PMID:26094337

  6. Recent developments of optically stimulated luminescence materials and techniques for radiation dosimetry and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, A. S.; Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    During the last 10 years, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has emerged as a formidable competitor not only to thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) but also to several other dosimetry systems. Though a large number of materials have been synthesized and studied for OSL, Al2O3:C continues to dominate the dosimetric applications. Re-investigations of OSL in BeOindicate that this material might provide an alternative to Al2O3:C. Study of OSL of electronic components of mobile phones and ID cards appears to have opened up a feasibility of dosimetry and dose reconstruction using the electronic components of gadgets of everyday use in the events of unforeseen situations of radiological accidents, including the event of a dirty bomb by terrorist groups. Among the newly reported materials, a very recent development of NaMgF3:Eu2+ appears fascinating because of its high OSL sensitivity and tolerable tissue equivalence. In clinical dosimetry, an OSL as a passive dosimeter could do all that TLD can do, much faster with a better or at least the same efficiency; and in addition, it provides a possibility of repeated readout unlike TLD, in which all the dose information is lost in a single readout. Of late, OSL has also emerged as a practical real-time dosimeter for in vivo measurements in radiation therapy (for both external beams and brachytherapy) and in various diagnostic radiological examinations including mammography and CT dosimetry. For in vivo measurements, a probe of Al2O3:C of size of a fraction of a millimeter provides the information on both the dose rate and the total dose from the readout of radioluminescence and OSL signals respectively, from the same probe. The availability of OSL dosimeters in various sizes and shapes and their performance characteristics as compared to established dosimeters such as plastic scintillation dosimeters, diode detectors, MOSFET detectors, radiochromic films, etc., shows that OSL may soon become the first choice for point dose measurements in clinical applications. A brief review of the recent developments is presented. PMID:19893698

  7. Radiation Dosimetry Study in Dental Enamel of Human Tooth Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Tania; Romanyukha, Alex; Pass, Barry; Misra, Prabhakar

    2009-07-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry of tooth enamel is used for individual dose reconstruction following radiation accidents. The purpose of this study is to develop a rapid, minimally invasive technique of obtaining a sample of dental enamel small enough to not disturb the structure and functionality of a tooth and to improve the sensitivity of the spectral signals using X-band (9.4 GHz) and Q-band (34 GHz) EPR technique. In this study EPR measurements in X-band were performed on 100 mg isotropic powdered enamel samples and Q-band was performed on 4 mg, 1×1×3 mm enamel biopsy samples. All samples were obtained from discarded teeth collected during normal dental treatment. To study the variation of the Radiation-Induced Signal (RIS) at different orientations in the applied magnetic field, samples were placed in the resonance cavity for Q-band EPR. X-band EPR measurements were performed on 100 mg isotropic powdered enamel samples. In X-band spectra, the RIS is distinct from the "native" radiation-independent signal only for doses >0.5 Gy. Q-band, however, resolves the RIS and "native" signals and improves sensitivity by a factor of 20, enabling measurements in 2-4 mg tooth enamel samples, as compared to 100 mg for X-band. The estimated lower limit of Q-band dose measurement is 0.5 Gy. Q-band EPR enamel dosimetry results in greater sensitivity and smaller sample size through enhanced spectral resolution. Thus, this can be a valuable technique for population triage in the event of detonation of a radiation dispersal device ("dirty" bomb) or other radiation event with massive casualties. Further, the small 4 mg samples can be obtained by a minimally-invasive biopsy technique.

  8. Radiation dosimetry from breast milk excretion of radioiodine and pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, W.R.; Di Simone, R.N.; Keen, R.L.

    1986-10-01

    Measurements were made of the activity in samples of breast milk obtained from a patient with postpartum thyroiditis following administration of (/sup 123/I)sodium iodide and subsequently (99mTc)pertechnetate 24 hr later. Both /sup 123/I and 99mTc were found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 5.8 hr and 2.8 hr, respectively. Less than 10% of the activity was incorporated into breast-milk protein. After administration of (/sup 123/I)sodium iodide breast feeding should be discontinued for 24-36 hr to reduce the absorbed dose to the child's thyroid.

  9. Radiation dosimetry measurements during U.S. Space Shuttle missions with the RME-III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golightly, M. J.; Hardy, K.; Quam, W.

    1994-01-01

    Time-resolved radiation dosimetry measurements inside the crew compartment have been made during recent Shuttle missions with the U.S. Air Force Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III), a portable battery-powered four-channel tissue equivalent proportional counter. Results from the first six missions are presented and discussed. Half of the missions had orbital inclinations of 28.5 degrees with the remainder at inclinations of 57 degrees or greater; altitudes ranged from 300 to 600 km. The determined dose equivalent rates ranged from 70 to 5300 microSv/day. The RME-III measurements are in good agreement with other dosimetry measurements made aboard the vehicles. Measurements indicate that medium- and high-LET particles contribute less than 2% of the particle fluence for all missions, but up to 50% of the dose equivalent, depending on the spacecraft's altitude and orbital inclination. Isocontours of fluence, dose and dose equivalent rate have been developed from measurements made during the STS-28 mission. The drift rate of the South Atlantic Anomaly is estimated to be 0.49 degrees W/yr and 0.12 degrees N/yr. The calculated trapped proton and GCR dose for the STS-28 mission was significantly lower than the measured values.

  10. Boundary Electron and Beta Dosimetry-Quantification of the Effects of Dissimilar Media on Absorbed Dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Josane C.

    1991-02-01

    This work quantifies the changes effected in electron absorbed dose to a soft-tissue equivalent medium when part of this medium is replaced by a material that is not soft -tissue equivalent. That is, heterogeneous dosimetry is addressed. Radionuclides which emit beta particles are the electron sources of primary interest. They are used in brachytherapy and in nuclear medicine: for example, beta -ray applicators made with strontium-90 are employed in certain ophthalmic treatments and iodine-131 is used to test thyroid function. More recent medical procedures under development and which involve beta radionuclides include radioimmunotherapy and radiation synovectomy; the first is a cancer modality and the second deals with the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, the possibility of skin surface contamination exists whenever there is handling of radioactive material. Determination of absorbed doses in the examples of the preceding paragraph requires considering boundaries of interfaces. Whilst the Monte Carlo method can be applied to boundary calculations, for routine work such as in clinical situations, or in other circumstances where doses need to be determined quickly, analytical dosimetry would be invaluable. Unfortunately, few analytical methods for boundary beta dosimetry exist. Furthermore, the accuracy of results from both Monte Carlo and analytical methods has to be assessed. Although restricted to one radionuclide, phosphorus -32, the experimental data obtained in this work serve several purposes, one of which is to provide standards against which calculated results can be tested. The experimental data also contribute to the relatively sparse set of published boundary dosimetry data. At the same time, they may be useful in developing analytical boundary dosimetry methodology. The first application of the experimental data is demonstrated. Results from two Monte Carlo codes and two analytical methods, which were developed elsewhere, are compared with experimental data. Monte Carlo results compare satisfactory with experimental results for the boundaries considered. The agreement with experimental results for air interfaces is of particular interest because of discrepancies reported previously by another investigator who used data obtained from a different experimental technique. Results from one of the analytical methods differ significantly from the experimental data obtained here. The second analytical method provided data which approximate experimental results to within 30%. This is encouraging but it remains to be determined whether this method performs equally well for other source energies.

  11. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59 th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible radiation exposures to beta particles and to determine their significance plus the extent of the various residual radiation areas at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Other suggestions for future residual radiation studies are included in this workshop report. PMID:26509626

  12. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of radioiodinated hypericin as a cancer therapeutic.

    PubMed

    Cona, Marlein Miranda; Koole, Michel; Feng, Yuanbo; Liu, Yewei; Verbruggen, Alfons; Oyen, Raymond; Ni, Yicheng

    2014-03-01

    Iodine-131‑labeled monoiodohypericin (131I‑Hyp) is a necrosis avid compound used as a complementary anticancer agent. Herein, the biodistribution in rats with re-perfused partial liver infarction (RPLI) was used to estimate its human internal radiation dosimetry. Iodine-123‑labeled monoiodohypericin (123I-Hyp) as a safer surrogate for 131I-Hyp was prepared with iodogen as oxidant. Determination of radiochemical yield and purification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To control aggregation, the formulation was macroscopically and microscopically examined. Biodistribution of 123I-Hyp was studied in RPLI rats (n=18) at 4, 24 and 48 h post-injection. Tissue gamma counting (TGC), autoradiography and histology were performed. Dosimetry of 131I-Hyp in hepatic necrosis and in normal human organs was estimated using biodistribution data of 123I-Hyp, the Organ Level Internal Dose Assessment/Exponential Modeling (OLINDA/EXM®), a sphere model and male and female phantoms. A radiochemical yield of 95% was achieved in labeling of 123I-Hyp with a radiochemical purity of 99% after HPLC purification. In the Hyp added formulation, no macroscopic but minimal microscopic aggregation was observed. By TGC, selective accumulation in hepatic infarction and low uptake in viable liver of 123I‑Hyp/Hyp were detected, as confirmed by autoradiography and histology. Significantly higher doses of 131I-Hyp were delivered to necrotic (276‑93,600 mGy/MBq) than to viable (4.2 mGy/MBq) liver (P<0.05). In normal organs, 123I‑Hyp was eliminated within 24 h except for relatively high levels in the lungs and thyroid. Hepatobiliary elimination was a major pathway of 123I-Hyp causing high activity in the intestines. For both genders, dosimetry showed the longest residence time of 131I-Hyp in the remainder, followed by the lungs, intestines and thyroid. The highest absorbed radiation dose was seen in necrotic tissues and the shortest residence times and lowest absorbed radiation dose were found in the brain. 131I-Hyp selectively delivers higher radiation dose to necrosis compared with the rest of the body. Among normal organs, thyroids, lungs and intestines receive considerable radiation dose, which deserves cautious attention in developing this anticancer approach. PMID:24366374

  13. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates To Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Bobby, R.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Zhou, Yue; Tokarskaya, Zoya, B.; Zhuntova, Galina, V.; Osovets, Sergey, V.; Syrchikov, Victor, A.; Pesternikova, Valentina, S.; Belyaeva, Zinaida, D.; Khokhryakov, Valentin, F; Vasilenko, Evgeny, K.; Okladnikova, Nadezhda D.

    2004-12-10

    This report is comprised of a main section and two appendices (A, B) that contain two submitted papers developed with either partial or full support from this Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) project. The project has focused on applying basic and applied scientific methods to improve both the characterization of plutonium (Pu) aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract and the understanding of the associated health risks. Our modeling research has ranged from stochastic effects in cells (mutations, neoplastic transformation, apoptosis) to cancer induction in humans. Special attention has been given to cancer risk for low-dose exposure to alpha radiation from inhaled Pu-239. We have also conducted modeling research related to high-dose exposure to alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes and the associated risks for deterministic effects. This research is especially timely given new concerns related to possible nuclear terrorist incidents in the United States and elsewhere. The methodology presented in one of our submitted papers (Appendix A) for characterizing the risk of radiation deterministic effects associated with exposure to large internal (alpha, beta, and gamma) and external (gamma) doses is being used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to develop guidance for managing radiological incidents (e.g., dirty bomb incidents) and by Sandia National Laboratories to assess the health consequences of the use of dirty bombs by terrorists. Our dosimetry modeling research has focused largely on weapons-grade Pu (WG Pu), which is comprised of several different isotopes that are primarily alpha emitters. We have mainly focused on the insoluble dioxide form. Our mechanistic modeling research has lead to a revised model for low-dose, radiation induced, neoplastic transformation (an early step in cancer induction). The revised model is called NEOTRANS3, and has facilitated evaluating the expected shape of the dose-response relationship for the relative risk (RR) for lung cancer induction in humans [Mayak Plutonium Facility Production Association (PA) workers in Russia] after combined exposure to alpha and gamma radiations. This is based on the published observation that RR for neoplastic transformation has a similar dependence on dose as for the RR of cancer induction. Based on our mechanistic model, low dose-rate exposure to low or moderate doses of gamma radiation is predicted to possibly protect adult humans from cancer occurrence, including cancer induction by low dose alpha-radiation and cigarette smoke. The gamma irradiation associated protection arises through gamma rays hitting many of the millions of normal cells in the irradiated tissue, which turns on intra- and intercellular signaling that leads to cleansing of tissue of neoplastically transformed and other genomically compromised cells (e.g., mutants, micronucleated cells, etc.) via a selective apoptosis mechanism. Using available cohort study data for Mayak PA workers chronically exposed to gamma rays in combination with alpha radiation from inhaled Pu-239, we can explain the hormetic-type, dose-response relationship for the RR for radiation-induced lung cancer seen in the workers as well as in tuberculosis patients receiving chronic X-ray irradiation. Based on currently available information, the linear nonthreshold (LNT) model appears to apply to chronic exposure to alpha radiation alone but, in adults, not to exposure to gamma radiation or combinations of gamma and alpha radiations. We found that linear extrapolation from high-dose data to low doses can introduce phantom (nonexistent) excess cancer risk in the case of combined exposure of adults to gamma and alpha radiations or exposure only to gamma rays. Because remediation of radionuclide-contaminated U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is driven by risk-based considerations, and risks are assumed to increase according to the LNT model, it is important to understand under what circumstances risk would not be expected to increase linearly as dose increases. Results presented in this report facilitate making such assessments. We have developed and published a novel theoretical approach to characterizing the variability among different individuals associated with inhaled plutonium dioxide (PuO2). The approach is probabilistic and explains the large variability observed in association with worker exposure to 238PuO2 at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the March 16, 2000, accident in the Plutonium Processing and Handling Facility [Technical Area (TA) -55] involving a glovebox leak.

  14. REVIEW: Nuclear medicine dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabin, Michael

    2006-07-01

    A brief overview is provided of the history of the development of internal dose methods for use in nuclear medicine. Basic methods of internal dosimetry and the systems that have been developed for use in nuclear medicine are described. The development of the MIRD system and the International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium series is outlined. The evolution of models and tools for calculating dose estimates is reviewed. Current efforts in developing more patient-specific methods, particularly for use in therapy calculations, development of small scale and microdosimetry techniques, and of relating internal radiation doses to observed biological effects are described and evaluated.

  15. Dosimetry of densely ionising radiation with three LiF phosphors for space applications.

    PubMed

    Bilski, P

    2006-01-01

    A new method of thermoluminescence dosimetry of densely ionising radiation based on the ratio of different efficiency-LET functions of three thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) has been developed. The applied TLD types are: MTS-7 ((7)LiF:Mg,Ti), MCP-7 ((7)LiF:Mg,Cu,P) and MTT-7 (a newly developed (7)LiF:Mg,Ti with modified activator composition and increased response to high-LET radiation). The tests of this method, performed with high-energy ion beams at the HIMAC accelerator within the ICCHIBAN project, proved that good agreement with the true dose values may be achieved even in very complicated mixed fields. The proposed method will be applied for analysis of several thousand TLDs used for the determination of organ doses in an anthropomorphic phantom orbiting outside the International Space Station within the MATROSHKA experiment. PMID:16731689

  16. Germanium-doped optical fiber for real-time radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizanur Rahman, A. K. M.; Zubair, H. T.; Begum, Mahfuza; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Yusoff, Z.; Ung, N. M.; Mat-Sharif, K. A.; Wan Abdullah, W. S.; Amouzad Mahdiraji, Ghafour; Amin, Y. M.; Maah, M. J.; Bradley, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past three decades growing demand for individualized in vivo dosimetry and subsequent dose verification has led to the pursuit of newer, novel and economically feasible materials for dosimeters. These materials are to facilitate features such as real-time sensing and fast readouts. In this paper, purposely composed SiO2:Ge optical fiber is presented as a suitable candidate for dosimetry. The optical fiber is meant to take advantage of the RL/OSL technique, providing both online remote monitoring of dose rate, and fast readouts for absorbed dose. A laboratory-assembled OSL reader has been used to acquire the RL/OSL response to LINAC irradiations (6 MV photons). The notable RL characteristics observed include constant level of luminescence for the same dose rate (providing better consistency compared to TLD-500), and linearity of response in the radiotherapy range (1 Gy/min to 6 Gy/min). The OSL curve was found to conform to an exponential decay characteristic (illumination with low LED source). The Ge doping resulted in an effective atomic number, Zeff, of 13.5 (within the bone equivalent range). The SiO2:Ge optical fiber sensor, with efficient coupling, can be a viable solution for in vivo dosimetry, besides a broad range of applications.

  17. Setup verification and in vivo dosimetry during intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Soriani, Antonella; Landoni, Valeria; Marzi, Simona; Iaccarino, Giuseppe; Saracino, Biancamaria; Arcangeli, Giorgio; Benassi, Marcello

    2007-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to check the setup and dose delivered to the patients during intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy (IORT) for prostate cancer. Twenty eight patients underwent IORT after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer by means of a dedicated mobile accelerator, Novac7 (by Hitesys, SpA, Italy). A 9 MeV electron beam at high dose per pulse was used. Eighteen patients received IORT at escalating doses of 16, 18, and 20 Gy at 85% isodose, six patients for each dose level. Further, ten patients received 20 Gy at 85% isodose. The electron applicator position was checked in all cases by means of two orthogonal images obtained with brilliance intensifier. Target and organ at risk doses were measured in vivo by a MOSFETs dosimetry system. MOSFETs and microMOSFET dosimeters were inserted into sterile catheters and directly positioned into the rectal lumen, for ten patients, and into the bladder to urethra anastomosis, in the last 14 cases. Verification at 0 deg. led to very few adjustments of setup while verifications at 90 deg. often suggested to bring the applicator closer to the target. In vivo dosimetry showed an absorbed dose into the rectum wall {<=}1% of the total dose. The average dose value inside the anastomosis, for the 12 patients analyzed, was 23.7 Gy with a standard deviation of {+-}7.6%, when the prescription was 20 Gy at 85% isodose. Using a C-arm mobile image intensifier, it is possible to assess if the positioning is correct and safe. Radio-opaque clips and liquid were necessary to obtain good visible images. In vivo MOSFETs dosimetry is feasible and reliable. A satisfactory agreement between measured and expected doses was found.

  18. Radiation dosimetry data management using VAX C, FMS, RMS, DCL, and Oracle

    SciTech Connect

    Voltin, M.J. Jr.; Martin, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    The External Dosimetry Badge System was developed to support the radiation protection program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The radiation protection program is responsible for monitoring external radiation exposures to approximately 7,500 Laboratory employees, visitors and contractors each month. External radiation exposure is measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The system is used to control the assembly and distribution of TLD badges. The system monitors badge return and disassembly at the end of each month, and analyzes the TLDs to determine individual radiation exposure levels. Results are reported and stored in a database designed to maintain detailed individual exposure records. The system maintains a complete history of annual summaries for external exposures. The system is user-friendly with user prompts, menus, and extensive help functions. The completely menu-driven system uses VAX C, VAX Forms Management System, VMS Record Management Services, VMS Digital Command Language, and the Oracle Relational Database Management System. Design and development issues faced, and methods and techniques used in developing the system will be described. Topics discussed include consistent user interface design approaches, considerations for using VAX/VMS programming tools versus Oracle development tools to develop and implement the application, and overall system benefits. 3 refs.

  19. Effect of contrast agent administration on consequences of dosimetry and biology in radiotherapy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Ching-Jung; Yang, Pei-Ying; Chao, Tsi-Chian; Tu, Shu-Ju

    2015-06-01

    In the treatment planning of radiation therapy, patients may be administrated with contrast media in CT scanning to assist physicians for accurate delineation of the target or organs. However, contrast media are not used in patients during the treatment delivery. In particular, contrast media contain materials with high atomic numbers and dosimetric variations may occur between scenarios where contrast media are present in treatment planning and absent in treatment delivery. In this study we evaluate the effect of contrast media on the dosimetry and biological consequence. An analytical phantom based on AAPM TG 119 and five sets of CT images from clinical patients are included. Different techniques of treatment planning are considered, including 1-field AP, 2-field AP+PA, 4-field box, 7-field IMRT, and RapidArc. RapidArc is a recent technique of volumetric modulated arc therapy and is used in our study of contrast media in clinical scenarios. The effect of RapidArc on dosimetry and biological consequence for administration of contrast media in radiotherapy is not discussed previously in literature. It is shown that dose difference is reduced as the number of external beams is increased, suggesting RapidArc may be favored to be used in the treatment planning enhanced by contrast media. Linear trend lines are fitted for assessment of percent dose differences in the planning target volume versus concentrations of contrast media between plans where contrast media are present and absent, respectively.

  20. 1989 IEEE Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 26th, Marco Island, FL, July 25-29, 1989, Proceedings. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ochoa, Agustin, Jr. (editor)

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on nuclear science are presented. The general topics addressed include: basic mechanics of radiation effects, dosimetry and energy-dependent effects, hardness assurance and testing techniques, spacecraft charging and space radiation effects, EMP/SGEMP/IEMP phenomena, device radiation effects and hardening, radiation effects on isolation technologies, IC radiation effects and hardening, and single-event phenomena.

  1. Calibration and conformational studies in radiation dosimetry using polymer gel dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, Richard L.

    2001-11-01

    The polymer gel dosimeter made its debut in the early 90's and dosimetrists and medical physicists alike were excited about the prospect of using the gel dosimeter as an effective and useful three-dimensional modeling tool. Research in the early to mid-90's brought on better polymer mixtures with greater sensitivity and shelf life. Nearly a decade later, these gels are not being used in a clinical setting. The question is, why are they not being routinely used in the clinical setting for modeling and quality assurance of radiation instrumentation and computer generated treatment plans? There are three main reasons and we address these reasons directly in this investigation. First, every promising experiment performed on these gels were done in ideal conditions. The problem ideal experimentation is that the conditions in a clinical setting are unpredictable hence these idealized protocols could not be easily used in practice. Second, attempts to use the gels in clinical settings had mixed results. There was no real consistency with the results based on calibration curves generated by the gel manufacturer and even based on additional calibration studies performed by the medical physicists. Third, there were no consistent and effective calculation programs that were flexible, rigorous, and consistent to use. Due to these main problems, medical physicists have begun to dismiss the gel dosimeter and reverted to traditional 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional verification methods. What we developed in this study is a means to put the polymer gel dosimeter back into the forefront of dosimetry. First, we performed experiments under a clinical setting. Then, we investigated three different calibration methods, including our very own normalized calibration protocol to identify calibration problems and offer up a solution to this problem. Finally, we also generated a good data processing program that is flexible, rigorous, and consistent to use in any setting. In addition to these investigations, we also performed additional quality assurance investigations by testing the accuracy of the traditional treatment and planning systems versus the newer treatment planning and irradiation systems. The results of all of our investigations prove that the polymer gel dosimeter can be effectively used as long as the calibration is consistent and the data processing programs are accurate and flexible.

  2. SU-E-QI-15: Single Point Dosimetry by Means of Cerenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET)

    SciTech Connect

    Volotskova, O; Jenkins, C; Xing, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Cerenkov light is generated when a charged particles with energy greater then 250 keV, moves faster than the speed of light in a given medium. Both x-ray photons and electrons produce optical Cerenkov photons during the static megavoltage linear accelerator (LINAC) operational mode. Recently, Cerenkov radiation gained considerable interest as possible candidate as a new imaging modality. Optical signals generated by Cerenkov radiation may act as a surrogate for the absorbed superficial radiation dose. We demonstrated a novel single point dosimetry method for megavoltage photon and electron therapy utilizing down conversion of Cerenkov photons. Methods: The custom build signal characterization system was used: a sample holder (probe) with adjacent light tight compartments was connected via fiber-optic cables to a photon counting photomultiplier tube (PMT). One compartment contains a medium only while the other contains medium and red-shifting nano-particles (Q-dots, nanoclusters). By taking the difference between the two signals (Cerenkov photons and CRET photons) we obtain a measure of the down-converted light, which we expect to be proportional to dose as measured with an adjacent ion chamber. Experimental results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations performed using the GEANT4 code. Results: The signal correlation between CR signal, CRET readings and dose produced by LINAC at a single point were investigated. The experimental results were compared with simulations. The dose linearity, signal to noise ratio and dose rate dependence were tested with custom build CRET based probe. Conclusion: Performance characteristics of the proposed single point CRET based probe were evaluated. The direct use of the induced Cerenkov emission and CRET in an irradiated single point volume as an indirect surrogate for the imparted dose was investigated. We conclude that CRET is a promising optical based dosimetry method that offers advantages over those already proposed.

  3. Optimising the therapeutic ratio of radioimmunotherapy; an investigation of the roles of chimerisation, fractionation and radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violet, John Albert

    2007-12-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a targeted form of treatment for cancer which uses tumour-associated antibodies to selectively deliver a therapeutic radionuclide to sites of disease. In lymphoma, radioimmunotherapy has proved a remarkably effective agent due to the high radiosensitivity of the tumour and its propensity to undergo apoptosis following irradiation. However, success in the treatment of the more radioresistant common solid tumours has been less successful, and for these patients RIT remains investigative. The effectiveness of RIT is limited by non-specific irradiation of normal tissues whilst antibody remains in the circulation, in particular bone marrow, and also by immunogenicity of antibody which does not allow for repeated therapy. In the first chapter I have hypothesised that lymphomas expressing the interleukin-2 receptor might be effectively treated using a radiolabeled antibody to this receptor. In a phase I/II clinical study, 131I labelled CHT-25, a chimeric antibody against the IL-2Ra chain, has shown encouraging evidence of efficacy in the 9 patients with multiply- relapsed lymphomas treated so far. In addition, use of this antibody has been associated with low immunogenicity allowing for repeated therapies to be given. In the second chapter I have hypothesised that dosimetry led, individual patient therapy, might further optimise 1311 CHT-25 treatment. To investigate this I have used marrow toxicity as a biological assay of absorbed dose and shown that simple, but individual, patient biodistribution indices correlate better with observed toxicity than the population-based dose estimates currently employed. I have proposed that adoption of individual patient dosimetry using tracer studies is worthy of further investigation for the future development of 131I- CHT-25. In the third chapter I have hypothesised that dose fractionation might improve the therapeutic ratio of RIT. This has been investigated in a pre-clinical human colorectal xenograft model in nude mice using 131I-A5B7, a murine antibody against CEA. In this setting fractionation neither reduces normal tissue toxicity nor increases the effectiveness of therapy. This thesis demonstrates, using both pre-clinical and clinical data, how the therapeutic ratio of RIT might be improved through antibody design, leading to reduced immunogenicity, dose fractionation and radiation dosimetry, and proposes how these approaches might be used to optimise the effectiveness of RIT in the clinic.

  4. Dosimetry and Risk Assessment: Fundamental Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.

    2005-12-29

    Radiation dosimetry is important for characterizing radiation exposures and for risk assessment. In a medical setting, dosimetry is important for evaluating the safety of administered radiopharmaceuticals and for planning the safe administration of therapeutic radionuclides. Environmental dosimetry helps establish the safety of radionuclide releases from electric power production and other human activities. Internal and external dosimetry help us understand the consequences of radiation exposure. The absorbed dose is the fundamental quantity in radiation dosimetry from which all other operational values in radiation protection are obtained. Equivalent dose to tissue and effective dose to the whole body are derivatives of absorbed dose and constructs of risk. Mathematical systems supported by computer software facilitate dose calculations and make it possible to estimate internal dose based on bioassay or other biokinetic data. Risk coefficients for radiation-induced cancer rely primarily on data from animal studies and long-term observations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bomb survivors. Low-dose research shows that mechanisms of radiation interactions with tissue are dose-dependent, but the resulting biological effects are not necessarily linear with absorbed dose. Thus, the analysis of radiation effects and associated risks must account for the influences of microscopic energy distributions at the cellular level, dose-rate, cellular repair of sub-lethal radiation damage, and modifying factors such as bystander effects, adaptive response, and genomic instability.

  5. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  6. Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Rasouli, H.; Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T.

    2014-05-15

    In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points – three TLDs per point – to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

  7. Thermoluminescence characteristics of flat optical fiber in radiation dosimetry under different electron irradiation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawiah, A.; Intan, A. M.; Bauk, S.; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Yusoff, Z.; Mokhtar, M. R.; Wan Abdullah, W. S.; Mat Sharif, K. A.; Mahdiraji, G. A.; Mahamd Adikan, F. R.; Tamchek, N.; Noor, N. M.; Bradley, D. A.

    2013-05-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) flat optical fibers (FF) have been proposed as radiation sensor in medical dosimetry for both diagnostic and radiotherapy applications. A flat optical fiber with nominal dimensions of (3.226 × 3.417 × 0.980) mm3 contains pure silica SiO2 was selected for this research. The FF was annealed at 400°C for 1 h before irradiated. Kinetic parameters and dosimetric glow curve of TL response were studied in FF with respect to electron irradiation of 6 MeV, 15 MeV and 21 MeV using linear accelerator (LINAC) in the dose range of 2.0-10.0 Gy. The TL response was read using a TLD reader Harshaw Model 3500. The Time-Temperature-Profile (TTP) of the reader used includes; initial preheat temperature of 80°C, maximum readout temperature is 400°C and the heating rate of 30°Cs-1. The proposed FF shows excellent linear radiation response behavior within the clinical relevant dose range for all of these energies, good reproducibility, independence of radiation energy, independence of dose rate and exhibits a very low thermal fading. From these results, the proposed FF can be used as radiation dosimeter and favorably compares with the widely used of LiF:MgTi dosimeter in medical radiotherapy application.

  8. Low-energy x-ray dosimetry studies (7 to 17.5 keV) with synchroton radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ipe, N.E.; Bellamy, H.; Flood, J.R.

    1995-06-01

    Unique properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), such as its high intensity, brightness, polarization, and broad spectral distribution (extending from x-ray to infra-red wavelengths) make it an attractive light source for numerous experiments. As SR facilities are rapidly being built all over the world, they introduce the need for low-energy x-ray dosemeters because of the potential radiation exposure to experimenters. However, they also provide a unique opportunity for low-energy x-ray dosimetry studies because of the availability of monochromatic x-ray beams. Results of such studies performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory are described. Lithium fluoride TLDs (TLD-100) of varying thicknesses (0.015 to 0.08 cm) were exposed free in air to monochromatic x-rays (7 to 17.5 keV). These exposures were monitored with ionization chambers. The response (nC/Gy) was found to increase with increasing TLD thickness and with increasing beam energy. A steeper increase in response with increasing energy was observed with the thicker TLDs. The responses at 7 and 17.5 keV were within a factor of 2.3 and 5.2 for the 0.015 and 0.08 cm-thick TLDs, respectively. The effects of narrow (beam size smaller than the dosemeter) and broad (beam size larger than the dosemeter) beams on the response of the TLDs are also reported.

  9. Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 16th, Santa Cruz, Calif., July 17-20, 1979, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bombardt, J.

    1979-01-01

    Papers are presented on the following topics: radiation effects in bipolar microcircuits; basic radiation mechanisms in materials and devices; energy deposition and dosimetry; and system responses from SGEMP, IEMP, and EMP. Also considered are basic processes in SGEMP and IEMP, radiation effects in MOS microcircuits, and space radiation effects and spacecraft charging.

  10. Development and validation of a GEANT4 radiation transport code for CT dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Carver, D E; Kost, S D; Fernald, M J; Lewis, K G; Fraser, N D; Pickens, D R; Price, R R; Stabin, M G

    2015-04-01

    The authors have created a radiation transport code using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit to simulate pediatric patients undergoing CT examinations. The focus of this paper is to validate their simulation with real-world physical dosimetry measurements using two independent techniques. Exposure measurements were made with a standard 100-mm CT pencil ionization chamber, and absorbed doses were also measured using optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters. Measurements were made in air with a standard 16-cm acrylic head phantom and with a standard 32-cm acrylic body phantom. Physical dose measurements determined from the ionization chamber in air for 100 and 120 kVp beam energies were used to derive photon-fluence calibration factors. Both ion chamber and OSL measurement results provide useful comparisons in the validation of the Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that simulated and measured CTDI values were within an overall average of 6% of each other. PMID:25706135

  11. Development and validation of a GEANT4 radiation transport code for CT dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Carver, DE; Kost, SD; Fernald, MJ; Lewis, KG; Fraser, ND; Pickens, DR; Price, RR; Stabin, MG

    2014-01-01

    We have created a radiation transport code using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit to simulate pediatric patients undergoing CT examinations. The focus of this paper is to validate our simulation with real-world physical dosimetry measurements using two independent techniques. Exposure measurements were made with a standard 100-mm CT pencil ionization chamber, and absorbed doses were also measured using optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters. Measurements were made in air, a standard 16-cm acrylic head phantom, and a standard 32-cm acrylic body phantom. Physical dose measurements determined from the ionization chamber in air for 100 and 120 kVp beam energies were used to derive photon-fluence calibration factors. Both ion chamber and OSL measurement results provide useful comparisons in the validation of our Monte Carlo simulations. We found that simulated and measured CTDI values were within an overall average of 6% of each other. PMID:25706135

  12. Synthesis and luminescence properties of KSrPO4:Eu2+ phosphor for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palan, C. B.; Bajaj, N. S.; Omanwar, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    The KSrPO4:Eu phosphor was synthesized via solid state method. The structural and morphological characterizations were done through XRD (X-ray diffraction) and SEM (Scanning Electronic Microscope). Additionally, the photoluminescence (PL), thermoluminescence (TL) and optically Stimulated luminescence (OSL) properties of powder KSrPO4:Eu were studied. The PL spectra show blue emission under near UV excitation. It was advocated that KSrPO4:Eu phosphor not only show OSL sensitivity (0.47 times) but also gives faster decay in OSL signals than that of Al2O3:C (BARC) phosphor. The TL glow curve consist of two shoulder peaks and the kinetics parameters such as activation energy and frequency factors were determined by using peak shape method and also photoionization cross-sections of prepared phosphor was calculated. The radiation dosimetry properties such as minimum detectable dose (MDD), dose response and reusability were reported.

  13. Radiation dosimetry using decreasing TL intensity in a few variety of silicate crystals.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shigueo; Cano, Nilo F; Gundu Rao, T K; Oliveira, Letícia M; Carmo, Lucas S; Chubaci, Jose F D

    2015-11-01

    This study shows that there are some ionic crystals which after irradiation with high gamma dose Dm and subsequent irradiation with low doses ranging up to 500Gy present a decreasing TL intensity as dose increases. This interesting feature can be used as a calibration curve in radiation dosimetry. Such behavior can be found in green quartz, three varieties of beryl and pink tourmaline. In all these silicate crystals it can be shown that irradiation with increasing γ-dose there is a dose Dm for which the TL intensity is maximum. Of course, Dm varies depending on the crystal and irradiated crystal with the dose Dm is stable. If one of these crystals is taken and irradiated with doses from low values up to 400-500Gy, a curve of decreasing TL intensity is obtained; such a curve can be used as a calibration curve. PMID:26277189

  14. A measurement of the radiation dose to LDEF by passive dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, J. B.; Imamoto, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    The results from a pair of thermoluminescent dosimeter experiments flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) show an integrated dose several times smaller than that predicted by the NASA environmental models for shielding thicknesses much greater than 0.10 gm/sq cm aluminum. For thicknesses between 0.01 and 0.1 gm/sq cm, the measured dose was in agreement with predictions. The Space and Environment Technology Center of The Aerospace Corporation fielded two related experiments on LDEF to measure the energetic radiation dose by means of passive dosimetry. The sensors were LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters mounted behind various thicknesses of shielding. The details of the experiment are described first, followed by the results of the observations. A comparison is made with the predictions based upon the NASA environmental models and the actual mission profile flown by LDEF; conclusions follow.

  15. Thermoluminescence properties of LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si pellets in radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Nam, Y M; Kim, J L

    2002-01-01

    Sintered LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si thermoluminescence (TL) pellets have been developed for application in radiation dosimetry. LiF:M,Cu,Na,Si TL pellets were made from TL powders using a sintering process, that is, pressing and heat treatment. These pellets have a diameter of 4.5 mm, and a thickness of 0.8 mm are blue in colour and have a mass of 28 mg each. After 400 pellets had been produced they were irradiated with 137Cs gamma radiation and samples having a sensitivity within a +/-5% standard deviation were selected for experimental use. In the present study, the physical and dosimetric properties of LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si TL pellets were investigated for their emission spectrum, dose response, energy response and fading characteristics. Photon irradiation for the experiments was carried out using X ray beams and a 137Cs gamma source at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The average energies and the dose were in the range of 20-662 keV and 10(-6) - 10(2) Gy respectively. The glow curves were measured with a manual type thermoluminescence dosimetry reader (system 310, Teledyne) at a constant nitrogen flux and a linear heating rate. For a constant heating rate of 5 degrees C.s(-1). the main dosimetric peak of the glow curve appeared at 234 degrees C, its activation energy was 2.34 eV and the frequency factor was 1.00 x 10(23). The TL emission spectrum appeared at the blue region centred at 410 nm. A linearity of photon dose response was maintained up to 100 Gy. The photon energy responses relative to the 137Cs response were within +/-20% in the overall photon energy region. No fading of the TL sensitivity of the pellets stored at room temperature was found over the course of a year. Therefore LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si TL pellets can be used for personal dosimetry, but more research is needed to improve the characteristics for repeated use. PMID:12382923

  16. The UF family of hybrid phantoms of the developing human fetus for computational radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Matthew R.; Geyer, John W.; Aris, John P.; Shifrin, Roger Y.; Bolch, Wesley

    2011-08-01

    Historically, the development of computational phantoms for radiation dosimetry has primarily been directed at capturing and representing adult and pediatric anatomy, with less emphasis devoted to models of the human fetus. As concern grows over possible radiation-induced cancers from medical and non-medical exposures of the pregnant female, the need to better quantify fetal radiation doses, particularly at the organ-level, also increases. Studies such as the European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) hope to improve our understanding of cancer risks following chronic in utero radiation exposure. For projects such as SOLO, currently available fetal anatomic models do not provide sufficient anatomical detail for organ-level dose assessment. To address this need, two fetal hybrid computational phantoms were constructed using high-quality magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography image sets obtained for two well-preserved fetal specimens aged 11.5 and 21 weeks post-conception. Individual soft tissue organs, bone sites and outer body contours were segmented from these images using 3D-DOCTOR™ and then imported to the 3D modeling software package Rhinoceros™ for further modeling and conversion of soft tissue organs, certain bone sites and outer body contours to deformable non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces. The two specimen-specific phantoms, along with a modified version of the 38 week UF hybrid newborn phantom, comprised a set of base phantoms from which a series of hybrid computational phantoms was derived for fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. The methodology used to construct the series of phantoms accounted for the following age-dependent parameters: (1) variations in skeletal size and proportion, (2) bone-dependent variations in relative levels of bone growth, (3) variations in individual organ masses and total fetal masses and (4) statistical percentile variations in skeletal size, individual organ masses and total fetal masses. The resulting series of fetal hybrid computational phantoms is applicable to organ-level and bone-level internal and external radiation dosimetry for human fetuses of various ages and weight percentiles

  17. Monitoring of radiation fields in a waste tank model: Virtual radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Tulenko, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    The University of Florida (UF) has developed a coupled radiation computation and three-dimensional modeling simulation code package. This package combines the Deneb Robotics` IGRIP three-dimensional solid modeling robotic simulation code with the UF developed VRF (Virtual Radiation Field) Monte Carlo based radiation computation code. The code package allows simulated radiation dose monitors to be placed anywhere on simulated robotic equipment to record the radiation doses which would be sustained when carrying out tasks in radiation environments. Comparison with measured values in the Hanford Waste Tank C-106 shows excellent results. The code shows promise of serving as a major tool in the design and operation of robotic equipment in radiation environments to ensure freedom from radiation caused failure.

  18. Bibliography of literature relevant to the reassessment of A-bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1984-04-01

    Radiation doses received by the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings were estimated in increasingly sophisticated studies between 1950 and 1965. The latest of these estimates, designated as Tentative 1965 Doses or simply T65D values, were used as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970's. The T65D values have recently been subjected to critical review as a result of concern over possible changes in radiation protection standards. Thus, it is essential that the reassessment of A-bomb radiation dosimetry is well-documented and that the results are convincing to the scientific community. This bibliography provides a keyword index, author index, and master listing of over 100 published reports dealing with different aspects of the dosimetry reassessment effort.

