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Sample records for radiation effects dosimetry

  1. Radiation dosimetry and biophysical models of space radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu; Shavers, Mark R.; George, Kerry

    2003-01-01

    Estimating the biological risks from space radiation remains a difficult problem because of the many radiation types including protons, heavy ions, and secondary neutrons, and the absence of epidemiology data for these radiation types. Developing useful biophysical parameters or models that relate energy deposition by space particles to the probabilities of biological outcomes is a complex problem. Physical measurements of space radiation include the absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra. In contrast to conventional dosimetric methods, models of radiation track structure provide descriptions of energy deposition events in biomolecules, cells, or tissues, which can be used to develop biophysical models of radiation risks. In this paper, we address the biophysical description of heavy particle tracks in the context of the interpretation of both space radiation dosimetry and radiobiology data, which may provide insights into new approaches to these problems.

  2. Effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Estimation of the radiation dose to internal organs is essential for the assessment of radiation risks and benefits to patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures including PET. Respiratory motion induces notable internal organ displacement, which influences the absorbed dose for external exposure to radiation. However, to their knowledge, the effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry has never been reported before. Methods: Thirteen computational models representing the adult male at different respiratory phases corresponding to the normal respiratory cycle were generated from the 4D dynamic XCAT phantom. Monte Carlo calculations were performed using the MCNP transport code to estimate the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of monoenergetic photons/electrons, the S-values of common positron-emitting radionuclides (C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, Cu-64, Ga-68, Rb-82, Y-86, and I-124), and the absorbed dose of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) in 28 target regions for both the static (average of dynamic frames) and dynamic phantoms. Results: The self-absorbed dose for most organs/tissues is only slightly influenced by respiratory motion. However, for the lung, the self-absorbed SAF is about 11.5% higher at the peak exhale phase than the peak inhale phase for photon energies above 50 keV. The cross-absorbed dose is obviously affected by respiratory motion for many combinations of source-target pairs. The cross-absorbed S-values for the heart contents irradiating the lung are about 7.5% higher in the peak exhale phase than the peak inhale phase for different positron-emitting radionuclides. For {sup 18}F-FDG, organ absorbed doses are less influenced by respiratory motion. Conclusions: Respiration-induced volume variations of the lungs and the repositioning of internal organs affect the self-absorbed dose of the lungs and cross-absorbed dose between organs in internal radiation dosimetry. The dynamic anatomical model provides more accurate internal radiation dosimetry estimates for the lungs and abdominal organs based on realistic modeling of respiratory motion. This work also contributes to a better understanding of model-induced uncertainties in internal radiation dosimetry.

  3. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-05

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  4. Dosimetry for quantitative analysis of low dose ionizing radiation effects on humans in radiation therapy patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, J; Stern, R L; Daly, T P; Schwieter, C W; Jones, G E; Arnold, M L; Hartmann-Siantar, C L; Goldberg, Z

    2004-04-20

    We have successfully developed a practical approach to predicting the location of skin surface dose at potential biopsy sites that receive 1 cGy and 10 cGy, respectively, in support of in vivo biologic dosimetry in humans. This represents a significant technical challenge as the sites lie on the patient surface out side the radiation fields. The PEREGRINE Monte Carlo simulation system was used to model radiation dose delivery and TLDs were used for validation on a phantom and confirmation during patient treatment. In the developmental studies the Monte Carlo simulations consistently underestimated the dose at the biopsy site by approximately 15% for a realistic treatment configuration, most likely due to lack of detail in the simulation of the linear accelerator outside the main beam line. Using a single, thickness-independent correction factor for the clinical calculations, the average of 36 measurements for the predicted 1 cGy point was 0.985 cGy (standard deviation: 0.110 cGy) despite patient breathing motion and other real world challenges. Since the 10 cGy point is situated in the region of high dose gradient at the edge of the field, patient motion had a greater effect and the six measured points averaged 5.90 cGy (standard deviation: 1.01 cGy), a difference that is equivalent to approximately a 6 mm shift on the patient's surface.

  5. 2015 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course

    Cancer.gov

    Mark your calendars for the 2015 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course, offered by the Radiation Epidemiology Branch, part of NCI's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG). World renowned radiation experts will discuss basic principles and the most up-to-date thinking about the health effects of radiation exposure.

  6. Analysis of MIR-18 results for physical and biological dosimetry: radiation shielding effectiveness in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Williams, J. R.; Dicello, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    We compare models of radiation transport and biological response to physical and biological dosimetry results from astronauts on the Mir space station. Transport models are shown to be in good agreement with physical measurements and indicate that the ratio of equivalent dose from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) to protons is about 3/2:1 and that this ratio will increase for exposures to internal organs. Two biological response models are used to compare to the Mir biodosimetry for chromosome aberration in lymphocyte cells; a track-structure model and the linear-quadratic model with linear energy transfer (LET) dependent weighting coefficients. These models are fit to in vitro data for aberration formation in human lymphocytes by photons and charged particles. Both models are found to be in reasonable agreement with data for aberrations in lymphocytes of Mir crew members: however there are differences between the use of LET dependent weighting factors and track structure models for assigning radiation quality factors. The major difference in the models is the increased effectiveness predicted by the track model for low charge and energy ions with LET near 10 keV/micrometers. The results of our calculations indicate that aluminum shielding, although providing important mitigation of the effects of trapped radiation, provides no protective effect from the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in low-earth orbit (LEO) using either equivalent dose or the number of chromosome aberrations as a measure until about 100 g/cm 2 of material is used.

  7. Small fields: Nonequilibrium radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Indra J.; Ding, George X.; Ahnesjoe, Anders

    2008-01-15

    Advances in radiation treatment with beamlet-based intensity modulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery (including specialized equipments like CyberKnife, Gamma Knife, tomotherapy, and high-resolution multileaf collimating systems) have resulted in the use of reduced treatment fields to a subcentimeter scale. Compared to the traditional radiotherapy with fields {>=}4x4 cm{sup 2}, this can result in significant uncertainty in the accuracy of clinical dosimetry. The dosimetry of small fields is challenging due to nonequilibrium conditions created as a consequence of the secondary electron track lengths and the source size projected through the collimating system that are comparable to the treatment field size. It is further complicated by the prolonged electron tracks in the presence of low-density inhomogeneities. Also, radiation detectors introduced into such fields usually perturb the level of disequilibrium. Hence, the dosimetric accuracy previously achieved for standard radiotherapy applications is at risk for both absolute and relative dose determination. This article summarizes the present knowledge and gives an insight into the future procedures to handle the nonequilibrium radiation dosimetry problems. It is anticipated that new miniature detectors with controlled perturbations and corrections will be available to meet the demand for accurate measurements. It is also expected that the Monte Carlo techniques will increasingly be used in assessing the accuracy, verification, and calculation of dose, and will aid perturbation calculations of detectors used in small and highly conformal radiation beams.

  8. New dosimetry of atomic bomb radiations.

    PubMed

    Fry, R J; Sinclair, W K

    1987-10-10

    The reassessment of the radiation dosimetry from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs is almost complete. Since atomic bomb survivors provide a major source of data for estimates of risk of cancer induction by radiation the impact of the new dosimetry on risk estimates and radiation protection standards is important. The changes include an increase of about 20% in the estimated yield of the Hiroshima bomb and a reduction in the estimated doses from neutrons in both cities. The estimated neutron dose for Hiroshima is about 10% of the previous estimate. The neutron doses are now so small that direct estimates of neutron relative biological effectiveness may be precluded or be much more difficult. There is little change in most of the gamma ray organ doses because various changes in the new estimates tend to cancel each other out. The new estimate of the attenuation of the free-in-air kerma by the walls of the homes is about twice that used in the previous dosimetry. But the transmission of gamma radiation to the deep organs such as bone marrow is significantly greater than earlier estimates. Probably future risk estimates for radiogenic cancer will be somewhat higher because of both the new dosimetry and the new cancer mortality data. New risk estimates should be available in 1988. PMID:2889042

  9. Initial radiation dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1983-09-01

    The dosimetry of A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki is discussed in light of the new dosimetry developed in 1980 by the author. The important changes resulting from the new dosimetry are the ratios of neutron to gamma doses, particularly at Hiroshima. The implications of these changes in terms of epidemiology and radiation protection standards are discussed. (ACR)

  10. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Jones, Scott C. (Pullman, WA)

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission.

  11. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

    1991-03-12

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

  12. EDITORIAL: Special issue on radiation dosimetry Special issue on radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Peter

    2009-04-01

    This special issue of Metrologia on radiation dosimetry is the second in a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurements, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The work of Section II, on radionuclide metrology, was covered in issue 44(4), published in 2007, and that of Section III, on neutron metrology, will be covered in a special issue to be published shortly. This issue covers the work of Section I (x-rays and ? rays, and charged particles). The proposal to publish special issues of Metrologia covering the work of the CCRI Sections was first made in 2003 and refined at the two subsequent meetings of the CCRI in 2005 and 2007. The overall aim is to present the work of the CCRI to a wider metrological audience and to highlight the relevance and importance of the field. The main focus of our special issue on dosimetry metrology is on the 'state of the art' in the various areas covered, with an indication of the current developments taking place and the problems and challenges that remain. Where appropriate, this is set in a brief historical context, although it is not the aim to give a historical review. The need for accurate measurement has been appreciated from the pioneering days of the use of ionizing radiation in the early 20th century, particularly in the fields of diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. Over the years, the range of applications for ionizing radiation has expanded both in scope and in the types and energies of radiation employed. This has led to the need to develop a wide variety of measurement techniques and standards covering fields ranging from the low doses experienced in environmental and protection applications to the extremely high doses used in industrial processing. The different types of radiation employed give rise to the need for dose measurements in radiation beams whose effective penetration through a material such as water ranges from a few micrometres to several metres. The wide variety of radiation types and dose ranges posed a particular problem in selecting the topics to be included in this special issue and has inevitably meant that some fields of application have received less attention than others. It is hoped, however, that the topics covered are broad and varied enough to provide useful information for those with an interest in radiation dosimetry, both experienced practitioners and those entering the field. The extensive reference lists also provide a valuable resource. The issue begins with the important topic of mutual recognition of dosimetry standards and the procedures that have been put in place to achieve this, and continues with contributions on the principal measurement techniques employed: free-air chambers, air-kerma cavity standards, photon absorbed-dose standards and absorbed-dose standards for electron beams. The topics of brachytherapy and radiation protection dosimetry are covered in separate articles, and the issue concludes with a review of the mathematical modelling techniques that underpin much of the recent work described in the preceding sections. The work involved in the production of a document such as this is considerable and we have been extremely fortunate in securing the involvement of many of the acknowledged experts in the field of ionizing radiation dosimetry, both as named authors and serving as anonymous referees. The editors would like to thank all those who have given their time and commitment to producing this special issue, and particularly Professor Georgio Moscati, former President of the CCRI, and Dr Penny Allisy-Roberts, Executive Secretary of the CCRI, for their support and encouragement.

  13. Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables.

  14. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  15. NCRP Program Area Committee 6: Radiation Measurements and Dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Simon, Steven L; Zeman, Gary H

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee (PAC) 6 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation measurements and dosimetry-one of the most fundamental scientific areas of the Council's expertise. Seminal reports published by PAC 6 over many decades have documented the scientific and technical foundations of radiation measurements and dosimetry for generations of radiation scientists and radiation protection professionals. Ongoing work of PAC 6 is driven by advancing technology, such as development of new types of instruments, biodosimetry and nanotechnology; by evolving understanding of radiation hazards, such as effects on the lens of the eye and risks as from some high-dose medical imaging procedures; and by new situations faced in the modern socio-political environment including radiological and nuclear threats. The activities of PAC 6 are intended to formulate and document the dosimetric framework for radiological science to address these ever-emerging challenges. PMID:26717161

  16. Radiation accident dosimetry on glass by TL and EPR spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bassinet, C; Trompier, F; Clairand, I

    2010-02-01

    Retrospective dosimetry using glass has been investigated. Radiation-induced signals have been surveyed for a large number of watch glasses and display windows of mobile phones with TL and EPR techniques in order to study the variability of dosimetric properties among the different types of samples. Dose response, signal stability, and effects of storage conditions are presented. PMID:20065712

  17. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Peter G. Groer

    2002-09-29

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed compartmental activities. From the estimated probability densities of the model parameters we were able to derive the densities for compartmental activities for a two compartment catenary model at different times. We also calculated the average activities and their standard deviation for a simple two compartment model.

  18. Subwavelength films for standoff radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2015-05-22

    We present optical subwavelength nanostructure architecture suitable for standoff radiation dosimetry with remote optical readout in the visible or infrared spectral regions. To achieve this, films of subwavelength structures are fabricated over several square inches via the creation of a 2D non-close packed (NCP) array template of radiation-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles, followed by magnetron sputtering of a metallic coating to form a 2D array of separated hemispherical nanoscale metallic shells. The nanoshells are highly reflective at resonance in the visible or infrared depending on design. These structures and their behavior are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant inductive-capacitive (LC) circuits, which display a resonance wavelength that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any modification of the nanostructure material properties due to radiation alters the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which in turn changes their optical properties resulting in a shift in the optical resonance. This shift in resonance may be remotely interrogated actively using either laser illumination or passively by hyperspectral or multispectral sensing with broadband illumination. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also offer polarization-sensitive interrogation. We present experimental measurements of a radiation induced shift in the optical resonance of a subwavelength film after exposure to an absorbed dose of gamma radiation from 2 Mrad up to 62 Mrad demonstrating the effect. Interestingly the resonance shift is non-monotonic for this material system and possible radiation damage mechanisms to the nanoparticles are discussed.

  19. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lima, C.M.A.; Lima, A.R.; Degenhardt, Ä.L.; Valverde, N.J.; Da Silva, F.C.A.

    2015-01-01

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry. PMID:26445332

  20. Subwavelength films for standoff radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2015-05-01

    We present optical subwavelength nanostructure architecture suitable for standoff radiation dosimetry with remote optical readout in the visible or infrared spectral regions. To achieve this, films of subwavelength structures are fabricated over several square inches via the creation of a 2D non-close packed (NCP) array template of radiationsensitive polymeric nanoparticles, followed by magnetron sputtering of a metallic coating to form a 2D array of separated hemispherical nanoscale metallic shells. The nanoshells are highly reflective at resonance in the visible or infrared depending on design. These structures and their behavior are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant inductive-capacitive (LC) circuits, which display a resonance wavelength that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any modification of the nanostructure material properties due to radiation alters the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which in turn changes their optical properties resulting in a shift in the optical resonance. This shift in resonance may be remotely interrogated actively using either laser illumination or passively by hyperspectral or multispectral sensing with broadband illumination. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also offer polarization-sensitive interrogation. We present experimental measurements of a radiation induced shift in the optical resonance of a subwavelength film after exposure to an absorbed dose of gamma radiation from 2 Mrad up to 62 Mrad demonstrating the effect. Interestingly the resonance shift is non-monotonic for this material system and possible radiation damage mechanisms to the nanoparticles are discussed.

  1. Effect of Cerebellum Radiation Dosimetry on Cognitive Outcomes in Children With Infratentorial Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Sharma, Shelly; Xiong, Xiaoping; Wu, Shengjie; Conklin, Heather

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Cognitive decline is a recognized effect of radiation therapy (RT) in children treated for brain tumors. The importance of the cerebellum and its contribution to cognition have been recognized; however, the effect of RT on cerebellum-linked neurocognitive deficits has yet to be explored. Methods and Materials: Seventy-six children (39 males) at a median 3.3 years of age (range, 1-17 years old) were irradiated for infratentorial ependymoma from 1997 to 2008. The total prescribed dose was 54 to 59.4 Gy administered to the postoperative tumor bed with 5- or 10-mm clinical target volume margin. Age-appropriate cognitive and academic testing was performed prior to the start of RT and was then repeated at 6 months and annually throughout 5 years. The anterior and posterior cerebellum and other normal brain volumes were contoured on postcontrast, T1-weighted postoperative magnetic resonance images registered to treatment planning computed tomography images. Mean doses were calculated and used with time after RT and other clinical covariates to model their effect on neurocognitive test scores. Results: Considering only the statistically significant rates in longitudinal changes for test scores and models that included mean dose, there was a correlation between mean infratentorial dose and intelligence quotient (IQ; ?0.190 patients/Gy/year; P=.001), math (?0.164 patients/Gy/year; P=.010), reading (?0.137 patients/Gy/year; P=.011), and spelling scores (?0.147 patients/Gy/year; P=.012), where Gy was measured as the difference between the mean dose received by an individual patient and the mean dose received by the patient group. There was a correlation between mean anterior cerebellum dose and IQ scores (?0.116 patients/Gy/year; P=.042) and mean posterior cerebellum dose and IQ (?0.150 patients/Gy/year; P=.002), math (?0.120 patients/Gy/year; P=.023), reading (?0.111 patients/Gy/year; P=.012), and spelling (?0.117 patients/Gy/year; P=.015) scores. Conclusions: Sparing portions of the cerebellum should be considered in RT planning for children with infratentorial ependymoma because of the potential impact of radiation dose on cognitive function.

  2. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, H. IV

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab.

  3. The radiation dosimetry of Re-186 HEDP

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Graham, M.C.; Scher, H.J.

    1995-05-01

    Patients suffering from metastatic bone cancer may be offered some relief of bone pain by several palliative agents currently under study. One such agent is Re-186 HEDP (etidronate). We gathered biodistribution data from 27 patients receiving this agent for palliation of bone pain. Skeletal activity was estimated as that portion of administered activity not recovered in urine or measured in kidneys or extracellular fluid (ECF) space. Activity in kidneys was estimated through scintigraphic imaging. Activity in urine and blood were estimated by direct counting of samples; activity in ECF was approximated as blood activity divided by the plasmacrit, multiplied by 0.2 times body weight. All retention data were fit to a sum of exponentials for estimation of residence times. Activity in the urinary bladder contents was estimated from the urinary excretion data using the dynamic bladder model of Cloutier et al. Estimated residence times were kidneys 0.538 hr, bone 33.3 hr (divided evenly between cortical and trabecular bone for dosimetry purposes), urinary bladder contents 1.18 hr, and remainder of body 6.52hr. Radiation dose estimates were developed, using the MIRDOSE 3 software. Radiation dose estimates for bone surfaces and red marrow are 1.9 and 0.82 mGy/MBq, respectively. The estimate for the urinary bladder wall is 0.57 mGy/MBq. Most other organs` estimates were around 0.02 mGy/MBq. The new marrow dose model presented in MIRDOSE 3 was used to look at the distribution of marrow dose in different bones, and to develop a dose-volume histogram. These data should be used as the basis for the radiation dosimetry of this agent.

  4. A practical three-dimensional dosimetry system for radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Pengyi; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2006-10-15

    There is a pressing need for a practical three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry system, convenient for clinical use, and with the accuracy and resolution to enable comprehensive verification of the complex dose distributions typical of modern radiation therapy. Here we introduce a dosimetry system that can achieve this challenge, consisting of a radiochromic dosimeter (PRESAGE trade mark sign ) and a commercial optical computed tomography (CT) scanning system (OCTOPUS trade mark sign ). PRESAGE trade mark sign is a transparent material with compelling properties for dosimetry, including insensitivity of the dose response to atmospheric exposure, a solid texture negating the need for an external container (reducing edge effects), and amenability to accurate optical CT scanning due to radiochromic optical contrast as opposed to light-scattering contrast. An evaluation of the performance and viability of the PRESAGE trade mark sign /OCTOPUS, combination for routine clinical 3D dosimetry is presented. The performance of the two components (scanner and dosimeter) was investigated separately prior to full system test. The optical CT scanner has a spatial resolution of {<=}1 mm, geometric accuracy within 1 mm, and high reconstruction linearity (with a R{sup 2} value of 0.9979 and a standard error of estimation of {approx}1%) relative to independent measurement. The overall performance of the PRESAGE trade mark sign /OCTOPUS system was evaluated with respect to a simple known 3D dose distribution, by comparison with GAFCHROMIC[reg] EBT film and the calculated dose from a commissioned planning system. The 'measured' dose distribution in a cylindrical PRESAGE trade mark sign dosimeter (16 cm diameter and 11 cm height) was determined by optical-CT, using a filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm. A three-way Gamma map comparison (4% dose difference and 4 mm distance to agreement), between the PRESAGE trade mark sign , EBT and calculated dose distributions, showed full agreement in measurable region of PRESAGE trade mark sign dosimeter ({approx}90% of radius). The EBT and PRESAGE trade mark sign distributions agreed more closely with each other than with the calculated plan, consistent with penumbral blurring in the planning data which was acquired with an ion chamber. In summary, our results support the conclusion that the PRESAGE trade mark sign optical-CT combination represents a significant step forward in 3D dosimetry, and provides a robust, clinically effective and viable high-resolution relative 3D dosimetry system for radiation therapy.

  5. A practical three-dimensional dosimetry system for radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Pengyi; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2006-01-01

    There is a pressing need for a practical three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry system, convenient for clinical use, and with the accuracy and resolution to enable comprehensive verification of the complex dose distributions typical of modern radiation therapy. Here we introduce a dosimetry system that can achieve this challenge, consisting of a radiochromic dosimeter (PRESAGE™) and a commercial optical computed tomography (CT) scanning system (OCTOPUS™). PRESAGE™ is a transparent material with compelling properties for dosimetry, including insensitivity of the dose response to atmospheric exposure, a solid texture negating the need for an external container (reducing edge effects), and amenability to accurate optical CT scanning due to radiochromic optical contrast as opposed to light-scattering contrast. An evaluation of the performance and viability of the PRESAGE™/OCTOPUS, combination for routine clinical 3D dosimetry is presented. The performance of the two components (scanner and dosimeter) was investigated separately prior to full system test. The optical CT scanner has a spatial resolution of ?1 mm, geometric accuracy within 1 mm, and high reconstruction linearity (with a R2 value of 0.9979 and a standard error of estimation of ~1%) relative to independent measurement. The overall performance of the PRESAGE™/OCTOPUS system was evaluated with respect to a simple known 3D dose distribution, by comparison with GAFCHROMIC® EBT film and the calculated dose from a commissioned planning system. The “measured” dose distribution in a cylindrical PRESAGE™ dosimeter (16 cm diameter and 11 cm height) was determined by optical-CT, using a filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm. A three-way Gamma map comparison (4% dose difference and 4 mm distance to agreement), between the PRESAGE™, EBT and calculated dose distributions, showed full agreement in measurable region of PRESAGE™ dosimeter (~90% of radius). The EBT and PRESAGE™ distributions agreed more closely with each other than with the calculated plan, consistent with penumbral blurring in the planning data which was acquired with an ion chamber. In summary, our results support the conclusion that the PRESAGE™ optical-CT combination represents a significant step forward in 3D dosimetry, and provides a robust, clinically effective and viable high-resolution relative 3D dosimetry system for radiation therapy. PMID:17089858

  6. The MCART Radiation Physics Core: The Quest for Radiation Dosimetry Standardization

    PubMed Central

    Kazi, Abdul M.; MacVittie, Thomas J.; Lasio, Giovanni; Lu, Wei; Prado, Karl L.

    2013-01-01

    Dose-related radiobiological research results can only be meaningfully compared when radiation dosimetry is standardized. To this purpose, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-sponsored Medical Countermeasures Against Radiological Threats (MCART) consortium recently created a Radiation Physics Core (RPC) as an entity to assume responsibility of standardizing radiation dosimetry practices among its member laboratories. The animal research activities in these laboratories utilize a variety of ionizing photon beams from several irradiators such as 250–320 kVp x-ray generators, 137Cs irradiators, 60Co teletherapy machines, and medical linear accelerators (LINACs). In addition to this variety of sources, these centers utilize a range of irradiation techniques and make use of different dose calculation schemes to conduct their experiments. An extremely important objective in these research activities is to obtain a Dose Response Relationship (DRR) appropriate to their respective organ-specific models of acute and delayed radiation effects. A clear and unambiguous definition of the DRR is essential for the development of medical countermeasures. It is imperative that these DRRs are transparent between centers. The MCART RPC has initiated the establishment of standard dosimetry practices among member centers and is introducing a Remote Dosimetry Monitoring Service (RDMS) to ascertain ongoing quality assurance. In this paper we will describe the initial activities of the MCART RPC toward implementing these standardization goals. It is appropriate to report a summary of initial activities with the intent of reporting the full implementation at a later date. PMID:24276553

  7. 2011 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course

    Cancer.gov

    2011 - Three-day course intended for people with backgrounds in epidemiology who are interested in learning about the health effects of radiation exposure–particularly the relationship between ionizing radiation and cancer.

  8. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  9. Applications of Cherenkov Light Emission for Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Adam Kenneth

    Since its discovery in the 1930's, the Cherenkov effect has been paramount in the development of high-energy physics research. It results in light emission from charged particles traveling faster than the local speed of light in a dielectric medium. The ability of this emitted light to describe a charged particle's trajectory, energy, velocity, and mass has allowed scientists to study subatomic particles, detect neutrinos, and explore the properties of interstellar matter. However, only recently has the phenomenon been considered in the practical context of medical physics and radiation therapy dosimetry, where Cherenkov light is induced by clinical x-ray photon, electron, and proton beams. To investigate the relationship between this phenomenon and dose deposition, a Monte Carlo plug-in was developed within the Geant4 architecture for medically-oriented simulations (GAMOS) to simulate radiation-induced optical emission in biological media. Using this simulation framework, it was determined that Cherenkov light emission may be well suited for radiation dosimetry of clinically used x-ray photon beams. To advance this application, several novel techniques were implemented to realize the maximum potential of the signal, such as time-gating for maximizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and Cherenkov-excited fluorescence for generating isotropic light release in water. Proof of concept experiments were conducted in water tanks to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method for two-dimensional (2D) projection imaging, three-dimensional (3D) parallel beam tomography, large field of view 3D cone beam tomography, and video-rate dynamic imaging of treatment plans for a number of common radiotherapy applications. The proposed dosimetry method was found to have a number of unique advantages, including but not limited to its non-invasive nature, water-equivalence, speed, high-resolution, ability to provide full 3D data, and potential to yield data in-vivo. Based on these preliminary results, it is expected that Cherenkov light emission may prove to be a useful tool for radiation dosimetry with both research and clinical applications.

  10. Radiation dosimetry using three-dimensional optical random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moscovitch, M.; Phillips, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional optical random access memories (3D ORAMs) are a new generation of high-density data storage devices. Binary information is stored and retrieved via a light induced reversible transformation of an ensemble of bistable photochromic molecules embedded in a polymer matrix. This paper describes the application of 3D ORAM materials to radiation dosimetry. It is shown both theoretically and experimentally, that ionizing radiation in the form of heavy charged particles is capable of changing the information originally stored on the ORAM material. The magnitude and spatial distribution of these changes are used as a measure of the absorbed dose, particle type and energy. The effects of exposure on 3D ORAM materials have been investigated for a variety of particle types and energies, including protons, alpha particles and 12C ions. The exposed materials are observed to fluoresce when exposed to laser light. The intensity and the depth of the fluorescence is dependent on the type and energy of the particle to which the materials were exposed. It is shown that these effects can be modeled using Monte Carlo calculations. The model provides a better understanding of the properties of these materials. which should prove useful for developing systems for charged particle and neutron dosimetry/detector applications. c2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond.

    PubMed

    Benton, E R; Benton, E V

    2001-09-01

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars. PMID:11863032

  12. Twenty new ISO standards on dosimetry for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, H., IV

    2000-03-01

    Twenty standards on essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing were published as new ISO standards in December 1998. The standards are based on 20 standard practices and guides developed over the past 14 years by Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The transformation to ISO standards using the 'fast track' process under ISO Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85) commenced in 1995 and resulted in some overlap of technical information between three of the new standards and the existing ISO Standard 11137 Sterilization of health care products — Requirements for validation and routine control — Radiation sterilization. Although the technical information in these four standards was consistent, compromise wording in the scopes of the three new ISO standards to establish precedence for use were adopted. Two of the new ISO standards are specifically for food irradiation applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, X-ray, and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruit, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes, and paper. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties using the new ISO Type A and Type B evaluations. Unfortunately, nine of the 20 standards just adopted by the ISO are not the most recent versions of these standards and are therefore already out of date. To help solve this problem, efforts are being made to develop procedures to coordinate the ASTM and ISO development and revision processes for these and future ASTM-originating dosimetry standards. In the meantime, an additional four dosimetry standards have recently been published by the ASTM but have not yet been submitted to the ISO, and six more dosimetry standards are under development.

  13. Radiation dosimetry for the Gemini program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The principal source of radiation for low-earth-orbit, low inclination space flights is in the area of the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly. None of the Gemini dose measurements reported in the paper are of high enough intensity to be considered hazardous. There is a trend toward larger doses as missions are flown higher and longer. Extended orbital operations between 1400 and 4400 kilometers would encounter high interior radiation levels. Pronounced spacecraft geometry effects have been measured in manned spacecraft. Instrumentation for radiation measurements on Gemini spacecraft is described.

  14. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  15. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry.

  16. Effect of Brain Stem and Dorsal Vagus Complex Dosimetry on Nausea and Vomiting in Head and Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ciura, Katherine; McBurney, Michelle; Nguyen, Baongoc; Pham, Mary; Rebueno, Neal; Fuller, Clifton D.; Guha-Thakurta, Nandita; Rosenthal, David I.

    2011-04-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is becoming the treatment of choice for many head and neck cancer patients. IMRT reduces some toxicities by reducing radiation dose to uninvolved normal tissue near tumor targets; however, other tissues not irradiated using previous 3D techniques may receive clinically significant doses, causing undesirable side effects including nausea and vomiting (NV). Irradiation of the brainstem, and more specifically, the area postrema and dorsal vagal complex (DVC), has been linked to NV. We previously reported preliminary hypothesis-generating dose effects associated with NV in IMRT patients. The goal of this study is to relate brainstem dose to NV symptoms. We retrospectively studied 100 consecutive patients that were treated for oropharyngeal cancer with IMRT. We contoured the brainstem, area postrema, and DVC with the assistance of an expert diagnostic neuroradiologist. We correlated dosimetry for the 3 areas contoured with weekly NV rates during IMRT. NV rates were significantly higher for patients who received concurrent chemotherapy. Post hoc analysis demonstrated that chemoradiation cases exhibited a trend towards the same dose-response relationship with both brainstem mean dose (p = 0.0025) and area postrema mean dose (p = 0.004); however, both failed to meet statistical significance at the p {<=} 0.002 level. Duration of toxicity was also greater for chemoradiation patients, who averaged 3.3 weeks with reported Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTC-AE), compared with an average of 2 weeks for definitive RT patients (p = 0.002). For definitive RT cases, no dose-response trend could be ascertained. The mean brainstem dose emerged as a key parameter of interest; however, no one dose parameter (mean/median/EUD) best correlated with NV. This study does not address extraneous factors that would affect NV incidence, including the use of antiemetics, nor chemotherapy dose schedule specifics before and during RT. A prospective study will be required to depict exactly how IMRT dose affects NV.

  17. Radiation protection and dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    The technological advances that occurred during the last few decades paved the way to the dissemination of CT-based procedures in radiology, to an increasing number of procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology as well as to new techniques and hybrid modalities in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy. These technological advances encompass the exposure of patients and medical staff to unprecedentedly high dose values that are a cause for concern due to the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation to the human health. As a consequence, new issues and challenges in radiological protection and dosimetry in the medical applications of ionizing radiation have emerged. The scientific knowledge of the radiosensitivity of individuals as a function of age, gender and other factors has also contributed to raising the awareness of scientists, medical staff, regulators, decision makers and other stakeholders (including the patients and the public) for the need to correctly and accurately assess the radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Pediatric exposures and their late effects became a cause of great concern. The scientific communities of experts involved in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have made a strong case about the need to undertake low dose radiation research and the International System of Radiological Protection is being challenged to address and incorporate issues such as the individual sensitivities, the shape of dose-response relationship and tissue sensitivity for cancer and non-cancer effects. Some of the answers to the radiation protection and dosimetry issues and challenges in the medical applications of ionizing radiation lie in computational studies using Monte Carlo or hybrid methods to model and simulate particle transport in the organs and tissues of the human body. The development of sophisticated Monte Carlo computer programs and voxel phantoms paves the way to an accurate dosimetric assessment of the medical applications of ionizing radiation. In this paper, the aforementioned topics will be reviewed. The current status and the future trends in the implementation of the justification and optimization principles, pillars of the International System of Radiological Protection, in the medical applications of ionizing radiation will be discussed. Prospective views will be provided on the future of the system of radiological protection and on dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation.

  18. Office of Radiation Safety Request for Dosimetry Services -Radiation Monitoring Badges

    E-print Network

    from working with ionizing radiation. Please read, sign and mail or fax this completed form(s) toOffice of Radiation Safety Request for Dosimetry Services - Radiation Monitoring Badges FOR R.S.O. OFFICE USE Fluoroscopic - Radiology 1. Radiation sources you will be working with: Fluoroscopic

  19. Dissolution rate and radiation dosimetry of metal tritides

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.

    1993-12-31

    Metal tritides including titanium tritide (Ti{sup 3}H{sub x}) and erbium tritide (Er{sup 3}H{sub x}) have been used as components of neutron generators. These compounds can be released to the air as aerosols during fabrication, assembling, and testing of components or in accidental or fugitive releases; as a result, workers may be exposed to these compounds by inhalation. A joint research project between Sandia National Laboratories and the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute was initiated to investigate the solubility of metal tritide particles, to determine retention and translocation of inhaled particles in animals, and to develop an internal dosimetry model. The current understanding of metal tritides and their radiation dosimetry for internal exposure is very limited. The ICRP Report 30 does not provide for tritium dosimetry in metal tritide form. The current radiation protection guidelines for metal tritide particles are based on the assumption that the biological behavior is similar to tritiated water which could be easily absorbed into body fluid, and therefore, a relatively short biological half life (10 days). If the solubility is low, the biological half life of metal tritide particles and the dosimetry of inhalation exposure to these particles could be quite different from tritiated water. This would have significant implications in the current health protection guidelines including annual limits of intakes and derived air concentrations. The preliminary results of our metal tritide dissolution study indicated that the solubility of titanium tritide is low.

  20. Fostering a culture of interprofessional education for radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, Charlotte Miller, Seth; Church, Jessica; Chen, Ronald C.; Muresan, Petronella A.; Adams, Robert D.

    2014-04-01

    A less-studied aspect of radiation therapy and medical dosimetry education is experiential learning through attendance at interprofessional conferences. University of North Carolina radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students regularly attended morning conferences and daily pretreatment peer review, including approximately 145 hours of direct interaction with medical attending physicians and residents, medical physicists, and other faculty. We herein assessed the effect of their participation in these interprofessional conferences on knowledge and communication. The students who graduated from our radiation therapy and medical dosimetry programs who were exposed to the interprofessional education initiative were compared with those who graduated in the previous years. The groups were compared with regard to their knowledge (as assessed by grades on end-of-training examinations) and team communication (assessed via survey). The results for the 2 groups were compared via exact tests. There was a trend for the examination scores for the 2012 cohort to be higher than for the 2007 to 2011 groups. Survey results suggested that students who attended the interprofessional education sessions were more comfortable speaking with attending physicians, residents, physicists, and faculty compared with earlier students who did not attend these educational sessions. Interprofessional education, particularly vertical integration, appears to provide an enhanced educational experience both in regard to knowledge (per the examination scores) and in building a sense of communication (via the survey results). Integration of interprofessional education into radiation therapy and medical dosimetry educational programs may represent an opportunity to enrich the learning experience in multiple ways and merits further study.

  1. Fostering a culture of interprofessional education for radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Charlotte; Miller, Seth; Church, Jessica; Chen, Ronald C; Muresan, Petronella A; Adams, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    A less-studied aspect of radiation therapy and medical dosimetry education is experiential learning through attendance at interprofessional conferences. University of North Carolina radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students regularly attended morning conferences and daily pretreatment peer review, including approximately 145 hours of direct interaction with medical attending physicians and residents, medical physicists, and other faculty. We herein assessed the effect of their participation in these interprofessional conferences on knowledge and communication. The students who graduated from our radiation therapy and medical dosimetry programs who were exposed to the interprofessional education initiative were compared with those who graduated in the previous years. The groups were compared with regard to their knowledge (as assessed by grades on end-of-training examinations) and team communication (assessed via survey). The results for the 2 groups were compared via exact tests. There was a trend for the examination scores for the 2012 cohort to be higher than for the 2007 to 2011 groups. Survey results suggested that students who attended the interprofessional education sessions were more comfortable speaking with attending physicians, residents, physicists, and faculty compared with earlier students who did not attend these educational sessions. Interprofessional education, particularly vertical integration, appears to provide an enhanced educational experience both in regard to knowledge (per the examination scores) and in building a sense of communication (via the survey results). Integration of interprofessional education into radiation therapy and medical dosimetry educational programs may represent an opportunity to enrich the learning experience in multiple ways and merits further study. PMID:24332484

  2. WHOLE-BODY DOSIMETRY OF MICROWAVE RADIATION IN SMALL ANIMALS: THE EFFECT OF BODY MASS AND EXPOSURE GEOMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whole-body absorption of 2450-MHz radiation was measured in rats that ranged from 6 to 440 grams and mice that ranged from 30 to 50 grams. Simultaneous exposure of groups of animals in varying numbers and various configurations were made under free-field conditions in an electric...

  3. Internal radiation dosimetry for clinical testing of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Durham, J.S.; Hui, T.E.; Hill, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    In gauging the efficacy of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in cancer treatment, it is important to know the amount of radiation energy absorbed by tumors and normal tissue per unit administered activity. This paper describes methods for estimating absorbed doses to human tumors and normal tissues, including intraperitoneal tissue surfaces, red marrow, and the intestinal tract from incorporated radionuclides. These methods use the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) scheme; however, they also incorporate enhancements designed to solve specific dosimetry problems encountered during clinical studies, such as patient-specific organ masses obtained from computerized tomography (CT) volumetrics, estimates of the dose to tumor masses within normal organs, and multicellular dosimetry for studying dose inhomogeneities in solid tumors. Realistic estimates of absorbed dose are provided within the short time requirements of physicians so that decisions can be made with regard to patient treatment and procurement of radiolabeled antibodies. Some areas in which further research could improve dose assessment are also discussed. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Effect of Normal Lung Definition on Lung Dosimetry and Lung Toxicity Prediction in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weili; Xu, Yaping; Schipper, Matthew; Matuszak, Martha M.; Ritter, Timothy; Cao, Yue; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Kong, Feng-Ming

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare lung dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters such as mean lung dose (MLD) and the lung volume receiving ?20 Gy (V20) of commonly used definitions of normal lung in terms of tumor/target subtraction and to determine to what extent they differ in predicting radiation pneumonitis (RP). Methods and Materials: One hundred lung cancer patients treated with definitive radiation therapy were assessed. The gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical planning target volume (PTV{sub c}) were defined by the treating physician and dosimetrist. For this study, the clinical target volume (CTV) was defined as GTV with 8-mm uniform expansion, and the PTV was defined as CTV with an 8-mm uniform expansion. Lung DVHs were generated with exclusion of targets: (1) GTV (DVH{sub G}); (2) CTV (DVH{sub C}); (3) PTV (DVH{sub P}); and (4) PTV{sub c} (DVH{sub Pc}). The lung DVHs, V20s, and MLDs from each of the 4 methods were compared, as was their significance in predicting radiation pneumonitis of grade 2 or greater (RP2). Results: There are significant differences in dosimetric parameters among the various definition methods (all Ps<.05). The mean and maximum differences in V20 are 4.4% and 12.6% (95% confidence interval 3.6%-5.1%), respectively. The mean and maximum differences in MLD are 3.3 Gy and 7.5 Gy (95% confidence interval, 1.7-4.8 Gy), respectively. MLDs of all methods are highly correlated with each other and significantly correlated with clinical RP2, although V20s are not. For RP2 prediction, on the receiver operating characteristic curve, MLD from DVH{sub G} (MLD{sub G}) has a greater area under curve of than MLD from DVH{sub C} (MLD{sub C}) or DVH{sub P} (MLD{sub P}). Limiting RP2 to 30%, the threshold is 22.4, 20.6, and 18.8 Gy, for MLD{sub G}, MLD{sub C}, and MLD{sub P}, respectively. Conclusions: The differences in MLD and V20 from various lung definitions are significant. MLD from the GTV exclusion method may be more accurate in predicting clinical significant radiation pneumonitis.

  5. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  6. High LET, passive space radiation dosimetry and spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Keegan, R. P.; Frigo, L. A.; Sanner, D.; Rowe, V.

    1995-01-01

    The development of high linear energy transfer (LET), passive radiation dosimetry and spectrometry is needed for the purpose of accurate determination of equivalent doses and assessment of health risks to astronauts on long duration missions. Progress in the following research areas is summerized: intercomparisons of cosmic ray equivalent dose and LET spectra measurements between STS missions and between astronauts; increases LET spectra measurement accuracy with ATAS; space radiation measurements for intercomparisons of passive (PNTD, TLD, TRND, Emulsion) and active (TEPC, RME-111) dosimeters; interaction of cosmic ray particles with nuclei in matter; radiation measurements after long duration space exposures; ground based dosimeter calibrations; neutron detector calibrations; radiation measurements on Soviet/Russian spacecraft; space radiation measurements under thin shielding; and space radiation.

  7. High LET, passive space radiation dosimetry and spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.; Benton, E.R.; Keegan, R.P.; Frigo, L.A.; Sanner, D.; Rowe, V.

    1995-03-01

    The development of high linear energy transfer (LET), passive radiation dosimetry and spectrometry is needed for the purpose of accurate determination of equivalent doses and assessment of health risks to astronauts on long duration missions. Progress in the following research areas is summerized: intercomparisons of cosmic ray equivalent dose and LET spectra measurements between STS missions and between astronauts; increases LET spectra measurement accuracy with ATAS; space radiation measurements for intercomparisons of passive (PNTD, TLD, TRND, Emulsion) and active (TEPC, RME-111) dosimeters; interaction of cosmic ray particles with nuclei in matter; radiation measurements after long duration space exposures; ground based dosimeter calibrations; neutron detector calibrations; radiation measurements on Soviet/Russian spacecraft; space radiation measurements under thin shielding; and space radiation. Separate abstracts were prepared for articles from this report.

  8. Phantom dosimetry calculations for use in radiation-effects correlations. Technical report, 1 April 1983-30 July 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, D.C.; Roberts, J.A.; Egbert, S.D.

    1984-07-30

    Models corresponding to an adult Rhesus Monkey and a simple analogue were created in combinatorial geometry for use in Monte Carlo radiation-transport calculations. The complex monkey phantom is based on anatomical measurements of a sectioned cadaver. Adjoint Monte Carlo calculations were performed to obtain the energy- and angle-differential adjoint fluence for the mid-head, mid-thorax locations in both phantoms and active marrow in the complex monkey phantom. The results were also convoluted with free-field spectra for two TRIGA reactor exposure room configurations at the Armed Forces Radiobiological Research Institute, using the VCS code system. Comparisons are made between calculated and measured KERMA values in the simple phantom. Good agreement is obtained. However, it is found that good agreement cannot be obtained using simple scalar coupling.

  9. Nuclear data needs for radiation protection and therapy dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Haight, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    New nuclear data are required for improved neutron and proton radiotherapy treatment planning as well as future applications of high-energy particle accelerators. Modern neutron radiotherapy employs energies extending to 70 MeV, while industrial applications such as transmutation and tritium breeding may generate neutrons exceeding energies of 100 MeV. Secondary neutrons produced by advanced proton therapy facilities can have energies as high as 250 MeV. Each use requires nuclear data for transport calculations and analysis of radiation effects (dosimetry). We discuss the nuclear data needs supportive of these applications including the different information requirements. As data in this energy region are sparse and likely to remain so, advanced nuclear model calculations can provide some of the needed information. ln this context, we present new evaluated nuclear data for C, N, and O. Additional experimental information, including integral and differential data, are required to confirm these results and to bound further calculations. We indicate the required new data to be measured and the difficulties in carrying out such experiments.

  10. Radiation dosimetry and medical physics calculations using MCNP 5 

    E-print Network

    Redd, Randall Alex

    2004-09-30

    ) _____________________________ _____________________________ John R. Ford Edward D. Harris (Member) (Member) _____________________________ William E. Burchill (Head of Department) May 2003 Major Subject: Health Physics iii ABSTRACT Radiation Dosimetry and Medical Physics Calculations... multiplier card (FM card). The *F8 tallies, which give results in MeV, were later converted to Gy by dividing by the mass 7 within the cell and multiplying by 6.02E-10 to convert the units from MeV g-1 to J kg-1 (Gy). The mass within the cell...

  11. Passive multi-layer neutron spectrometer for neutron radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciak, Maciej; Golnik, Natalia; Dworecki, Konrad; Doma?ski, Szymon; Tulik, Piotr; Araszkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-09-01

    Paper describes the method of neutron radiation dosimetry using polyethylene moderator and thermoluminescent detectors. Mechanisms of neutrons' slowing down, detection and measurement steps using TLD are presented. The paper contains a description of the construction and the arrangements of the multi-moderator with possibility of placing passive detectors at different thicknesses in the sphere. Additionally, there is presented a possibility of ionization chamber utilization as an active part of the spectrometer. Results of geometrical modelling and Monte Carlo simulations are presented. Response matrices for deconvolution purpose were obtained.

  12. Radiation Dosimetry via Automated Fluorescence Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, Kenneth R.; Schulze, Mark

    2005-01-01

    A developmental instrument for assessment of radiation-induced damage in human lymphocytes includes an automated fluorescence microscope equipped with a one or more chargecoupled- device (CCD) video camera(s) and circuitry to digitize the video output. The microscope is also equipped with a three-axis translation stage that includes a rotation stage, and a rotary tray that holds as many as thirty specimen slides. The figure depicts one version of the instrument. Once the slides have been prepared and loaded into the tray, the instrument can operate unattended. A computer controls the operation of the stage, tray, and microscope, and processes the digital fluorescence-image data to recognize and count chromosomes that have been broken, presumably by radiation. The design and method of operation of the instrument exploit fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of metaphase chromosome spreads, which is a technique that has been found to be valuable for monitoring the radiation dose to circulating lymphocytes. In the specific FISH protocol used to prepare specimens for this instrument, metaphase lymphocyte cultures are chosen for high mitotic index and highly condensed chromosomes, then several of the largest chromosomes are labeled with three of four differently colored whole-chromosome-staining dyes. The three dyes, which are used both individually and in various combinations, are fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), Texas Red (or equivalent), and Cy5 (or equivalent); The fourth dye 4',6-diamidino- 2-phenylindole (DAPI) is used as a counterstain. Under control by the computer, the microscope is automatically focused on the cells and each slide is scanned while the computer analyzes the DAPI-fluorescence images to find the metaphases. Each metaphase field is recentered in the field of view and refocused. Then a four-color image (more precisely, a set of images of the same view in the fluorescent colors of the four dyes) is acquired. By use of pattern-recognition software developed specifically for this instrument, the images in the various colors are processed to recognize the metaphases and count the chromosome fragments of each color within the metaphases. The intermediate results are then further processed to estimate the proportion of cells that have suffered genetic damage. The prototype instrument scans at an average areal rate of 4.7 mm2/h in unattended operation, finding about 14 metaphases per hour. The false-alarm rate is typically less than 3 percent, and the metaphase-miss rate has been estimated to be less than 5 percent. The counts of chromosomes and fragments thereof are 50 to 70 percent accurate.

  13. DATE: NVLAP LAB CODE: IONIZING RADIATION DOSIMETRY APPLICATION (REV. 2010-01-08) PAGE 1 OF 4

    E-print Network

    DATE: NVLAP LAB CODE: IONIZING RADIATION DOSIMETRY APPLICATION (REV. 2010-01-08) PAGE 1 OF 4 IONIZING RADIATION DOSIMETRY PROGRAM-SPECIFIC APPLICATION PART 1: PROCESSING EQUIPMENT USED Indicate Processing Devices (For example, Track Etch) #12;DATE: NVLAP LAB CODE: IONIZING RADIATION DOSIMETRY

  14. Novel Multicompartment 3-Dimensional Radiochromic Radiation Dosimeters for Nanoparticle-Enhanced Radiation Therapy Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Alqathami, Mamdooh; Blencowe, Anton; Yeo, Un Jin; Doran, Simon J.; Qiao, Greg; Geso, Moshi

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Gold nanoparticles (AuNps), because of their high atomic number (Z), have been demonstrated to absorb low-energy X-rays preferentially, compared with tissue, and may be used to achieve localized radiation dose enhancement in tumors. The purpose of this study is to introduce the first example of a novel multicompartment radiochromic radiation dosimeter and to demonstrate its applicability for 3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry of nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A novel multicompartment phantom radiochromic dosimeter was developed. It was designed and formulated to mimic a tumor loaded with AuNps (50 nm in diameter) at a concentration of 0.5 mM, surrounded by normal tissues. The novel dosimeter is referred to as the Sensitivity Modulated Advanced Radiation Therapy (SMART) dosimeter. The dosimeters were irradiated with 100-kV and 6-MV X-ray energies. Dose enhancement produced from the interaction of X-rays with AuNps was calculated using spectrophotometric and cone-beam optical computed tomography scanning by quantitatively comparing the change in optical density and 3D datasets of the dosimetric measurements between the tissue-equivalent (TE) and TE/AuNps compartments. The interbatch and intrabatch variability and the postresponse stability of the dosimeters with AuNps were also assessed. Results: Radiation dose enhancement factors of 1.77 and 1.11 were obtained using 100-kV and 6-MV X-ray energies, respectively. The results of this study are in good agreement with previous observations; however, for the first time we provide direct experimental confirmation and 3D visualization of the radiosensitization effect of AuNps. The dosimeters with AuNps showed small (<3.5%) interbatch variability and negligible (<0.5%) intrabatch variability. Conclusions: The SMART dosimeter yields experimental insights concerning the spatial distributions and elevated dose in nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy, which cannot be performed using any of the current methods. The authors concluded that it can be used as a novel independent method for nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy dosimetry.

  15. In vivo EPR tooth dosimetry for triage after a radiation event involving large populations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Benjamin B; Flood, Ann Barry; Salikhov, Ildar; Kobayashi, Kyo; Dong, Ruhong; Rychert, Kevin; Du, Gaixin; Schreiber, Wilson; Swartz, Harold M

    2014-05-01

    The management of radiation injuries following a catastrophic event where large numbers of people may have been exposed to life-threatening doses of ionizing radiation will rely critically on the availability and use of suitable biodosimetry methods. In vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) tooth dosimetry has a number of valuable and unique characteristics and capabilities that may help enable effective triage. We have produced a prototype of a deployable EPR tooth dosimeter and tested it in several in vitro and in vivo studies to characterize the performance and utility at the state of the art. This report focuses on recent advances in the technology, which strengthen the evidence that in vivo EPR tooth dosimetry can provide practical, accurate, and rapid measurements in the context of its intended use to help triage victims in the event of an improvised nuclear device. These advances provide evidence that the signal is stable, accurate to within 0.5 Gy, and can be successfully carried out in vivo. The stability over time of the radiation-induced EPR signal from whole teeth was measured to confirm its long-term stability and better characterize signal behavior in the hours following irradiation. Dosimetry measurements were taken for five pairs of natural human upper central incisors mounted within a simple anatomic mouth model that demonstrates the ability to achieve 0.5 Gy standard error of inverse dose prediction. An assessment of the use of intact upper incisors for dose estimation and screening was performed with volunteer subjects who have not been exposed to significant levels of ionizing radiation and patients who have undergone total body irradiation as part of bone marrow transplant procedures. Based on these and previous evaluations of the performance and use of the in vivo tooth dosimetry system, it is concluded that this system could be a very valuable resource to aid in the management of a massive radiological event. PMID:24711003

  16. A new method of retrospective radiation dosimetry: Optically stimulated luminescence in dental enamel

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey-Smith, D.I.; Pass, B.

    1997-05-01

    Currently, retrospective biophysical radiation dosimetry lacks a technique that is sensitive, non-invasive, and portable. This has made reliable cause and effect relationships between radiation exposure and its outcomes in humans difficult to establish. Since optical technology is amenable to miniaturization, a search for optically stimulated luminescence in dental enamel was begun. The first successful detection of time dependent optically stimulated luminescence from {gamma} irradiated enamel was accomplished. This luminescence is absent in enamel that is not irradiated or that was heated following irradiation. Thermoluminescence observations were made concurrently with the optical measurements which clarified the role of the organic component of enamel. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Application of Cerenkov radiation generated in plastic optical fibers for therapeutic photon beam dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kyoung Won; Yagi, Takahiro; Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Yoo, Wook Jae; Shin, Sang Hun; Jeong, Chiyoung; Min, Byung Jun; Shin, Dongho; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Lee, Bongsoo

    2013-02-01

    A Cerenkov fiber-optic dosimeter (CFOD) is fabricated using plastic optical fibers to measure Cerenkov radiation induced by a therapeutic photon beam. We measured the Cerenkov radiation generated in optical fibers in various irradiation conditions to evaluate the usability of Cerenkov radiation for a photon beam therapy dosimetry. As a results, the spectral peak of Cerenkov radiation was measured at a wavelength of 515 nm, and the intensity of Cerenkov radiation increased linearly with increasing irradiated length of the optical fiber. Also, the intensity peak of Cerenkov radiation was measured in the irradiation angle range of 30 to 40 deg. In the results of Monte Carlo N-particle transport code simulations, the relationship between fluxes of electrons over Cerenkov threshold energy and energy deposition of a 6 MV photon beam had a nearly linear trend. Finally, percentage depth doses for the 6 MV photon beam could be obtained using the CFOD and the results were compared with those of an ionization chamber. Here, the mean dose difference was about 0.6%. It is anticipated that the novel and simple CFOD can be effectively used for measuring depth doses in radiotherapy dosimetry. PMID:23377008

  18. Real-time dosimetry in external beam radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, Ramachandran

    2013-01-01

    With growing complexity in radiotherapy treatment delivery, it has become mandatory to check each and every treatment plan before implementing clinically. This process is currently administered by an independent secondary check of all treatment parameters and as a pre-treatment quality assurance (QA) check for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans. Although pre-treatment IMRT QA is aimed to ensure the correct dose is delivered to the patient, it does not necessarily predict the clinically relevant patient dose errors. During radiotherapy, treatment uncertainties can affect tumor control and may increase complications to surrounding normal tissues. To combat this, image guided radiotherapy is employed to help ensure the plan conditions are mimicked on the treatment machine. However, it does not provide information on actual delivered dose to the tumor volume. Knowledge of actual dose delivered during treatment aid in confirming the prescribed dose and also to replan/reassess the treatment in situations where the planned dose is not delivered as expected by the treating physician. Major accidents in radiotherapy would have been averted if real time dosimetry is incorporated as part of the routine radiotherapy procedure. Of late real-time dosimetry is becoming popular with complex treatments in radiotherapy. Real-time dosimetry can be either in the form of point doses or planar doses or projected on to a 3D image dataset to obtain volumetric dose. They either provide entrance dose or exit dose or dose inside the natural cavities of a patient. In external beam radiotherapy, there are four different established platforms whereby the delivered dose information can be obtained: (1) Collimator; (2) Patient; (3) Couch; and (4) Electronic Portal Imaging Device. Current real-time dosimetric techniques available in radiotherapy have their own advantages and disadvantages and a combination of one or more of these methods provide vital information about the actual dose delivered to radiotherapy patients. PMID:24179630

  19. ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE DOSIMETRY FOR A LARGE-SCALE RADIATION INCIDENT

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Harold M.; Flood, Ann Barry; Williams, Benjamin B.; Dong, Ruhong; Swarts, Steven G.; He, Xiaoming; Grinberg, Oleg; Sidabras, Jason; Demidenko, Eugene; Gui, Jiang; Gladstone, David J.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Kmiec, Maciej M.; Kobayashi, Kyo; Lesniewski, Piotr N.; Marsh, Stephen D.P.; Matthews, Thomas P.; Nicolalde, Roberto J.; Pennington, Patrick M.; Raynolds, Timothy; Salikhov, Ildar; Wilcox, Dean E.; Zaki, Bassem I.

    2013-01-01

    With possibilities for radiation terrorism and intensified concerns about nuclear accidents since the recent Fukushima Daiichi event, the potential exposure of large numbers of individuals to radiation that could lead to acute clinical effects has become a major concern. For the medical community to cope with such an event and avoid overwhelming the medical care system, it is essential to identify not only individuals who have received clinically significant exposures and need medical intervention but also those who do not need treatment. The ability of electron paramagnetic resonance to measure radiation-induced paramagnetic species, which persist in certain tissues (e.g., teeth, fingernails, toenails, bone, and hair), has led this technique to become a prominent method for screening significantly exposed individuals. Although the technical requirements needed to develop this method for effective application in a radiation event are daunting, remarkable progress has been made. In collaboration with General Electric, and through funding committed by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, electron paramagnetic resonance tooth dosimetry of the upper incisors is being developed to become a Food and Drug Administration-approved and manufacturable device designed to carry out triage for a threshold dose of 2 Gy. Significant progress has also been made in the development of electron paramagnetic resonance nail dosimetry based on measurements of nails in situ under point-of-care conditions, and in the near future this may become a second field-ready technique. Based on recent progress in measurements of nail clippings, we anticipate that this technique may be implementable at remotely located laboratories to provide additional information when the measurements of dose on site need to be supplemented. We conclude that electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry is likely to be a useful part of triage for a large-scale radiation incident. PMID:22850230

  20. [Radiation loading problems in petrous bone tomography. Experimental research using film dosimetry on the Alderson phantom].

    PubMed

    Grehn, S

    1988-06-01

    Using film dosimetry and an Alderson skull phantom, the iso-dose distribution during tomography of the petrous bone was investigated. We were particularly concerned with the radiation dose to the lens of the eye, the critical organ in the skull, and to the inner ear, using different types of examination and various positions of the skull. The choice of suitable film material and standardisation against TLD measurements is crucial for the accuracy of film dosimetry, allowing for correction of film blackening in relation to varying energies. Tomography of the petrous bone in the prone position produced a reduction in radiation dose to the eye to only 1 to 4% of the dose incident on the occiput. In this way, and using high definition screen and grinds, it is possible to obtain optimal tomographic images despite drastic reduction of the scattered radiation to the eye. Radiation dose to the inner ear is greatly below any significant somatic does, irrespective of projection or technique. Special measures to reduce radiation to the inner ear are neither effective nor sensible. PMID:2837809

  1. A semiconductor radiation imaging pixel detector for space radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Kroupa, Martin; Bahadori, Amir; Campbell-Ricketts, Thomas; Empl, Anton; Hoang, Son Minh; Idarraga-Munoz, John; Rios, Ryan; Semones, Edward; Stoffle, Nicholas; Tlustos, Lukas; Turecek, Daniel; Pinsky, Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Progress in the development of high-performance semiconductor radiation imaging pixel detectors based on technologies developed for use in high-energy physics applications has enabled the development of a completely new generation of compact low-power active dosimeters and area monitors for use in space radiation environments. Such detectors can provide real-time information concerning radiation exposure, along with detailed analysis of the individual particles incident on the active medium. Recent results from the deployment of detectors based on the Timepix from the CERN-based Medipix2 Collaboration on the International Space Station (ISS) are reviewed, along with a glimpse of developments to come. Preliminary results from Orion MPCV Exploration Flight Test 1 are also presented. PMID:26256630

  2. Intrinsic Dosimetry: Elemental Composition Effects on the Thermoluminescence of Commercial Borosilicate Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Richard A.; Robinson, J. D.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-12-07

    Intrinsic dosimetry is the method of measuring total absorbed dose received by the walls of a container holding radioactive material. By considering this dose in tandem with the physical characteristics of the radioactive material housed within the container, this method can provide enhanced pathway information for interdicted radioactive samples. Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry was used to measure ionizing radiation dose effects on stock borosilicate glass. Differences in TL glow curve shape and intensity were observed for glasses from different geographical origins. The different TL signatures strongly correlated with the concentration of alkaline earth metals and the ratio of sodium to the total amount of alkali metal present in the borosilicate glass.

  3. Intrinsic Dosimetry: Elemental Composition Effects on the Thermoluminescence of Commercial Borosilicate Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Clark; J. David Robertson; Jon M. Schwantes

    2013-12-01

    Intrinsic dosimetry is the method of measuring total absorbed dose received by the walls of a container holding radioactive material. By considering this dose in tandem with the physical characteristics of the radioactive material housed within the container, this method can provide enhanced pathway information for interdicted radioactive samples. Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry was used to measure ionizing radiation dose effects on stock borosilicate glass. Differences in TL glow curve shape and intensity were observed for glasses from different geographical origins. The different TL signatures strongly correlated with the concentration of alkaline earth metals and the ratio of sodium to the total amount of alkali metal present in the borosilicate glass.

  4. Effects of dose fractionation on the response of alanine dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, Brad; Logar, John; Desrosiers, Marc; Puhl, James

    2014-12-01

    Alanine dosimetry is well established as a transfer standard and is becoming more prevalently used in routine dosimetry systems for radiation processing. Many routine measurement applications in radiation processing involve absorbed dose measurements resulting from fractioned exposures to ionizing radiation. Fractioning of absorbed dose is identified as an influence quantity (ISO/ASTM, 2013). This paper reports on study results of absorbed dose fractioning characteristics of alanine for gamma and high energy electron beam radiation sources. The results of this study indicate a radiation response difference due to absorbed dose fractioning in response can be observed after four fractionations for high-energy electron beams and no difference up to seven fractions for gamma rays using an ANOVA evaluation method.

  5. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A.

    1990-11-06

    The traveler participated in an International Symposium on Trends in Biological Dosimetry and presented an invited paper entitled, Adducts in sperm protamine and DNA vs mutation frequency.'' The purpose of the Symposium was to examine the applicability of new methods to study quantitatively the effects of xenobiotic agents (radiation and chemicals) on molecular, cellular and organ systems, with special emphasis on human biological dosimetry. The general areas covered at the meeting included studies on parent compounds and metabolites; protein adducts; DNA adducts; gene mutations; cytogenetic end-points and reproductive methods.

  6. Genetic and molecular dosimetry of HZE radiation (US-1 RADIAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Schubert, W. W.; Kazarians, G. A.; Richards, G. F.; Benton, E. V.; Benton, E. R.; Henke, R. P.

    1995-01-01

    In order to estimate radiation exposure in space, experiments were conducted during the 1st International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) mission in order to isolate genetic changes in animal cells caused by cosmic rays. The space measurements were evaluated against results from synthetic cosmic rays produced by particle accelerators on the ground. The biological material used was the tiny soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. The measurements were made by thermoluminescent detectors and plastic nuclear track detectors. The development and the chromosome mechanics in microgravity were studied, and the mutagenesis induced by radiation exposure was analyzed. The results showed that there are no obvious differences in the development, behavior and chromosome mechanics, as a function of gravity unloading (reproduction, self-fertilization and mating of males with hermaphrodites, gross anatomy, symmetry and gametogenesis, pairing, disjoining and recombination of chromosomes). A variety of mutants were isolated, and it was noted that mutants isolated from regions of identified high particles were more severely affected than those isolated by random screening. Linear energy transfer particles seem to favor large scale genetic lesions.

  7. GENII: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 2, Users' manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-11-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). The purpose of this coupled system of computer codes is to analyze environmental contamination of, air, water, or soil. This is accomplished by calculating radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The third volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the user who requires knowledge of code detail. It includes logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets, example hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. 27 refs., 17 figs., 23 tabs.

  8. GENII (Generation II): The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-09-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. In vivo dosimetry for gynaecological brachytherapy using a novel position sensitive radiation detector: Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Reniers, B.; Landry, G.; Eichner, R.; Hallil, A.; Verhaegen, F.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: In gynecological radiotherapy with high dose rate (HDR){sup 192}Ir brachytherapy, the treatment complexity has increased due to improved optimization techniques and dose constraints. As a consequence, it has become more important to verify the dose delivery to the target and also to the organs at risk (e.g., the bladder). In vivo dosimetry, where dosimeters are placed in or on the patient, is one way of verifying the dose but until recently this was hampered by motion of the radiation detectors with respect to the source. The authors present a novel dosimetry method using a position sensitive radiation detector. Methods: The prototype RADPOS system (Best Medical Canada) consists of a metal oxide field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter coupled to a position-sensor, which deduces its 3D position in a magnetic field. To assess the feasibility of in vivo dosimetry based on the RADPOS system, different characteristics of the detector need to be investigated. Using a PMMA phantom, the positioning accuracy of the RADPOS system was quantified by comparing position readouts with the known position of the detector along the x and y-axes. RADPOS dose measurements were performed at various distances from a Nucletron{sup 192}Ir source in a PMMA phantom to evaluate the energy dependence of the MOSFET. A sensitivity analysis was performed by calculating the dose after varying (1) the position of the RADPOS detector to simulate organ motion and (2) the position of the first dwell position to simulate errors in delivery. The authors also performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the action level (AL) that should be used during in vivo dosimetry. Results: Positioning accuracy is found to be within 1 mm in the 1-10 cm range from the origin along the x-axis (away from the transmitter), meeting the requirements for in vivo dosimetry. Similar results are obtained for the other axes. The ALs are chosen to take into account the total uncertainty on the measurements. As a consequence for in vivo dosimetry, it is determined that the RADPOS sensor, if placed, for example, in the bladder Foley balloon, would detect a 2 mm motion of the bladder, at a 5% chance of a false positive, with an AL limit of 9% of the dose delivered. The authors found that source position errors, caused by, e.g., a wrong first dwell position, are more difficult to detect; indeed, with our single RADPOS detector, positioned in the bladder, dwell position errors below 5 mm and resulting in a dose error within 10%, could be detected in the tandem but not in the colpostats. A possible solution to improve error detection is to use multiple MOSFETs to obtain multiple dose values. Conclusions: In this study, the authors proposed a dosimetry procedure, based on the novel RADPOS system, to accurately determine the position of the radiation dosimeter with respect to the applicator. The authors found that it is possible to monitor the delivered dose in a point and compare it to the predetermined dose. This allows in principle the detection of problems such as bladder motion/filling or source mispositioning. Further clinical investigation is warranted.

  10. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  11. Developing a high performance superoxide dismutase based electrochemical biosensor for radiation dosimetry of thallium 201

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Hassan; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Riazi, Abbas

    2014-09-01

    To develop a new biosensor for measurement of superoxide free radical generated in radiolysis reaction, three combinations of SOD-based biosensors including Au/Cys/SOD, Au/GNP/Cys/SOD and Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit were fabricated. In these biosensors Au, GNP, Cys, SOD and Chit represent gold electrode, gold nano-particles, cysteine, superoxide dismutase and chitosan, respectively. For biosensors fabrication, SOD, GNP, Cys and Chit were immobilized at the surface of gold electrode. Cyclic voltametry and chronoamperometry were utilized for evaluation of biosensors performances. The results showed that Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit has significantly better responses compared to Au/Cys/SOD and Au/GNP/Cys/SOD. As a result, this biosensor was selected for dosimetry of ionizing radiation. For this purpose, thallium 201 at different volumes was added to buffer phosphate solution in electrochemical cell. To obtain analytical parameters of Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit, calibration curve was sketched. The results showed that this biosensor has a linear response in the range from 0.5 to 4 Gy, detection limit 0.03 ?M. It also has a proper sensitivity (0.6038 nA/Gy), suitable long term stability and cost effective as well as high function for radiation dosimetry.

  12. Quantitative megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry using the storage phosphor KCl:Eu2+

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhaohui; Driewer, Joseph P.; Zheng, Yuanshui; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold

    2009-01-01

    This work, for the first time, reports the use of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu2+) storage phosphor for quantitative megavoltage radiation therapy dosimetry. In principle, KCl:Eu2+ functions using the same photostimulatated luminescence (PSL) mechanism as commercially available BaFBr0.85I0.15:Eu2+ material that is used for computed radiography (CR) but features a significantly smaller effective atomic number—18 versus 49—making it a potentially useful material for nearly tissue-equivalent radiation dosimetry. Cylindrical KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters, 7 mm in diameter and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house. Dosimetric properties, including radiation hardness, response linearity, signal fading, dose rate sensitivity, and energy dependence, were studied with a laboratory optical reader after irradiation by a linear accelerator. The overall experimental uncertainty was estimated to be within ±2.5%. The findings were (1) KCl:Eu2+ showed satisfactory radiation hardness. There was no significant change in the stimulation spectra after irradiation up to 200 Gy when compared to a fresh dosimeter, indicating that this material could be reused at least 100 times if 2 Gy per use was assumed, e.g., for patient-specific IMRT QA. (2) KCl:Eu2+ exhibited supralinear response to dose after irradiation from 0 to 800 cGy. (3) After x ray irradiation, the PSL signal faded with time and eventually reached a fading rate of about 0.1%?h after 12 h. (4) The sensitivity of the dosimeter was independent of the dose rate ranging from 15 to 1000 cGy?min. (5) The sensitivity showed no beam energy dependence for either open x ray or megavoltage electron fields. (6) Over-response to low-energy scattered photons was comparable to radiographic film, e.g., Kodak EDR2 film. By sandwiching dosimeters between low-energy photon filters (0.3 mm thick lead foils) during irradiation, the over-response was reduced. The authors have demonstrated that KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters have many desirable dosimetric characteristics that make the material conducive to radiation therapy dosimetry. In the future, a large-area KCl:Eu2+-based CR plate with a thickness of the order of a few microns, created using modern thin film techniques, could provide a reusable, quantitative, high-resolution two-dimensional dosimeter with minimal energy dependence. PMID:19746808

  13. Thermoluminescence characteristics of Ge-doped optical fibers with different dimensions for radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Begum, Mahfuza; Rahman, A K M Mizanur; Abdul-Rashid, H A; Yusoff, Z; Begum, Mahbuba; Mat-Sharif, K A; Amin, Y M; Bradley, D A

    2015-06-01

    Important thermoluminescence (TL) properties of five (5) different core sizes Ge-doped optical fibers have been studied to develop new TL material with better response. These are drawn from same preform applying different speed and tension during drawing phase to produce Ge-doped optical fibers with five (5) different core sizes. The results of the investigations are also compared with most commonly used standard TLD-100 chips (LiF:Mg,Ti) and commercial multimode Ge-doped optical fiber (Yangtze Optical Fiber, China). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and EDX analysis of the fibers are also performed to map Ge distribution across the deposited region. Standard Gamma radiation source in Secondary Standard Dosimetry Lab (SSDL) was used for irradiation covering dose range from 1Gy to 10Gy. The essential dosimetric parameters that have been studied are TL linearity, reproducibility and fading. Prior to irradiation all samples ?0.5cm length are annealed at temperature of 400°C for 1h period to standardize their sensitivities and background. Standard TLD-100 chips are also annealed for 1h at 400°C and subsequently 2h at 100°C to yield the highest sensitivity. TL responses of these fibers show linearity over a wide gamma radiation dose that is an important property for radiation dosimetry. Among all fibers used in this study, 100?m core diameter fiber provides highest response that is 2.6 times than that of smallest core (20?m core) optical fiber. These fiber-samples demonstrate better response than commercial multi-mode optical fiber and also provide low degree of fading about 20% over a period of fifteen days for gamma radiation. Effective atomic number (Zeff) is found in the range (13.25-13.69) which is higher than soft tissue (7.5) however within the range of human-bone (11.6-13.8). All the fibers can also be re-used several times as a detector after annealing. TL properties of the Ge-doped optical fibers indicate promising applications in ionizing radiation dosimetry. PMID:25468288

  14. Evaluation of external radiation dosimetry records at the Savannah River Site, 1951-1989.

    PubMed

    Richardson, David B; Wing, Steve; Daniels, Robert D

    2007-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is one of the largest facilities in the nation's nuclear weapons complex. To date, little information has been published regarding radiation risk estimates derived from epidemiological studies of SRS workers. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study of SRS workers, we have assessed the suitability of the Site's personnel radiation dosimetry information for use in epidemiological analyses. This paper provides information on historical dosimetry methods, recording practices, and the completeness of computerized dosimetry information for workers employed at SRS during the period 1951-1989, when the site was operated by the du Pont Company. The study includes 18,883 workers hired at SRS between 1951 and 1987 who were employed for at least 90 days. Documents relating to external radiation dosimetry methods were reviewed, recorded doses were examined to evaluate recording practices, and the completeness of monitoring was assessed by comparing employment history and computerized dosimetry records, and by implementing a "nearby" procedure for estimating values for missing annual dosimetry records. Dosimeter technology evolved over this period from two-element film dosimeters to multielement thermoluminescent dosimeters. Dosimetry measurements were recorded consistently in 0.05 millisievert (mSv) increments. Prior to 1973, recording thresholds of 0.10-0.15 mSv were used while from 1973 to 1989 a recording threshold of 0.05 mSv was used. We abstracted nearly 3 person-Sv of dosimetry information that was available in hardcopy but not in computerized format. The collective dose from the computerized and abstracted records totaled 512.1 person-Sv. A "nearby" method was used to estimate dose values for 13,812 employment-years for which dosimetry information was not available. The average estimated value was 0.6 mSv and the assigned collective dose derived via the "nearby" procedure was 8.7 person-Sv. The consistency of dosimetry practices at SRS and the completeness of historical dosimetry records are supportive of their use in epidemiologic research. PMID:16804558

  15. The Application of FLUKA to Dosimetry and Radiation Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Andersen, Victor; Pinsky, Lawrence; Ferrari, Alfredo; Battistoni, Giusenni

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo transport codes like FLUKA are useful for many purposes, and one of those is the simulation of the effects of radiation traversing the human body. In particular, radiation has been used in cancer therapy for a long time, and recently this has been extended to include heavy ion particle beams. The advent of this particular type of therapy has led to the need for increased capabilities in the transport codes used to simulate the detailed nature of the treatment doses to the Y O U S tissues that are encountered. This capability is also of interest to NASA because of the nature of the radiation environment in space.[l] While in space, the crew members bodies are continually being traversed by virtually all forms of radiation. In assessing the risk that this exposure causes, heavy ions are of primary importance. These arise both from the primary external space radiation itself, as well as fragments that result from interactions during the traversal of that radiation through any intervening material including intervening body tissue itself. Thus the capability to characterize the details of the radiation field accurately within a human body subjected to such external 'beams" is of critical importance.

  16. Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

  17. Impact of Track Structure Effects on Shielding and Dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Schimmerling, W.; Kim, M. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) consisting of nuclei of all the known elements with kinetic energies extending from tens to millions of MeV pose a significant health hazard to future deep space operations. Even half of the radiation exposures expected in ISS will result from GCR components. The biological actions of these radiations are known to depend on the details of the energy deposition (not just linear energy transfer, LET, but the lateral dispersion of energy deposition about the particle track). Energy deposits in tissues are dominated by the transfer of tens to hundreds of eV to the tissue's atomic electrons. In the case of low LET radiations, the collisions are separated by large dimensions compared to the size of important biomolecular structures. If such events are also separated in time, then the radiation adds little to the background of radicals occurring from ordinary metabolic processes and causes little or no biological injury. Hence, dose rate is a strong determinant of the action of low LET exposures. The GCR exposures are dominated by ions of high charge and energy (HZE) characterized by many collisions with atomic electrons over biomolecular dimensions, resulting in high radical- density events associated with a few isolated ion paths through the cell and minimal dose rate dependence at ordinary exposure levels. The HZE energy deposit declines quickly laterally and merges with the background radical density in the track periphery for which the exact lateral distribution of the energy deposit is the determinant of the biological injury. Although little data exists on human exposures from HZE radiations, limited studies in mice and mammalian cell cultures allow evaluation of the effects of track structure on shield attenuation properties and evaluation of implications for dosimetry. The most complete mammalian cell HZE exposure data sets have been modeled including the C3H10T1/2 survival and transformation data of Yang et al., the V79 survival and mutation data of various groups, and the Harderian gland tumor data of Alpen et al. Model results for the Harderian gland tumor data in comparison with data from Alpen et al. The Harderian target cell initiation cross section compares closely with the transformation cross section found for the C3H10T1/2 cell transformation data of Yang et al. The most notable feature of the cross sections are the multivalued cross sections for a given LET which implies the corresponding relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is dependent not only on the LET but also the ion type. This fact is at variance with the latest ICRP recommended quality factor which is a defined function of only the LET.

  18. The PUR Experiment on the EXPOSE-R facility: biological dosimetry of solar extraterrestrial UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérces, A.; Egyeki, M.; Fekete, A.; Horneck, G.; Kovács, G.; Panitz, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our experiment Phage and Uracil Response was to extend the use of bacteriophage T7 and uracil biological dosimeters for measuring the biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) dose in the harsh extraterrestrial radiation conditions. The biological detectors were exposed in vacuum-tightly cases in the European Space Agency (ESA) astrobiological exposure facility attached to the external platform of Zvezda (EXPOSE-R). EXPOSE-R took off to the International Space Station (ISS) in November 2008 and was installed on the External platform of the Russian module Zvezda of the ISS in March 2009. Our goal was to determine the dose-effect relation for the formation of photoproducts (i.e. damage to phage DNA and uracil, respectively). The extraterrestrial solar UV radiation ranges over the whole spectrum from vacuum-UV (?<200 nm) to UVA (315 nmradiation. From this aspect the role of the photoreversion in the extension of the biological UV dosimetry are discussed.

  19. SIMON_Principles-of-Radiation-Physics-and-Dosimetry_May17-2011_Tagged

    Cancer.gov

    There was an error processing the RequestError Message: CDE:PageAssemblyInstructionLoader.cs:RewriteUrl Requested URL: /publishedcontent/files/fellowship-training/training-resources-for-fellows-and-staff/rad-epi-course2011/simon_principles-of-radiation-physics-and-dosimetry_may17-2011_tagged.pdf Failed

  20. Lee_Radiation-Dosimetry-and-Organ-Doses-from-Imaging_May20-201_tagged

    Cancer.gov

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  1. EPR dosimetry in a mixed neutron and gamma radiation field.

    PubMed

    Trompier, F; Fattibene, P; Tikunov, D; Bartolotta, A; Carosi, A; Doca, M C

    2004-01-01

    Suitability of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for criticality dosimetry was evaluated for tooth enamel, mannose and alanine pellets during the 'international intercomparison of criticality dosimetry techniques' at the SILENE reactor held in Valduc in June 2002, France. These three materials were irradiated in neutron and gamma-ray fields of various relative intensities and spectral distributions in order to evaluate their neutron sensitivity. The neutron response was found to be around 10% for tooth enamel, 45% for mannose and between 40 and 90% for alanine pellets according their type. According to the IAEA recommendations on the early estimate of criticality accident absorbed dose, analyzed results show the EPR potentiality and complementarity with regular criticality techniques. PMID:15353687

  2. Photon dosimetry using plastic scintillators in pulsed radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; Brandon W. Blackburn; James T. Johnson; Scott W. Watson

    2007-04-01

    Simulations and experiments have been carried out to explore using a plastic scintillator as a dosimetry probe in the vicinity of a pulsed bremsstrahlung source in the range 4 to 20 MeV. Taking advantage of the tissue-equivalent properties of this detector in conjunction with the use of a fast digital signal processor near real-time dosimetry was shown to be possible. The importance of accounting for a broad energy electron beam in bremsstrahlung production, and photon scattering and build-up, in correctly interpreting dosimetry results at long stand-off distances is highlighted by comparing real world experiments with ideal geometry simulations. Close agreement was found between absorbed energy calculations based upon spectroscopic techniques and calculations based upon signal integration, showing a ratio between 10 MeV absorbed dose to 12 MeV absorbed dose of 0.66 at a distance of 91.4 m from the accelerator. This is compared with an idealized model simulation with a monoenergetic electron beam and without scattering, where the ratio was 0.46.

  3. RADIATION DOSIMETRY AT THE BNL HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR AND MEDICAL RESEARCH REACTOR.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    1999-09-10

    RADIATION DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS HAVE BEEN PERFORMED OVER A PERIOD OF MANY YEARS AT THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR (HFBR) AND THE MEDICAL RESEARCH REACTOR (BMRR) AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ON THE ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEUTRON FLUX, NEUTRON DOSE RATES, GAMMA-RAY FLUXES AND GAMMA-RAY DOSE RATES. THE MCNP PARTICLE TRANSPORT CODE PROVIDED MONTE CARLO RESULTS TO COMPARE WITH VARIOUS DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS PERFORMED AT THE EXPERIMENTAL PORTS, AT THE TREATMENT ROOMS AND IN THE THIMBLES AT BOTH HFBR AND BMRR.

  4. Micro-Fabricated Solid-State Radiation Detectors for Active Personal Dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Chen, Liang-Yu

    2007-01-01

    Active radiation dosimetry is important to human health and equipment functionality for space applications outside the protective environment of a space station or vehicle. This is especially true for long duration missions to the moon, where the lack of a magnetic field offers no protection from space radiation to those on extravehicular activities. In order to improve functionality, durability and reliability of radiation dosimeters for future NASA lunar missions, single crystal silicon carbide devices and scintillating fiber detectors are currently being investigated for applications in advanced extravehicular systems. For many years, NASA Glenn Research Center has led significant efforts in silicon carbide semiconductor technology research and instrumentation research for sensor applications under extreme conditions. This report summarizes the technical progress and accomplishments toward characterization of radiation-sensing components for the recommendation of their fitness for advanced dosimetry development.

  5. PREFACE: 7th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry (IC3DDose)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thwaites, David; Baldock, Clive

    2013-06-01

    IC3DDose 2013, the 7th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry held in Sydney, Australia from 4-8 November 2012, grew out of the DosGel series, which began as DosGel99, the 1st International Workshop on Radiation Therapy Gel Dosimetry in Lexington, Kentucky. Since 1999 subsequent DoSGel conferences were held in Brisbane, Australia (2001), Ghent, Belgium (2004), Sherbrooke, Canada (2006) and Crete, Greece (2008). In 2010 the conference was held on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina and underwent a name-change to IC3DDose. The aim of the first workshop was to bring together individuals, both researchers and users, with an interest in 3D radiation dosimetry techniques, with a mix of presentations from basic science to clinical applications, which has remained an objective for all of the meetings. One rationale of DosGel99 was stated as supporting the increasing clinical implementation of gel dosimetry, as the technique appeared, at that time, to be leaving the laboratories of gel dosimetry enthusiasts and entering clinical practice. Clearly by labelling the first workshop as the 1st, there was a vision of a continuing series, which has been fulfilled. On the other hand, the expectation of widespread clinical use of gel dosimetry has perhaps not been what was hoped for and anticipated. Nevertheless the rapidly increasing demand for advanced high-precision 3D radiotherapy technology and techniques has continued apace. The need for practical and accurate 3D dosimetry methods for development and quality assurance has only increased. By the 6th meeting, held in South Carolina in 2010, the Conference Scientific Committee recognised the wider developments in 3D systems and methods and decided to widen the scope, whilst keeping the same span from basic science to applications. This was signalled by a change of name from 'Dosgel' to 'IC3DDose', a name that has continued to this latest conference. The conference objectives were: to enhance the quality and accuracy of radiation therapy treatment through improved clinical dosimetry to investigate and understand the dosimetric challenges of modern radiation treatments to provide a forum to discuss the latest research and developments in 3D and advanced radiation dosimetry to energise and diversify dosimetry research and clinical practice by encouraging interaction and synergy between advanced, 3D and semi-3D dosimetry techniques We believe the conference program, with its excellent range of expert and specialist speakers, met these objectives. Thanks are due to all invited speakers for their participation, to the Local Organising Committee members for all their hard work in making the conference happen, particularly the small core administrative support group, and to the range of academic, organisation and commercial sponsors who generously supported the meeting. The Scientific Committee members are also thanked for reviewing the submitted manuscripts and for assisting in the editorial process. Finally, all who travelled to Sydney, Australia for the meeting are acknowledged for choosing to attend and contribute to making this a successful conference. Local Conference Organising Committee David Thwaites (Conference Convener) Clive Baldock Leanne Price Elizabeth Starkey May Whitaker Peter Greer Lois Holloway Phil Vial Robin Hill Conference Scientific Committee Sven Back (Sweden) Clive Baldock (Australia) Cheng-Shie Wuu (USA) Yves de Deene (Belgium) Simon Doran (UK) Geoffrey Ibbott (USA) Andrew Jirasek (Canada) Kevin Jordan (Canada) Martin Lepage (Canada) Mark Oldham (USA) Evangelos Pappas (Greece) John Schreiner (Canada) David Thwaites (Australia) David ThwaitesClive Baldock DirectorExecutive Dean Institute of Medical PhysicsFaculty of Science School of PhysicsMacquarie University University of SydneyNorth Ryde NSW 2006NSW 2109 AustraliaAustralia The PDF also contains the conference program.

  6. Development of an alanine dosimetry system for radiation dose measurements in the radiotherapy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gago-Arias, A.; González-Castaño, D. M.; Gómez, F.; Peteiro, E.; Lodeiro, C.; Pardo-Montero, J.

    2015-08-01

    Alanine/ESR systems provide an interesting alternative to standard dosimetry systems like solid state or gas ionization chambers for dosimetry in radiotherapy. This is primarily due to the negligible energy dependence, high stability, and the possibility of using small pellets that are especially suitable for the dosimetry of small fields. In order to obtain acceptable dose uncertainties in the radiotherapy dose range, the setup, operational parameters and quantification methods need to be carefully investigated and optimized. In this work we present the development of an alanine/ESR dosimetry system, traced to the secondary standard laboratory of absorbed dose to water at the Radiation Physics Laboratory of the Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain). We focus on the setup, the optimization of the operational parameters of the ESR spectrometer, the quantification of the readout signal and the construction of a calibration curve. The evaluation of the uncertainty budget is also a key component of an alanine/ESR system for radiotherapy dosimetry, and is presented in detail.After the optimization of the procedures, we have achieved a relative uncertainty of 1.7% (k=2) for an absorbed dose of 10 Gy, decreasing to 0.9% for 50 Gy.

  7. Effect of recent changes in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on cancer mortality risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Preston, Dale L; Pierce, Donald A; Shimizu, Yukiko; Cullings, Harry M; Fujita, Shoichiro; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kodama, Kazunori

    2004-10-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has recently implemented a new dosimetry system, DS02, to replace the previous system, DS86. This paper assesses the effect of the change on risk estimates for radiation-related solid cancer and leukemia mortality. The changes in dose estimates were smaller than many had anticipated, with the primary systematic change being an increase of about 10% in gamma-ray estimates for both cities. In particular, an anticipated large increase of the neutron component in Hiroshima for low-dose survivors did not materialize. However, DS02 improves on DS86 in many details, including the specifics of the radiation released by the bombs and the effects of shielding by structures and terrain. The data used here extend the last reported follow-up for solid cancers by 3 years, with a total of 10,085 deaths, and extends the follow-up for leukemia by 10 years, with a total of 296 deaths. For both solid cancer and leukemia, estimated age-time patterns and sex difference are virtually unchanged by the dosimetry revision. The estimates of solid-cancer radiation risk per sievert and the curvilinear dose response for leukemia are both decreased by about 8% by the dosimetry revision, due to the increase in the gamma-ray dose estimates. The apparent shape of the dose response is virtually unchanged by the dosimetry revision, but for solid cancers, the additional 3 years of follow-up has some effect. In particular, there is for the first time a statistically significant upward curvature for solid cancer on the restricted dose range 0-2 Sv. However, the low-dose slope of a linear-quadratic fit to that dose range should probably not be relied on for risk estimation, since that is substantially smaller than the linear slopes on ranges 0-1 Sv, 0-0.5 Sv, and 0- 0.25 Sv. Although it was anticipated that the new dosimetry system might reduce some apparent dose overestimates for Nagasaki factory workers, this did not materialize, and factory workers have significantly lower risk estimates. Whether or not one makes allowance for this, there is no statistically significant city difference in the estimated cancer risk. PMID:15447045

  8. Zener diodes for gamma-ray radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Shigeki; Okamoto, Shinichi

    1995-04-01

    The fundamental properties of Zener diodes and junction field-effect transistors have been studied to use them as a relative dose monitor or a radiation-damage monitor. The response observed at liquid nitrogen temperature, i.e., radiation-induced change in the breakdown voltage of the Zener diode, or change in the breakdown voltage of the pn junction between the gate and the channel (or between the substrate gate and the channel) of the junction field-effect transistor as a function of dose, has shown good linearity. The diode of Toshiba 05Z18 has been found to be useful for doses between 1 and 100 MGy with the fading of response less than 10% for 100 h after irradiation. On the other hand, the junction field-effect transistors of Mitsubishi 2SK33 has proved useful in the region between 0.1 and 10 MGy with the build-up of responses less than 5% for 100 h. The response of both the junction field-effect transistor and the Zener diode has shown a reproducibility within {+-}5. For fast readout, a simple system consisting essentially of a constant-current source together with a digital voltmeter has been constructed. For practical application, the devices from which soldered leads are taken off can be used simply to measure relative doses in various materials.

  9. Gamma radiation dosimetry using transmission and reflection spectroscopy of KClxBr1-x as TL crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad Bagheri, S.; Malekfar, R.