  19. Potential application of pure silica optical flat fibers for radiation therapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawiah, A.; Bauk, S.; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Gieszczyk, W.; Hashim, S.; Mahdiraji, G. A.; Tamchek, N.; Bradley, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Pure silica optical flat fibers (FF) have been proposed as the basis for a novel radiation sensor by the measurement of the thermoluminescence (TL) produced. In this paper the TL performance of the FFs were studied. Using a linear accelerator (LINAC) delivering doses in the range 0.2-10.0 Gy, the TL dosimetric glow curves of the FFs were studied with respect to 6 MeV electron and 6 MV photon beams. When exposed to 6 MeV electron irradiation, the pure silica FFs displayed a supralinear response starting from 2 Gy up to 10.0 Gy. While for 6 MV photon irradiation, the FFs shows linear characteristic (f(D)=1) nearly up to 2 Gy. The TL intensity (Im) of the main peak of FFs is 1.5 times higher for 6 MeV electron beams than for 6 MV photon beams. The maximum peak temperature (Tm) it is not affected by the type of irradiation used at the same dose while the maximum TL intensity (Im) was found to be dependent on the type of radiation used. Overall results indicate that the pure silica FFs can be used as radiation sensors in the high-dose therapy dosimetry.

  20. Biological dosimetry: the potential use of radiation-induced apoptosis in human T-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Menz, R; Andres, R; Larsson, B; Ozsahin, M; Trott, K; Crompton, N E

    1997-09-01

    An assay for biological dosimetry based on the induction of apoptosis in human T-lymphocytes is described. Radiation-induced apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometric identification of cells displaying apoptosis-associated DNA condensation. CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes were analysed. They were recognized on the basis of their cell-surface antigens. Four parameters were measured for both cell types: cell size, granularity, antigen immunofluorescence and DNA content. Apoptosis was quantified as the fraction of CD4-, or CD8-positive cells with a characteristic reduction of cell size and DNA content. At doses below 1 Gy, levels of radiation-induced apoptosis increased for up to 5 days after irradiation. Optimal dose discrimination was observed 4 days after irradiation, at which time the dose-response curves were linear, with a slope of 8% +/- 0.5% per 0.1 Gy. In controlled, dose-response experiments the lowest dose level at which the radiation-induced apoptosis frequency was still significantly above control was 0.05 Gy. After 5 days post-irradiation incubation, intra- and interdonor variations were measured and found to be similar; thus, apoptotic levels depend more on the dose than on the donor. The results demonstrate the potential of this assay as a biological dosimeter. PMID:9402634

  1. Medical radiation exposure and accidents. Dosimetry and radiation protection. Do we only benefit the patient?

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip; Lyra, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This article presents and discusses new information on the old Hippocratic moto of "...not to harm but to benefit the patient". Some radiation accidents are due to medical errors. Millions of medical tests exposing radiation are performed every day worldwide increasing and sometimes exceeding the annual permissible dose administered to the general population. Public authorities are now seriously concerned about medical radiation overused. In U.S.A. both the House of Representatives and the Food and Drug Administration have recently delt with this problem. Others and we have suggested before and the International Atomic Energy Agency now proposes: a "Smart Card" for every individual who receives medical radiation. In this card the amount of medical radiation administered will be recorded. It is time to issue rules for protection of the public from medical radiation overdose. PMID:20808982

  2. Radiation-related posterior lenticular opacities in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors based on the DS86 dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Otake, M.; Schull, W.J. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the quantitative relationship of ionizing radiation to the occurrence of posterior lenticular opacities among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggested by the DS86 dosimetry system. DS86 doses are available for 1983 (93.4%) of the 2124 atomic bomb survivors analyzed in 1982. The DS86 kerma neutron component for Hiroshima survivors is much smaller than its comparable T65DR component, but still 4.2-fold higher (0.38 Gy at 6 Gy) than that in Nagasaki (0.09 Gy at 6 Gy). Thus, if the eye is especially sensitive to neutrons, there may yet be some useful information on their effects, particularly in Hiroshima. The dose-response relationship has been evaluated as a function of the separately estimated gamma-ray and neutron doses. Among several different dose-response models without and with two thresholds, we have selected as the best model the one with the smallest x2 or the largest log likelihood value associated with the goodness of fit. The best fit is a linear gamma-linear neutron relationship which assumes different thresholds for the two types of radiation. Both gamma and neutron regression coefficients for the best fitting model are positive and highly significant for the estimated DS86 eye organ dose.

  3. The effects of high ambient radon on thermoluminescence dosimetry readings.

    PubMed

    Harvey, John A; Kearfott, Kimberlee J

    2011-11-01

    The effect of a high level of ambient (222)Rn gas on thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) is examined. Groups of LiF:Mg,Ti and CaF(2):Dy TLDs were exposed to (222)Rn under controlled environmental conditions over ∼7 d using a luminous (226)Ra aircraft dial. LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs were tested bare, and both types were tested mounted in cards used for environmental dosimetry and mounted in cards enclosed in plastic badges. A passive continuous radon monitor was used to measure the (222)Rn level in the small chamber during the experiments. The data were analysed to determine the relationship between the integrated (222)Rn level and the TLD response. Although both LiF:Mg,Ti and CaF(2):Dy TLDs showed a strong response to (222)Rn, the badges prevented measurable radon detection by the TLDs within. The TLDs were not used to directly measure the radon concentration; rather, a correction for its influence was desired. PMID:21177272

  4. Characterization of a parallel-beam CCD optical-CT apparatus for 3D radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Krstajić, Nikola; Doran, Simon J

    2007-07-01

    3D measurement of optical attenuation is of interest in a variety of fields of biomedical importance, including spectrophotometry, optical projection tomography (OPT) and analysis of 3D radiation dosimeters. Accurate, precise and economical 3D measurements of optical density (OD) are a crucial step in enabling 3D radiation dosimeters to enter wider use in clinics. Polymer gels and Fricke gels, as well as dosimeters not based around gels, have been characterized for 3D dosimetry over the last two decades. A separate problem is the verification of the best readout method. A number of different imaging modalities (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical CT, x-ray CT and ultrasound) have been suggested for the readout of information from 3D dosimeters. To date only MRI and laser-based optical CT have been characterized in detail. This paper describes some initial steps we have taken in establishing charge coupled device (CCD)-based optical CT as a viable alternative to MRI for readout of 3D radiation dosimeters. The main advantage of CCD-based optical CT over traditional laser-based optical CT is a speed increase of at least an order of magnitude, while the simplicity of its architecture would lend itself to cheaper implementation than both MRI and laser-based optical CT if the camera itself were inexpensive enough. Specifically, we study the following aspects of optical metrology, using high quality test targets: (i) calibration and quality of absorbance measurements and the camera requirements for 3D dosimetry; (ii) the modulation transfer function (MTF) of individual projections; (iii) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the projection and reconstruction domains; (iv) distortion in the projection domain, depth-of-field (DOF) and telecentricity. The principal results for our current apparatus are as follows: (i) SNR of optical absorbance in projections is better than 120:1 for uniform phantoms in absorbance range 0.3 to 1.6 (and better than 200:1 for absorbances 1.0 to 3.5 with the test target and a novel absorbance range extension method), (ii) the spatial resolution is shown to be at worst 0.5 mm (and often better than this) with an associated DOF of 8 cm, (iii) the SNR of uniform phantoms in reconstruction domain is above 80:1 (one standard deviation) over an absorbance dynamic range of 0.3 to 1.6, (iv) the apparatus is telecentric and without distortion. Finally, a sample scan and reconstruction of a scan of a PRESAGE dosimeter are shown, demonstrating the capabilities of the apparatus. PMID:17664571

  5. Treating voxel geometries in radiation protection dosimetry with a patched version of the Monte Carlo codes MCNP and MCNPX.

    PubMed

    Burn, K W; Daffara, C; Gualdrini, G; Pierantoni, M; Ferrari, P

    2007-01-01

    The question of Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport in voxel geometries is addressed. Patched versions of the MCNP and MCNPX codes are developed aimed at transporting radiation both in the standard geometry mode and in the voxel geometry treatment. The patched code reads an unformatted FORTRAN file derived from DICOM format data and uses special subroutines to handle voxel-to-voxel radiation transport. The various phases of the development of the methodology are discussed together with the new input options. Examples are given of employment of the code in internal and external dosimetry and comparisons with results from other groups are reported. PMID:17038404

  6. Intercomparison of luminescence detectors for space radiation dosimetry within Proton-ICCHIBAN experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchihori, Yukio; Ploc, Ondrej; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Berger, Thomas; Hajek, Michael; Kodaira, Satoshi; Benton, Eric; Ambrozova, Iva; Kitamura, Hisashi

    2012-07-01

    Luminescence detectors for space radiation dosimetry are frequently used to estimate personal and environmental doses in the International Space Station and other space vehicles. Detector responses for cosmic rays and their secondaries were investigated for a long time and it is well-known that luminescence detectors have dependencies of response on LET (Linear Energy Transfer). Some of luminescence detectors show over-response to gamma rays (used for routine calibration) and others have similar responses to gamma rays. But, because of lack of sufficient and reliable calibration data in the low LET region (about 1 keV/μm), it is the responses of these detectors at LET is poorly known. Protons make up the dominant portion of the fluence from space radiation, so the LET region corresponding to energetic protons must be characterized very well. For that purpose, calibration and intercomparison experiments were performed using relatively low energy (30 to 80 MeV) proton beams at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan. In this paper, the results of these intercomparison experiments, including high energy protons and light ions, are reported and illustrate the response of luminescence detectors in the low LET region. This research will help improve our understanding of space dosimeters and reliable dose measurement for astronauts and cosmonauts in low earth orbit.

  7. Advances in a framework to compare bio-dosimetry methods for triage in large-scale radiation events

    PubMed Central

    Flood, Ann Barry; Boyle, Holly K.; Du, Gaixin; Demidenko, Eugene; Nicolalde, Roberto J.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Swartz, Harold M.

    2014-01-01

    Planning and preparation for a large-scale nuclear event would be advanced by assessing the applicability of potentially available bio-dosimetry methods. Using an updated comparative framework the performance of six bio-dosimetry methods was compared for five different population sizes (100–1 000 000) and two rates for initiating processing of the marker (15 or 15 000 people per hour) with four additional time windows. These updated factors are extrinsic to the bio-dosimetry methods themselves but have direct effects on each method's ability to begin processing individuals and the size of the population that can be accommodated. The results indicate that increased population size, along with severely compromised infrastructure, increases the time needed to triage, which decreases the usefulness of many time intensive dosimetry methods. This framework and model for evaluating bio-dosimetry provides important information for policy-makers and response planners to facilitate evaluation of each method and should advance coordination of these methods into effective triage plans. PMID:24729594

  8. The Australian radiation protection and nuclear safety agency megavoltage photon thermoluminescence dosimetry postal audit service 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Oliver, C P; Butler, D J; Webb, D V

    2012-03-01

    The Australian radiation protection and nuclear safety agency (ARPANSA) has continuously provided a level 1 mailed thermoluminescence dosimetry audit service for megavoltage photons since 2007. The purpose of the audit is to provide an independent verification of the reference dose output of a radiotherapy linear accelerator in a clinical environment. Photon beam quality measurements can also be made as part of the audit in addition to the output measurements. The results of all audits performed between 2007 and 2010 are presented. The average of all reference beam output measurements calculated as a clinically stated dose divided by an ARPANSA measured dose is 0.9993. The results of all beam quality measurements calculated as a clinically stated quality divided by an ARPANSA measured quality is 1.0087. Since 2011 the provision of all auditing services has been transferred from the Ionizing Radiation Standards section to the Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS) which is currently housed within ARPANSA. PMID:22302465

  9. Pre-treatment verification of intensity modulated radiation therapy plans using a commercial electronic portal dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Roxby, Kathleen J; Crosbie, Jeffrey C

    2010-03-01

    We commissioned a commercially available portal dosimetry system for quality assurance of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans. The system included gamma analysis software to compare the measured and predicted fluence maps from individual IMRT fields. The portal dosimetry system was tested using six head and neck IMRT patient plans, and we demonstrated that the accuracy of the alignment of measured and predicted images improved by retracting and repositioning the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) at each new gantry angle. The mean gamma score (fraction of pixels passing the gamma criteria) for the six test plans (after initial testing and using the EPID retracting and repositioning method) was 0.987 (2SD = 0.018), using gamma criteria of a dose difference of 2% of the maximum field dose and 2 mm distance to agreement. The mean gamma score was 0.989 (2SD = 0.017) for 24 head and neck IMRT patient plans carried out with portal dosimetry. Using gamma criteria of 2% maximum field dose and 2 mm distance to agreement, a gamma score tolerance of 0.980 is a useful way of highlighting only those fields requiring further analysis. Portal dosimetry is a quick way of assessing individual field fluence distributions and can be integrated into an IMRT quality assurance programme. PMID:20237893

  10. Determination of uncertainty components for a system in Radiation Protection Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, F.; Cabral, T. S.; Peixoto, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    This work is about the theoretical calculation of uncertainties associated to the dosimetry of photons of a 137Cs source that will be used in a Dosimetry Laboratory. In this case recognition of the influence quantities that provide most uncertainty and the right choice of resolution of auxiliary equipment to obtain the smallest uncertainties according to the laboratory.

  11. Prospective Study of 68Ga-NOTA-NFB: Radiation Dosimetry in Healthy Volunteers and First Application in Glioma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Mingru; Wang, Liang; Wang, Shengjun; Kang, Fei; Li, Guoquan; Jacobson, Orit; Niu, Gang; Yang, Weidong; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is overexpressed in various types of human cancers. As a specific imaging agent of CXCR4, 68Ga-NOTA-NFB was investigated in this study to assess its safety, biodistribution and dosimetry properties in healthy volunteers, and to preliminarily evaluate its application in glioma patients. Methods: Six healthy volunteers underwent whole-body PET scans at 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h after 68Ga-NOTA-NFB injection (mean dose, 182.4 ± 3.7 MBq (4.93 ± 0.10 mCi)). For time-activity curve calculations, 1 mL blood samples were obtained at 1, 3, 5, 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the injection. The estimated radiation doses were calculated by OLINDA/EXM software. Eight patients with glioma were enrolled and underwent both 68Ga-NOTA-NFB and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans before surgery. The expression of CXCR4 on the resected brain tumor tissues was determined by immunohistochemical staining. Results: 68Ga-NOTA-NFB was safe and well tolerated by all subjects. A rapid activity clearance from the blood circulation was observed. The organs with the highest absorbed doses were spleen (193.8 ± 32.5 μSv/MBq) and liver (119.3 ± 25.0 μSv/MBq). The mean effective dose was 25.4 ± 6.1 μSv/MBq. The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and the maximum target to non-target ratios (T/NTmax) of 68Ga-NOTA-NFB PET/CT in glioma tissues were 4.11 ± 2.90 (range, 0.45-8.21) and 9.21 ± 8.75 (range, 3.66-24.88), respectively, while those of 18F-FDG PET/CT were 7.34 ± 2.90 (range, 3.50-12.27) and 0.86 ± 0.41 (range, 0.35-1.59). The histopathological staining confirmed that CXCR4 was overexpressed on resected tumor tissues with prominent 68Ga-NOTA-NFB uptake. Conclusion: With a favorable radiation dosimetry profile, 68Ga-NOTA-NFB is safe for clinical imaging. Compared to 18F-FDG PET/CT, 68Ga-NOTA-NFB PET/CT is more sensitive in detecting glioma and could have potential in diagnosing and treatment planning for CXCR4 positive patients. PMID:26000059

  12. SU-C-BRE-04: Microbeam-Radiation-Therapy (MRT): Characterizing a Novel MRT Device Using High Resolution 3D Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Q; Juang, T; Bache, S; Chang, S; Oldham, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The feasibility of MRT has recently been demonstrated utilizing a new technology of Carbon-Nano-Tube(CNT) field emission x-ray sources.This approach can deliver very high dose(10's of Gy) in narrow stripes(sub-mm) of radiation which enables the study of novel radiation treatment approaches. Here we investigate the application of highresolution (50um isotropic) PRESAGE/Optical-CT 3D dosimetry techniques to characterize the radiation delivered in this extremely dosimetrically challenging scenario. Methods: The CNT field emission x-ray source irradiator comprises of a linear cathode array and a novel collimator alignment system. This allows a precise delivery of high-energy small beams up to 160 kVp. A cylindrical dosimeter (∼2.2cm in height ∼2.5cm in diameter) was irradiated by CNT MRT delivering 3 strips of radiation with a nominal entrance dose of 32 Gy.A second dosimeter was irradiated with similar entrance dose, with a regular x-ray irradiator collimated to microscopical strip-beams. 50um (isotropic) 3D dosimetry was performed using an in-house optical-CT system designed and optimized for high resolution imaging (including a stray light deconvolution correction).The percentage depth dose (PDD), peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) and beam width (FWHM) data were obtained and analyzed in both cases. Results: High resolution 3D images were successfully achieved with the prototype system, enabling extraction of PDD and dose profiles. The PDDs for the CNT irradiation showed pronounced attenuation, but less build-up effect than that from the multibeam irradiation. The beam spacing between the three strips has an average value of 0.9mm while that for the 13 strips is 1.5 mm at a depth of 16.5 mm. The stray light corrected image shows line profiles with reduced noise and consistent PVR values. Conclusion: MRT dosimetry is extremely challenging due to the ultra small fields involved.This preliminary application of a novel, ultra-high resolution, optical-CT 3D dosimetry system shows promise, but further work is required to validate and investigate accuracy and artifacts. This work was supported by NIH R01CA100835.

  13. Highly sensitive Europium doped SrSO4 OSL nanophosphor for radiation dosimetry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patle, Anita; Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Bhatt, B. C.; Moharil, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    Highly sensitive Europium doped SrSO4 optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) phosphor was developed by synthesizing a nano phosphor which is treated at 1000 °C. Excellent OSL properties are observed in the developed phosphor and the sensitivity is found to be 1.26 times to that of the commercial Al2O3:C (Landauer Inc.) phosphor based on area integration method. The sample showed a single TL glow peak around 230 °C which is found to reduce by 47% after the OSL readout. Sublinear dose response with the saturation around 100 mGy is observed in this sample which suggests that it is extremely sensitive and hence will be suitable in detecting very low dose levels. Minimum measurable dose on the used set up is estimated to be 1.42 μGy. Practically no fading is observed for first ten days and the phosphor has excellent reusability. High sensitivity, low fading, excellent reusability will make this phosphor suitable for radiation dosimetry applications using OSL.

  14. On application of low doses from beta radiation source in OSL retrospective dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przegietka, K.; Chruscinska, A.

    2014-11-01

    The paper reports on three levels of dose rates obtainable from single beta source: (133±3) mGy/s, (17.8±0.3) mGy/s and (1.94±0.04) mGy/s, as calibrated for quartz sand grains. These values were achieved for different attenuation stages of beta radiation emitted by standard 90Sr/90Y source with the nominal activity of 1.48 GBq attached to an automatic luminescence reader. Lower dose rates give opportunity for exact dosing, which is especially required in luminescence dating applied to young samples as well as in environmental dosimetry. Moreover new method for determining time lag in opening the source in the Riso beta irradiator is presented. This allowed to resolve the contradiction appearing in the literature. The time delay was found to be (0.15±0.01) s per single irradiation. For improving accuracy the dose rate correction is suggest to be taken into account for irradiations shorter than 30 s.

  15. Background radiation and individual dosimetry in the costal area of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Naoki; Brahmanandhan, G M; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takamura, Noboru; Suyama, Akihiko; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Juto, Norimichi; Raj, Y Lenin; Winsley, Godwin; Selvasekarapandian, S

    2011-07-01

    South coast of India is known as the high-level background radiation area (HBRA) mainly due to beach sands that contain natural radionuclides as components of the mineral monazite. The rich deposit of monazite is unevenly distributed along the coastal belt of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. An HBRA site that laid in 2×7 m along the sea was found in the beach of Chinnavillai, Tamil Nadu, where the maximum ambient dose equivalent reached as high as 162.7 mSv y(-1). From the sands collected at the HBRA spot, the high-purity germanium semi-conductor detector identified six nuclides of thorium series, four nuclides of uranium series and two nuclides belonging to actinium series. The highest radioactivity observed was 43.7 Bq g(-1) of Th-228. The individual dose of five inhabitants in Chinnavillai, as measured by the radiophotoluminescence glass dosimetry system, demonstrated the average dose of 7.17 mSv y(-1) ranging from 2.79 to 14.17 mSv y(-1). PMID:21502300

  16. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  17. Radiation effects in space

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. The effect of patient inhomogeneities in oesophageal 192Ir HDR brachytherapy: a Monte Carlo and analytical dosimetry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulos, G.; Baltas, D.; Pantelis, E.; Papagiannis, P.; Sakelliou, L.

    2004-06-01

    The effect of patient inhomogeneities surrounding the oesophagus on the dosimetry planning of an upper thoracic oesophageal 192Ir HDR brachytherapy treatment is studied. The MCNPX Monte Carlo code is used for dosimetry in a patient-equivalent phantom geometry and results are compared in terms of isodose contours as well as dose volume histograms with corresponding calculations by a contemporary treatment planning system software featuring a full TG-43 dose calculation algorithm (PLATO BPS version 14.2.4). It is found that the presence of patient inhomogeneities does not alter the delivery of the planned dose distribution to the planning treatment volume. Regarding the organs at risk, the common practice of current treatment planning systems (TPSs) to consider the patient geometry as a homogeneous water medium leads to a dose overestimation of up to 13% to the spinal cord and an underestimation of up to 15% to the sternum bone. These findings which correspond to the dose region of about 5-10% of the prescribed dose could only be of significance when brachytherapy is used as a boost to external beam therapy. Additionally, an analytical dosimetry model, which is efficient in calculating dose in mathematical phantoms containing inhomogeneity shells of materials of radiobiological interest, is utilized for dosimetry in the patient-equivalent inhomogeneous phantom geometry. Analytical calculations in this work are in good agreement with corresponding Monte Carlo results within the bone inhomogeneities of spinal cord and sternum bone but, like treatment planning system calculations, the model fails to predict the dose distribution in the proximal lung surface as well as within the lungs just as the TPS does, due to its inherent limitation in treating lateral scatter and backscatter radiation.

  19. Estimating the effective density of engineered nanomaterials for in vitro dosimetry.

    PubMed

    DeLoid, Glen; Cohen, Joel M; Darrah, Tom; Derk, Raymond; Rojanasakul, Liying; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Wohlleben, Wendel; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The need for accurate in vitro dosimetry remains a major obstacle to the development of cost-effective toxicological screening methods for engineered nanomaterials. An important key to accurate in vitro dosimetry is the characterization of sedimentation and diffusion rates of nanoparticles suspended in culture media, which largely depend upon the effective density and diameter of formed agglomerates in suspension. Here we present a rapid and inexpensive method for accurately measuring the effective density of nano-agglomerates in suspension. This novel method is based on the volume of the pellet obtained by benchtop centrifugation of nanomaterial suspensions in a packed cell volume tube, and is validated against gold-standard analytical ultracentrifugation data. This simple and cost-effective method allows nanotoxicologists to correctly model nanoparticle transport, and thus attain accurate dosimetry in cell culture systems, which will greatly advance the development of reliable and efficient methods for toxicological testing and investigation of nano-bio interactions in vitro. PMID:24675174

  20. Estimating the effective density of engineered nanomaterials for in vitro dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloid, Glen; Cohen, Joel M.; Darrah, Tom; Derk, Raymond; Rojanasakul, Liying; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Wohlleben, Wendel; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-03-01

    The need for accurate in vitro dosimetry remains a major obstacle to the development of cost-effective toxicological screening methods for engineered nanomaterials. An important key to accurate in vitro dosimetry is the characterization of sedimentation and diffusion rates of nanoparticles suspended in culture media, which largely depend upon the effective density and diameter of formed agglomerates in suspension. Here we present a rapid and inexpensive method for accurately measuring the effective density of nano-agglomerates in suspension. This novel method is based on the volume of the pellet obtained by benchtop centrifugation of nanomaterial suspensions in a packed cell volume tube, and is validated against gold-standard analytical ultracentrifugation data. This simple and cost-effective method allows nanotoxicologists to correctly model nanoparticle transport, and thus attain accurate dosimetry in cell culture systems, which will greatly advance the development of reliable and efficient methods for toxicological testing and investigation of nano-bio interactions in vitro.

  1. Uptake of Tl-201 in the testes: Implications for radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Thomas, S.R.; Wilson, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    The radiation dose to the testes from Tl-201 chloride has been an outstanding question for a number of years. Previous studies have presented kinetic data for the testes with percentage uptake ranging over nearly an order of magnitude from 0.15% to 1.2%. Gupta et al. studied the uptake of Tl-201 in testes and reported an uptake of 0.9-1.2%, with no clearance to 24 hours. Use of the value reported by Gupta et al. results in an estimated dose to the testes in the adult of 0.82 mGy/MBq, and causes the testes to be identified as the highest dose organ. In our crossover study we evaluated Tl-201 uptake in the testes of 28 patients who received Tl-201 chloride plus D-Ribose, an experimental clearance agent, and Tl-201 chloride plus a placebo 7 to 14 days later. Quantitative measurements were made under a scintillation camera imaging protocol (following exercise and administration of D-Ribose or the placebo) at approximately 1.5, 4.5, 8, 24, and 48 hr, and 7 to 14 days post injection, during which the isolated testes were shielded from the body background. Images were acquired for 5 minutes at early times and 10 to 15 minutes at the latest time. The data were fit to a two component exponential curve. Uptake and clearance parameters were not significantly different between the two regimens. Mean uptake was 0.31 {plus_minus} 0.11%; the mean residence time in the testes was 0.26 {plus_minus}0.08 hr. The testes dose using this new residence time is about 0.20 mGy/MBq. This estimate should form the basis for testicular radiation dosimetry of Tl-201 chloride.

  2. Digital holographic interferometry: A novel optical calorimetry technique for radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Cavan, Alicia; Meyer, Juergen

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To develop and demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a novel optical calorimetry method to determine radiation absorbed dose in a transparent medium. Methods: The calorimetric property of water is measured during irradiation by means of an interferometer, which detects temperature-induced changes in the refractive index that can be mathematically related to absorbed dose. The proposed method uses a technique called digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which comprises an optical laser interferometer setup and consecutive physical reconstruction of the recorded wave fronts by means of the Fresnel transform. This paper describes the conceptual framework and provides the mathematical basis for DHI dosimetry. Dose distributions from a high dose rate Brachytherapy source were measured by a prototype optical setup to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. Results: The developed DHI dosimeter successfully determined absorbed dose distributions in water in the region adjacent to a high dose rate Brachytherapy source. A temperature change of 0.0381 K across a distance of 6.8 mm near the source was measured, corresponding to a dose of 159.3 Gy. The standard deviation in a typical measurement set was ±3.45 Gy (corresponding to an uncertainty in the temperature value of ±8.3 × 10{sup −4} K). The relative dose fall off was in agreement with treatment planning system modeled data. Conclusions: First results with a prototype optical setup and a Brachytherapy source demonstrate the proof-of-principle of the approach. The prototype achieves high spatial resolution of approximately 3 × 10{sup −5} m. The general approach is fundamentally independent of the radiation type and energy. The sensitivity range determined indicates that the method is predominantly suitable for high dose rate applications. Further work is required to determine absolute dose in all three dimensions.

  3. Radiation risk assessment in neonatal radiographic examinations of the chest and abdomen: a clinical and Monte Carlo dosimetry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makri, T.; Yakoumakis, E.; Papadopoulou, D.; Gialousis, G.; Theodoropoulos, V.; Sandilos, P.; Georgiou, E.

    2006-10-01

    Seeking to assess the radiation risk associated with radiological examinations in neonatal intensive care units, thermo-luminescence dosimetry was used for the measurement of entrance surface dose (ESD) in 44 AP chest and 28 AP combined chest-abdominal exposures of a sample of 60 neonates. The mean values of ESD were found to be equal to 44 16 Gy and 43 19 Gy, respectively. The MCNP-4C2 code with a mathematical phantom simulating a neonate and appropriate x-ray energy spectra were employed for the simulation of the AP chest and AP combined chest-abdominal exposures. Equivalent organ dose per unit ESD and energy imparted per unit ESD calculations are presented in tabular form. Combined with ESD measurements, these calculations yield an effective dose of 10.2 3.7 Sv, regardless of sex, and an imparted energy of 18.5 6.7 J for the chest radiograph. The corresponding results for the combined chest-abdominal examination are 14.7 7.6 Sv (males)/17.2 7.6 Sv (females) and 29.7 13.2 J. The calculated total risk per radiograph was low, ranging between 1.7 and 2.9 per million neonates, per film, and being slightly higher for females. Results of this study are in good agreement with previous studies, especially in view of the diversity met in the calculation methods.

  4. MIRD commentary: proposed name for a dosimetry unit applicable to deterministic biological effects--the barendsen (Bd).

    PubMed

    Sgouros, George; Howell, Roger W; Bolch, Wesley E; Fisher, Darrell R

    2009-03-01

    The fundamental physical quantity for relating all biologic effects to radiation exposure is the absorbed dose, the energy imparted per unit mass of tissue. Absorbed dose is expressed in units of joules per kilogram (J/kg) and is given the special name gray (Gy). Exposure to ionizing radiation may cause both deterministic and stochastic biologic effects. To account for the relative effect per unit absorbed dose that has been observed for different types of radiation, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has established radiation weighting factors for stochastic effects. The product of absorbed dose in Gy and the radiation weighting factor is defined as the equivalent dose. Equivalent dose values are designated by a special named unit, the sievert (Sv). Unlike the situation for stochastic effects, no well-defined formalism and associated special named quantities have been widely adopted for deterministic effects. The therapeutic application of radionuclides and, specifically, alpha-particle emitters in nuclear medicine has brought to the forefront the need for a well-defined dosimetry formalism applicable to deterministic effects that is accompanied by corresponding special named quantities. This commentary reviews recent proposals related to this issue and concludes with a recommendation to establish a new named quantity. PMID:19258259

  5. Thermoluminescent properties of Ni and Co doped synthetic, high pressure, high temperature diamonds: application to ionising radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Benabdesselam, M; Iacconi, P; Gheeraert, E; Kanda, H; Lapraz, D; Briand, D

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) synthetic diamond crystals grown under diluted nickel or cobalt as solvent catalysts is reported. After a study of TL properties of 6 different samples, it is shown that a crystal grown with Ni+2%Ti and annealed at 2100 K presents an intense glow peak at around 490 K. This peak is characterised by a broad emission band centred at 530 nm (2.34 eV). This crystal presents a significant, reproducible and linear TL response relative to the absorbed dose up to an X ray air kerma of 10 Gy. All these features make this material suitable for ionising radiation dosimetry. A similar study is made on another crystal grown from pure Co, and a comparative review of the results does show that for dosimetry work, Ni-containing diamonds are more appropriate than those grown from Co catalyst. PMID:12382890

  6. NASA astronaut dosimetry: Implementation of scalable human phantoms and benchmark comparisons of deterministic versus Monte Carlo radiation transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadori, Amir Alexander

    Astronauts are exposed to a unique radiation environment in space. United States terrestrial radiation worker limits, derived from guidelines produced by scientific panels, do not apply to astronauts. Limits for astronauts have changed throughout the Space Age, eventually reaching the current National Aeronautics and Space Administration limit of 3% risk of exposure induced death, with an administrative stipulation that the risk be assured to the upper 95% confidence limit. Much effort has been spent on reducing the uncertainty associated with evaluating astronaut risk for radiogenic cancer mortality, while tools that affect the accuracy of the calculations have largely remained unchanged. In the present study, the impacts of using more realistic computational phantoms with size variability to represent astronauts with simplified deterministic radiation transport were evaluated. Next, the impacts of microgravity-induced body changes on space radiation dosimetry using the same transport method were investigated. Finally, dosimetry and risk calculations resulting from Monte Carlo radiation transport were compared with results obtained using simplified deterministic radiation transport. The results of the present study indicated that the use of phantoms that more accurately represent human anatomy can substantially improve space radiation dose estimates, most notably for exposures from solar particle events under light shielding conditions. Microgravity-induced changes were less important, but results showed that flexible phantoms could assist in optimizing astronaut body position for reducing exposures during solar particle events. Finally, little overall differences in risk calculations using simplified deterministic radiation transport and 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport were found; however, for the galactic cosmic ray ion spectra, compensating errors were observed for the constituent ions, thus exhibiting the need to perform evaluations on a particle differential basis with common cross-section libraries.

  7. 1990 IEEE Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 27th, Reno, NV, July 16-20, 1990, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleetwood, Daniel M. (editor)

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on nuclear and space radiation effects are presented. The general topics addressed include: basic mechanisms of radiation effects, dosimetry and energy-dependent effects, hardness assurance and testing techniques, single-event upset and latchup, isolation technologies, device and integrated circuit effects and hardening, spacecraft charging and electromagnetic effects.

  8. Dosimetry measurements using Timepix in mixed radiation fields induced by heavy ions; comparison with standard dosimetry methods

    PubMed Central

    Ploc, Ondrej; Kubancak, Jan; Sihver, Lembit; Uchihori, Yukio; Jakubek, Jan; Ambrozova, Iva; Molokanov, Alexander; Pinsky, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Objective of our research was to explore capabilities of Timepix for its use as a single dosemeter and LET spectrometer in mixed radiation fields created by heavy ions. We exposed it to radiation field (i) at heavy ion beams at HIMAC, Chiba, Japan, (ii) in the CERN's high-energy reference field (CERF) facility at Geneva, France/Switzerland, (iii) in the exposure room of the proton therapy laboratory at JINR, Dubna, Russia, and (iv) onboard aircraft. We compared the absolute values of dosimetric quantities obtained with Timepix and with other dosemeters and spectrometers like tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) Hawk, silicon detector Liulin, and track-etched detectors (TEDs).

  9. Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 17th, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., July 15-18, 1980, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarrity, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    The conference covered the radiation effects on devices, circuits, and systems, physics and basic radiation effects in materials, dosimetry and radiation transport, spacecraft charging, and space radiation effects. Other subjects included single particle upset phenomena, systems-generated electromagnetic pulse phenomena, fabrication of hardened components, testing techniques, and hardness assurance.

  10. Microcircuit radiation effects databank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Radiation test data submitted by many testers is collated to serve as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. Total dose damage information and single event upset cross sections, i.e., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup) are presented.

  11. Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X): High-Altitude Balloon Flight Mission for Improving the NAIRAS Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Gronoff, Guillaume P.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Alston, Erica J.; Straume, Tore; Gersey, Brad; Lusby, Terry C.; Tobiska, W. Kent; Wilkins, Rick

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) high-altitude balloon mission was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico USA on 25 September, 2015. Over 15 hours of science data were obtained from four dosimeters at altitudes above about 25 km. One of the main goals of the RaD-X mission is to improve aviation radiation model characterization of cosmic ray primaries by taking dosimetric measurements above the Pfotzer maximum before the production of secondary particles occurs. The second goal of the RaD-X mission is to facilitate the pathway toward real-time, data assimilative predictions of atmospheric cosmic radiation exposure by identifying and characterizing low-cost radiation measurement solutions.

  12. 'In vivo' Dosimetry in Tangential and Axilosupraclavicular Radiation Fields for Breast Cancer Postmastectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Heredia A.; Ruiz, Trejo C. G.; Buenfil, Burgos A. E.; Gamboa de Buen, I.; Poitevin, Chacon M. A.; Flores, J. M. Castro; Rodriguez, M. Ponce; Angeles, Zaragoza S. O.

    2008-08-11

    This work is an 'in vivo' dosimetry study for breast cancer patients, treated with external radiotherapy. Patients who have suffered a modified radical mastectomy have been included in the study. Measurements will be made with thermoluminescent dosimeters and with radiochromic films. Such dosimetry will let us know the dose distribution in the zone which the applied beams overlap and compare the measureddose with that calculated one using the Eclipse 6.5 (Varian) planning system.

  13. SU-E-J-17: A Study of Accelerator-Induced Cerenkov Radiation as a Beam Diagnostic and Dosimetry Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, F; Tosh, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate accelerator-induced Cerenkov radiation imaging as a possible beam diagnostic and medical dosimetry tool. Methods: Cerenkov emission produced by clinical accelerator beams in a water phantom was imaged using a camera system comprised of a high-sensitivity thermoelectrically-cooled CCD camera coupled to a large aperture (f/0.75) objective lens with 16:1 magnification. This large format lens allows a significant amount of the available Cerenkov light to be collected and focused onto the CCD camera to form the image. Preliminary images, obtained with 6 MV photon beams, used an unshielded camera mounted horizontally with the beam normal to the water surface, and confirmed the detection of Cerenkov radiation. Several improvements were subsequently made including the addition of radiation shielding around the camera, and altering of the beam and camera angles to give a more favorable geometry for Cerenkov light collection. A detailed study was then undertaken over a range of electron and photon beam energies and dose rates to investigate the possibility of using this technique for beam diagnostics and dosimetry. Results: A series of images were obtained at a fixed dose rate over a range of electron energies from 6 to 20 MeV. The location of maximum intensity was found to vary linearly with the energy of the beam. A linear relationship was also found between the light observed from a fixed point on the central axis and the dose rate for both photon and electron beams. Conclusion: We have found that the analysis of images of beam-induced Cerenkov light in a water phantom has potential for use as a beam diagnostic and medical dosimetry tool. Our future goals include the calibration of the light output in terms of radiation dose and development of a tomographic system for 3D Cerenkov imaging in water phantoms and other media.

  14. A review of dosimetry studies on external-beam radiation treatment with respect to second cancer induction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X George; Bednarz, Bryan; Paganetti, Harald

    2014-01-01

    It has been long known that patients treated with ionizing radiation carry a risk of developing a second cancer in their lifetimes. Factors contributing to the recently renewed concern about the second cancer include improved cancer survival rate, younger patient population as well as emerging treatment modalities such as intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) and proton therapy that can potentially elevate secondary exposures to healthy tissues distant from the target volume. In the past 30 years, external-beam treatment technologies have evolved significantly, and a large amount of data exist but appear to be difficult to comprehend and compare. This review article aims to provide readers with an understanding of the principles and methods related to scattered doses in radiation therapy by summarizing a large collection of dosimetry and clinical studies. Basic concepts and terminology are introduced at the beginning. That is followed by a comprehensive review of dosimetry studies for external-beam treatment modalities including classical radiation therapy, 3D-conformal x-ray therapy, intensity-modulated x-ray therapy (IMRT and tomotherapy) and proton therapy. Selected clinical data on second cancer induction among radiotherapy patients are also covered. Problems in past studies and controversial issues are discussed. The needs for future studies are presented at the end. PMID:18540047

  15. TOPICAL REVIEW: A review of dosimetry studies on external-beam radiation treatment with respect to second cancer induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. George; Bednarz, Bryan; Paganetti, Harald

    2008-07-01

    It has been long known that patients treated with ionizing radiation carry a risk of developing a second cancer in their lifetimes. Factors contributing to the recently renewed concern about the second cancer include improved cancer survival rate, younger patient population as well as emerging treatment modalities such as intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) and proton therapy that can potentially elevate secondary exposures to healthy tissues distant from the target volume. In the past 30 years, external-beam treatment technologies have evolved significantly, and a large amount of data exist but appear to be difficult to comprehend and compare. This review article aims to provide readers with an understanding of the principles and methods related to scattered doses in radiation therapy by summarizing a large collection of dosimetry and clinical studies. Basic concepts and terminology are introduced at the beginning. That is followed by a comprehensive review of dosimetry studies for external-beam treatment modalities including classical radiation therapy, 3D-conformal x-ray therapy, intensity-modulated x-ray therapy (IMRT and tomotherapy) and proton therapy. Selected clinical data on second cancer induction among radiotherapy patients are also covered. Problems in past studies and controversial issues are discussed. The needs for future studies are presented at the end.