    2010-03-01

    In this article we have shown that it is possible to use transmission, absorption and reflection spectroscopic data of KClxBr1-x single crystals for the TL (Thermo Luminescence) dosimetry purposes in the spectral range of 250-750 nm. The effects of gamma radiation on KClxBr1-x single crystals were investigated by radiating the samples with a 60Co source and studying the reflection and absorption spectra. Six doses of gamma radiation of 145, 300, 450, 600, 750 and 900 Gy were examined. The absorption peak height in the spectral region of 560-580 nm is in a direct relationship with the gamma radiation doses up to about 800 Gy, in which saturation starts to occur. The intensities of the color centers in mixed crystals are different by their combination ratios of the components contents. According to the reflection and transmission data, the absorption spectra can be calculated and a calibration curve sketched.

  10. The Impact of Iterative Reconstruction on Computed Tomography Radiation Dosimetry: Evaluation in a Routine Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Moorin, Rachael E.; Gibson, David A. J.; Forsyth, Rene K.; Fox, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of introduction of iterative reconstruction as a mandated software upgrade on radiation dosimetry in routine clinical practice over a range of computed tomography examinations. Methods Random samples of scanning data were extracted from a centralised Picture Archiving Communication System pertaining to 10 commonly performed computed tomography examination types undertaken at two hospitals in Western Australia, before and after the introduction of iterative reconstruction. Changes in the mean dose length product and effective dose were evaluated along with estimations of associated changes to annual cancer incidence. Results We observed statistically significant reductions in the effective radiation dose for head computed tomography (22–27%) consistent with those reported in the literature. In contrast the reductions observed for non-contrast chest (37–47%); chest pulmonary embolism study (28%), chest/abdominal/pelvic study (16%) and thoracic spine (39%) computed tomography. Statistically significant reductions in radiation dose were not identified in angiographic computed tomography. Dose reductions translated to substantial lowering of the lifetime attributable risk, especially for younger females, and estimated numbers of incident cancers. Conclusion Reduction of CT dose is a priority Iterative reconstruction algorithms have the potential to significantly assist with dose reduction across a range of protocols. However, this reduction in dose is achieved via reductions in image noise. Fully realising the potential dose reduction of iterative reconstruction requires the adjustment of image factors and forgoing the noise reduction potential of the iterative algorithm. Our study has demonstrated a reduction in radiation dose for some scanning protocols, but not to the extent experimental studies had previously shown or in all protocols expected, raising questions about the extent to which iterative reconstruction achieves dose reduction in real world clinical practice. PMID:26381145

  11. Validation study of ¹³¹I-RRL: assessment of biodistribution, SPECT imaging and radiation dosimetry in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Yan, Ping; Yin, Lei; Li, Ling; Chen, Xue Qi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Rong Fu

    2013-04-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is important in the growth and metastasis of malignant tumors. In our previous study, we demonstrated that an arginine-arginine-leucine (RRL) peptide is a tumor endothelial cell-specific binding sequence that may be used as a molecular probe for the imaging of malignant tumors in vivo. The aim of the present study was to further explore the characteristics of 131I?RRL by biodistribution tests, and to estimate the radiation dosimetry of 131I?RRL for humans using mice data. The RRL peptide was radiolabeled with 131I by a chloramine-T (CH-T) method. The radiolabeling efficiency and radiochemical purity were then characterized in vitro. 131I?RRL was injected intravenously into B16 xenograft-bearing Kunming mice. Biodistribution analysis and in vivo imaging were performed periodically. The radiation dosimetry in humans was calculated according to the organ distribution and the standard medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) method in mice. All data were analyzed by statistical and MIRDOSE 3.1 software. The labeling efficiency of 131I?RRL reached 70.0±2.91% (n=5), and the radiochemical purity exceeded 95% following purification. In mice bearing B16 xenografts, 131I?RRL rapidly cleared from the blood and predominantly accumulated in the kidneys, the stomach and the tumor tissue. The specific uptake of 131I?RRL in the tumor increased over time and was significantly higher than that of the other organs, 24-72 h following injection (P<0.05). The ratio of tumor-to-skeletal muscle (T/SM) tissue exceeded 4.75, and the ratio of the tumor-to-blood (T/B) tissue peaked at 3.36. In the single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of Kunming mice bearing B16 xenografts, the tumors were clearly identifiable at 6 h, and significant uptake was evident 24-72 h following administration of 131I?RRL. The effective dose for the adult male dosimetric model was estimated to be 0.0293 mSv/MBq. Higher absorbed doses were estimated for the stomach (0.102 mGy/MBq), the small intestines (0.0699 mGy/MBq), the kidneys (0.0611 mGy/MBq) and the liver (0.055 mGy/MBq). These results highlight the potential of 131I?RRL as a ligand for the SPECT imaging of tumors. Administration of 131I?RRL led to a reasonable radiation dose burden and was safe for human use. PMID:23440460

  12. Phosphor-based fiber optic microprobes for ionizing beam radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darafsheh, Arash; Liu, Haoyang; Najmr, Stan; Tenuto, Michael; Murray, Christopher B.; Friedberg, Joseph S.; Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.

    2015-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and characterized a fiberoptic probe composed of terbium-based phosphors for ionizing radiation dosimetry. Fiber optic probes consisting of ~1 mm layer of TbF3 covering the tip embedded in tissue-mimicking phantoms were irradiated with electron beams produced by a medical linear accelerator. Optical spectra of irradiated tips were taken using a fiber spectrometer. The luminescence signal from the phosphors was spectrally separated from the ?erenkov radiation generated in the fiber. In order to obtain the percent depth dose curve, the resultant decomposed spectra corresponding to the emission from the phosphors were considered as a measure of the absorbed dose. The measured depth dose curves using our fiber probes are in agreement with measurements performed by an electron diode, indicating the feasibility of using such fiber probes for ionizing radiation dosimetry.

  13. Operation Upshot-Knothole. Project 29. 1. Comparison and evaluation of dosimetry methods applicable to gamma radiation, Nevada Proving Ground. Report for March-June 1953

    SciTech Connect

    Taplin, G.V.; Sigoloff, S.C.; Douglas, C.H.; Paglia, D.E.; Heller, C.J.

    1984-10-31

    The three major objectives and parts of this project were to compare and evaluate the accuracy and practicality of chemical vs film and other methods of gamma dosimetry for radiations encountered under bomb conditions at sites receiving (1) either prompt- or residual-gamma exposures or mixtures of both, (2) only residualgamma radiations, either neutron induced or from fission-product fallout, and (3) mixed neutron-gamma irradiation plus correlation with biological effects.

  14. Accurate patient dosimetry of kilovoltage cone-beam CT in radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Ding, George X; Duggan, Dennis M; Coffey, Charles W

    2008-03-01

    The increased utilization of x-ray imaging in image-guided radiotherapy has dramatically improved the radiation treatment and the lives of cancer patients. Daily imaging procedures, such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), for patient setup may significantly increase the dose to the patient's normal tissues. This study investigates the dosimetry from a kilovoltage (kV) CBCT for real patient geometries. Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the kV beams from a Varian on-board imager integrated into the Trilogy accelerator. The Monte Carlo calculated results were benchmarked against measurements and good agreement was obtained. The authors developed a novel method to calibrate Monte Carlo simulated beams with measurements using an ionization chamber in which the air-kerma calibration factors are obtained from an Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory. The authors have introduced a new Monte Carlo calibration factor, fMCcal, which is determined from the calibration procedure. The accuracy of the new method was validated by experiment. When a Monte Carlo simulated beam has been calibrated, the simulated beam can be used to accurately predict absolute dose distributions in the irradiated media. Using this method the authors calculated dose distributions to patient anatomies from a typical CBCT acquisition for different treatment sites, such as head and neck, lung, and pelvis. Their results have shown that, from a typical head and neck CBCT, doses to soft tissues, such as eye, spinal cord, and brain can be up to 8, 6, and 5 cGy, respectively. The dose to the bone, due to the photoelectric effect, can be as much as 25 cGy, about three times the dose to the soft tissue. The study provides detailed information on the additional doses to the normal tissues of a patient from a typical kV CBCT acquisition. The methodology of the Monte Carlo beam calibration developed and introduced in this study allows the user to calculate both relative and absolute absorbed doses. PMID:18404948

  15. High field magnetic resonance imaging-based gel dosimetry for small radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xuanfeng

    Small megavoltage photon radiation fields (< 3cm diameter) are used in advanced radiation therapy techniques, such as intensity modulated radiotherapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery, as well as for cellular and preclinical radiobiology studies (very small fields, <1 mm diameter). Radiation dose characteristics for these small fields are difficult to determine in multiple dimensions because of steep dose gradients (30--40% per mm) and conditions of electronic disequilibrium. Conventional radiation dosimetry techniques have limitations for small fields because detector size may be large compared to radiation field size and/or dose acquisition may be restricted to one or two dimensions. Polymer gel dosimetry, is a three-dimensional (3D) dosimeter based on radiation-induced polymerization of tissue equivalent gelatin. Polymer gel dosimeters can be read using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which detects changes in relaxivity due to gel polymerization. Spatial resolution for dose readout is limited to 0.25--0.5mm pixel size because of available the magnetic field strengths (1.5T and 3T) and the stability of polymer gelatin at room temperature. A reliable glucose-based MAGIC (methacrylic and ascorbic acid in gelatine initiated by copper) gel dosimeter was formulated and evaluated for small field 3D dosimetry using 3T and 7T high field MRI for dose readout. The melting point of the original recipe MAGIC gel was increased by 4°C by adding 10% glucose to improve gel stability. Excellent spatial resolution of 79um (1.5 hr scan) and 39um (12 hr scan) was achieved using 7T MRI, proving gel stability for long scan times and high resolution 3D dosimetry.

  16. Monte Carlo modeling in CT-based geometries: dosimetry for biological modeling experiments with particle beam radiation

    PubMed Central

    Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Dolney, Derek; Schaettler, Maximilian; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Mcdonough, James; Cengel, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    The space radiation environment imposes increased dangers of exposure to ionizing radiation, particularly during a solar particle event (SPE). These events consist primarily of low energy protons that produce a highly inhomogeneous dose distribution. Due to this inherent dose heterogeneity, experiments designed to investigate the radiobiological effects of SPE radiation present difficulties in evaluating and interpreting dose to sensitive organs. To address this challenge, we used the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation framework to develop dosimetry software that uses computed tomography (CT) images and provides radiation transport simulations incorporating all relevant physical interaction processes. We found that this simulation accurately predicts measured data in phantoms and can be applied to model dose in radiobiological experiments with animal models exposed to charged particle (electron and proton) beams. This study clearly demonstrates the value of Monte Carlo radiation transport methods for two critically interrelated uses: (i) determining the overall dose distribution and dose levels to specific organ systems for animal experiments with SPE-like radiation, and (ii) interpreting the effect of random and systematic variations in experimental variables (e.g. animal movement during long exposures) on the dose distributions and consequent biological effects from SPE-like radiation exposure. The software developed and validated in this study represents a critically important new tool that allows integration of computational and biological modeling for evaluating the biological outcomes of exposures to inhomogeneous SPE-like radiation dose distributions, and has potential applications for other environmental and therapeutic exposure simulations. PMID:24309720

  17. PREFACE: 8th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry (IC3DDose)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Lars E.; Bäck, S.; Ceberg, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    IC3DDose 2014, the 8th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry was held in Ystad, Sweden, from 4-7 September 2014. This grew out of the DosGel series, which began as DosGel99, the 1st International Workshop on Radiation Therapy Gel Dosimetry in Lexington, Kentucky. Since 1999 subsequent DoSGel conferences were held in Brisbane, Australia (2001), Ghent, Belgium (2004), Sherbrooke, Canada (2006) and Crete, Greece (2008). In 2010 the conference was held on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina and underwent a name-change to IC3DDose. The 7th and last meeting was held in Sydney, Australia from 4-8 November 2012. It is worth remembering that the conference series started at the very beginning of the intensity modulated radiotherapy era and that the dosimeters being developed then were, to some extent, ahead of the clinical need of radiotherapy. However, since then the technical developments in radiation therapy have been dramatic, with dynamic treatments, including tracking, gating and volumetric modulated arc therapy, widely introduced in the clinic with the need for 3D dosimetry thus endless. This was also reflected by the contributions at the meeting in Ystad. Accordingly the scope of the meeting has also broadened to IC3DDOSE - I See Three-Dimensional Dose. A multitude of dosimetry techniques and radiation detectors are now represented, all with the common denominator: three-dimensional or 3D. Additionally, quality assurance (QA) procedures and other aspects of clinical dosimetry are represented. The implementation of new dosimetric techniques in radiotherapy is a process that needs every kind of caution, carefulness and thorough validation. Therefore, the clinical needs, reformulated as the aims for IC3DDOSE - I See Three-Dimensional Dose, are: • Enhance the quality and accuracy of radiation therapy treatments through improved clinical dosimetry. • Investigate and understand the dosimetric challenges of modern radiation treatment techniques. • Provide a forum to discuss the latest research and developments in 3D and advanced radiation dosimetry. • Energize and diversify dosimetry research and clinical practice by encouraging interaction and synergy between advanced, 3D, and semi-3D dosimetry techniques. We commend these IC3Dose 2014 conference proceedings to you and strongly believe they include significant contributions to scientific progress in this field. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to everybody involved in making the conference possible, the Scientific committee for their work on the general planning, paper review and program formulation, the distinguished invited speakers for their contributions and the local organizing committee members for all their hard work on the practical preparation for the meeting. Lars E. Olsson, Sven Bäck and Sofie Ceberg Lund University and Skåne University Hospital, Sweden International Scientific Committee Sven Bäck, Sweden (chair) Clive Baldock, Australia Sam Beddar, USA Crister Ceberg, Sweden Yves de Deene, Belgium/Australia Simon Doran, UK Geoffrey Ibbott, USA Andrew Jirasek, Canada Kevin Jordan, Canada Martin Lepage, Canada Daniel Low, USA Mark Oldham, USA Tony Popescu, Canada John Schreiner, Canada Cheng-Shie Wuu, USA David Thwaites, Australia Local Organizing Committee Sofie Ceberg (chair) Lars E. Olsson (conference chair) Fredrik Nordstrom Anneli Edvardsson Anna Karlsson Hauer Anna Bäck

  18. EBT GAFCHROMIC(TM) film dosimetry in compensator-based intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Vaezzadeh, Seyedali; Allahverdi, Mahmoud; Nedaie, Hasan A; Ay, Mohammadreza; Shirazi, Alireza; Yarahmadi, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The electron benefit transfer (EBT) GAFCHROMIC films possess a number of features making them appropriate for high-quality dosimetry in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Compensators to deliver IMRT are known to change the beam-energy spectrum as well as to produce scattered photons and to contaminate electrons; therefore, the accuracy and validity of EBT-film dosimetry in compensator-based IMRT should be investigated. Percentage-depth doses and lateral-beam profiles were measured using EBT films in perpendicular orientation with respect to 6 and 18 MV photon beam energies for: (1) different thicknesses of cerrobend slab (open, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 cm), field sizes (5×5, 10×10, and 20×20 cm(2)), and measurement depths (Dmax, 5.0 and 10.0 cm); and (2) step-wedged compensator in a solid phantom. To verify results, same measurements were implemented using a 0.125 cm(3) ionization chamber in a water phantom and also in Monte Carlo simulations using the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code. The mean energy of photons was increased due to beam hardening in comparison with open fields at both 6 and 18 MV energies. For a 20×20 cm(2) field size of a 6 MV photon beam and a 6.0 cm thick block, the surface dose decreased by about 12% and percentage-depth doses increased up to 3% at 30.0 cm depth, due to the beam-hardening effect induced by the block. In contrast, at 18 MV, the surface dose increased by about 8% and depth dose reduced by 3% at 30.0 cm depth. The penumbral widths (80% to 20%) increase with block thickness, field size, and beam energy. The EBT film results were in good agreement with the ionization chamber dose profiles and Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code simulation behind the step-wedged compensator. Also, there was a good agreement between the EBT-film and the treatment-planning results on the anthropomorphic phantom. The EBT films can be accurately used as a 2D dosimeter for dose verification and quality assurance of compensator-based C-IMRT. PMID:23290715

  19. EBT GAFCHROMIC{sup TM} film dosimetry in compensator-based intensity modulated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vaezzadeh, Seyedali; Allahverdi, Mahmoud; Nedaie, Hasan A.; Ay, Mohammadreza; Shirazi, Alireza; Yarahmadi, Mehran

    2013-07-01

    The electron benefit transfer (EBT) GAFCHROMIC films possess a number of features making them appropriate for high-quality dosimetry in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Compensators to deliver IMRT are known to change the beam-energy spectrum as well as to produce scattered photons and to contaminate electrons; therefore, the accuracy and validity of EBT-film dosimetry in compensator-based IMRT should be investigated. Percentage-depth doses and lateral-beam profiles were measured using EBT films in perpendicular orientation with respect to 6 and 18 MV photon beam energies for: (1) different thicknesses of cerrobend slab (open, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 cm), field sizes (5×5, 10×10, and 20×20 cm{sup 2}), and measurement depths (D{sub max}, 5.0 and 10.0 cm); and (2) step-wedged compensator in a solid phantom. To verify results, same measurements were implemented using a 0.125 cm{sup 3} ionization chamber in a water phantom and also in Monte Carlo simulations using the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code. The mean energy of photons was increased due to beam hardening in comparison with open fields at both 6 and 18 MV energies. For a 20×20 cm{sup 2} field size of a 6 MV photon beam and a 6.0 cm thick block, the surface dose decreased by about 12% and percentage-depth doses increased up to 3% at 30.0 cm depth, due to the beam-hardening effect induced by the block. In contrast, at 18 MV, the surface dose increased by about 8% and depth dose reduced by 3% at 30.0 cm depth. The penumbral widths (80% to 20%) increase with block thickness, field size, and beam energy. The EBT film results were in good agreement with the ionization chamber dose profiles and Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code simulation behind the step-wedged compensator. Also, there was a good agreement between the EBT-film and the treatment-planning results on the anthropomorphic phantom. The EBT films can be accurately used as a 2D dosimeter for dose verification and quality assurance of compensator-based C-IMRT.

  20. Energy absorption buildup factors, exposure buildup factors and Kerma for optically stimulated luminescence materials and their tissue equivalence for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vishwanath P.; Badiger, N. M.

    2014-11-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) materials are sensitive dosimetric materials used for precise and accurate dose measurement for low-energy ionizing radiation. Low dose measurement capability with improved sensitivity makes these dosimeters very useful for diagnostic imaging, personnel monitoring and environmental radiation dosimetry. Gamma ray energy absorption buildup factors and exposure build factors were computed for OSL materials using the five-parameter Geometric Progression (G-P) fitting method in the energy range 0.015-15 MeV for penetration depths up to 40 mean free path. The computed energy absorption buildup factor and exposure buildup factor values were studied as a function of penetration depth and incident photon energy. Effective atomic numbers and Kerma relative to air of the selected OSL materials and tissue equivalence were computed and compared with that of water, PMMA and ICRU standard tissues. The buildup factors and kerma relative to air were found dependent upon effective atomic numbers. Buildup factors determined in the present work should be useful in radiation dosimetry, medical diagnostics and therapy, space dosimetry, accident dosimetry and personnel monitoring.

  1. BREN Tower: A Monument to the Material Culture of Radiation Dosimetry Research

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Edwards

    2008-05-30

    With a height of more than 1,500 feet, the BREN (Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada) Tower dominates the surrounding desert landscape of the Nevada Test Site. Associated with the nuclear research and atmospheric testing programs carried out during the 1950s and 1960s, the tower was a vital component in a series of experiments aimed at characterizing radiation fields from nuclear detonations. Research programs conducted at the tower provided the data for the baseline dosimetry studies crucial to determining the radiation dose rates received by the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Today, BREN Tower stands as a monument to early dosimetry research and one of the legacies of the Cold War.

  2. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates To Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Bobby, R.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Zhou, Yue; Tokarskaya, Zoya, B.; Zhuntova, Galina, V.; Osovets, Sergey, V.; Syrchikov, Victor, A.; Pesternikova, Valentina, S.; Belyaeva, Zinaida, D.; Khokhryakov, Valentin, F; Vasilenko, Evgeny, K.; Okladnikova, Nadezhda D.

    2004-12-10

    This report is comprised of a main section and two appendices (A, B) that contain two submitted papers developed with either partial or full support from this Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) project. The project has focused on applying basic and applied scientific methods to improve both the characterization of plutonium (Pu) aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract and the understanding of the associated health risks. Our modeling research has ranged from stochastic effects in cells (mutations, neoplastic transformation, apoptosis) to cancer induction in humans. Special attention has been given to cancer risk for low-dose exposure to alpha radiation from inhaled Pu-239. We have also conducted modeling research related to high-dose exposure to alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes and the associated risks for deterministic effects. This research is especially timely given new concerns related to possible nuclear terrorist incidents in the United States and elsewhere. The methodology presented in one of our submitted papers (Appendix A) for characterizing the risk of radiation deterministic effects associated with exposure to large internal (alpha, beta, and gamma) and external (gamma) doses is being used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to develop guidance for managing radiological incidents (e.g., dirty bomb incidents) and by Sandia National Laboratories to assess the health consequences of the use of dirty bombs by terrorists. Our dosimetry modeling research has focused largely on weapons-grade Pu (WG Pu), which is comprised of several different isotopes that are primarily alpha emitters. We have mainly focused on the insoluble dioxide form. Our mechanistic modeling research has lead to a revised model for low-dose, radiation induced, neoplastic transformation (an early step in cancer induction). The revised model is called NEOTRANS3, and has facilitated evaluating the expected shape of the dose-response relationship for the relative risk (RR) for lung cancer induction in humans [Mayak Plutonium Facility Production Association (PA) workers in Russia] after combined exposure to alpha and gamma radiations. This is based on the published observation that RR for neoplastic transformation has a similar dependence on dose as for the RR of cancer induction. Based on our mechanistic model, low dose-rate exposure to low or moderate doses of gamma radiation is predicted to possibly protect adult humans from cancer occurrence, including cancer induction by low dose alpha-radiation and cigarette smoke. The gamma irradiation associated protection arises through gamma rays hitting many of the millions of normal cells in the irradiated tissue, which turns on intra- and intercellular signaling that leads to cleansing of tissue of neoplastically transformed and other genomically compromised cells (e.g., mutants, micronucleated cells, etc.) via a selective apoptosis mechanism. Using available cohort study data for Mayak PA workers chronically exposed to gamma rays in combination with alpha radiation from inhaled Pu-239, we can explain the hormetic-type, dose-response relationship for the RR for radiation-induced lung cancer seen in the workers as well as in tuberculosis patients receiving chronic X-ray irradiation. Based on currently available information, the linear nonthreshold (LNT) model appears to apply to chronic exposure to alpha radiation alone but, in adults, not to exposure to gamma radiation or combinations of gamma and alpha radiations. We found that linear extrapolation from high-dose data to low doses can introduce phantom (nonexistent) excess cancer risk in the case of combined exposure of adults to gamma and alpha radiations or exposure only to gamma rays. Because remediation of radionuclide-contaminated U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is driven by risk-based considerations, and risks are assumed to increase according to the LNT model, it is important to understand under what circumstances risk would not be expected to increase linearly as dose increases. Results present

  3. Computational dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Siebert, B.R.L.; Thomas, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a definition of the term ``Computational Dosimetry`` that is interpreted as the sub-discipline of computational physics which is devoted to radiation metrology. It is shown that computational dosimetry is more than a mere collection of computational methods. Computational simulations directed at basic understanding and modelling are important tools provided by computational dosimetry, while another very important application is the support that it can give to the design, optimization and analysis of experiments. However, the primary task of computational dosimetry is to reduce the variance in the determination of absorbed dose (and its related quantities), for example in the disciplines of radiological protection and radiation therapy. In this paper emphasis is given to the discussion of potential pitfalls in the applications of computational dosimetry and recommendations are given for their avoidance. The need for comparison of calculated and experimental data whenever possible is strongly stressed.

  4. GENII: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 1, Conceptual representation

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). The purpose of this coupled system of computer codes is to analyze environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil. This is accomplished by calculating radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. The third volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the user who requires knowledge of code detail. It includes code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets, example hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. 72 refs., 15 figs., 34 tabs.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE RADIATION DOSES FOR THE TECHA RIVER DOSIMETRY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Shagina, N. B.

    2009-10-23

    In order to provide more accurate and precise estimates of individual dose (and thus more precise estimates of radiation risk) for the members of the ETRC, a new dosimetric calculation system, the Techa River Dosimetry System-2009 (TRDS-2009) has been prepared. The deterministic version of the improved dosimetry system TRDS-2009D was basically completed in April 2009. Recent developments in evaluation of dose-response models in light of uncertain dose have highlighted the importance of different types of uncertainties in the development of individual dose estimates. These include uncertain parameters that may be either shared or unshared within the dosimetric cohort, and also the nature of the type of uncertainty as aleatory or epistemic and either classical or Berkson. This report identifies the nature of the various input parameters and calculational methods incorporated in the Techa River Dosimetry System (based on the TRDS-2009D implementation), with the intention of preparing a stochastic version to estimate the uncertainties in the dose estimates. This report reviews the equations, databases, and input parameters, and then identifies the author’s interpretations of their general nature. It presents the approach selected so that the stochastic, Monte-Carlo, implementation of the dosimetry System - TRDS-2009MC - will provide useful information regarding the uncertainties of the doses.

  6. Dosimetry associated with exposure to non-ionizing radiation: very low frequency to microwaves.

    PubMed

    Guy, A W

    1987-12-01

    The interpretation of the effects in biological systems exposed to electromagnetic (EM) fields requires knowledge of the internal fields and absorbed energy. The quantification of the specific absorption rate (SAR) is called dosimetry. The SAR given in units of watts per kilogram is a complex function of the source configuration, shape and size of the exposed subjects, orientation of the subject with respect to the source, and the frequency. The average and maximum SAR in the exposed subject may vary over many orders of magnitude for a given exposure level. In order to relate observed biological effects in exposed laboratory animals to safe exposure levels for man, both the fields within the environment and SAR within the exposed tissues must be determined. The environmental fields and the SAR can often be determined from EM theory, but in most cases one must rely on instrumentation such as field survey meters for quantifying the exposure fields and electric field probes, thermocouples, thermistors, fiber optic probes, thermography, and calorimetry for quantifying the SAR in the tissues or equivalent models. A combination of techniques, each valid for a particular model over a particular frequency range, have been used to determine average and peak SARs in humans and animals exposed to plane wave radiation. Though it has been considerably more difficult to quantify these quantities for near field and partial-body exposure conditions, progress is continually being made in this area. PMID:3679822

  7. IONIZING RADIATION DOSIMETRY PT APPLICATION (REV. 2013-01-15) PAGE 1 OF 8 INSTRUCTIONS FOR PARTICIPATING IN PROFICIENCY TESTING

    E-print Network

    IONIZING RADIATION DOSIMETRY PT APPLICATION (REV. 2013-01-15) PAGE 1 OF 8 INSTRUCTIONS (21 dosimeters for category II) to be irradiated over a 3-month period in each radiation category model/type for each radiation category selected. Each monthly shipment must also include at least one

  8. Three-dimensional dosimetry of small megavoltage radiation fields using radiochromic gels and optical CT scanning.

    PubMed

    Babic, Steven; McNiven, Andrea; Battista, Jerry; Jordan, Kevin

    2009-04-21

    The dosimetry of small fields as used in stereotactic radiotherapy, radiosurgery and intensity-modulated radiation therapy can be challenging and inaccurate due to partial volume averaging effects and possible disruption of charged particle equilibrium. Consequently, there exists a need for an integrating, tissue equivalent dosimeter with high spatial resolution to avoid perturbing the radiation beam and artificially broadening the measured beam penumbra. In this work, radiochromic ferrous xylenol-orange (FX) and leuco crystal violet (LCV) micelle gels were used to measure relative dose factors (RDFs), percent depth dose profiles and relative lateral beam profiles of 6 MV x-ray pencil beams of diameter 28.1, 9.8 and 4.9 mm. The pencil beams were produced via stereotactic collimators mounted on a Varian 2100 EX linear accelerator. The gels were read using optical computed tomography (CT). Data sets were compared quantitatively with dosimetric measurements made with radiographic (Kodak EDR2) and radiochromic (GAFChromic EBT) film, respectively. Using a fast cone-beam optical CT scanner (Vista), corrections for diffusion in the FX gel data yielded RDFs that were comparable to those obtained by minimally diffusing LCV gels. Considering EBT film-measured RDF data as reference, cone-beam CT-scanned LCV gel data, corrected for scattered stray light, were found to be in agreement within 0.5% and -0.6% for the 9.8 and 4.9 mm diameter fields, respectively. The validity of the scattered stray light correction was confirmed by general agreement with RDF data obtained from the same LCV gel read out with a laser CT scanner that is less prone to the acceptance of scattered stray light. Percent depth dose profiles and lateral beam profiles were found to agree within experimental error for the FX gel (corrected for diffusion), LCV gel (corrected for scattered stray light), and EBT and EDR2 films. The results from this study reveal that a three-dimensional dosimetry method utilizing optical CT-scanned radiochromic gels allows for the acquisition of a self-consistent volumetric data set in a single exposure, with sufficient spatial resolution to accurately characterize small fields. PMID:19336848

  9. Micrometer-resolved film dosimetry using a microscope in microbeam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bartzsch, Stefan Oelfke, Uwe; Lott, Johanna; Welsch, Katrin; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a still preclinical tumor therapy approach that uses arrays of a few tens of micrometer wide parallel beams separated by a few 100 ?m. The production, measurement, and planning of such radiation fields are a challenge up to now. Here, the authors investigate the feasibility of radiochromic film dosimetry in combination with a microscopic readout as a tool to validate peak and valley doses in MRT, which is an important requirement for a future clinical application of the therapy. Methods: Gafchromic{sup ®} HD-810 and HD-V2 films are exposed to MRT fields at the biomedical beamline ID17 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and are afterward scanned with a microscope. The measured dose is compared with Monte Carlo calculations. Image analysis tools and film handling protocols are developed that allow accurate and reproducible dosimetry. The performance of HD-810 and HD-V2 films is compared and a detailed analysis of the resolution, noise, and energy dependence is carried out. Measurement uncertainties are identified and analyzed. Results: The dose was measured with a resolution of 5 × 1000 ?m{sup 2} and an accuracy of 5% in the peak and between 10% and 15% in the valley region. As main causes for dosimetry uncertainties, statistical noise, film inhomogeneities, and calibration errors were identified. Calibration errors strongly increase at low doses and exceeded 3% for doses below 50 and 70 Gy for HD-V2 and HD-810 films, respectively. While the grain size of both film types is approximately 2 ?m, the statistical noise in HD-V2 is much higher than in HD-810 films. However, HD-810 films show a higher energy dependence at low photon energies. Conclusions: Both film types are appropriate for dosimetry in MRT and the microscope is superior to the microdensitometer used before at the ESRF with respect to resolution and reproducibility. However, a very careful analysis of the image data is required. Dosimetry at low photon energies should be performed with great caution due to the energy sensitivity of the films. In this respect, HD-V2 films showed to have an advantage over HD-810 films. However, HD-810 films have a lower statistical noise level. When a higher resolution is required, e.g., for the dosimetry of pencil beam irradiations, noise may render HD-V2 films inapplicable.

  10. 1987 Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, Snowmass Village, CO, July 28-31, 1987, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Various papers on nuclear and space radiation effects are presented. The general topics addressed include: basic mechanisms of radiation effects, single-event phenomena, temperature and field effects, modeling and characterization of radiation effects, IC radiation effects and hardening, and EMP/SGEMP/IEMP phenomena. Also considered are: dosimetry/energy-dependent effects, sensors in and for radiation environments, spacecraft charging and space radiation effects, radiation effects and devices, radiation effects on isolation technologies, and hardness assurance and testing techniques.

  11. An investigation of PRESAGE® 3D dosimetry for IMRT and VMAT radiation therapy treatment verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Jake; Juang, Titania; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize three formulations of PRESAGE® dosimeters (DEA-1, DEA-2, and DX) and to identify optimal readout timing and procedures for accurate in-house 3D dosimetry. The optimal formulation and procedure was then applied for the verification of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment technique. PRESAGE® formulations were studied for their temporal stability post-irradiation, sensitivity, and linearity of dose response. Dosimeters were read out using a high-resolution optical-CT scanner. Small volumes of PRESAGE® were irradiated to investigate possible differences in sensitivity for large and small volumes (‘volume effect’). The optimal formulation and read-out technique was applied to the verification of two patient treatments: an IMRT plan and a VMAT plan. A gradual decrease in post-irradiation optical-density was observed in all formulations with DEA-1 exhibiting the best temporal stability with less than 4% variation between 2-22?h post-irradiation. A linear dose response at the 4?h time point was observed for all formulations with an R2 value >0.99. A large volume effect was observed for DEA-1 with sensitivity of the large dosimeter being ~63% less than the sensitivity of the cuvettes. For the IMRT and VMAT treatments, the 3D gamma passing rates for 3%/3?mm criteria using absolute measured dose were 99.6 and 94.5% for the IMRT and VMAT treatments, respectively. In summary, this work shows that accurate 3D dosimetry is possible with all three PRESAGE® formulations. The optimal imaging windows post-irradiation were 3-24?h, 2-6?h, and immediately for the DEA-1, DEA-2, and DX formulations, respectively. Because of the large volume effect, small volume cuvettes are not yet a reliable method for calibration of larger dosimeters to absolute dose. Finally, PRESAGE® is observed to be a useful method of 3D verification when careful consideration is given to the temporal stability and imaging protocols for the specific formulation used.

  12. An EPR dosimetry method for rapid scanning of children following a radiation accident using deciduous teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, E.H.; Hayes, R.B.; Kenner, G.H.

    1999-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry may be applied to whole deciduous teeth of children. This makes it feasible to make direct measurement of absorbed gamma ray dose in the days and weeks following a nuclear accident, particularly if used in conjunction with a public awareness program. The technique reported here requires little sample preparation and has resulted in precision of approximately 30 mGy (1 {sigma}) for a deciduous incisor. Under conditions for rapid screening procedures, the methodology is estimated to provide 0.5 Gy accuracy. The largest error in the process is the determination of an appropriate background native signal for subtraction from the whole tooth spectrum. The native signal is superimposed on the radiation-induced signal, and the subtraction requires knowledge of a sample`s relative content of enamel and dentin along with their relative native signal intensities. Using a composite background standard, an equivalent absorbed dose of 70 {+-} 38 mGy (1 {sigma}) was determined. The lower detection limit of the technique was achieved by the elimination of anisotropic effects through rotation of the sample during measurement, together with subtraction of the standard native background signal and empty tube background spectra from the sample spectra.

  13. A method for estimating occupational radiation dose to individuals, using weekly dosimetry data

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.J.; Ostrouchov, G.; Frome, E.L.; Kerr, G.D.

    1993-12-01

    Statistical analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to radiation have been based on recorded annual radiation doses. It is usually assumed that the annual dose values are known exactly, although it is generally recognized that the data contain uncertainty due to measurement error and bias. We propose the use of a probability distribution to describe an individual`s dose during a specific period of time. Statistical methods for estimating this dose distribution are developed. The methods take into account the ``measurement error`` that is produced by the dosimetry system, and the bias that was introduced by policies that lead to right censoring of small doses as zero. The method is applied to a sample of dose histories obtained from hard copy dosimetry records at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The result of this evaluation raises serious questions about the validity of the historical personnel dosimetry data that is currently being used in low-dose studies of nuclear industry workers. In particular, it appears that there was a systematic underestimation of doses for ORNL workers. This could result in biased estimates of dose-response coefficients and their standard errors.

  14. Dosimetry around metallic ports in tissue expanders in patients receiving postmastectomy radiation therapy: an ex vivo evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Moni, Janaki; Graves-Ditman, Maria; Cederna, Paul; Griffith, Kent; Krueger, Editha A.; Fraass, Benedick A.; Pierce, Lori J

    2004-03-31

    Postmastectomy breast reconstruction can be accomplished utilizing tissue expanders and implants. However, in patients who require postoperative radiotherapy, the complication rate with tissue expander/implant reconstruction can exceed 50%. One potential cause of this high complication rate may be the metallic port in the tissue expander producing altered dosimetry in the region of the metallic device. The purpose of this study was to quantify the radiation dose distribution in the vicinity of the metallic port and determine its potential contribution to this extremely high complication rate. The absolute dosimetric effect of the tissue expander's metallic port was quantified using film and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) studies with a single beam incident on a metallic port extracted from an expander. TLD measurements were performed at 11 reproducible positions on an intact expander irradiated with tangential fields. A computed tomography (CT)-based treatment plan without inhomogeneity corrections was used to derive expected doses for all TLD positions. Multiple irradiation experiments were performed for all TLD data. Confidence intervals for the dose at TLD sites with the metallic port in place were compared to the expected dose at the site without the metallic port. Film studies did not reveal a significant component of scatter around the metallic port. TLD studies of the extracted metallic port revealed highest doses within the casing of the metallic port and no consistent increased dose at the surface of the expander. No excess dose due to the metallic port in the expander was noted with the phantom TLD data. Based upon these results, it does not appear that the metallic port in tissue expanders significantly contributes to the high complication rate experienced in patients undergoing tissue expander breast reconstruction and receiving radiation therapy. Strategies designed to reduce the breast reconstruction complication rate in this clinical setting will need to focus on factors other than adjusting the dosimetry around the tissue expander metallic port.

  15. Dosimetry around metallic ports in tissue expanders in patients receiving postmastectomy radiation therapy: an ex vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moni, Janaki; Graves-Ditman, Maria; Cederna, Paul; Griffith, Kent; Krueger, Editha A; Fraass, Benedick A; Pierce, Lori J

    2004-01-01

    Postmastectomy breast reconstruction can be accomplished utilizing tissue expanders and implants. However, in patients who require postoperative radiotherapy, the complication rate with tissue expander/implant reconstruction can exceed 50%. One potential cause of this high complication rate may be the metallic port in the tissue expander producing altered dosimetry in the region of the metallic device. The purpose of this study was to quantify the radiation dose distribution in the vicinity of the metallic port and determine its potential contribution to this extremely high complication rate. The absolute dosimetric effect of the tissue expander's metallic port was quantified using film and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) studies with a single beam incident on a metallic port extracted from an expander. TLD measurements were performed at 11 reproducible positions on an intact expander irradiated with tangential fields. A computed tomography (CT)-based treatment plan without inhomogeneity corrections was used to derive expected doses for all TLD positions. Multiple irradiation experiments were performed for all TLD data. Confidence intervals for the dose at TLD sites with the metallic port in place were compared to the expected dose at the site without the metallic port. Film studies did not reveal a significant component of scatter around the metallic port. TLD studies of the extracted metallic port revealed highest doses within the casing of the metallic port and no consistent increased dose at the surface of the expander. No excess dose due to the metallic port in the expander was noted with the phantom TLD data. Based upon these results, it does not appear that the metallic port in tissue expanders significantly contributes to the high complication rate experienced in patients undergoing tissue expander breast reconstruction and receiving radiation therapy. Strategies designed to reduce the breast reconstruction complication rate in this clinical setting will need to focus on factors other than adjusting the dosimetry around the tissue expander metallic port. PMID:15023393

  16. Construction of mouse phantoms from segmented CT scan data for radiation dosimetry studies.

    PubMed

    Welch, D; Harken, A D; Randers-Pehrson, G; Brenner, D J

    2015-05-01

    We present the complete construction methodology for an anatomically accurate mouse phantom made using materials which mimic the characteristics of tissue, lung, and bone for radiation dosimetry studies. Phantoms were constructed using 2?mm thick slices of tissue equivalent material which was precision machined to clear regions for insertion of lung and bone equivalent material where appropriate. Images obtained using a 3D computed tomography (CT) scan clearly indicate regions of tissue, lung, and bone that match their position within the original mouse CT scan. Additionally, radiographic films are used with the phantom to demonstrate dose mapping capabilities. The construction methodology presented here can be quickly and easily adapted to create a phantom of any specific small animal given a segmented CT scan of the animal. These physical phantoms are a useful tool to examine individual organ dose and dosimetry within mouse systems that are complicated by density inhomogeneity due to bone and lung regions. PMID:25860401

  17. Construction of mouse phantoms from segmented CT scan data for radiation dosimetry studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, D.; Harken, A. D.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Brenner, D. J.

    2015-05-01

    We present the complete construction methodology for an anatomically accurate mouse phantom made using materials which mimic the characteristics of tissue, lung, and bone for radiation dosimetry studies. Phantoms were constructed using 2?mm thick slices of tissue equivalent material which was precision machined to clear regions for insertion of lung and bone equivalent material where appropriate. Images obtained using a 3D computed tomography (CT) scan clearly indicate regions of tissue, lung, and bone that match their position within the original mouse CT scan. Additionally, radiographic films are used with the phantom to demonstrate dose mapping capabilities. The construction methodology presented here can be quickly and easily adapted to create a phantom of any specific small animal given a segmented CT scan of the animal. These physical phantoms are a useful tool to examine individual organ dose and dosimetry within mouse systems that are complicated by density inhomogeneity due to bone and lung regions.

  18. Description of modular devices for the measurement of external dosimetry in radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Genicot, Jean Louis; Boogers, Eric; Van Iersel, Mark

    2015-04-01

    In 2002 the Group of Radiation Dosimetry and Calibration of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN) has developed an experimental device based on the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) working with Al2O3:C detectors (TLD-500 and Luxel) stimulated with an argon laser. A set of devices made from different modules have been developed to permit external dosimetry measurements with thermoluminescence (TL) and OSL techniques under different conditions. This study describes these measurement devices that can be made with these modules and some of the characteristics of the different systems. These devices present several advantages in terms of measurement possibilities: a small number of modules allow the use of different detection materials (Al2O3:C, BeO, quartz electronic components and tiles) and different measurement methods (TL, CW-OSL and pulsed OSL). Some applications are commented. PMID:25236335

  19. Automation of radiation dosimetry using PTW dosemeter and LabVIEW™

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, C.; Al-Frouh, K.; Anjak, O.

    2011-10-01

    Automation of UNIDOS "Dosemeter" using personal computer (PC) is discussed in this paper. In order to save time and eliminate human operation errors during the radiation dosimetry, suitable software, using LabVIEW™ graphical programming language, was written to automate and facilitate the processes of measurements, analysis and data storage. The software calculates the calibration factor of the ionization chamber in terms of air kerma or absorbed dose to water according to IAEA dosimetry protocols. It also has the ability to print a calibration certificate. The obtained results using this software are found to be more reliable and flexible than those obtained by manual methods previously employed. Using LabVIEW™ as a development tool is extremely convenient to make things easier when software modifications and improvements are needed.

  20. BioDoser: improved dose-estimation software for biological radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Liu, Qiang; Wan, Dandan; Xiang, Jian; Du, Liqing; Wang, Yan; Cao, Jia; Fu, Yue; Fan, Feiyue; Hecker, Markus

    2012-10-01

    This paper introduces a software program that was developed with the aims to improve the efficiency and veracity of calibration curve fitting and data processing in radiation biological dosimetry and other biological experiments, and which is termed BioDoser. BioDoser uses least squares and loop testing of monotonicity method and algorithm of non-uniformed confidence interval. In addition, this program enables integration of multiple different biomarkers typically used in biological dosimetry. These include partial body exposure, minimum number of cells to be analyzed, G function correction modules that are helpful in dose estimation when using chromosome aberration frequencies, micronucleus rate, comet assay and other biological methods. The software is freely available at http://bit.ly/kKBSNR. PMID:22503129

  1. X-Tream: a novel dosimetry system for Synchrotron Microbeam Radiation Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petasecca, M.; Cullen, A.; Fuduli, I.; Espinoza, A.; Porumb, C.; Stanton, C.; Aldosari, A. H.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Requardt, H.; Bravin, A.; Perevertaylo, V.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Lerch, M. L. F.

    2012-07-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) is a radiation treatment technique under development for inoperable brain tumors. MRT is based on the use of a synchrotron generated X-ray beam with an extremely high dose rate ( ~ 20 kGy/sec), striated into an array of X-ray micro-blades. In order to advance to clinical trials, a real-time dosimeter with excellent spatial resolution must be developed for absolute dosimetry. The design of a real-time dosimeter for such a radiation scenario represents a significant challenge due to the high photon flux and vertically striated radiation field, leading to very steep lateral dose gradients. This article analyses the striated radiation field in the context of the requirements for temporal dosimetric measurements and presents the architecture of a new dosimetry system based on the use of silicon detectors and fast data acquisition electronic interface. The combined system demonstrates micrometer spatial resolution and microsecond real time readout with accurate sensitivity and linearity over five orders of magnitude of input signal. The system will therefore be suitable patient treatment plan verification and may also be expanded for in-vivo beam monitoring for patient safety during the treatment.

  2. Experimental assessment of gold nanoparticle-mediated dose enhancement in radiation therapy beams using electron spin resonance dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, T.; Guidelli, E. J.; Gómez, J. A.; Baffa, O.; Nicolucci, P.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we aim to experimentally assess increments of dose due to nanoparticle-radiation interactions via electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry performed with a biological-equivalent sensitive material. We employed 2-Methyl-Alanine (2MA) in powder form to compose the radiation sensitive medium embedding gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) 5?nm in diameter. Dosimeters manufactured with 0.1%?w/w of AuNPs or no nanoparticles were irradiated with clinically utilized 250?kVp orthovoltage or 6?MV linac x-rays in dosimetric conditions. Amplitude peak-to-peak (App) at the central ESR spectral line was used for dosimetry. Dose-response curves were obtained for samples with or without nanoparticles and each energy beam. Dose increments due to nanoparticles were analyzed in terms of absolute dose enhancements (DEs), calculated as App ratios for each dose/beam condition, or relative dose enhancement factors (DEFs) calculated as the slopes of the dose-response curves. Dose enhancements were observed to present an amplified behavior for small doses (between 0.1-0.5?Gy), with this effect being more prominent with the kV beam. For doses between 0.5-5?Gy, dose-independent trends were observed for both beams, stable around (2.1???±???0.7) and (1.3???±???0.4) for kV and MV beams, respectively. We found DEFs of (1.62???±???0.04) or (1.27???±???0.03) for the same beams. Additionally, we measured no interference between AuNPs and the ESR apparatus, including the excitation microwaves, the magnetic fields and the paramagnetic radicals. 2MA was demonstrated to be a feasible paramagnetic radiation-sensitive material for dosimetry in the presence of AuNPs, and ESR dosimetry a powerful experimental method for further verifications of increments in nanoparticle-mediated doses of biological interest. Ultimately, gold nanoparticles can cause significant and detectable dose enhancements in biological-like samples irradiated at both kilo or megavoltage beams.

  3. Ion-kill dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

    2001-01-01

    Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

  4. Space radiation dosimetry on US and Soviet manned missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.; Benton, E. V.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation measurements obtained on board U.S. and Soviet spacecraft are presented and discussed. A considerable amount of data has now been collected and analyzed from measurements with a variety of detector types in low-Earth orbit. The objectives of these measurements have been to investigate the dose and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra within the complex shielding of large spacecraft. The shielding modifies the external radiation (trapped protons, electrons, cosmic ray nuclei) which, in turn, is quite dependent on orbital parameters (altitude, inclination). For manned flights, these measurements provide a crew exposure record and a data base for future spacecraft design and flight planning. For the scientific community they provide useful information for planning and analyzing data from experiments with high sensitivity to radiation. In this paper, results of measurements by both passive and active detectors are described. High-LET spectra measurements were obtained by means of plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's) while thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) measured the dose.

  5. A Novel Technique for Performing Space Based Radiation Dosimetry Using DNA: Results from GRaDEx-I and the Design of GRaDEx-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, Joe; Branly, R.; Theodorakis, C.; Bickham, J.; Swartz, C.; Friedfeld, R.; Ackerman, E.; Carruthers, C.; DiGirolamo, A.; Faranda, J.; Howard, E.; Bruno, C.

    1999-01-01

    Because of the large amounts of cosmic radiation in the space environment relative to that on earth, the effects of radiation on the physiology of astronauts is of major concern. Doses of radiation which can cause acute or chronic biological effects are to be avoided, therefore determination of the amount of radiation exposure encountered during space flight and assessment of its impact on biological systems is critical. Quantifying the radiation dosage and damage to biological systems, especially to humans during repetitive high altitude flight and during long duration space flight is important for several reasons. Radiation can cause altered biosynthesis and long term genotoxicity resulting in cancer and birth defects, etc. Radiation damage to biological systems depends in a complex way on incident radiation species and their energy spectra. Typically non-biological, i.e. film or electronic monitoring systems with narrow energy band sensitivity are used to perform dosimetry and then results are extrapolated to biological models. For this reason it may be desirable to perform radiation dosimetry by using biological molecules e.g. DNA or RNA strands as passive sensors. A lightweight genotoxicology experiment was constructed to determine the degree to which in-vitro naked DNA extracted from tissues of a variety of vertebrate organisms is damaged by exposure to radiation in a space environment. The DNA is assayed by means of agarose gel electrophoresis to determine damage such as strand breakage caused by high momentum particles and photons, and base oxidation caused by free radicals. The length distribution of DNA fragments is directly correlated with the radiation dose. It is hoped that a low mass, low cost, passive biological system to determine dose-response relationship (increase in strand breaks with increase in exposure) can be developed to perform radiation dosimetry in support of long duration space flight, and to predict negative effects on biological systems (e.g. astronauts and greenhouses) in space. The payload was flown in a 2.5 cubic foot Get Away Special (GAS) container through NASA's GAS program. It was subjected to the environment of the space shuttle cargo bay for the duration of the STS-91 mission (9 days). Results of the genotoxicology and radiation dosimetry experiment (GRaDEx-I) as well as the design of an improved follow on payload are presented.

  6. A Novel Technique for Performing Space Based Radiation Dosimetry Using DNA-Results from GRaDEx-I and the Design of GRaDEx-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, Joe; Branly, R.; Theodorakis, C.; Bickham, J.; Swartz, C.; Friedfeld, R.; Ackerman, E.; Carruthers, C.; DiGirolamo, A.; Faranda, J.

    1999-01-01

    Because of the large amounts of cosmic radiation in the space environment relative to that on earth, the effects of radiation on the physiology of astronauts is of major concern. Doses of radiation which can cause acute or chronic biological effects are to be avoided, therefore determination of the amount of radiation exposure encountered during space flight and assessment of its impact on biological systems is critical. Quantifying the radiation dosage and damage to biological systems, especially to humans during repetitive high altitude flight and during long duration space flight is important for several reasons. Radiation can cause altered biosynthesis and long term genotoxicity resulting in cancer and birth defects etc. Radiation damage to biological systems depends in a complex way on incident radiation species and their energy spectra. Typically non-biological, i.e. film or electronic monitoring systems with narrow energy band sensitivity are used to perform dosimetry and then results are extrapolated to biological models. For this reason it may be desirable to perform radiation dosimetry by using biological molecules e.g. DNA or RNA strands as passive sensors. A lightweight genotoxicology experiment was constructed to determine the degree to which in vitro naked DNA extracted from tissues of a variety of vertebrate organisms is damaged by exposure to radiation in a space environment. The DNA is assayed by means of agarose gel electrophoresis to determine damage such as strand breakage caused by high momentum particles and photons, and base oxidation caused by free radicals. The length distribution of DNA fragments is directly correlated with the radiation dose. It is hoped that a low mass, low cost, passive biological system to determine dose response relationship (increase in strand breaks with increase in exposure) can be developed to perform radiation dosimetry in support of long duration space flight, and to predict negative effects on biological systems (e.g. astronauts and greenhouses) in space. The payload was flown in a 2.5 cubic foot Get Away Special (GAS) container through NASA's GAS program. It was subjected to the environment of the space shuttle cargo bay for the duration of the STS-91 mission (9 days). Results of the genotoxicology and radiation dosimetry experiment (GRaDEx-1) as well as the design of an improved follow on payload are presented.

  7. Review article Radiation dosimetry using polymer gels: methods and

    E-print Network

    Doran, Simon J.

    -dimensional (3D) dose measurements can be produced by position- ing ®lm in multiple planes, although accurate technique that allows full 3D imaging of a radiation dose distribution has led to the development.5 T MR scanners and standard T2 weighted imaging sequences. The gels have been used to verify a number

  8. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-08-29

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database.

  9. Physical mechanism of the Schwarzschild effect in film dosimetry—theoretical model and comparison with experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djouguela, A.; Kollhoff, R.; Rühmann, A.; Willborn, K. C.; Harder, D.; Poppe, B.

    2006-09-01

    In consideration of the importance of film dosimetry for the dosimetric verification of IMRT treatment plans, the Schwarzschild effect or failure of the reciprocity law, i.e. the reduction of the net optical density under 'protraction' or 'fractionation' conditions at constant dose, has been experimentally studied for Kodak XOMAT-V (Martens et al 2002 Phys. Med. Biol. 47 2221-34) and EDR 2 dosimetry films (Djouguela et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 N317-N321). It is known that this effect results from the competition between two solid-state physics reactions involved in the latent-image formation of the AgBr crystals, the aggregation of two Ag atoms freshly formed from Ag+ ions near radiation-induced occupied electron traps and the spontaneous decomposition of the Ag atoms. In this paper, we are developing a mathematical model of this mechanism which shows that the interplay of the mean lifetime ? of the Ag atoms with the time pattern of the irradiation determines the magnitude of the observed effects of the temporal dose distribution on the net optical density. By comparing this theory with our previous protraction experiments and recent fractionation experiments in which the duration of the pause between fractions was varied, a value of the time constant ? of roughly 10 s at room temperature has been determined for EDR 2. The numerical magnitude of the Schwarzschild effect in dosimetry films under the conditions generally met in radiotherapy amounts to only a few per cent of the net optical density (net OD), so that it can frequently be neglected from the viewpoint of clinical applications. But knowledge of the solid-state physical mechanism and a description in terms of a mathematical model involving a typical time constant of about 10 s are now available to estimate the magnitude of the effect should the necessity arise, i.e. in cases of large fluctuations of the temporal pattern of film exposure.

  10. Hanford Technical Basis for Multiple Dosimetry Effective Dose Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Robin L.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-08-01

    The current method at Hanford for dealing with the results from multiple dosimeters worn during non-uniform irradiation is to use a compartmentalization method to calculate the effective dose (E). The method, as documented in the current version of Section 6.9.3 in the 'Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual, PNL-MA-842,' is based on the compartmentalization method presented in the 1997 ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard, 'Criteria for Performing Multiple Dosimetry.' With the adoption of the ICRP 60 methodology in the 2007 revision to 10 CFR 835 came changes that have a direct affect on the compartmentalization method described in the 1997 ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard, and, thus, to the method used at Hanford. The ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard committee is in the process of updating the standard, but the changes to the standard have not yet been approved. And, the drafts of the revision of the standard tend to align more with ICRP 60 than with the changes specified in the 2007 revision to 10 CFR 835. Therefore, a revised method for calculating effective dose from non-uniform external irradiation using a compartmental method was developed using the tissue weighting factors and remainder organs specified in 10 CFR 835 (2007).

  11. Genetic and molecular dosimetry of HZE radiation (7-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to determine the kinetics of production and to characterize the unique aspects of genetic and developmental lesion induced in animal cells by radiation present in the space environment. Special attention is given to heavy charged particles. The organism Caenorhabditis elegans, a simple nematode, is used as a model system for a coordinated set of ground-based and flight experiments.

  12. The radiation oncology workforce: A focus on medical dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Gregg F.; Mobile, Katherine; Yu, Yan

    2014-07-01

    The 2012 Radiation Oncology Workforce survey was conducted to assess the current state of the entire workforce, predict its future needs and concerns, and evaluate quality improvement and safety within the field. This article describes the dosimetrist segment results. The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Workforce Subcommittee, in conjunction with other specialty societies, conducted an online survey targeting all segments of the radiation oncology treatment team. The data from the dosimetrist respondents are presented in this article. Of the 2573 dosimetrists who were surveyed, 890 responded, which resulted in a 35% segment response rate. Most respondents were women (67%), whereas only a third were men (33%). More than half of the medical dosimetrists were older than 45 years (69.2%), whereas the 45 to 54 years age group represented the highest percentage of respondents (37%). Most medical dosimetrists stated that their workload was appropriate (52%), with respondents working a reported average of 41.7 ± 4 hours per week. Overall, 86% of medical dosimetrists indicated that they were satisfied with their career, and 69% were satisfied in their current position. Overall, 61% of respondents felt that there was an oversupply of medical dosimetrists in the field, 14% reported that supply and demand was balanced, and the remaining 25% felt that there was an undersupply. The medical dosimetrists' greatest concerns included documentation/paperwork (78%), uninsured patients (80%), and insufficient reimbursement rates (87%). This survey provided an insight into the dosimetrist perspective of the radiation oncology workforce. Though an overwhelming majority has conveyed satisfaction concerning their career, the study allowed a spotlight to be placed on the profession's current concerns, such as insufficient reimbursement rates and possible oversupply of dosimetrists within the field.

  13. The new radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1988-08-18

    Extensive work has been conducted over the past few years to reassess all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This work has included reviews of the bomb yields, source terms, air transport of neutrons and gamma rays, neutron-induced radioactivity and thermoluminescence in exposed materials, shielding of individuals by buildings, and calculations of organ doses. The results of these theoretical and experimental activities have led to the development of a new dosimetry system which is designated as the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). New DS86 estimates of tissue kerma in air and absorbed dose to fifteen organs are available for 94,787 survivors who were either outside and unshielded, outside and shielded by houses, or inside and shielded by houses (64,408 in Hiroshima and 30,379 in Nagasaki). The organ doses are calculated on an age-dependent basis as follows: infants (less than 3 years old at the time of bombing, ATB), children (3 to 12 years old ATB), and adults (more than 12 years old ATB). Work in progress includes the extension of the DS86 system to Nagasaki survivors who were shielded either by terrain or by factory buildings.

  14. Gene Expression-Based Dosimetry by Dose and Time in Mice Following Acute Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, James D.; Divine, George W.; Grever, William E.; Thomas, Robert A.; Joiner, Michael C.; Smolinski, Joseph M.; Auner, Gregory W.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and reliable methods for performing biological dosimetry are of paramount importance in the event of a large-scale nuclear event. Traditional dosimetry approaches lack the requisite rapid assessment capability, ease of use, portability and low cost, which are factors needed for triaging a large number of victims. Here we describe the results of experiments in which mice were acutely exposed to 60Co gamma rays at doses of 0 (control) to 10 Gy. Blood was obtained from irradiated mice 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days after exposure. mRNA expression levels of 106 selected genes were obtained by reverse-transcription real time PCR. Stepwise regression of dose received against individual gene transcript expression levels provided optimal dosimetry at each time point. The results indicate that only 4–7 different gene transcripts are needed to explain ? 0.69 of the variance (R2), and that receiver-operator characteristics, a measure of sensitivity and specificity, of ? 0.93 for these statistical models were achieved at each time point. These models provide an excellent description of the relationship between the actual and predicted doses up to 6 Gy. At doses of 8 and 10 Gy there appears to be saturation of the radiation-response signals with a corresponding diminution of accuracy. These results suggest that similar analyses in humans may be advantageous for use in a field-portable device designed to assess exposures in mass casualty situations. PMID:24358280

  15. Alanine-EPR as a transfer standard dosimetry system for low energy X radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, H. J.; da Silva, E. J.; Mehta, K.; de Barros, V. S.; Asfora, V. K.; Guzzo, P. L.; Parker, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the use of alanine-EPR as a transfer standard dosimetry system for low energy X radiation, such as that in RS-2400, which operates in the range from 25 to 150 kV and 2 to 45 mA. Two types of alanine dosimeters were investigated. One is a commercial alanine pellets from Aérial-Centre de Ressources Technologiques, France and one was prepared in our laboratory (LMRI-DEN/UFPE). The EPR spectra of the irradiated dosimeters were recorded in the Nuclear Energy Department of UFPE, using a Bruker EMX10 EPR spectrometer operating in the X-band. The alanine-EPR dosimetry system was calibrated in the range of 20-220 Gy in this X-ray field, against an ionization chamber calibrated at the relevant X-ray energy with traceability to PTB. The results showed that both alanine dosimeters presented a linear dose response the same sensitivity, when the EPR signal was normalized to alanine mass. The total uncertainty in the measured dose was estimated to be about 3%. The results indicate that it is possible to use the alanine-EPR dosimetry system for validation of a low-energy X ray irradiator, such as RS-2400.

  16. Radiochromic film dosimetry of HDR {sup 192}Ir source radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    Aldelaijan, Saad; Mohammed, Huriyyah; Tomic, Nada; Liang Liheng; DeBlois, Francois; Sarfehnia, Arman; Abdel-Rahman, Wamied; Seuntjens, Jan; Devic, Slobodan

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: A radiochromic film based dosimetry system for high dose rate (HDR) Iridium-192 brachytherapy source was described. A comparison between calibration curves established in water and Solid Water was provided. Methods: Pieces of EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film were irradiated in both water and Solid Water with HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source in a dose range from 0 to 50 Gy. Responses of EBT-2 GAFCHROMIC film were compared for irradiations in water and Solid Water by scaling the dose between media through Monte Carlo calculated conversion factor for both setups. To decrease uncertainty in dose delivery due to positioning of the film piece with respect to the radiation source, traceable calibration irradiations were performed in a parallel-opposed beam setup. Results: The EBT-2 GAFCHROMIC film based dosimetry system described in this work can provide an overall one-sigma dose uncertainty of 4.12% for doses above 1 Gy. The ratio of dose delivered to the sensitive layer of the film in water to the dose delivered to the sensitive layer of the film in Solid Water was calculated using Monte Carlo simulations to be 0.9941 {+-} 0.0007. Conclusions: A radiochromic film based dosimetry system using only the green color channel of a flatbed document scanner showed superior precision if used alone in a dose range that extends up to 50 Gy, which greatly decreases the complexity of work. In addition, Solid Water material was shown to be a viable alternative to water in performing radiochromic film based dosimetry with HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources.

  17. Review on the characteristics of radiation detectors for dosimetry and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seco, Joao; Clasie, Ben; Partridge, Mike

    2014-10-01

    The enormous advances in the understanding of human anatomy, physiology and pathology in recent decades have led to ever-improving methods of disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Many of these achievements have been enabled, at least in part, by advances in ionizing radiation detectors. Radiology has been transformed by the implementation of multi-slice CT and digital x-ray imaging systems, with silver halide films now largely obsolete for many applications. Nuclear medicine has benefited from more sensitive, faster and higher-resolution detectors delivering ever-higher SPECT and PET image quality. PET/MR systems have been enabled by the development of gamma ray detectors that can operate in high magnetic fields. These huge advances in imaging have enabled equally impressive steps forward in radiotherapy delivery accuracy, with 4DCT, PET and MRI routinely used in treatment planning and online image guidance provided by cone-beam CT. The challenge of ensuring safe, accurate and precise delivery of highly complex radiation fields has also both driven and benefited from advances in radiation detectors. Detector systems have been developed for the measurement of electron, intensity-modulated and modulated arc x-ray, proton and ion beams, and around brachytherapy sources based on a very wide range of technologies. The types of measurement performed are equally wide, encompassing commissioning and quality assurance, reference dosimetry, in vivo dosimetry and personal and environmental monitoring. In this article, we briefly introduce the general physical characteristics and properties that are commonly used to describe the behaviour and performance of both discrete and imaging detectors. The physical principles of operation of calorimeters; ionization and charge detectors; semiconductor, luminescent, scintillating and chemical detectors; and radiochromic and radiographic films are then reviewed and their principle applications discussed. Finally, a general discussion of the application of detectors for x-ray nuclear medicine and ion beam imaging and dosimetry is presented.

  18. Review on the characteristics of radiation detectors for dosimetry and imaging.

    PubMed

    Seco, Joao; Clasie, Ben; Partridge, Mike

    2014-10-21

    The enormous advances in the understanding of human anatomy, physiology and pathology in recent decades have led to ever-improving methods of disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Many of these achievements have been enabled, at least in part, by advances in ionizing radiation detectors. Radiology has been transformed by the implementation of multi-slice CT and digital x-ray imaging systems, with silver halide films now largely obsolete for many applications. Nuclear medicine has benefited from more sensitive, faster and higher-resolution detectors delivering ever-higher SPECT and PET image quality. PET/MR systems have been enabled by the development of gamma ray detectors that can operate in high magnetic fields. These huge advances in imaging have enabled equally impressive steps forward in radiotherapy delivery accuracy, with 4DCT, PET and MRI routinely used in treatment planning and online image guidance provided by cone-beam CT. The challenge of ensuring safe, accurate and precise delivery of highly complex radiation fields has also both driven and benefited from advances in radiation detectors. Detector systems have been developed for the measurement of electron, intensity-modulated and modulated arc x-ray, proton and ion beams, and around brachytherapy sources based on a very wide range of technologies. The types of measurement performed are equally wide, encompassing commissioning and quality assurance, reference dosimetry, in vivo dosimetry and personal and environmental monitoring. In this article, we briefly introduce the general physical characteristics and properties that are commonly used to describe the behaviour and performance of both discrete and imaging detectors. The physical principles of operation of calorimeters; ionization and charge detectors; semiconductor, luminescent, scintillating and chemical detectors; and radiochromic and radiographic films are then reviewed and their principle applications discussed. Finally, a general discussion of the application of detectors for x-ray nuclear medicine and ion beam imaging and dosimetry is presented. PMID:25229250

  19. Radiation dosimetry in digital breast tomosynthesis: Report of AAPM Tomosynthesis Subcommittee Task Group 223

    SciTech Connect

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Sabol, John M.; Berglund, Johan; Bolch, Wesley E.; Brateman, Libby; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Goodsitt, Mitchell; Flynn, Michael; Geiser, William; Kyle Jones, A.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Paul Segars, W.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Nishino, Kazuyoshi; Nosratieh, Anita; and others

    2014-09-15

    The radiation dose involved in any medical imaging modality that uses ionizing radiation needs to be well understood by the medical physics and clinical community. This is especially true of screening modalities. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently been introduced into the clinic and is being used for screening for breast cancer in the general population. Therefore, it is important that the medical physics community have the required information to be able to understand, estimate, and communicate the radiation dose levels involved in breast tomosynthesis imaging. For this purpose, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 223 on Dosimetry in Tomosynthesis Imaging has prepared this report that discusses dosimetry in breast imaging in general, and describes a methodology and provides the data necessary to estimate mean breast glandular dose from a tomosynthesis acquisition. In an effort to maximize familiarity with the procedures and data provided in this Report, the methodology to perform the dose estimation in DBT is based as much as possible on that used in mammography dose estimation.

  20. Radiation dosimetry in digital breast tomosynthesis: report of AAPM Tomosynthesis Subcommittee Task Group 223.

    PubMed

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Sabol, John M; Berglund, Johan; Bolch, Wesley E; Brateman, Libby; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Flynn, Michael; Geiser, William; Goodsitt, Mitchell; Jones, A Kyle; Lo, Joseph Y; Maidment, Andrew D A; Nishino, Kazuyoshi; Nosratieh, Anita; Ren, Baorui; Segars, W Paul; Von Tiedemann, Miriam

    2014-09-01

    The radiation dose involved in any medical imaging modality that uses ionizing radiation needs to be well understood by the medical physics and clinical community. This is especially true of screening modalities. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently been introduced into the clinic and is being used for screening for breast cancer in the general population. Therefore, it is important that the medical physics community have the required information to be able to understand, estimate, and communicate the radiation dose levels involved in breast tomosynthesis imaging. For this purpose, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 223 on Dosimetry in Tomosynthesis Imaging has prepared this report that discusses dosimetry in breast imaging in general, and describes a methodology and provides the data necessary to estimate mean breast glandular dose from a tomosynthesis acquisition. In an effort to maximize familiarity with the procedures and data provided in this Report, the methodology to perform the dose estimation in DBT is based as much as possible on that used in mammography dose estimation. PMID:25186375

  1. High quality SiC applications in radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzzi, M.; Nava, F.; Pini, S.; Russo, S.

    2001-12-01

    The current response of SiC on-line dosimeters to ?-radiation from a 60Co source is presented. The devices used are 4H-SiC epitaxial n-type layer deposited onto a 4H-SiC n +-type substrate wafer doped with nitrogen. Single-pad Schottky contacts have been produced by deposition of a 1000 Å gold film on the epitaxial layer using a lift-off technology and ohmic contacts have been deposited on the rear substrate side. The detector has been then embedded in epoxy resin and exposed to the 60Co source in the dose range 0.1-1 Gy. A signal response comparable to that of silicon standard dosimeters has been measured with the unbiased SiC device. The released charge has been observed to increase linearly with the dose and dose-rate.

  2. A portable electronic system for radiation dosimetry using electrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruvinel, P. E.; Mascarenhas, S.; Cameron, J.

    1990-02-01

    An electret dosimeter with a cylindrical active volume has been introduced by Mascarenhas and collaborators [Proc. 10th Anniversary Conf. 1969-1979, Associacâo Brasileira de Fisicos em Medicina, p. 488; Topics Appl. Phys. 33 (1987) 321] for possible use in personnel and area monitoring. The full energy response curve as well as the degree of reproducibility and accuracy of the dosimeter are reported in a previous report [O. Guerrini, Master Science Thesis, São Carlos, USP-IFQSC (1982)]. For dimensions similar to those of the common pen dosimeter, the electret has a total surface charge of the order of 10 -9 C and it has a readout sensitivity of the order of 10 -5 Gy with a useful range of 5 × 10 -2 Gy. In this paper we describe a portable electronic system to measure X and ?-rays using a cylindrical electret ionization chamber. It uses commercially available operational amplifiers, and charge measurements can also be made by connecting a suitable capacitor in the feedback loop. With this system it is possible to measure equivalent surface charges up to (19.99±0.01) on the dosimeter. The readout doses are shown on a 3 {1}/{2} digit liquid crystal display (LCD). We have used complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and bipolar metal oxide semiconductor (BiMOS) operatonal amplifier devices in the system's design. This choice provides small power consumption and is ideal for battery powered instruments. Furthermore the instrument is ideally suited for in situ measurements of X and ? radiation using a cylindrical electret ionization chamber.

  3. Original article Whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry

    E-print Network

    Pike, Victor W.

    75.68 (280), lungs 44.86 (166) and urinary bladder 58.38 (216). Effective doses estimated,2] and is also closely linked to reward, reinforcement and addiction. Abnormalities in brain DA are associated with many neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkin- son's disease, schizophrenia, attention

  4. Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 99, Nos 14, pp. 227232 (2002)

    E-print Network

    2002-01-01

    of lung cancer in underground miners, is a colourless, odourless gas that contaminates indoor environments Publishing GENOTOXIC DAMAGE IN NON-IRRADIATED CELLS: CONTRIBUTION FROM THE BYSTANDER EFFECT H. Zhou, G of Physicians and Surgeons Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA Department of Radiological Health

  5. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry-Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible radiation exposures to beta particles and to determine their significance plus the extent of the various residual radiation areas at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Other suggestions for future residual radiation studies are included in this workshop report. PMID:26509626

  6. LiF:Mg,Ti (MTT) TL detectors optimised for high-LET radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Bilski, P; Budzanowski, M; Olko, P; Mandowska, E

    2004-01-01

    The properties of LiF:Mg,Ti (distributed as, e.g., TLD-100 or MTS-N), the most frequently used thermoluminescent detector, have been optimised for measurements of sparsely ionizing radiation (gamma rays), typically encountered in radiation protection or clinical dosimetry. However, these detectors need also to be applied in conditions of mixed-field dosimetry with a high-LET component, such as those encountered in heavy ion beams or in space. At the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Kraków a new type of LiF:Mg,Ti detector (named MTT) has been recently developed through modification of its dopant composition. This composition is intended to increase the detection efficiency after a dose of high-LET radiation. The concentration of dopants in the MTT material is: CMg=50 ppm, and CTi=120 ppm, i.e. about a three times less of magnesium and about 10 times more of titanium content, compared with the standard MTS-N. The MTT TL detectors feature an increased relative efficiency to high-LET radiation, which for 5 MeV alpha-particles is about twice that of standard LiF:Mg,Ti. The response of MTT detectors has been studied in charged particle beams of the HIMAC accelerator in Chiba, Japan and in Dubna, Russia. The main foreseen application of MTT detectors are dose measurements in space. The dose after high-LET exposure can be estimated from the difference of the response of MTS and MTT detectors. In the near future MTT detectors will be applied in the "Matroshka" experiment. Within this experiment a specially constructed human phantom will be exposed in free space (outside the International Space Station) for 1 year. The phantom will incorporate a few thousand measuring points enabling radiation doses to particular organs to be determined. PMID:15856580

  7. 1989 IEEE Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 26th, Marco Island, FL, July 25-29, 1989, Proceedings. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ochoa, Agustin, Jr. (editor)

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on nuclear science are presented. The general topics addressed include: basic mechanics of radiation effects, dosimetry and energy-dependent effects, hardness assurance and testing techniques, spacecraft charging and space radiation effects, EMP/SGEMP/IEMP phenomena, device radiation effects and hardening, radiation effects on isolation technologies, IC radiation effects and hardening, and single-event phenomena.

  8. Germanium-doped optical fiber for real-time radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizanur Rahman, A. K. M.; Zubair, H. T.; Begum, Mahfuza; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Yusoff, Z.; Ung, N. M.; Mat-Sharif, K. A.; Wan Abdullah, W. S.; Amouzad Mahdiraji, Ghafour; Amin, Y. M.; Maah, M. J.; Bradley, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past three decades growing demand for individualized in vivo dosimetry and subsequent dose verification has led to the pursuit of newer, novel and economically feasible materials for dosimeters. These materials are to facilitate features such as real-time sensing and fast readouts. In this paper, purposely composed SiO2:Ge optical fiber is presented as a suitable candidate for dosimetry. The optical fiber is meant to take advantage of the RL/OSL technique, providing both online remote monitoring of dose rate, and fast readouts for absorbed dose. A laboratory-assembled OSL reader has been used to acquire the RL/OSL response to LINAC irradiations (6 MV photons). The notable RL characteristics observed include constant level of luminescence for the same dose rate (providing better consistency compared to TLD-500), and linearity of response in the radiotherapy range (1 Gy/min to 6 Gy/min). The OSL curve was found to conform to an exponential decay characteristic (illumination with low LED source). The Ge doping resulted in an effective atomic number, Zeff, of 13.5 (within the bone equivalent range). The SiO2:Ge optical fiber sensor, with efficient coupling, can be a viable solution for in vivo dosimetry, besides a broad range of applications.

  9. Optimising the therapeutic ratio of radioimmunotherapy; an investigation of the roles of chimerisation, fractionation and radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violet, John Albert

    2007-12-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a targeted form of treatment for cancer which uses tumour-associated antibodies to selectively deliver a therapeutic radionuclide to sites of disease. In lymphoma, radioimmunotherapy has proved a remarkably effective agent due to the high radiosensitivity of the tumour and its propensity to undergo apoptosis following irradiation. However, success in the treatment of the more radioresistant common solid tumours has been less successful, and for these patients RIT remains investigative. The effectiveness of RIT is limited by non-specific irradiation of normal tissues whilst antibody remains in the circulation, in particular bone marrow, and also by immunogenicity of antibody which does not allow for repeated therapy. In the first chapter I have hypothesised that lymphomas expressing the interleukin-2 receptor might be effectively treated using a radiolabeled antibody to this receptor. In a phase I/II clinical study, 131I labelled CHT-25, a chimeric antibody against the IL-2Ra chain, has shown encouraging evidence of efficacy in the 9 patients with multiply- relapsed lymphomas treated so far. In addition, use of this antibody has been associated with low immunogenicity allowing for repeated therapies to be given. In the second chapter I have hypothesised that dosimetry led, individual patient therapy, might further optimise 1311 CHT-25 treatment. To investigate this I have used marrow toxicity as a biological assay of absorbed dose and shown that simple, but individual, patient biodistribution indices correlate better with observed toxicity than the population-based dose estimates currently employed. I have proposed that adoption of individual patient dosimetry using tracer studies is worthy of further investigation for the future development of 131I- CHT-25. In the third chapter I have hypothesised that dose fractionation might improve the therapeutic ratio of RIT. This has been investigated in a pre-clinical human colorectal xenograft model in nude mice using 131I-A5B7, a murine antibody against CEA. In this setting fractionation neither reduces normal tissue toxicity nor increases the effectiveness of therapy. This thesis demonstrates, using both pre-clinical and clinical data, how the therapeutic ratio of RIT might be improved through antibody design, leading to reduced immunogenicity, dose fractionation and radiation dosimetry, and proposes how these approaches might be used to optimise the effectiveness of RIT in the clinic.

  10. Radiation dosimetry data management using VAX C, FMS, RMS, DCL, and Oracle

    SciTech Connect

    Voltin, M.J. Jr.; Martin, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    The External Dosimetry Badge System was developed to support the radiation protection program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The radiation protection program is responsible for monitoring external radiation exposures to approximately 7,500 Laboratory employees, visitors and contractors each month. External radiation exposure is measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The system is used to control the assembly and distribution of TLD badges. The system monitors badge return and disassembly at the end of each month, and analyzes the TLDs to determine individual radiation exposure levels. Results are reported and stored in a database designed to maintain detailed individual exposure records. The system maintains a complete history of annual summaries for external exposures. The system is user-friendly with user prompts, menus, and extensive help functions. The completely menu-driven system uses VAX C, VAX Forms Management System, VMS Record Management Services, VMS Digital Command Language, and the Oracle Relational Database Management System. Design and development issues faced, and methods and techniques used in developing the system will be described. Topics discussed include consistent user interface design approaches, considerations for using VAX/VMS programming tools versus Oracle development tools to develop and implement the application, and overall system benefits. 3 refs.

  11. SU-E-QI-15: Single Point Dosimetry by Means of Cerenkov Radiation Energy Transfer (CRET)

    SciTech Connect

    Volotskova, O; Jenkins, C; Xing, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Cerenkov light is generated when a charged particles with energy greater then 250 keV, moves faster than the speed of light in a given medium. Both x-ray photons and electrons produce optical Cerenkov photons during the static megavoltage linear accelerator (LINAC) operational mode. Recently, Cerenkov radiation gained considerable interest as possible candidate as a new imaging modality. Optical signals generated by Cerenkov radiation may act as a surrogate for the absorbed superficial radiation dose. We demonstrated a novel single point dosimetry method for megavoltage photon and electron therapy utilizing down conversion of Cerenkov photons. Methods: The custom build signal characterization system was used: a sample holder (probe) with adjacent light tight compartments was connected via fiber-optic cables to a photon counting photomultiplier tube (PMT). One compartment contains a medium only while the other contains medium and red-shifting nano-particles (Q-dots, nanoclusters). By taking the difference between the two signals (Cerenkov photons and CRET photons) we obtain a measure of the down-converted light, which we expect to be proportional to dose as measured with an adjacent ion chamber. Experimental results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations performed using the GEANT4 code. Results: The signal correlation between CR signal, CRET readings and dose produced by LINAC at a single point were investigated. The experimental results were compared with simulations. The dose linearity, signal to noise ratio and dose rate dependence were tested with custom build CRET based probe. Conclusion: Performance characteristics of the proposed single point CRET based probe were evaluated. The direct use of the induced Cerenkov emission and CRET in an irradiated single point volume as an indirect surrogate for the imparted dose was investigated. We conclude that CRET is a promising optical based dosimetry method that offers advantages over those already proposed.

  12. Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 16th, Santa Cruz, Calif., July 17-20, 1979, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bombardt, J.

    1979-01-01

    Papers are presented on the following topics: radiation effects in bipolar microcircuits; basic radiation mechanisms in materials and devices; energy deposition and dosimetry; and system responses from SGEMP, IEMP, and EMP. Also considered are basic processes in SGEMP and IEMP, radiation effects in MOS microcircuits, and space radiation effects and spacecraft charging.

  13. Epid Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, Peter B.; Vial, Philip

    2011-05-05

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were introduced originally for patient position verification. The idea of using EPIDs for dosimetry was realised in the 1980s. Little was published on the topic until the mid 1990's, when the interest in EPIDs for dosimetry increased rapidly and continues to grow. The increasing research on EPID dosimetry coincided with the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). EPIDs are well suited to IMRT dosimetry because they are high resolution, two-dimensional (2D) digital detectors. They are also pre-existing on almost all modern linear accelerators. They generally show a linear response to increasing dose. Different types of EPIDs have been clinically implemented, and these have been described in several review papers. The current generation of commercially available EPIDs are indirect detection active matrix flat panel imagers, also known as amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs. Disadvantages of a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry include non-water equivalent construction materials, and the energy sensitivity and optical scatter of the phosphor scintillators used to create optical signal from the megavoltage beam. This report discusses current knowledge regarding a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry.

  14. Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X): High-Altitude Balloon Flight Mission for Improving the Nairas Aviation Radiation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model is a real-time, global, physics-based model for predicting exposure to cosmic radiation to air travelers from both galactic and solar sources. Tabular and graphical data products from the prototype operational NAIRAS model have been available to the public since April 2011. An initial validation of the NAIRAS model was recently conducted by comparing predicted dose rates with tabulated reference aircraft measurement data and recent aircraft radiation measurements taken in 2008. However, aircraft measurements alone do not provide an unambiguous constraint on the model such that the predominant source of uncertainty in the NAIRAS model could be uniquely identified. High altitude measurements above the Pfotzer maximum are needed to characterize the extent to which the NAIRAS model can predict the cosmic radiation primaries, which are the source of the secondary particles that are responsible for radiation exposure at aircraft flight altitudes. The Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) is a NASA high-altitude balloon flight mission with the goal of improving model characterization of cosmic radiation primaries by taking dosimetric measurements above the Pfotzer maximum. A second goal of the RaD-X mission is to facilitate the pathway toward data assimilative predictions of atmospheric cosmic radiation exposure by identifying and characterizing low-cost radiation measurement solutions. RaD-X is scheduled for launch at Fort Sumner, NM in September 2015. Here we briefly describe the NAIRAS model, present the science and mission overview of the RaD-X mission, and show preliminary results from instrument beam tests and calibration.

  15. Low-energy x-ray dosimetry studies (7 to 17.5 keV) with synchroton radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ipe, N.E.; Bellamy, H.; Flood, J.R.

    1995-06-01

    Unique properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), such as its high intensity, brightness, polarization, and broad spectral distribution (extending from x-ray to infra-red wavelengths) make it an attractive light source for numerous experiments. As SR facilities are rapidly being built all over the world, they introduce the need for low-energy x-ray dosemeters because of the potential radiation exposure to experimenters. However, they also provide a unique opportunity for low-energy x-ray dosimetry studies because of the availability of monochromatic x-ray beams. Results of such studies performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory are described. Lithium fluoride TLDs (TLD-100) of varying thicknesses (0.015 to 0.08 cm) were exposed free in air to monochromatic x-rays (7 to 17.5 keV). These exposures were monitored with ionization chambers. The response (nC/Gy) was found to increase with increasing TLD thickness and with increasing beam energy. A steeper increase in response with increasing energy was observed with the thicker TLDs. The responses at 7 and 17.5 keV were within a factor of 2.3 and 5.2 for the 0.015 and 0.08 cm-thick TLDs, respectively. The effects of narrow (beam size smaller than the dosemeter) and broad (beam size larger than the dosemeter) beams on the response of the TLDs are also reported.

  16. Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Rasouli, H.; Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T.

    2014-05-15

    In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points – three TLDs per point – to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

  17. Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T.; Rasouli, H.

    2014-05-01

    In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points - three TLDs per point - to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

  18. A Case Report: Cytogenetic Dosimetry after Accidental Radiation Exposure during (192)Ir Industrial Radiography Testing.

    PubMed

    Beinke, C; Ben-Shlomo, A; Abend, M; Port, M

    2015-07-01

    The accidental gamma radiation exposure of an industrial radiography worker and the cytogenetic examination of the worker's blood lymphocytes are described here. The exposure of the worker was due to a malfunction at the entrance into the depleted uranium-shielding device of a (192)Ir source during operation. Because the source was sealed no additional beta radiation exposure was assumed. The worker's thermoluminescent dosimeter indicated an absorbed dose of 0.078 Sv, which presumably took place in December 2013. No clinical symptoms were reported in the case history after the potential exposure to radiation. Four months after the incident it was decided that biological dosimetry using dicentric chromosome and micronucleus analysis would be performed to follow radiation protection aspects and to clarify the radiation dose uncertainties for the exposed worker. Micronucleus frequency was not increased above the laboratory's control value of micronucleus background frequency of unexposed individuals. However, the observed dicentric frequency (0.003 dicentric/cell) differs significantly from the laboratory's background level of dicentric chromosomes in unexposed individuals (0.0007 dicentric/cell). Dicentric analysis in 2,048 metaphase cells resulted in an estimated dose of no more than 0.181 Gy (95% upper confidence level), not less than 0.014 Gy (95% lower confidence level) and a mean dose of 0.066 Gy (photon-equivalent whole-body exposure) based on interpolation from the laboratory's calibration curve for (60)Co gamma radiation. Since overdispersion of dicentric chromosomes (u = 9.78) indicated a heterogeneous (partial-body) exposure, we applied the Dolphin method and estimated an exposure of 2.1 Sv affecting 21% of the body volume. Because the overdispersion of dicentric chromosomes was caused by only one heavily damaged cell containing two dicentrics, it is possible that this was an incidental finding. In summary, a radiation overexposure of the radiography worker must be assumed and this case considered as a potential partial-body exposure scenario. PMID:26151173

  19. Development of europium doped BaSO4 TL OSL dual phosphor for radiation dosimetry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patle, Anita; Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Bhatt, B. C.; Moharil, S. V.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the results on the preparation and characterization of Europium-doped Barium sulfate (BaSO4: Eu) TL /OSL dual phosphor. The OSL sensitivity was found to be 11% of the commercially available Al2O3: C, using area integration method. The sample also shows good TL sensitivity and the dosimetric peak appears around 190°C with a shoulder at 282°C. After OSL readout, No change in the TL glow curve is observed. Since the observed TL peaks are not responsible for the observed OSL, good OSL as well as TL sensitivity and low fading will make this phosphor suitable for applications in radiation dosimetry using OSL as well as TL.

  20. Radiation dosimetry of 2 (/sup 18/F)fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in man

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.C.; Alavi, A.; Christman, D.; Montanez, I.; Wolf, A.P.; Reivich, M.

    1982-07-01

    Bladder and brain time-activity measurements in humans were performed after the intravenous administration of 2-(/sup 18/F)fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Radiation doses were calculated using the MIRD schema. The bladder wall received an average of 440 mrad/mCi (s.e. 76) in ten subjects who voided at 2 hr after administration of tracer. If these subjects had voided at 1 hr, the bladder-wall dose would have been reduced to 220 mrad/mCi. The brain received an average of 81 mrad/mCi in eight subjects. The doses to other organs, calculated from published dog biodistribution data, are between 50 and 85 mrad/mCi except for spleen and heart, which both received 160 mrad/mCi. These time-activity measurements for the critical organ in the human avoid the assumptions made in using animal biodistribution data for human dosimetry calculations.

  1. Radiation dosimetry using decreasing TL intensity in a few variety of silicate crystals.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shigueo; Cano, Nilo F; Gundu Rao, T K; Oliveira, Letícia M; Carmo, Lucas S; Chubaci, Jose F D

    2015-11-01

    This study shows that there are some ionic crystals which after irradiation with high gamma dose Dm and subsequent irradiation with low doses ranging up to 500Gy present a decreasing TL intensity as dose increases. This interesting feature can be used as a calibration curve in radiation dosimetry. Such behavior can be found in green quartz, three varieties of beryl and pink tourmaline. In all these silicate crystals it can be shown that irradiation with increasing ?-dose there is a dose Dm for which the TL intensity is maximum. Of course, Dm varies depending on the crystal and irradiated crystal with the dose Dm is stable. If one of these crystals is taken and irradiated with doses from low values up to 400-500Gy, a curve of decreasing TL intensity is obtained; such a curve can be used as a calibration curve. PMID:26277189

  2. Application of Chandrasekhar`s method to a radiation dosimetry problem

    SciTech Connect

    Woolf, S.; Garth, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    In the last several years we have been developing a simplified electron transport model to calculate energy deposition profiles in multilayered structures irradiated by X rays and gamma rays. This model was implemented in a rapidly running algorithm MULTILAYER, for an IBM-compatible personal computer suitable for radiation-hardened electronics and dosimetry applications. In particular, we have been seeking to model the dose enhancement phenomenon near material interfaces for which experimental results were reported by Wall and Burke. In Refs. 1, 2, and 3, a simple one-group S{sub 2} transport model is described. This rod model arose as an extension of a semi-empirical model developed by Burke and Garth which was, in turn, based on exponential fits to Monte Carlo calculations of dose profiles at gold/silicon interfaces at photon energies from 10 to 2000 keV.