  16. Potential of Hybrid Computational Phantoms for Retrospective Heart Dosimetry After Breast Radiation Therapy: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moignier, Alexandra; Derreumaux, Sylvie; Broggio, David; Beurrier, Julien; Chea, Michel; Boisserie, Gilbert; Franck, Didier; Aubert, Bernard; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Current retrospective cardiovascular dosimetry studies are based on a representative patient or simple mathematic phantoms. Here, a process of patient modeling was developed to personalize the anatomy of the thorax and to include a heart model with coronary arteries. Methods and Materials: The patient models were hybrid computational phantoms (HCPs) with an inserted detailed heart model. A computed tomography (CT) acquisition (pseudo-CT) was derived from HCP and imported into a treatment planning system where treatment conditions were reproduced. Six current patients were selected: 3 were modeled from their CT images (A patients) and the others were modelled from 2 orthogonal radiographs (B patients). The method performance and limitation were investigated by quantitative comparison between the initial CT and the pseudo-CT, namely, the morphology and the dose calculation were compared. For the B patients, a comparison with 2 kinds of representative patients was also conducted. Finally, dose assessment was focused on the whole coronary artery tree and the left anterior descending coronary. Results: When 3-dimensional anatomic information was available, the dose calculations performed on the initial CT and the pseudo-CT were in good agreement. For the B patients, comparison of doses derived from HCP and representative patients showed that the HCP doses were either better or equivalent. In the left breast radiation therapy context and for the studied cases, coronary mean doses were at least 5-fold higher than heart mean doses. Conclusions: For retrospective dose studies, it is suggested that HCP offers a better surrogate, in terms of dose accuracy, than representative patients. The use of a detailed heart model eliminates the problem of identifying the coronaries on the patient's CT.

  17. 1989 neutron and gamma personnel dosimetry intercomparison study using RADCAL (Radiation Calibration Laboratory) sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H.; Patterson, G.R. ); Murakami, H. . Dept. of Health Physics); Liu, J.C. )

    1990-10-01

    The fourteenth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study (i.e., PDIS 14) was conducted during May 1-5, 1989. A total of 48 organizations (33 from the US and 15 from abroad) participated in PDIS 14. Participants submitted by mail a total of 1,302 neutron and gamma dosimeters for this mixed field study. The type of neutron dosimeter and the percentage of participants submitting that type are as follows: TLD-albedo (40%), direct interaction TLD (22%), track (20%), film (7%), combination (7%), and bubble detectors (4%). The type of gamma dosimeter and the percentage of participants submitting that type are as follows: TLD (84%) and film (16%). Radiation sources used in the six PDIS 14 exposures included {sup 252}Cf moderated by 15-cm D{sub 2}O, {sup 252}Cf moderated by 15-cm polyethylene (gamma-enhanced with {sup 137}Cs), and {sup 238}PuBe. Neutron dose equivalents ranged from 0.44--2.63 mSv and gamma doses ranged from 0. 01-1.85 mSv. One {sup 252}Cf(D{sub 2}O) exposure was performed at a 60{degree} angle of incidence (most performance tests are at perpendicular incidence). The average neutron dosimeter response for this exposure was 70% of that at normal incidence. The average gamma dosimeter response was 96% of that at normal incidence. A total of 70% of individual reported neutron dosimeter measurements were within {plus minus}50% of reference values. If the 0.01 mSv data are omitted, approximately 90% of the individual reported gamma measurements were within {plus minus}50% of reference values. 33 refs., 9 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Video-rate optical dosimetry and dynamic visualization of IMRT and VMAT treatment plans in water using Cherenkov radiation

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Adam K.; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Scott C.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W.; Fox, Colleen J.; Gladstone, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A novel technique for optical dosimetry of dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced Cherenkov radiation in water. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire a two-dimensional (2D) projection image of the Cherenkov radiation induced by IMRT and VMAT plans, based on the Task Group 119 (TG-119) C-Shape geometry. Plans were generated using the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) and delivered using 6 MV x-rays from a Varian TrueBeam Linear Accelerator (Linac) incident on a water tank doped with the fluorophore quinine sulfate. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the Linac target trigger pulse to reduce background light artifacts, read out for a single radiation pulse, and binned to a resolution of 512 × 512 pixels. The resulting videos were analyzed temporally for various regions of interest (ROI) covering the planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risk (OAR), and summed to obtain an overall light intensity distribution, which was compared to the expected dose distribution from the TPS using a gamma-index analysis. Results: The chosen camera settings resulted in 23.5 frames per second dosimetry videos. Temporal intensity plots of the PTV and OAR ROIs confirmed the preferential delivery of dose to the PTV versus the OAR, and the gamma analysis yielded 95.9% and 96.2% agreement between the experimentally captured Cherenkov light distribution and expected TPS dose distribution based upon a 3%/3 mm dose difference and distance-to-agreement criterion for the IMRT and VMAT plans, respectively. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of Cherenkov radiation for video-rate optical dosimetry of dynamic IMRT and VMAT treatment plans. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods including the real-time nature of the acquisition, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method with both research and clinical applications. PMID:24877829

  19. Video-rate optical dosimetry and dynamic visualization of IMRT and VMAT treatment plans in water using Cherenkov radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, Adam K. E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Scott C.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W. E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu; Fox, Colleen J.; Gladstone, David J.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A novel technique for optical dosimetry of dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced Cherenkov radiation in water. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire a two-dimensional (2D) projection image of the Cherenkov radiation induced by IMRT and VMAT plans, based on the Task Group 119 (TG-119) C-Shape geometry. Plans were generated using the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) and delivered using 6 MV x-rays from a Varian TrueBeam Linear Accelerator (Linac) incident on a water tank doped with the fluorophore quinine sulfate. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the Linac target trigger pulse to reduce background light artifacts, read out for a single radiation pulse, and binned to a resolution of 512 × 512 pixels. The resulting videos were analyzed temporally for various regions of interest (ROI) covering the planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risk (OAR), and summed to obtain an overall light intensity distribution, which was compared to the expected dose distribution from the TPS using a gamma-index analysis. Results: The chosen camera settings resulted in 23.5 frames per second dosimetry videos. Temporal intensity plots of the PTV and OAR ROIs confirmed the preferential delivery of dose to the PTV versus the OAR, and the gamma analysis yielded 95.9% and 96.2% agreement between the experimentally captured Cherenkov light distribution and expected TPS dose distribution based upon a 3%/3 mm dose difference and distance-to-agreement criterion for the IMRT and VMAT plans, respectively. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of Cherenkov radiation for video-rate optical dosimetry of dynamic IMRT and VMAT treatment plans. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods including the real-time nature of the acquisition, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method with both research and clinical applications.

  20. [Genetic effects of radiation].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nori

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a short review of genetic effect of radiation. This includes methods and results of a large-scale genetic study on specific loci in mice and of various studies in the offspring of atomic-bomb survivors. As for the latter, there is no results obtained which suggest the effect of parental exposure to radiation. Further, in recent years, studies are conducted to the offspring born to parents who were survivors of childhood cancers. In several reports, the mean gonad dose is quite large whereas in most instances, the results do not indicate genetic effect following parental exposure to radiation. Possible reasons for the difficulties in detecting genetic effect of radiation are discussed. PMID:22514926

  1. From ``micro`` to ``macro`` internal dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1994-06-01

    Radiation dose is the amount of radiation energy deposited per unit mass of absorbing tissue. Internal dosimetry applies to assessments of dose to internal organs from penetrating radiation sources outside the body and from radionuclides taken into the body. Dosimetry is essential for correlating energy deposition with biological effects that are observed when living tissues are irradiated. Dose-response information provides the basis for radiation protection standards and risk assessment. Radiation interactions with living matter takes place on a microscopic scale, and the manifestation of damage may be evident at the cellular, multi-cellular, and even organ levels of biological organization. The relative biological effectiveness of ionization radiation is largely determined by the spatial distribution of energy deposition events within microscopic as well as macroscopic biological targets of interest. The spatial distribution of energy imparted is determined by the spatial distribution of radionuclides and properties of the emitted charged-particle radiation involved. The nonuniformity of energy deposition events in microscopic volumes, particularly from high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, results in large variations in the amount of energy imparted to very small volumes or targets. Microdosimetry is the study of energy deposition events at the cellular level. Macrodosimetry is a term for conventional dose averaging at the tissue or organ level. In between is a level of dosimetry sometimes referred to as multi-cellular dosimetry. The distinction between these terms and their applications in assessment of dose from internally deposited radionuclides is described.

  2. 2.3.2 Biological Effects of Non-Ionizing Radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, J. H.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Subsection '2.3.2 Biological Effects of Non-Ionizing Radiations' of the Section '2.3 Biological Effects' of the Chapter '2 Radiation and Biological Effects' with the contents:

  3. THE UF FAMILY OF REFERENCE HYBRID PHANTOMS FOR COMPUTATIONAL RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Hurtado, Jorge; Pafundi, Deanna; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2009-01-01

    Computational human phantoms are computer models used to obtain dose distributions within the human body exposed to internal or external radiation sources. In addition, they are increasingly used to develop detector efficiencies for in-vivo whole-body counters. Two classes of the computational human phantoms have been widely utilized for dosimetry calculation: stylized and voxel phantoms, that describe human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Stylized phantoms are flexible in that changes to organ position and shape are possible given avoidance of region overlap, while voxel phantoms are typically fixed to a given patient anatomy, yet can be proportionally scaled to match individuals of larger or smaller stature, but of equivalent organ anatomy. Voxel phantoms provide much better anatomical realism as compared to stylized phantoms which are intrinsically limited by mathematical surface equations. To address the drawbacks of these phantoms, hybrid phantoms based on non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces have been introduced wherein anthropomorphic flexibility and anatomic realism are both preserved. Researchers at the University of Florida have introduced a series of hybrid phantoms representing the ICRP Publication 89 reference newborn, 15-year, and adult male and female. In this study, six additional phantoms are added to the UF family of hybrid phantoms – those of the reference 1-year, 5-year, and 10-year child. Head and torso CT images of patients whose ages were close to the targeted ages were obtained under approved protocols. Major organs and tissues were segmented from these images using an image processing software, 3D-DOCTOR™. NURBS and polygon mesh surfaces were then used to model individual organs and tissues after importing the segmented organ models to the 3D NURBS modeling software, Rhinoceros™. The phantoms were matched to four reference datasets: (1) standard anthropometric data, (2) reference organ masses from ICRP Publication 89, (3) reference elemental compositions provided in ICRP 89 as well as ICRU Report 46, and (4) reference data on the alimentary tract organs given in ICRP Publications 89 and 100. Various adjustments and refinements to the organ systems of the previously described newborn, 15-year, and adult phantoms are also presented. The UF series of hybrid phantoms retain the non-uniform scalability of stylized phantoms while maintaining the anatomical realism of patient-specific voxel phantoms with respect to organ shape, depth and inter-organ distance. While the final versions of these phantoms are in a voxelized format for radiation transport simulation, their primary format is given as NURBS and polygon mesh surfaces, thus permitting one to sculpt non-reference phantoms using the reference phantoms as an anatomic template. PMID:20019401

  4. The UF family of reference hybrid phantoms for computational radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Hurtado, Jorge; Pafundi, Deanna; Williams, Jonathan L; Bolch, Wesley E

    2010-01-21

    Computational human phantoms are computer models used to obtain dose distributions within the human body exposed to internal or external radiation sources. In addition, they are increasingly used to develop detector efficiencies for in vivo whole-body counters. Two classes of computational human phantoms have been widely utilized for dosimetry calculation: stylized and voxel phantoms that describe human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Stylized phantoms are flexible in that changes to organ position and shape are possible given avoidance of region overlap, while voxel phantoms are typically fixed to a given patient anatomy, yet can be proportionally scaled to match individuals of larger or smaller stature, but of equivalent organ anatomy. Voxel phantoms provide much better anatomical realism as compared to stylized phantoms which are intrinsically limited by mathematical surface equations. To address the drawbacks of these phantoms, hybrid phantoms based on non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces have been introduced wherein anthropomorphic flexibility and anatomic realism are both preserved. Researchers at the University of Florida have introduced a series of hybrid phantoms representing the ICRP Publication 89 reference newborn, 15 year, and adult male and female. In this study, six additional phantoms are added to the UF family of hybrid phantoms-those of the reference 1 year, 5 year and 10 year child. Head and torso CT images of patients whose ages were close to the targeted ages were obtained under approved protocols. Major organs and tissues were segmented from these images using an image processing software, 3D-DOCTOR. NURBS and polygon mesh surfaces were then used to model individual organs and tissues after importing the segmented organ models to the 3D NURBS modeling software, Rhinoceros. The phantoms were matched to four reference datasets: (1) standard anthropometric data, (2) reference organ masses from ICRP Publication 89, (3) reference elemental compositions provided in ICRP 89 as well as ICRU Report 46, and (4) reference data on the alimentary tract organs given in ICRP Publications 89 and 100. Various adjustments and refinements to the organ systems of the previously described newborn, 15 year and adult phantoms are also presented. The UF series of hybrid phantoms retain the non-uniform scalability of stylized phantoms while maintaining the anatomical realism of patient-specific voxel phantoms with respect to organ shape, depth and inter-organ distance. While the final versions of these phantoms are in a voxelized format for radiation transport simulation, their primary format is given as NURBS and polygon mesh surfaces, thus permitting one to sculpt non-reference phantoms using the reference phantoms as an anatomic template. PMID:20019401

  5. The UF family of reference hybrid phantoms for computational radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Hurtado, Jorge; Pafundi, Deanna; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2010-01-01

    Computational human phantoms are computer models used to obtain dose distributions within the human body exposed to internal or external radiation sources. In addition, they are increasingly used to develop detector efficiencies for in vivo whole-body counters. Two classes of computational human phantoms have been widely utilized for dosimetry calculation: stylized and voxel phantoms that describe human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Stylized phantoms are flexible in that changes to organ position and shape are possible given avoidance of region overlap, while voxel phantoms are typically fixed to a given patient anatomy, yet can be proportionally scaled to match individuals of larger or smaller stature, but of equivalent organ anatomy. Voxel phantoms provide much better anatomical realism as compared to stylized phantoms which are intrinsically limited by mathematical surface equations. To address the drawbacks of these phantoms, hybrid phantoms based on non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces have been introduced wherein anthropomorphic flexibility and anatomic realism are both preserved. Researchers at the University of Florida have introduced a series of hybrid phantoms representing the ICRP Publication 89 reference newborn, 15 year, and adult male and female. In this study, six additional phantoms are added to the UF family of hybrid phantoms—those of the reference 1 year, 5 year and 10 year child. Head and torso CT images of patients whose ages were close to the targeted ages were obtained under approved protocols. Major organs and tissues were segmented from these images using an image processing software, 3D-DOCTOR™. NURBS and polygon mesh surfaces were then used to model individual organs and tissues after importing the segmented organ models to the 3D NURBS modeling software, Rhinoceros™. The phantoms were matched to four reference datasets: (1) standard anthropometric data, (2) reference organ masses from ICRP Publication 89, (3) reference elemental compositions provided in ICRP 89 as well as ICRU Report 46, and (4) reference data on the alimentary tract organs given in ICRP Publications 89 and 100. Various adjustments and refinements to the organ systems of the previously described newborn, 15 year and adult phantoms are also presented. The UF series of hybrid phantoms retain the non-uniform scalability of stylized phantoms while maintaining the anatomical realism of patient-specific voxel phantoms with respect to organ shape, depth and inter-organ distance. While the final versions of these phantoms are in a voxelized format for radiation transport simulation, their primary format is given as NURBS and polygon mesh surfaces, thus permitting one to sculpt non-reference phantoms using the reference phantoms as an anatomic template.

  6. Computational lymphatic node models in pediatric and adult hybrid phantoms for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lamart, Stephanie; Moroz, Brian E.

    2013-03-01

    We developed models of lymphatic nodes for six pediatric and two adult hybrid computational phantoms to calculate the lymphatic node dose estimates from external and internal radiation exposures. We derived the number of lymphatic nodes from the recommendations in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 23 and 89 at 16 cluster locations for the lymphatic nodes: extrathoracic, cervical, thoracic (upper and lower), breast (left and right), mesentery (left and right), axillary (left and right), cubital (left and right), inguinal (left and right) and popliteal (left and right), for different ages (newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-year-old and adult). We modeled each lymphatic node within the voxel format of the hybrid phantoms by assuming that all nodes have identical size derived from published data except narrow cluster sites. The lymph nodes were generated by the following algorithm: (1) selection of the lymph node site among the 16 cluster sites; (2) random sampling of the location of the lymph node within a spherical space centered at the chosen cluster site; (3) creation of the sphere or ovoid of tissue representing the node based on lymphatic node characteristics defined in ICRP Publications 23 and 89. We created lymph nodes until the pre-defined number of lymphatic nodes at the selected cluster site was reached. This algorithm was applied to pediatric (newborn, 1-, 5-and 10-year-old male, and 15-year-old males) and adult male and female ICRP-compliant hybrid phantoms after voxelization. To assess the performance of our models for internal dosimetry, we calculated dose conversion coefficients, called S values, for selected organs and tissues with Iodine-131 distributed in six lymphatic node cluster sites using MCNPX2.6, a well validated Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Our analysis of the calculations indicates that the S values were significantly affected by the location of the lymph node clusters and that the values increased for smaller phantoms due to the shorter inter-organ distances compared to the bigger phantoms. By testing sensitivity of S values to random sampling and voxel resolution, we confirmed that the lymph node model is reasonably stable and consistent for different random samplings and voxel resolutions.

  7. Radiation Effects In Space

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Ram K.

    2011-06-01

    Protecting space missions from severe exposures from radiation, in general, and long duration/deep space human missions, in particular, is a critical design driver, and could be a limiting factor. The space radiation environment consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar particle events (SPE), trapped radiation, and includes ions of all the known elements over a very broad energy range. These ions penetrate spacecraft materials producing nuclear fragments and secondary particles that damage biological tissues and microelectronic devices. One is required to know how every element (and all isotopes of each element) in the periodic table interacts and fragments on every other element in the same table as a function of kinetic energy ranging over many decades. In addition, the accuracy of the input information and database, in general and nuclear data in particular, impacts radiation exposure health assessments and payload penalty. After a brief review of effects of space radiation on materials and electronics, human space missions to Mars is discussed.

  8. A computational tool for patient specific dosimetry and radiobiological modeling of selective internal radiation therapy with (90)Y microspheres.

    PubMed

    Kalantzis, Georgios; Leventouri, Theodora; Apte, Aditiya; Shang, Charles

    2015-11-01

    In recent years we have witnessed tremendous progress in selective internal radiation therapy. In clinical practice, quite often, radionuclide therapy is planned using simple models based on standard activity values or activity administered per unit body weight or surface area in spite of the admission that radiation-dose methods provide more accurate dosimetric results. To address that issue, the authors developed a Matlab-based computational software, named Patient Specific Yttrium-90 Dosimetry Toolkit (PSYDT). PSYDT was designed for patient specific voxel-based dosimetric calculations and radiobiological modeling of selective internal radiation therapy with (90)Y microspheres. The developed toolkit is composed of three dimensional dose calculations for both bremsstrahlung and beta emissions. Subsequently, radiobiological modeling is performed on a per-voxel basis and cumulative dose volume histograms (DVHs) are generated. In this report we describe the functionality and visualization features of PSYDT. PMID:26296058

  9. 3D dosimetry estimation for selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using SPECT/CT images: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debebe, Senait A.; Franquiz, Juan; McGoron, Anthony J.

    2015-03-01

    Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a common way to treat liver cancer that cannot be treated surgically. SIRT involves administration of Yttrium - 90 (90Y) microspheres via the hepatic artery after a diagnostic procedure using 99mTechnetium (Tc)-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) to detect extrahepatic shunting to the lung or the gastrointestinal tract. Accurate quantification of radionuclide administered to patients and radiation dose absorbed by different organs is of importance in SIRT. Accurate dosimetry for SIRT allows optimization of dose delivery to the target tumor and may allow for the ability to assess the efficacy of the treatment. In this study, we proposed a method that can efficiently estimate radiation absorbed dose from 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT images of liver and the surrounding organs. Bremsstrahlung radiation from 90Y was simulated using the Compton window of 99mTc (78keV at 57%). 99mTc images acquired at the photopeak energy window were used as a standard to examine the accuracy of dosimetry prediction by the simulated bremsstrahlung images. A Liqui-Phil abdominal phantom with liver, stomach and two tumor inserts was imaged using a Philips SPECT/CT scanner. The Dose Point Kernel convolution method was used to find the radiation absorbed dose at a voxel level for a three dimensional dose distribution. This method will allow for a complete estimate of the distribution of radiation absorbed dose by tumors, liver, stomach and other surrounding organs at the voxel level. The method provides a quantitative predictive method for SIRT treatment outcome and administered dose response for patients who undergo the treatment.

  10. Effect of chemical composition and density of the pelvic structure in intracavitary brachytherapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chávez-Aguilera, N.; Torres-García, E.; Mitsoura, E.

    2011-03-01

    High dose rate (HDR) and low dose rate (LDR) intracavitary brachytherapies dosimetry in clinical practice are typically performed by commercial treatment planning systems. However, these systems do not fully consider the heterogeneities present in the real structure of the patient. The aim of this work is to obtain isodose curves and surfaces around the usual array of sources used in LDR ( 137Cs) and HDR ( 192Ir) intracavitary brachytherapy by Monte Carlo simulation, considering the real anatomic structure, density and chemical composition of media and tissues from the female pelvic region. The structural information was obtained from computed tomography images in the DICOM format. A voxel phantom (VP) was developed to perform ionizing radiation transport, considering the gamma spectrum of 137Cs and 192Ir. The absorbed dose was computed within each voxel of 2×2×3 mm 3. Four materials were considered in the VP—air, fat, muscle tissue and bone; however, one material per voxel was defined. Results show and quantify the effect of density and chemical composition of the medium on the absorbed dose distribution. According to them, the treatment planning systems underestimate the absorbed dose by 8% approximately for both radionuclides. In a heterogeneous medium, the absorbed dose distribution of 192Ir is more irregular than that of 137Cs but spatially better defined.

  11. Microcircuit radiation effects databank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This databank is the collation of radiation test data submitted by many testers and serves as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. It contains radiation sensitivity results from ground tests and is divided into two sections. Section A lists total dose damage information, and section B lists single event upset cross sections, I.E., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup).

  12. Final Report Summary: Radiation dosimetry of Cu-64-labeled radiotherapy agents using PET [Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Carolyn J.; Cutler, P.D.

    2002-09-01

    This project began in 1996, and was completed in July 2001. The overall goals were to compare various methods of dosimetry of PET imaging agents, as well as develop more optimal methods. One of the major accomplishments of this grant was the human PET imaging studies of a positron-emitting radiopharmaceutical for somatostatin-receptor imaging, and subsequent dosimetry calculations resulting from this study. In addition, we collaborated with Darrell Fisher and Edmund Hui to develop a MIRD-hamster program for calculating hamster organ and tumor dosimetry in hamster models. Progress was made towards a point kernel approach to more accurately determining absorbed doses to normal organs, as well as towards co-registration of PET and MRI images. This report focuses on the progress made in the last 15 months of the grant, which in general is a summary of the progress over the 5 years the project was ongoing.

  13. Biological dosimetry of solar radiation for different simulated ozone column thicknesses.

    PubMed

    Horneck, G; Rettberg, P; Rabbow, E; Strauch, W; Seckmeyer, G; Facius, R; Reitz, G; Strauch, K; Schott, J U

    1996-02-01

    During the Spacelab mission D-2, in the experiment RD-UVRAD, precalibrated biofilms consisting of dry monolayers of immobilised spores of Bacillus subtilis (strain Marburg) were exposed, for defined intervals, to extraterrestrial solar radiation filtered through an optical filtering system, to simulate different ozone column thicknesses. After the mission, the biofilms were processed and optical densities indicative of any biological activity were determined for each exposure condition by image analysis. For the different simulated ozone column thicknesses, biologically effective irradiances were experimentally determined from the biofilm data and compared with calculated data using a radiative transfer model and the known biofilm action spectrum. The data show a strong increase in biologically effective solar UV irradiance with decreasing (simulated) ozone concentrations. The full spectrum of extraterrestrial solar radiation leads to an increment of the biologically effective irradiance by nearly three orders of magnitude compared with the solar spectrum at the surface of the Earth for average total ozone columns. PMID:8622182

  14. Summary of radiation dosimetry results on U.S. and Soviet manned spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Benton, E V

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of the radiation environment aboard U.S. and Soviet manned spacecraft are reviewed and summarized. Data obtained mostly from passive and some active radiation detectors now exist for the case of low Earth-orbit missions. Major uncertainties still exist for space exposure in high altitude, high inclination, geostationary orbits, in connection with solar effects and that of shielding. Data from active detectors flown in Spacelabs 1 and 2 suggest that a variety of phenomena must be understood before the effects of long-term exposure at the space-station type of orbit and shielding can be properly assessed. PMID:11537239

  15. Summary of radiation dosimetry results on U.S. and Soviet manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of the radiation environment aboard U.S. and Soviet manned spacecraft are reviewed and summarized. Data obtained mostly from passive and some active radiation detectors now exist for the case of low-earth-orbit missions. Major uncertainties still exist for space exposure in high-altitude, high-inclination geostationary orbits, in connection with solar effects and that of shielding. Data from active detectors flown in Spacelabs 1 and 2 suggest that a variety of phenomena must be understood before the effects of long-term exposure at the Space Station type of orbit and shielding can be properly assessed.

  16. 1988 IEEE Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 25th, Portland, OR, July 12-15, 1988, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, Peter G. (editor)

    1988-01-01

    The effects of nuclear and space radiation on the performance of electronic devices are discussed in reviews and reports of recent investigations. Topics addressed include the basic mechanisms of radiation effects, dosimetry and energy-dependent effects, sensors in and for radiation environments, EMP/SGEMP/IEMP phenomena, radiation effects on isolation technologies, and spacecraft charging and space radiation effects. Consideration is given to device radiation effects and hardening, hardness assurance and testing techniques, IC radiation effects and hardening, and single-event phenomena.

  17. Small Field: dosimetry in electron disequilibrium region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Timothy C.

    2010-11-01

    Small fields are more commonly used for radiation therapy because of the development of IMRT, stereotactic radiosurgery, and other special equipments such as Cyberknife and Tomotherapy. The dosimetry in the sub-centimeter field can result in substantial uncertainties because of the presence of electron disequilibrium due to the large dose gradients in the field. It is further complicated by the introduction of various radiation detectors, which usually perturb the conditions of disequilibrium. Hence additional corrections are required to maintain the dosimetric accuracy previously achieved for standard radiation dosimetry. A review of small field dosimetry provides some insights into the methods to characterize the detector convolution kernel and other methods to characterize detector perturbation effect.

  18. Radiation Dosimetry and Biodistribution of the Translocator Protein Radiotracer [11C]DAA1106 Determined with PET/CT in Healthy Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Arthur L.; Okita, Kyoji; Shieh, Jennifer; Liang, Lidia; Hubert, Robert; Mamoun, Michael; Farahi, Judah; Mandelkern, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction When microglia become activated (an integral part of neuroinflammation), cellular morphology changes and expression of translocator protein (TSPO) 18 kDa is increased. Over the past several years, [11C]DAA1106 has emerged as a reliable radiotracer for labeling TSPO with high affinity during positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. While [11C]DAA1106 PET scanning has been used in several research studies, a radiation dosimetry study of this radiotracer in humans has not yet been published. Methods Twelve healthy participants underwent full body dynamic [11C]DAA1106 PET scanning, with 8 sequential whole body scans (approximately 12 bed positions each), following a single injection. Regions of interest were drawn manually and time activity curves (TACs) were obtained for 15 organs. OLINDA/EXM 1.1 was used to compute radiation absorbed doses to the target organs, as well as effective dose (ED) and effective dose equivalent (EDE). Results The ED and EDE were 4.06 ± 0.58 μSv/MBq and 5.89 ± 0.83 μSv/MBq, respectively. The highest absorbed doses were to the heart wall, kidney, liver, pancreas, and spleen. TACs revealed that peak dose rates are during the first scan (at 6 min) for all organs other than the urinary bladder wall, which had its peak dose rate during the fourth scan (at 30 min). Conclusions The recently developed radiotracer [11C]DAA1106 has its EDE and target-organ absorbed dose such that, for a single administration, its radiation dosimetry is well within the U.S. FDA guidelines for basic research studies in adults. This dose level implies that the dosimetry for multiple [11C]DAA1106 scans within a given year also falls within FDA guidelines, and this favorable property makes this radiotracer suitable for examining microglial activation repeatedly over time, which may in the future be useful for longitudinal tracking of disease progression and monitoring of therapy response in conditions marked by neuroinflammation (e.g., head trauma and multiple sclerosis). PMID:25156039

  19. Plasma miRNA as Biomarkers for Assessment of Total-Body Radiation Exposure Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yulei; Biswal, Shyam

    2011-01-01

    The risk of radiation exposure, due to accidental or malicious release of ionizing radiation, is a major public health concern. Biomarkers that can rapidly identify severely-irradiated individuals requiring prompt medical treatment in mass-casualty incidents are urgently needed. Stable blood or plasma-based biomarkers are attractive because of the ease for sample collection. We tested the hypothesis that plasma miRNA expression profiles can accurately reflect prior radiation exposure. We demonstrated using a murine model that plasma miRNA expression signatures could distinguish mice that received total body irradiation doses of 0.5 Gy, 2 Gy, and 10 Gy (at 6 h or 24 h post radiation) with accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of above 90%. Taken together, these data demonstrate that plasma miRNA profiles can be highly predictive of different levels of radiation exposure. Thus, plasma-based biomarkers can be used to assess radiation exposure after mass-casualty incidents, and it may provide a valuable tool in developing and implementing effective countermeasures. PMID:21857976

  20. Evaluation of a fast method of EPID-based dosimetry for intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Nelms, Benjamin E; Rasmussen, Karl H; Tome, Wolfgang A

    2010-01-01

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) could potentially be useful for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) QA. The data density, high resolution, large active area, and efficiency of the MV EPID make it an attractive option. However, EPIDs were designed as imaging devices, not dosimeters, and as a result they do not inherently measure dose in tissue equivalent media. EPIDose (Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL) is a tool designed for the use of EPIDs in IMRT QA that uses raw MV EPID images (no additional build-up and independent of gantry angle, but with dark and flood field corrections applied) to estimate absolute dose planes normal to the beam axis in a homogeneous media (i.e. similar to conventional IMRT QA methods). However, because of the inherent challenges of the EPID-based dosimetry, validating and commissioning such a system must be done very carefully, by exploring the range of use cases and using well-proven "standards" for comparison. In this work, a multi-institutional study was performed to verify accurate EPID image to dose plane conversion over a variety of conditions. Converted EPID images were compared to 2D diode array absolute dose measurements for 188 fields from 28 clinical IMRT treatment plans. These plans were generated using a number of commercially available treatment planning systems (TPS) covering various treatment sites including prostate, head and neck, brain, and lung. The data included three beam energies (6, 10, and 15 MV) and both step-and-shoot and dynamic MLC fields. Out of 26,207 points of comparison over 188 fields analyzed, the average overall field pass rate was 99.7% when 3 mm/3% DTA criteria were used (range 94.0-100 per field). The pass rates for more stringent criteria were 97.8% for 2mm/2% DTA (range 82.0-100 per field), and 84.6% for 1 mm/1% DTA (range 54.7-100 per field). Individual patient-specific sites as well, as different beam energies, followed similar trends to the overall pass rates. PMID:20592703

  1. Water calorimetry-based radiation dosimetry in iridium-192 brachytherapy and proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarfehnia, Arman

    The aim of this work is to develop and evaluate a primary standard for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources as well as for active spot scanning proton radiotherapy beams based on stagnant 4 °C water calorimetry. The measurements were performed using an in-house built water calorimeter and a parallel-plate calorimeter vessel. The dose measurement results of the McGill calorimeter were validated in high energy photon beams against Canada's national established primary standard at the NRC. The measurements in brachytherapy were performed with a spring-loaded catheter holder which allowed for the 192Ir source to come directly inside the water calorimeter. The COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS(TM) software was used to solve the heat transport equation numerically for a detailed geometrical model of our experimental setup. In brachytherapy, reference dosimetry protocols were also developed and used to measure the dose to water directly using thimble type ionization chambers and Gafchromic films with traceable 60Co (or higher energy photons) calibration factor. Based on water calorimetry standard, we measured an absolute dose rate to water of 361+/-7 microGy/(h·U) at 55 mm source-to-detector separation. The 1.9 % uncertainty on water calorimetry results is in contrast with the current recommended AAPM TG-43 protocol that achieves at best an uncertainty (k=1) of 2.5 % based on an indirect dose to water measurement technique. All measurement results from water calorimetry, ion chamber, film, and TG-43 agreed to within 0.83 %. We achieved an overall dose uncertainty of 0.4 % and 0.6 % for scattered and scanned proton radiation water calorimetry, respectively. The water calorimetry absorbed dose to water results agreed with those obtained through the currently recommended IAEA TRS-398 protocol (measurements made using an ionization chamber with a 60Co calibration factor) to better than 0.14 % and 0.32 % in scattered and scanned proton beams, respectively. In conclusion, this work forms the foundation for a primary standard in 192Ir brachytherapy and scanning proton radiotherapy using water calorimetry. Not only have we been able to directly and absolute measure the absorbed dose to water, but the uncertainties of dose results over the current accepted protocols have been improved dramatically.

  2. Evaluation of an Epson flatbed scanner to read Gafchromic EBT films for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, B. C.; Lopes, M. C.; Capela, M.

    2009-02-01

    Gafchromic EBT (EBT) films are becoming increasingly popular due to their advantageous properties. When flatbed colour scanners are used for film dosimetry, a good quality control of the scanning device is a crucial step for accurate results. The proposal of this work was to fully assess the performance of the scanner Epson Expression 10000XL in order to quantify all parameters and needed corrections to minimize dose uncertainties. A standard step tablet, with 32 steps and optical densities from 0.06 to 3.8, was used to check the scanner linearity. The scanner warming-up effect and reproducibility were evaluated by performing 30 consecutive scans plus 20 scans in 15 min intervals. The scanning colour modes: 24 and 48 bits and scanning resolutions from 50 to 300 dpi were tested. A Wiener filter with different pixels regions was applied with the purpose of reducing the film noise. All scans were made in transmission mode with a constant film orientation. The red colour channel was posteriorly extracted from the images to maximize readout sensitivity. Two EBT films were irradiated, perpendicularly and parallel to beam incidence, with a 6 MV photon beam with doses that ranged from 0.2 to 3 Gy. A polynomial expression was used to convert optical density into dose. Dose uncertainty was quantified applying error propagation analysis. A correction for the non-uniform response of the scanner was determined using five films irradiated with a uniform dose. The scanner response was linear until an optical density of approximately 1 which corresponds to doses higher than those of clinical interest for EBT films. The scanner signal stabilized after seven readings. Scanner reproducibility around 0.2% was obtained either with the scanner warm or cold. However, reproducibility was significantly reduced when comparing images digitized with the scanner at different temperatures. Neither the colour depth mode, the scanning resolution, the multiscan option nor the Wiener filter had a significant effect on the shape of the calibration curve. However, a reduction in dose uncertainty was possible by selecting appropriate reading parameters. These are a 48 bit colour depth, a 75 dpi resolution and repeating the scan four times. Finally, the two dimensional Wiener filter applied to a 3 × 3 pixel region to the red component of the image reduced the experimental scan uncertainty to about 0.5% for doses higher than 0.5 Gy. Total scan uncertainty was less than 2% for a perpendicular calibration and reduced to less than 1% for a parallel calibration. A dose over-estimation of around 5% for clinical doses may be made if the image acquired is not corrected for the non-uniform response of the scanner. A protocol to read EBT films using the Epson Expression 10000XL scanner was established for IMRT verification. The contribution for the overall uncertainty in film dosimetry coming from the scanning process was estimated to be around 0.5% for doses higher than 0.5 Gy when reading parameters are optimized. Total scan uncertainty achieved is about 2% when using a perpendicular calibration. It can further be reduced if a parallel calibration is used.

  3. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2005-02-25

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database.

  4. Cell specific radiation dosimetry in skeleton from life-span carcinogenesis studies

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, S.S.J.

    1993-04-05

    The osteogenic sarcoma is the dominant life-threatening pathology in lifespan studies of beagles exposed to alpha-emitting bone-seeking radionuclides. It was deduced from these studies that certain skeletal sites are more prone to develop tumors. This project sought to determine the bone cells at risk and their cell-specific radiation dose. The cell-specific radiation dose values are related to loss and high Ra-226 and Pu-239 induced osteogenic sarcoma sites, to test different dose response hypothesis and predict the extent of effects in humans.

  5. Cell specific radiation dosimetry in skeleton from life-span carcinogenesis studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, S.S.J.

    1993-04-05

    The osteogenic sarcoma is the dominant life-threatening pathology in lifespan studies of beagles exposed to alpha-emitting bone-seeking radionuclides. It was deduced from these studies that certain skeletal sites are more prone to develop tumors. This project sought to determine the bone cells at risk and their cell-specific radiation dose. The cell-specific radiation dose values are related to loss and high Ra-226 and Pu-239 induced osteogenic sarcoma sites, to test different dose response hypothesis and predict the extent of effects in humans.

  6. A Colorimetric Plasmonic Nanosensor for Dosimetry of Therapeutic Levels of Ionizing Radiation.

    PubMed

    Pushpavanam, Karthik; Narayanan, Eshwaran; Chang, John; Sapareto, Stephen; Rege, Kaushal

    2015-12-22

    Modern radiation therapy using highly automated linear accelerators is a complex process that maximizes doses to tumors and minimizes incident dose to normal tissues. Dosimeters can help determine the radiation dose delivered to target diseased tissue while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. However, existing dosimeters can be complex to fabricate, expensive, and cumbersome to operate. Here, we demonstrate studies of a liquid phase, visually evaluated plasmonic nanosensor that detects radiation doses commonly employed in fractionated radiotherapy (1-10 Gy) for tumor ablation. We accomplished this by employing ionizing radiation, in concert with templating lipid surfactant micelles, in order to convert colorless salt solutions of univalent gold ions (Au(1)) to maroon-colored dispersions of plasmonic gold nanoparticles. Differences in color intensities of nanoparticle dispersions were employed as quantitative indicators of the radiation dose. The nanoparticles thus formed were characterized using UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The role of lipid surfactants on nanoparticle formation was investigated by varying the chain lengths while maintaining the same headgroup and counterion; the effect of surfactant concentration on detection efficacy was also investigated. The plasmonic nanosensor was able to detect doses as low as 0.5 Gy and demonstrated a linear detection range of 0.5-2 Gy or 5-37 Gy depending on the concentration of the lipid surfactant employed. The plasmonic nanosensor was also able to detect radiation levels in anthropomorphic prostate phantoms when administered together with endorectal balloons, indicating its potential utility as a dosimeter in fractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Taken together, our results indicate that this simple visible nanosensor has strong potential to be used as a dosimeter for validating delivered radiation doses in fractionated radiotherapies in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:26434692

  7. Evaluation of The Combined Effects of Hyperthermia, Cobalt-60 Gamma Rays and IUdR on Cultured Glioblastoma Spheroid Cells and Dosimetry Using TLD-100

    PubMed Central

    Neshasteh-Riz, Ali; Rahdani, Rozhin; Mostaar, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objective In radiation treatment, the irradiation which is effective enough to control the tumors far exceeds normal-tissues tolerance. Thus to avoid such unfavourable outcomes, some methods sensitizing the tumor cells to radiation are used. Iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) is a halogenated thymidine analogue that known to be effective as a radiosensitizer in human cancer therapy. Improving the potential efficacy of radiation therapy after combining to hyperthermia depends on the magnitude of the differential sensitization of the hyperthermic effects or on the differential cytotoxicity of the radiation effects on the tumor cells. In this study, we evaluated the combined effects of IUdR, hyperthermia and gamma rays of 60Co on human glioblastoma spheroids culture. Materials and Methods In this experimental study,the cultured spheroids with 100µm diameter were treated by 1 µM IUdR, 43°C hyperthermia for an hour and 2 Gy gamma rays, respectively. The DNA damages induced in cells were compared using alkaline comet assay method, and dosimetry was then performed by TLD-100. Comet scores were calculated as mean ± standard error of mean (SEM) using one-way ANOVA. Results Comparison of DNA damages induced by IUdR and hyperthermia + gamma treatment showed 2.67- and 1.92-fold enhancement, respectively, as compared to the damages induced by radiation alone or radiation combined IUdR. Dosimetry results showed the accurate dose delivered to cells. Conclusion Analysis of the comet tail moments of spheroids showed that the radiation treatments combined with hyperthermia and IUdR caused significant radiosensitization when compared to related results of irradiation alone or of irradiation with IUdR. These results suggest a potential clinical advantage of combining radiation with hyperthermia and indicate effectiveness of hyperthermia treatment in inducing cytotoxicity of tumor cells. PMID:24611138

  8. Application of fission track detectors to californium-252 neutron dosimetry in tissue near the radiation source.

    PubMed

    Oswald, R A; Lanzl, L H; Rozenfeld, M

    1981-01-01

    Fission track detectors were applied to a unique problem in neutron dosimetry. Measurements of neutron doses were required at locations within a tumor of 1 cm diameter implanted on the back of a mouse and surrounded by a square array of four 252Cf medical sources. Measurements made in a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom showed that the neutron dose rate to the center of the tumor was 2.18 rads micrograms-1 h-1 +/- 8.4%. The spatial variation of neutron dose to the tumor ranged from 1.88 to 2.55 rads micrograms-1 h-1. These measurements agree with calculated values of neutron dose to those locations in the phantom. Fission track detectors have been found to be a reliable tool for neutron dosimetry for geometries in which one wishes to know neutron dose values which may vary considerably over distances of 1 cm or less. PMID:7322053

  9. Radiation dosimetry using Fricke-infused gels and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chu, W C

    2001-01-01

    We have witnessed the advancements of MRI-Fricke-infused gel dosimetry since its commencing in 1984. Over the years, many efforts have been spent to improve the method's efficacy, i.e., to improve its dose-response sensitivity, reproducibility and measurement accuracy. In this article, we give a review of the development of this relatively new dosimetric method. An example of applying this method to gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery dose distribution mapping is also given. PMID:11254166

  10. Nanoparticle-aided Radiation Therapy: Micro-dosimetry and Evaluation of the Mediators Producing Biological Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Nava Raj

    Radiation therapy has been established as a standard technique for cancer treatment. Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the application of many new approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Achievement of selective enhancement in radiation dose deposition within a targeted tumor, while sparing surrounding normal structures, remains a challenge and one of the major objectives of cancer-related research. This objective can be realized by the insertion of high atomic number (Z) materials in the tumor site. Due to their high atomic number (Z=79) and favorable biological compatibility, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been found very promising in this respect. Another candidate material, platinum (Z=78), offering very similar radiation interaction properties to gold and exhibiting additional cytotoxic effects, has been exploited in chemotherapeutic agents for a long time. We explore the radiation effects near the interface of gold and platinum with tissue under a wide range of energies with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Our studies show that AuNPs and PtNPs (platinum nanoparticles) can offer a useful dose enhancement effect even in high energy radiotherapy beams, which can be important when critical structures are located close to the tumor. Our MC calculated dose enhancement increase of about 50% due to the removal of the flattening filter from the path of the photon beam of Varian TrueBeam accelerator suggests that flattening-filter-free beams are better suited for nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy. Also, the increase in dose enhancement with the tumor depth suggests that nanopartcle-aided radiation therapy can yield a better outcome while treating deep-seated tumors. Experimental microdosimetry is a non-trivial task, demanding detectors with small sensitive volumes to achieve a high spatial resolution. We have developed a microdosimetry technique utilizing an inexpensive in-house-built photodetector for the measurement of dose in a narrow high dose gradient region next to the interface between gold and tissue. Verification of the experimental results against MC simulations provides a foundation for the application of this technique to biological systems such as cell cultures. Recent studies demonstrating higher cancer cell killing than the predictions based on MC-modeled dose deposition due to AuNPs under radiation beams suggest the action of biochemical effects. Since free radicals are responsible for ~ 2/3 of cell killing in radiotherapy photon beams, we explore the role of gold and platinum in generating free radicals with the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Our results demonstrating higher free radical generation enhancement than the MC modeled enhancement in dose deposition due to thin gold or platinum wires under irradiation suggest that the high-Z material surfaces act as catalysts for free radical generation. The higher surface area to volume ratio and the size quantization effect should make this phenomenon even more pronounced with nanoparticles, thus augmenting the cell killing effect. Our results also show that platinum is as effective as gold in enhancing dose deposition as well as in generating free radicals in aqueous media under radiation beam. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  11. Improved radiation dosimetry/risk estimates to facilitate environmental management of plutonium contaminated sites. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, B.R.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this research is to evaluate distributions of possible alpha radiation doses to the lung, bone, and liver and associated health-risk distributions for plutonium (Pu) inhalation-exposure scenarios relevant to environmental management of PuO{sub 2}-contaminated sites. Currently available dosimetry/risk models do not apply to exposure scenarios where, at most, a small number of highly radioactive PuO{sub 2} particles are inhaled (stochastic exposure [SE] paradigm). For the SE paradigm, risk distributions are more relevant than point estimates of risk. The focus of the research is on the SE paradigm and on high specific activity, alpha-emitting (HSA-aE) particles such as 238 PuO{sub 2} . The scientific goal is to develop a stochastic respiratory tract dosimetry/risk computer model for evaluating the desired absorbed dose distributions and associated health-risk distributions, for Department of Energy (DOE) workers and members of the public. This report summarizes results after 1 year of a 2-year project.'

  12. Protocol for emergency EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an increased need for after-the fact dosimetry because of the high risk of radiation exposures due to terrorism or accidents. In case of such an event, a method is needed to make measurements of dose in a large number of individuals rapidly and with sufficient accuracy to facilitate effect...

  13. Estimating the effective density of engineered nanomaterials for in vitro dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    DeLoid, Glen; Cohen, Joel M.; Darrah, Tom; Derk, Raymond; Wang, Liying; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Wohlleben, Wendel; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The need for accurate in vitro dosimetry remains a major obstacle to the development of cost-effective toxicological screening methods for engineered nanomaterials. An important key to accurate in vitro dosimetry is the characterization of sedimentation and diffusion rates of nanoparticles suspended in culture media, which largely depend upon the effective density and diameter of formed agglomerates in suspension. Here we present a rapid and inexpensive method for accurately measuring the effective density of nano-agglomerates in suspension. This novel method is based on the volume of the pellet obtained by bench-top centrifugation of nanomaterial suspensions in a packed cell volume tube, and is validated against gold-standard analytical ultracentrifugation data. This simple and cost-effective method allows nanotoxicologists to correctly model nanoparticle transport, and thus attain accurate dosimetry in cell culture systems, which will greatly advance the development of reliable and efficient methods for toxicological testing and investigation of nano-bio interactions in vitro. PMID:24675174

  14. Radiation effects in glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrt, D.; Vogel, W.

    1992-03-01

    Glass was produced by man about 4000 years ago. The scientific exploration of glass is very young and closely connected with Jena. Fraunhofer, Goethe, DobEreiner, Abbe, Zeiss and Schott are famous names on this field. Both crystals and glasses are solids. However, there are fundamental differences in their properties and behavior. Glass is a thermodynamically unstable state and has a defect structure compared to the crystal. Glass and its properties arc subject to a variety of changes under the influence of high energy radiation. In general, effects extend from the reduction of specific ions to the collapse of the entire network. Ultraviolet and X-ray radiation effects on UV-transmitting glasses will be discussed.

  15. Duality of solar UV-B radiation and relevant dosimetry: vitamin D synthesis versus skin erythema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terenetskaya, Irina P.

    2003-06-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) gives rise to beneficial or adverse health effects depending on the dose. Excessive UV exposures are associated with acute and chronic health effect but in appropriate doses UV sunlight is advisable. Important biological function of UVR is initiation of endogenous synthesis of vitamin D in human skin. A useful method based on an in vitro model of vitamin D synthesis ('D-dosimeter') has been specially developed to measure the vitamin D synthetic capacity of sunlight in situ. For the first time laboratory and field tests have been performed to link commonly used erythemal units (MEDs) and previtamin D accumulation.

  16. A-bomb survivor dosimetry update

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    A-bomb survivor data have been generally accepted as applicable. Also, the initial radiations have tended to be accepted as the dominant radiation source for all survivors. There was general acceptance of the essential reliability of both the biological effects data and the causative radiation dose values. There are considerations casting doubt on these acceptances, but very little quantification of th implied uncertainties has been attempted. The exception was A-bomb survivor dosimetry, where free-field kerma values for initial radiations were thought to be accurate to about 30%, and doses to individual survivors were treated as effectively error-free. In 1980, a major challenge to the accepted A-bomb survivor dosimetry was announced, and was quickly followed by a succession of explanations and displays showing the soundness of that challenge. In fact, a complete replacement set of free-field kerma values was provided which was suitable for use in constructing an entire new dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The new values showed many changes greater than the accepted 30% uncertainty. An approximate new dosimetry was indeed constructed, and used to convert existing leukemia cause-and-effect data from the old to the new dose values, by way of assessing the impact. (ERB)

  17. A review of the use and potential of the GATE Monte Carlo simulation code for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Sarrut, David; Bardiès, Manuel; Boussion, Nicolas; Freud, Nicolas; Jan, Sébastien; Létang, Jean-Michel; Loudos, George; Maigne, Lydia; Marcatili, Sara; Mauxion, Thibault; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Perrot, Yann; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Robert, Charlotte; Schaart, Dennis R; Visvikis, Dimitris; Buvat, Irène

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the authors' review the applicability of the open-source GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the GEANT4 toolkit for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications. The many applications of GATE for state-of-the-art radiotherapy simulations are described including external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, intraoperative radiotherapy, hadrontherapy, molecular radiotherapy, and in vivo dose monitoring. Investigations that have been performed using GEANT4 only are also mentioned to illustrate the potential of GATE. The very practical feature of GATE making it easy to model both a treatment and an imaging acquisition within the same framework is emphasized. The computational times associated with several applications are provided to illustrate the practical feasibility of the simulations using current computing facilities. PMID:24877844

  18. A review of the use and potential of the GATE Monte Carlo simulation code for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrut, David; Université Lyon 1; Centre Léon Bérard ; Bardiès, Manuel; Marcatili, Sara; Mauxion, Thibault; Boussion, Nicolas; Freud, Nicolas; Létang, Jean-Michel; Jan, Sébastien; Maigne, Lydia; Perrot, Yann; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Robert, Charlotte; and others

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, the authors' review the applicability of the open-source GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the GEANT4 toolkit for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications. The many applications of GATE for state-of-the-art radiotherapy simulations are described including external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, intraoperative radiotherapy, hadrontherapy, molecular radiotherapy, and in vivo dose monitoring. Investigations that have been performed using GEANT4 only are also mentioned to illustrate the potential of GATE. The very practical feature of GATE making it easy to model both a treatment and an imaging acquisition within the same frameworkis emphasized. The computational times associated with several applications are provided to illustrate the practical feasibility of the simulations using current computing facilities.

  19. Historical review of personnel dosimetry development and its use in radiation protection programs at Hanford 1944 to the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.H.

    1987-02-01

    This document is an account of the personnel dosimetry programs as they were developed and practiced at Hanford from their inception in 1943 to 1944 to the 1980s. This history is divided into sections covering the general categories of external and internal measurement methods, in vivo counting, radiation exposure recordkeeping, and calibration of personnel dosimeters. The reasons and circumstances surrounding the inception of these programs at Hanford are discussed. Information about these programs was obtained from documents, letters, and memos that are available in our historical records; the personnel files of many people who participated in these programs; and from the recollections of many long-time, current, and past Hanford employees. For the most part, the history of these programs is presented chronologically to relate their development and use in routine Hanford operations. 131 refs., 38 figs., 23 tabs.

  20. 39th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: Dosimetry of Internal Emitters: Contribution of Radiation Protection Bodies and Radiological Events.

    PubMed

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2016-02-01

    Since the early days of the Manhattan Engineer District, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has served to advance the dosimetry models used to set protection standards for radionuclides taken into the body. Throughout the years, this effort benefited significantly from ORNL staff's active participation in national and international scientific bodies. The first such interaction was in 1946 with the National Committee on Radiation Protection (NCRP), chaired by L.S. Taylor, which led to the 1949 to 1953 series of tripartite conferences of experts from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. These conferences addressed the need for standardization of dosimetry models and led to the establishment of an anatomic and physiologic model called "Standard Man," a precursor of the reference worker defined in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Standard Man was used in setting the maximum permissible concentrations in air and water published in NBS Handbook 52 and subsequent reports by NCRP and ICRP. K.Z. Morgan, then director of the Health Physics Division at ORNL, participated in the tripartite conferences and subsequently established ORNL as a modeling and computational resource for development of radiation protection standards. ORNL's role expanded with participation in the work of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. Results of interactions with the MIRD Committee are evident in the radiation protection guidance for internal emitters in ICRP Publication 30. The annual limit on intake and derived air concentration values tabulated in Publication 30 were computed by an ORNL-based task group of ICRP Committee 2. A few years after the appearance of Publication 30, the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident made clear the need to develop standard dosimetry models for pre-adult ages as members of the public. In the late 1980s, ICRP began an effort to extend its reference worker concept to a reference family and develop dosimetric models for application to intake of radionuclides by members of the public. However, the modeling approach underlying the ICRP Publication 30 computational framework was not amenable to age and gender considerations. With support of U.S. federal agencies, ORNL had begun efforts in the early 1980s to develop age- and gender-specific dosimetric models, including physiologically informed biokinetic models and age-specific dosimetric phantoms. ORNL's models and methods became the starting point for the ICRP's series of reports on dose coefficients for radionuclide intake by the public. Currently ICRP Committee 2 is overseeing development of a second generation of post-Chernobyl models and methods, with updates of Publications 30 and 68 soon to appear and new models for members of the public in preparation. The focus of this Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture is to chronicle advancements in the dosimetry of internal emitters with some discussion of models and methods but with due deference to decisions within scientific bodies and stimulated by radiological events. PMID:26717179

  1. Developments and trends in bioequivalent dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Hajek, M

    2015-04-01

    Significant progress in radiobiology has refined the understanding of radiation-induced biological response at the cellular level and challenged the conventional application of a macroscopic description of radiation action to dosimetry in favour of a microscopic approach. Pioneering experiments, which investigated the stochastics of energy deposition from ionising radiations in volumes of cellular dimensions, contributed to the recognition of microdosimetry as a new scientific discipline. The first quantitative applications of Monte Carlo track structure simulations in radiobiology, however, supported evidence for target sizes of particular biological importance being in the nanometre regime. Bioequivalent dosimetry attempts to link particular features of the response of physical detectors with biological endpoints, exploiting clusters of multiple ionisations within nanometre scales in solid-state, gas- and water-filled devices. This approach supports the continued development of new concepts and quantities in radiation protection to permit evaluation of the biological effectiveness of radiations of different quality independently of dose and dose rate. PMID:25183836

  2. Study and realization of real-time in-depth dosimetry system for IORT (intra operative radiation therapy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brancaccio, R.; Bettuzzi, M.; Casali, F.; Morigi, M. P.; Berdondini, A.; Bruno, C.; Tchuente Siaka, Y. F.; Santaniello, A.; Lamanna, E.; Fiorillo, A. S.; Barca, G.; Castrovillari, F.

    2007-09-01

    Intra Operative Radiation Therapy (IORT) is a technique based on delivery of a high dose of ionising radiation to the cancer tissue, after tumour ablation, during surgery, while reducing the exposure of normal surrounding tissue. Novac7 and Liac are new linear accelerators expressly conceived to perform in the operating room. These accelerators supply electron beams with high dose rate. Because of this peculiar characteristic, classical dosimetric techniques are not able to give at once a real-time response and an extensive measure of the absorbed dose. In past years the authors realized a prototype for IORT dosimetry able to give the real time bi-dimensional image of dose distribution on a single layer. In the framework of a research project funded by the INFN (Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics), a collaboration between the Physics Department of Bologna, Italy, the Physics Department of Cosenza and the Medicine Department of Catanzaro, Italy, has studied a new system composed of six layers. Each layer includes two orthogonal bundles of scintillating optical fibres. The fibres are optically coupled with four arrays of photodiodes as read-out system. This new system will be able to characterize completely the electron beam in energy, intensity and spatial distribution. In real time it will be able to measure the 3D dose distribution, providing a full check of quality assurance for IORT. The various phases of design, development and characterization of the instrument will be illustrated, as well as some experimental tests performed with the prototype. We verified that the system is able to give a real time response, which is linear versus dose and not affected by the high dose rate. The conclusions confirm the capability of the instrument to overcome problems encountered with classic dosimetry, showing that the obtained results strongly encourage the continuation of this research.

  3. Evaluation of DNA dosimetry to assess ozone-mediated variability of biologically harmful radiation in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    George, Alison L; Peat, Helen J; Buma, Anita G J

    2002-09-01

    In this study we investigated the use of a DNA dosimeter to accurately measure changes in ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR; 280-315 nm) under Antarctic ozone hole conditions. Naked DNA solution in quartz tubes was exposed to ambient solar radiation at Rothera Research Station, Antarctica, between October and December 1998 for 3 h during UVBR peak hours (1200-1500 h). Trends in UVBR-mediated DNA damage (formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers [CPD]) were related to cloud cover, ozone-column depth and spectroradiometric measurements of ambient radiation. Ozone-column depths ranged from 130 to 375 DU during the study period, resulting in highly variable UVBR doses, from 1.6 to 137 kJ m(-2) over the 3 h exposure, as measured by spectroradiometry. There was a strong positive correlation (86%) between dosimeter CPD concentrations and DNA-weighted UVBR doses. Ozone depth was a strong predictor of DNA damage (63%), and there was no significant relationship between CPD formation and cloud cover. Subtle changes in spectral characteristics caused by ozone depletion were detected by the biodosimeter; the highest CPD concentrations were observed in October when ozone-mediated shifts favored shorter wavelengths of UVBR. We conclude that the DNA biodosimeter is an accurate indicator of biologically effective UVBR, even under highly variable ozone conditions. PMID:12403448

  4. Effects Of Radiation On Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Report provides data on effects of radiation on elastomers. Quantifies effects by giving minimum radiation levels to induce changes of 1 percent and 25 percent in given properties. Electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties included in data. Combined effects of heat and radiation briefly considered. Data summarized in graphic form useful to designers.

  5. Radiation effect on implanted pacemakers

    SciTech Connect

    Pourhamidi, A.H.

    1983-10-01

    It was previously thought that diagnostic or therapeutic ionizing radiation did not have an adverse effect on the function of cardiac pacemakers. Recently, however, some authors have reported damaging effect of therapeutic radiation on cardiac pulse generators. An analysis of a recently-extracted pacemaker documented the effect of radiation on the pacemaker pulse generator.

  6. US plant and radiation dosimetry experiments flown on the soviet satellite COSMOS 1129. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrich, M.R.; Souza, K.A.

    1981-05-01

    Experiments included: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats used for wide range physiological studies Kosmos Satellites experiments with plants, fungi, insects, and mammalian tissue cultures; radiation physics experiments; a heat convection study; a rat embryology experiment in which an attempt was made to breed 2 male and 5 female rats during the flight; and fertile quail eggs used to determine the effects of spaceflight on avian embryogenesis. Specimens for US experiments were initially prepared at the recovery site or in Moscow and transferred to US laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the fourteen US experiments aboard Cosmos 1129 is presented.

  7. US plant and radiation dosimetry experiments flown on the Soviet satellite Cosmos 1129

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, M. R. (Editor); Souza, K. A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Experiments included: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats used for wide range physiological studies; experiments with plants, fungi, insects, and mammalian tissue cultures; radiation physics experiments; a heat convection study; a rat embryology experiment in which an attempt was made to breed 2 male and 5 female rats during the flight; and fertile quail eggs used to determine the effects of spaceflight on avian embryogenesis. Specimens for US experiments were initially prepared at the recovery site or in Moscow and transferred to US laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the fourteen US experiments aboard Cosmos 1129 is presented.

  8. Radiation Effects: Core Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicello, John F.

    1999-01-01

    The risks to personnel in space from the naturally occurring radiations are generally considered to be one of the most serious limitations to human space missions, as noted in two recent reports of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. The Core Project of the Radiation Effects Team for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute is the consequences of radiations in space in order to develop countermeasure, both physical and pharmaceutical, to reduce the risks of cancer and other diseases associated with such exposures. During interplanetary missions, personnel in space will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays, including high-energy protons and energetic ions with atomic masses of iron or higher. In addition, solar events will produce radiation fields of high intensity for short but irregular durations. The level of intensity of these radiations is considerably higher than that on Earth's surface, and the biological risks to astronauts is consequently increased, including increased risks of carcinogenesis and other diseases. This group is examining the risk of cancers resulting from low-dose, low-dose rate exposures of model systems to photons, protons, and iron by using ground-based accelerators which are capable of producing beams of protons, iron, and other heavy ions at energies comparable to those encountered in space. They have begun the first series of experiments using a 1-GeV iron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and 250-MeV protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center's proton synchrotron facility. As part of these studies, this group will be investigating the potential for the pharmaceutical, Tamoxifen, to reduce the risk of breast cancer in astronauts exposed to the level of doses and particle types expected in space. Theoretical studies are being carried out in a collaboration between scientists at NASA's Johnson Space Center and Johns Hopkins University in parallel with the experimental program have provided methods and predictions which are being used to assess the levels of risks to be encountered and to evaluate appropriate strategies for countermeasures. Although the work in this project is primarily directed toward problems associated with space travel, the problem of protracted exposures to low-levels of radiation is one of national interest in our energy and defense programs, and the results may suggest new paradigms for addressing such risks.

  9. Radiation-dosimetry and chemical-toxicity considerations for /sup 99/Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, J.L.; Hayes, R.L.; Rafter, J.J.; Watson, E.E.; Carlton, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Technetium-99 (T/sub 1/2/ = 2.13 x 10/sup 5/ y) is produced in the fission of /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu. Technitium-99 has been found to contaminate some areas of the uranium re-enrichment process. ICRP-30 Part 2 gives the Annual Limit on Intake (ALI) for /sup 99/Tc as 2 x 10/sup 8/ Bq (5.4 mCi) for class D inhaled material (IC80). The ICRP states clearly that ALIs are based on radiation risk only and that chemical toxicity is not considered (IC79). No data wer found on the chemical toxicity of /sup 99/Tc, possibly because there are no stable isotopes of technetium with which to study the toxicity, although, because of its long T/sub 1/2/, /sup 99/Tc can, for all practical purposes, be considered stable. The ALI values for /sup 99/Tc are based on data obtained using high specific activity /sup 99m/Tc (T/sub 1/2/ = 6 h) and /sup 95m/Tc (T/sub 1/2/ = 61 days). Since the specific activities of /sup 99/Tc and Na/sup 99/TcO/sub 4/ are quite low (17 mCi/g and 9 mCi/g, respectively) and /sup 99/Tc is available in abundant supply, we have attempted to assess the relative radiation and chemical hazards that are associated with this radionuclide. The approach in this study was (1) to study the effect of chemical dose on the whole body retention of /sup 99/Tc sodium pertechnetate in rats and to relate these effects to the radiation dose and the ALI and (2) to compare the chemical toxicity of /sup 99/Tc sodium pertechnetate with the ALI at different chemical dose levels.

  10. Automated DICOM metadata and volumetric anatomical information extraction for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papamichail, D.; Ploussi, A.; Kordolaimi, S.; Karavasilis, E.; Papadimitroulas, P.; Syrgiamiotis, V.; Efstathopoulos, E.

    2015-09-01

    Patient-specific dosimetry calculations based on simulation techniques have as a prerequisite the modeling of the modality system and the creation of voxelized phantoms. This procedure requires the knowledge of scanning parameters and patients’ information included in a DICOM file as well as image segmentation. However, the extraction of this information is complicated and time-consuming. The objective of this study was to develop a simple graphical user interface (GUI) to (i) automatically extract metadata from every slice image of a DICOM file in a single query and (ii) interactively specify the regions of interest (ROI) without explicit access to the radiology information system. The user-friendly application developed in Matlab environment. The user can select a series of DICOM files and manage their text and graphical data. The metadata are automatically formatted and presented to the user as a Microsoft Excel file. The volumetric maps are formed by interactively specifying the ROIs and by assigning a specific value in every ROI. The result is stored in DICOM format, for data and trend analysis. The developed GUI is easy, fast and and constitutes a very useful tool for individualized dosimetry. One of the future goals is to incorporate a remote access to a PACS server functionality.

  11. 1992 IEEE Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 29th, New Orleans, LA, July 13-17, 1992, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Vonno, Nick W. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of recent theoretical and experimental research related to nuclear and space radiation effects. Topics dicussed include single event phenomena, radiation effects in particle detectors and associated electronics for accelerators, spacecraft charging, and space environments and effects. The discussion also covers hardness assurance and testing techniques, electromagnetic effects, radiation effects in devices and integrated circuits, dosimetry and radiation facilities, isolation techniques, and basic mechanisms.

  12. Spallation radiation damage and dosimetry for accelerator transmutation of waste applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, M.S.; Lin, C.; Ferguson, P.D.; Sommer, W.F.

    1993-10-01

    Proposals are currently being made for systems to treat radioactive waste based on the use of accelerator-driven neutron sources. A linear proton accelerator with energies as high as 1600 MeV and currents up to 250 ma are anticipated for the driver. The neutron fluxes may reach up to 10{sup 20} neutrons/m{sup 2}s as generated by the spallation reactions that occur when the protons strike target materials. Calculations are described to determine radiation fluxes and flux spectra inherent in such systems and to estimate likely radiation effects on system components. The calculations use LAHET, a Monte Carlo high-energy transport code, and MCNP, a generalized-geometry, coupled neutron-photon Monte Carlo transport code. Cross sections for displacement and helium production are presented for spallation neutrons of energies from 21 MeV to 1600 MeV for Inconel 718 (Ni plus 18.5, 18.5, 5.1, and 3 wt % of Cr, Fe, Nb, and Mo, respectively), an alloy that is used for the proton beam entry window in several accelerators. In addition, results for this alloy are presented for the primary knocked-on atom (PKA) spectrum and the transmutation yield for 1600 MeV incident neutrons.

  13. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) dosimetry system and the use of Ge-doped silica optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Taufek; Abu Bakar, Noor Khairunnisa; Chandra Paul, Mukul; Bradley, D. A.

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that over exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), either from sunlight or artificial sources, can cause severe biological effects including cataracts, photokeratitis and skin cancer. In this respect, there exists the need to introduce a sensitive UV dosimetric material capable of measuring radiation dose to high accuracy in order to deliver UVR safely and efficiently. Present study has focussed on the investigation of the potential thermoluminescent (TL) sensitivity of commercially available germanium (Ge)-doped silica (SiO2) optical fibres subjected to UVR. The main interest of this study is to find out whether these doped SiO2 optical fibres can be used as a sensible integrator of environmental UV exposures. In the present study, commercially available Ge-doped SiO2 optical fibres have been used with a core diameter of 11 μm (CorActive, Canada), 23 μm (Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute Kolkata, India) and 50 μm (Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute Kolkata, India) and a cladding diameter of 125±0.1 μm, irradiated over a wide range of UV dose. Results have shown that these fibres exhibit a linear dose response (with correlation coefficient better than 0.9852). The 50 μm fibre produces greater TL response than that obtained for 11- and 23 μm fibres. The TL results are compared with that of the well-established TL dosimeter material lithium fluoride.

  14. An algorithm for real-time dosimetry in intensity-modulated radiation therapy using the radioluminescence signal from Al2O3:C.

    PubMed

    Andersen, C E; Marckmann, C J; Aznar, M C; Bøtter-Jensen, L; Kjaer-Kristoffersen, F; Medin, J

    2006-01-01

    Although the radioluminescence (RL) signal from optical fibre Al(2)O(3):C dosemeters used in medical applications is essentially proportional to dose rate, the crystals used so far are imperfect in the sense that their RL sensitivity changes with accumulated dose. A computational algorithm has been developed that corrects for these sensitivity changes. We further report on a new system that effectively separates the RL signal generated in the crystal from fluorescence and Cerenkov emission generated in the optical fibre cable using a gating technique in connection with pulsed linear accelerator radiation beams. The dosimetry system has been used for dose measurements in a phantom during an intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment with 6 MV photons. The RL measurement results are in excellent agreement (i.e. within 1%) with both the OSL results and the dose delivered according to the treatment planning system. RL signals from Al(2)O(3):C can be used for real-time dose rate measurements with a time resolution of approximately 0.1 s and a spatial resolution only limited by the size of the detector (<0.5 mm). PMID:16644973

  15. "Mir" radiation dosimetry results during the solar proton events in September-October 1989.

    PubMed

    Dachev TsP; Matviichuk YuN; Bankov, N G; Semkova, J V; Koleva, R T; Ivanov YaJ; Tomov, B T; Petrov, V M; Shurshakov, V A; Bengin, V V; Machmutov, V S; Panova, N A; Kostereva, T A; Temny, V V; Ponomarev YuN; Tykva, R

    1992-01-01

    Using data from dosimetry-radiometry system "Liulin" on board of "Mir"-space station the particle flux and doserate during September-October, 1989 has been studied. The orbit of the station was 379 km perigee, 410 km apogee and 51.6 degrees inclination. Special attention has been paid to the flux and doserate changes inside the station after intensive solar proton events (SPE) on 29 of September, 1989. The comparison between the doses before and after the solar flares shows increase of the calculated mean dose per day by factor of 10 to 200. During the SPE on the 29 of September the additional dose was 310 mrad. The results of the experiment are compared with the data for the solar proton fluxes obtained on the GOES-7 satellite. PMID:11537022

  16. Radiation dosimetry for NCT facilities at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.; Hu, J.P.; Greenberg, D.D.; Reciniello, R.N.

    1998-12-31

    Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) is a 3 mega-watt (MW) heterogeneous, tank-type, light water cooled and moderated, graphite reflected reactor, which was designed for medical and biological studies and became operational in 1959. Over time, the BMRR was modified to provide thermal and epithermal neutron beams suitable for research studies. NCT studies have been performed at both the epithermal neutron irradiation facility (ENIF) on the east side of the BMRR reactor core and the thermal neutron irradiation facility (TNIF) on the west side of the core. Neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry performed from 1994 to the present in both facilities are described and the results are presented and discussed.

  17. Cosmic Ray Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si Belkhir, F.; Attallah, R.

    2010-10-01

    Radiation levels at aircraft cruising altitudes are twenty times higher than at sea level. Thus, on average, a typical airline pilot receives a larger annual radiation dose than some one working in nuclear industry. The main source of this radiation is from galactic cosmic radiation, high energy particles generated by exploding stars within our own galaxy. In this work we study cosmic rays dosimetry at various aviation altitudes using the PARMA model.

  18. Radiation dosimetry and safety issues in the investigation of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Schembri, Geoffrey P; Miller, Anne E; Smart, Richard

    2010-11-01

    When considering the investigation of the patient with possible pulmonary embolism, one needs to balance the likelihood of disease and the diagnostic utility of the test against the risks associated with the investigation. Both computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and the ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scan involve exposure to ionizing radiation. The effect of low-level ionizing radiation remains an issue of some controversy. CTPA delivers a greater effective dose and, in particular, greater doses to breast tissue, than the V/Q scan (typically 10-70 mGy for CTPA vs <1.5 mGy for V/Q to breast). Since breast tissue is particularly radiosensitive in younger women, the V/Q study has an advantage over CTPA in this group. In the pregnant patient, fetal exposure has been raised as a concern. In fact, there is typically only low fetal exposure from either study (<1 mGy). The CTPA does deliver less fetal exposure, particularly in the first trimester, but the difference between CTPA and V/Q scan is small when compared with the difference in dose to maternal breast from the 2 investigations. The "as low as reasonably achievable" (ie, ALARA) principle favors the use of V/Q scans in young women, assuming the diagnostic power of the 2 tests is comparable. CTPA requires a contrast injection that can cause adverse reactions in a small number of patients. No significant risk, however, has been demonstrated with the radiopharmaceuticals involved in V/Q scans. PMID:20920634

  19. Space radiation dosimetry with active detections for the scientific program of the second Bulgarian cosmonaut on board the Mir space station.

    PubMed

    Dachev TsP; Matviichuk YuN; Semkova, J V; Koleva, R T; Boichev, B; Baynov, P; Kanchev, N A; Lakov, P; Ivanov YaJ; Tomo, P T; Petrov, V M; Redko, V I; Kojarinov, V I; Tykva, R

    1989-01-01

    A dosimetry-radiometry system has been developed at the Space Research Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Science to measure the fluxes and dose rates on the flight of the second Bulgarian cosmonaut. The dosimetry system is designed for monitoring the different space radiations, such as solar cosmic rays, galactic cosmic rays and trapped particles in the earth radiation belts. The system consists of a battery operated small size detector unit and a "read-write" and telemetry microcomputer unit. The sensitivity of the instrument (3.67 x 10(-8) rad/pulse) permits high resolution measurements of the flux and dose rate along the track of the Mir space station. We report our initial results for the period of the flight between the 7th and 17th June 1988. PMID:11537299

  20. Biological effects and dosimetry of static and ELF electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Grandolfo, M.; Michaelson, S.M.; Rindi, A.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on the interaction of static and extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields with living matter. The effects of static and ELF electromagnetic fields on biological tissue, systems, and whole organisms are discussed. Topics include: the historical development of the study of the effects of ELF fields, natural and man-made exposure to static and ELF electromagnetic fields, and the biological effects of magnetic fields. Mathematical models of bodies exposed to ELF fields and scaling criteria are discussed along with effects induced ''in vitro'' by ELF on blastogenesis of human lymphocytes and on thromboxane B-2-release byionophore-stimulated neutrophils. Health risk assessment of static and ELF electric and magnetic fields is also discussed.

  1. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 11C-labelled docetaxel in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Hendrikse, N. Harry; Smit, Egbert F.; Mooijer, Martien P. J.; Rijnders, Anneloes Y.; Gerritsen, Winald R.; van der Hoeven, Jacobus J. M.; Windhorst, Albert D.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Lubberink, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Docetaxel is an important chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of several cancer types. As radiolabelled anticancer agents provide a potential means for personalized treatment planning, docetaxel was labelled with the positron emitter 11C. Non-invasive measurements of [11C]docetaxel uptake in organs and tumours may provide additional information on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug docetaxel. The purpose of the present study was to determine the biodistribution and radiation absorbed dose of [11C]docetaxel in humans. Methods Biodistribution of [11C]docetaxel was measured in seven patients (five men and two women) with solid tumours using PET/CT. Venous blood samples were collected to measure activity in blood and plasma. Regions of interest (ROI) for various source organs were defined on PET (high [11C]docetaxel uptake) or CT (low [11C]docetaxel uptake). ROI data were used to generate time-activity curves and to calculate percentage injected dose and residence times. Radiation absorbed doses were calculated according to the MIRD method using OLINDA/EXM 1.0 software. Results Gall bladder and liver demonstrated high [11C]docetaxel uptake, whilst uptake in brain and normal lung was low. The percentage injected dose at 1 h in the liver was 47 ± 9%. [11C]docetaxel was rapidly cleared from plasma and no radiolabelled metabolites were detected. [11C]docetaxel uptake in tumours was moderate and highly variable between tumours. Conclusion The effective dose of [11C]docetaxel was 4.7 µSv/MBq. As uptake in normal lung is low, [11C]docetaxel may be a promising tracer for tumours in the thoracic region. PMID:20508935

  2. The effect of isotope on the dosimetry of inhaled plutonium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, R.A., Griffith, W.C.; Hickman, A.W.

    1991-12-31

    Results of experimental studies in which animals inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} or {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} aerosols have shown that the biokinetics and associated radiation dose patterns for these two isotopes differ significantly due to differences in in-vivo solubility caused by the 260-fold difference in specific activity between {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} and {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. We have adapted a biokinetics and dosimetry model derived from results of the ITRI dog studies to humans and have calculated dose commitments and annual limits on intake (ALI) for both Pu isotopes. Our results show that the ALI calculated in this study is one-third that for class Y {sup 238}Pu from ICRP 30, and one-half or equal to that for class Y {sup 239}Pu, depending on how activity in the thoracic lymph nodes is treated dosimetrically.

  3. 4.2 Methods for Internal Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.2 Methods for Internal Dosimetry' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  4. Jaw Dysfunction Related to Pterygoid and Masseter Muscle Dosimetry After Radiation Therapy in Children and Young Adults With Head-and-Neck Sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Krasin, Matthew J.; Wiese, Kristin M.; Spunt, Sheri L.; Hua, Chia-ho; Daw, Najat; Navid, Fariba; Davidoff, Andrew M.; McGregor, Lisa; Merchant, Thomas E.; Kun, Larry E.; McCrarey, Lola; and others

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between jaw function, patient and treatment variables, and radiation dosimetry of the mandibular muscles and joints in children and young adults receiving radiation for soft-tissue and bone sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four pediatric and young adult patients with head-and-neck sarcomas were treated on an institutional review board-approved prospective study of focal radiation therapy for local tumor control. Serial jaw depression measurements were related to radiation dosimetry delivered to the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles, masseter muscles, and temporomandibular joints to generate mathematical models of jaw function. Results: Baseline jaw depression was only influenced by the degree of surgical resection. In the first 12 weeks from initiation of radiation, surgical procedures greater than a biopsy, administration of cyclophosphamide containing chemotherapy regimes, and large gross tumor volumes adversely affected jaw depression. Increasing dose to the pterygoid and masseter muscles above 40 Gy predicted loss of jaw function over the full course of follow-up. Conclusions: Clinical and treatment factors are related to initial and subsequent jaw dysfunction. Understanding these complex interactions and the affect of specific radiation doses may help reduce the risk for jaw dysfunction in future children and young adults undergoing radiation therapy for the management of soft-tissue and bone sarcomas.