  3. The UF family of hybrid phantoms of the developing human fetus for computational radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Matthew R.; Geyer, John W.; Aris, John P.; Shifrin, Roger Y.; Bolch, Wesley

    2011-08-01

    Historically, the development of computational phantoms for radiation dosimetry has primarily been directed at capturing and representing adult and pediatric anatomy, with less emphasis devoted to models of the human fetus. As concern grows over possible radiation-induced cancers from medical and non-medical exposures of the pregnant female, the need to better quantify fetal radiation doses, particularly at the organ-level, also increases. Studies such as the European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) hope to improve our understanding of cancer risks following chronic in utero radiation exposure. For projects such as SOLO, currently available fetal anatomic models do not provide sufficient anatomical detail for organ-level dose assessment. To address this need, two fetal hybrid computational phantoms were constructed using high-quality magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography image sets obtained for two well-preserved fetal specimens aged 11.5 and 21 weeks post-conception. Individual soft tissue organs, bone sites and outer body contours were segmented from these images using 3D-DOCTOR™ and then imported to the 3D modeling software package Rhinoceros™ for further modeling and conversion of soft tissue organs, certain bone sites and outer body contours to deformable non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces. The two specimen-specific phantoms, along with a modified version of the 38 week UF hybrid newborn phantom, comprised a set of base phantoms from which a series of hybrid computational phantoms was derived for fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. The methodology used to construct the series of phantoms accounted for the following age-dependent parameters: (1) variations in skeletal size and proportion, (2) bone-dependent variations in relative levels of bone growth, (3) variations in individual organ masses and total fetal masses and (4) statistical percentile variations in skeletal size, individual organ masses and total fetal masses. The resulting series of fetal hybrid computational phantoms is applicable to organ-level and bone-level internal and external radiation dosimetry for human fetuses of various ages and weight percentiles

  4. Phys. Med. Biol. 45 (2000) 18631868. Printed in the UK PII: S0031-9155(00)10622-0 Ultraviolet radiation dosimetry with radiochromic film

    E-print Network

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    2000-01-01

    radiation produced by a solar simulator and examined for dosimetry in ultraviolet radiation. Results show been used to adequately measure ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The radiochromic film, Gafchromic MD-55 responds to ultraviolet radiation by changing to a blue colour with two main absorption peaks located

  5. A wireless transmission low-power radiation sensor for in vivo dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuschino, F.; Gabrielli, A.; Baldazzi, G.; Campana, R.; Valentinetti, S.; Crepaldi, M.; Demarchi, D.; Villani, G.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to illustrate the design and the performance of a microelectronic circuit composed of a dosimeter, an oscillator, a modulator, a transmitter and an antenna. The device was designed for specific in vivo dosimetry applications. However, the layout area of less than 1 mm2 makes it suitable for a large variety of applications, from spot radiation monitoring systems in medicine to accurate measurements of radiation level in high-energy physics experiments. Moreover, due to its extremely low-power budget, it might be also of interest for space applications. The chip embeds a re-programmable floating-gate transistor configured as a radiation sensor and a read-out circuit. Prototype chips have been fabricated and tested exploiting a commercial 180 nm, four-metal CMOS technology. Characterization tests of the performance of the Ultra-Wide Band transmission are summarized. The dosimeter prototype has an estimated sensitivity of 1 mV/rad within a total absorbed dose range up to 10 krad. The read-out circuit is powered with 3.3 V and the total power consumption is very low, i.e. about 165 ?W, making it also upgradable with a remote power system.

  6. Monitoring of radiation fields in a waste tank model: Virtual radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Tulenko, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    The University of Florida (UF) has developed a coupled radiation computation and three-dimensional modeling simulation code package. This package combines the Deneb Robotics` IGRIP three-dimensional solid modeling robotic simulation code with the UF developed VRF (Virtual Radiation Field) Monte Carlo based radiation computation code. The code package allows simulated radiation dose monitors to be placed anywhere on simulated robotic equipment to record the radiation doses which would be sustained when carrying out tasks in radiation environments. Comparison with measured values in the Hanford Waste Tank C-106 shows excellent results. The code shows promise of serving as a major tool in the design and operation of robotic equipment in radiation environments to ensure freedom from radiation caused failure.

  7. Epid cine acquisition mode for in vivo dosimetry in dynamic arc radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidanzio, Andrea; Mameli, Alessandra; Placidi, Elisa; Greco, Francesca; Stimato, Gerardina; Gaudino, Diego; Ramella, Sara; D'Angelillo, Rolando; Cellini, Francesco; Trodella, Lucio; Cilla, Savino; Grimaldi, Luca; D'Onofrio, Guido; Azario, Luigi; Piermattei, Angelo

    2008-02-01

    In this paper the cine acquisition mode of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been calibrated and tested to determine the in vivo dose for dynamic conformal arc radiation therapy (DCAT). The EPID cine acquisition mode, that allows a frame acquisition rate of one image every 1.66 s, was studied with a monitor unit rate equal to 100 UM/min. In these conditions good signal stability, ±1% (2SD) evaluated during three months, signal reproducibility within ±0.8% (2SD) and linearity with dose and dose rate within ±1% (2SD) were obtained. The transit signal, St, (due to the transmitted beam below the phantom) measured by the EPID cine acquisition mode was used to determine, (i) a set of correlation functions, F(w,L), defined as the ratio between St and the dose at half thickness, Dm, measured in solid water phantoms of different thicknesses, w and with square fields of side L, (ii) a set of factors, f(d,L), that take into account the different X-ray scatter contribution from the phantom to the St signal as a function of the variation, d, of the air gap between the phantom and the EPID. The reconstruction of the isocenter dose, Diso, for DCAT was obtained convolving the transit signal values, obtained at different gantry angles, with the respective reconstruction factors determined by a house-made software. The method was tested with cylindrical and anthropomorphic phantoms and the results show that the reconstructed Diso values can be obtained with an accuracy within ±2.5% in cylindrical phantom and within ±3.4% for anthropomorphic phantom. In conclusion, the transit dosimetry by EPID was assessed to be adequate to perform DCAT in vivo dosimetry, that is not realizable with the other traditional techniques. Moreover, the method proposed here could be implemented to supply in vivo dose values in real time.

  8. Characterization of a parallel-beam CCD optical-CT apparatus for 3D radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstajic, Nikola; Doran, Simon J.

    2007-07-01

    3D measurement of optical attenuation is of interest in a variety of fields of biomedical importance, including spectrophotometry, optical projection tomography (OPT) and analysis of 3D radiation dosimeters. Accurate, precise and economical 3D measurements of optical density (OD) are a crucial step in enabling 3D radiation dosimeters to enter wider use in clinics. Polymer gels and Fricke gels, as well as dosimeters not based around gels, have been characterized for 3D dosimetry over the last two decades. A separate problem is the verification of the best readout method. A number of different imaging modalities (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical CT, x-ray CT and ultrasound) have been suggested for the readout of information from 3D dosimeters. To date only MRI and laser-based optical CT have been characterized in detail. This paper describes some initial steps we have taken in establishing charge coupled device (CCD)-based optical CT as a viable alternative to MRI for readout of 3D radiation dosimeters. The main advantage of CCD-based optical CT over traditional laser-based optical CT is a speed increase of at least an order of magnitude, while the simplicity of its architecture would lend itself to cheaper implementation than both MRI and laser-based optical CT if the camera itself were inexpensive enough. Specifically, we study the following aspects of optical metrology, using high quality test targets: (i) calibration and quality of absorbance measurements and the camera requirements for 3D dosimetry; (ii) the modulation transfer function (MTF) of individual projections; (iii) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the projection and reconstruction domains; (iv) distortion in the projection domain, depth-of-field (DOF) and telecentricity. The principal results for our current apparatus are as follows: (i) SNR of optical absorbance in projections is better than 120:1 for uniform phantoms in absorbance range 0.3 to 1.6 (and better than 200:1 for absorbances 1.0 to 3.5 with the test target and a novel absorbance range extension method), (ii) the spatial resolution is shown to be at worst 0.5 mm (and often better than this) with an associated DOF of 8 cm, (iii) the SNR of uniform phantoms in reconstruction domain is above 80:1 (one standard deviation) over an absorbance dynamic range of 0.3 to 1.6, (iv) the apparatus is telecentric and without distortion. Finally, a sample scan and reconstruction of a scan of a PRESAGE™ dosimeter are shown, demonstrating the capabilities of the apparatus.

  9. Radiation dosimetry estimates of (18)F-alfatide II based on whole-body PET imaging of mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-Yang; Bao, Xiao; Wang, Ming-Wei; Zhang, Yong-Ping; Zhang, Ying-Jian; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2015-11-01

    We estimated the dosimetry of (18)F-alfatide II with the method established by MIRD based on biodistribution data of mice. Six mice (three females and three males) were scanned for 160min on an Inveon MicroPET/CT scanner after injection of (18)F-alfatide II via tail vein. Eight source organs were delineated on the CT images and their residence times calculated. The data was then converted to human using scaling factors based on organ and body weight. The absorbed doses for human and the resulting effective dose were computed by OLINDA 1.1 software. The highest absorbed doses was observed in urinary bladder wall (male 0.102mGy/MBq, female 0.147mGy/MBq); and the lowest one was detected in brain (male 0.0030mGy/MBq, female 0.0036). The total effective doses were 0.0127mSv/MBq for male and 0.0166 mSv/MBq for female, respectively. A 370-MBq injection of (18)F-alfatide II led to an estimated effective dose of 4.70mSv for male and 6.14mSv for female. The potential radiation burden associated with (18)F-alfatide II/PET imaging therefore is comparable to other PET examinations. PMID:26218449

  10. Radiation effects in space

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented. (ACR)

  11. Medical radiation exposure and accidents. Dosimetry and radiation protection. Do we only benefit the patient?

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip; Lyra, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This article presents and discusses new information on the old Hippocratic moto of "...not to harm but to benefit the patient". Some radiation accidents are due to medical errors. Millions of medical tests exposing radiation are performed every day worldwide increasing and sometimes exceeding the annual permissible dose administered to the general population. Public authorities are now seriously concerned about medical radiation overused. In U.S.A. both the House of Representatives and the Food and Drug Administration have recently delt with this problem. Others and we have suggested before and the International Atomic Energy Agency now proposes: a "Smart Card" for every individual who receives medical radiation. In this card the amount of medical radiation administered will be recorded. It is time to issue rules for protection of the public from medical radiation overdose. PMID:20808982

  12. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  13. All about MAX: a male adult voxel phantom for Monte Carlo calculations in radiation protection dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, R.; Vieira, J. W.; Khoury, H. J.; Lima, F. R. A.; Fuelle, D.

    2003-05-01

    The MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantom has been developed from existing segmented images of a male adult body, in order to achieve a representation as close as possible to the anatomical properties of the reference adult male specified by the ICRP. The study describes the adjustments of the soft-tissue organ masses, a new dosimetric model for the skin, a new model for skeletal dosimetry and a computational exposure model based on coupling the MAX phantom with the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Conversion coefficients between equivalent dose to the red bone marrow as well as effective MAX dose and air-kerma free in air for external photon irradiation from the front and from the back, respectively, are presented and compared with similar data from other human phantoms.

  14. Radiochromic film for medical radiation dosimetry Martin J. Butsona,b

    E-print Network

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    such as temperature increase yield of a chemical reaction G, or the average energy required for the production increases in proportion to energy absorbed, are considered primary standard dosimeters. Other dosimeters examples are calorimetry, ionometric dosimetry and chemical dosimetry. In these techniques, a constant

  15. 1990 IEEE Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 27th, Reno, NV, July 16-20, 1990, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleetwood, Daniel M. (editor)

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on nuclear and space radiation effects are presented. The general topics addressed include: basic mechanisms of radiation effects, dosimetry and energy-dependent effects, hardness assurance and testing techniques, single-event upset and latchup, isolation technologies, device and integrated circuit effects and hardening, spacecraft charging and electromagnetic effects.

  16. Background radiation and individual dosimetry in the costal area of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Naoki; Brahmanandhan, G M; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takamura, Noboru; Suyama, Akihiko; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Juto, Norimichi; Raj, Y Lenin; Winsley, Godwin; Selvasekarapandian, S

    2011-07-01

    South coast of India is known as the high-level background radiation area (HBRA) mainly due to beach sands that contain natural radionuclides as components of the mineral monazite. The rich deposit of monazite is unevenly distributed along the coastal belt of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. An HBRA site that laid in 2×7 m along the sea was found in the beach of Chinnavillai, Tamil Nadu, where the maximum ambient dose equivalent reached as high as 162.7 mSv y(-1). From the sands collected at the HBRA spot, the high-purity germanium semi-conductor detector identified six nuclides of thorium series, four nuclides of uranium series and two nuclides belonging to actinium series. The highest radioactivity observed was 43.7 Bq g(-1) of Th-228. The individual dose of five inhabitants in Chinnavillai, as measured by the radiophotoluminescence glass dosimetry system, demonstrated the average dose of 7.17 mSv y(-1) ranging from 2.79 to 14.17 mSv y(-1). PMID:21502300

  17. On application of low doses from beta radiation source in OSL retrospective dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przegietka, K.; Chruscinska, A.

    2014-11-01

    The paper reports on three levels of dose rates obtainable from single beta source: (133±3) mGy/s, (17.8±0.3) mGy/s and (1.94±0.04) mGy/s, as calibrated for quartz sand grains. These values were achieved for different attenuation stages of beta radiation emitted by standard 90Sr/90Y source with the nominal activity of 1.48 GBq attached to an automatic luminescence reader. Lower dose rates give opportunity for exact dosing, which is especially required in luminescence dating applied to young samples as well as in environmental dosimetry. Moreover new method for determining time lag in opening the source in the Riso beta irradiator is presented. This allowed to resolve the contradiction appearing in the literature. The time delay was found to be (0.15±0.01) s per single irradiation. For improving accuracy the dose rate correction is suggest to be taken into account for irradiations shorter than 30 s.

  18. Highly sensitive Europium doped SrSO4 OSL nanophosphor for radiation dosimetry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patle, Anita; Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Bhatt, B. C.; Moharil, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    Highly sensitive Europium doped SrSO4 optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) phosphor was developed by synthesizing a nano phosphor which is treated at 1000 °C. Excellent OSL properties are observed in the developed phosphor and the sensitivity is found to be 1.26 times to that of the commercial Al2O3:C (Landauer Inc.) phosphor based on area integration method. The sample showed a single TL glow peak around 230 °C which is found to reduce by 47% after the OSL readout. Sublinear dose response with the saturation around 100 mGy is observed in this sample which suggests that it is extremely sensitive and hence will be suitable in detecting very low dose levels. Minimum measurable dose on the used set up is estimated to be 1.42 ?Gy. Practically no fading is observed for first ten days and the phosphor has excellent reusability. High sensitivity, low fading, excellent reusability will make this phosphor suitable for radiation dosimetry applications using OSL.

  19. Radiation risk assessment in neonatal radiographic examinations of the chest and abdomen: a clinical and Monte Carlo dosimetry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makri, T.; Yakoumakis, E.; Papadopoulou, D.; Gialousis, G.; Theodoropoulos, V.; Sandilos, P.; Georgiou, E.

    2006-10-01

    Seeking to assess the radiation risk associated with radiological examinations in neonatal intensive care units, thermo-luminescence dosimetry was used for the measurement of entrance surface dose (ESD) in 44 AP chest and 28 AP combined chest-abdominal exposures of a sample of 60 neonates. The mean values of ESD were found to be equal to 44 ± 16 µGy and 43 ± 19 µGy, respectively. The MCNP-4C2 code with a mathematical phantom simulating a neonate and appropriate x-ray energy spectra were employed for the simulation of the AP chest and AP combined chest-abdominal exposures. Equivalent organ dose per unit ESD and energy imparted per unit ESD calculations are presented in tabular form. Combined with ESD measurements, these calculations yield an effective dose of 10.2 ± 3.7 µSv, regardless of sex, and an imparted energy of 18.5 ± 6.7 µJ for the chest radiograph. The corresponding results for the combined chest-abdominal examination are 14.7 ± 7.6 µSv (males)/17.2 ± 7.6 µSv (females) and 29.7 ± 13.2 µJ. The calculated total risk per radiograph was low, ranging between 1.7 and 2.9 per million neonates, per film, and being slightly higher for females. Results of this study are in good agreement with previous studies, especially in view of the diversity met in the calculation methods.

  20. Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 17th, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., July 15-18, 1980, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarrity, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    The conference covered the radiation effects on devices, circuits, and systems, physics and basic radiation effects in materials, dosimetry and radiation transport, spacecraft charging, and space radiation effects. Other subjects included single particle upset phenomena, systems-generated electromagnetic pulse phenomena, fabrication of hardened components, testing techniques, and hardness assurance.

  1. Digital holographic interferometry: A novel optical calorimetry technique for radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Cavan, Alicia; Meyer, Juergen

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To develop and demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a novel optical calorimetry method to determine radiation absorbed dose in a transparent medium. Methods: The calorimetric property of water is measured during irradiation by means of an interferometer, which detects temperature-induced changes in the refractive index that can be mathematically related to absorbed dose. The proposed method uses a technique called digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which comprises an optical laser interferometer setup and consecutive physical reconstruction of the recorded wave fronts by means of the Fresnel transform. This paper describes the conceptual framework and provides the mathematical basis for DHI dosimetry. Dose distributions from a high dose rate Brachytherapy source were measured by a prototype optical setup to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. Results: The developed DHI dosimeter successfully determined absorbed dose distributions in water in the region adjacent to a high dose rate Brachytherapy source. A temperature change of 0.0381 K across a distance of 6.8 mm near the source was measured, corresponding to a dose of 159.3 Gy. The standard deviation in a typical measurement set was ±3.45 Gy (corresponding to an uncertainty in the temperature value of ±8.3 × 10{sup ?4} K). The relative dose fall off was in agreement with treatment planning system modeled data. Conclusions: First results with a prototype optical setup and a Brachytherapy source demonstrate the proof-of-principle of the approach. The prototype achieves high spatial resolution of approximately 3 × 10{sup ?5} m. The general approach is fundamentally independent of the radiation type and energy. The sensitivity range determined indicates that the method is predominantly suitable for high dose rate applications. Further work is required to determine absolute dose in all three dimensions.

  2. Radiation effects in space

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. NASA astronaut dosimetry: Implementation of scalable human phantoms and benchmark comparisons of deterministic versus Monte Carlo radiation transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadori, Amir Alexander

    Astronauts are exposed to a unique radiation environment in space. United States terrestrial radiation worker limits, derived from guidelines produced by scientific panels, do not apply to astronauts. Limits for astronauts have changed throughout the Space Age, eventually reaching the current National Aeronautics and Space Administration limit of 3% risk of exposure induced death, with an administrative stipulation that the risk be assured to the upper 95% confidence limit. Much effort has been spent on reducing the uncertainty associated with evaluating astronaut risk for radiogenic cancer mortality, while tools that affect the accuracy of the calculations have largely remained unchanged. In the present study, the impacts of using more realistic computational phantoms with size variability to represent astronauts with simplified deterministic radiation transport were evaluated. Next, the impacts of microgravity-induced body changes on space radiation dosimetry using the same transport method were investigated. Finally, dosimetry and risk calculations resulting from Monte Carlo radiation transport were compared with results obtained using simplified deterministic radiation transport. The results of the present study indicated that the use of phantoms that more accurately represent human anatomy can substantially improve space radiation dose estimates, most notably for exposures from solar particle events under light shielding conditions. Microgravity-induced changes were less important, but results showed that flexible phantoms could assist in optimizing astronaut body position for reducing exposures during solar particle events. Finally, little overall differences in risk calculations using simplified deterministic radiation transport and 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport were found; however, for the galactic cosmic ray ion spectra, compensating errors were observed for the constituent ions, thus exhibiting the need to perform evaluations on a particle differential basis with common cross-section libraries.

  4. SU-E-J-17: A Study of Accelerator-Induced Cerenkov Radiation as a Beam Diagnostic and Dosimetry Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, F; Tosh, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate accelerator-induced Cerenkov radiation imaging as a possible beam diagnostic and medical dosimetry tool. Methods: Cerenkov emission produced by clinical accelerator beams in a water phantom was imaged using a camera system comprised of a high-sensitivity thermoelectrically-cooled CCD camera coupled to a large aperture (f/0.75) objective lens with 16:1 magnification. This large format lens allows a significant amount of the available Cerenkov light to be collected and focused onto the CCD camera to form the image. Preliminary images, obtained with 6 MV photon beams, used an unshielded camera mounted horizontally with the beam normal to the water surface, and confirmed the detection of Cerenkov radiation. Several improvements were subsequently made including the addition of radiation shielding around the camera, and altering of the beam and camera angles to give a more favorable geometry for Cerenkov light collection. A detailed study was then undertaken over a range of electron and photon beam energies and dose rates to investigate the possibility of using this technique for beam diagnostics and dosimetry. Results: A series of images were obtained at a fixed dose rate over a range of electron energies from 6 to 20 MeV. The location of maximum intensity was found to vary linearly with the energy of the beam. A linear relationship was also found between the light observed from a fixed point on the central axis and the dose rate for both photon and electron beams. Conclusion: We have found that the analysis of images of beam-induced Cerenkov light in a water phantom has potential for use as a beam diagnostic and medical dosimetry tool. Our future goals include the calibration of the light output in terms of radiation dose and development of a tomographic system for 3D Cerenkov imaging in water phantoms and other media.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: A review of dosimetry studies on external-beam radiation treatment with respect to second cancer induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. George; Bednarz, Bryan; Paganetti, Harald

    2008-07-01

    It has been long known that patients treated with ionizing radiation carry a risk of developing a second cancer in their lifetimes. Factors contributing to the recently renewed concern about the second cancer include improved cancer survival rate, younger patient population as well as emerging treatment modalities such as intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) and proton therapy that can potentially elevate secondary exposures to healthy tissues distant from the target volume. In the past 30 years, external-beam treatment technologies have evolved significantly, and a large amount of data exist but appear to be difficult to comprehend and compare. This review article aims to provide readers with an understanding of the principles and methods related to scattered doses in radiation therapy by summarizing a large collection of dosimetry and clinical studies. Basic concepts and terminology are introduced at the beginning. That is followed by a comprehensive review of dosimetry studies for external-beam treatment modalities including classical radiation therapy, 3D-conformal x-ray therapy, intensity-modulated x-ray therapy (IMRT and tomotherapy) and proton therapy. Selected clinical data on second cancer induction among radiotherapy patients are also covered. Problems in past studies and controversial issues are discussed. The needs for future studies are presented at the end.

  6. A review of dosimetry studies on external-beam radiation treatment with respect to second cancer induction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X George; Bednarz, Bryan; Paganetti, Harald

    2014-01-01

    It has been long known that patients treated with ionizing radiation carry a risk of developing a second cancer in their lifetimes. Factors contributing to the recently renewed concern about the second cancer include improved cancer survival rate, younger patient population as well as emerging treatment modalities such as intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) and proton therapy that can potentially elevate secondary exposures to healthy tissues distant from the target volume. In the past 30 years, external-beam treatment technologies have evolved significantly, and a large amount of data exist but appear to be difficult to comprehend and compare. This review article aims to provide readers with an understanding of the principles and methods related to scattered doses in radiation therapy by summarizing a large collection of dosimetry and clinical studies. Basic concepts and terminology are introduced at the beginning. That is followed by a comprehensive review of dosimetry studies for external-beam treatment modalities including classical radiation therapy, 3D-conformal x-ray therapy, intensity-modulated x-ray therapy (IMRT and tomotherapy) and proton therapy. Selected clinical data on second cancer induction among radiotherapy patients are also covered. Problems in past studies and controversial issues are discussed. The needs for future studies are presented at the end. PMID:18540047

  7. Dosimetry for a study of effects of 2. 45-GHz microwaves on mouse testis

    SciTech Connect

    Cairnie, A.B.; Hill, D.A.; Assenheim, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of microwave radiation on the testis, it is necessary to express the physical insult in animal studies in a way that can be replicated elsewhere and ultimately used as a basis for extrapolation to man. However, there is conflict--especially in chronic experiments--between the desire for precise dosimetry and the need to minimise alteration of the normal physiological functions of the animals. The compromise arrangement used in this study was to house the mice singly, in cages with limited food and water, and to irradiate them for up to 30 days (16 h/day) in an anechoic chamber. The only measurements taken routinely were of power density in the positions normally occupied by the cages. In addition, a series of absorption measurements was made in mouse carcasses: Whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR); energy-deposition patterns (determined thermographically); and local SAR in testis (using a miniature electric (E)-field probe). It was concluded that the SAR in testis was considerably less than the whole-body SAR. Exposure for 16 h at 50 mW/cm2 elevated rectal but not testis temperature, thus demonstrating the ability of the conscious mouse to regulate the temperature of its testis.

  8. Video-rate optical dosimetry and dynamic visualization of IMRT and VMAT treatment plans in water using Cherenkov radiation

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Adam K.; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Scott C.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W.; Fox, Colleen J.; Gladstone, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A novel technique for optical dosimetry of dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced Cherenkov radiation in water. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire a two-dimensional (2D) projection image of the Cherenkov radiation induced by IMRT and VMAT plans, based on the Task Group 119 (TG-119) C-Shape geometry. Plans were generated using the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) and delivered using 6 MV x-rays from a Varian TrueBeam Linear Accelerator (Linac) incident on a water tank doped with the fluorophore quinine sulfate. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the Linac target trigger pulse to reduce background light artifacts, read out for a single radiation pulse, and binned to a resolution of 512 × 512 pixels. The resulting videos were analyzed temporally for various regions of interest (ROI) covering the planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risk (OAR), and summed to obtain an overall light intensity distribution, which was compared to the expected dose distribution from the TPS using a gamma-index analysis. Results: The chosen camera settings resulted in 23.5 frames per second dosimetry videos. Temporal intensity plots of the PTV and OAR ROIs confirmed the preferential delivery of dose to the PTV versus the OAR, and the gamma analysis yielded 95.9% and 96.2% agreement between the experimentally captured Cherenkov light distribution and expected TPS dose distribution based upon a 3%/3 mm dose difference and distance-to-agreement criterion for the IMRT and VMAT plans, respectively. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of Cherenkov radiation for video-rate optical dosimetry of dynamic IMRT and VMAT treatment plans. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods including the real-time nature of the acquisition, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method with both research and clinical applications. PMID:24877829

  9. Video-rate optical dosimetry and dynamic visualization of IMRT and VMAT treatment plans in water using Cherenkov radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, Adam K. E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Scott C.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W. E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu; Fox, Colleen J.; Gladstone, David J.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A novel technique for optical dosimetry of dynamic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced Cherenkov radiation in water. Methods: A high-sensitivity, intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was configured to acquire a two-dimensional (2D) projection image of the Cherenkov radiation induced by IMRT and VMAT plans, based on the Task Group 119 (TG-119) C-Shape geometry. Plans were generated using the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) and delivered using 6 MV x-rays from a Varian TrueBeam Linear Accelerator (Linac) incident on a water tank doped with the fluorophore quinine sulfate. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the Linac target trigger pulse to reduce background light artifacts, read out for a single radiation pulse, and binned to a resolution of 512 × 512 pixels. The resulting videos were analyzed temporally for various regions of interest (ROI) covering the planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risk (OAR), and summed to obtain an overall light intensity distribution, which was compared to the expected dose distribution from the TPS using a gamma-index analysis. Results: The chosen camera settings resulted in 23.5 frames per second dosimetry videos. Temporal intensity plots of the PTV and OAR ROIs confirmed the preferential delivery of dose to the PTV versus the OAR, and the gamma analysis yielded 95.9% and 96.2% agreement between the experimentally captured Cherenkov light distribution and expected TPS dose distribution based upon a 3%/3 mm dose difference and distance-to-agreement criterion for the IMRT and VMAT plans, respectively. Conclusions: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of Cherenkov radiation for video-rate optical dosimetry of dynamic IMRT and VMAT treatment plans. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods including the real-time nature of the acquisition, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method with both research and clinical applications.

  10. Potential of Hybrid Computational Phantoms for Retrospective Heart Dosimetry After Breast Radiation Therapy: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moignier, Alexandra; Derreumaux, Sylvie; Broggio, David; Beurrier, Julien; Chea, Michel; Boisserie, Gilbert; Franck, Didier; Aubert, Bernard; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Current retrospective cardiovascular dosimetry studies are based on a representative patient or simple mathematic phantoms. Here, a process of patient modeling was developed to personalize the anatomy of the thorax and to include a heart model with coronary arteries. Methods and Materials: The patient models were hybrid computational phantoms (HCPs) with an inserted detailed heart model. A computed tomography (CT) acquisition (pseudo-CT) was derived from HCP and imported into a treatment planning system where treatment conditions were reproduced. Six current patients were selected: 3 were modeled from their CT images (A patients) and the others were modelled from 2 orthogonal radiographs (B patients). The method performance and limitation were investigated by quantitative comparison between the initial CT and the pseudo-CT, namely, the morphology and the dose calculation were compared. For the B patients, a comparison with 2 kinds of representative patients was also conducted. Finally, dose assessment was focused on the whole coronary artery tree and the left anterior descending coronary. Results: When 3-dimensional anatomic information was available, the dose calculations performed on the initial CT and the pseudo-CT were in good agreement. For the B patients, comparison of doses derived from HCP and representative patients showed that the HCP doses were either better or equivalent. In the left breast radiation therapy context and for the studied cases, coronary mean doses were at least 5-fold higher than heart mean doses. Conclusions: For retrospective dose studies, it is suggested that HCP offers a better surrogate, in terms of dose accuracy, than representative patients. The use of a detailed heart model eliminates the problem of identifying the coronaries on the patient's CT.

  11. Radiation: Doses, Effects, Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lean, Geoffrey, Ed.

    Few scientific issues arouse as much public controversy as the effects of radiation. This booklet is an attempt to summarize what is known about radiation and provide a basis for further discussion and debate. The first four chapters of the booklet are based on the most recent reports to the United Nations' General Assembly by the United Nations…

  12. Microcircuit radiation effects databank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Radiation test data submitted by many testers is collated to serve as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. Total dose damage information and single event upset cross sections, i.e., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup) are presented.

  13. The effect of very small air gaps on small field dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, P. H.; Crowe, S. B.; Kairn, T.; Kenny, J.; Lehmann, J.; Lye, J.; Dunn, L.; Hill, B.; Knight, R. T.; Langton, C. M.; Trapp, J. V.

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of very small air gaps (less than 1 mm) on the dosimetry of small photon fields used for stereotactic treatments. Measurements were performed with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) for 6 MV photons on a Varian 21iX linear accelerator with a Brainlab µMLC attachment for square field sizes down to 6 mm × 6 mm. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using EGSnrc C++ user code cavity. It was found that the Monte Carlo model used in this study accurately simulated the OSLD measurements on the linear accelerator. For the 6 mm field size, the 0.5 mm air gap upstream to the active area of the OSLD caused a 5.3% dose reduction relative to a Monte Carlo simulation with no air gap. A hypothetical 0.2 mm air gap caused a dose reduction >2%, emphasizing the fact that even the tiniest air gaps can cause a large reduction in measured dose. The negligible effect on an 18 mm field size illustrated that the electronic disequilibrium caused by such small air gaps only affects the dosimetry of the very small fields. When performing small field dosimetry, care must be taken to avoid any air gaps, as can be often present when inserting detectors into solid phantoms. It is recommended that very small field dosimetry is performed in liquid water. When using small photon fields, sub-millimetre air gaps can also affect patient dosimetry if they cannot be spatially resolved on a CT scan. However the effect on the patient is debatable as the dose reduction caused by a 1 mm air gap, starting out at 19% in the first 0.1 mm behind the air gap, decreases to <5% after just 2 mm, and electronic equilibrium is fully re-established after just 5 mm.

  14. [Genetic effects of radiation].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nori

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a short review of genetic effect of radiation. This includes methods and results of a large-scale genetic study on specific loci in mice and of various studies in the offspring of atomic-bomb survivors. As for the latter, there is no results obtained which suggest the effect of parental exposure to radiation. Further, in recent years, studies are conducted to the offspring born to parents who were survivors of childhood cancers. In several reports, the mean gonad dose is quite large whereas in most instances, the results do not indicate genetic effect following parental exposure to radiation. Possible reasons for the difficulties in detecting genetic effect of radiation are discussed. PMID:22514926

  15. Computational lymphatic node models in pediatric and adult hybrid phantoms for radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choonsik; Lamart, Stephanie; Moroz, Brian E

    2013-03-01

    We developed models of lymphatic nodes for six pediatric and two adult hybrid computational phantoms to calculate the lymphatic node dose estimates from external and internal radiation exposures. We derived the number of lymphatic nodes from the recommendations in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 23 and 89 at 16 cluster locations for the lymphatic nodes: extrathoracic, cervical, thoracic (upper and lower), breast (left and right), mesentery (left and right), axillary (left and right), cubital (left and right), inguinal (left and right) and popliteal (left and right), for different ages (newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-year-old and adult). We modeled each lymphatic node within the voxel format of the hybrid phantoms by assuming that all nodes have identical size derived from published data except narrow cluster sites. The lymph nodes were generated by the following algorithm: (1) selection of the lymph node site among the 16 cluster sites; (2) random sampling of the location of the lymph node within a spherical space centered at the chosen cluster site; (3) creation of the sphere or ovoid of tissue representing the node based on lymphatic node characteristics defined in ICRP Publications 23 and 89. We created lymph nodes until the pre-defined number of lymphatic nodes at the selected cluster site was reached. This algorithm was applied to pediatric (newborn, 1-, 5-and 10-year-old male, and 15-year-old males) and adult male and female ICRP-compliant hybrid phantoms after voxelization. To assess the performance of our models for internal dosimetry, we calculated dose conversion coefficients, called S values, for selected organs and tissues with Iodine-131 distributed in six lymphatic node cluster sites using MCNPX2.6, a well validated Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Our analysis of the calculations indicates that the S values were significantly affected by the location of the lymph node clusters and that the values increased for smaller phantoms due to the shorter inter-organ distances compared to the bigger phantoms. By testing sensitivity of S values to random sampling and voxel resolution, we confirmed that the lymph node model is reasonably stable and consistent for different random samplings and voxel resolutions. PMID:23391692

  16. Computational lymphatic node models in pediatric and adult hybrid phantoms for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lamart, Stephanie; Moroz, Brian E.

    2013-03-01

    We developed models of lymphatic nodes for six pediatric and two adult hybrid computational phantoms to calculate the lymphatic node dose estimates from external and internal radiation exposures. We derived the number of lymphatic nodes from the recommendations in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 23 and 89 at 16 cluster locations for the lymphatic nodes: extrathoracic, cervical, thoracic (upper and lower), breast (left and right), mesentery (left and right), axillary (left and right), cubital (left and right), inguinal (left and right) and popliteal (left and right), for different ages (newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-year-old and adult). We modeled each lymphatic node within the voxel format of the hybrid phantoms by assuming that all nodes have identical size derived from published data except narrow cluster sites. The lymph nodes were generated by the following algorithm: (1) selection of the lymph node site among the 16 cluster sites; (2) random sampling of the location of the lymph node within a spherical space centered at the chosen cluster site; (3) creation of the sphere or ovoid of tissue representing the node based on lymphatic node characteristics defined in ICRP Publications 23 and 89. We created lymph nodes until the pre-defined number of lymphatic nodes at the selected cluster site was reached. This algorithm was applied to pediatric (newborn, 1-, 5-and 10-year-old male, and 15-year-old males) and adult male and female ICRP-compliant hybrid phantoms after voxelization. To assess the performance of our models for internal dosimetry, we calculated dose conversion coefficients, called S values, for selected organs and tissues with Iodine-131 distributed in six lymphatic node cluster sites using MCNPX2.6, a well validated Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Our analysis of the calculations indicates that the S values were significantly affected by the location of the lymph node clusters and that the values increased for smaller phantoms due to the shorter inter-organ distances compared to the bigger phantoms. By testing sensitivity of S values to random sampling and voxel resolution, we confirmed that the lymph node model is reasonably stable and consistent for different random samplings and voxel resolutions.

  17. The UF family of reference hybrid phantoms for computational radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Hurtado, Jorge; Pafundi, Deanna; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2010-01-01

    Computational human phantoms are computer models used to obtain dose distributions within the human body exposed to internal or external radiation sources. In addition, they are increasingly used to develop detector efficiencies for in vivo whole-body counters. Two classes of computational human phantoms have been widely utilized for dosimetry calculation: stylized and voxel phantoms that describe human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Stylized phantoms are flexible in that changes to organ position and shape are possible given avoidance of region overlap, while voxel phantoms are typically fixed to a given patient anatomy, yet can be proportionally scaled to match individuals of larger or smaller stature, but of equivalent organ anatomy. Voxel phantoms provide much better anatomical realism as compared to stylized phantoms which are intrinsically limited by mathematical surface equations. To address the drawbacks of these phantoms, hybrid phantoms based on non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces have been introduced wherein anthropomorphic flexibility and anatomic realism are both preserved. Researchers at the University of Florida have introduced a series of hybrid phantoms representing the ICRP Publication 89 reference newborn, 15 year, and adult male and female. In this study, six additional phantoms are added to the UF family of hybrid phantoms—those of the reference 1 year, 5 year and 10 year child. Head and torso CT images of patients whose ages were close to the targeted ages were obtained under approved protocols. Major organs and tissues were segmented from these images using an image processing software, 3D-DOCTOR™. NURBS and polygon mesh surfaces were then used to model individual organs and tissues after importing the segmented organ models to the 3D NURBS modeling software, Rhinoceros™. The phantoms were matched to four reference datasets: (1) standard anthropometric data, (2) reference organ masses from ICRP Publication 89, (3) reference elemental compositions provided in ICRP 89 as well as ICRU Report 46, and (4) reference data on the alimentary tract organs given in ICRP Publications 89 and 100. Various adjustments and refinements to the organ systems of the previously described newborn, 15 year and adult phantoms are also presented. The UF series of hybrid phantoms retain the non-uniform scalability of stylized phantoms while maintaining the anatomical realism of patient-specific voxel phantoms with respect to organ shape, depth and inter-organ distance. While the final versions of these phantoms are in a voxelized format for radiation transport simulation, their primary format is given as NURBS and polygon mesh surfaces, thus permitting one to sculpt non-reference phantoms using the reference phantoms as an anatomic template.

  18. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2005-02-25

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database.

  19. A computational tool for patient specific dosimetry and radiobiological modeling of selective internal radiation therapy with (90)Y microspheres.

    PubMed

    Kalantzis, Georgios; Leventouri, Theodora; Apte, Aditiya; Shang, Charles

    2015-11-01

    In recent years we have witnessed tremendous progress in selective internal radiation therapy. In clinical practice, quite often, radionuclide therapy is planned using simple models based on standard activity values or activity administered per unit body weight or surface area in spite of the admission that radiation-dose methods provide more accurate dosimetric results. To address that issue, the authors developed a Matlab-based computational software, named Patient Specific Yttrium-90 Dosimetry Toolkit (PSYDT). PSYDT was designed for patient specific voxel-based dosimetric calculations and radiobiological modeling of selective internal radiation therapy with (90)Y microspheres. The developed toolkit is composed of three dimensional dose calculations for both bremsstrahlung and beta emissions. Subsequently, radiobiological modeling is performed on a per-voxel basis and cumulative dose volume histograms (DVHs) are generated. In this report we describe the functionality and visualization features of PSYDT. PMID:26296058

  20. 1988 IEEE Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 25th, Portland, OR, July 12-15, 1988, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, Peter G. (editor)

    1988-01-01

    The effects of nuclear and space radiation on the performance of electronic devices are discussed in reviews and reports of recent investigations. Topics addressed include the basic mechanisms of radiation effects, dosimetry and energy-dependent effects, sensors in and for radiation environments, EMP/SGEMP/IEMP phenomena, radiation effects on isolation technologies, and spacecraft charging and space radiation effects. Consideration is given to device radiation effects and hardening, hardness assurance and testing techniques, IC radiation effects and hardening, and single-event phenomena.

  1. 3D dosimetry estimation for selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using SPECT/CT images: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debebe, Senait A.; Franquiz, Juan; McGoron, Anthony J.

    2015-03-01

    Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a common way to treat liver cancer that cannot be treated surgically. SIRT involves administration of Yttrium - 90 (90Y) microspheres via the hepatic artery after a diagnostic procedure using 99mTechnetium (Tc)-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) to detect extrahepatic shunting to the lung or the gastrointestinal tract. Accurate quantification of radionuclide administered to patients and radiation dose absorbed by different organs is of importance in SIRT. Accurate dosimetry for SIRT allows optimization of dose delivery to the target tumor and may allow for the ability to assess the efficacy of the treatment. In this study, we proposed a method that can efficiently estimate radiation absorbed dose from 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT images of liver and the surrounding organs. Bremsstrahlung radiation from 90Y was simulated using the Compton window of 99mTc (78keV at 57%). 99mTc images acquired at the photopeak energy window were used as a standard to examine the accuracy of dosimetry prediction by the simulated bremsstrahlung images. A Liqui-Phil abdominal phantom with liver, stomach and two tumor inserts was imaged using a Philips SPECT/CT scanner. The Dose Point Kernel convolution method was used to find the radiation absorbed dose at a voxel level for a three dimensional dose distribution. This method will allow for a complete estimate of the distribution of radiation absorbed dose by tumors, liver, stomach and other surrounding organs at the voxel level. The method provides a quantitative predictive method for SIRT treatment outcome and administered dose response for patients who undergo the treatment.

  2. An evaluation of gender-based weighting factors for internal dosimetry 

    E-print Network

    Spiars, Joanna Hamilton

    1994-01-01

    This study assesses gender effects on radiation dose weighting factors used in internal dosimetry. A weighting factor represents the relative contribution of a particular organ or tissue to the total detriment due to the effects from uniform whole...

  3. Final Report Summary: Radiation dosimetry of Cu-64-labeled radiotherapy agents using PET [Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Carolyn J.; Cutler, P.D.

    2002-09-01

    This project began in 1996, and was completed in July 2001. The overall goals were to compare various methods of dosimetry of PET imaging agents, as well as develop more optimal methods. One of the major accomplishments of this grant was the human PET imaging studies of a positron-emitting radiopharmaceutical for somatostatin-receptor imaging, and subsequent dosimetry calculations resulting from this study. In addition, we collaborated with Darrell Fisher and Edmund Hui to develop a MIRD-hamster program for calculating hamster organ and tumor dosimetry in hamster models. Progress was made towards a point kernel approach to more accurately determining absorbed doses to normal organs, as well as towards co-registration of PET and MRI images. This report focuses on the progress made in the last 15 months of the grant, which in general is a summary of the progress over the 5 years the project was ongoing.

  4. Study of the secondary neutral radiation in proton therapy: Toward an indirect in vivo dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Carnicer, A.; Letellier, V.; Rucka, G.; Angellier, G.; Sauerwein, W.; Herault, J.

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Secondary particles produced in the collision of protons with beam modifiers are of concern in proton therapy. Nevertheless, secondary radiation can provide information on the dosimetric parameters through its dependency on the modulating accessories (range shifter and range modulating wheel). Relatively little data have been reported in the literature for low-energy proton beams. The present study aims at characterizing the neutron and photon secondary radiation at the low-energy proton therapy facility of the Centre Antoine Lacassagne (CAL), and studying their correlation to the dosimetric parameters to explore possible practical uses of secondary radiation in the treatment quality for proton therapy. Methods: The Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used to simulate the proton therapy facility at CAL. Neutron and photon fluence, {Phi}, and ambient dose equivalent per proton dose, H*(10)/D, were determined across the horizontal main plane spanning the whole treatment room. H*(10)/D was also calculated at two positions of the treatment room where dosimetric measurements were performed for validation of the Monte Carlo calculations. Calculations and measurements were extended to 100 clinical spread-out Bragg Peaks (SOBPs) covering the whole range of therapeutic dose rates (D/MU) employed at CAL. In addition, the values of D and MU were also calculated for each SOBP and the results analyzed to study the relationship between secondary radiation and dosimetric parameters. Results: The largest production of the secondary particles takes place at the modulating devices and the brass collimators located along the optical bench. Along the beam line and off the beam axis to 2.5 m away, H*(10)/D values ranged from 5.4 {mu}Sv/Gy to 5.3 mSv/Gy for neutrons, and were 1 order of magnitude lower for photons. H*(10)/D varied greatly with the distance and angle to the beam axis. A variation of a factor of 5 was found for the different range of modulations (SOBPs). The ratios between calculations and measurements were 2.3 and 0.5 for neutrons and photons, respectively, and remained constant for all the range of SOBPs studied, which provided validation for the Monte Carlo calculations. H*(10)/D values were found to correlate to the proton dose rate D/MU with a power fit, both for neutrons and photons. This result was exploited to implement a system to obtain D/MU values from the measurement of the integrated photon ambient dose equivalent H*(10) during treatment, which provides a method to control the dosimetric parameters D/MU and D. Conclusions: The treatment room at CAL is moderately polluted by secondary particles. The constant ratio between measurements and calculations for all SOBPs showed that simulations correctly predict the dosimetric parameters and the dependence of the production of secondary particles on the modulation. The correlation between H*(10)/D and D/MU is a useful tool for quality control and is currently used at CAL. This system works as an indirect in vivo dosimetry method, which is so far not feasible in proton therapy. This tool requires very simple instrumentation and can be implemented from the measurement of either photons or neutrons.