  5. Dosimetry of the Atomic Bomb Survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, W.K.; Failla, P.

    1981-12-01

    A brief account of the presentations and discussions at the Late Effects Workshop on Dosimetry of the Atomic Bomb Survivors held in conjunction with the 29th Annual Meeting of the Radiation Reserch Society in Minneapolis, MN, on May 32, 1981 is presented. The following five papers are briefly reviewed: 1)Radiobiological significance of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki data by V.P. Bond; 2)Revised Dose Estimates at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, by W.E. Loewe; 3)Review of dosimetry for the Japanese atomic bomb survivors by G.D. Kerr; 4)Ichiban: numberoriginal studies, by J. Auxier; and 5)NCRP's involvement in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Dosimetry, by H.O. Wyckoff. (JMT)

  6. Radiation dosimetry measurements with real time radiation monitoring device (RRMD)-II in Space Shuttle STS-79.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, T; Doke, T; Hayashi, T; Kikuchi, J; Hasebe, N; Kashiwagi, T; Takashima, T; Takahashi, K; Nakano, T; Nagaoka, S; Takahashi, S; Yamanaka, H; Yamaguchi, K; Badhwar, G D

    1997-12-01

    The real-time measurement of radiation environment was made with an improved real-time radiation monitoring device (RRMD)-II onboard Space Shuttle STS-79 (S/MM#4: 4th Shuttle MIR Mission, at an inclination angle of 51.6 degrees and an altitude of 250-400km) for 199 h during 17-25 September, 1996. The observation of the detector covered the linear energy transfer (LET) range of 3.5-6000 keV/micrometer. The Shuttle orbital profile in this mission was equivalent to that of the currently planned Space Station, and provided an opportunity to investigate variations in count rate and dose equivalent rate depending on altitude, longitude, and latitude in detail. Particle count rate and dose equivalent rate were mapped geographically during the mission. Based on the map of count rate, an analysis was made by dividing whole region into three regions: South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region, high latitude region and other regions. The averaged absorbed dose rate during the mission was 39.3 microGy/day for a LET range of 3.5-6000 keV/micrometer. The corresponding average dose equivalent rates during the mission are estimated to be 293 microSv/day with quality factors from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-Pub. 60 and 270 microSv/day with quality factors from ICRP-Pub. 26. The effective quality factors for ICRP-Pub. 60 and 26 are 7.45 and 6.88, respectively. From the present data for particles of LET > 3.5keV/micrometer, we conclude that the average dose equivalent rate is dominated by the contribution of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles. The dose-detector depth dependence was also investigated. PMID:11542403

  7. Radiation dosimetry measurements with real time radiation monitoring device (RRMD)-II in Space Shuttle STS-79

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakaguchi, T.; Doke, T.; Hayashi, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Hasebe, N.; Kashiwagi, T.; Takashima, T.; Takahashi, K.; Nakano, T.; Nagaoka, S.; Takahashi, S.; Yamanaka, H.; Yamaguchi, K.; Badhwar, G. D.

    1997-01-01

    The real-time measurement of radiation environment was made with an improved real-time radiation monitoring device (RRMD)-II onboard Space Shuttle STS-79 (S/MM#4: 4th Shuttle MIR Mission, at an inclination angle of 51.6 degrees and an altitude of 250-400km) for 199 h during 17-25 September, 1996. The observation of the detector covered the linear energy transfer (LET) range of 3.5-6000 keV/micrometer. The Shuttle orbital profile in this mission was equivalent to that of the currently planned Space Station, and provided an opportunity to investigate variations in count rate and dose equivalent rate depending on altitude, longitude, and latitude in detail. Particle count rate and dose equivalent rate were mapped geographically during the mission. Based on the map of count rate, an analysis was made by dividing whole region into three regions: South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region, high latitude region and other regions. The averaged absorbed dose rate during the mission was 39.3 microGy/day for a LET range of 3.5-6000 keV/micrometer. The corresponding average dose equivalent rates during the mission are estimated to be 293 microSv/day with quality factors from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-Pub. 60 and 270 microSv/day with quality factors from ICRP-Pub. 26. The effective quality factors for ICRP-Pub. 60 and 26 are 7.45 and 6.88, respectively. From the present data for particles of LET > 3.5keV/micrometer, we conclude that the average dose equivalent rate is dominated by the contribution of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles. The dose-detector depth dependence was also investigated.

  8. ESTIMATING SOLAR RADIATION EXPOSURE IN WETLANDS USING RADIATION MODELS, FIELD DATA, AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This seminar will describe development of methods for the estimation of solar radiation doses in wetlands. The methodology presents a novel approach to incorporating aspects of solar radiation dosimetry that have historically received limited attention. These include effects of a...

  9. Field calibration of PADC track etch detectors for local neutron dosimetry in man using different radiation qualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hälg, Roger A.; Besserer, Jürgen; Boschung, Markus; Mayer, Sabine; Clasie, Benjamin; Kry, Stephen F.; Schneider, Uwe

    2012-12-01

    In order to quantify the dose from neutrons to a patient for contemporary radiation treatment techniques, measurements inside phantoms, representing the patient, are necessary. Published reports on neutron dose measurements cover measurements performed free in air or on the surface of phantoms and the doses are expressed in terms of personal dose equivalent or ambient dose equivalent. This study focuses on measurements of local neutron doses inside a radiotherapy phantom and presents a field calibration procedure for PADC track etch detectors. An initial absolute calibration factor in terms of Hp(10) for personal dosimetry is converted into neutron dose equivalent and additional calibration factors are derived to account for the spectral changes in the neutron fluence for different radiation therapy beam qualities and depths in the phantom. The neutron spectra used for the calculation of the calibration factors are determined in different depths by Monte Carlo simulations for the investigated radiation qualities. These spectra are used together with the energy dependent response function of the PADC detectors to account for the spectral changes in the neutron fluence. The resulting total calibration factors are 0.76 for a photon beam (in- and out-of-field), 1.00 (in-field) and 0.84 (out-of-field) for an active proton beam and 1.05 (in-field) and 0.91 (out-of-field) for a passive proton beam, respectively. The uncertainty for neutron dose measurements using this field calibration method is less than 40%. The extended calibration procedure presented in this work showed that it is possible to use PADC track etch detectors for measurements of local neutron dose equivalent inside anthropomorphic phantoms by accounting for spectral changes in the neutron fluence.

  10. The impact of possible modifications to the DS86 dosimetry on neutron risk and relative biological effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Nezahat; Charles, Monty W

    2002-12-01

    The current DS86 dosimetry system for the Japanese bomb survivors indicates that neutron doses were so low that they prevent the direct derivation of any useful estimates of neutron risk. However, the large body of thermal neutron activation measurements carried out over many years in Hiroshima and Nagasaki appear to indicate that current DS86 neutron doses may have been significantly underestimated in Hiroshima. An earlier companion paper has provided an update of neutron activation measurements. While a large body of data appears to support a significant increase, there is ongoing debate and review regarding its validity. However, as yet, there are no detailed, peer-reviewed, published refutations of the neutron activation data which appear to support an increase in neutron doses. In this paper, we consider the impact of possible future revisions in the DS86 dosimetry on radiation risk estimates. We consider the extreme range of possibilities from maintaining the existing DS86 values, to changes in neutron doses in accord with the majority of existing neutron activation data. We have used the latest cancer incidence data and cancer mortality data for the A-bomb survivors, and neutron doses have been modified using a neutron revision factor (NRF) in line with the latest thermal neutron activation measurements in Hiroshima. In contrast to previous analyses, a nonlinear relationship between log(NRF) and slant range has been used which better represents the data beyond slant ranges of approximately 1 km. The impact on the evaluation of neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and gamma radiation risk estimates has been assessed. While DS86 neutron doses are too low to allow any useful direct evaluation of neutron risk or neutron RBE, it becomes possible to derive more meaningful values if neutron doses are increased in Hiroshima in line with the broad range of thermal neutron activation measurements. The uncertainties are smallest for the cancer incidence data. The best estimates of neutron RBE give upper 95% confidence limits of about 6 for all solid tumours for the incidence data and about 28 for the mortality data. The uncertainties in neutron RBE for leukaemia incidence are larger, and estimation at doses below about 0.1 Gy is not possible. There is no significant change in the excess relative risk for gamma radiation for all solid tumours taken together, compared with the current DS86 dosimetry. The results preclude neutron RBE values significantly greater than the current ICRP radiation weighting factors, which range between 5 and 20, depending on energy. Whether or not the Japanese bomb survivors can indeed form the basis for useful, directly determined neutron risks clearly depends on the veracity of existing neutron activation data. This is currently the subject of careful international scrutiny and the outcome is eagerly awaited. PMID:12546224

  11. Absolute neutron dosimetry: Effects of ionization chamber wall thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Ten Haken, R.K.; Awschalom, M.; Rosenberg, I.

    1985-01-01

    To assess the effect of ionization chamber wall thickness on absolute neutron absorbed dose determinations, measurements were made of the charge collected by an A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic ionization chamber irradiated by a p(66)Be(49) neutron therapy beam as a function of chamber wall thickness both in air and in four different media: tissue-equivalent solution, water, motor oil, and glycerin. Wall thicknesses ranged from 1 to 31 mm, where isolation of the chamber gas volume from protons originating outside the chamber wall was assured. The in-air measurements compare favorably with earlier buildup measurements performed with an A-150 extrapolation chamber in an A-150 phantom. The in-phantom results may be explained if the effect of charged particles reaching the gas volume from the medium and the wall as well as the differences in neutron attenuation by the wall and the medium displaced by the wall are taken into account. The errors in absolute absorbed dose determination caused by ignoring the above processes are assessed.

  12. Human radiation dosimetry of 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG predicted from preclinical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Muzic, Raymond F.; Chandramouli, Visvanathan; Hatami, Ahmad; Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Wu, Chunying; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The authors are developing 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-6-deoxy-D-glucose (6-[{sup 18}F]FDG) as an in vivo tracer of glucose transport. While 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG has the same radionuclide half-life as 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-[{sup 18}F]FDG) which is ubiquitously used for PET imaging, 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG has special biologic properties and different biodistributions that make it preferable to 2-[{sup 18}F]FDG for assessing glucose transport. In preparation for 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG use in human PET scanning, the authors would like to determine the amount of 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG to inject while maintaining radiation doses in a safe range. Methods: Rats were injected with 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG, euthanized at specified times, and tissues were collected and assayed for activity content. For each tissue sample, the percent of injected dose per gram was calculated and extrapolated to that for humans in order to construct predicted time-courses. Residence times were calculated as areas under the curves and were used as inputs to OLINDA/EXM in order to calculate the radiation doses. Results: Unlike with 2-[{sup 18}F]FDG for which the urinary bladder wall receives the highest absorbed dose due to urinary excretion, with 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG there is little urinary excretion and osteogenic cells and the liver are predicted to receive the highest absorbed doses: 0.027 mGy/MBq (0.100 rad/mCi) and 0.018 mGy/MBq (0.066 rad/mCi), respectively. Also, the effective dose from 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG, i.e., 0.013 mSv/MBq (0.046 rem/mCi), is predicted to be approximately 30% lower than that from 2-[{sup 18}F]FDG. Conclusions: 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG will be safe for use in the PET scanning of humans.

  13. Effect of spine hardware on small spinal stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Yang, James N; Li, Xiaoqiang; Tailor, Ramesh; Vassilliev, Oleg; Brown, Paul; Rhines, Laurence; Chang, Eric

    2013-10-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) modeling of a 6 MV photon beam was used to study the dose perturbation from a titanium rod 5 mm in diameter in various small fields range from 2 × 2 to 5 × 5 cm(2). The results showed that the rod increased the dose to water by ∼6% at the water-rod interface because of electron backscattering and decreased the dose by ∼7% in the shadow of the rod because of photon attenuation. The Pinnacle(3) treatment planning system calculations matched the MC results at the depths more than 1 cm past the rod when the correct titanium density of 4.5 g cm(-3) was used, but significantly underestimated the backscattering dose at the water-rod interface. A CT-density table with a top density of 1.82 g cm(-3) (cortical bone) is a practical way to reduce the dosimetric error from the artifacts by preventing high density assignment to them, but can underestimates the attenuation by the titanium rod by 6%. However, when multi-beam with intensity modulation is used in actual patient spinal stereotactic radiosurgery treatment, the dosimetric effect of assigning 4.5 instead of 1.82 g cm(-3) to titanium implants is complicated. It ranged from minimal effect to 2% dose difference affecting 15% target volume in the study. When hardware is in the beam path, density override to the titanium hardware is recommended. PMID:24018829

  14. Application of real-time radiation dosimetry using a new silicon LET sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doke, T.; Hayashi, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Nagaoka, S.; Nakano, T.; Sakaguchi, T.; Terasawa, K.; Badhwar, G. D.

    1999-01-01

    A new type of real-time radiation monitoring device, RRMD-III, consisting of three double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs), has been developed and tested on-board the Space Shuttle mission STS-84. The test succeeded in measuring the linear energy transfer (LET) distribution over the range of 0.2 keV/micrometer to 600 keV/micrometer for 178 h. The Shuttle cruised at an altitude of 300 to 400 km and an inclination angle of 51.6 degrees for 221.3 h, which is equivalent to the International Space Station orbit. The LET distribution obtained for particles was investigated by separating it into galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles and trapped particles in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region. The result shows that the contribution in dose-equivalent due to GCR particles is almost equal to that from trapped particles. The total absorbed dose rate during the mission was 0.611 mGy/day; the effective quality factor, 1.64; and the dose equivalent rate, 0.998 mSv/day. The average absorbed dose rates are 0.158 mGy/min for GCR particles and 3.67 mGy/min for trapped particles. The effective quality factors are 2.48 for GCR particles and 1.19 for trapped particles. The absorbed doses obtained by the RRMD-III and a conventional method using TLD (Mg(2)SiO(4)), which was placed around the RRMD-III were compared. It was found that the TLDs showed a lower efficiency, just 58% of absorbed dose registered by the RRMD-III.

  15. Verification of motion induced thread effect during tomotherapy using gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edvardsson, Anneli; Ljusberg, Anna; Ceberg, Crister; Medin, Joakim; Ambolt, Lee; Nordström, Fredrik; Ceberg, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate how breathing motion during tomotherapy (Accuray, CA, USA) treatment affects the absorbed dose distribution. The experiments were carried out using gel dosimetry and a motion device simulating respiratory-like motion (HexaMotion, ScandiDos, Uppsala, Sweden). Normoxic polyacrylamide gels (nPAG) were irradiated, both during respiratory-like motion and in a static mode. To be able to investigate interplay effects the static absorbed dose distribution was convolved with the motion function and differences between the dynamic and convolved static absorbed dose distributions were interpreted as interplay effects. The expected dose blurring was present and the interplay effects formed a spiral pattern in the lower dose volume. This was expected since the motion induced affects the preset pitch and the theoretically predicted thread effect may emerge. In this study, the motion induced thread effect was experimentally verified for the first time.

  16. A comparative radiation study at ALBA synchrotron facility between Monte Carlo modeling and radiation monitors dosimetry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devienne, A.; Aymerich, N.; García-Fusté, M. J.; Queralt, X.

    2015-11-01

    ALBA is the Spanish synchrotron facility formed with a 3 GeV electron synchrotron accelerator generating bright beams of synchrotron radiation, located in Cerdanyola del Vallès (Spain). The aim of this work is to study the origin of the radiation produced inside and outside the optical hutch of BOREAS beamline, an experimental station dedicated to study the resonant absorption and scattering of the photons. The objective is to characterize the radiation at the beamline, evaluating in particular the solid bremsstrahlung component of the radiation. The results are obtained after comparing radiation monitors detectors data with Monte Carlo modeling (FLUKA), giving the characteristics of the shielding required to consider the outside of the hutch as a public zone.

  17. Calculated effects of backscattering on skin dosimetry for nuclear fuel fragments.

    PubMed

    Aydarous, A Sh

    2008-01-01

    The size of hot particles contained in nuclear fallout ranges from 10 nm to 20 microm for the worldwide weapons fallout. Hot particles from nuclear power reactors can be significantly bigger (100 microm to several millimetres). Electron backscattering from such particles is a prominent secondary effect in beta dosimetry for radiological protection purposes, such as skin dosimetry. In this study, the effect of electron backscattering due to hot particles contamination on skin dose is investigated. These include parameters such as detector area, source radius, source energy, scattering material and source density. The Monte-Carlo Neutron Particle code (MCNP4C) was used to calculate the depth dose distribution for 10 different beta sources and various materials. The backscattering dose factors (BSDF) were then calculated. A significant dependence is shown for the BSDF magnitude upon detector area, source radius and scatterers. It is clearly shown that the BSDF increases with increasing detector area. For high Z scatterers, the BSDF can reach as high as 40 and 100% for sources with radii 0.1 and 0.0001 cm, respectively. The variation of BSDF with source radius, source energy and source density is discussed. PMID:18223183

  18. Autoradiographic studies of the distribution of radium-226 in rat bone: their implications for human radiation dosimetry and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Priest, N D; Howells, G; Green, D; Haines, J W

    1983-07-01

    A solution containing 226Ra chloride was injected into young female rats via the saphenous vein. Subsequently, the distribution and retention of the 226Ra in the skeleton was studied. The results show that: 226Ra is initially deposited in the rat femur as a volume deposit and is fairly evenly distributed throughout the bone matrix. Much of the 226Ra initially deposited in the skeleton is lost within a few days of its administration. During the first week 226Ra gradually accumulates at sites of bone deposition including accreting surfaces. Subsequent bone growth results in the burial of contaminated bone surfaces and Following bone resorption some of the 226Ra released from individual bones is recycled systemically so that all skeletal components tend towards a uniform 226Ra concentration per unit of bone mineral. Of the two models conventionally used for radiation dosimetry purposes, the results reported here for rats suggest that though neither is ideal, the volume distribution model is preferable to the surface model at all times after the uptake of radium by the skeleton. PMID:6885093

  19. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A; Lepage, M; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. PMID:20150687

  20. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B.

    2015-07-15

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor’s trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between the measured and intended doses.

  1. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B

    2015-07-01

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor's trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between the measured and intended doses. PMID:26233396

  2. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B.

    2015-07-01

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor's trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between the measured and intended doses.

  3. Measurement of stray radiation within a scanning proton therapy facility: EURADOS WG9 intercomparison exercise of active dosimetry systems

    SciTech Connect

    Farah, J. Trompier, F.; Mares, V.; Schinner, K.; Wielunski, M.; Romero-Expósito, M.; Domingo, C.; Trinkl, S.; Dufek, V.; Klodowska, M.; Liszka, M.; Stolarczyk, L.; Olko, P.; Kubancak, J.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To characterize stray radiation around the target volume in scanning proton therapy and study the performance of active neutron monitors. Methods: Working Group 9 of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS WG9—Radiation protection in medicine) carried out a large measurement campaign at the Trento Centro di Protonterapia (Trento, Italy) in order to determine the neutron spectra near the patient using two extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometry (BSS) systems. In addition, the work focused on acknowledging the performance of different commercial active dosimetry systems when measuring neutron ambient dose equivalents, H{sup ∗}(10), at several positions inside (8 positions) and outside (3 positions) the treatment room. Detectors included three TEPCs—tissue equivalent proportional counters (Hawk type from Far West Technology, Inc.) and six rem-counters (WENDI-II, LB 6411, RadEye™ NL, a regular and an extended-range NM2B). Meanwhile, the photon component of stray radiation was deduced from the low-lineal energy transfer part of TEPC spectra or measured using a Thermo Scientific™ FH-40G survey meter. Experiments involved a water tank phantom (60 × 30 × 30 cm{sup 3}) representing the patient that was uniformly irradiated using a 3 mm spot diameter proton pencil beam with 10 cm modulation width, 19.95 cm distal beam range, and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field size. Results: Neutron spectrometry around the target volume showed two main components at the thermal and fast energy ranges. The study also revealed the large dependence of the energy distribution of neutrons, and consequently of out-of-field doses, on the primary beam direction (directional emission of intranuclear cascade neutrons) and energy (spectral composition of secondary neutrons). In addition, neutron mapping within the facility was conducted and showed the highest H{sup ∗}(10) value of ∼51 μSv Gy{sup −1}; this was measured at 1.15 m along the beam axis. H{sup ∗}(10) values significantly decreased with distance and angular position with respect to beam axis falling below 2 nSv Gy{sup −1} at the entrance of the maze, at the door outside the room and below detection limit in the gantry control room, and at an adjacent room (<0.1 nSv Gy{sup −1}). Finally, the agreement on H{sup ∗}(10) values between all detectors showed a direct dependence on neutron spectra at the measurement position. While conventional rem-counters (LB 6411, RadEye™ NL, NM2-458) underestimated the H{sup ∗}(10) by up to a factor of 4, Hawk TEPCs and the WENDI-II range-extended detector were found to have good performance (within 20%) even at the highest neutron fluence and energy range. Meanwhile, secondary photon dose equivalents were found to be up to five times lower than neutrons; remaining nonetheless of concern to the patient. Conclusions: Extended-range BSS, TEPCs, and the WENDI-II enable accurate measurements of stray neutrons while other rem-counters are not appropriate considering the high-energy range of neutrons involved in proton therapy.

  4. Nonlinearity of radiation health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Pollycove, M

    1998-01-01

    The prime concern of radiation protection policy since 1959 has been to protect DNA from damage. In 1994 the United Nations Scientific Community on the Effects of Atomic Radiation focused on biosystem response to radiation with its report Adaptive Responses to Radiation of Cells and Organisms. The 1995 National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements report Principles and Application of Collective Dose in Radiation Protection states that because no human data provides direct support for the linear nonthreshold hypothesis (LNT), confidence in LNT is based on the biophysical concept that the passage of a single charged particle could cause damage to DNA that would result in cancer. Several statistically significant epidemiologic studies contradict the validity of this concept by showing risk decrements, i.e., hormesis, of cancer mortality and mortality from all causes in populations exposed to low-dose radiation. Unrepaired low-dose radiation damage to DNA is negligible compared to metabolic damage. The DNA damage-control biosystem is physiologically operative on both metabolic and radiation damage and effected predominantly by free radicals. The DNA damage-control biosystem is suppressed by high dose and stimulated by low-dose radiation. The hormetic effect of low-dose radiation may be explained by its increase of biosystem efficiency. Improved DNA damage control reduces persistent mis- or unrepaired DNA damage i.e., the number of mutations that accumulate during a lifetime. This progressive accumulation of gene mutations in stem cells is associated with decreasing DNA damage control, aging, and malignancy. Recognition of the positive health effects produced by adaptive responses to low-dose radiation would result in a realistic assessment of the environmental risk of radiation. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:9539031

  5. Medical dosimetry in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turák, O.; Osvay, M.; Ballay, L.

    2012-09-01

    Radiation exposure of medical staff during cardiological and radiological procedures was investigated. The exposure of medical staff is directly connected to patient exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of doses on uncovered part of body of medical staff using LiF thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters in seven locations. Individual Kodak film dosimeters (as authorized dosimetry system) were used for the assessment of medical staff's effective dose. Results achieved on dose distribution measurements confirm that wearing only one film badge under the lead apron does not provide enough information on the personal dose. The value of estimated annual doses on eye lens and extremities (fingers) were in good correlation with international publications.

  6. On the validity of 3D polymer gel dosimetry: II. Physico-chemical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, Jan; De Deene, Yves

    2013-01-01

    This study quantifies some major physico-chemical factors that influence the validity of MRI (PAGAT) polymer gel dosimetry: temperature history (pre-, during and post-irradiation), oxygen exposure (post-irradiation) and volumetric effects (experiment with phantom in which a small test tube is inserted). Present results confirm the effects of thermal history prior to irradiation. By exposing a polymer gel sample to a linear temperature gradient of ˜2.8 °C cm-1 and following the dose deviation as a function of post-irradiation time new insights into temporal variations were added. A clear influence of the temperature treatment on the measured dose distribution is seen during the first hours post-irradiation (resulting in dose deviations up to 12%). This effect diminishes to 5% after 54 h post-irradiation. Imposing a temperature offset (maximum 6 °C for 3 h) during and following irradiation on a series of calibration phantoms results in only a small dose deviation of maximum 4%. Surprisingly, oxygen diffusing in a gel dosimeter up to 48 h post-irradiation was shown to have no effect. Volumetric effects were studied by comparing the dose distribution in a homogeneous phantom compared to the dose distribution in a phantom in which a small test tube was inserted. This study showed that the dose measured inside the test tube was closer to the ion chamber measurement in comparison to the reference phantom without test tube by almost 7%. It is demonstrated that physico-chemical effects are not the major causes for the dose discrepancies encountered in the reproducibility study discussed in the concurrent paper (Vandecasteele and De Deene 2013a Phys. Med. Biol. 58 19-42). However, it is concluded that these physico-chemical effects are important factors that should be addressed to further improve the dosimetric accuracy of 3D MRI polymer gel dosimetry. Both authors contributed equally to this study.

  7. Proton Radiotherapy for Pediatric Bladder/Prostate Rhabdomyosarcoma: Clinical Outcomes and Dosimetry Compared to Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cotter, Shane E.; Herrup, David A.; Friedmann, Alison; Macdonald, Shannon M.; Pieretti, Raphael V.; Robinson, Gregoire; Adams, Judith; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: In this study, we report the clinical outcomes of 7 children with bladder/prostate rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) treated with proton radiation and compare proton treatment plans with matched intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans, with an emphasis on dose savings to reproductive and skeletal structures. Methods and Materials: Follow-up consisted of scheduled clinic appointments at our institution or direct communication with the treating physicians for referred patients. Each proton radiotherapy plan used for treatment was directly compared to an IMRT plan generated for the study. Clinical target volumes and normal tissue volumes were held constant to facilitate dosimetric comparisons. Each plan was optimized for target coverage and normal tissue sparing. Results: Seven male patients were treated with proton radiotherapy for bladder/prostate RMS at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 2002 and 2008. Median age at treatment was 30 months (11-70 months). Median follow-up was 27 months (10-90 months). Four patients underwent a gross total resection prior to radiation, and all patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Radiation doses ranged from 36 cobalt Gray equivalent (CGE) to 50.4 CGE. Five of 7 patients were without evidence of disease and with intact bladders at study completion. Target volume dosimetry was equivalent between the two modalities for all 7 patients. Proton radiotherapy led to a significant decrease in mean organ dose to the bladder (25.1 CGE vs. 33.2 Gy; p = 0.03), testes (0.0 CGE vs. 0.6 Gy; p = 0.016), femoral heads (1.6 CGE vs. 10.6 Gy; p = 0.016), growth plates (21.7 CGE vs. 32.4 Gy; p = 0.016), and pelvic bones (8.8 CGE vs. 13.5 Gy; p = 0.016) compared to IMRT. Conclusions: This study provides evidence of significant dose savings to normal structures with proton radiotherapy compared to IMRT and is well tolerated in this patient population. The long-term impact of these reduced doses can be tested in future studies incorporating extended follow-up, objective outcome measures, and quality-of-life analyses.

  8. On the uncertainties of photon mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreo, Pedro; Burns, David T.; Salvat, Francesc

    2012-04-01

    A systematic analysis of the available data has been carried out for mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for air, graphite and water for photon energies between 1 keV and 2 MeV, using representative kilovoltage x-ray spectra for mammography and diagnostic radiology below 100 kV, and for 192Ir and 60Co gamma-ray spectra. The aim of this work was to establish ‘an envelope of uncertainty’ based on the spread of the available data. Type A uncertainties were determined from the results of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations with the PENELOPE and EGSnrc systems, yielding mean values for µen/ρ with a given statistical standard uncertainty. Type B estimates were based on two groupings. The first grouping consisted of MC calculations based on a similar implementation but using different data and/or approximations. The second grouping was formed by various datasets, obtained by different authors or methods using the same or different basic data, and with different implementations (analytical, MC-based, or a combination of the two); these datasets were the compilations of NIST, Hubbell, Johns-Cunningham, Attix and Higgins, plus MC calculations with PENELOPE and EGSnrc. The combined standard uncertainty, uc, for the µen/ρ values for the mammography x-ray spectra is 2.5%, decreasing gradually to 1.6% for kilovoltage x-ray spectra up to 100 kV. For 60Co and 192Ir, uc is approximately 0.1%. The Type B uncertainty analysis for the ratios of µen/ρ values includes four methods of analysis and concludes that for the present data the assumption that the data interval represents 95% confidence limits is a good compromise. For the mammography x-ray spectra, the combined standard uncertainties of (µen/ρ)graphite,air and (µen/ρ)graphite,water are 1.5%, and 0.5% for (µen/ρ)water,air, decreasing gradually down to uc = 0.1% for the three µen/ρ ratios for the gamma-ray spectra. The present estimates are shown to coincide well with those of Hubbell (1977 Rad. Res. 70 58-81), except for the lowest energy range (radiodiagnostic) where it is concluded that current databases and their systematic analysis represent an improvement over the older Hubbell estimations. The results for (µen/ρ)graphite,air for the gamma-ray dosimetry range are moderately higher than those of Seltzer and Bergstrom (2005 private communication).

  9. Radiation effects in nanoelectronic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gromov, D. V.; Elesin, V. V.; Petrov, G. V.; Bobrinetskii, I. I.; Nevolin, V. K.

    2010-12-15

    Radiation defects induced in planar nanosized structures by steady and pulsed ionizing radiation have been analyzed. Characteristics of test samples with a planar nanosized structure fabricated by deposition of an ultrathin titanium film onto a semi-insulating GaAs substrate and of field-effect transistor structures based on bundles of carbon nanotubes have been studied. Physical mechanisms responsible for the radiation-induced changes in characteristics of the nanoelectronic elements under consideration have been established.

  10. Effect of constipation on dosimetry after permanent seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dolado, M. Carmen; Núñez, Eduardo J.; Otón, Claudio A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A major concern in prostate brachytherapy is rectal toxicity, which mainly depends on the dose and volume of rectum involved by radiation. We hypothesize that the rectal distension, as produced by constipation, influences the dosimetric parameters of the rectum and other pelvic organs. Material and methods An open, controlled, prospective, paired trial (pre-post test) was designed and conducted. Twenty-three patients treated with prostate brachytherapy were recruited, of which 21 were evaluated. All of them underwent two CT scans, the first one with empty rectum and the second with rectum distended by a catheter balloon. Target volumes and organs at risk were delineated, and dosimetric parameters were calculated and then compared for each patient between both CT. Results For rectum, D2cc increased 15.8% (p < 0.001) and D0.1cc 24.05% (p = 0.002) when the rectum was full. A significant difference was also found in dose distribution to prostate, when rectum is distended, a 1% decrease in V100 (p = 0.031) and a 3.25% in D90 (p = 0.033) was registered. Conclusions The status of rectal distension, as occurs in constipation, has a deleterious influence on prostate brachytherapy dosimetry. This situation increases the radiation to rectum and modifies dose distribution to prostate. We recommend prevention of constipation for at least two half lives of the radioactive seeds. PMID:26622226

  11. Dosimetry of mixed neutron and gamma radiation with paired Fricke solutions in light and heavy water.

    PubMed

    Himit, M; Itoh, T; Endo, S; Fujikawa, K; Hoshi, M

    1996-06-01

    Paired Fricke solutions, made up from light water or heavy water and 0.8N in H2SO4 and 1 mM in Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 and NaCl, were calibrated with 60Co gamma rays and with mixed neutron and gamma radiation from a 252Cf source. Absorbance increases, AL and AH, in light- and heavy-water Fricke dosimeters, respectively, increased with fast-neutron and gamma-ray tissue doses, Dn (GY) and D gamma (GY), of the mixed radiation as follows: AL = 0.00178Dn + 0.00371D gamma; AH = 0.00121Dn + 0.00442 D gamma. G-values of 7.2 and 5.5 were obtained for 252Cf neutrons in light- and heavy-water Fricke dosimeters, respectively. When we applied the pair of equations to AL and AH values observed after exposure to mixed radiation in a nuclear reactor, resulting Dn and D gamma values agreed within 10% to doses measured with paired ionization chambers. Doses required for Fricke dosimeters were 5 Gy or more. In contrast, we found that micronuclear yields in onion roots can measure the neutron component of mixed radiation fields at the order of 10 cGy with reasonable accuracy even if the neutron to gamma-ray dose ratio is unknown. PMID:8840720

  12. The thermoluminescence response of Ge-doped silica fibres for synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Rahman, A. T.; Bradley, D. A.; Doran, S. J.; Thierry, Brochard; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Bravin, A.

    2010-07-01

    In radiation cancer therapy, the aim is to destroy the tumour cells in the treated area while minimizing damage to the surrounding normal tissue. Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy offers considerable promise in this respect, based on knowledge that normal tissue can tolerate high doses of radiation over small volumes. At the ESRF microbeam radiation therapy facility, one of the several aspects being investigated is measurement of very high dose gradients (changing by hundreds of Gy over ˜10 μm), as there is no established physical dosimetric system simultaneously providing accurate measurements of the doses in the microbeam peaks and valleys. Monte Carlo simulations have been obtained but these have yet to be validated by measurements. One possible means of obtaining micro dosimetric evaluations is use of the thermoluminescence (TL) produced by optical fibres. Previous studies at conventional electron linac radiotherapy facilities have shown that germanium-doped silica fibres offer useful sensitivity to radiotherapy doses it is being further established that commercially produced Ge-doped optical fibres can provide a TL-yield reproducibility of better than 4% (1 SD). Present experiments have investigated the thermoluminescence response of such fibres at incident energies of several tens of keV, for a wide range of doses, from 1 Gy to 10 kGy, revealing a linear correlation of r2≥0.998 up to a dose of 2 kGy, encompassing the dosimetric needs of both conventional and synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy.

  13. Fifth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, E.E.; Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.

    1992-05-01

    This meeting was held to exchange information on how to get better estimates of the radiation absorbed dose. There seems to be a high interest of late in patient dosimetry; discussions were held in the light of revised risk estimates for radiation. Topics included: Strategies of Dose Assessment; Dose Estimation for Radioimmunotherapy; Dose Calculation Techniques and Models; Dose Estimation for Positron Emission Tomography (PET); Kinetics for Dose Estimation; and Small Scale Dosimetry and Microdosimetry. (VC)

  14. Practical dosimetry methods for the determination of effective skin and breast dose for a modern CT system, incorporating partial irradiation and prospective cardiac gating

    PubMed Central

    Loader, R J; Gosling, O; Roobottom, C; Morgan-Hughes, G; Rowles, N

    2012-01-01

    Objective For CT coronary angiography (CTCA), a generic chest conversion factor returns a significant underestimate of effective dose. The aim of this manuscript is to communicate new dosimetry methods to calculate weighted CT dose index (CTDIw), effective dose, entrance surface dose (ESD) and organ dose to the breast for prospectively gated CTCA. Methods CTDIw in 32 cm diameter Perspex phantom was measured using an adapted technique, accounting for the segmented scan characteristic. Gafchromic XRCT film (International Speciality Products, New Jersey, NJ) was used to measure the distribution and magnitude of ESD. Breast dose was measured using high sensitivity metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors and compared to the computer based imaging performance assessment of CT scanners (ImPACT) dosimetry calculations. Results For a typical cardiac scan the mean ESD remained broadly constant (7–9 mGy) when averaged over the circumference of the Perspex phantom. Typical absorbed dose to the breast with prospectively gated protocols was within the range 2–15 mGy. The subsequent lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence to the breast was found at 0.01–0.06 for a 20-year-old female. This compares favourably to 100 mGy (LAR ∼0.43) for a retrospectively gated CTCA. Conclusions Care must be taken when considering radiation dosimetry associated with prospectively gated scanning for CTCA and a method has been conveyed to account for this. Breast doses for prospectively gated CTCA are an order of magnitude lower than retrospectively gated scans. Optimisation of cardiac protocols is expected to show further dose reduction. PMID:21896660

  15. Relationship between student selection criteria and learner success for medical dosimetry students.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jamie; Tucker, Debra; Raynes, Edilberto; Aitken, Florence; Allen, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Medical dosimetry education occupies a specialized branch of allied health higher education. Noted international shortages of health care workers, reduced university funding, limitations on faculty staffing, trends in learner attrition, and increased enrollment of nontraditional students force medical dosimetry educational leadership to reevaluate current admission practices. Program officials wish to select medical dosimetry students with the best chances of successful graduation. The purpose of the quantitative ex post facto correlation study was to investigate the relationship between applicant characteristics (cumulative undergraduate grade point average (GPA), science grade point average (SGPA), prior experience as a radiation therapist, and previous academic degrees) and the successful completion of a medical dosimetry program, as measured by graduation. A key finding from the quantitative study was the statistically significant positive correlation between a student׳s previous degree and his or her successful graduation from the medical dosimetry program. Future research investigations could include a larger research sample, representative of more medical dosimetry student populations, and additional studies concerning the relationship of previous work as a radiation therapist and the effect on success as a medical dosimetry student. Based on the quantitative correlation analysis, medical dosimetry leadership on admissions committees could revise student selection rubrics to place less emphasis on an applicant׳s undergraduate cumulative GPA and increase the weight assigned to previous degrees. PMID:26553474

  16. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2009-08-28

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document.

  17. Dosimetry in steep dose-rate gradient radiation fields: A challenge in clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massillon-JL, G.

    2010-12-01

    The fundamental goal of radiotherapy is to reduce the damage to normal tissue and optimize the dose to the tumor with an associated high probability of cure. Because of this, an accurate and precise knowledge of the radiation dose distribution delivered around the tumor volume during radiotherapy treatments such as stereotactic radiosurgery, intensity modulated radiotherapy or brachytherapy with low-energy X-ray and beta particle sources is of great importance. However, in each of these radiation fields, there exists a steep dose-rate gradient which makes it very difficult to perform accurate dose measurements. In this work, the physics phenomena involved in the energy absorption for each of these situations are discussed, and a brief revision of what the Medical Physics community is doing is presented.

  18. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium-Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Bobby R.; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.; Osovets, Sergey V.; Syrchikov, Victor A., Belyaeva, Zinaida D.

    2007-12-14

    This report summarizes 4 years of research achievements in this Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project. The research described was conducted by scientists and supporting staff at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI)/Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). All project objectives and goals were achieved. A major focus was on obtaining improved cancer risk estimates for exposure via inhalation to plutonium (Pu) isotopes in the workplace (DOE radiation workers) and environment (public exposures to Pu-contaminated soil). A major finding was that low doses and dose rates of gamma rays can significantly suppress cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes. The suppression relates to stimulation of the body's natural defenses, including immunity against cancer cells and selective apoptosis which removes precancerous and other aberrant cells.

  19. Nanosensor dosimetry of mouse blood proteins after exposure to ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dokyoon; Marchetti, Francesco; Chen, Zuxiong; Zaric, Sasa; Wilson, Robert J.; Hall, Drew A.; Gaster, Richard S.; Lee, Jung-Rok; Wang, Junyi; Osterfeld, Sebastian J.; Yu, Heng; White, Robert M.; Blakely, William F.; Peterson, Leif E.; Bhatnagar, Sandhya; Mannion, Brandon; Tseng, Serena; Roth, Kristen; Coleman, Matthew; Snijders, Antoine M.; Wyrobek, Andrew J.; Wang, Shan X.

    2013-07-01

    Giant magnetoresistive (GMR) nanosensors provide a novel approach for measuring protein concentrations in blood for medical diagnosis. Using an in vivo mouse radiation model, we developed protocols for measuring Flt3 ligand (Flt3lg) and serum amyloid A1 (Saa1) in small amounts of blood collected during the first week after X-ray exposures of sham, 0.1, 1, 2, 3, or 6 Gy. Flt3lg concentrations showed excellent dose discrimination at >= 1 Gy in the time window of 1 to 7 days after exposure except 1 Gy at day 7. Saa1 dose response was limited to the first two days after exposure. A multiplex assay with both proteins showed improved dose classification accuracy. Our magneto-nanosensor assay demonstrates the dose and time responses, low-dose sensitivity, small volume requirements, and rapid speed that have important advantages in radiation triage biodosimetry.

  20. The UF Family of hybrid phantoms of the pregnant female for computational radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Matthew R.; Long, Nelia S.; Moawad, Nash S.; Shifrin, Roger Y.; Geyer, Amy M.; Fong, Grant; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2014-08-01

    Efforts to assess in utero radiation doses and related quantities to the developing fetus should account for the presence of the surrounding maternal tissues. Maternal tissues can provide varying levels of protection to the fetus by shielding externally-emitted radiation or, alternatively, can become sources of internally-emitted radiation following the biokinetic uptake of medically-administered radiopharmaceuticals or radionuclides located in the surrounding environment—as in the case of the European Union’s SOLO project (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations). The University of Florida had previously addressed limitations in available computational phantom representation of the developing fetus by constructing a series of hybrid computational fetal phantoms at eight different ages and three weight percentiles. Using CT image sets of pregnant patients contoured using 3D-DOCTORTM, the eight 50th percentile fetal phantoms from that study were systematically combined in RhinocerosTM with the UF adult non-pregnant female to yield a series of reference pregnant female phantoms at fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. Deformable, non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces were utilized to alter contoured maternal anatomy in order to (1) accurately position and orient each fetus and surrounding maternal tissues and (2) match target masses of maternal soft tissue organs to reference data reported in the literature.

  1. Characterisation of the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of tailor-made Ge-doped silica glass fibre for applications in medical radiation therapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahaimi, N. A.; Zin, H.; Mahdiraji, G. A.; Rahman, A. L. Abdul; Bradley, D. A.; Rahman, A. T. Abdul

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the characterisation of new fabricated material Ge doped silica glass thermoluminescence TL dosimeter (Photonic Research Centre, University of Malaya) for medical radiation dosimetry at therapy energy. Previously, the dosimeter has been studied to provide ideal dosimetry system, suitable to ensure an accurate delivery of radiation doses to tumour tissue while minimising the amount of radiation administrated to healthy tissue. Both energies of photon and electron were used in this experiment for a dose range of 1 to 5 Gy. The various sizes of core diameter Ge doped silica glass (120, 241, 362, 483 and 604 μm) were exposed by using linear accelerator at Pantai Medical Centre. For both energies, the optical fibres were found to produce a flat response to a fixed photon and electron doses to within 4% (S.D) of the mean of the TL distribution. In terms of dose response, the fibres provide linear response over the range investigated, from a fraction of 1-5 Gy. The finding shows 120 μm fibres have 1.82 greater dose response than 604 pm fibres irradiated at 6 MV photon with a fixed dose of 3 Gy. While for electron energy 12 MeV, the response shows 120 μm fibres have 1.58 greater dose response compared to 604 μm fibres. The good responses are suitable to make these tailor-made doped silica fibres a promising TL material for use as a dosimetric system in medical radiation therapy.

  2. Report from the dosimetry working group to CEDR project management

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J J

    1994-08-01

    On August 2, 1989, Admiral Watkins, Secretary of the US Department of Energy (DOE), presented a four-point program designed to enhance the DOE epidemiology program. One part of this program was the establishment of a Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) to facilitate independent research to validate and supplement DOE research on human health effects. A Dosimetry Working Group was formed during May 1991 to evaluate radiation dose variables and associated documentation that would be most useful to researchers for retrospective and prospective studies. The Working Group consisted of thirteen individuals with expertise and experience in health physics, epidemiology, dosimetry, computing, and industrial hygiene. A final report was delivered to CEDR Project Management during February 1992. The report contains a number of major recommendations concerning collection, interpretation, and documentation of dosimetry data to maximize their usefulness to researchers using CEDR for examining possible health effects of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation.

  3. Effect of different breathing patterns in the same patient on stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy dosimetry for primary renal cell carcinoma: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Daniel; Kron, Tomas; Foroudi, Farshad; Siva, Shankar

    2013-10-01

    Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) for primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) targets requires motion management strategies to verify dose delivery. This case study highlights the effect of a change in patient breathing amplitude on the dosimetry to organs at risk and target structures. A 73-year-old male patient was planned for receiving 26 Gy of radiation in 1 fraction of SABR for a left primary RCC. The patient was simulated with four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and the tumor internal target volume (ITV) was delineated using the 4DCT maximum intensity projection. However, the initially planned treatment was abandoned at the radiation oncologist's discretion after pretreatment cone-beam CT (CBCT) motion verification identified a greater than 50% reduction in superior to inferior diaphragm motion as compared with the planning 4DCT. This patient was resimulated with respiratory coaching instructions. To assess the effect of the change in breathing on the dosimetry to the target, each plan was recalculated on the data set representing the change in breathing condition. A change from smaller to larger breathing showed a 46% loss in planning target volume (PTV) coverage, whereas a change from larger breathing to smaller breathing resulted in an 8% decrease in PTV coverage. ITV coverage was similarly reduced by 8% in both scenarios. This case study highlights the importance of tools to verify breathing motion prior to treatment delivery. 4D image guided radiation therapy verification strategies should focus on not only verifying ITV margin coverage but also the effect on the surrounding organs at risk.

  4. Dosimetry in brain tumor phantom at 15 MV 3D conformal radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common, aggressive, highly malignant and infiltrative of all brain tumors with low rate of control. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the spatial dose distribution into a GBM simulator inside a head phantom exposed to a 15 MV 3D conformal radiation therapy in order to validate internal doses. A head and neck phantom developed by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI) was used on the experiments. Such phantom holds the following synthetic structures: brain and spinal cord, skull, cervical and thoracic vertebrae, jaw, hyoid bone, laryngeal cartilages, head and neck muscles and skin. Computer tomography (CT) of the simulator was taken, capturing a set of contrasted references. Therapy Radiation planning (TPS) was performed based on those CT images, satisfying a 200 cGy prescribed dose split in three irradiation fields. The TPS assumed 97% of prescribed dose cover the prescribed treatment volume (PTV). Radiochromic films in a solid water phantom provided dose response as a function of optical density. Spatial dosimetric distribution was generated by radiochromic film samples at coronal, sagittal-anterior and sagittal-posterior positions, inserted into tumor simulator and brain. The spatial dose profiles held 70 to 120% of the prescribed dose. In spite of the stratified profile, as opposed to the smooth dose profile from TPS, the tumor internal doses were within a 5% deviation from 214.4 cGy evaluated by TPS. 83.2% of the points with a gamma value of less than 1 (3%/3mm) for TPS and experimental values, respectively. At the tumor, measured at coronal section, a few dark spots in the film caused the appearance of outlier points in 13-15% of dose deviation percentage. And, as final conclusion, such dosimeter choice and the physical anthropomorphic and anthropometric phantom provided an efficient method for validating radiotherapy protocols. PMID:23829593

  5. Radiation effects on structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoniem, N.M.

    1991-06-28

    This report discusses the following topics on the effect radiation has on thermonuclear reactor materials: Atomic Displacements; Microstructure Evolution; Materials Engineering, Mechanics, and Design; Research on Low-Activation Steels; and Research Motivated by Grant Support.

  6. Monte Carlo simulation applied to the characterization of an extrapolation chamber for beta radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, F. P.; Reynaldo, S.; Fonseca, T. C. F.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Da Silva, T. A.

    2015-11-01

    An extrapolation chamber is a parallel-plate ionization chamber with an adjustable air-cavity volume through the variation of the distance between the collecting electrode and the entrance foil. The measured ionization currents can be obtained for different chamber depths, and extrapolated towards zero chamber depth. In this work, results of Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP5 and MCNPX codes are reported for 90Sr/90Y and 85Kr beta radiation spectra incident on a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber. The results for transmission factor, absorbed dose rate in tissue as well as the chamber response as a function of the chamber depth are in good agreement with experimental data.

  7. Ultraviolet radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slemp, Wayne S.

    1989-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet testing was not developed which will provide highly accelerated (20 to 50X) exposures that correlate to flight test data. Additional studies are required to develop an exposure methodology which will assure that accelerated testing can be used for qualification of materials and coatings for long duration space flight. Some conclusions are listed: Solar UV radiation is present in all orbital environments; Solar UV does not change in flux with orbital altitude; UV radiation can degrade most coatings and polymeric films; Laboratory UV simulation methodology is needed for accelerated testing to 20 UV solar constants; Simulation of extreme UV (below 200 nm) is needed to evaluate requirements for EUV in solar simulation.

  8. Radiation Effects in Zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Rodney C.; Meldrum, Alkiviathes; Wang, L. M.; Weber, William J.; Corrales, Louis R.

    2003-12-11

    The widespread distribution of zircon in the continental crust, its tendency to concentrate trace elements, particularly lanthanides and actinides, its use in age-dating, and its resistance to chemical and physical degradation have made zircon the most important accessory mineral in geologic studies. Because zircon is highly refractory, it also has important industrial applications, including its use as a lining material in high-temperature furnaces. However, during the past decade, zircon has also been proposed for advanced technology applications, such as a durable material for the immobilization of plutonium or, when modified by ion-beam irradiation, as an optic waveguide material. In all of these applications, the change in properties as a function of increasing radiation dose is of critical importance. In this chapter, we summarize the state-of-knowledge on the radiation damage accumulation process in zircon.

  9. NOTE: The effect of user-defined variables on dosimetry consistency in Gamma Knife planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lijun; Chin, Lawrence S.; Shepard, David; Amin, Pradip; Slawson, Robert

    2000-05-01

    We report a dosimetric variation caused by a user-defined variable for the Leksell Gamma Knife planning system. Treatment plans of 31 randomly selected patients were studied retrospectively to determine the dosimetric effects in the dose prescription and computation as a result of dose matrix positioning in the Leksell Gamma Plan (LGP, Version 4.12). Phantom studies with ion chamber measurements were carried out to validate the accuracy of the computation results. An average overdose of 2% was found due to the variations in the user-defined dose matrix position for the studied cases. In the extreme, the overdose value was as high as 5% with an over-treatment time exceeding 2 min. The phantom measurements were found to agree with the LGP calculation within 0.5%. An adaptive method was developed and demonstrated in this study to eliminate such dosimetry variations.

  10. Reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The presentations at this workshop are the first of a series of joint efforts, among knowledgeable scientists in Japan and the United States under RERF auspices, directed toward reassessing the dose of ionizing radiation received by survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The last previous dose estimate revisions occurred in 1965 and since that time new technology and understanding have become available for this purpose. It is the hope of RERF that the collaboration represented by this workshop and the following day of free discussion among the participating scientists will establish a procedure which will ensure that the resulting dose estimates are as accurate as possible. Acceptance of the resulting estimates by the scientific communities of both nations is our ultimate goal. This first workshop has concentrated on presenting current evidence concerning the yield of the two weapons, the spectra of the radiations from them, their transport through air, and various in situ measurements of the resulting excitation of materials on the ground (insulators, roof tiles, iron rods, etc.) which can be used to check the theoretical calculations.

  11. Modification of shirt buttons for retrospective radiation dosimetry after a radiological event.

    PubMed

    Marino, Stephen A; Johnson, Gary W; Schiff, Peter B; Brenner, David J

    2011-05-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a personal radiation dosimeter in the form of a clothing button to provide gamma-ray dose estimation for clinically-significant external radiation exposures to the general public due to a radiological incident, such as use of a radiological dispersal device. Rods of thermoluminescent material (LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P) were encapsulated in plastic "buttons," attached to shirts, and subjected to three cycles of home or commercial laundering or dry cleaning, including ironing or pressing. The buttons were subsequently exposed to doses of 137Cs gamma rays ranging from 0.75 to 8.2 Gy. The rods were removed from the buttons and their light output compared to their responses when bare or to the responses of a set of calibration rods of the same type and from the same manufacturer. In all three of the comparisons for LiF:Mg,Ti rods, the relative responses of the rods in buttons changed by 2-6% relative to the same rods before cleaning. In both comparisons for LiF:Mg,Cu,P rods, the response of laundered rods was 1-3% lower than for the same rods before cleaning. Both these materials are potential candidates for button dosimeters. PMID:21451325

  12. Radiation dosimetry for the adult female and fetus from iodine-131 administration in hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Marcus, C.S.; Salk, R.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Through a study of the iodine kinetics of 127 patients, we have developed radiation dose estimates to major organs and the fetus for patients with varying degrees of hyperthyroidism. We observed a negative correlation between maximum thyroid uptake and biologic half-time of iodine in the thyroid and used this correlation to predict the biologic half-time at fixed values of maximum thyroid uptake. Dose estimates to the bladder, gonads, marrow, thyroid, uterus, and whole body were estimated for maximum thyroid uptakes from 20% to 100%. Bladder dose varied from 0.6 to 1.0 mGy/MBq and dose to the uterus varied from 0.036 to 0.063 mGy/MBq under different model assumptions. Dose estimates to the fetus and fetal thyroid were approximated at all stages of pregnancy. Average fetal dose was a maximum between 0 and 2 mo of pregnancy, with the maximum ranging from 0.048 mGy/MBq to 0.083 mGy/MBq, depending on model assumptions. Some radiation risks for irradiation of the fetus and the fetal thyroid are discussed.

  13. Modification of Shirt Buttons for Retrospective Radiation Dosimetry after a Radiological Event

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Stephen A.; Johnson, Gary W.; Schiff, Peter B.; Brenner, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a personal radiation dosimeter in the form of a clothing button to provide gamma-ray dose estimation for clinically significant external radiation exposures to the general public due to a radiological incident, such as a Radiological Dispersal Device. Rods of thermoluminescent material (LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P) were encapsulated in plastic “buttons”, attached to shirts, and subjected to three cycles of home or commercial laundering or dry cleaning, including ironing or pressing. The buttons were subsequently exposed to doses of 137Cs gamma rays ranging from 0.75 to 8.2 Gy. The rods were removed from the buttons and their light output compared to their responses when bare or to the responses of a set of calibration rods of the same type and from the same manufacturer. In all three of the comparisons for LiF:Mg,Ti rods the relative responses of the rods in buttons changed by 2-6% relative to the same rods before cleaning. In both comparisons for LiF:Mg,Cu,P rods, the response of laundered rods was 1-3% lower than for the same rods before cleaning. Both these materials are potential candidates for button dosimeters. PMID:21451325

  14. Specification of the physical and biologically effective absorbed dose in radiation therapies utilizing the boron neutron capture reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmeister, Jay William

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising bimodal radiation therapy used primarily for highly malignant gliomas. Specification of the absorbed and biologically effective dose in BNCT is a primary concern in the implementation of this therapeutic technique. Providing accurate dosimetry for the complex mixed field encountered in BNCT and understanding the microscopic nature of the absorbed dose are of paramount importance. This work will address issues concerning the dosimetry of BNCT, offering a method to accurately obtain the absorbed dose and a framework for understanding its biological effectiveness. The rationale for microdosimetry as well as its advantages for BNCT dosimetry are considered. A dual miniature tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) technique is introduced as a tool for microdosimetry of the BNC reaction. A detailed outline of the design, construction, characterization, and calibration of the miniature TEPCs is provided. Dosimetric characterization of a 252Cf radiation field and a d(48.5)+Be fast neutron therapy beam using the miniature TEPCs is also presented. Furthermore, a compilation of data collected in clinical BNCT beams at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is given. This work also furnishes an intercomparison of the radiation quality and beam characteristics of these two BNCT facilities. In addition, an outline of the potential enhancement of fast neutron therapy using the BNC reaction is presented. Methods for beam modification as well as dosimetric results for the modified beam are reviewed. An ionization chamber-based method designed for BNC dosimetry of the modified fast neutron beam is also introduced. Design, construction, calibration and characterization of the ion chambers are examined, as well as a comparison of results with other dosimetry methods. The significance of these dosimetry methods for neutron beams used for radiation therapy is discussed.

  15. 1986 Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 23rd, Providence, RI, July 21-23, 1986, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Thomas D. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The present conference on the effects of nuclear and space radiation on electronic hardware gives attention to topics in the basic mechanisms of radiation effects, dosimetry and energy-dependent effects, electronic device radiation hardness assurance, SOI/SOS radiation effects, spacecraft charging and space radiation, IC radiation effects and hardening, single-event upset (SEU) phenomena and hardening, and EMP/SGEMP/IEMP phenomena. Specific treatments encompass the generation of interface states by ionizing radiation in very thin MOS oxides, the microdosimetry of meson energy deposited on 1-micron sites in Si, total dose radiation and engineering studies, plasma interactions with biased concentrator solar cells, the transient imprint memory effect in MOS memories, mechanisms leading to SEU, and the vaporization and breakdown of thin columns of water.

  16. Pediatric radiation dosimetry for positron-emitting radionuclides using anthropomorphic phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Tianwu; Bolch, Wesley E.; Lee, Choonsik; Zaidi, Habib; Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva; Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) plays an important role in the diagnosis, staging, treatment, and surveillance of clinically localized diseases. Combined PET/CT imaging exhibits significantly higher sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy than conventional imaging when it comes to detecting malignant tumors in children. However, the radiation dose from positron-emitting radionuclide to the pediatric population is a matter of concern since children are at a particularly high risk when exposed to ionizing radiation.Methods: The authors evaluate the absorbed fractions and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of monoenergy photons/electrons as well as S-values of 9 positron-emitting radionuclides (C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, Cu-64, Ga-68, Rb-82, Y-86, and I-124) in 48 source regions for 10 anthropomorphic pediatric hybrid models, including the reference newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-yr-old male and female models, using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended general purpose Monte Carlo transport code.Results: The self-absorbed SAFs and S-values for most organs were inversely related to the age and body weight, whereas the cross-dose terms presented less correlation with body weight. For most source/target organ pairs, Rb-82 and Y-86 produce the highest self-absorbed and cross-absorbed S-values, respectively, while Cu-64 produces the lowest S-values because of the low-energy and high-frequency of electron emissions. Most of the total self-absorbed S-values are contributed from nonpenetrating particles (electrons and positrons), which have a linear relationship with body weight. The dependence of self-absorbed S-values of the two annihilation photons varies to the reciprocal of 0.76 power of the mass, whereas the self-absorbed S-values of positrons vary according to the reciprocal mass.Conclusions: The produced S-values for common positron-emitting radionuclides can be exploited for the assessment of radiation dose delivered to the pediatric population from various PET radiotracers used in clinical and research settings. The mass scaling method for positron-emitters can be used to derive patient-specific S-values from data of reference phantoms.

  17. ESR spectrometry: a future-oriented tool for dosimetry and dating.

    PubMed

    Regulla, Dieter F

    2005-02-01

    ESR spectroscopy is currently taking root as a key technology in dosimetry, dating and imaging. In dosimetry, it competes with cytometry in the fields of biological dosimetry and retrospective dosimetry, leads in high-level reference and routine dosimetry, is high-ranking among the methods to identify radiation preserved foods, represents a method of choice to date geological, archaeological and paleontological materials back millions of years, and has demonstrated capacity for imaging. Further scientific and technological progress as predicted in the recent past (Appl. Radiat. Isot. 52 (2000) 1023) is reviewed here. Additionally, the review is expanded to include international reports and recommendations on ESR dosimetry and dose reconstruction, under way at the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the International Organisation of Standards (ISO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Emphasis is placed on interpretation of tooth enamel doses in terms of organ and effective doses, using CT-based virtual humans. The future of EPR spectroscopy for in situ dose measurements is noted, depicting a non-destructive in vivo dosimetry applicable directly to individuals, but also to hominid and animal fossils for direct dating. PMID:15607437

  18. Cherenkov radiation dosimetry in water tanks - video rate imaging, tomography and IMRT & VMAT plan verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogue, Brian W.; Glaser, Adam K.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Gladstone, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of three types of imaging of radiation beams in water tanks for comparison to dose maps. The first was simple depth and lateral profile verification, showing excellent agreement between Cherenkov and planned dose, as predicted by the treatment planning system for a square 5cm beam. The second approach was 3D tomography of such beams, using a rotating water tank with camera attached, and using filtered backprojection for the recovery of the 3D volume. The final presentation was real time 2D imaging of IMRT or VMAT treatments in a water tank. In all cases the match to the treatment planning system was within what would be considered acceptable for clinical medical physics acceptance.

  19. The application of thermoluminescence dosimetry in X-ray energy discrimination.

    PubMed

    Nelson, V K; Holloway, L; McLean, I D

    2015-12-01

    Clinical dosimetry requires an understanding of radiation energy to accurately determine the delivered dose. For many situations this is known, however there are also many situations where the radiation energy is not well known, thus limiting dosimetric accuracy. This is the case in personnel dosimetry where thermo luminescent (TL) dosimetry is the method of choice. Traditionally beam energy characteristics in personnel dosimetry are determined through discrimination with the use of various filters fitted within a radiation monitor. The presence of scattered and characteristic radiation produced by these metallic filters, however, can compromise the results. In this study the TL response of five materials TLD100, TLD100H, TLD200, TLD400 and TLD500, was measured at various X-ray energies. The TL sensitivity ratio for various combinations of materials as a function of X-ray energy was calculated. The results indicate that in personal dosimetry a combination of three or more TL detector system has a better accuracy of estimation of effective radiation energy of an X-ray beam than some of the current method of employed for energy estimation and has the potential to improve the accuracy in dose determination in a variety of practical situations. The development of this method also has application in other fields including quality assurance of the orthovoltage therapy machines, dosimetry intercomparisons of kilovoltage X-ray beams, and measurement of the dose to critical organs outside a treatment field of a megavoltage therapy beam. PMID:26330215

  20. Optical CT scanner for in-air readout of gels for external radiation beam 3D dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Ramm, Daniel; Rutten, Thomas P; Shepherd, Justin; Bezak, Eva

    2012-06-21

    Optical CT scanners for a 3D readout of externally irradiated radiosensitive hydrogels currently require the use of a refractive index (RI) matching liquid bath to obtain suitable optical ray paths through the gel sample to the detector. The requirement for a RI matching liquid bath has been negated by the design of a plastic cylindrical gel container that provides parallel beam geometry through the gel sample for the majority of the projection. The design method can be used for various hydrogels. Preliminary test results for the prototype laser beam scanner with ferrous xylenol-orange gel show geometric distortion of 0.2 mm maximum, spatial resolution limited to beam spot size of about 0.4 mm and 0.8% noise (1 SD) for a uniform irradiation. Reconstruction of a star pattern irradiated through the cylinder walls demonstrates the suitability for external beam applications. The extremely simple and cost-effective construction of this optical CT scanner, together with the simplicity of scanning gel samples without RI matching fluid increases the feasibility of using 3D gel dosimetry for clinical external beam dose verifications. PMID:22644104

  1. Optical CT scanner for in-air readout of gels for external radiation beam 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramm, Daniel; Rutten, Thomas P.; Shepherd, Justin; Bezak, Eva

    2012-06-01

    Optical CT scanners for a 3D readout of externally irradiated radiosensitive hydrogels currently require the use of a refractive index (RI) matching liquid bath to obtain suitable optical ray paths through the gel sample to the detector. The requirement for a RI matching liquid bath has been negated by the design of a plastic cylindrical gel container that provides parallel beam geometry through the gel sample for the majority of the projection. The design method can be used for various hydrogels. Preliminary test results for the prototype laser beam scanner with ferrous xylenol-orange gel show geometric distortion of 0.2 mm maximum, spatial resolution limited to beam spot size of about 0.4 mm and 0.8% noise (1 SD) for a uniform irradiation. Reconstruction of a star pattern irradiated through the cylinder walls demonstrates the suitability for external beam applications. The extremely simple and cost-effective construction of this optical CT scanner, together with the simplicity of scanning gel samples without RI matching fluid increases the feasibility of using 3D gel dosimetry for clinical external beam dose verifications.

  2. Three dimensional radiation dosimetry in lung-equivalent regions by use of a radiation sensitive gel foam: Proof of principle

    SciTech Connect

    Deene, Yves de; Vergote, Koen; Claeys, Carolien; De Wagter, Carlos

    2006-07-15

    A polymer hydrogel foam is proposed as a potential three dimensional experimental dosimeter for radiation treatment verification in low-density tissue such as the lung. A gel foam is created by beating a radiation sensitive polymer gel mixture in an anoxic atmosphere. The mass density of the gel foam is in the order of 0.25-0.35 kg/dm{sup 3}. Both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-spin relaxation rate (R2) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) have been used to map the dose distribution from the gel dosimeter. It is found that MTR has significant advantages compared to R2 for mapping the dose distribution in the polymer gel foam dosimeters. The magnetization transfer ratio is found to be less dependent on the density and microstructure of the gel foam dosimeter while spin-spin relaxation dispersion has been observed making the spin-spin relaxation rate dependent on the interecho time interval. Optical microscopy reveals a microstructure that shows great similarity with human lung tissue. It is also shown how NMR hydrogen proton density measurements can be used to map the density distributions in gel dosimeters.

  3. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  4. Monte Carlo dosimetry for forthcoming clinical trials in x-ray microbeam radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Rovira, I.; Sempau, J.; Fernández-Varea, J. M.; Bravin, A.; Prezado, Y.

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to define safe irradiation protocols in microbeam radiation therapy. The intense synchrotron-generated x-ray beam used for the treatment is collimated and delivered in an array of 50 μm-sized rectangular fields with a centre-to-centre distance between microplanes of 400 μm. The absorbed doses received by the tumour and the healthy tissues in a human head phantom have been assessed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The identification of safe dose limits is carried out by evaluating the maximum peak and valley doses achievable in the tumour while keeping the valley doses in the healthy tissues under tolerances. As the skull receives a significant fraction of the dose, the dose limits are referred to this tissue. Dose distributions with high spatial resolution are presented for various tumour positions, skull thicknesses and interbeam separations. Considering a unidirectional irradiation (field size of 2×2 cm2) and a centrally located tumour, the largest peak and valley doses achievable in the tumour are 55 Gy and 2.6 Gy, respectively. The corresponding maximum valley doses received by the skin, bone and healthy brain are 4 Gy, 14 Gy and 7 Gy (doses in one fraction), respectively, i.e. within tolerances (5% probability of complication within 5 years).

  5. Image guidance during breast radiotherapy: a phantom dosimetry and radiation-induced second cancer risk study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, A.; Holloway, L.; Metcalfe, P.

    2013-06-01

    Imaging procedures utilised for patient position verification during breast radiotherapy can add a considerable dose to organs surrounding the target volume on top of therapeutic scatter dose. This study investigated the dose from a breast kilovoltage cone-beam CT (kV-CBCT), a breast megavoltage fan-beam CT (MV-FBCT), and a TomoDirectTM breast treatment. Thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within a female anthropomorphic phantom were utilised to measure the dose to various organs and tissues. The contralateral breast, lungs and heart received 0.40 cGy, 0.45 cGy and 0.40 cGy from the kV-CBCT and 1.74 cGy, 1.39 cGy and 1.73 cGy from the MV-FBCT. In comparison to treatment alone, daily imaging would increase the contralateral breast, contralateral lung and heart dose by a relative 12%, 24% and 13% for the kV-CBCT, and 52%, 101% and 58% for the MV-FBCT. The impact of the imaging dose relative to the treatment dose was assessed with linear and linear-quadratic radiation-induced secondary cancer risk models for the contralateral breast. The additional imaging dose and risk estimates presented in this study should be taken into account when considering an image modality and frequency for patient position verification protocols in breast radiotherapy.

  6. A CUDA Monte Carlo simulator for radiation therapy dosimetry based on Geant4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, N.; Murakami, K.; Amako, K.; Asai, M.; Aso, T.; Dotti, A.; Kimura, A.; Gerritsen, M.; Kurashige, H.; Perl, J.; Sasaki, T.

    2014-06-01

    Geant4 is a large-scale particle physics package that facilitates every aspect of particle transport simulation. This includes, but is not limited to, geometry description, material definition, tracking of particles passing through and interacting with matter, storage of event data, and visualization. As more detailed and complex simulations are required in different application domains, there is much interest in adapting the code for parallel and multi-core architectures. Parallelism can be achieved by tracking many particles at the same time. The complexity in the context of a GPU/CUDA adaptation is the highly serialized nature of the Geant4 package and the presence of large lookup tables that guide the simulation. This work presents G4CU, a CUDA implementation of the core Geant4 algorithm adapted for dose calculations in radiation therapy. For these applications the geometry is a block of voxels and the physics is limited to low energy electromagnetic physics. These features allow efficient tracking of many particles in parallel on the GPU. Experiments with radiotherapy simulations in G4CU demonstrate about 40 times speedups over Geant4.

  7. Effect of brachytherapy technique and patient characteristics on cervical cancer implant dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Anker, Christopher J.; O'Donnell, Kristen; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Gaffney, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between brachytherapy technique and patient characteristics on dose to organs-at-risk (OARs) in patients undergoing high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for cervical cancer. From 1998 to 2008, 31 patients with cervical cancer with full dosimetric data were identified who received definitive external-beam radiation and HDR brachytherapy with tandem and ovoid applicators. Doses were recorded at point A, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU)-38 rectal point, the ICRU-38 bladder point, the vaginal surface, and the pelvic sidewall. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the significance of changes in OAR to point A dose ratios with differences in brachytherapy technique or patient characteristics. Patients underwent a median of 5 brachytherapy procedures (range, 3 to 5), with a total of 179 procedures for 31 patients. For all brachytherapy treatments, the average ratios between the doses for the rectal, bladder, vaginal surface, and pelvic sidewall reference points to those at point A were 0.49, 0.59, 1.15, and 0.17, respectively. In general, decreased OAR dose was associated with a lower stage, younger age, increased ovoid size, increased tandem length, and earlier implant number. Increased tandem curvature significantly increased bladder dose and decreased rectal dose. Intravenous anesthesia usage was not correlated with improved dosimetry. This study allowed identification of patient and procedure characteristics influencing OAR dosing. Although the advent of 3-dimensional (3D) image-guided brachytherapy will bring new advances in treatment optimization, the actual technique involved at the time of the brachytherapy implant procedure will remain important.

  8. Medical effects of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Upton, A.C.

    1995-12-31

    This book provides insights into published data on radiation effects in an informative summary style that will be valuable to the clinician, research scientist and health physicist. Integrating all the issues surrounding medical radiation is challenging, but well met here. Especially noteworthy are the chapters on the direct acute effects of high-dose radiation and on dose-response models for carcinogenesis. References are up to date through 1994, but important research conducted in years past is also well covered. Topics range from basic principles of physics to hormesis. The chapters thus have something for everyone: genetic effects, carcinogenesis, acute high-dose effect, in utero exposure, interaction with other environmental or host factors, probability of causation and risk perception. The coverage of hard-to-find topics coupled with extensive references are unique strengths of this text.

  9. Dose levels of the occupational radiation exposures in Poland based on results from the accredited dosimetry service at the IFJ PAN, Krakow.

    PubMed

    Budzanowski, Maciej; Kopeć, Renata; Obryk, Barbara; Olko, Paweł

    2011-03-01

    Individual dosimetry service based on thermoluminescence (TLD) detectors has started its activity at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ) in Krakow in 1965. In 2002, the new Laboratory of Individual and Environment Dosimetry (Polish acronym LADIS) was established and underwent the accreditation according to the EN-PN-ISO/IEC 17025 standard. Nowadays, the service is based on the worldwide known standard thermoluminescent detectors MTS-N (LiF:Mg,Ti) and MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P), developed at IFJ, processed in automatic thermoluminescent DOSACUS or RE2000 (Rados Oy, Finland) readers. Laboratory provides individual monitoring in terms of personal dose equivalent H(p)(10) and H(p)(0.07) in photon and neutron fields, over the range from 0.1 mSv to 1 Sv, and environmental dosimetry in terms of air kerma K(a) over the range from 30 μGy to 1 Gy and also ambient dose equivalent H*(10) over the range from 30 μSv to 1 Sv. Dosimetric service is currently performed for ca. 3200 institutions from Poland and abroad, monitored on quarterly and monthly basis. The goal of this paper is to identify the main activities leading to the highest radiation exposures in Poland. The paper presents the results of statistical evaluation of ∼ 100,000 quarterly H(p)(10) and K(a) measurements performed between 2002 and 2009. Sixty-five per cent up to 90 % of all individual doses in Poland are on the level of natural radiation background. The dose levels between 0.1 and 5 mSv per quarter are the most frequent in nuclear medicine, veterinary and industrial radiography sectors. PMID:21183549

  10. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  11. Harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-21

    Tanning for cosmetic purposes by sunbathing or by using artificial tanning devices is widespread. The hazards associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation are of concern to the medical profession. Depending on the amount and form of the radiation, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed, ultraviolet radiation causes erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancers most commonly produced by ultraviolet radiation are basal and squamous cell carcinomas. There also is much circumstantial evidence that the increase in the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma during the past half century is related to increased sun exposure, but this has not been proved. Effective and cosmetically acceptable sunscreen preparations have been developed that can do much to prevent or reduce most harmful effects to ultraviolet radiation if they are applied properly and consistently. Other safety measures include (1) minimizing exposure to ultraviolet radiation, (2) being aware of reflective surfaces while in the sun, (3) wearing protective clothing, (4) avoiding use of artificial tanning devices, and (5) protecting infants and children.

  12. Radiation effects on human heredity.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nori; Suyama, Akihiko; Noda, Asao; Kodama, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    In experimental organisms such as fruit flies and mice, increased frequencies in germ cell mutations have been detected following exposure to ionizing radiation. In contrast, there has been no clear evidence for radiation-induced germ cell mutations in humans that lead to birth defects, chromosome aberrations, Mendelian disorders, etc. This situation exists partly because no sensitive and practical genetic marker is available for human studies and also because the number of people exposed to large doses of radiation and subsequently having offspring was small until childhood cancer survivors became an important study population. In addition, the genome of apparently normal individuals seems to contain large numbers of alterations, including dozens to hundreds of nonfunctional alleles. With the number of mutational events in protein-coding genes estimated as less than one per genome after 1 gray (Gy) exposure, it is unsurprising that genetic effects from radiation have not yet been detected conclusively in humans. PMID:23988120

  13. Comparative dosimetry for radon and thoron in high background radiation areas in China.

    PubMed

    Kudo, H; Tokonami, S; Omori, Y; Ishikawa, T; Iwaoka, K; Sahoo, S K; Akata, N; Hosoda, M; Wanabongse, P; Pornnumpa, C; Sun, Q; Li, X; Akiba, S

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on internal exposure caused by the inhalation of radon and thoron progenies because the internal exposures have not yet been clarified. For their dose assessment, radon, thoron and thoron progeny concentrations were measured by passive monitors over a long period (for 6 months). Consequently, radon, thoron and equilibrium equivalent thoron concentrations were given as 124 ± 78, 1247 ± 1189 and 7.8 ± 9.1 Bq m(-3), respectively. Annual effective doses are estimated to be 3.1 ± 2.0 mSv for radon and 2.2 ± 2.5 mSv for thoron. Total dose are estimated to be 5.3 ± 3.5 mSv a(-1). The present study has revealed that the radon dose was comparable with the thoron dose, and the total dose was ∼2 times higher than the worldwide average. PMID:25935013

  14. Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Biodistribution, Radiation Dosimetry, and Toxicology of 18F-Fluoroacetate (18F-FACE) in Non-human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Nishii, Ryuichi; Tong, William; Wendt, Richard; Soghomonyan, Suren; Mukhopadhyay, Uday; Balatoni, Julius; Mawlawi, Osama; Bidaut, Luc; Tinkey, Peggy; Borne, Agatha; Alauddin, Mian; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Yang, Bijun; Gelovani, Juri G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To facilitate the clinical translation of 18F-fluoroacetate (18F-FACE), the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, radiolabeled metabolites, radiation dosimetry, and pharmacological safety of diagnostic doses of 18F-FACE were determined in non-human primates. Methods 18F-FACE was synthesized using a custom-built automated synthesis module. Six rhesus monkeys (three of each sex) were injected intravenously with 18F-FACE (165.4± 28.5 MBq), followed by dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the thoracoabdominal area during 0–30 min post-injection and static whole-body PET imaging at 40, 100, and 170 min. Serial blood samples and a urine sample were obtained from each animal to determine the time course of 18F-FACE and its radiolabeled metabolites. Electrocardiograms and hematology analyses were obtained to evaluate the acute and delayed toxicity of diagnostic dosages of 18F-FACE. The time-integrated activity coefficients for individual source organs and the whole body after administration of 18F-FACE were obtained using quantitative analyses of dynamic and static PET images and were extrapolated to humans. Results The blood clearance of 18F-FACE exhibited bi-exponential kinetics with half-times of 4 and 250 min for the fast and slow phases, respectively. A rapid accumulation of 18F-FACE-derived radioactivity was observed in the liver and kidneys, followed by clearance of the radioactivity into the intestine and the urinary bladder. Radio-HPLC analyses of blood and urine samples demonstrated that 18F-fluoride was the only detectable radiolabeled metabolite at the level of less than 9% of total radioactivity in blood at 180 min after the 18F-FACE injection. The uptake of free 18F-fluoride in the bones was insignificant during the course of the imaging studies. No significant changes in ECG, CBC, liver enzymes, or renal function were observed. The estimated effective dose for an adult human is 3.90–7.81 mSv from the administration of 185–370 MBq of 18F-FACE. Conclusions The effective dose and individual organ radiation absorbed doses from administration of a diagnostic dosage of 18F-FACE are acceptable. From a pharmacologic perspective, diagnostic dosages of 18F-FACE are non-toxic in primates and, therefore, could be safely administered to human patients for PET imaging. PMID:21437735

  15. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Oral session 1: Retrospective dosimetry. Retrospective dosimetry of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel at the 3rd unit of Dukovany NPP / M. Marek ... [et al.]. Retrospective dosimetry study at the RPV of NPP Greifswald unit 1 / J. Konheiser ... [et al.]. Test of prototype detector for retrospective neutron dosimetry of reactor internals and vessel / K. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Neutron doses to the concrete vessel and tendons of a magnox reactor using retrospective dosimetry / D. A. Allen ... [et al.]. A retrospective dosimetry feasibility study for Atucha I / J. Wagemans ... [et al.]. Retrospective reactor dosimetry with zirconium alloy samples in a PWR / L. R. Greenwood and J. P. Foster -- Oral session 2: Experimental techniques. Characterizing the Time-dependent components of reactor n/y environments / P. J. Griffin, S. M. Luker and A. J. Suo-Anttila. Measurements of the recoil-ion response of silicon carbide detectors to fast neutrons / F. H. Ruddy, J. G. Seidel and F. Franceschini. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the HB-4 cold source at the high flux isotope reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory / J. L. Robertson and E. B. Iverson. Feasibility of cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy for dose rate monitoring on nuclear reactor / H. Tomita ... [et al.]. Measuring transistor damage factors in a non-stable defect environment / D. B. King ... [et al.]. Neutron-detection based monitoring of void effects in boiling water reactors / J. Loberg ... [et al.] -- Poster session 1: Power reactor surveillance, retrospective dosimetry, benchmarks and inter-comparisons, adjustment methods, experimental techniques, transport calculations. Improved diagnostics for analysis of a reactor pulse radiation environment / S. M. Luker ... [et al.]. Simulation of the response of silicon carbide fast neutron detectors / F. Franceschini, F. H. Ruddy and B. Petrović. NSV A-3: a computer code for least-squares adjustment of neutron spectra and measured dosimeter responses / J. G. Williams, A. P. Ribaric and T. Schnauber. Agile high-fidelity MCNP model development techniques for rapid mechanical design iteration / J. A. Kulesza.Extension of Raptor-M3G to r-8-z geometry for use in reactor dosimetry applications / M. A. Hunter, G. Longoni and S. L. Anderson. In vessel exposure distributions evaluated with MCNP5 for Atucha II / J. M. Longhino, H. Blaumann and G. Zamonsky. Atucha I nuclear power plant azimutal ex-vessel flux profile evaluation / J. M. Longhino ... [et al.]. UFTR thermal column characterization and redesign for maximized thermal flux / C. Polit and A. Haghighat. Activation counter using liquid light-guide for dosimetry of neutron burst / M. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Control rod reactivity curves for the annular core research reactor / K. R. DePriest ... [et al.]. Specification of irradiation conditions in VVER-440 surveillance positions / V. Kochkin ... [et al.]. Simulations of Mg-Ar ionisation and TE-TE ionisation chambers with MCNPX in a straightforward gamma and beta irradiation field / S. Nievaart ... [et al.]. The change of austenitic stainless steel elements content in the inner parts of VVER-440 reactor during operation / V. Smutný, J. Hep and P. Novosad. Fast neutron environmental spectrometry using disk activation / G. Lövestam ... [et al.]. Optimization of the neutron activation detector location scheme for VVER-lOOO ex-vessel dosimetry / V. N. Bukanov ... [et al.]. Irradiation conditions for surveillance specimens located into plane containers installed in the WWER-lOOO reactor of unit 2 of the South-Ukrainian NPP / O. V. Grytsenko. V. N. Bukanov and S. M. Pugach. Conformity between LRO mock-ups and VVERS NPP RPV neutron flux attenuation / S. Belousov. Kr. Ilieva and D. Kirilova. FLUOLE: a new relevant experiment for PWR pressure vessel surveillance / D. Beretz ... [et al.]. Transport of neutrons and photons through the iron and water layers / M. J. Kost'ál ... [et al.]. Condition evaluation of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from the first-generation nuclear-powered submarines by gamma scanning / A. F. Usatyi. L. A. Serdyukova and B. S. Stepennov -- Oral session 3: Power plant surveillance. Upgraded neutron dosimetry procedure for VVER-440 surveillance specimens / V. Kochkin ... [et al.]. Neutron dosimetry on the full-core first generation VVER-440 aimed to reactor support structure load evaluation / P. Borodkin ... [et al.]. Ex-vessel neutron dosimetry programs for PWRs in Korea / C. S. Yoo. B. C. Kim and C. C. Kim. Comparison of irradiation conditions of VVER-1000 reactor pressure vessel and surveillance specimens for various core loadings / V. N. Bukanov ... [et al.]. Re-evaluation of dosimetry in the new surveillance program for the Loviisa 1 VVER-440 reactor / T. Serén -- Oral session 4: Benchmarks, intercomparisons and adjustment methods. Determination of the neutron parameter's uncertainties using the stochastic methods of uncertainty propagation and analysis / G. Grégoire ... [et al.].Covariance matrices for calculated neutron spectra and measured dosimeter responses / J. G. Williams ... [et al.]. The role of dosimetry at the high flux reactor / S. C. van der Marek ... [et al.]. Calibration of a manganese bath relative to Cf-252 nu-bar / D. M. Gilliam, A. T. Yue and M. Scott Dewey. Major upgrade of the reactor dosimetry interpretation methodology used at the CEA: general principle / C. Destouches ... [et al.] -- Oral session 5: power plant surveillance. The role of ex-vessel neutron dosimetry in reactor vessel surveillance in South Korea / B.-C. Kim ... [et al.]. Spanish RPV surveillance programmes: lessons learned and current activities / A. Ballesteros and X. Jardí. Atucha I nuclear power plant extended dosimetry and assessment / H. Blaumann ... [et al.]. Monitoring of radiation load of pressure vessels of Russian VVER in compliance with license amendments / G. Borodkin ... [et al.] -- Poster session 2: Test reactors, accelerators and advanced systems; cross sections, nuclear data, damage correlations. Two-dimensional mapping of the calculated fission power for the full-size fuel plate experiment irradiated in the advanced test reactor / G. S. Chang and M. A. Lillo. The radiation safety information computational center: a resource for reactor dosimetry software and nuclear data / B. L. Kirk. Irradiated xenon isotopic ratio measurement for failed fuel detection and location in fast reactor / C. Ito, T. Iguchi and H. Harano. Characterization of dosimetry of the BMRR horizontal thimble tubes and broad beam facility / J.-P. Hu, R. N. Reciniello and N. E. Holden. 2007 nuclear data review / N. E. Holden. Further dosimetry studies at the Rhode Island nuclear science / R. N. Reciniello ... [et al.]. Characterization of neutron fields in the experimental fast reactor Joyo MK-III core / S. Maeda ... [et al.]. Measuring [symbol]Li(n, t) and [symbol]B(n, [symbol]) cross sections using the NIST alpha-gamma apparatus / M. S. Dewey ... [et al.]. Improvement of neutron/gamma field evaluation for restart of JMTR / Y. Nagao ... [et al.]. Monitoring of the irradiated neutron fluence in the neutron transmutation doping process of HANARO / M.-S. Kim and S.-J. Park.Training reactor VR-l neutron spectrum determination / M. Vins, A. Kolros and K. Katovsky. Differential cross sections for gamma-ray production by 14 MeV neutrons on iron and bismuth / V. M. Bondar ... [et al.]. The measurements of the differential elastic neutron cross-sections of carbon for energies from 2 to 133 ke V / O. Gritzay ... [et al.]. Determination of neutron spectrum by the dosimetry foil method up to 35 Me V / S. P. Simakov ... [et al.]. Extension of the BGL broad group cross section library / D. Kirilova, S. Belousov and Kr. Ilieva. Measurements of neutron capture cross-section for tantalum at the neutron filtered beams / O. Gritzayand V. Libman. Measurements of microscopic data at GELINA in support of dosimetry / S. Kopecky ... [et al.]. Nuclide guide and international chart of nuclides - 2008 / T. Golashvili -- Oral session 6: Test reactors, accelerators and advanced systems. Neutronic analyses in support of the HFIR beamline modifications and lifetime extension / I. Remec and E. D. Blakeman. Characterization of neutron test facilities at Sandia National Laboratories / D. W. Vehar ... [et al.]. LYRA irradiation experiments: neutron metrology and dosimetry / B. Acosta and L. Debarberis. Calculated neutron and gamma-ray spectra across the prismatic very high temperature reactor core / J. W. Sterbentz. Enhancement of irradiation capability of the experimental fast reactor joyo / S. Maeda ... [et al.]. Neutron spectrum analyses by foil activation method for high-energy proton beams / C. H. Pyeon ... [et al.] -- Oral session 7: Cross sections, nuclear data, damage correlations. Investigation of new reaction cross-section evaluations in order to update and extend the IRDF-2002 reactor dosimetry library / É. M. Zsolnay, H. J. Nolthenius and A. L. Nichols. A novel approach towards DPA calculations / A. Hogenbirk and D. F. Da Cruz. A new ENDFIB-VII.O based multigroup cross-section library for reactor dosimetry / F. A. Alpan and S. L. Anderson. Activities at the NEA for dosimetry applications / H. Henriksson and I. Kodeli. Validation and verification of covariance data from dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluations / S. Badikov. Status of the neutron cross section standards / A. D. Carlson -- Oral session 8: transport calculations. A dosimetry assessment for the core restraint of an advanced gas cooled reactor / D. A. Thornton ... [et al.]. Neutron dosimetry study in the region of the support structure of a VVER-1000 type reactor / G. Borodkin ... [et al.]. SNS moderator poison design and experiment validation of the moderator performance / W. Lu ... [et al.]. Analysis of OSIRIS in-core surveillance dosimetry for GONDOLE steel irradiation program by using TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code / Y. K. Lee and F. Malouch.Reactor dosimetry applications using RAPTOR-M3G: a new parallel 3-D radiation transport code / G. Longoni and S. L. Anderson.