  5. Radiation Effects In Space

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Ram K.

    2011-06-01

    Protecting space missions from severe exposures from radiation, in general, and long duration/deep space human missions, in particular, is a critical design driver, and could be a limiting factor. The space radiation environment consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar particle events (SPE), trapped radiation, and includes ions of all the known elements over a very broad energy range. These ions penetrate spacecraft materials producing nuclear fragments and secondary particles that damage biological tissues and microelectronic devices. One is required to know how every element (and all isotopes of each element) in the periodic table interacts and fragments on every other element in the same table as a function of kinetic energy ranging over many decades. In addition, the accuracy of the input information and database, in general and nuclear data in particular, impacts radiation exposure health assessments and payload penalty. After a brief review of effects of space radiation on materials and electronics, human space missions to Mars is discussed.

  6. Summary of radiation dosimetry results on U.S. and Soviet manned spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Benton, E V

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of the radiation environment aboard U.S. and Soviet manned spacecraft are reviewed and summarized. Data obtained mostly from passive and some active radiation detectors now exist for the case of low Earth-orbit missions. Major uncertainties still exist for space exposure in high altitude, high inclination, geostationary orbits, in connection with solar effects and that of shielding. Data from active detectors flown in Spacelabs 1 and 2 suggest that a variety of phenomena must be understood before the effects of long-term exposure at the space-station type of orbit and shielding can be properly assessed. PMID:11537239

  7. Evaluation of The Combined Effects of Hyperthermia, Cobalt-60 Gamma Rays and IUdR on Cultured Glioblastoma Spheroid Cells and Dosimetry Using TLD-100

    PubMed Central

    Neshasteh-Riz, Ali; Rahdani, Rozhin; Mostaar, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objective In radiation treatment, the irradiation which is effective enough to control the tumors far exceeds normal-tissues tolerance. Thus to avoid such unfavourable outcomes, some methods sensitizing the tumor cells to radiation are used. Iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) is a halogenated thymidine analogue that known to be effective as a radiosensitizer in human cancer therapy. Improving the potential efficacy of radiation therapy after combining to hyperthermia depends on the magnitude of the differential sensitization of the hyperthermic effects or on the differential cytotoxicity of the radiation effects on the tumor cells. In this study, we evaluated the combined effects of IUdR, hyperthermia and gamma rays of 60Co on human glioblastoma spheroids culture. Materials and Methods In this experimental study,the cultured spheroids with 100µm diameter were treated by 1 µM IUdR, 43°C hyperthermia for an hour and 2 Gy gamma rays, respectively. The DNA damages induced in cells were compared using alkaline comet assay method, and dosimetry was then performed by TLD-100. Comet scores were calculated as mean ± standard error of mean (SEM) using one-way ANOVA. Results Comparison of DNA damages induced by IUdR and hyperthermia + gamma treatment showed 2.67- and 1.92-fold enhancement, respectively, as compared to the damages induced by radiation alone or radiation combined IUdR. Dosimetry results showed the accurate dose delivered to cells. Conclusion Analysis of the comet tail moments of spheroids showed that the radiation treatments combined with hyperthermia and IUdR caused significant radiosensitization when compared to related results of irradiation alone or of irradiation with IUdR. These results suggest a potential clinical advantage of combining radiation with hyperthermia and indicate effectiveness of hyperthermia treatment in inducing cytotoxicity of tumor cells. PMID:24611138

  8. 1991 IEEE Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 28th, San Diego, CA, July 15-19, 1991, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millward, Douglas G. (editor)

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on nuclear science are presented. The general topics addressed are: basic mechanisms of radiation effects, dosimetry and energy-dependent effects, isolation technologies, device radiation response and hardening, microcircuit radiation response and hardening, single-event phenomena, hardness assurance and testing techniques, spacecraft charging, space environments and effects.

  9. Microcircuit radiation effects databank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This databank is the collation of radiation test data submitted by many testers and serves as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. It contains radiation sensitivity results from ground tests and is divided into two sections. Section A lists total dose damage information, and section B lists single event upset cross sections, I.E., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup).

  10. Reactor Dosimetry Applications Using RAPTOR-M3G:. a New Parallel 3-D Radiation Transport Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longoni, Gianluca; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2009-08-01

    The numerical solution of the Linearized Boltzmann Equation (LBE) via the Discrete Ordinates method (SN) requires extensive computational resources for large 3-D neutron and gamma transport applications due to the concurrent discretization of the angular, spatial, and energy domains. This paper will discuss the development RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation - Multiple 3D Geometries), a new 3-D parallel radiation transport code, and its application to the calculation of ex-vessel neutron dosimetry responses in the cavity of a commercial 2-loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). RAPTOR-M3G is based domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architectures. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor, yielding an efficient solution methodology for large 3-D problems. Measured neutron dosimetry responses in the reactor cavity air gap will be compared to the RAPTOR-M3G predictions. This paper is organized as follows: Section 1 discusses the RAPTOR-M3G methodology; Section 2 describes the 2-loop PWR model and the numerical results obtained. Section 3 addresses the parallel performance of the code, and Section 4 concludes this paper with final remarks and future work.

  11. Water calorimetry-based radiation dosimetry in iridium-192 brachytherapy and proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarfehnia, Arman

    The aim of this work is to develop and evaluate a primary standard for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources as well as for active spot scanning proton radiotherapy beams based on stagnant 4 °C water calorimetry. The measurements were performed using an in-house built water calorimeter and a parallel-plate calorimeter vessel. The dose measurement results of the McGill calorimeter were validated in high energy photon beams against Canada's national established primary standard at the NRC. The measurements in brachytherapy were performed with a spring-loaded catheter holder which allowed for the 192Ir source to come directly inside the water calorimeter. The COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS(TM) software was used to solve the heat transport equation numerically for a detailed geometrical model of our experimental setup. In brachytherapy, reference dosimetry protocols were also developed and used to measure the dose to water directly using thimble type ionization chambers and Gafchromic films with traceable 60Co (or higher energy photons) calibration factor. Based on water calorimetry standard, we measured an absolute dose rate to water of 361+/-7 microGy/(h·U) at 55 mm source-to-detector separation. The 1.9 % uncertainty on water calorimetry results is in contrast with the current recommended AAPM TG-43 protocol that achieves at best an uncertainty (k=1) of 2.5 % based on an indirect dose to water measurement technique. All measurement results from water calorimetry, ion chamber, film, and TG-43 agreed to within 0.83 %. We achieved an overall dose uncertainty of 0.4 % and 0.6 % for scattered and scanned proton radiation water calorimetry, respectively. The water calorimetry absorbed dose to water results agreed with those obtained through the currently recommended IAEA TRS-398 protocol (measurements made using an ionization chamber with a 60Co calibration factor) to better than 0.14 % and 0.32 % in scattered and scanned proton beams, respectively. In conclusion, this work forms the foundation for a primary standard in 192Ir brachytherapy and scanning proton radiotherapy using water calorimetry. Not only have we been able to directly and absolute measure the absorbed dose to water, but the uncertainties of dose results over the current accepted protocols have been improved dramatically.

  12. Evaluation of a fast method of EPID-based dosimetry for intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Nelms, Benjamin E; Rasmussen, Karl H; Tome, Wolfgang A

    2010-01-01

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) could potentially be useful for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) QA. The data density, high resolution, large active area, and efficiency of the MV EPID make it an attractive option. However, EPIDs were designed as imaging devices, not dosimeters, and as a result they do not inherently measure dose in tissue equivalent media. EPIDose (Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL) is a tool designed for the use of EPIDs in IMRT QA that uses raw MV EPID images (no additional build-up and independent of gantry angle, but with dark and flood field corrections applied) to estimate absolute dose planes normal to the beam axis in a homogeneous media (i.e. similar to conventional IMRT QA methods). However, because of the inherent challenges of the EPID-based dosimetry, validating and commissioning such a system must be done very carefully, by exploring the range of use cases and using well-proven "standards" for comparison. In this work, a multi-institutional study was performed to verify accurate EPID image to dose plane conversion over a variety of conditions. Converted EPID images were compared to 2D diode array absolute dose measurements for 188 fields from 28 clinical IMRT treatment plans. These plans were generated using a number of commercially available treatment planning systems (TPS) covering various treatment sites including prostate, head and neck, brain, and lung. The data included three beam energies (6, 10, and 15 MV) and both step-and-shoot and dynamic MLC fields. Out of 26,207 points of comparison over 188 fields analyzed, the average overall field pass rate was 99.7% when 3 mm/3% DTA criteria were used (range 94.0-100 per field). The pass rates for more stringent criteria were 97.8% for 2mm/2% DTA (range 82.0-100 per field), and 84.6% for 1 mm/1% DTA (range 54.7-100 per field). Individual patient-specific sites as well, as different beam energies, followed similar trends to the overall pass rates. PMID:20592703

  13. Estimating the effective density of engineered nanomaterials for in vitro dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    DeLoid, Glen; Cohen, Joel M.; Darrah, Tom; Derk, Raymond; Wang, Liying; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Wohlleben, Wendel; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The need for accurate in vitro dosimetry remains a major obstacle to the development of cost-effective toxicological screening methods for engineered nanomaterials. An important key to accurate in vitro dosimetry is the characterization of sedimentation and diffusion rates of nanoparticles suspended in culture media, which largely depend upon the effective density and diameter of formed agglomerates in suspension. Here we present a rapid and inexpensive method for accurately measuring the effective density of nano-agglomerates in suspension. This novel method is based on the volume of the pellet obtained by bench-top centrifugation of nanomaterial suspensions in a packed cell volume tube, and is validated against gold-standard analytical ultracentrifugation data. This simple and cost-effective method allows nanotoxicologists to correctly model nanoparticle transport, and thus attain accurate dosimetry in cell culture systems, which will greatly advance the development of reliable and efficient methods for toxicological testing and investigation of nano-bio interactions in vitro. PMID:24675174

  14. Protocol for emergency EPR dosimetry in fingernails

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an increased need for after-the fact dosimetry because of the high risk of radiation exposures due to terrorism or accidents. In case of such an event, a method is needed to make measurements of dose in a large number of individuals rapidly and with sufficient accuracy to facilitate effect...

  15. Cell specific radiation dosimetry in skeleton from life-span carcinogenesis studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, S.S.J.

    1993-04-05

    The osteogenic sarcoma is the dominant life-threatening pathology in lifespan studies of beagles exposed to alpha-emitting bone-seeking radionuclides. It was deduced from these studies that certain skeletal sites are more prone to develop tumors. This project sought to determine the bone cells at risk and their cell-specific radiation dose. The cell-specific radiation dose values are related to loss and high Ra-226 and Pu-239 induced osteogenic sarcoma sites, to test different dose response hypothesis and predict the extent of effects in humans.

  16. Cell specific radiation dosimetry in skeleton from life-span carcinogenesis studies

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, S.S.J.

    1993-04-05

    The osteogenic sarcoma is the dominant life-threatening pathology in lifespan studies of beagles exposed to alpha-emitting bone-seeking radionuclides. It was deduced from these studies that certain skeletal sites are more prone to develop tumors. This project sought to determine the bone cells at risk and their cell-specific radiation dose. The cell-specific radiation dose values are related to loss and high Ra-226 and Pu-239 induced osteogenic sarcoma sites, to test different dose response hypothesis and predict the extent of effects in humans.

  17. A Colorimetric Plasmonic Nanosensor for Dosimetry of Therapeutic Levels of Ionizing Radiation.

    PubMed

    Pushpavanam, Karthik; Narayanan, Eshwaran; Chang, John; Sapareto, Stephen; Rege, Kaushal

    2015-12-22

    Modern radiation therapy using highly automated linear accelerators is a complex process that maximizes doses to tumors and minimizes incident dose to normal tissues. Dosimeters can help determine the radiation dose delivered to target diseased tissue while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. However, existing dosimeters can be complex to fabricate, expensive, and cumbersome to operate. Here, we demonstrate studies of a liquid phase, visually evaluated plasmonic nanosensor that detects radiation doses commonly employed in fractionated radiotherapy (1-10 Gy) for tumor ablation. We accomplished this by employing ionizing radiation, in concert with templating lipid surfactant micelles, in order to convert colorless salt solutions of univalent gold ions (Au(1)) to maroon-colored dispersions of plasmonic gold nanoparticles. Differences in color intensities of nanoparticle dispersions were employed as quantitative indicators of the radiation dose. The nanoparticles thus formed were characterized using UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The role of lipid surfactants on nanoparticle formation was investigated by varying the chain lengths while maintaining the same headgroup and counterion; the effect of surfactant concentration on detection efficacy was also investigated. The plasmonic nanosensor was able to detect doses as low as 0.5 Gy and demonstrated a linear detection range of 0.5-2 Gy or 5-37 Gy depending on the concentration of the lipid surfactant employed. The plasmonic nanosensor was also able to detect radiation levels in anthropomorphic prostate phantoms when administered together with endorectal balloons, indicating its potential utility as a dosimeter in fractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Taken together, our results indicate that this simple visible nanosensor has strong potential to be used as a dosimeter for validating delivered radiation doses in fractionated radiotherapies in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:26434692

  18. A-bomb survivor dosimetry update

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    A-bomb survivor data have been generally accepted as applicable. Also, the initial radiations have tended to be accepted as the dominant radiation source for all survivors. There was general acceptance of the essential reliability of both the biological effects data and the causative radiation dose values. There are considerations casting doubt on these acceptances, but very little quantification of th implied uncertainties has been attempted. The exception was A-bomb survivor dosimetry, where free-field kerma values for initial radiations were thought to be accurate to about 30%, and doses to individual survivors were treated as effectively error-free. In 1980, a major challenge to the accepted A-bomb survivor dosimetry was announced, and was quickly followed by a succession of explanations and displays showing the soundness of that challenge. In fact, a complete replacement set of free-field kerma values was provided which was suitable for use in constructing an entire new dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The new values showed many changes greater than the accepted 30% uncertainty. An approximate new dosimetry was indeed constructed, and used to convert existing leukemia cause-and-effect data from the old to the new dose values, by way of assessing the impact. (ERB)

  19. Improved radiation dosimetry/risk estimates to facilitate environmental management of plutonium contaminated sites. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, B.R.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this research is to evaluate distributions of possible alpha radiation doses to the lung, bone, and liver and associated health-risk distributions for plutonium (Pu) inhalation-exposure scenarios relevant to environmental management of PuO{sub 2}-contaminated sites. Currently available dosimetry/risk models do not apply to exposure scenarios where, at most, a small number of highly radioactive PuO{sub 2} particles are inhaled (stochastic exposure [SE] paradigm). For the SE paradigm, risk distributions are more relevant than point estimates of risk. The focus of the research is on the SE paradigm and on high specific activity, alpha-emitting (HSA-aE) particles such as 238 PuO{sub 2} . The scientific goal is to develop a stochastic respiratory tract dosimetry/risk computer model for evaluating the desired absorbed dose distributions and associated health-risk distributions, for Department of Energy (DOE) workers and members of the public. This report summarizes results after 1 year of a 2-year project.'

  20. Nanoparticle-aided Radiation Therapy: Micro-dosimetry and Evaluation of the Mediators Producing Biological Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Nava Raj

    Radiation therapy has been established as a standard technique for cancer treatment. Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the application of many new approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Achievement of selective enhancement in radiation dose deposition within a targeted tumor, while sparing surrounding normal structures, remains a challenge and one of the major objectives of cancer-related research. This objective can be realized by the insertion of high atomic number (Z) materials in the tumor site. Due to their high atomic number (Z=79) and favorable biological compatibility, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been found very promising in this respect. Another candidate material, platinum (Z=78), offering very similar radiation interaction properties to gold and exhibiting additional cytotoxic effects, has been exploited in chemotherapeutic agents for a long time. We explore the radiation effects near the interface of gold and platinum with tissue under a wide range of energies with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Our studies show that AuNPs and PtNPs (platinum nanoparticles) can offer a useful dose enhancement effect even in high energy radiotherapy beams, which can be important when critical structures are located close to the tumor. Our MC calculated dose enhancement increase of about 50% due to the removal of the flattening filter from the path of the photon beam of Varian TrueBeam accelerator suggests that flattening-filter-free beams are better suited for nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy. Also, the increase in dose enhancement with the tumor depth suggests that nanopartcle-aided radiation therapy can yield a better outcome while treating deep-seated tumors. Experimental microdosimetry is a non-trivial task, demanding detectors with small sensitive volumes to achieve a high spatial resolution. We have developed a microdosimetry technique utilizing an inexpensive in-house-built photodetector for the measurement of dose in a narrow high dose gradient region next to the interface between gold and tissue. Verification of the experimental results against MC simulations provides a foundation for the application of this technique to biological systems such as cell cultures. Recent studies demonstrating higher cancer cell killing than the predictions based on MC-modeled dose deposition due to AuNPs under radiation beams suggest the action of biochemical effects. Since free radicals are responsible for ~ 2/3 of cell killing in radiotherapy photon beams, we explore the role of gold and platinum in generating free radicals with the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Our results demonstrating higher free radical generation enhancement than the MC modeled enhancement in dose deposition due to thin gold or platinum wires under irradiation suggest that the high-Z material surfaces act as catalysts for free radical generation. The higher surface area to volume ratio and the size quantization effect should make this phenomenon even more pronounced with nanoparticles, thus augmenting the cell killing effect. Our results also show that platinum is as effective as gold in enhancing dose deposition as well as in generating free radicals in aqueous media under radiation beam. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  1. Historical review of personnel dosimetry development and its use in radiation protection programs at Hanford 1944 to the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.H.

    1987-02-01

    This document is an account of the personnel dosimetry programs as they were developed and practiced at Hanford from their inception in 1943 to 1944 to the 1980s. This history is divided into sections covering the general categories of external and internal measurement methods, in vivo counting, radiation exposure recordkeeping, and calibration of personnel dosimeters. The reasons and circumstances surrounding the inception of these programs at Hanford are discussed. Information about these programs was obtained from documents, letters, and memos that are available in our historical records; the personnel files of many people who participated in these programs; and from the recollections of many long-time, current, and past Hanford employees. For the most part, the history of these programs is presented chronologically to relate their development and use in routine Hanford operations. 131 refs., 38 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. A review of the use and potential of the GATE Monte Carlo simulation code for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrut, David; Université Lyon 1; Centre Léon Bérard ; Bardiès, Manuel; Marcatili, Sara; Mauxion, Thibault; Boussion, Nicolas; Freud, Nicolas; Létang, Jean-Michel; Jan, Sébastien; Maigne, Lydia; Perrot, Yann; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Robert, Charlotte; and others

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, the authors' review the applicability of the open-source GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the GEANT4 toolkit for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications. The many applications of GATE for state-of-the-art radiotherapy simulations are described including external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, intraoperative radiotherapy, hadrontherapy, molecular radiotherapy, and in vivo dose monitoring. Investigations that have been performed using GEANT4 only are also mentioned to illustrate the potential of GATE. The very practical feature of GATE making it easy to model both a treatment and an imaging acquisition within the same frameworkis emphasized. The computational times associated with several applications are provided to illustrate the practical feasibility of the simulations using current computing facilities.

  3. 39th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: Dosimetry of Internal Emitters: Contribution of Radiation Protection Bodies and Radiological Events.

    PubMed

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2016-02-01

    Since the early days of the Manhattan Engineer District, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has served to advance the dosimetry models used to set protection standards for radionuclides taken into the body. Throughout the years, this effort benefited significantly from ORNL staff's active participation in national and international scientific bodies. The first such interaction was in 1946 with the National Committee on Radiation Protection (NCRP), chaired by L.S. Taylor, which led to the 1949 to 1953 series of tripartite conferences of experts from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. These conferences addressed the need for standardization of dosimetry models and led to the establishment of an anatomic and physiologic model called "Standard Man," a precursor of the reference worker defined in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Standard Man was used in setting the maximum permissible concentrations in air and water published in NBS Handbook 52 and subsequent reports by NCRP and ICRP. K.Z. Morgan, then director of the Health Physics Division at ORNL, participated in the tripartite conferences and subsequently established ORNL as a modeling and computational resource for development of radiation protection standards. ORNL's role expanded with participation in the work of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. Results of interactions with the MIRD Committee are evident in the radiation protection guidance for internal emitters in ICRP Publication 30. The annual limit on intake and derived air concentration values tabulated in Publication 30 were computed by an ORNL-based task group of ICRP Committee 2. A few years after the appearance of Publication 30, the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident made clear the need to develop standard dosimetry models for pre-adult ages as members of the public. In the late 1980s, ICRP began an effort to extend its reference worker concept to a reference family and develop dosimetric models for application to intake of radionuclides by members of the public. However, the modeling approach underlying the ICRP Publication 30 computational framework was not amenable to age and gender considerations. With support of U.S. federal agencies, ORNL had begun efforts in the early 1980s to develop age- and gender-specific dosimetric models, including physiologically informed biokinetic models and age-specific dosimetric phantoms. ORNL's models and methods became the starting point for the ICRP's series of reports on dose coefficients for radionuclide intake by the public. Currently ICRP Committee 2 is overseeing development of a second generation of post-Chernobyl models and methods, with updates of Publications 30 and 68 soon to appear and new models for members of the public in preparation. The focus of this Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture is to chronicle advancements in the dosimetry of internal emitters with some discussion of models and methods but with due deference to decisions within scientific bodies and stimulated by radiological events. PMID:26717179

  4. 1992 IEEE Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 29th, New Orleans, LA, July 13-17, 1992, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Vonno, Nick W. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of recent theoretical and experimental research related to nuclear and space radiation effects. Topics dicussed include single event phenomena, radiation effects in particle detectors and associated electronics for accelerators, spacecraft charging, and space environments and effects. The discussion also covers hardness assurance and testing techniques, electromagnetic effects, radiation effects in devices and integrated circuits, dosimetry and radiation facilities, isolation techniques, and basic mechanisms.

  5. 1992 IEEE Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 29th, New Orleans, LA, July 13-17, 1992, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vonno, Nick W.

    1992-12-01

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of recent theoretical and experimental research related to nuclear and space radiation effects. Topics dicussed include single event phenomena, radiation effects in particle detectors and associated electronics for accelerators, spacecraft charging, and space environments and effects. The discussion also covers hardness assurance and testing techniques, electromagnetic effects, radiation effects in devices and integrated circuits, dosimetry and radiation facilities, isolation techniques, and basic mechanisms.

  6. Health Effects of UV Radiation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Health Effects of UV Radiation Fact Sheet Download the Health Effects of Overexposure ... natural protection from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This Web page provides an overview of the ...

  7. Photo-luminescence of Risø B3 and PVB films for application in radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A. A.; Beshir, W. B.; Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; Ezz El-Din, H.

    2001-12-01

    Risø B3 film dosimeters (23 ?m) prepared from poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) incorporating pararosaniline cyanide, as the radiation-sensitive element and PVB films (25 ?m) prepared from PVB without any additives are investigated for ?-radiation measurement using spectrofluorimetry based on their emission properties. The unirradiated Risø B3 film when excited at 554 nm shows an emission band at 602 nm while PVB film shows an emission band at 305 nm when excited at 235 nm wavelength. The fluorescence intensity of both emission bands decreases with the increase of absorbed dose due to the damage caused by ionizing radiation. The useful dose range of Risø B3 film extends up to 120 kGy while that of PVB film extends up to 60 kGy. The response of Risø B3 film increases with the increase of relative humidity during irradiation while that of PVB has less effect in the humidity range of 20-70%. The percent uncertainty associated with the measurement of the dose response was found to be ±3% (1 ?) for both films. Risø B3 and PVB films show good post-irradiation stability in dark and indirect daylight where the deviation in the response overall a 2-month storage period was found to be ±5% for Risø B3 and ±2% for PVB.

  8. US plant and radiation dosimetry experiments flown on the soviet satellite COSMOS 1129. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrich, M.R.; Souza, K.A.

    1981-05-01

    Experiments included: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats used for wide range physiological studies Kosmos Satellites experiments with plants, fungi, insects, and mammalian tissue cultures; radiation physics experiments; a heat convection study; a rat embryology experiment in which an attempt was made to breed 2 male and 5 female rats during the flight; and fertile quail eggs used to determine the effects of spaceflight on avian embryogenesis. Specimens for US experiments were initially prepared at the recovery site or in Moscow and transferred to US laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the fourteen US experiments aboard Cosmos 1129 is presented.

  9. US plant and radiation dosimetry experiments flown on the Soviet satellite Cosmos 1129

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, M. R. (editor); Souza, K. A. (editor)

    1981-01-01

    Experiments included: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats used for wide range physiological studies; experiments with plants, fungi, insects, and mammalian tissue cultures; radiation physics experiments; a heat convection study; a rat embryology experiment in which an attempt was made to breed 2 male and 5 female rats during the flight; and fertile quail eggs used to determine the effects of spaceflight on avian embryogenesis. Specimens for US experiments were initially prepared at the recovery site or in Moscow and transferred to US laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the fourteen US experiments aboard Cosmos 1129 is presented.

  10. Patient dosimetry for 90Y selective internal radiation treatment based on 90Y PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sherry C; Lee, Victor H; Law, Martin W; Liu, Rico K; Ma, Vivian W; Tso, Wai Kuen; Leung, To Wai

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the radiation dose to patients undergoing the 90Y selective internal radiation treatment (SIRT) procedure is determined by applying the partition model to 99mTc MAA pretreatment scan. There can be great uncertainty in radiation dose calculated from this approach and we presented a method to compute the 3D dose distributions resulting from 90Y SIRT based on 90Y positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Five 90Y SIRT treatments were retrospectively analyzed. After 90Y SIRT, patients had 90Y PET/CT imaging within 6 hours of the procedure. To obtain the 3D dose distribution of the patients, their respective 90Y PET images were convolved with a Monte Carlo generated voxel dose kernel. The sensitivity of the PET/CT scanner for 90Y was determined through phantom studies. The 3D dose distributions were then presented in DICOM RT dose format. By applying the linear quadratic model to the dose data, we derived the biologically effective dose and dose equivalent to 2 Gy/fraction delivery, taking into account the spatial and temporal dose rate variations specific for SIRT. Based on this data, we intend to infer tumor control probability and risk of radiation induced liver injury from SIRT by comparison with established dose limits. For the five cases, the mean dose to target ranged from 51.7 ± 28.6 Gy to 163 ± 53.7 Gy. Due to the inhomogeneous nature of the dose distribution, the GTVs were not covered adequately, leading to very low values of tumor control probability. The mean dose to the normal liver ranged from 21.4 ± 30.7 to 36.7 ± 25.9 Gy. According to QUANTEC recommendation, a patient with primary liver cancer and a patient with metastatic liver cancer has more than 5% risk of radiotherapy-induced liver disease (RILD). PMID:24036875

  11. Automated DICOM metadata and volumetric anatomical information extraction for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papamichail, D.; Ploussi, A.; Kordolaimi, S.; Karavasilis, E.; Papadimitroulas, P.; Syrgiamiotis, V.; Efstathopoulos, E.

    2015-09-01

    Patient-specific dosimetry calculations based on simulation techniques have as a prerequisite the modeling of the modality system and the creation of voxelized phantoms. This procedure requires the knowledge of scanning parameters and patients’ information included in a DICOM file as well as image segmentation. However, the extraction of this information is complicated and time-consuming. The objective of this study was to develop a simple graphical user interface (GUI) to (i) automatically extract metadata from every slice image of a DICOM file in a single query and (ii) interactively specify the regions of interest (ROI) without explicit access to the radiology information system. The user-friendly application developed in Matlab environment. The user can select a series of DICOM files and manage their text and graphical data. The metadata are automatically formatted and presented to the user as a Microsoft Excel file. The volumetric maps are formed by interactively specifying the ROIs and by assigning a specific value in every ROI. The result is stored in DICOM format, for data and trend analysis. The developed GUI is easy, fast and and constitutes a very useful tool for individualized dosimetry. One of the future goals is to incorporate a remote access to a PACS server functionality.

  12. Three-dimensional dose verification for intensity modulated radiation therapy using optical CT based polymer gel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wuu Chengshie; Xu, Y.

    2006-05-15

    Dose distributions generated from intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy (IMRT) treatment planning present high dose gradient regions in the boundaries between the target and the surrounding critical organs. Dose accuracy in these areas can be critical, and may affect the treatment. With the increasing use of IMRT in radiotherapy, there is an increased need for a dosimeter that allows for accurate determination of three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions with high spatial resolution. In this study, polymer gel dosimetry and an optical CT scanner have been employed to implement 3D dose verification for IMRT. A plastic cylinder of 17 cm diameter and 12 cm height, filled with BANG registered 3 polymer gels (MGS Research, Inc., Madison, CT) and modified to optimal dose-response characteristics, was used for IMRT dose verification. The cylindrical gel phantom was immersed in a 24x24x20 cm water tank for an IMRT irradiation. The irradiated gel sample was then scanned with an optical CT scanner (MGS Research Inc., Madison, CT) utilizing a single He-Ne laser beam and a single photodiode detector. Similar to the x-ray CT process, filtered back-projection was used to reconstruct the 3D dose distribution. The dose distributions measured from the gel were compared with those from the IMRT treatment planning system. For comparative dosimetry, a solid water phantom of 24x24x20 cm, having the same geometry as the water tank for the gel phantom, was used for EDR2 film and ion chamber measurements. Root mean square (rms) deviations for both dose difference and distance-to-agreement (DTA) were used in three-dimensional analysis of the dose distribution comparison between treatment planning calculations and the gel measurement. Comparison of planar dose distributions among gel dosimeter, film, and the treatment planning system showed that the isodose lines were in good agreement on selected planes in axial, coronal, and sagittal orientations. Absolute point-dose verification was performed with ion chamber measurements at four different points, varying from 48% to 110% of the prescribed dose. The measured and calculated doses were found to agree to within 4.2% at all measurement points. For the comparison between the gel measurement and treatment planning calculations, rms deviations were 2%-6% for dose difference and 1-3 mm for DTA, at 60%-110% doses levels. The results from this study show that optical CT based polymer gel dosimetry has the potential to provide a high resolution, accurate, three-dimensional tool for IMRT dose distribution verification.

  13. Fourth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.; Watson, E.E.

    1986-04-01

    The focus of the Fourth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium was to explore the impact of current developments in nuclear medicine on absorbed dose calculations. This book contains the proceedings of the meeting including the edited discussion that followed the presentations. Topics that were addressed included the dosimetry associated with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and blood elements, ultrashort-lived radionuclides, and positron emitters. Some specific areas of discussion were variations in absorbed dose as a result of alterations in the kinetics, the influence of radioactive contaminants on dose, dose in children and in the fetus, available instrumentation and techniques for collecting the kinetic data needed for dose calculation, dosimetry requirements for the review and approval of new radiopharmaceuticals, and a comparison of the effect on the thyroid of internal versus external irradiation. New models for the urinary blader, skeleton including the active marrow, and the blood were presented. Several papers dealt with the validity of traditional ''average-organ'' dose estimates to express the dose from particulate radiation that has a short range in tissue. These problems are particularly important in the use of monoclonal antibodies and agents used to measure intracellular functions. These proceedings have been published to provide a resource volume for anyone interested in the calculation of absorbed radiation dose.

  14. Image-based dosimetry for selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using yttrium-90 microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selwyn, Reed G.

    90Y-loaded microspheres are currently used as a palliative treatment for patients with primary and metastatic solid liver tumors. These microspheres contain radioactive 90Y, which decays via beta-minus transition to 90Zr. While the normal liver receives about 75% of its blood supply from the portal vein, hepatic tumors receive their blood supply almost exclusively from the hepatic artery. Taking advantage of this unique blood flow, radioactive microspheres are injected into the hepatic artery resulting in a preferential distribution to tumor sites within the liver. Studies show that the single best prognostic indicator for patient response is the tumor-to-normal tissue (T:N) activity uptake ratio. However, 90Y emits very few photons its broad bremsstrahlung spectrum leads to diffuse, low resolution images, which are insufficient for accurate T:N quantification. Thus, the first objective was to develop a PET-labeled microsphere as a surrogate for the therapeutic microsphere to provide accurate biodistribution information. Furthermore, patient outcome is also suspected to be linked to the mean tumor dose and tumor dose volume histogram. Therefore, a second objective was to develop and validate a method to calculate the dose distribution within the tumor and normal liver tissue. Computer software that generates three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions was validated by comparing results to experimental measurements. The novel development of a 3D gel dosimeter will be discussed as well as a new protocol for 2D film dosimetry. Both dosimetry methods were validated but only film provided the desired accuracy. The overall accuracy of the dose distribution depends on the uncertainty of the 90Y assay, which can extend to 15% at 1sigma. Therefore, the third objective was to develop an accurate non-destructive assay of 90Y. To this end, a new 90Y positron branching ratio was measured and a clinically relevant transfer standard was developed. In summation, this thesis will present a new PET-labeled microsphere for pre- and post-treatment assessment, two new beta dosimetry protocols along with validation studies, a new positron branching ratio for 90Y that led to formation of an accurate non-destructive assay, and the first successful experimental validation of a computer generated internal dose distribution using dose kernel convolution.

  15. The effect of isotope on the dosimetry of inhaled plutonium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, R.A., Griffith, W.C.; Hickman, A.W.

    1991-12-31

    Results of experimental studies in which animals inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} or {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} aerosols have shown that the biokinetics and associated radiation dose patterns for these two isotopes differ significantly due to differences in in-vivo solubility caused by the 260-fold difference in specific activity between {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} and {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. We have adapted a biokinetics and dosimetry model derived from results of the ITRI dog studies to humans and have calculated dose commitments and annual limits on intake (ALI) for both Pu isotopes. Our results show that the ALI calculated in this study is one-third that for class Y {sup 238}Pu from ICRP 30, and one-half or equal to that for class Y {sup 239}Pu, depending on how activity in the thoracic lymph nodes is treated dosimetrically.

  16. Radiation Effects: Core Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicello, John F.

    1999-01-01

    The risks to personnel in space from the naturally occurring radiations are generally considered to be one of the most serious limitations to human space missions, as noted in two recent reports of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. The Core Project of the Radiation Effects Team for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute is the consequences of radiations in space in order to develop countermeasure, both physical and pharmaceutical, to reduce the risks of cancer and other diseases associated with such exposures. During interplanetary missions, personnel in space will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays, including high-energy protons and energetic ions with atomic masses of iron or higher. In addition, solar events will produce radiation fields of high intensity for short but irregular durations. The level of intensity of these radiations is considerably higher than that on Earth's surface, and the biological risks to astronauts is consequently increased, including increased risks of carcinogenesis and other diseases. This group is examining the risk of cancers resulting from low-dose, low-dose rate exposures of model systems to photons, protons, and iron by using ground-based accelerators which are capable of producing beams of protons, iron, and other heavy ions at energies comparable to those encountered in space. They have begun the first series of experiments using a 1-GeV iron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and 250-MeV protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center's proton synchrotron facility. As part of these studies, this group will be investigating the potential for the pharmaceutical, Tamoxifen, to reduce the risk of breast cancer in astronauts exposed to the level of doses and particle types expected in space. Theoretical studies are being carried out in a collaboration between scientists at NASA's Johnson Space Center and Johns Hopkins University in parallel with the experimental program have provided methods and predictions which are being used to assess the levels of risks to be encountered and to evaluate appropriate strategies for countermeasures. Although the work in this project is primarily directed toward problems associated with space travel, the problem of protracted exposures to low-levels of radiation is one of national interest in our energy and defense programs, and the results may suggest new paradigms for addressing such risks.

  17. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) dosimetry system and the use of Ge-doped silica optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Taufek; Abu Bakar, Noor Khairunnisa; Chandra Paul, Mukul; Bradley, D. A.

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that over exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), either from sunlight or artificial sources, can cause severe biological effects including cataracts, photokeratitis and skin cancer. In this respect, there exists the need to introduce a sensitive UV dosimetric material capable of measuring radiation dose to high accuracy in order to deliver UVR safely and efficiently. Present study has focussed on the investigation of the potential thermoluminescent (TL) sensitivity of commercially available germanium (Ge)-doped silica (SiO2) optical fibres subjected to UVR. The main interest of this study is to find out whether these doped SiO2 optical fibres can be used as a sensible integrator of environmental UV exposures. In the present study, commercially available Ge-doped SiO2 optical fibres have been used with a core diameter of 11 ?m (CorActive, Canada), 23 ?m (Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute Kolkata, India) and 50 ?m (Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute Kolkata, India) and a cladding diameter of 125±0.1 ?m, irradiated over a wide range of UV dose. Results have shown that these fibres exhibit a linear dose response (with correlation coefficient better than 0.9852). The 50 ?m fibre produces greater TL response than that obtained for 11- and 23 ?m fibres. The TL results are compared with that of the well-established TL dosimeter material lithium fluoride.

  18. Spallation radiation damage and dosimetry for accelerator transmutation of waste applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, M.S.; Lin, C.; Ferguson, P.D.; Sommer, W.F.

    1993-10-01

    Proposals are currently being made for systems to treat radioactive waste based on the use of accelerator-driven neutron sources. A linear proton accelerator with energies as high as 1600 MeV and currents up to 250 ma are anticipated for the driver. The neutron fluxes may reach up to 10{sup 20} neutrons/m{sup 2}s as generated by the spallation reactions that occur when the protons strike target materials. Calculations are described to determine radiation fluxes and flux spectra inherent in such systems and to estimate likely radiation effects on system components. The calculations use LAHET, a Monte Carlo high-energy transport code, and MCNP, a generalized-geometry, coupled neutron-photon Monte Carlo transport code. Cross sections for displacement and helium production are presented for spallation neutrons of energies from 21 MeV to 1600 MeV for Inconel 718 (Ni plus 18.5, 18.5, 5.1, and 3 wt % of Cr, Fe, Nb, and Mo, respectively), an alloy that is used for the proton beam entry window in several accelerators. In addition, results for this alloy are presented for the primary knocked-on atom (PKA) spectrum and the transmutation yield for 1600 MeV incident neutrons.

  19. Unruh radiation and Interference effect

    E-print Network

    Satoshi Iso; Yasuhiro Yamamoto; Sen Zhang

    2011-02-23

    A uniformly accelerated charged particle feels the vacuum as thermally excited and fluctuates around the classical trajectory. Then we may expect additional radiation besides the Larmor radiation. It is called Unruh radiation. In this report, we review the calculation of the Unruh radiation with an emphasis on the interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the radiation from the fluctuating motion. Our calculation is based on a stochastic treatment of the particle under a uniform acceleration. The basics of the stochastic equation are reviewed in another report in the same proceeding. In this report, we mainly discuss the radiation and the interference effect.

  20. Effect of spine hardware on small spinal stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Yang, James N; Li, Xiaoqiang; Tailor, Ramesh; Vassilliev, Oleg; Brown, Paul; Rhines, Laurence; Chang, Eric

    2013-10-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) modeling of a 6 MV photon beam was used to study the dose perturbation from a titanium rod 5 mm in diameter in various small fields range from 2 × 2 to 5 × 5 cm(2). The results showed that the rod increased the dose to water by ?6% at the water-rod interface because of electron backscattering and decreased the dose by ?7% in the shadow of the rod because of photon attenuation. The Pinnacle(3) treatment planning system calculations matched the MC results at the depths more than 1 cm past the rod when the correct titanium density of 4.5 g cm(-3) was used, but significantly underestimated the backscattering dose at the water-rod interface. A CT-density table with a top density of 1.82 g cm(-3) (cortical bone) is a practical way to reduce the dosimetric error from the artifacts by preventing high density assignment to them, but can underestimates the attenuation by the titanium rod by 6%. However, when multi-beam with intensity modulation is used in actual patient spinal stereotactic radiosurgery treatment, the dosimetric effect of assigning 4.5 instead of 1.82 g cm(-3) to titanium implants is complicated. It ranged from minimal effect to 2% dose difference affecting 15% target volume in the study. When hardware is in the beam path, density override to the titanium hardware is recommended. PMID:24018829

  1. ESTIMATING SOLAR RADIATION EXPOSURE IN WETLANDS USING RADIATION MODELS, FIELD DATA, AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This seminar will describe development of methods for the estimation of solar radiation doses in wetlands. The methodology presents a novel approach to incorporating aspects of solar radiation dosimetry that have historically received limited attention. These include effects of a...

  2. Calculated effects of backscattering on skin dosimetry for nuclear fuel fragments.

    PubMed

    Aydarous, A Sh

    2008-01-01

    The size of hot particles contained in nuclear fallout ranges from 10 nm to 20 microm for the worldwide weapons fallout. Hot particles from nuclear power reactors can be significantly bigger (100 microm to several millimetres). Electron backscattering from such particles is a prominent secondary effect in beta dosimetry for radiological protection purposes, such as skin dosimetry. In this study, the effect of electron backscattering due to hot particles contamination on skin dose is investigated. These include parameters such as detector area, source radius, source energy, scattering material and source density. The Monte-Carlo Neutron Particle code (MCNP4C) was used to calculate the depth dose distribution for 10 different beta sources and various materials. The backscattering dose factors (BSDF) were then calculated. A significant dependence is shown for the BSDF magnitude upon detector area, source radius and scatterers. It is clearly shown that the BSDF increases with increasing detector area. For high Z scatterers, the BSDF can reach as high as 40 and 100% for sources with radii 0.1 and 0.0001 cm, respectively. The variation of BSDF with source radius, source energy and source density is discussed. PMID:18223183

  3. Jaw Dysfunction Related to Pterygoid and Masseter Muscle Dosimetry After Radiation Therapy in Children and Young Adults With Head-and-Neck Sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Krasin, Matthew J.; Wiese, Kristin M.; Spunt, Sheri L.; Hua, Chia-ho; Daw, Najat; Navid, Fariba; Davidoff, Andrew M.; McGregor, Lisa; Merchant, Thomas E.; Kun, Larry E.; McCrarey, Lola; and others

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between jaw function, patient and treatment variables, and radiation dosimetry of the mandibular muscles and joints in children and young adults receiving radiation for soft-tissue and bone sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four pediatric and young adult patients with head-and-neck sarcomas were treated on an institutional review board-approved prospective study of focal radiation therapy for local tumor control. Serial jaw depression measurements were related to radiation dosimetry delivered to the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles, masseter muscles, and temporomandibular joints to generate mathematical models of jaw function. Results: Baseline jaw depression was only influenced by the degree of surgical resection. In the first 12 weeks from initiation of radiation, surgical procedures greater than a biopsy, administration of cyclophosphamide containing chemotherapy regimes, and large gross tumor volumes adversely affected jaw depression. Increasing dose to the pterygoid and masseter muscles above 40 Gy predicted loss of jaw function over the full course of follow-up. Conclusions: Clinical and treatment factors are related to initial and subsequent jaw dysfunction. Understanding these complex interactions and the affect of specific radiation doses may help reduce the risk for jaw dysfunction in future children and young adults undergoing radiation therapy for the management of soft-tissue and bone sarcomas.

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldock, C.; De Deene, Y.; Doran, S.; Ibbott, G.; Jirasek, A.; Lepage, M.; McAuley, K. B.; Oldham, M.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2010-03-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented.

  5. Topical Review: Polymer gel dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, C; De Deene, Y; Doran, S; Ibbott, G; Jirasek, A; Lepage, M; McAuley, K B; Oldham, M; Schreiner, L J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimeters are fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of the absorbed radiation dose. These gel dosimeters, with the capacity to uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D), have specific advantages when compared to one-dimensional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, and two-dimensional dosimeters, such as film. These advantages are particularly significant in dosimetry situations where steep dose gradients exist such as in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery. Polymer gel dosimeters also have specific advantages for brachytherapy dosimetry. Potential dosimetry applications include those for low-energy x-rays, high-linear energy transfer (LET) and proton therapy, radionuclide and boron capture neutron therapy dosimetries. These 3D dosimeters are radiologically soft-tissue equivalent with properties that may be modified depending on the application. The 3D radiation dose distribution in polymer gel dosimeters may be imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical-computerized tomography (optical-CT), x-ray CT or ultrasound. The fundamental science underpinning polymer gel dosimetry is reviewed along with the various evaluation techniques. Clinical dosimetry applications of polymer gel dosimetry are also presented. PMID:20150687

  6. On the validity of 3D polymer gel dosimetry: II. Physico-chemical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandecasteele, Jan; De Deene, Yves

    2013-01-01

    This study quantifies some major physico-chemical factors that influence the validity of MRI (PAGAT) polymer gel dosimetry: temperature history (pre-, during and post-irradiation), oxygen exposure (post-irradiation) and volumetric effects (experiment with phantom in which a small test tube is inserted). Present results confirm the effects of thermal history prior to irradiation. By exposing a polymer gel sample to a linear temperature gradient of ˜2.8 °C cm-1 and following the dose deviation as a function of post-irradiation time new insights into temporal variations were added. A clear influence of the temperature treatment on the measured dose distribution is seen during the first hours post-irradiation (resulting in dose deviations up to 12%). This effect diminishes to 5% after 54 h post-irradiation. Imposing a temperature offset (maximum 6 °C for 3 h) during and following irradiation on a series of calibration phantoms results in only a small dose deviation of maximum 4%. Surprisingly, oxygen diffusing in a gel dosimeter up to 48 h post-irradiation was shown to have no effect. Volumetric effects were studied by comparing the dose distribution in a homogeneous phantom compared to the dose distribution in a phantom in which a small test tube was inserted. This study showed that the dose measured inside the test tube was closer to the ion chamber measurement in comparison to the reference phantom without test tube by almost 7%. It is demonstrated that physico-chemical effects are not the major causes for the dose discrepancies encountered in the reproducibility study discussed in the concurrent paper (Vandecasteele and De Deene 2013a Phys. Med. Biol. 58 19-42). However, it is concluded that these physico-chemical effects are important factors that should be addressed to further improve the dosimetric accuracy of 3D MRI polymer gel dosimetry. Both authors contributed equally to this study.