  16. Measurements of radiation exposure of dentistry students during their radiological training using thermoluminescent dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Loya, M; Sanín, L H; González, P R; Ávila, O; Duarte, R; Ojeda, S L; Montero-Cabrera, M E

    2016-01-01

    Exposure among dentistry students has not been assessed or regulated in Mexico. This work assessed the average exposure of 35 dentistry students during their training with the aid of LiF:Mg,Cu,P+PTFE thermoluminescent dosimeters. For the students in the roles of dentist and observers, maximum accumulated equivalent dose obtained was 2.59±0.11 and 4.64±0.39 mSv, respectively. Students in the role as patients received a maximum accumulated effective dose of 28.41±0.31 mSv. If compared to occupational dose limits, this latter value is 56% of the recommended value of 50 mSv in any year. It was found that in all cases, values of equivalent dose to the women breasts were equal to the background dose. Results are discussed and compared to previous published work. Suggested recommendations were given to authorities in order to minimize exposure of the students in the role as patients. PMID:26562447

  17. Radiative Effects of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1997-01-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included pollution haze layer from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core.

  18. Computational analysis of a human inhalation test chamber for dosimetry-and-health effect studies.

    PubMed

    Hyun, S; Kleinstreuer, C

    2002-08-01

    Proper air flow and tracer gas distribution or contaminant ventilation are of great importance in biomedical test chambers or industrial workrooms. The focus is on mass transfer in an inhalation test chamber with a breathing subject on a bike exposed to a tracer gas environment (e.g., carbon monoxide). This is an environmentally realistic setup for dosimetry-and-health effect studies, which require controlled, near-uniform pollutant concentrations. However, unmodified test chambers exhibit a strong single vortex in the larger breathing zone, which, depending upon the subject's location, implies possible trace gas depletion during inhalation, foreign particle entrainment, excessive air velocities, and so on. Employing a commercial finite-volume code with user-enhanced Fortran programs, the transient three-dimensional turbulent momentum, mass, and heat transfer equations have been solved and the configurations of a suitable flow redirection device, different man-machine locations, and thermal effects have been analyzed. As a result, the best air flow device configuration and man-machine orientation have been determined to achieve high and consistent trace gas concentrations inhaled by the subject, for example, 96 percent of the CO concentration at the chamber inlet is inhaled by the subject for the optimal scenario. PMID:12166891

  19. Radiation Effects in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    The requirements for a solid moderator are reviewed and the reasons that graphite has become the solid moderator of choice discussed. The manufacture and properties of some currently available near-isotropic and isotropic grades are described. The major features of a graphite moderated reactors are briefly outlined. Displacement damage and the induced structural and dimensional changes in graphite are described. Recent characterization work on nano-carbons and oriented pyrolytic graphites that have shed new light on graphite defect structures are reviewed, and the effect of irradiation temperature on the defect structures is highlighted. Changes in the physical properties of nuclear graphite caused by neutron irradiation are reported. Finally, the importance of irradiation induced creep is presented, along with current models and their deficiencies.

  20. Radiative Effects of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1996-01-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size-resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included a pollution haze from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core. The soot core increased the calculated extinction by about 10% in the most polluted drier layer relative to a pure sulfate aerosol but had significantly less effect at higher humidities. A 3 km descent through a boundary layer air mass dominated by pollutant aerosol with relative humidities (RH) 10-77% yielded a close agreement between the measured and calculated aerosol optical depths (550 nm) of 0.160 (+/- 0.07) and 0. 157 (+/- 0.034) respectively. During descent the aerosol mass scattering coefficient per unit sulfate mass varied from about 5 to 16 m(exp 2)/g and primarily dependent upon ambient RH. However, the total scattering coefficient per total fine mass was far less variable at about 4+/- 0.7 m(exp 2)/g. A subsequent descent through a Saharan dust layer located above the pollution aerosol layer revealed that both layers contributed similarly to aerosol optical depth. The scattering per unit mass of the coarse aged dust was estimated at 1.1 +/- 0.2 m(exp 2)/g. The large difference (50%) in measured and calculated optical depth for the dust layer exceeded measurements.

  1. Radiation Effects on Polymer Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.; Winslow, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Report compiles data on effects of radiation on physical properties of synthetic organic materials. Emphasis on materials of interest to nuclear-equipment and nuclear-reactor designers. Data covers five categories of polymeric materials: Insulators, elastomeric seals and gaskets, lubricants, adhesives, and coatings. More than 250 materials represented.

  2. Biological dosimetry to determine the UV radiation climate inside the MIR station and its role in vitamin D biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Rettberg, P; Horneck, G; Zittermann, A; Heer, M

    1998-01-01

    The vitamin D synthesis in the human skin, is absolutely dependent on UVB radiation. Natural UVB from sunlight is normally absent in the closed environment of a space station like MIR. Therefore it was necessary to investigate the UV radiation climate inside the station resulting from different lamps as well as from occasional solar irradiation behind a UV-transparent quartz window. Biofilms, biologically weighting and integrating UV dosimeters successfully applied on Earth (e.g. in Antarctica) and in space (D-2, Biopan I) were used to determine the biological effectiveness of the UV radiation climate at different locations in the space station. Biofilms were also used to determine the personal UV dose of an individual cosmonaut. These UV data were correlated with the concentration of vitamin D in the cosmonaut's blood and the dietary vitamin D intake. The results showed that the UV radiation climate inside the Mir station is not sufficient for an adequate supply of vitamin D, which should therefore be secured either by vitamin D supplemental and/or by the regular exposure to special UV lamps like those in sun-beds. The use of natural solar UV radiation through the quartz window for 'sunbathing' is dangerous and should be avoided even for short exposure periods. PMID:11542408

  3. Biological dosimetry to determine the UV radiation climate inside the MIR station and its role in vitamin D biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Zittermann, A.; Heer, M.

    1998-11-01

    The vitamin D synthesis in the human skin, is absolutely dependent on UVB radiation. Natural UVB from sunlight is normally absent in the closed environment of a space station like MIR. Therefore it was necessary to investigate the UV radiation climate inside the station resulting from different lamps as well as from occasional solar irradiation behind a UV-transparent quartz window. Biofilms, biologically weighting and integrating UV dosimeters successfully applied on Earth (e.g. in Antarctica) and in space (D-2, Biopan I) were used to determine the biological effectiveness of the UV radiation climate at different locations in the space station. Biofilms were also used to determine the personal UV dose of an individual cosmonaut. These UV data were correlated with the concentration of vitamin D in the cosmonaut's blood and the dietary vitamin D intake. The results showed that the UV radiation climate inside the Mir station is not sufficient for an adequate supply of vitamin D, which should therefore be secured either by vitamin D supplementat and/or by the regular exposure to special UV lamps like those in sun-beds. The use of natural solar UV radiation through the quartz window for `sunbathing' is dangerous and should be avoided even for short exposure periods.

  4. Mitigation of Space Radiation Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwell, William

    2012-02-01

    During low earth orbit and deep space missions, humans and spacecraft systems are exposed to high energy particles emanating from basically three sources: geomagnetically-trapped protons and electrons (Van Allen Belts), extremely high energy galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), and solar proton events (SPEs). The particles can have deleterious effects if not properly shielded. For humans, there can be a multitude of harmful effects depending on the degree of exposure. For spacecraft systems, especially electronics, the effects can range from single event upsets (SEUs) to catastrophic effects such as latchup and burnout. In addition, some materials, radio-sensitive experiments, and scientific payloads are subject to harmful effects. To date, other methods have been proposed such as electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding, but these approaches have not proven feasible due to cost, weight, and safety issues. The only method that has merit and has been effective is bulk or parasitic shielding. In this paper, we discuss in detail the sources of the space radiation environment, spacecraft, human, and onboard systems modeling methodologies, transport of these particles through shielding materials, and the calculation of the dose effects. In addition, a review of the space missions to date and a discussion of the space radiation mitigation challenges for lunar and deep space missions such as lunar outposts and human missions to Mars are presented.

  5. TH-C-17A-03: Dynamic Visualization and Dosimetry of IMRT and VMAT Treatment Plans by Video-Rate Imaging of Cherenkov Radiation in Pure Water

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, A; Andreozzi, J; Davis, S; Zhang, R; Fox, C; Gladstone, D; Pogue, B

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A novel optical dosimetry technique for the QA and verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) radiotherapy plans was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced Cherenkov radiation in water. Methods: An intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was used to acquire a two-dimensional (2D) projection image of the Cherenkov radiation induced by IMRT and VMAT plans, based on the Task Group 119 C-Shape geometry. Plans were generated using the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) and delivered using 6 MV x-rays from a Varian TrueBeam Linear Accelerator (Linac) incident on a water tank. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the Linac, operated for single pulse imaging, and binned to a resolution of 512×512 pixels. The resulting videos were analyzed temporally for regions of interest (ROI) covering the planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risk (OAR) and summed to obtain an overall light distribution, which was compared to the expected dose distribution from the TPS using a gammaindex analysis. Results: The chosen camera settings resulted in data at 23.5 frames per second. Temporal intensity plots of the PTV and OAR ROIs confirmed the preferential delivery of dose to the PTV versus the OAR, and the gamma analysis yielded 95.2% and 95.6% agreement between the light distribution and expected TPS dose distribution based upon a 3% / 3 mm dose difference and distance-to-agreement criterion for the IMRT and VMAT plans respectively. Conclusion: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of Cherenkov radiation for optical dosimetry of dynamic IMRT and VMAT treatment plans. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods including the real-time nature of the acquisition, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method with both research and clinical applications. NIH R01CA109558 and R21EB017559.

  6. Radiation effects in spacecraft electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, James P.

    1989-01-01

    Effects on the internal spacecraft electronics due to exposure to the natural and enhanced space radiation environment will be reviewed. The emphasis will be placed on the description of the nature of both the exposure environment and failure mechanisms in semiconductors. Understanding both the system environment and device effects is critical in the use of laboratory simulation environments to obtain the data necessary to design and qualify components for successful application.

  7. Changes in Functional Lung Regions During the Course of Radiation Therapy and Their Potential Impact on Lung Dosimetry for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xue; Frey, Kirk; Matuszak, Martha; Paul, Stanton; Ten Haken, Randall; Yu, Jinming; Kong, Feng-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To study changes in functional activity on ventilation (V)/perfusion (Q) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during radiation therapy (RT) and explore the impact of such changes on lung dosimetry in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Fifteen NSCLC patients with centrally located tumors were enrolled. All patients were treated with definitive RT dose of ≥60 Gy. V/Q SPECT-CT scans were performed prior to and after delivery of 45 Gy of fractionated RT. SPECT images were used to define temporarily dysfunctional regions of lung caused by tumor or other potentially reversible conditions as B3. The functional lung (FL) was defined on SPECT by 2 separate approaches: FL1, a threshold of 30% of the maximum uptake of the patient's lung; and FL2, FL1 plus B3 region. The impact of changes in FL between initiation of RT and delivery of 45 Gy on lung dosimetry were analyzed. Results: Fourteen patients (93%) had larger FL2 volumes than FL1 pre-RT (P<.001). Dysfunctional lung became functional in 11 patients (73%) on V SPECT and in 10 patients (67%) on Q SPECT. The dosimetric parameters generated from CT-based anatomical lung had significantly lower values in FL1 than FL2, with a median reduction in the volume of lung receiving a dose of at least 20 Gy (V{sub 20}) of 3%, 5.6%, and mean lung dose of 0.95 and 1.55 on V and Q SPECT respectively. Conclusions: Regional ventilation and perfusion function improve significantly during RT in centrally located NSCLC. Lung dosimetry values vary notably between different definitions of functional lung.

  8. Changes in Functional Lung Regions During the Course of Radiation Therapy and Their Potential Impact on Lung Dosimetry for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xue; Frey, Kirk; Matuszak, Martha; Paul, Stanton; Ten Haken, Randall; Yu, Jinming; Kong, Feng-Ming (Spring)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study changes in functional activity on ventilation (V)/perfusion (Q) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during radiation therapy (RT) and explore the impact of such changes on lung dosimetry in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials Fifteen NSCLC patients with centrally located tumors were enrolled. All patients were treated with definitive RT dose of ≥60 Gy. V/Q SPECTCT scans were performed prior to and after delivery of 45 Gy of fractionated RT. SPECT images were used to define temporarily dysfunctional regions of lung caused by tumor or other potentially reversible conditions as B3. The functional lung (FL) was defined on SPECT by 2 separate approaches: FL1, a threshold of 30% of the maximum uptake of the patient’s lung; and FL2, FL1 plus B3 region. The impact of changes in FL between initiation of RT and delivery of 45 Gy on lung dosimetry were analyzed. Results Fourteen patients (93%) had larger FL2 volumes than FL1 pre-RT (P<.001). Dysfunctional lung became functional in 11 patients (73%) on V SPECT and in 10 patients (67%) on Q SPECT. The dosimetric parameters generated from CT-based anatomical lung had significantly lower values in FL1 than FL2, with a median reduction in the volume of lung receiving a dose of at least 20 Gy (V20) of 3%, 5.6%, and mean lung dose of 0.95 and 1.55 on V and Q SPECT respectively. Conclusions Regional ventilation and perfusion function improve significantly during RT in centrally located NSCLC. Lung dosimetry values vary notably between different definitions of functional lung. PMID:24725697

  9. Space radiation effects and microgravity.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, J; Pross, H D

    1999-12-01

    Humans in space are exposed both to space radiation and microgravity. The question whether radiation effects are modified by microgravity is an important aspect in risk estimation. No interaction is expected at the molecular level since the influence of gravity is much smaller than that of thermal motion. Influences might be expected, however, at the cellular and organ level. For example, changes in immune competence could modify the development of radiogenic cancers. There are no data so far in this area. The problem of whether intracellular repair of radiation-induced DNA lesions is changed under microgravity conditions was recently addressed in a number of space experiments. The results are reviewed; they show that repair processes are not modified by microgravity. PMID:10631345

  10. Prenatal perfluorooctanoic acid exposure in CD-1 mice: low-dose developmental effects and internal dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Macon, Madisa B; Villanueva, LaTonya R; Tatum-Gibbs, Katoria; Zehr, Robert D; Strynar, Mark J; Stanko, Jason P; White, Sally S; Helfant, Laurence; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2011-07-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an environmental contaminant that causes adverse developmental effects in laboratory animals. To investigate the low-dose effects of PFOA on offspring, timed-pregnant CD-1 mice were gavage dosed with PFOA for all or half of gestation. In the full-gestation study, mice were administered 0, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg PFOA/kg body weight (BW)/day from gestation days (GD) 1-17. In the late-gestation study, mice were administered 0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg PFOA/kg BW/day from GD 10-17. Exposure to PFOA significantly (p < 0.05) increased offspring relative liver weights in all treatment groups in the full-gestation study and in the 1.0 mg PFOA/kg group in the late-gestation study. In both studies, the offspring of all PFOA-treated dams exhibited significantly stunted mammary epithelial growth as assessed by developmental scoring. At postnatal day 21, mammary glands from the 1.0 mg/kg GD 10-17 group had significantly less longitudinal epithelial growth and fewer terminal end buds compared with controls (p < 0.05). Evaluation of internal dosimetry in offspring revealed that PFOA concentrations remained elevated in liver and serum for up to 6 weeks and that brain concentrations were low and undetectable after 4 weeks. These data indicate that PFOA-induced effects on mammary tissue (1) occur at lower doses than effects on liver weight in CD-1 mice, an observation that may be strain specific, and (2) persist until 12 weeks of age following full-gestational exposure. Due to the low-dose sensitivity of mammary glands to PFOA in CD-1 mice, a no observable adverse effect level for mammary developmental delays was not identified in these studies. PMID:21482639

  11. Evaluating noncancer effects of trichloroethylene: dosimetry, mode of action, and risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, H A; Clewell, H J

    2000-01-01

    Alternatives for developing chronic exposure limits for noncancer effects of trichloroethylene (TCE) were evaluated. These alternatives were organized within a framework for dose-response assessment--exposure:dosimetry (pharmacokinetics):mode of action (pharmacodynamics): response. This framework provides a consistent structure within which to make scientific judgments about available information, its interpretation, and use. These judgments occur in the selection of critical studies, internal dose metrics, pharmacokinetic models, approaches for interspecies extrapolation of pharmacodynamics, and uncertainty factors. Potentially limiting end points included developmental eye malformations, liver effects, immunotoxicity, and kidney toxicity from oral exposure and neurological, liver, and kidney effects by inhalation. Each end point was evaluated quantitatively using several methods. Default analyses used the traditional no-observed adverse effect level divided by uncertainty factors and the benchmark dose divided by uncertainty factors methods. Subsequently, mode-of-action and pharmacokinetic information were incorporated. Internal dose metrics were estimated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for TCE and its major metabolites. This approach was notably useful with neurological and kidney toxicities. The human PBPK model provided estimates of human exposure doses for the internal dose metrics. Pharmacodynamic data or default assumptions were used for interspecies extrapolation. For liver and neurological effects, humans appear no more sensitive than rodents when internal dose metrics were considered. Therefore, the interspecies uncertainty factor was reduced, illustrating that uncertainty factors are a semiquantitative approach fitting into the organizational framework. Incorporation of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics can result in values that differ significantly from those obtained with the default methods. PMID:10807562

  12. Effect of voxel size when calculating patient specific radionuclide dosimetry estimates using direct Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Hickson, Kevin J; O'Keefe, Graeme J

    2014-09-01

    The scalable XCAT voxelised phantom was used with the GATE Monte Carlo toolkit to investigate the effect of voxel size on dosimetry estimates of internally distributed radionuclide calculated using direct Monte Carlo simulation. A uniformly distributed Fluorine-18 source was simulated in the Kidneys of the XCAT phantom with the organ self dose (kidney ← kidney) and organ cross dose (liver ← kidney) being calculated for a number of organ and voxel sizes. Patient specific dose factors (DF) from a clinically acquired FDG PET/CT study have also been calculated for kidney self dose and liver ← kidney cross dose. Using the XCAT phantom it was found that significantly small voxel sizes are required to achieve accurate calculation of organ self dose. It has also been used to show that a voxel size of 2 mm or less is suitable for accurate calculations of organ cross dose. To compensate for insufficient voxel sampling a correction factor is proposed. This correction factor is applied to the patient specific dose factors calculated with the native voxel size of the PET/CT study. PMID:24859803

  13. [Health effects of ultraviolet radiation].

    PubMed

    Ohnaka, T

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) occurs from both natural and artificial sources. The main natural source is the sun. On the other hand, artificial UVR sources are widely used in industry and also used in hospitals, laboratories, etc. because of their germicidal properties. They are even used for cosmetic purposes. UVR can be classified into three regions according to its wavelength: as UVA (320-400nm), UVB (320-280nm) and UVC (280-200nm). The UVC has the greatest health effect on humans among the three. The sun radiates a wide range of spectrum of electromagnetic radiation including the UVR, however the radiation below 290 nm in wavelength does not reach the surface of the earth for effective absorption by the stratospheric ozone layer. As a result, UVR from a natural source consists of only UVA and a part of UVB. On the other hand, artificial UVR sources include UVC region and have serious effects on the human body, especially on the skin and eyes. The health effects of UVR on humans can be beneficial or detrimental, depending on the amount and form of UVR, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed. It has been acknowledged that a long period of UVR deficiency may have harmful effects on the human body, such as the development of vitamin D deficiency and rickets in children due to a disturbance in the phosphorus and calcium metabolism. Appropriate measures to increase the amount of exposure to UVR, especially to UVB radiation by the use of sun bathing, the exposure to artificial UVR sources, etc. have shown to prevent disease states caused by UVR deficiency. The harmful effects of UVR consist of erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancer is commonly produced by UVR. In this review, various states of UV from solar radiation and the degree of exposure to UVR are introduced. The benefits and harmful health effects of UVR are discussed in relation to the skin type of humans. The measures of protection from UVR, such as sunscreen preparations, protective clothing against UVR, etc. are also introduced. PMID:8507288

  14. Dosimetry during space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Comparative radiation hazards due to various sources of radiation in several prominent manned space missions are surveyed, along with techniques for coping with the hazards. Cosmic radiation of solar and galactic origin, and Van Allen belt radiation, are the major hazards outside the earth's geomagnetic shield, and were a major problem in the Apollo missions. The Skylab missions, while within the geomagnetic field, were subject to extensive exposure to the trapped radiation belts (Van Allen belts), while the Soyuz-Apollo test project involved orbiting at a lower altitude, with lower exposure. No solar particle bursts affected Apollo missions, and the Solar Particle Alert Network devised to help cope with the problem is described. Dosimetry practices and devices are described. Radiation experience and dose readings logged with the various missions are reported.

  15. Thermal effects in radiation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1984-10-21

    The balance of ionizing radiation energy incident on an object being processed is discussed in terms of energy losses, influencing the amount really absorbed. To obtain the amount of heat produced, the absorbed energy is corrected for the change in internal energy of the system and for the heat effect of secondary reactions developing after the initiation. The temperature of a processed object results from the heat evolved and from the specific heat of the material comprising the object. The specific heat of most materials is usually much lower than that of aqueous systems and therefore temperatures after irradiation are higher. The role of low specific heat in radiation processing at cryogenic conditions is stressed. Adiabatic conditions of accelerator irradiation are contrasted with the steady state thermal conditions prevailing in large gamma sources. Among specific questions discussed in the last part of the paper are: intermediate and final temperature of composite materials, measurement of real thermal effects in situ, neutralization of undesired warming experienced during radiation processing, processing at temperatures other than ambient and administration of very high doses of radiation.

  16. Assessment and Implications of Scattered Microbeam and Broadbeam Synchrotron Radiation for Bystander Effect Studies.

    PubMed

    Lobachevsky, Pavel; Ivashkevich, Alesia; Forrester, Helen B; Stevenson, Andrew W; Hall, Chris J; Sprung, Carl N; Martin, Olga A

    2015-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation is an excellent tool for investigating bystander effects in cell and animal models because of the well-defined and controllable configuration of the beam. Although synchrotron radiation has many advantages for such studies compared to conventional radiation, the contribution of dose exposure from scattered radiation nevertheless remains a source of concern. Therefore, the influence of scattered radiation on the detection of bystander effects induced by synchrotron radiation in biological in vitro models was evaluated. Radiochromic XRQA2 film-based dosimetry was employed to measure the absorbed dose of scattered radiation in cultured cells at various distances from a field exposed to microbeam radiotherapy and broadbeam X-ray radiation. The level of scattered radiation was dependent on the distance, dose in the target zone and beam mode. The number of ?-H2AX foci in cells positioned at the same target distances was measured and used as a biodosimeter to evaluate the absorbed dose. A correlation of absorbed dose values measured by the physical and biological methods was identified. The ?-H2AX assay successfully quantitated the scattered radiation in the range starting from 10 mGy and its contribution to the observed radiation-induced bystander effect. PMID:26632855

  17. Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.7 Necessity of Patient-Specific Dose Planning in Radionuclide Therapy' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

  18. Skeletal dosimetry: A hyperboloid representation of the bone-marrow interface to reduce voxel effects in three-dimensional images of trabecular bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajon, Didier Alain

    Radiation damage to the hematopoietic bone marrow is clearly defined as the limiting factor to the development of internal emitter therapies. Current dosimetry models rely on chord-length distributions measured through the complex microstructure of the trabecular bone regions of the skeleton in which most of the active marrow is located. Recently, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has been used to obtain high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) images of small trabecular bone samples. These images have been coupled with computer programs to estimate dosimetric parameters such as chord-length distributions, and energy depositions by monoenergetic electrons. This new technique is based on the assumption that each voxel of the image is assigned either to bone tissue or to marrow tissue after application of a threshold value. Previous studies showed that this assumption had important consequences on the outcome of the computer calculations. Both the chord-length distribution measurements and the energy deposition calculations are subject to voxel effects that are responsible for large discrepancies when applied to mathematical models of trabecular bone. The work presented in this dissertation proposes first a quantitative study of the voxel effects. Consensus is that the voxelized representation of surfaces should not be used as direct input to dosimetry computer programs. Instead we need a new technique to transform the interfaces into smooth surfaces. The Marching Cube (MC) algorithm was used and adapted to do this transformation. The initial image was used to generate a continuous gray-level field throughout the image. The interface between bone and marrow was then simulated by the iso-gray-level surface that corresponds to a predetermined threshold value. Calculations were then performed using this new representation. Excellent results were obtained for both the chord-length distribution and the energy deposition measurements. Voxel effects were reduced to an acceptable level and the discrepancies found when using the voxelized representation of the interface were reduced to a few percent. We conclude that this new model should be used every time one performs dosimetry estimates using NMR images of trabecular bone samples.

  19. Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 15th, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N. Mex., July 18-21, 1978, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, M.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation effects in MOS devices and circuits are considered along with radiation effects in materials, space radiation effects and spacecraft charging, SGEMP, IEMP, EMP, fabrication of radiation-hardened devices, radiation effects in bipolar devices and circuits, simulation, energy deposition, and dosimetry. Attention is given to the rapid anneal of radiation-induced silicon-sapphire interface charge trapping, cosmic ray induced errors in MOS memory cells, a simple model for predicting radiation effects in MOS devices, the response of MNOS capacitors to ionizing radiation at 80 K, trapping effects in irradiated and avalanche-injected MOS capacitors, inelastic interactions of electrons with polystyrene, the photoelectron spectral yields generated by monochromatic soft X radiation, and electron transport in reactor materials.

  20. Experiment K-6-24, K-6-25, K-6-26. Radiation dosimetry and spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A.; Benton, E. R.; Dudkin, V.; Marennyi, A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation experiments flown by the University of San Francisco on the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft were designed to measure the depth dependence of both total dose and heavy particle flux, dose and dose equivalent, down to very thin shielding. Three experiments were flown and were located both inside and outside the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft. Tissue absorbed dose rates of 264 to 0.028 rad d(-1) under shielding of 0.013 to 3.4 g/sq cm of (7)LiF were found outside the spacecraft and 0.025 rad d(-1) inside. Heavy particle fluxes of 3.43 to 1.03 x 10 to the minus 3rd power cm -2 sub s -1 sub sr -1 under shielding of 0.195 to 1.33 g/sq cm plastic were found outside the spacecraft and 4.25 times 10 to the minus 4th power cm -2 sub s -1 sub sr -1 inside (LET infinity H2O greater than or equal to 4 keV/micron m). The corresponding heavy particle dose equivalent rates outside the spacecraft were 30.8 to 19.8 mrem d(-1) and 11.4 mrem d(-1) inside. The large dose and particle fluxes found at small shielding thicknesses emphasize the importance of these and future measurements at low shielding, for predicting radiation effects on space materials and experiments where shielding is minimal and on astronauts during EVA. The Cosmos 1887 mission contained a variety of international radiobiological investigations to which the measurements apply. The high inclination orbit (62 degrees) of this mission provided a radiation environment which is seldom available to U.S. investigators. The radiation measurements will be compared with those of other research groups and also with those performed on the Shuttle, and will be used to refine computer models employed to calculate radiation exposures on other spacecraft, including the Space Station.

  1. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    SciTech Connect

    COOPER, J.R.

    2000-04-17

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  2. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained.

  3. Environmental effects of radiation emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1987-03-01

    This document described the potential environmental effects of large radioactive releases such as a reactor accident. Tables list information on important fission products and induced radionuclides from the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. The author discussed subsequent radioactivity in air, water, soil, and food chains that lead to man. Radionuclides reach man through one or more of four standard exposure pathways; effective prevention or mitigation of exposure routes depends on timely, accurate reporting of radiation-related information using a common system of units. Examples of the lack of knowledge and poor communication surrounding the Chernobyl accident were described. 6 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs. (TEM)

  4. Evaluation of Effective Sources in Uncertainty Measurements of Personal Dosimetry by a Harshaw TLD System

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini Pooya, SM; Orouji, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: The accurate results of the individual doses in personal dosimety which are reported by the service providers in personal dosimetry are very important. There are national / international criteria for acceptable dosimetry system performance. Objective: In this research, the sources of uncertainties are identified, measured and calculated in a personal dosimetry system by TLD. Method: These sources are included; inhomogeneity of TLDs sensitivity, variability of TLD readings due to limited sensitivity and background, energy dependence, directional dependence, non-linearity of the response, fading, dependent on ambient temperature / humidity and calibration errors, which may affect on the dose responses. Some parameters which influence on the above sources of uncertainty are studied for Harshaw TLD-100 cards dosimeters as well as the hot gas Harshaw 6600 TLD reader system. Results: The individual uncertainties of each sources was measured less than 6.7% in 68% confidence level. The total uncertainty was calculated 17.5% with 95% confidence level. Conclusion: The TLD-100 personal dosimeters as well as the Harshaw TLD-100 reader 6600 system show the total uncertainty value which is less than that of admissible value of 42% for personal dosimetry services. PMID:25505769

  5. Optical tomography for radiation dosimetry and treatment plan verification by videographic imaging of ferrous sulphate xylenol orange gelatin dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolodzko, John George

    1999-08-01

    Recent advances in computer and radiation delivery technologies have led to new and complex methods in radiotherapy which involve the deposition of radiation in the human body at high doses or dose rates. Both these and more traditional approaches to radiotherapy would benefit from a means to provide detailed information about the distribution of radiation dose in multiple dimensions for the purposes of treatment planning and verification. Several investigations have been carried out over the past few years to evaluate the utility of various formulations of ferrous sulphate, or Fricke, get dosimeters in the measurement of radiation fields. These have been proposed to be of particular value in the determination of three-dimensional radiation dose distributions associated with emerging and complex approaches to cancer treatment such as `gamma knife', pencil beam, stereotactic, or conformal radiotherapies. Hitherto, the emphasis in the majority of approaches has been on measuring the difference in effect on paramagnetic properties between the initial ferrous ion concentration of the solution, and the ferric ions which a produced following irradiation. Although many positive and confirmative results have been published regarding this method, it relies on access to clinical MRI units for imaging the irradiated gel; an expensive and logistical challenge for the majority of potential users. We report here a study carried out to determine the feasibility of analyzing one form of this dosimeter through tomographic reconstruction of two-dimensional optical projections acquired using an ordinary, diffuse light source, video camera, standard tomographic reconstruction software, and other components designed and/or assembled by the author. Qualitative, quantitative and statistical analyses yield highly linear and reproducible results with r2 from regression analyses typically on the order of 0.98. Comparisons of the measured dose distribution patterns to the treatment plan prediction are provided, indicating that the system functions as desired. Preliminary findings indicate that our method may provide a convenient, inexpensive and accurate tool for the quantitative measurement and visual assessment of complex radiation dose distributions associated with new radiotherapy techniques either proposed or under investigation, as well as treatment plan verification, equipment tests, and routine quality control.

  6. (Biological effects of atomic radiation)

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, P.B.

    1990-06-01

    The traveler attended the thirty-ninth session of UNSCEAR, where he took part in the meetings of the Biological Subgroup and the Working Group of the full UNSCEAR Committee. He listened to the discussion of the many documents under preparation and provided advice on questions related to genetics. He was extensively involved in discussion of the document entitled Hereditary effects of radiation.'' During the discussion of that document, he served as the rapporteur of the Biological Subgroup. Important contacts were made with many internationally prominent scientists involved in radiation protection and risk evaluation. Since mouse data, many of them collected in the ORNL Biology Division, form a major component of genetic risk estimation, the traveler was able to provide first-hand information and to play an active role in the deliberations.

  7. Effect of Edema on Postimplant Dosimetry in Prostate Brachytherapy Using CT/MRI Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Osamu Hayashi, Shinya; Matsuo, Masayuki; Nakano, Masahiro; Uno, Hiromi; Ohtakara, Kazuhiro; Miyoshi, Toshiharu; Deguchi, Takashi; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the time course of prostatic edema and the effect on the dose-volume histograms of the prostate for patients treated with brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 74 patients with prostate cancer were enrolled in this prospective study. A transrectal ultrasound-based preplan was performed 4 weeks before implantation and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging fusion-based postimplant dosimetry was performed on the day after implantation (Day 1) and 30 days after implantation (Day 30). The prostate volume, prostate volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose (V{sub 100}), and dose covering 90% of the prostate (D{sub 90}) were evaluated with prostatic edema over time. Results: Prostatic edema was greatest on Day 1, with the mean prostate volume 36% greater than the preplan transrectal ultrasound-based volume; it thereafter decreased over time. It was 9% greater than preplan volume on Day 30. The V{sub 100} increased 5.7% from Day 1 to Day 30, and the D{sub 90} increased 13.1% from Day 1 to Day 30. The edema ratio (postplan/preplan) on Day 1 of low-quality implants with a V{sub 100} of <80% was significantly greater than that of intermediate- to high-quality implants (>80% V{sub 100}; p = 0.0272). The lower V{sub 100} on Day 1 showed a greater increase from Day 1 to Day 30. A V{sub 100} on Day 1 of >92% is unlikely to increase >0% during the interval studied. Conclusion: Low-quality implants on Day 1 were highly associated with edema; however, such a low-quality implant on Day 1, with significant edema, tended to improve by Day 30. If a high-quality implant (V100 >92%) can be obtained on Day 1, a re-examination is no longer necessary.

  8. Personalized image-based radiation dosimetry for routine clinical use in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy: pretherapy experience.

    PubMed

    Celler, Anna; Grimes, Joshua; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Piwowarska-Bilska, Hanna; Birkenfeld, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    Patient-specific dose calculations are not routinely performed for targeted radionuclide therapy procedures, partly because they are time consuming and challenging to perform. However, it is becoming widely recognized that a personalized dosimetry approach can help plan treatment and improve understanding of the dose-response relationship. In this chapter, we review the procedures and essential elements of an accurate internal dose calculation and propose a simplified approach that is aimed to be practical for use in a busy nuclear medicine department. PMID:22918779

  9. Geant4 electromagnetic physics updates for space radiation effects simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivantchenko, Anton; Nieminen, Petteri; Incerti, Sebastien; Santin, Giovanni; Ivantchenko, Vladimir; Grichine, Vladimir; Allison, John; Karamitos, Mathiew

    The Geant4 toolkit is used in many applications including space science studies. The new Geant4 version 10.0 released in December 2013 includes a major revision of the toolkit and offers multi-threaded mode for event level parallelism. At the same time, Geant4 electromagnetic and hadronic physics sub-libraries have been significantly updated. In order to validate the new and updated models Geant4 verification tests and benchmarks were extended. Part of these developments was sponsored by the European Space Agency in the context of research aimed at modelling radiation biological end effects. In this work, we present an overview of results of several benchmarks for electromagnetic physics models relevant to space science. For electromagnetic physics, recently Compton scattering, photoelectric effect, and Rayleigh scattering models have been improved and extended down to lower energies. Models of ionization and fluctuations have also been improved; special micro-dosimetry models for Silicon and liquid water were introduced; the main multiple scattering model was consolidated; and the atomic de-excitation module has been made available to all models. As a result, Geant4 predictions for space radiation effects obtained with different Physics Lists are in better agreement with the benchmark data than previous Geant4 versions. Here we present results of electromagnetic tests and models comparison in the energy interval 10 eV - 10 MeV.