  7. Human radiation dosimetry of 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG predicted from preclinical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Muzic, Raymond F.; Chandramouli, Visvanathan; Hatami, Ahmad; Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Wu, Chunying; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The authors are developing 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-6-deoxy-D-glucose (6-[{sup 18}F]FDG) as an in vivo tracer of glucose transport. While 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG has the same radionuclide half-life as 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-[{sup 18}F]FDG) which is ubiquitously used for PET imaging, 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG has special biologic properties and different biodistributions that make it preferable to 2-[{sup 18}F]FDG for assessing glucose transport. In preparation for 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG use in human PET scanning, the authors would like to determine the amount of 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG to inject while maintaining radiation doses in a safe range. Methods: Rats were injected with 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG, euthanized at specified times, and tissues were collected and assayed for activity content. For each tissue sample, the percent of injected dose per gram was calculated and extrapolated to that for humans in order to construct predicted time-courses. Residence times were calculated as areas under the curves and were used as inputs to OLINDA/EXM in order to calculate the radiation doses. Results: Unlike with 2-[{sup 18}F]FDG for which the urinary bladder wall receives the highest absorbed dose due to urinary excretion, with 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG there is little urinary excretion and osteogenic cells and the liver are predicted to receive the highest absorbed doses: 0.027 mGy/MBq (0.100 rad/mCi) and 0.018 mGy/MBq (0.066 rad/mCi), respectively. Also, the effective dose from 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG, i.e., 0.013 mSv/MBq (0.046 rem/mCi), is predicted to be approximately 30% lower than that from 2-[{sup 18}F]FDG. Conclusions: 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG will be safe for use in the PET scanning of humans.

  8. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2009-08-28

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document.

  9. Effect of constipation on dosimetry after permanent seed brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dolado, M. Carmen; Núñez, Eduardo J.; Otón, Claudio A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A major concern in prostate brachytherapy is rectal toxicity, which mainly depends on the dose and volume of rectum involved by radiation. We hypothesize that the rectal distension, as produced by constipation, influences the dosimetric parameters of the rectum and other pelvic organs. Material and methods An open, controlled, prospective, paired trial (pre-post test) was designed and conducted. Twenty-three patients treated with prostate brachytherapy were recruited, of which 21 were evaluated. All of them underwent two CT scans, the first one with empty rectum and the second with rectum distended by a catheter balloon. Target volumes and organs at risk were delineated, and dosimetric parameters were calculated and then compared for each patient between both CT. Results For rectum, D2cc increased 15.8% (p < 0.001) and D0.1cc 24.05% (p = 0.002) when the rectum was full. A significant difference was also found in dose distribution to prostate, when rectum is distended, a 1% decrease in V100 (p = 0.031) and a 3.25% in D90 (p = 0.033) was registered. Conclusions The status of rectal distension, as occurs in constipation, has a deleterious influence on prostate brachytherapy dosimetry. This situation increases the radiation to rectum and modifies dose distribution to prostate. We recommend prevention of constipation for at least two half lives of the radioactive seeds. PMID:26622226

  10. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B.

    2015-07-01

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor's trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between the measured and intended doses.

  11. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B

    2015-07-01

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor's trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between the measured and intended doses. PMID:26233396

  12. Report from the dosimetry working group to CEDR project management

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J J

    1994-08-01

    On August 2, 1989, Admiral Watkins, Secretary of the US Department of Energy (DOE), presented a four-point program designed to enhance the DOE epidemiology program. One part of this program was the establishment of a Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) to facilitate independent research to validate and supplement DOE research on human health effects. A Dosimetry Working Group was formed during May 1991 to evaluate radiation dose variables and associated documentation that would be most useful to researchers for retrospective and prospective studies. The Working Group consisted of thirteen individuals with expertise and experience in health physics, epidemiology, dosimetry, computing, and industrial hygiene. A final report was delivered to CEDR Project Management during February 1992. The report contains a number of major recommendations concerning collection, interpretation, and documentation of dosimetry data to maximize their usefulness to researchers using CEDR for examining possible health effects of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation.

  13. Measurement of stray radiation within a scanning proton therapy facility: EURADOS WG9 intercomparison exercise of active dosimetry systems

    SciTech Connect

    Farah, J. Trompier, F.; Mares, V.; Schinner, K.; Wielunski, M.; Romero-Expósito, M.; Domingo, C.; Trinkl, S.; Dufek, V.; Klodowska, M.; Liszka, M.; Stolarczyk, L.; Olko, P.; Kubancak, J.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To characterize stray radiation around the target volume in scanning proton therapy and study the performance of active neutron monitors. Methods: Working Group 9 of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS WG9—Radiation protection in medicine) carried out a large measurement campaign at the Trento Centro di Protonterapia (Trento, Italy) in order to determine the neutron spectra near the patient using two extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometry (BSS) systems. In addition, the work focused on acknowledging the performance of different commercial active dosimetry systems when measuring neutron ambient dose equivalents, H{sup ?}(10), at several positions inside (8 positions) and outside (3 positions) the treatment room. Detectors included three TEPCs—tissue equivalent proportional counters (Hawk type from Far West Technology, Inc.) and six rem-counters (WENDI-II, LB 6411, RadEye™ NL, a regular and an extended-range NM2B). Meanwhile, the photon component of stray radiation was deduced from the low-lineal energy transfer part of TEPC spectra or measured using a Thermo Scientific™ FH-40G survey meter. Experiments involved a water tank phantom (60 × 30 × 30 cm{sup 3}) representing the patient that was uniformly irradiated using a 3 mm spot diameter proton pencil beam with 10 cm modulation width, 19.95 cm distal beam range, and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field size. Results: Neutron spectrometry around the target volume showed two main components at the thermal and fast energy ranges. The study also revealed the large dependence of the energy distribution of neutrons, and consequently of out-of-field doses, on the primary beam direction (directional emission of intranuclear cascade neutrons) and energy (spectral composition of secondary neutrons). In addition, neutron mapping within the facility was conducted and showed the highest H{sup ?}(10) value of ?51 ?Sv Gy{sup ?1}; this was measured at 1.15 m along the beam axis. H{sup ?}(10) values significantly decreased with distance and angular position with respect to beam axis falling below 2 nSv Gy{sup ?1} at the entrance of the maze, at the door outside the room and below detection limit in the gantry control room, and at an adjacent room (<0.1 nSv Gy{sup ?1}). Finally, the agreement on H{sup ?}(10) values between all detectors showed a direct dependence on neutron spectra at the measurement position. While conventional rem-counters (LB 6411, RadEye™ NL, NM2-458) underestimated the H{sup ?}(10) by up to a factor of 4, Hawk TEPCs and the WENDI-II range-extended detector were found to have good performance (within 20%) even at the highest neutron fluence and energy range. Meanwhile, secondary photon dose equivalents were found to be up to five times lower than neutrons; remaining nonetheless of concern to the patient. Conclusions: Extended-range BSS, TEPCs, and the WENDI-II enable accurate measurements of stray neutrons while other rem-counters are not appropriate considering the high-energy range of neutrons involved in proton therapy.

  14. A comparative radiation study at ALBA synchrotron facility between Monte Carlo modeling and radiation monitors dosimetry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devienne, A.; Aymerich, N.; García-Fusté, M. J.; Queralt, X.

    2015-11-01

    ALBA is the Spanish synchrotron facility formed with a 3 GeV electron synchrotron accelerator generating bright beams of synchrotron radiation, located in Cerdanyola del Vallès (Spain). The aim of this work is to study the origin of the radiation produced inside and outside the optical hutch of BOREAS beamline, an experimental station dedicated to study the resonant absorption and scattering of the photons. The objective is to characterize the radiation at the beamline, evaluating in particular the solid bremsstrahlung component of the radiation. The results are obtained after comparing radiation monitors detectors data with Monte Carlo modeling (FLUKA), giving the characteristics of the shielding required to consider the outside of the hutch as a public zone.

  15. Effect of different breathing patterns in the same patient on stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy dosimetry for primary renal cell carcinoma: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Daniel; Kron, Tomas; Foroudi, Farshad; Siva, Shankar

    2013-10-01

    Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) for primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) targets requires motion management strategies to verify dose delivery. This case study highlights the effect of a change in patient breathing amplitude on the dosimetry to organs at risk and target structures. A 73-year-old male patient was planned for receiving 26 Gy of radiation in 1 fraction of SABR for a left primary RCC. The patient was simulated with four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and the tumor internal target volume (ITV) was delineated using the 4DCT maximum intensity projection. However, the initially planned treatment was abandoned at the radiation oncologist's discretion after pretreatment cone-beam CT (CBCT) motion verification identified a greater than 50% reduction in superior to inferior diaphragm motion as compared with the planning 4DCT. This patient was resimulated with respiratory coaching instructions. To assess the effect of the change in breathing on the dosimetry to the target, each plan was recalculated on the data set representing the change in breathing condition. A change from smaller to larger breathing showed a 46% loss in planning target volume (PTV) coverage, whereas a change from larger breathing to smaller breathing resulted in an 8% decrease in PTV coverage. ITV coverage was similarly reduced by 8% in both scenarios. This case study highlights the importance of tools to verify breathing motion prior to treatment delivery. 4D image guided radiation therapy verification strategies should focus on not only verifying ITV margin coverage but also the effect on the surrounding organs at risk.

  16. Retrospective dosimetry after criticality accidents using low-frequency EPR: a study of whole human teeth irradiated in a mixed neutron and gamma-radiation field.

    PubMed

    Zdravkova, M; Crokart, N; Trompier, F; Asselineau, B; Gallez, B; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Debuyst, R

    2003-08-01

    In the context of accidental or intentional radiation exposures (nuclear terrorism), it is essential to separate rapidly those individuals with substantial exposures from those with exposures that do not constitute an immediate threat to health. Low-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy provides the potential advantage of making accurate and sensitive measurements of absorbed radiation dose in teeth without removing the teeth from the potential victims. Up to now, most studies focused on the dose-response curves obtained for gamma radiation. In radiation accidents, however, the contribution of neutrons to the total radiation dose should not be neglected. To determine how neutrons contribute to the apparent dose estimated by EPR dosimetry, extracted whole human teeth were irradiated at the SILENE reactor in a mixed neutron and gamma-radiation field simulating criticality accidents. The teeth were irradiated in free air as well as in a paraffin head phantom. Lead screens were also used to eliminate to a large extent the contribution of the gamma radiation to the dose received by the teeth. The EPR signals, obtained with a low-frequency (1.2 GHz) spectrometer, were compared to dosimetry measurements at the same location. The contribution of neutrons to the EPR dosimetric signal was negligible in the range of 0 to 10 Gy and was rather small (neutron/gamma-ray sensitivity in the range 0-0.2) at higher doses. This indicates that the method essentially provides information on the dose received from the gamma-ray component of the radiation. PMID:12859227

  17. Dosimetry in steep dose-rate gradient radiation fields: A challenge in clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massillon-JL, G.

    2010-12-01

    The fundamental goal of radiotherapy is to reduce the damage to normal tissue and optimize the dose to the tumor with an associated high probability of cure. Because of this, an accurate and precise knowledge of the radiation dose distribution delivered around the tumor volume during radiotherapy treatments such as stereotactic radiosurgery, intensity modulated radiotherapy or brachytherapy with low-energy X-ray and beta particle sources is of great importance. However, in each of these radiation fields, there exists a steep dose-rate gradient which makes it very difficult to perform accurate dose measurements. In this work, the physics phenomena involved in the energy absorption for each of these situations are discussed, and a brief revision of what the Medical Physics community is doing is presented.

  18. Nanosensor dosimetry of mouse blood proteins after exposure to ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dokyoon; Marchetti, Francesco; Chen, Zuxiong; Zaric, Sasa; Wilson, Robert J.; Hall, Drew A.; Gaster, Richard S.; Lee, Jung-Rok; Wang, Junyi; Osterfeld, Sebastian J.; Yu, Heng; White, Robert M.; Blakely, William F.; Peterson, Leif E.; Bhatnagar, Sandhya; Mannion, Brandon; Tseng, Serena; Roth, Kristen; Coleman, Matthew; Snijders, Antoine M.; Wyrobek, Andrew J.; Wang, Shan X.

    2013-01-01

    Giant magnetoresistive (GMR) nanosensors provide a novel approach for measuring protein concentrations in blood for medical diagnosis. Using an in vivo mouse radiation model, we developed protocols for measuring Flt3 ligand (Flt3lg) and serum amyloid A1 (Saa1) in small amounts of blood collected during the first week after X-ray exposures of sham, 0.1, 1, 2, 3, or 6?Gy. Flt3lg concentrations showed excellent dose discrimination at ? 1?Gy in the time window of 1 to 7 days after exposure except 1?Gy at day 7. Saa1 dose response was limited to the first two days after exposure. A multiplex assay with both proteins showed improved dose classification accuracy. Our magneto-nanosensor assay demonstrates the dose and time responses, low-dose sensitivity, small volume requirements, and rapid speed that have important advantages in radiation triage biodosimetry. PMID:23868657

  19. Dosimetry in steep dose-rate gradient radiation fields: A challenge in clinical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Massillon-JL, G.

    2010-12-07

    The fundamental goal of radiotherapy is to reduce the damage to normal tissue and optimize the dose to the tumor with an associated high probability of cure. Because of this, an accurate and precise knowledge of the radiation dose distribution delivered around the tumor volume during radiotherapy treatments such as stereotactic radiosurgery, intensity modulated radiotherapy or brachytherapy with low-energy X-ray and beta particle sources is of great importance. However, in each of these radiation fields, there exists a steep dose-rate gradient which makes it very difficult to perform accurate dose measurements. In this work, the physics phenomena involved in the energy absorption for each of these situations are discussed, and a brief revision of what the Medical Physics community is doing is presented.

  20. Nanosensor dosimetry of mouse blood proteins after exposure to ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dokyoon; Marchetti, Francesco; Chen, Zuxiong; Zaric, Sasa; Wilson, Robert J.; Hall, Drew A.; Gaster, Richard S.; Lee, Jung-Rok; Wang, Junyi; Osterfeld, Sebastian J.; Yu, Heng; White, Robert M.; Blakely, William F.; Peterson, Leif E.; Bhatnagar, Sandhya; Mannion, Brandon; Tseng, Serena; Roth, Kristen; Coleman, Matthew; Snijders, Antoine M.; Wyrobek, Andrew J.; Wang, Shan X.

    2013-07-01

    Giant magnetoresistive (GMR) nanosensors provide a novel approach for measuring protein concentrations in blood for medical diagnosis. Using an in vivo mouse radiation model, we developed protocols for measuring Flt3 ligand (Flt3lg) and serum amyloid A1 (Saa1) in small amounts of blood collected during the first week after X-ray exposures of sham, 0.1, 1, 2, 3, or 6 Gy. Flt3lg concentrations showed excellent dose discrimination at >= 1 Gy in the time window of 1 to 7 days after exposure except 1 Gy at day 7. Saa1 dose response was limited to the first two days after exposure. A multiplex assay with both proteins showed improved dose classification accuracy. Our magneto-nanosensor assay demonstrates the dose and time responses, low-dose sensitivity, small volume requirements, and rapid speed that have important advantages in radiation triage biodosimetry.

  1. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium-Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Bobby R.; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.; Osovets, Sergey V.; Syrchikov, Victor A., Belyaeva, Zinaida D.

    2007-12-14

    This report summarizes 4 years of research achievements in this Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project. The research described was conducted by scientists and supporting staff at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI)/Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). All project objectives and goals were achieved. A major focus was on obtaining improved cancer risk estimates for exposure via inhalation to plutonium (Pu) isotopes in the workplace (DOE radiation workers) and environment (public exposures to Pu-contaminated soil). A major finding was that low doses and dose rates of gamma rays can significantly suppress cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes. The suppression relates to stimulation of the body's natural defenses, including immunity against cancer cells and selective apoptosis which removes precancerous and other aberrant cells.

  2. 1986 Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 23rd, Providence, RI, July 21-23, 1986, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Thomas D. (editor)

    1986-01-01

    The present conference on the effects of nuclear and space radiation on electronic hardware gives attention to topics in the basic mechanisms of radiation effects, dosimetry and energy-dependent effects, electronic device radiation hardness assurance, SOI/SOS radiation effects, spacecraft charging and space radiation, IC radiation effects and hardening, single-event upset (SEU) phenomena and hardening, and EMP/SGEMP/IEMP phenomena. Specific treatments encompass the generation of interface states by ionizing radiation in very thin MOS oxides, the microdosimetry of meson energy deposited on 1-micron sites in Si, total dose radiation and engineering studies, plasma interactions with biased concentrator solar cells, the transient imprint memory effect in MOS memories, mechanisms leading to SEU, and the vaporization and breakdown of thin columns of water.

  3. The UF Family of hybrid phantoms of the pregnant female for computational radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Matthew R.; Long, Nelia S.; Moawad, Nash S.; Shifrin, Roger Y.; Geyer, Amy M.; Fong, Grant; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2014-08-01

    Efforts to assess in utero radiation doses and related quantities to the developing fetus should account for the presence of the surrounding maternal tissues. Maternal tissues can provide varying levels of protection to the fetus by shielding externally-emitted radiation or, alternatively, can become sources of internally-emitted radiation following the biokinetic uptake of medically-administered radiopharmaceuticals or radionuclides located in the surrounding environment—as in the case of the European Union’s SOLO project (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations). The University of Florida had previously addressed limitations in available computational phantom representation of the developing fetus by constructing a series of hybrid computational fetal phantoms at eight different ages and three weight percentiles. Using CT image sets of pregnant patients contoured using 3D-DOCTORTM, the eight 50th percentile fetal phantoms from that study were systematically combined in RhinocerosTM with the UF adult non-pregnant female to yield a series of reference pregnant female phantoms at fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38?weeks post-conception. Deformable, non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces were utilized to alter contoured maternal anatomy in order to (1) accurately position and orient each fetus and surrounding maternal tissues and (2) match target masses of maternal soft tissue organs to reference data reported in the literature.

  4. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 ...Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations...individuals to radiation from a nuclear accident is possible, shall...

  5. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 ...Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations...individuals to radiation from a nuclear accident is possible, shall...

  6. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 ...Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations...individuals to radiation from a nuclear accident is possible, shall...

  7. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 ...Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations...individuals to radiation from a nuclear accident is possible, shall...

  8. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 ...Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations...individuals to radiation from a nuclear accident is possible, shall...

  9. Effect of brachytherapy technique and patient characteristics on cervical cancer implant dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Anker, Christopher J.; O'Donnell, Kristen; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Gaffney, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between brachytherapy technique and patient characteristics on dose to organs-at-risk (OARs) in patients undergoing high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for cervical cancer. From 1998 to 2008, 31 patients with cervical cancer with full dosimetric data were identified who received definitive external-beam radiation and HDR brachytherapy with tandem and ovoid applicators. Doses were recorded at point A, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU)-38 rectal point, the ICRU-38 bladder point, the vaginal surface, and the pelvic sidewall. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the significance of changes in OAR to point A dose ratios with differences in brachytherapy technique or patient characteristics. Patients underwent a median of 5 brachytherapy procedures (range, 3 to 5), with a total of 179 procedures for 31 patients. For all brachytherapy treatments, the average ratios between the doses for the rectal, bladder, vaginal surface, and pelvic sidewall reference points to those at point A were 0.49, 0.59, 1.15, and 0.17, respectively. In general, decreased OAR dose was associated with a lower stage, younger age, increased ovoid size, increased tandem length, and earlier implant number. Increased tandem curvature significantly increased bladder dose and decreased rectal dose. Intravenous anesthesia usage was not correlated with improved dosimetry. This study allowed identification of patient and procedure characteristics influencing OAR dosing. Although the advent of 3-dimensional (3D) image-guided brachytherapy will bring new advances in treatment optimization, the actual technique involved at the time of the brachytherapy implant procedure will remain important.

  10. Dosimetry in brain tumor phantom at 15 MV 3D conformal radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common, aggressive, highly malignant and infiltrative of all brain tumors with low rate of control. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the spatial dose distribution into a GBM simulator inside a head phantom exposed to a 15 MV 3D conformal radiation therapy in order to validate internal doses. A head and neck phantom developed by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI) was used on the experiments. Such phantom holds the following synthetic structures: brain and spinal cord, skull, cervical and thoracic vertebrae, jaw, hyoid bone, laryngeal cartilages, head and neck muscles and skin. Computer tomography (CT) of the simulator was taken, capturing a set of contrasted references. Therapy Radiation planning (TPS) was performed based on those CT images, satisfying a 200 cGy prescribed dose split in three irradiation fields. The TPS assumed 97% of prescribed dose cover the prescribed treatment volume (PTV). Radiochromic films in a solid water phantom provided dose response as a function of optical density. Spatial dosimetric distribution was generated by radiochromic film samples at coronal, sagittal-anterior and sagittal-posterior positions, inserted into tumor simulator and brain. The spatial dose profiles held 70 to 120% of the prescribed dose. In spite of the stratified profile, as opposed to the smooth dose profile from TPS, the tumor internal doses were within a 5% deviation from 214.4 cGy evaluated by TPS. 83.2% of the points with a gamma value of less than 1 (3%/3mm) for TPS and experimental values, respectively. At the tumor, measured at coronal section, a few dark spots in the film caused the appearance of outlier points in 13-15% of dose deviation percentage. And, as final conclusion, such dosimeter choice and the physical anthropomorphic and anthropometric phantom provided an efficient method for validating radiotherapy protocols. PMID:23829593

  11. Monte Carlo simulation applied to the characterization of an extrapolation chamber for beta radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, F. P.; Reynaldo, S.; Fonseca, T. C. F.; Lacerda, M. A. S.; Da Silva, T. A.

    2015-11-01

    An extrapolation chamber is a parallel-plate ionization chamber with an adjustable air-cavity volume through the variation of the distance between the collecting electrode and the entrance foil. The measured ionization currents can be obtained for different chamber depths, and extrapolated towards zero chamber depth. In this work, results of Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP5 and MCNPX codes are reported for 90Sr/90Y and 85Kr beta radiation spectra incident on a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber. The results for transmission factor, absorbed dose rate in tissue as well as the chamber response as a function of the chamber depth are in good agreement with experimental data.

  12. Dosimetry of secondary cosmic radiation up to an altitude of 30 km.

    PubMed

    Wissmann, F; Burda, O; Khurana, S; Klages, T; Langner, F

    2014-10-01

    Dosimetric measurements in the field of secondary cosmic radiation were extensively made during the last years. Since the majority of these measurements were performed on-board passenger aircraft at altitudes between 10 and 12 km, measurements at higher altitudes are desirable for the verification of the legal dose assessment procedures for aircrew. A simple solution is to use a high-altitude balloon that reaches altitudes as high as 30 km. In this work, it is shown that the dose rate profile up to 30 km can be measured with acceptable uncertainties using a Si-detector. PMID:24345463

  13. Micronuclei-biological indicator for retrospective dosimetry after exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Streffer, C; Müller, W U; Kryscio, A; Böcker, W

    1998-08-01

    Micronuclei can be measured through a conventional method after staining with Giemsa or fluorescence dyes for DNA. However, a technique with cell proliferation control should be preferred. This is done by incubation with cytochalasin B and counting the micronuclei in binucleated cells. Satisfactory dose relationships are observed after irradiation of human lymphocytes in vitro. The RBE for fast neutrons is around three. An automatic analysis is possible by image analysis. The dose range in which significant increases can be observed is 0.3 to 5 Gy X-rays. The assay becomes more sensitive when the micronuclei are determined only in B-lymphocytes. Another possibility exists by determination of the number of micronuclei with centromeres. For this purpose the hybridization with pancentromeric DNA probes and fluorescence labelling is of advantage. By this technique a radiation dose of 0.1 Gy X-rays can be detected. It is apparently also possible under these conditions to detect radiation exposures which have taken place decades before the measurements. PMID:9729308

  14. Radiation dosimetry for the adult female and fetus from iodine-131 administration in hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Marcus, C.S.; Salk, R.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Through a study of the iodine kinetics of 127 patients, we have developed radiation dose estimates to major organs and the fetus for patients with varying degrees of hyperthyroidism. We observed a negative correlation between maximum thyroid uptake and biologic half-time of iodine in the thyroid and used this correlation to predict the biologic half-time at fixed values of maximum thyroid uptake. Dose estimates to the bladder, gonads, marrow, thyroid, uterus, and whole body were estimated for maximum thyroid uptakes from 20% to 100%. Bladder dose varied from 0.6 to 1.0 mGy/MBq and dose to the uterus varied from 0.036 to 0.063 mGy/MBq under different model assumptions. Dose estimates to the fetus and fetal thyroid were approximated at all stages of pregnancy. Average fetal dose was a maximum between 0 and 2 mo of pregnancy, with the maximum ranging from 0.048 mGy/MBq to 0.083 mGy/MBq, depending on model assumptions. Some radiation risks for irradiation of the fetus and the fetal thyroid are discussed.

  15. Dosimetry for a study of low-dose radiation cataracts among Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    PubMed

    Chumak, V V; Worgul, B V; Kundiyev, Y I; Sergiyenko, N M; Vitte, P M; Medvedovsky, C; Bakhanova, E V; Junk, A K; Kyrychenko, O Y; Musijachenko, N V; Sholom, S V; Shylo, S A; Vitte, O P; Xu, S; Xue, X; Shore, R E

    2007-05-01

    A cohort of 8,607 Ukrainian Chernobyl clean-up workers during 1986-1987 was formed to study cataract formation after ionizing radiation exposure. Study eligibility required the availability of sufficient exposure information to permit the reconstruction of doses to the lens of the eye. Eligible groups included civilian workers, such as those who built the "sarcophagus" over the reactor, Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Workers, and military reservists who were conscripted for clean-up work. Many of the official doses for workers were estimates, because only a minority wore radiation badges. For 106 military workers, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of extracted teeth were compared with the recorded doses as the basis to adjust the recorded gamma-ray doses and provide estimates of uncertainties. Beta-particle doses to the lens were estimated with an algorithm devised to take into account the nature and location of Chernobyl work, time since the accident, and protective measures taken. A Monte Carlo routine generated 500 random estimates for each individual from the uncertainty distributions of the gamma-ray dose and of the ratio of beta-particle to gamma-ray doses. The geometric mean of the 500 combined beta-particle and gamma-ray dose estimates for each individual was used in the data analyses. The median estimated lens dose for the cohort was 123 mGy, while 4.4% received >500 mGy. PMID:17474785

  16. Optical CT scanner for in-air readout of gels for external radiation beam 3D dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Ramm, Daniel; Rutten, Thomas P; Shepherd, Justin; Bezak, Eva

    2012-06-21

    Optical CT scanners for a 3D readout of externally irradiated radiosensitive hydrogels currently require the use of a refractive index (RI) matching liquid bath to obtain suitable optical ray paths through the gel sample to the detector. The requirement for a RI matching liquid bath has been negated by the design of a plastic cylindrical gel container that provides parallel beam geometry through the gel sample for the majority of the projection. The design method can be used for various hydrogels. Preliminary test results for the prototype laser beam scanner with ferrous xylenol-orange gel show geometric distortion of 0.2 mm maximum, spatial resolution limited to beam spot size of about 0.4 mm and 0.8% noise (1 SD) for a uniform irradiation. Reconstruction of a star pattern irradiated through the cylinder walls demonstrates the suitability for external beam applications. The extremely simple and cost-effective construction of this optical CT scanner, together with the simplicity of scanning gel samples without RI matching fluid increases the feasibility of using 3D gel dosimetry for clinical external beam dose verifications. PMID:22644104

  17. Radiation effects on structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoniem, N.M.

    1991-06-28

    This report discusses the following topics on the effect radiation has on thermonuclear reactor materials: Atomic Displacements; Microstructure Evolution; Materials Engineering, Mechanics, and Design; Research on Low-Activation Steels; and Research Motivated by Grant Support.

  18. Patient-specific internal radionuclide dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Tsougos, Ioannis; Loudos, George; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Theodorou, Kiki; Kappas, Constantin

    2010-02-01

    The development of patient-specific treatment planning systems is of outmost importance in the development of radionuclide dosimetry, taking into account that quantitative three-dimensional nuclear medical imaging can be used in this regard. At present, the established method for dosimetry is based on the measurement of the biokinetics by serial gamma-camera scans, followed by calculations of the administered activity and the residence times, resulting in the radiation-absorbed doses of critical organs. However, the quantification of the activity in different organs from planar data is hampered by inaccurate attenuation and scatter correction as well as because of background and organ overlay. In contrast, dosimetry based on quantitative three-dimensional data can be more accurate and allows an individualized approach, provided that all effects that degrade the quantitative content of the images have been corrected for. In addition, inhomogeneous organ accumulation of the radionuclide can be detected and possibly taken into account. The aim of this work is to provide adequate information on internal emitter dosimetry and a state-of-the-art review of the current methodology and future trends. PMID:20032767

  19. Pediatric radiation dosimetry for positron-emitting radionuclides using anthropomorphic phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Tianwu; Bolch, Wesley E.; Lee, Choonsik; Zaidi, Habib; Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva; Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) plays an important role in the diagnosis, staging, treatment, and surveillance of clinically localized diseases. Combined PET/CT imaging exhibits significantly higher sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy than conventional imaging when it comes to detecting malignant tumors in children. However, the radiation dose from positron-emitting radionuclide to the pediatric population is a matter of concern since children are at a particularly high risk when exposed to ionizing radiation.Methods: The authors evaluate the absorbed fractions and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of monoenergy photons/electrons as well as S-values of 9 positron-emitting radionuclides (C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, Cu-64, Ga-68, Rb-82, Y-86, and I-124) in 48 source regions for 10 anthropomorphic pediatric hybrid models, including the reference newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-yr-old male and female models, using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended general purpose Monte Carlo transport code.Results: The self-absorbed SAFs and S-values for most organs were inversely related to the age and body weight, whereas the cross-dose terms presented less correlation with body weight. For most source/target organ pairs, Rb-82 and Y-86 produce the highest self-absorbed and cross-absorbed S-values, respectively, while Cu-64 produces the lowest S-values because of the low-energy and high-frequency of electron emissions. Most of the total self-absorbed S-values are contributed from nonpenetrating particles (electrons and positrons), which have a linear relationship with body weight. The dependence of self-absorbed S-values of the two annihilation photons varies to the reciprocal of 0.76 power of the mass, whereas the self-absorbed S-values of positrons vary according to the reciprocal mass.Conclusions: The produced S-values for common positron-emitting radionuclides can be exploited for the assessment of radiation dose delivered to the pediatric population from various PET radiotracers used in clinical and research settings. The mass scaling method for positron-emitters can be used to derive patient-specific S-values from data of reference phantoms.

  20. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  1. Radiation Dosimetry and Biodistribution in Monkey and Man of 11C-PBR28: A PET

    E-print Network

    Pike, Victor W.

    with the high PBR densities (kidneys, spleen, and lungs), and the effective dose was 6.6 mSv/MBq. The unusual (subject 7), with decreased exposure to lungs, kidney, and spleen. Conclusion: The effective dose of 11C with occlusion of a cerebral artery (10). The primary goals of the current study were to estimate the hu

  2. Ultraviolet radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slemp, Wayne S.

    1989-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet testing was not developed which will provide highly accelerated (20 to 50X) exposures that correlate to flight test data. Additional studies are required to develop an exposure methodology which will assure that accelerated testing can be used for qualification of materials and coatings for long duration space flight. Some conclusions are listed: Solar UV radiation is present in all orbital environments; Solar UV does not change in flux with orbital altitude; UV radiation can degrade most coatings and polymeric films; Laboratory UV simulation methodology is needed for accelerated testing to 20 UV solar constants; Simulation of extreme UV (below 200 nm) is needed to evaluate requirements for EUV in solar simulation.

  3. Three dimensional radiation dosimetry in lung-equivalent regions by use of a radiation sensitive gel foam: Proof of principle

    SciTech Connect

    Deene, Yves de; Vergote, Koen; Claeys, Carolien; De Wagter, Carlos

    2006-07-15

    A polymer hydrogel foam is proposed as a potential three dimensional experimental dosimeter for radiation treatment verification in low-density tissue such as the lung. A gel foam is created by beating a radiation sensitive polymer gel mixture in an anoxic atmosphere. The mass density of the gel foam is in the order of 0.25-0.35 kg/dm{sup 3}. Both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-spin relaxation rate (R2) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) have been used to map the dose distribution from the gel dosimeter. It is found that MTR has significant advantages compared to R2 for mapping the dose distribution in the polymer gel foam dosimeters. The magnetization transfer ratio is found to be less dependent on the density and microstructure of the gel foam dosimeter while spin-spin relaxation dispersion has been observed making the spin-spin relaxation rate dependent on the interecho time interval. Optical microscopy reveals a microstructure that shows great similarity with human lung tissue. It is also shown how NMR hydrogen proton density measurements can be used to map the density distributions in gel dosimeters.

  4. The US radiation dosimetry standards for {sup 60}Co therapy level beams, and the transfer to the AAPM accredited dosimetry calibration laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Minniti, R.; Chen-Mayer, H.; Seltzer, S.M.; Huq, M. Saiful; Bryson, L.; Slowey, T.; Micka, J.A.; DeWerd, L.A.; Wells, N.; Hanson, W.F.; Ibbott, G.S.

    2006-04-15

    This work reports the transfer of the primary standard for air kerma from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to the secondary laboratories accredited by the American Association of Physics in Medicine (AAPM). This transfer, performed in August of 2003, was motivated by the recent revision of the NIST air-kerma standards for {sup 60}Co gamma-ray beams implemented on July 1, 2003. The revision involved a complete recharacterization of the two NIST therapy-level {sup 60}Co gamma-ray beam facilities, resulting in new values for the air-kerma rates disseminated by the NIST. Some of the experimental aspects of the determination of the new air-kerma rates are briefly summarized here; the theoretical aspects have been described in detail by Seltzer and Bergstrom [''Changes in the U.S. primary standards for the air-kerma from gamma-ray beams,'' J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 359-381 (2003)]. The standard was transferred to reference-class chambers submitted by each of the AAPM Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratories (ADCLs). These secondary-standard instruments were then used to characterize the {sup 60}Co gamma-ray beams at the ADCLs. The values of the response (calibration coefficient) of the ADCL secondary-standard ionization chambers are reported and compared to values obtained prior to the change in the NIST air-kerma standards announced on July 1, 2003. The relative change is about 1.1% for all of these chambers, and this value agrees well with the expected change in chambers calibrated at the NIST or at any secondary-standard laboratory traceable to the new NIST standard.

  5. Dose levels of the occupational radiation exposures in Poland based on results from the accredited dosimetry service at the IFJ PAN, Krakow.

    PubMed

    Budzanowski, Maciej; Kope?, Renata; Obryk, Barbara; Olko, Pawe?

    2011-03-01

    Individual dosimetry service based on thermoluminescence (TLD) detectors has started its activity at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ) in Krakow in 1965. In 2002, the new Laboratory of Individual and Environment Dosimetry (Polish acronym LADIS) was established and underwent the accreditation according to the EN-PN-ISO/IEC 17025 standard. Nowadays, the service is based on the worldwide known standard thermoluminescent detectors MTS-N (LiF:Mg,Ti) and MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P), developed at IFJ, processed in automatic thermoluminescent DOSACUS or RE2000 (Rados Oy, Finland) readers. Laboratory provides individual monitoring in terms of personal dose equivalent H(p)(10) and H(p)(0.07) in photon and neutron fields, over the range from 0.1 mSv to 1 Sv, and environmental dosimetry in terms of air kerma K(a) over the range from 30 ?Gy to 1 Gy and also ambient dose equivalent H*(10) over the range from 30 ?Sv to 1 Sv. Dosimetric service is currently performed for ca. 3200 institutions from Poland and abroad, monitored on quarterly and monthly basis. The goal of this paper is to identify the main activities leading to the highest radiation exposures in Poland. The paper presents the results of statistical evaluation of ? 100,000 quarterly H(p)(10) and K(a) measurements performed between 2002 and 2009. Sixty-five per cent up to 90 % of all individual doses in Poland are on the level of natural radiation background. The dose levels between 0.1 and 5 mSv per quarter are the most frequent in nuclear medicine, veterinary and industrial radiography sectors. PMID:21183549

  6. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  7. A revised model for radiation dosimetry in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, Md. Nasir Uddin

    A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents. Each wall was divided into many small regions so that the histologic and radiosensitive variations of the tissues across the wall could be distinguished. The characteristic parameters were determined based on the newest information available in the literature. Each of these sections except the stomach was subdivided into multiple subsections to include the spatiotemporal variations in the shape and characteristic parameters. This new GIT was integrated into an anthropomorphic phantom representing both an adult male and a larger-than-average adult female. The current phantom contains 14 different types of tissue. This phantom was coupled with the MCNP 4C Monte Carlo simulation package. The initial design and coding of the phantom and the Monte Carlo treatment employed in this study were validated using the results obtained by Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The code was used for calculating specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) in various organs and radiosensitive tissues from uniformly distributed sources of fifteen monoenergetic photons and electrons, 10 keV - 4 MeV, in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. The present studies showed that the average photon SAFs to the walls were significantly different from that to the radiosensitive cells (stem cells) for the energies below 50 keV. Above 50 keV, the photon SAFs were found to be almost constant across the walls. The electron SAF at the depth of the stem cells was a small fraction of the SAF routinely estimated at the contents-mucus interface. Electron studies showed that the "self-dose" for the energies below 300 keV and the "cross-dose" below 2 MeV were only from bremsstrahlung and fluorescent radiations at the depth of the stem cells and were not important.

  8. Dosimetry at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1993-10-01

    Although the primary reason for the existence of the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility is to provide basic data on the physics of systems of fissile material, the physical arrangements and ability to provide sources of radiation have led to applications for all types of radiation dosimetry. In the broad definition of radiation phenomena, the facility has provided sources to evaluate biological effects, radiation shielding and transport, and measurements of basic parameters such as the evaluation of delayed neutron parameters. Within the last 15 years, many of the radiation measurements have been directed to calibration and intercomparison of dosimetry related to nuclear criticality safety. Future plans include (1) the new applications of Godiva IV, a bare-metal pulse assembly, for dosimetry (including an evaluation of neutron and gamma-ray room return); (2) a proposal to relocate the Health Physics Research Reactor from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to Los Alamos, which will provide the opportunity to continue the application of a primary benchmark source to radiation dosimetry; and (3) a proposal to employ SHEBA, a low-enrichment solution assembly, for accident dosimetry and evaluation.

  9. Evaluating noncancer effects of trichloroethylene: dosimetry, mode of action, and risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, H A; Clewell, H J

    2000-01-01

    Alternatives for developing chronic exposure limits for noncancer effects of trichloroethylene (TCE) were evaluated. These alternatives were organized within a framework for dose-response assessment--exposure:dosimetry (pharmacokinetics):mode of action (pharmacodynamics): response. This framework provides a consistent structure within which to make scientific judgments about available information, its interpretation, and use. These judgments occur in the selection of critical studies, internal dose metrics, pharmacokinetic models, approaches for interspecies extrapolation of pharmacodynamics, and uncertainty factors. Potentially limiting end points included developmental eye malformations, liver effects, immunotoxicity, and kidney toxicity from oral exposure and neurological, liver, and kidney effects by inhalation. Each end point was evaluated quantitatively using several methods. Default analyses used the traditional no-observed adverse effect level divided by uncertainty factors and the benchmark dose divided by uncertainty factors methods. Subsequently, mode-of-action and pharmacokinetic information were incorporated. Internal dose metrics were estimated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for TCE and its major metabolites. This approach was notably useful with neurological and kidney toxicities. The human PBPK model provided estimates of human exposure doses for the internal dose metrics. Pharmacodynamic data or default assumptions were used for interspecies extrapolation. For liver and neurological effects, humans appear no more sensitive than rodents when internal dose metrics were considered. Therefore, the interspecies uncertainty factor was reduced, illustrating that uncertainty factors are a semiquantitative approach fitting into the organizational framework. Incorporation of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics can result in values that differ significantly from those obtained with the default methods. PMID:10807562

  10. Comparative dosimetry for radon and thoron in high background radiation areas in China.

    PubMed

    Kudo, H; Tokonami, S; Omori, Y; Ishikawa, T; Iwaoka, K; Sahoo, S K; Akata, N; Hosoda, M; Wanabongse, P; Pornnumpa, C; Sun, Q; Li, X; Akiba, S

    2015-11-01

    The present study focuses on internal exposure caused by the inhalation of radon and thoron progenies because the internal exposures have not yet been clarified. For their dose assessment, radon, thoron and thoron progeny concentrations were measured by passive monitors over a long period (for 6 months). Consequently, radon, thoron and equilibrium equivalent thoron concentrations were given as 124 ± 78, 1247 ± 1189 and 7.8 ± 9.1 Bq m(-3), respectively. Annual effective doses are estimated to be 3.1 ± 2.0 mSv for radon and 2.2 ± 2.5 mSv for thoron. Total dose are estimated to be 5.3 ± 3.5 mSv a(-1). The present study has revealed that the radon dose was comparable with the thoron dose, and the total dose was ?2 times higher than the worldwide average. PMID:25935013

  11. Measurements of radiation exposure of dentistry students during their radiological training using thermoluminescent dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Loya, M; Sanín, L H; González, P R; Ávila, O; Duarte, R; Ojeda, S L; Montero-Cabrera, M E

    2016-01-01

    Exposure among dentistry students has not been assessed or regulated in Mexico. This work assessed the average exposure of 35 dentistry students during their training with the aid of LiF:Mg,Cu,P+PTFE thermoluminescent dosimeters. For the students in the roles of dentist and observers, maximum accumulated equivalent dose obtained was 2.59±0.11 and 4.64±0.39mSv, respectively. Students in the role as patients received a maximum accumulated effective dose of 28.41±0.31mSv. If compared to occupational dose limits, this latter value is 56% of the recommended value of 50mSv in any year. It was found that in all cases, values of equivalent dose to the women breasts were equal to the background dose. Results are discussed and compared to previous published work. Suggested recommendations were given to authorities in order to minimize exposure of the students in the role as patients. PMID:26562447

  12. Harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-21

    Tanning for cosmetic purposes by sunbathing or by using artificial tanning devices is widespread. The hazards associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation are of concern to the medical profession. Depending on the amount and form of the radiation, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed, ultraviolet radiation causes erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancers most commonly produced by ultraviolet radiation are basal and squamous cell carcinomas. There also is much circumstantial evidence that the increase in the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma during the past half century is related to increased sun exposure, but this has not been proved. Effective and cosmetically acceptable sunscreen preparations have been developed that can do much to prevent or reduce most harmful effects to ultraviolet radiation if they are applied properly and consistently. Other safety measures include (1) minimizing exposure to ultraviolet radiation, (2) being aware of reflective surfaces while in the sun, (3) wearing protective clothing, (4) avoiding use of artificial tanning devices, and (5) protecting infants and children.