  10. RADIATION EFFECTS IN MATERIAL MICROSTRUCTURE.

    SciTech Connect

    SIMOS,N.

    2007-05-30

    Next generation nuclear power systems, high-power particle accelerators and space technology will inevitably rely on higher performance materials that will be able to function in the extreme environments of high irradiation, high temperatures, corrosion and stress. The ability of any material to maintain its functionality under exposure to harsh conditions is directly linked to the material structure at the nano- and micro-scales. Understanding of the underlying processes is key to the success of such undertakings. This paper presents experimental results of the effects of radiation exposure on several unique alloys, composites and crystals through induced changes in the physio-mechanical macroscopic properties.

  11. The Brookhaven Radiation Effects Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Grand, P.; Snead, C.L.; Ward, T.

    1988-01-01

    The Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) Radiation Effects Facility (REF), funded by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) through the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL), has been constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Operation started in October 1986. The facility is capable of delivering pulsed H{sup -}, H{sup o}, and H{sup +} beams of 100 to 200 MeV energy up to 30 mA peak current. Pulses can be adjusted from 5 {mu}s to 500 {mu}s length at a repetition rate of 5 pps. The beam spot on target is adjustable from 3 to 100 cm diameter (2 {sigma}) resulting in a maximum dose of about 10 MRads (Si) per pulse (small beam spot). Experimental use of the REF is being primarily supported by the SDI lethality (LTH-4) program. The program has addressed ionization effects in electronics, both dose rate and total dose dependence, radiation-sensitive components, and dE/dx effects in energetic materials including propellants and high explosives (HE). This paper describes the facility, its capabilities and potential, and the experiments that have been carried out to date or are being planned. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  12. The effects of incidence angle on film dosimetry and their consequences in IMRT dose verification

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, R. P.; De Wagter, C.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The dosimetric accuracy of EDR2 radiographic film has been rigorously assessed in regular and intensity modulated beams for various incidence angles, including the parallel and perpendicular orientation. There clearly exists confusion in literature regarding the effect of film orientation. The primary aim is to clarify potential sources of the confusion and to gain physical insight into the film orientation effect with a link to radiochromic film as well. Methods: An inverse pyramid IMRT field, consisting of six regular and elongated 3 Multiplication-Sign 20 cm{sup 2} field segments, was studied in perpendicular and parallel orientation. Assessment of film self-perturbation and intrinsic directional sensitivity were also included in the experiments. Finally, the authors investigated the orientational effect in composite beams in the two extreme orientations, i.e., perpendicular and parallel. Results: The study of an inverse pyramid dose profile revealed good agreement between the perpendicular film and the diamond detector within 0.5% in the low-scatter regions for both 6 and 18 MV. The parallel oriented film demonstrated a 3% under-response at 5-cm (6 MV) depth against the perpendicular orientation, but both orientations over responded equally in the central region, which received only scattered dose, at both 5- and 20-cm depths. In a regular 6-MV 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 2} field, a 4.1% lower film response was observed in the parallel orientation compared to perpendicular orientation. The under response gradually increased to 6% when reducing the field size to 0.5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 2}. On the other hand, the film showed a 1.7% lower response in parallel orientation for the large field size of 20 Multiplication-Sign 20 cm{sup 2} at 5-cm depth but the difference disappeared at 10 cm. At 18 MV, similar but somewhat lower differences were found between the two orientations. The directional sensitivity of the film diminishes with increasing field size and depth. Surprisingly a composite IMRT beam consisting of 20 adjacent strip segments also produced a significant orientational dependence of film response, notwithstanding the large total field size of 20 Multiplication-Sign 20 cm{sup 2}. Conclusions: This analysis allowed the development of a hypothesis about the physics behind the orientational dependence of film response in general and to formulate precautions when using film dosimetry in the dosimetric verification of multibeam treatments.

  13. Polarity effects of ionization chambers used in tbi dosimetry due to cable irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fiorino, C; Mangili, P; Cattaneo, G M; Calandrino, R

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on polarity effects in total-body irradiation (TBI) dosimetry. Thimble (NE2571, 0.6 cc) and plane-parallel (Markus NE2534 0.055 cc) chambers were investigated in a 30 x 30 x 30-cm3 acrylic phantom in TBI conditions (6-MV x-rays). The thimble chamber was positioned at the midline and at the entrance and exit Dmax (1.5 cm from the phantom surface) levels. The Markus chamber, which is generally used for skin dose estimations, was positioned at various depths from the entrance surface of the phantom (from 0- to 2-cm depth). The polarity factor (Ppol) was defined as (Q+ + Q-)/2Q-, where Q+ and Q- were the collected charges at positive and negative bias voltage, respectively. The variations of Ppol with many parameters (absorbed dose, dose rate, the presence or absence of a 1-cm acrylic spoiler, irradiated cable length) were investigated. Results show that Ppol is quite small (within 1.002 for on-axis measurements and 1.005 for off-axis measurements) for the NE2571 chamber when the beam spoiler is placed. Ppol was significantly higher without the beam spoiler (within 1.008 for on-axis measurements, up to 1.02 for off-axis measurements). Concerning the Markus chamber, for on-axis skin dose measurements, Ppol was found to be less than unity (around 0.988) or more than unity (around 1.0035), respectively, with and without the beam spoiler. Possible "directional effects" of the currents generated in the cable were investigated for both chambers and found to be insignificant. This shows that the application of Ppol correction has to be considered a reliable procedure in minimizing these effects. When the beam spoiler is placed, the cable has to be drawn to minimize the portion of cable just outside the beam; if this is not the case, Ppol may significantly vary (for the NE2571 chamber values up to 1.0035 were found for on-axis measurements). PMID:11025257

  14. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

  15. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-06-16

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments. (ACR)

  16. Extension of the biological effective dose to the MIRD schema and possible implications in radionuclide therapy dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Sebastien; Hobbs, Robert F.; Prideaux, Andrew R.; Wahl, Richard L.; Sgouros, George

    2008-03-15

    In dosimetry-based treatment planning protocols, patients with rapid clearance of the radiopharmaceutical require a larger amount of initial activity than those with slow clearance to match the absorbed dose to the critical organ. As a result, the dose-rate to the critical organ is higher in patients with rapid clearance and may cause unexpected toxicity compared to patients with slow clearance. In order to account for the biological impact of different dose-rates, radiobiological modeling is beginning to be applied to the analysis of radionuclide therapy patient data. To date, the formalism used for these analyses is based on kinetics derived from activity in a single organ, the target. This does not include the influence of other source organs to the dose and dose-rate to the target organ. As a result, only self-dose irradiation in the target organ contributes to the dose-rate. In this work, the biological effective dose (BED) formalism has been extended to include the effect of multiple source organ contributions to the net dose-rate in a target organ. The generalized BED derivation has been based on the Medical Internal Radionuclide Dose Committee (MIRD) schema assuming multiple source organs following exponential effective clearance of the radionuclide. A BED-based approach to determine the largest safe dose to critical organs has also been developed. The extended BED formalism is applied to red marrow dosimetry, as well as kidney dosimetry considering the cortex and the medulla separately, since both those organs are commonly dose limiting in radionuclide therapy. The analysis shows that because the red marrow is an early responding tissue (high {alpha}/{beta}), it is less susceptible to unexpected toxicity arising from rapid clearance of high levels of administered activity in the marrow or in the remainder of the body. In kidney dosimetry, the study demonstrates a complex interplay between clearance of activity in the cortex and the medulla, as well as the initial activity ratio and the S value ratio between the two. In some scenarios, projected BED based on both the cortex and the medulla is a more appropriate constraint on the administered activity than the BED based on the cortex only. Furthermore, different fractionated regimens were considered to reduce renal toxicity. The MIRD-based BED formalism is expected to be useful for patient-specific adjustments of activity and to facilitate the investigation of dose-toxicity correlations with respect to dose-rate and tissue repair mechanism.

  17. Effects of temperature on MOS radiation response

    SciTech Connect

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Schwank, J.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.

    1997-03-01

    Effects of irradiation and annealing temperature on radiation-induced charge densities are explored for MOS transistors. Both interface- and border-trap density increase with increasing radiation temperature, while the net oxide-trap charge density decreases.

  18. Development of Fast and Highly Efficient Gas Ionization Chamber For Patient Imaging and Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    R. Hinderler; H. Keller; T.R. Mackie; M.L. Corradini

    2003-09-08

    In radiation therapy of cancer, more accurate delivery techniques spur the need for improved patient imaging during treatment. To this purpose, the megavoltage radiation protocol that is used for treatment is also used for imaging.

  19. Status of LDEF ionizing radiation measurements and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    The LDEF-1 results from the particle astrophysics, radiation environments, and dosimetry measurements on LDEF-1 are summarized, including highlights from presentations at the 2nd symposium. Progress in using LDEF data to improve radiation environment models and calculation methods is reviewed. Radiation effects, or the lack thereof are discussed. Future plans of the LDEF Ionizing Radiation Special Investigation Group are presented.

  20. Radiation effects in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Begay, F.; Rosen, L.; Petersen, D.F.; Mason, C.; Travis, B.; Yazzie, A.; Isaac, M.C.P.; Seaborg, G.T.; Leavitt, C.P.

    1999-04-01

    Although the Navajo possess substantial resource wealth-coal, gas, uranium, water-this potential wealth has been translated into limited permanent economic or political power. In fact, wealth or potential for wealth has often made the Navajo the victims of more powerful interests greedy for the assets under limited Navajo control. The primary focus for this education workshop on the radiation effects in the environment is to provide a forum where scientists from the nuclear science and technology community can share their knowledge toward the advancement and diffusion of nuclear science and technology issues for the Navajo public. The scientists will make an attempt to consider the following basic questions; what is science; what is mathematics; what is nuclear radiation? Seven papers are included in this report: Navajo view of radiation; Nuclear energy, national security and international stability; ABC`s of nuclear science; Nuclear medicine: 100 years in the making; Radon in the environment; Bicarbonate leaching of uranium; and Computational methods for subsurface flow and transport. The proceedings of this workshop will be used as a valuable reference materials in future workshops and K-14 classrooms in Navajo communities that need to improve basic understanding of nuclear science and technology issues. Results of the Begay-Stevens research has revealed the existence of strange and mysterious concepts in the Navajo Language of nature. With these research results Begay and Stevens prepared a lecture entitled The Physics of Laser Fusion in the Navajo language. This lecture has been delivered in numerous Navajo schools, and in universities and colleges in the US, Canada, and Alaska.

  1. Biological dosimetry of chernobyl cleanup workers: inclusion of data on age and smoking provides improved radiation dose estimates.

    PubMed

    Moore II, D H; Tucker, J D

    1999-12-01

    We report the results of a study of chromosome translocations in 126 Russian subjects who participated in the cleanup activities at Chernobyl and another 53 subjects, from other places in Russia, who were not exposed at Chernobyl. In agreement with our earlier study, we find increased translocation frequencies among the exposed compared to Russian controls. We describe statistical methods for estimating the dose of ionizing radiation determined by scoring chromosome translocations found in circulating lymphocytes sampled several years after exposure. Two statistical models were fitted to the data. One model assumed that translocation frequencies followed an overdispersed Poisson distribution. The second model assumed that translocation frequencies followed a negative binomial distribution. In addition, the effects of radiation exposure were modeled as additive or as multiplicative to the effects of age and smoking history. We found that the negative binomial model fit the data better than the overdispersed Poisson model. We could not distinguish between the additive and the multiplicative model with our data. Individual dose estimates ranged from 0 (for 43 subjects) to 0.56 Gy (mean 0.14 Gy) under the multiplicative model and from 0 to 0.95 Gy (mean 0.15 Gy) under the additive model. Dose estimates were similar under the two models when the number of translocations was less than 4 per 100 cells. The additive model tended to estimate larger doses when the number of translocations was greater than 4 per 100 cells. We also describe a method for estimating upper 95% tolerance bounds for numbers of translocations in unexposed individuals. We found that inclusion of data on age and smoking history was important for dose estimation. Ignoring these factors could result in gross overestimation of exposures, particularly in older subjects who smoke. PMID:10581536

  2. Quantum dosimetry and online visualization of X-ray and charged particle radiation in commercial aircraft at operational flight altitudes with the pixel detector Timepix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja, Carlos; Pospisil, Stanislav

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the application of the hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix for precise characterization, quantum sensitivity dosimetry and visualization of the charged particle radiation and X-ray field inside commercial aircraft at operational flight altitudes. The quantum counting capability and granularity of Timepix provides the composition and spectral-characteristics of the X-ray and charged-particle field with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, high spatial resolution and particle type resolving power. For energetic charged particles the direction of trajectory and linear energy transfer can be measured. The detector is operated by the integrated readout interface FITPix for power, control and data acquisition together with the software package Pixelman for online visualization and real-time data processing. The compact and portable radiation camera can be deployed remotely being controlled simply by a laptop computer. The device performs continuous monitoring and accurate time-dependent measurements in wide dynamic range of particle fluxes, deposited energy, absorbed dose and equivalent dose rates. Results are presented for in-flight measurements at altitudes up to 12 km in various flights selected in the period 2006-2013.

  3. Polymer gel dosimetry for neutron beam in the Neutron Exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, H.; Sato, H.; Hamano, T.; Suda, M.; Yoshii, H.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether gel dosimetry could be used to measure neutron beams. We irradiated a BANG3-type polymer gel dosimeter using neutron beams in the Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan. First, the polymer gels were irradiated from 0 to 7.0 Gy to investigate the dose-R2 responses. Irradiated gels were evaluated using 1.5-T magnetic resonance R2 images. Second, the polymer gels were irradiated to 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 Gy to acquire a depth-R2 response curve. The dose-R2 response curve was linear up to approximately 7 Gy, with a slope of 1.25 Gy-1·s-1. Additionally, compared with the photon- irradiated gels, the neutron-irradiated gels had lower R2 values. The acquired depth-R2 curves of the central axis from the 3.0- and 5.0-Gy neutron dose-irradiated gels exhibited an initial build-up. Although, a detailed investigation is needed, polymer gel dosimetry is effective for measuring the dose-related R2 linearity and depth-R2 relationships of neutron beams.

  4. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-04-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with requirements of 10 CFR 835, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program, the DOE Richland Operations Office, DOE Office of River Protection, DOE Pacific Northwest Office of Science, and Hanford’s DOE contractors. The dosimetry system is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to PNNL and all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Maintenance and distribution of controlled hard copies of the manual by PNNL was discontinued beginning with Revision 0.2.

  5. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2007-03-12

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Revision Log: Rev. 0 (2/25/2005) Major revision and expansion. Rev. 0.1 (3/12/2007) Minor revision. Updated Chapters 5, 6 and 9 to reflect change in default ring calibration factor used in HEDP dose calculation software. Factor changed from 1.5 to 2.0 beginning January 1, 2007. Pages on which changes were made are as follows: 5.23, 5.69, 5.78, 5.80, 5.82, 6.3, 6.5, 6.29, 9.2.

  6. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2011-04-04

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with requirements of 10 CFR 835, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program, the DOE Richland Operations Office, DOE Office of River Protection, DOE Pacific Northwest Office of Science, and Hanford’s DOE contractors. The dosimetry system is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to PNNL and all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Maintenance and distribution of controlled hard copies of the manual by PNNL was discontinued beginning with Revision 0.2.

  7. SU-F-18C-09: Assessment of OSL Dosimeter Technology in the Validation of a Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code for CT Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Carver, D; Kost, S; Pickens, D; Price, R; Stabin, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the utility of optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeter technology in calibrating and validating a Monte Carlo radiation transport code for computed tomography (CT). Methods: Exposure data were taken using both a standard CT 100-mm pencil ionization chamber and a series of 150-mm OSL CT dosimeters. Measurements were made at system isocenter in air as well as in standard 16-cm (head) and 32-cm (body) CTDI phantoms at isocenter and at the 12 o'clock positions. Scans were performed on a Philips Brilliance 64 CT scanner for 100 and 120 kVp at 300 mAs with a nominal beam width of 40 mm. A radiation transport code to simulate the CT scanner conditions was developed using the GEANT4 physics toolkit. The imaging geometry and associated parameters were simulated for each ionization chamber and phantom combination. Simulated absorbed doses were compared to both CTDI{sub 100} values determined from the ion chamber and to CTDI{sub 100} values reported from the OSLs. The dose profiles from each simulation were also compared to the physical OSL dose profiles. Results: CTDI{sub 100} values reported by the ion chamber and OSLs are generally in good agreement (average percent difference of 9%), and provide a suitable way to calibrate doses obtained from simulation to real absorbed doses. Simulated and real CTDI{sub 100} values agree to within 10% or less, and the simulated dose profiles also predict the physical profiles reported by the OSLs. Conclusion: Ionization chambers are generally considered the standard for absolute dose measurements. However, OSL dosimeters may also serve as a useful tool with the significant benefit of also assessing the radiation dose profile. This may offer an advantage to those developing simulations for assessing radiation dosimetry such as verification of spatial dose distribution and beam width.

  8. All about FAX: a Female Adult voXel phantom for Monte Carlo calculation in radiation protection dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; Loureiro, E. C. M.; Lima, V. J. M.; Lima, F. R. A.; Hoff, G.

    2004-12-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has created a task group on dose calculations, which, among other objectives, should replace the currently used mathematical MIRD phantoms by voxel phantoms. Voxel phantoms are based on digital images recorded from scanning of real persons by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared to the mathematical MIRD phantoms, voxel phantoms are true to the natural representations of a human body. Connected to a radiation transport code, voxel phantoms serve as virtual humans for which equivalent dose to organs and tissues from exposure to ionizing radiation can be calculated. The principal database for the construction of the FAX (Female Adult voXel) phantom consisted of 151 CT images recorded from scanning of trunk and head of a female patient, whose body weight and height were close to the corresponding data recommended by the ICRP in Publication 89. All 22 organs and tissues at risk, except for the red bone marrow and the osteogenic cells on the endosteal surface of bone ('bone surface'), have been segmented manually with a technique recently developed at the Departamento de Energia Nuclear of the UFPE in Recife, Brazil. After segmentation the volumes of the organs and tissues have been adjusted to agree with the organ and tissue masses recommended by ICRP for the Reference Adult Female in Publication 89. Comparisons have been made with the organ and tissue masses of the mathematical EVA phantom, as well as with the corresponding data for other female voxel phantoms. The three-dimensional matrix of the segmented images has eventually been connected to the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Effective dose conversion coefficients have been calculated for exposures to photons, and compared to data determined for the mathematical MIRD-type phantoms, as well as for other voxel phantoms.

  9. Fast neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period.

  10. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for applicationmore » to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.« less

  11. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL,; MOMENI, H.

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for application to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.

  12. SU-E-T-368: Effect of a Strong Magnetic Field On Select Radiation Dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, M; Wen, Z; Tailor, R; Sawakuchi, G; Flint, D; Beddar, S; Ibbott, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of a strong magnetic field on TLD-100, OSLD (Al{sub 2}O{sub 2}:C), and PRESAGE dosimetry devices. This study will help to determine which types of dosimeters can be used for quality assurance and in-vivo dosimetry measurements in a magnetic resonance imaginglinear accelerator (MRI-linac) system. Methods: The dosimeters were separated into two categories which were either exposed or not exposed to a strong magnetic field. In each category a set of dosimeters was irradiated with 0, 2, or 6 Gy. To expose the dosimeters to a magnetic field the samples in that category were place in a Bruker small animal magnetic resonance scanner at a field strength slightly greater than 2.5 T for at least 1 hour preirradiation and at least 1 hour post-irradiation. Irradiations were performed with a 6 MV x-ray beam from a Varian TrueBeam linac with 10×10 cm{sup 2} field at a 600 MU/min dose rate. The samples that received no radiation dose were used as control detectors. Results: The readouts of the dosimeters which were not exposed to a strong magnetic field were compared with the measurements of the dosimetry devices which were exposed to a magnetic field. No significant differences (less than 2% difference) in the performance of TLD, OSLD, or PRESAGE dosimeters due to exposure to a strong magnetic field were observed. Conclusion: Exposure to a strong magnetic field before and after irradiation does not appear to change the dosimetric properties of TLD, OSLD, or PRESAGE which indicates that these dosimeters have potential for use in quality assurance and in-vivo dosimetry in a MRI-linac. We plan to further test the effect of magnetic fields on these devices by irradiating them in the presence of a magnetic fields similar to those produced by a MRI-linac system. Elekta-MD Anderson Cancer Center Research Agreement.

  13. Effects of radiation on parotid salivary function

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, J.E.; Davis, C.C.; Gottsman, V.L.

    1981-08-01

    Postoperative electron beam irradiation of patients with parotid cancer has been used regularly at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology to spare the opposite parotid and to preserve salivary function. Only anecdotal reports of amount of radiation required to ablate salivary function exist. To establish a dose-response curve for the human parotid, selective measurements of right and left parotid salivary flow were done for 15 age-matched control patients whose parotids were not irradiated, 17 patients who had both parotids irradiated, and 12 whose parotids were irradiated by unilateral electron beam technique. Point calculations of absorbed dose 1 cm below the surface were done for all 88 parotids and correlated with stimulated parotid salivary flow, pH, and secretory IgA (SIgA). Increasing doses of radiation resulted in progressive reduction of parotid salivary flow, pH, and SIgA. The technique, dosimetry, and clinical application of unilateral electron beam irradiation to spare the opposite parotid will be discussed.

  14. A survey of space radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of space radiation and its significance for space missions, as they increase in scope, duration, and complexity are discussed. Type of radiation hazard may depend on location or on special equipment used. It is emphasized that it is necessary to search for potential radiation problems in the design stage of a mission. Problem areas such as radiation damage to solar cells and the revolutionary advances are discussed. Radiation effect to electronics components other than solar cells, and several specialized areas such as radioactivity and luminescence are also examined.

  15. Joint USNRC/EC consequence uncertainty study: The ingestion pathway, dosimetry and health effects expert judgment elicitations and results

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, F.; Goossens, L.; Abbott, M.

    1996-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the European Commission (EC) have conducted a formal expert judgment elicitation jointly to systematically collect the quantitative information needed to perform consequence uncertainty analyses on a broad set of commercial nuclear power plants. Information from three sets of joint US/European expert panels was collected and processed. Information from the three sets of panels was collected in the following areas: in the phenomenological areas of atmospheric dispersion and deposition, in the areas of ingestion pathways and external dosimetry, and in the areas of health effects and internal dosimetry. This exercise has demonstrated that the uncertainty for particular issues as measured by the ratio of the 95th percentile to the 5th percentile can be extremely large (orders of magnitude), or rather small (factor of two). This information has already been used by many of the experts that were involved in this process in areas other than the consequence uncertainty field. The benefit to the field of radiological consequences is just beginning as the results of this study are published and made available to the consequence community.

  16. Monte Carlo Investigation on the Effect of Heterogeneities on Strut Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, Craig

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer for women with more than 225,000 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2012 (ACS, 2012). With the high prevalence, comes an increased emphasis on researching new techniques to treat this disease. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has been used as an alternative to whole breast irradiation (WBI) in order to treat occult disease after lumpectomy. Similar recurrence rates have been found using ABPI after lumpectomy as with mastectomy alone, but with the added benefit of improved cosmetic and psychological results. Intracavitary brachytherapy devices have been used to deliver the APBI prescription. However, inability to produce asymmetric dose distributions in order to avoid overdosing skin and chest wall has been an issue with these devices. Multi-lumen devices were introduced to overcome this problem. Of these, the Strut-Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) has demonstrated the greatest ability to produce an asymmetric dose distribution, which would have greater ability to avoid skin and chest wall dose, and thus allow more women to receive this type of treatment. However, SAVI treatments come with inherent heterogeneities including variable backscatter due to the proximity to the tissue-air and tissue-lung interfaces and variable contents within the cavity created by the SAVI. The dose calculation protocol based on TG-43 does not account for heterogeneities and thus will not produce accurate dosimetry; however Acuros, a model-based dose calculation algorithm manufactured by Varian Medical Systems, claims to accurately account for heterogeneities. Monte Carlo simulation can calculate the dosimetry with high accuracy. In this thesis, a model of the SAVI will be created for Monte Carlo, specifically using MCNP code, in order to explore the affects of heterogeneities on the dose distribution. This data will be compared to TG-43 and Acuros calculated dosimetry to explore their accuracy.

  17. Consistency of external dosimetry in epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1991-10-01

    To make the best use of available epidemiologic data in assessing risks from exposure to low-level radiation, it is important that biases and uncertainties in estimated doses be understood and documented. With this understanding, analyses of mortality data can be strengthened by including the use of correction factors where judged appropriate, excluding portions of the data where uncertainty in dose estimates is judged to be very large, and conducting sensitivity analyses to examine the effect of alternative assumptions about dosimetry errors and biases on results. It is hoped that the pooling of data from several epidemiologic studies and improved understanding of dosimetry will lead to better estimates of radiation risks. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Microbeam Radiation Therapy: Tissue Dose Penetration and BANG-Gel Dosimetry of Thick-Beams' Array Intelacing

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmanian, F.; Romanelli, P; Zhong, Z; Wang, R; Wagshul, M; Kalef-Ezra, J; Maryanski, M; Rosen, E; Anschel, D

    2008-01-01

    The tissue-sparing effect of parallel, thin (narrower than 100em) synchrotron-generated X-ray planar beams (microbeams) in healthy tissues including the central nervous system (CNS) is known since early 1990s. This, together with a remarkable preferential tumoricidal effect of such beam arrays observed at high doses, has been the basis for labeling the method microbeam radiation therapy (MRT). Recent studies showed that beams as thick as 0.68mm ('thick microbeams') retain part of their sparing effect in the rat's CNS, and that two such orthogonal microbeams arrays can be interlaced to produce an unsegmented field at the target, thus producing focal targeting. We measured the half-value layer (HVL) of our 120-keV median-energy beam in water phantoms, and we irradiated stereotactically bis acrylamide nitrogen gelatin (BANG)-gel-filled phantoms, including one containing a human skull, with interlaced microbeams and imaged them with MRI. A 43-mm water HVL resulted, together with an adequately large peak-to-valley ratio of the microbeams' three-dimensional dose distribution in the vicinity of the 20mmx20mmx20mm target deep into the skull. Furthermore, the 80-20% dose falloff was a fraction of a millimeter as predicted by Monte Carlo simulations. We conclude that clinical MRT will benefit from the use of higher beam energies than those used here, although the current energy could serve certain neurosurgical applications. Furthermore, thick microbeams particularly when interlaced present some advantages over thin microbeams in that they allow the use of higher beam energies and they could conceivably be implemented with high power orthovoltage X-ray tubes.

  19. Biokinetics and radiation dosimetry for patients undergoing a glycerol tri[1-14C]oleate fat malabsorption breath test.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Mikael; Stenström, Kristina; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Faarinen, Mikko; Magnusson, Carl-Erik; Aberg, Magnus; Skog, Göran; Hellborg, Ragnar; Mattsson, Sören

    2003-04-01

    The glycerol tri[1-14C]olein test for fat malabsorption was carried out in two male volunteers and measurements of the loss of 14C in expired air, urine and faeces and the retention of 14C in biopsy samples of abdominal fat were made using accelerator mass spectrometry. Exhalation accounted for 73% and 55% of the administered activity and could be described by three-component exponential functions with halftimes of about 1h, 2 days and 150 days, respectively. Urinary excretion accounted for 24% of the administered activity, almost all during the first 24h after administration; about 2% was excreted in the faeces in 48h. The halftime of retention of 14C in fat ranged from 137 to 620 days. Absorbed dose calculations indicate that for a normal adult the largest dose, 1.5-7.0mGy/MBq is received by the adipose tissue, and that the effective dose is 0.3-0.5mSv/MBq. It is concluded that no restrictions need to be placed on radiation safety grounds on the administration of 0.05-0.1MBq 14C-triolein for the triolein breath test. PMID:12672633

  20. Development of a Voxel-based Chinese reference female phantom from color photographs for radiation dosimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yinxiangzi; Tan, Liwen; Jeon, Jonghwi; Xia, Xiaobin

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a Voxel-based Chinese Reference female Phantom (VCRP-woman) from high-resolution color photographs acquired from an adult female cadaver. Forty-six organs/tissues, including all radiosensitive organs/tissues specified in the 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), were either segmented manually or subjected to semi-automatic segmentation as seen in color photographs of the unadjusted female. A C++ program was developed to adjust the masses of the organs/tissues to values applicable to the Chinese Reference adult female. The resulting VCRP-woman consists of more than 106 million voxels, each with dimensions of 1.03 mm × 1.03 mm × 1.95 mm. Organ absorbed dose and effective dose conversion coefficients for monoenergetic photons from 0.015-10 MeV were calculated for several reference irradiation geometries (anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left-lateral, rotational, and isotropic) by Monte Carlo radiation transport. The results for the VCRP-woman were compared to those of the original (or unadjusted) female voxel phantom as well as the ICRP Publication 110 adult reference female computational phantom. PMID:24162055

  1. Solid-State Personal Dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2005-01-01

    This document is a web site page, and a data sheet about Personal protection (i.e., space suits) presented to the Radiation and Micrometeoroid Mitigation Technology Focus Group meeting. The website describes the work of the PI to improve solid state personal radiation dosimetry. The data sheet presents work on the active personal radiation detection system that is to provide real-time local radiation exposure information during EVA. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.

  2. Potential health effects of space radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chui-Hsu; Craise, Laurie M.

    1993-01-01

    Crewmembers on missions to the Moon or Mars will be exposed to radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, and possibly solar particle events. The potential health hazards due to these space radiations must be considered carefully to ensure the success of space exploration. Because there is no human radioepidemiological data for acute and late effects of high-LET (Linear-Energy-Transfer) radiation, the biological risks of energetic charged particles have to be estimated from experimental results on animals and cultured cells. Experimental data obtained to date indicate that charged particle radiation can be much more effective than photons in causing chromosome aberrations, cell killing, mutation, and tumor induction. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) varies with biological endpoints and depends on the LET of heavy ions. Most lesions induced by low-LET radiation can be repaired in mammalian cells. Energetic heavy ions, however, can produce large complex DNA damages, which may lead to large deletions and are irreparable. For high-LET radiation, therefore, there are less or no dose rate effects. Physical shielding may not be effective in minimizing the biological effects on energetic heavy ions, since fragments of the primary particles can be effective in causing biological effects. At present the uncertainty of biological effects of heavy particles is still very large. With further understanding of the biological effects of space radiation, the career doses can be kept at acceptable levels so that the space radiation environment need not be a barrier to the exploitation of the promise of space.

  3. Exposure Dose Reconstruction from EPR Spectra of Tooth Enamel Exposed to the Combined Effect of X-rays and Gamma Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, V. A.; Kuchuro, J. I.

    2014-09-01

    We have used EPR dosimetry on tooth enamel to show that the combined effect of x-rays with effective energy 34 keV and gamma radiation with average energy 1250 keV leads to a significant increase in the reconstructed absorbed dose compared with the applied dose from a gamma source or from an x-ray source or from both sources of electromagnetic radiation. In simulation experiments, we develop an approach to estimating the contribution of diagnostic x-rays to the exposure dose formed in the tooth enamel by the combined effect of x-rays and gamma radiation.

  4. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Maintenance and distribution of controlled hard copies of the manual by PNNL was discontinued beginning with Revision 0.2. Revision Log: Rev. 0 (2/25/2005) Major revision and expansion. Rev. 0.1 (3/12/2007) Updated Chapters 5, 6 and 9 to reflect change in default ring calibration factor used in HEDP dose calculation software. Factor changed from 1.5 to 2.0 beginning January 1, 2007. Pages on which changes were made are as follows: 5.23, 5.69, 5.78, 5.80, 5.82, 6.3, 6.5, 6.29, and 9.2. Rev 0.2 (8/28/2009) Updated Chapters 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9. Chapters 6 and 8 were significantly expanded. References in the Preface and Chapters 1, 2, 4, and 7 were updated to reflect updates to DOE documents. Approved by HPDAC on 6/2/2009. Rev 1.0 (1/1/2010) Major revision. Updated all chapters to reflect the Hanford site wide implementation on January 1, 2010 of new DOE requirements for occupational radiation protection. The new requirements are given in the June 8, 2007 amendment to 10 CFR 835 Occupational Radiation Protection (Federal Register, June 8, 2007. Title 10 Part 835. U.S., Code of Federal Regulations, Vol. 72, No. 110, 31904-31941). Revision 1.0 to the manual replaces ICRP 26 dosimetry concepts and terminology with ICRP 60 dosimetry concepts and terminology and replaces external dose conversion factors from ICRP 51 with those from ICRP 74 for use in measurement of operational quantities with dosimeters. Descriptions of dose algorithms and dosimeter response characteristics, and field performance were updated to reflect changes in the neutron quality factors used in the measurement of operational quantities.

  5. MIRD Pamphlet No. 21: A Generalized Schema for Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry-Standardization of Nomenclature

    SciTech Connect

    Bolch, W E; Eckerman, Keith F; Sgouros, George; Thomas, Steven R.

    2009-03-01

    The internal dosimetry schema of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine has provided a broad framework for assessment of the absorbed dose to whole organs, tissue subregions, voxelized tissue structures, and individual cellular compartments for use in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. The schema was originally published in 1968, revised in 1976, and republished in didactic form with comprehensive examples as the MIRD primer in 1988 and 1991. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is an organization that also supplies dosimetric models and technical data, for use in providing recommendations for limits on ionizing radiation exposure to workers and members of the general public. The ICRP has developed a dosimetry schema similar to that of the MIRD Committee but has used different terminology and symbols for fundamental quantities such as the absorbed fraction, specific absorbed fraction, and various dose coefficients. The MIRD Committee objectives for this pamphlet are 3-fold: to restate its schema for assessment of absorbed dose in a manner consistent with the needs of both the nuclear medicine and the radiation protection communities, with the goal of standardizing nomenclature; to formally adopt the dosimetry quantities equivalent dose and effective dose for use in comparative evaluations of potential risks of radiation-induced stochastic effects to patients after nuclear medicine procedures; and to discuss the need to identify dosimetry quantities based on absorbed dose that address deterministic effects relevant to targeted radionuclide therapy.

  6. SU-C-12A-04: Diagnostic Imaging Research Using Decedents as a Proxy for the Living: Are Radiation Dosimetry and Tissue Property Measurements Affected by Post-Mortem Changes?

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D; Heintz, P; Weber, W; Melo, D; Adolphi, N; Hatch, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation dose (RD) from diagnostic imaging is a growing public health concern. Implanting dosimeters is a more accurate way to assess organ dose, relative to commonly used mathematical estimations. However, performing accurate dosimetry using live subjects is hindered by patient motion and safety considerations, which limit the RD and placement of implanted dosimeters. Performing multiple scans on the same subject would be the ideal way to assess the impact of dose reduction on image quality; however, performing multiple non-standard-of-care scans on live subjects for dosimetry and image quality measurements is generally prohibited by IRB committees. Our objective is to assess whether RD and tissue property (TP) measurements in post-mortem (PM) subjects are sufficiently similar to those in live subjects to justify the use of deceased subjects in future dosimetry and image quality studies. Methods: 4 MOSFET radiation dosimeters were placed enterically in each subject (2 sedated Rhesus Macaques) to measure the RD at 4 levels (carina, lung, heart, and liver) during CT scanning. The CT protocol was performed ante-mortem (AM) and 2 and 3 hours PM. For TP analysis, additional scans were taken at 24 hours PM. To compare AM and PM TP, regions-of-interest were drawn on selected organs and the average CT density with standard deviation (in units of HU) were taken; additionally, visual comparisons of images were made at each PM interval. Results: No significant difference was observed in 8 of 9 measurements comparing AM and PM RD. Only one measurement (liver of the first subject) showed a significant difference (7% lower on PM measurement), possibly due to subject re-positioning. Initial TP visual and quantitative analyses show little to no change PM. Conclusion: Our results suggest that realistic radiation dosimetry and image quality measurements based on tissue properties can be performed reliably on recently deceased subjects.

  7. Some characteristics and effects of natural radiation.

    PubMed

    Mc Laughlin, J P

    2015-11-01

    Since life first appeared on the Earth, it has, in all its subsequent evolved forms including human, been exposed to natural radiation in the environment both from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources. Being an environmental mutagen, ionising natural radiation may have played a role of some significance in the evolution of early life forms on Earth. It has been estimated by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation that at the present time, exposure to natural radiation globally results in an annual average individual effective dose of about 2.4 mSv. This represents about 80 % of the total dose from all sources. The three most important components of natural radiation exposure are cosmic radiation, terrestrial radioactivity and indoor radon. Each of these components exhibits both geographical and temporal variabilities with indoor radon exposure being the most variable and also the largest contributor to dose for most people. In this account, an overview is given of the characteristics of the main components of the natural radiation environment and some of their effects on humans. In the case of cosmic radiation, these range from radiation doses to aircrew and astronauts to the controversial topic of its possible effect on climate change. In the case of terrestrial natural radiation, accounts are given of a number of human exposure scenarios. PMID:25904693

  8. Criteria for personal dosimetry in mixed radiation fields in space. [analyzing trapped protons, tissue disintegration stars, and neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    The complexity of direct reading and passive dosimeters for monitoring radiation is studied to strike the right balance of compromise to simplify the monitoring procedure. Trapped protons, tissue disintegration stars, and neutrons are analyzed.

  9. Methods to Estimate Solar Radiation Dosimetry in Coral Reefs Using Remote Sensed, Modeled, and in Situ Data.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar irradiance has been increasingly recognized as an important determinant of bleaching in coral reefs, but measurements of solar radiation exposure within coral reefs have been relatively limited. Solar irradiance and diffuse down welling attenuation coefficients (Kd, m-1) we...

  10. Neutron personnel dosimetry intecomparison studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted sixteen Neutron Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Studies (PDIS) since 1974. During these studies dosimeters are mailed to DOSAR, exposed to low-level (typically in the 0.3 -- 5.0 mSv range) neutron dose equivalents in a variety of mixed neutron-gamma radiation fields, and then returned to the participants for evaluation. The Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) was used as the primary radiation source in PDIS 1--12 and radioisotopic neutron sources at DOSAR's Radiation Calibration Laboratory (RADCAL) were mainly used, along with sources and accelerators at cooperating institutions, in PDIS 13--16. Conclusions based on 13,560 measurements made by 146 different participating organizations (102 - US) are presented.

  11. Space radiation effects on CCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, Gordon R.

    1991-03-01

    The effects of the space radiation environment on Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) are discussed. Data obtained from CCDs made by EEV Ltd and Thompson-CSF is presented. Two types of Thompson-CSF devices (the 288 by 385 pixel TH7863 and the 14 by 14 pixel THX31160-1) are irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays and protons (1.5 and 10 MeV). In both cases significant increases in dark current are observed which continue after irradiation has ceased with increased reverse annealing for regions of the CCD covered by an aluminum light shield, but reduced damage for proton rather than Co-60 irradiation. Threshold voltage shift of approximately 0.1 V/Krad are produced. Results of proton irradiation of EEV devices are considered. The majority of measurements on both manufacturers' devices are carried out at room temperature and no degradation of charge transfer efficiency is observed (though the measurement accuracy is limited to 0.99995 per pixel transfer).