  13. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Oral session 1: Retrospective dosimetry. Retrospective dosimetry of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel at the 3rd unit of Dukovany NPP / M. Marek ... [et al.]. Retrospective dosimetry study at the RPV of NPP Greifswald unit 1 / J. Konheiser ... [et al.]. Test of prototype detector for retrospective neutron dosimetry of reactor internals and vessel / K. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Neutron doses to the concrete vessel and tendons of a magnox reactor using retrospective dosimetry / D. A. Allen ... [et al.]. A retrospective dosimetry feasibility study for Atucha I / J. Wagemans ... [et al.]. Retrospective reactor dosimetry with zirconium alloy samples in a PWR / L. R. Greenwood and J. P. Foster -- Oral session 2: Experimental techniques. Characterizing the Time-dependent components of reactor n/y environments / P. J. Griffin, S. M. Luker and A. J. Suo-Anttila. Measurements of the recoil-ion response of silicon carbide detectors to fast neutrons / F. H. Ruddy, J. G. Seidel and F. Franceschini. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the HB-4 cold source at the high flux isotope reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory / J. L. Robertson and E. B. Iverson. Feasibility of cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy for dose rate monitoring on nuclear reactor / H. Tomita ... [et al.]. Measuring transistor damage factors in a non-stable defect environment / D. B. King ... [et al.]. Neutron-detection based monitoring of void effects in boiling water reactors / J. Loberg ... [et al.] -- Poster session 1: Power reactor surveillance, retrospective dosimetry, benchmarks and inter-comparisons, adjustment methods, experimental techniques, transport calculations. Improved diagnostics for analysis of a reactor pulse radiation environment / S. M. Luker ... [et al.]. Simulation of the response of silicon carbide fast neutron detectors / F. Franceschini, F. H. Ruddy and B. Petrovi?. NSV A-3: a computer code for least-squares adjustment of neutron spectra and measured dosimeter responses / J. G. Williams, A. P. Ribaric and T. Schnauber. Agile high-fidelity MCNP model development techniques for rapid mechanical design iteration / J. A. Kulesza.Extension of Raptor-M3G to r-8-z geometry for use in reactor dosimetry applications / M. A. Hunter, G. Longoni and S. L. Anderson. In vessel exposure distributions evaluated with MCNP5 for Atucha II / J. M. Longhino, H. Blaumann and G. Zamonsky. Atucha I nuclear power plant azimutal ex-vessel flux profile evaluation / J. M. Longhino ... [et al.]. UFTR thermal column characterization and redesign for maximized thermal flux / C. Polit and A. Haghighat. Activation counter using liquid light-guide for dosimetry of neutron burst / M. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Control rod reactivity curves for the annular core research reactor / K. R. DePriest ... [et al.]. Specification of irradiation conditions in VVER-440 surveillance positions / V. Kochkin ... [et al.]. Simulations of Mg-Ar ionisation and TE-TE ionisation chambers with MCNPX in a straightforward gamma and beta irradiation field / S. Nievaart ... [et al.]. The change of austenitic stainless steel elements content in the inner parts of VVER-440 reactor during operation / V. Smutný, J. Hep and P. Novosad. Fast neutron environmental spectrometry using disk activation / G. Lövestam ... [et al.]. Optimization of the neutron activation detector location scheme for VVER-lOOO ex-vessel dosimetry / V. N. Bukanov ... [et al.]. Irradiation conditions for surveillance specimens located into plane containers installed in the WWER-lOOO reactor of unit 2 of the South-Ukrainian NPP / O. V. Grytsenko. V. N. Bukanov and S. M. Pugach. Conformity between LRO mock-ups and VVERS NPP RPV neutron flux attenuation / S. Belousov. Kr. Ilieva and D. Kirilova. FLUOLE: a new relevant experiment for PWR pressure vessel surveillance / D. Beretz ... [et al.]. Transport of neutrons and photons through the iron and water layers / M. J. Kost'ál ... [et al.]. Condition evaluation of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from the first-generation nuclear-powered submarines by gamma scanning / A. F. Usatyi. L. A. Serdyuk

  14. Turbulence Effect on Cloud Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, K.; Onishi, R.; Kurose, R.; Komori, S.

    2012-06-01

    The effect of turbulent clustering of water droplets on radiative transfer is investigated by means of both a three-dimensional direct numerical simulation of particle-laden homogeneous isotropic turbulence and a radiative transfer simulation based on a Monte Carlo photon tracing method. The results show that turbulent clustering causes the formation of void regions of droplets and hence increases the direct transmittance. This effect decreases as the turbulent Reynolds number increases and is estimated to be negligibly small under the conditions in real clouds.

  15. Biological dosimetry to determine the UV radiation climate inside the MIR station and its role in vitamin D biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Zittermann, A.; Heer, M.

    1998-11-01

    The vitamin D synthesis in the human skin, is absolutely dependent on UVB radiation. Natural UVB from sunlight is normally absent in the closed environment of a space station like MIR. Therefore it was necessary to investigate the UV radiation climate inside the station resulting from different lamps as well as from occasional solar irradiation behind a UV-transparent quartz window. Biofilms, biologically weighting and integrating UV dosimeters successfully applied on Earth (e.g. in Antarctica) and in space (D-2, Biopan I) were used to determine the biological effectiveness of the UV radiation climate at different locations in the space station. Biofilms were also used to determine the personal UV dose of an individual cosmonaut. These UV data were correlated with the concentration of vitamin D in the cosmonaut's blood and the dietary vitamin D intake. The results showed that the UV radiation climate inside the Mir station is not sufficient for an adequate supply of vitamin D, which should therefore be secured either by vitamin D supplementat and/or by the regular exposure to special UV lamps like those in sun-beds. The use of natural solar UV radiation through the quartz window for `sunbathing' is dangerous and should be avoided even for short exposure periods.

  16. TH-C-17A-03: Dynamic Visualization and Dosimetry of IMRT and VMAT Treatment Plans by Video-Rate Imaging of Cherenkov Radiation in Pure Water

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, A; Andreozzi, J; Davis, S; Zhang, R; Fox, C; Gladstone, D; Pogue, B

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A novel optical dosimetry technique for the QA and verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) radiotherapy plans was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced Cherenkov radiation in water. Methods: An intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was used to acquire a two-dimensional (2D) projection image of the Cherenkov radiation induced by IMRT and VMAT plans, based on the Task Group 119 C-Shape geometry. Plans were generated using the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) and delivered using 6 MV x-rays from a Varian TrueBeam Linear Accelerator (Linac) incident on a water tank. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the Linac, operated for single pulse imaging, and binned to a resolution of 512×512 pixels. The resulting videos were analyzed temporally for regions of interest (ROI) covering the planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risk (OAR) and summed to obtain an overall light distribution, which was compared to the expected dose distribution from the TPS using a gammaindex analysis. Results: The chosen camera settings resulted in data at 23.5 frames per second. Temporal intensity plots of the PTV and OAR ROIs confirmed the preferential delivery of dose to the PTV versus the OAR, and the gamma analysis yielded 95.2% and 95.6% agreement between the light distribution and expected TPS dose distribution based upon a 3% / 3 mm dose difference and distance-to-agreement criterion for the IMRT and VMAT plans respectively. Conclusion: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of Cherenkov radiation for optical dosimetry of dynamic IMRT and VMAT treatment plans. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods including the real-time nature of the acquisition, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method with both research and clinical applications. NIH R01CA109558 and R21EB017559.

  17. Changes in Functional Lung Regions During the Course of Radiation Therapy and Their Potential Impact on Lung Dosimetry for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Xue; Frey, Kirk; Matuszak, Martha; Paul, Stanton; Ten Haken, Randall; Yu, Jinming; Kong, Feng-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To study changes in functional activity on ventilation (V)/perfusion (Q) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during radiation therapy (RT) and explore the impact of such changes on lung dosimetry in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Fifteen NSCLC patients with centrally located tumors were enrolled. All patients were treated with definitive RT dose of ?60 Gy. V/Q SPECT-CT scans were performed prior to and after delivery of 45 Gy of fractionated RT. SPECT images were used to define temporarily dysfunctional regions of lung caused by tumor or other potentially reversible conditions as B3. The functional lung (FL) was defined on SPECT by 2 separate approaches: FL1, a threshold of 30% of the maximum uptake of the patient's lung; and FL2, FL1 plus B3 region. The impact of changes in FL between initiation of RT and delivery of 45 Gy on lung dosimetry were analyzed. Results: Fourteen patients (93%) had larger FL2 volumes than FL1 pre-RT (P<.001). Dysfunctional lung became functional in 11 patients (73%) on V SPECT and in 10 patients (67%) on Q SPECT. The dosimetric parameters generated from CT-based anatomical lung had significantly lower values in FL1 than FL2, with a median reduction in the volume of lung receiving a dose of at least 20 Gy (V{sub 20}) of 3%, 5.6%, and mean lung dose of 0.95 and 1.55 on V and Q SPECT respectively. Conclusions: Regional ventilation and perfusion function improve significantly during RT in centrally located NSCLC. Lung dosimetry values vary notably between different definitions of functional lung.

  18. Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 15th, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N. Mex., July 18-21, 1978, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, M.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation effects in MOS devices and circuits are considered along with radiation effects in materials, space radiation effects and spacecraft charging, SGEMP, IEMP, EMP, fabrication of radiation-hardened devices, radiation effects in bipolar devices and circuits, simulation, energy deposition, and dosimetry. Attention is given to the rapid anneal of radiation-induced silicon-sapphire interface charge trapping, cosmic ray induced errors in MOS memory cells, a simple model for predicting radiation effects in MOS devices, the response of MNOS capacitors to ionizing radiation at 80 K, trapping effects in irradiated and avalanche-injected MOS capacitors, inelastic interactions of electrons with polystyrene, the photoelectron spectral yields generated by monochromatic soft X radiation, and electron transport in reactor materials.

  19. Radiation Effects in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    The requirements for a solid moderator are reviewed and the reasons that graphite has become the solid moderator of choice discussed. The manufacture and properties of some currently available near-isotropic and isotropic grades are described. The major features of a graphite moderated reactors are briefly outlined. Displacement damage and the induced structural and dimensional changes in graphite are described. Recent characterization work on nano-carbons and oriented pyrolytic graphites that have shed new light on graphite defect structures are reviewed, and the effect of irradiation temperature on the defect structures is highlighted. Changes in the physical properties of nuclear graphite caused by neutron irradiation are reported. Finally, the importance of irradiation induced creep is presented, along with current models and their deficiencies.

  20. Radiative Effects of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1996-01-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, two descents in cloud-free regions allowed comparison of the change in aerosol optical depth as determined by an onboard total-direct-diffuse radiometer (TDDR) to the change calculated from measured size-resolved aerosol microphysics and chemistry. Both profiles included a pollution haze from Europe but the second also included the effect of a Saharan dust layer above the haze. The separate contributions of supermicrometer (coarse) and submicrometer (fine) aerosol were determined and thermal analysis of the pollution haze indicated that the fine aerosol was composed primarily of a sulfate/water mixture with a refractory soot-like core. The soot core increased the calculated extinction by about 10% in the most polluted drier layer relative to a pure sulfate aerosol but had significantly less effect at higher humidities. A 3 km descent through a boundary layer air mass dominated by pollutant aerosol with relative humidities (RH) 10-77% yielded a close agreement between the measured and calculated aerosol optical depths (550 nm) of 0.160 (+/- 0.07) and 0. 157 (+/- 0.034) respectively. During descent the aerosol mass scattering coefficient per unit sulfate mass varied from about 5 to 16 m(exp 2)/g and primarily dependent upon ambient RH. However, the total scattering coefficient per total fine mass was far less variable at about 4+/- 0.7 m(exp 2)/g. A subsequent descent through a Saharan dust layer located above the pollution aerosol layer revealed that both layers contributed similarly to aerosol optical depth. The scattering per unit mass of the coarse aged dust was estimated at 1.1 +/- 0.2 m(exp 2)/g. The large difference (50%) in measured and calculated optical depth for the dust layer exceeded measurements.

  1. Assessment and Implications of Scattered Microbeam and Broadbeam Synchrotron Radiation for Bystander Effect Studies.

    PubMed

    Lobachevsky, Pavel; Ivashkevich, Alesia; Forrester, Helen B; Stevenson, Andrew W; Hall, Chris J; Sprung, Carl N; Martin, Olga A

    2015-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation is an excellent tool for investigating bystander effects in cell and animal models because of the well-defined and controllable configuration of the beam. Although synchrotron radiation has many advantages for such studies compared to conventional radiation, the contribution of dose exposure from scattered radiation nevertheless remains a source of concern. Therefore, the influence of scattered radiation on the detection of bystander effects induced by synchrotron radiation in biological in vitro models was evaluated. Radiochromic XRQA2 film-based dosimetry was employed to measure the absorbed dose of scattered radiation in cultured cells at various distances from a field exposed to microbeam radiotherapy and broadbeam X-ray radiation. The level of scattered radiation was dependent on the distance, dose in the target zone and beam mode. The number of ?-H2AX foci in cells positioned at the same target distances was measured and used as a biodosimeter to evaluate the absorbed dose. A correlation of absorbed dose values measured by the physical and biological methods was identified. The ?-H2AX assay successfully quantitated the scattered radiation in the range starting from 10 mGy and its contribution to the observed radiation-induced bystander effect. PMID:26632855

  2. Radiation effects in spacecraft electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, James P.

    1989-01-01

    Effects on the internal spacecraft electronics due to exposure to the natural and enhanced space radiation environment will be reviewed. The emphasis will be placed on the description of the nature of both the exposure environment and failure mechanisms in semiconductors. Understanding both the system environment and device effects is critical in the use of laboratory simulation environments to obtain the data necessary to design and qualify components for successful application.

  3. Atmospheric effects on radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurica, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    Two essentially distinct regions of the electromagnetic spectrum are discussed: (1) the scattering region in which the radiation energy is provided by the incident solar flux; and (2) the infrared region in which emission by the earth's surface and atmospheric gases supply radiative energy. In each of these spectral regions the atmosphere performs its dual function with respect to a remote sensing measurement of surface properties. The atmosphere acts both as a filter and as a noise generator removing and obscuring sought after information. Nevertheless, with proper application of concepts such as have been considered, it will be possible to remove these unwanted atmospheric effects and to improve identification techniques being developed.

  4. Evaluation of Effective Sources in Uncertainty Measurements of Personal Dosimetry by a Harshaw TLD System

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini Pooya, SM; Orouji, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: The accurate results of the individual doses in personal dosimety which are reported by the service providers in personal dosimetry are very important. There are national / international criteria for acceptable dosimetry system performance. Objective: In this research, the sources of uncertainties are identified, measured and calculated in a personal dosimetry system by TLD. Method: These sources are included; inhomogeneity of TLDs sensitivity, variability of TLD readings due to limited sensitivity and background, energy dependence, directional dependence, non-linearity of the response, fading, dependent on ambient temperature / humidity and calibration errors, which may affect on the dose responses. Some parameters which influence on the above sources of uncertainty are studied for Harshaw TLD-100 cards dosimeters as well as the hot gas Harshaw 6600 TLD reader system. Results: The individual uncertainties of each sources was measured less than 6.7% in 68% confidence level. The total uncertainty was calculated 17.5% with 95% confidence level. Conclusion: The TLD-100 personal dosimeters as well as the Harshaw TLD-100 reader 6600 system show the total uncertainty value which is less than that of admissible value of 42% for personal dosimetry services. PMID:25505769

  5. Effect of Edema on Postimplant Dosimetry in Prostate Brachytherapy Using CT/MRI Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Osamu Hayashi, Shinya; Matsuo, Masayuki; Nakano, Masahiro; Uno, Hiromi; Ohtakara, Kazuhiro; Miyoshi, Toshiharu; Deguchi, Takashi; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the time course of prostatic edema and the effect on the dose-volume histograms of the prostate for patients treated with brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 74 patients with prostate cancer were enrolled in this prospective study. A transrectal ultrasound-based preplan was performed 4 weeks before implantation and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging fusion-based postimplant dosimetry was performed on the day after implantation (Day 1) and 30 days after implantation (Day 30). The prostate volume, prostate volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose (V{sub 100}), and dose covering 90% of the prostate (D{sub 90}) were evaluated with prostatic edema over time. Results: Prostatic edema was greatest on Day 1, with the mean prostate volume 36% greater than the preplan transrectal ultrasound-based volume; it thereafter decreased over time. It was 9% greater than preplan volume on Day 30. The V{sub 100} increased 5.7% from Day 1 to Day 30, and the D{sub 90} increased 13.1% from Day 1 to Day 30. The edema ratio (postplan/preplan) on Day 1 of low-quality implants with a V{sub 100} of <80% was significantly greater than that of intermediate- to high-quality implants (>80% V{sub 100}; p = 0.0272). The lower V{sub 100} on Day 1 showed a greater increase from Day 1 to Day 30. A V{sub 100} on Day 1 of >92% is unlikely to increase >0% during the interval studied. Conclusion: Low-quality implants on Day 1 were highly associated with edema; however, such a low-quality implant on Day 1, with significant edema, tended to improve by Day 30. If a high-quality implant (V100 >92%) can be obtained on Day 1, a re-examination is no longer necessary.

  6. Thermal effects in radiation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1984-10-21

    The balance of ionizing radiation energy incident on an object being processed is discussed in terms of energy losses, influencing the amount really absorbed. To obtain the amount of heat produced, the absorbed energy is corrected for the change in internal energy of the system and for the heat effect of secondary reactions developing after the initiation. The temperature of a processed object results from the heat evolved and from the specific heat of the material comprising the object. The specific heat of most materials is usually much lower than that of aqueous systems and therefore temperatures after irradiation are higher. The role of low specific heat in radiation processing at cryogenic conditions is stressed. Adiabatic conditions of accelerator irradiation are contrasted with the steady state thermal conditions prevailing in large gamma sources. Among specific questions discussed in the last part of the paper are: intermediate and final temperature of composite materials, measurement of real thermal effects in situ, neutralization of undesired warming experienced during radiation processing, processing at temperatures other than ambient and administration of very high doses of radiation.

  7. The effects of incidence angle on film dosimetry and their consequences in IMRT dose verification

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, R. P.; De Wagter, C.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The dosimetric accuracy of EDR2 radiographic film has been rigorously assessed in regular and intensity modulated beams for various incidence angles, including the parallel and perpendicular orientation. There clearly exists confusion in literature regarding the effect of film orientation. The primary aim is to clarify potential sources of the confusion and to gain physical insight into the film orientation effect with a link to radiochromic film as well. Methods: An inverse pyramid IMRT field, consisting of six regular and elongated 3 Multiplication-Sign 20 cm{sup 2} field segments, was studied in perpendicular and parallel orientation. Assessment of film self-perturbation and intrinsic directional sensitivity were also included in the experiments. Finally, the authors investigated the orientational effect in composite beams in the two extreme orientations, i.e., perpendicular and parallel. Results: The study of an inverse pyramid dose profile revealed good agreement between the perpendicular film and the diamond detector within 0.5% in the low-scatter regions for both 6 and 18 MV. The parallel oriented film demonstrated a 3% under-response at 5-cm (6 MV) depth against the perpendicular orientation, but both orientations over responded equally in the central region, which received only scattered dose, at both 5- and 20-cm depths. In a regular 6-MV 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 2} field, a 4.1% lower film response was observed in the parallel orientation compared to perpendicular orientation. The under response gradually increased to 6% when reducing the field size to 0.5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 2}. On the other hand, the film showed a 1.7% lower response in parallel orientation for the large field size of 20 Multiplication-Sign 20 cm{sup 2} at 5-cm depth but the difference disappeared at 10 cm. At 18 MV, similar but somewhat lower differences were found between the two orientations. The directional sensitivity of the film diminishes with increasing field size and depth. Surprisingly a composite IMRT beam consisting of 20 adjacent strip segments also produced a significant orientational dependence of film response, notwithstanding the large total field size of 20 Multiplication-Sign 20 cm{sup 2}. Conclusions: This analysis allowed the development of a hypothesis about the physics behind the orientational dependence of film response in general and to formulate precautions when using film dosimetry in the dosimetric verification of multibeam treatments.

  8. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

  9. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-06-16

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments. (ACR)

  10. An in-phantom dosimetry system using pin silicon photodiode radiation sensors for measuring organ doses in x-ray CT and other diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Takahiko; Koyama, Shuji; Kawaura, Chiyo

    2002-07-01

    A dosimetry system using commercially available pin silicon photodiodes as the sensor is evaluated for in-phantom dose measurements in x-ray CT and other diagnostic radiology. System sensitivity measured as a function of the effective energy of x rays was between 0.37 and 0.49 V/mGy at an effective energy range between 23.5 and 72 keV. The minimum detectable organ dose with 25% uncertainty was estimated to be 0.02 mGy. The excellent output linearity was found over a dose range from 0.03 to more than 10 mGy with flat dose rate response of system sensitivity up to 35 mGy s(-1), though the sensitivity indicated some energy dependence across the diagnostic energy range with a maximum of about 10%/10 keV. Since angular dependence of the sensitivity of the photodiode sensor was found to be small enough it would induce negligible dose error. Dose profile measurement along the axis of a thoracic phantom undergoing CT chest examination indicated the reliability of dose values over a range of two orders of magnitude from less than 0.2 to 12 mGy. The present dosimetry system having advantages of high sensitivity with immediate readout of dose values, low cost, and easy construction would widely be used as an alternative to TLD dosimeters for organ and skin dose measurements in CT and other diagnostic radiology. PMID:12148731

  11. THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF IONIZING RADIATION

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF IONIZING RADIATION Lesley Hines lhines@ehs.ufl.edu Environmental Health Radiation Damage Occur? #12;Ionization · Ionizing Radiation can remove tightly bound electrons from is the primary target for biological damage! #12;Radiation Damage Mechanisms 1. Direct Action: Direct ionization

  12. Dosimetry for Radiopharmaceutical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sgouros, George; Hobbs, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Radiopharmaceutical therapy (RPT) involves the use of radionuclides that are either conjugated to tumor-targeting agents (eg, nanoscale constructs, antibodies, peptides, and small molecules) or concentrated in tissue through natural physiological mechanisms that occur predominantly in neoplastic or otherwise targeted cells (eg, Graves disease). The ability to collect pharmacokinetic data by imaging and use this to perform dosimetry calculations for treatment planning distinguishes RPT from other systemic treatment modalities. Treatment planning has not been widely adopted, in part, because early attempts to relate dosimetry to outcome were not successful. This was partially because a dosimetry methodology appropriate to risk evaluation rather than efficacy and toxicity was being applied to RPT. The weakest links in both diagnostic and therapeutic dosimetry are the accuracy of the input and the reliability of the radiobiological models used to convert dosimetric data to the relevant biologic end points. Dosimetry for RPT places a greater demand on both of these weak links. To date, most dosimetric studies have been retrospective, with a focus on tumor dose-response correlations rather than prospective treatment planning. In this regard, transarterial radioembolization also known as intra-arterial radiation therapy, which uses radiolabeled (90Y) microspheres of glass or resin to treat lesions in the liver holds much promise for more widespread dosimetric treatment planning. The recent interest in RPT with alpha-particle emitters has highlighted the need to adopt a dosimetry methodology that specifically accounts for the unique aspects of alpha particles. The short range of alpha-particle emitters means that in cases in which the distribution of activity is localized to specific functional components or cell types of an organ, the absorbed dose will be equally localized and dosimetric calculations on the scale of organs or even voxels (~5 mm) are no longer sufficient. This limitation may be overcome by using preclinical models to implement macromodeling to micromodeling. In contrast to chemotherapy, RPT offers the possibility of evaluating radiopharmaceutical distributions, calculating tumor and normal tissue absorbed doses, and devising a treatment plan that is optimal for a specific patient or specific group of patients. PMID:24832581

  13. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2007-03-12

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Revision Log: Rev. 0 (2/25/2005) Major revision and expansion. Rev. 0.1 (3/12/2007) Minor revision. Updated Chapters 5, 6 and 9 to reflect change in default ring calibration factor used in HEDP dose calculation software. Factor changed from 1.5 to 2.0 beginning January 1, 2007. Pages on which changes were made are as follows: 5.23, 5.69, 5.78, 5.80, 5.82, 6.3, 6.5, 6.29, 9.2.

  14. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-04-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with requirements of 10 CFR 835, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program, the DOE Richland Operations Office, DOE Office of River Protection, DOE Pacific Northwest Office of Science, and Hanford’s DOE contractors. The dosimetry system is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to PNNL and all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Maintenance and distribution of controlled hard copies of the manual by PNNL was discontinued beginning with Revision 0.2.

  15. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2011-04-04

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with requirements of 10 CFR 835, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program, the DOE Richland Operations Office, DOE Office of River Protection, DOE Pacific Northwest Office of Science, and Hanford’s DOE contractors. The dosimetry system is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to PNNL and all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Maintenance and distribution of controlled hard copies of the manual by PNNL was discontinued beginning with Revision 0.2.

  16. Status of LDEF ionizing radiation measurements and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    The LDEF-1 results from the particle astrophysics, radiation environments, and dosimetry measurements on LDEF-1 are summarized, including highlights from presentations at the 2nd symposium. Progress in using LDEF data to improve radiation environment models and calculation methods is reviewed. Radiation effects, or the lack thereof are discussed. Future plans of the LDEF Ionizing Radiation Special Investigation Group are presented.

  17. RADIATION EFFECTS IN MATERIAL MICROSTRUCTURE.

    SciTech Connect

    SIMOS,N.

    2007-05-30

    Next generation nuclear power systems, high-power particle accelerators and space technology will inevitably rely on higher performance materials that will be able to function in the extreme environments of high irradiation, high temperatures, corrosion and stress. The ability of any material to maintain its functionality under exposure to harsh conditions is directly linked to the material structure at the nano- and micro-scales. Understanding of the underlying processes is key to the success of such undertakings. This paper presents experimental results of the effects of radiation exposure on several unique alloys, composites and crystals through induced changes in the physio-mechanical macroscopic properties.

  18. EFFECT OF RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION ON THERMOREGULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past 30 years there have been numerous studies on the patho-physiological effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. t is clear that the majority of these effects can be attributed to the thermogenic action of RF radiation. uring exposure to RF radiation the the...

  19. Fast neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period.

  20. Development of a Fast and Highly Efficient Gas Ionization Chamber For Patient Imaging and Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    E-print Network

    Hinderler, R; Keller, H; Mackie, T R

    2003-01-01

    In radiation therapy of cancer, more accurate delivery techniques spur the need for improved patient imaging during treatment. To this purpose, the megavoltage radiation protocol that is used for treatment is also used for imaging.

  1. Development of Fast and Highly Efficient Gas Ionization Chamber For Patient Imaging and Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    R. Hinderler; H. Keller; T.R. Mackie; M.L. Corradini

    2003-09-08

    In radiation therapy of cancer, more accurate delivery techniques spur the need for improved patient imaging during treatment. To this purpose, the megavoltage radiation protocol that is used for treatment is also used for imaging.

  2. Status of neutron dosimetry cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.

    1992-12-31

    Several new cross section libraries, such as ENDF/B-VI(release 2), IRDF-90,JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3 Dosimetry, have recently been made available to the dosimetry community. the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) has worked with these libraries since pre-release versions were available. this paper summarizes the results of the intercomparison and testing of dosimetry cross sections. As a result of this analysis, a compendium of the best dosimetry cross sections was assembled from the available libraries for use within the SNL RML. this library, referred to as the SNLRML Library, contains 66 general dosimetry sensors and 3 special dosimeters unique to the RML sensor inventory. The SNLRML cross sections have been put into a format compatible with commonly used spectrum determination codes.

  3. Effects of temperature on MOS radiation response

    SciTech Connect

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Schwank, J.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.

    1997-03-01

    Effects of irradiation and annealing temperature on radiation-induced charge densities are explored for MOS transistors. Both interface- and border-trap density increase with increasing radiation temperature, while the net oxide-trap charge density decreases.

  4. INTRINSIC DOSIMETRY: A POTENTIAL NEW TOOL FOR NUCLEAR FORENSICS INVESTIGATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Richard A.; Miller, Steven D.; Robertson, Dave J.; Gregg, Roger A.; Murphy, Mark K.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2010-08-11

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry was used to measure dose effects on the raw stock material of borosilicate container glass from different geographical locations. Effects were studied at times up to 60 days post-irradiation at doses from 0.15 to 20 Gy. The minimum detectable dose using this technique was estimated to be 0.15 Gy which is roughly equivalent to a 24 hr irradiation 1 cm from a 50 ng source of 60Co. Two peaks were identified in the TL glow curve, a relatively unstable peak around 125°C and a more stable peak around 225°C. Differences in TL glow curve shape and intensity were also observed for the glasses from different geographical origins. We investigate radiation induced defects in glass to further develop the technique of intrinsic dosimetry–the measurement of the total absorbed dose received by the walls of a container holding radioactive material. Intrinsic dosimetry is intended to be used as an interrogation tool to provide enhanced pathway information on interdicted or newly discovered waste containers of unknown origin or history by considering the total absorbed dose received by a container in tandem with the physical characteristics of the radioactive material housed within that container. One hypothetical scenario is presented to illustrate the application of intrinsic dosimetry to waste management and nuclear forensics.

  5. SU-E-T-368: Effect of a Strong Magnetic Field On Select Radiation Dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, M; Wen, Z; Tailor, R; Sawakuchi, G; Flint, D; Beddar, S; Ibbott, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of a strong magnetic field on TLD-100, OSLD (Al{sub 2}O{sub 2}:C), and PRESAGE dosimetry devices. This study will help to determine which types of dosimeters can be used for quality assurance and in-vivo dosimetry measurements in a magnetic resonance imaginglinear accelerator (MRI-linac) system. Methods: The dosimeters were separated into two categories which were either exposed or not exposed to a strong magnetic field. In each category a set of dosimeters was irradiated with 0, 2, or 6 Gy. To expose the dosimeters to a magnetic field the samples in that category were place in a Bruker small animal magnetic resonance scanner at a field strength slightly greater than 2.5 T for at least 1 hour preirradiation and at least 1 hour post-irradiation. Irradiations were performed with a 6 MV x-ray beam from a Varian TrueBeam linac with 10×10 cm{sup 2} field at a 600 MU/min dose rate. The samples that received no radiation dose were used as control detectors. Results: The readouts of the dosimeters which were not exposed to a strong magnetic field were compared with the measurements of the dosimetry devices which were exposed to a magnetic field. No significant differences (less than 2% difference) in the performance of TLD, OSLD, or PRESAGE dosimeters due to exposure to a strong magnetic field were observed. Conclusion: Exposure to a strong magnetic field before and after irradiation does not appear to change the dosimetric properties of TLD, OSLD, or PRESAGE which indicates that these dosimeters have potential for use in quality assurance and in-vivo dosimetry in a MRI-linac. We plan to further test the effect of magnetic fields on these devices by irradiating them in the presence of a magnetic fields similar to those produced by a MRI-linac system. Elekta-MD Anderson Cancer Center Research Agreement.

  6. Quantum dosimetry and online visualization of X-ray and charged particle radiation in commercial aircraft at operational flight altitudes with the pixel detector Timepix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja, Carlos; Pospisil, Stanislav

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the application of the hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix for precise characterization, quantum sensitivity dosimetry and visualization of the charged particle radiation and X-ray field inside commercial aircraft at operational flight altitudes. The quantum counting capability and granularity of Timepix provides the composition and spectral-characteristics of the X-ray and charged-particle field with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, high spatial resolution and particle type resolving power. For energetic charged particles the direction of trajectory and linear energy transfer can be measured. The detector is operated by the integrated readout interface FITPix for power, control and data acquisition together with the software package Pixelman for online visualization and real-time data processing. The compact and portable radiation camera can be deployed remotely being controlled simply by a laptop computer. The device performs continuous monitoring and accurate time-dependent measurements in wide dynamic range of particle fluxes, deposited energy, absorbed dose and equivalent dose rates. Results are presented for in-flight measurements at altitudes up to 12 km in various flights selected in the period 2006-2013.

  7. MIRD Pamphlet No. 21: A Generalized Schema for Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry-Standardization of Nomenclature

    SciTech Connect

    Bolch, W E; Eckerman, Keith F; Sgouros, George; Thomas, Steven R.

    2009-03-01

    The internal dosimetry schema of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine has provided a broad framework for assessment of the absorbed dose to whole organs, tissue subregions, voxelized tissue structures, and individual cellular compartments for use in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. The schema was originally published in 1968, revised in 1976, and republished in didactic form with comprehensive examples as the MIRD primer in 1988 and 1991. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is an organization that also supplies dosimetric models and technical data, for use in providing recommendations for limits on ionizing radiation exposure to workers and members of the general public. The ICRP has developed a dosimetry schema similar to that of the MIRD Committee but has used different terminology and symbols for fundamental quantities such as the absorbed fraction, specific absorbed fraction, and various dose coefficients. The MIRD Committee objectives for this pamphlet are 3-fold: to restate its schema for assessment of absorbed dose in a manner consistent with the needs of both the nuclear medicine and the radiation protection communities, with the goal of standardizing nomenclature; to formally adopt the dosimetry quantities equivalent dose and effective dose for use in comparative evaluations of potential risks of radiation-induced stochastic effects to patients after nuclear medicine procedures; and to discuss the need to identify dosimetry quantities based on absorbed dose that address deterministic effects relevant to targeted radionuclide therapy.

  8. Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNL’s Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNL’s Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Maintenance and distribution of controlled hard copies of the manual by PNNL was discontinued beginning with Revision 0.2. Revision Log: Rev. 0 (2/25/2005) Major revision and expansion. Rev. 0.1 (3/12/2007) Updated Chapters 5, 6 and 9 to reflect change in default ring calibration factor used in HEDP dose calculation software. Factor changed from 1.5 to 2.0 beginning January 1, 2007. Pages on which changes were made are as follows: 5.23, 5.69, 5.78, 5.80, 5.82, 6.3, 6.5, 6.29, and 9.2. Rev 0.2 (8/28/2009) Updated Chapters 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9. Chapters 6 and 8 were significantly expanded. References in the Preface and Chapters 1, 2, 4, and 7 were updated to reflect updates to DOE documents. Approved by HPDAC on 6/2/2009. Rev 1.0 (1/1/2010) Major revision. Updated all chapters to reflect the Hanford site wide implementation on January 1, 2010 of new DOE requirements for occupational radiation protection. The new requirements are given in the June 8, 2007 amendment to 10 CFR 835 Occupational Radiation Protection (Federal Register, June 8, 2007. Title 10 Part 835. U.S., Code of Federal Regulations, Vol. 72, No. 110, 31904-31941). Revision 1.0 to the manual replaces ICRP 26 dosimetry concepts and terminology with ICRP 60 dosimetry concepts and terminology and replaces external dose conversion factors from ICRP 51 with those from ICRP 74 for use in measurement of operational quantities with dosimeters. Descriptions of dose algorithms and dosimeter response characteristics, and field performance were updated to reflect changes in the neutron quality factors used in the measurement of operational quantities.

  9. The effects of UV-irradiation on the ESR-dosimetry of tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, J; Lund, E; Lund, A

    2001-01-01

    Tooth enamel has been shown to be an excellent dosimeter material for retrospective dosimetry. A complication is that it is sensitive to ultraviolet light (UV), creating a signal that interferes with the dosimetric signal. Irradiation of tooth enamel by UV-light induces a mixture of stable and unstable free radicals. The unstable radicals disappear in about three weeks. Stable radicals are created both at the dosimetric peak and at the same g-value as the native peak. The stable peak coinciding with the native peak shows saturation behavior both for UVA/B- and UVC-light. The signal intensity from the sun is roughly estimated to induce a signal comparable to 15 mGy/h from 60 kV X-rays. The blue lamps used by dentists when hardening plastic repairs contain a narrow tail in the UVA/B-region, and it is shown here that these lamps also contribute to the stable peak coincident with the native peak. The contribution to the dosimetry peak, though negligible, at least for the irradiation times is used in this work. Most of the problems with UVA/B-induced signal contributions can probably be avoided by not using front teeth and teeth close to plastic repairs. PMID:11144243

  10. Radiation effects in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Begay, F.; Rosen, L.; Petersen, D.F.; Mason, C.; Travis, B.; Yazzie, A.; Isaac, M.C.P.; Seaborg, G.T.; Leavitt, C.P.

    1999-04-01

    Although the Navajo possess substantial resource wealth-coal, gas, uranium, water-this potential wealth has been translated into limited permanent economic or political power. In fact, wealth or potential for wealth has often made the Navajo the victims of more powerful interests greedy for the assets under limited Navajo control. The primary focus for this education workshop on the radiation effects in the environment is to provide a forum where scientists from the nuclear science and technology community can share their knowledge toward the advancement and diffusion of nuclear science and technology issues for the Navajo public. The scientists will make an attempt to consider the following basic questions; what is science; what is mathematics; what is nuclear radiation? Seven papers are included in this report: Navajo view of radiation; Nuclear energy, national security and international stability; ABC`s of nuclear science; Nuclear medicine: 100 years in the making; Radon in the environment; Bicarbonate leaching of uranium; and Computational methods for subsurface flow and transport. The proceedings of this workshop will be used as a valuable reference materials in future workshops and K-14 classrooms in Navajo communities that need to improve basic understanding of nuclear science and technology issues. Results of the Begay-Stevens research has revealed the existence of strange and mysterious concepts in the Navajo Language of nature. With these research results Begay and Stevens prepared a lecture entitled The Physics of Laser Fusion in the Navajo language. This lecture has been delivered in numerous Navajo schools, and in universities and colleges in the US, Canada, and Alaska.

  11. All about FAX: a Female Adult voXel phantom for Monte Carlo calculation in radiation protection dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; Loureiro, E. C. M.; Lima, V. J. M.; Lima, F. R. A.; Hoff, G.

    2004-12-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has created a task group on dose calculations, which, among other objectives, should replace the currently used mathematical MIRD phantoms by voxel phantoms. Voxel phantoms are based on digital images recorded from scanning of real persons by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared to the mathematical MIRD phantoms, voxel phantoms are true to the natural representations of a human body. Connected to a radiation transport code, voxel phantoms serve as virtual humans for which equivalent dose to organs and tissues from exposure to ionizing radiation can be calculated. The principal database for the construction of the FAX (Female Adult voXel) phantom consisted of 151 CT images recorded from scanning of trunk and head of a female patient, whose body weight and height were close to the corresponding data recommended by the ICRP in Publication 89. All 22 organs and tissues at risk, except for the red bone marrow and the osteogenic cells on the endosteal surface of bone ('bone surface'), have been segmented manually with a technique recently developed at the Departamento de Energia Nuclear of the UFPE in Recife, Brazil. After segmentation the volumes of the organs and tissues have been adjusted to agree with the organ and tissue masses recommended by ICRP for the Reference Adult Female in Publication 89. Comparisons have been made with the organ and tissue masses of the mathematical EVA phantom, as well as with the corresponding data for other female voxel phantoms. The three-dimensional matrix of the segmented images has eventually been connected to the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Effective dose conversion coefficients have been calculated for exposures to photons, and compared to data determined for the mathematical MIRD-type phantoms, as well as for other voxel phantoms.

  12. Exposure Dose Reconstruction from EPR Spectra of Tooth Enamel Exposed to the Combined Effect of X-rays and Gamma Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, V. A.; Kuchuro, J. I.

    2014-09-01

    We have used EPR dosimetry on tooth enamel to show that the combined effect of x-rays with effective energy 34 keV and gamma radiation with average energy 1250 keV leads to a significant increase in the reconstructed absorbed dose compared with the applied dose from a gamma source or from an x-ray source or from both sources of electromagnetic radiation. In simulation experiments, we develop an approach to estimating the contribution of diagnostic x-rays to the exposure dose formed in the tooth enamel by the combined effect of x-rays and gamma radiation.

  13. Additional measurements of the radiation environment at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility at LAMPF

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, D.R.; Reedy, R.C.; Greenwood, L.R.; Sommer, W.F.; Wechsler, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Foil activation dosimetry experiments were conducted in a ''rabbit'' system at the completed Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF). The ''raffit'' system contains four tubes spaced radially outward 0.12, 0.18, 0.27, and 0.38 meters off beam centerline. Foils were irradiated for 3 to 62 hours to measure the neutron flux and energy spectrum radially from beam centerline, along the beamline, and the effect of the Isotope Production (IP) target loadings on the neutron flux in the neutron irradiation locations. Irradiations showed a decrease in the radial flux by a factor of 6 in 0.15 meters of iron outside the IP targets. An enchancement was seen in the 24-keV energy region outside 0.15 meters. There was little difference in the shape of the spectra outside the IP targets and the beam stop with the exception of the high energy tail (energies above 20 MeV). The decrease in the high energy tail outside the beam stop is due to the degradation of the energy of the proton beam in the IP targets. Irradiations outside the beam stop with zero and eight IP targets gave the same spectral shape with the exception of the high energy tail. The magnitude of the integral flux decreased by a factor of 2 when eight IP targets were present. Irradiations with five ''rabbits'' stacked on top of each other showed no difference in the integral flux below, on and above beam centerline.

  14. Microbeam Radiation Therapy: Tissue Dose Penetration and BANG-Gel Dosimetry of Thick-Beams' Array Intelacing

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmanian, F.; Romanelli, P; Zhong, Z; Wang, R; Wagshul, M; Kalef-Ezra, J; Maryanski, M; Rosen, E; Anschel, D

    2008-01-01

    The tissue-sparing effect of parallel, thin (narrower than 100em) synchrotron-generated X-ray planar beams (microbeams) in healthy tissues including the central nervous system (CNS) is known since early 1990s. This, together with a remarkable preferential tumoricidal effect of such beam arrays observed at high doses, has been the basis for labeling the method microbeam radiation therapy (MRT). Recent studies showed that beams as thick as 0.68mm ('thick microbeams') retain part of their sparing effect in the rat's CNS, and that two such orthogonal microbeams arrays can be interlaced to produce an unsegmented field at the target, thus producing focal targeting. We measured the half-value layer (HVL) of our 120-keV median-energy beam in water phantoms, and we irradiated stereotactically bis acrylamide nitrogen gelatin (BANG)-gel-filled phantoms, including one containing a human skull, with interlaced microbeams and imaged them with MRI. A 43-mm water HVL resulted, together with an adequately large peak-to-valley ratio of the microbeams' three-dimensional dose distribution in the vicinity of the 20mmx20mmx20mm target deep into the skull. Furthermore, the 80-20% dose falloff was a fraction of a millimeter as predicted by Monte Carlo simulations. We conclude that clinical MRT will benefit from the use of higher beam energies than those used here, although the current energy could serve certain neurosurgical applications. Furthermore, thick microbeams particularly when interlaced present some advantages over thin microbeams in that they allow the use of higher beam energies and they could conceivably be implemented with high power orthovoltage X-ray tubes.

  15. Radiation Therapy: Preventing and Managing Side Effects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have side effects. How long do side effects last? Radiation therapy can cause early and late side ... often become discouraged about how long their treatment lasts or the side effects they have. If you ...

  16. A survey of space radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of space radiation and its significance for space missions, as they increase in scope, duration, and complexity are discussed. Type of radiation hazard may depend on location or on special equipment used. It is emphasized that it is necessary to search for potential radiation problems in the design stage of a mission. Problem areas such as radiation damage to solar cells and the revolutionary advances are discussed. Radiation effect to electronics components other than solar cells, and several specialized areas such as radioactivity and luminescence are also examined.

  17. Development of a Voxel-based Chinese reference female phantom from color photographs for radiation dosimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yinxiangzi; Tan, Liwen; Jeon, Jonghwi; Xia, Xiaobin

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a Voxel-based Chinese Reference female Phantom (VCRP-woman) from high-resolution color photographs acquired from an adult female cadaver. Forty-six organs/tissues, including all radiosensitive organs/tissues specified in the 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), were either segmented manually or subjected to semi-automatic segmentation as seen in color photographs of the unadjusted female. A C++ program was developed to adjust the masses of the organs/tissues to values applicable to the Chinese Reference adult female. The resulting VCRP-woman consists of more than 106 million voxels, each with dimensions of 1.03 mm × 1.03 mm × 1.95 mm. Organ absorbed dose and effective dose conversion coefficients for monoenergetic photons from 0.015-10 MeV were calculated for several reference irradiation geometries (anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left-lateral, rotational, and isotropic) by Monte Carlo radiation transport. The results for the VCRP-woman were compared to those of the original (or unadjusted) female voxel phantom as well as the ICRP Publication 110 adult reference female computational phantom. PMID:24162055

  18. SU-C-12A-04: Diagnostic Imaging Research Using Decedents as a Proxy for the Living: Are Radiation Dosimetry and Tissue Property Measurements Affected by Post-Mortem Changes?

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D; Heintz, P; Weber, W; Melo, D; Adolphi, N; Hatch, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation dose (RD) from diagnostic imaging is a growing public health concern. Implanting dosimeters is a more accurate way to assess organ dose, relative to commonly used mathematical estimations. However, performing accurate dosimetry using live subjects is hindered by patient motion and safety considerations, which limit the RD and placement of implanted dosimeters. Performing multiple scans on the same subject would be the ideal way to assess the impact of dose reduction on image quality; however, performing multiple non-standard-of-care scans on live subjects for dosimetry and image quality measurements is generally prohibited by IRB committees. Our objective is to assess whether RD and tissue property (TP) measurements in post-mortem (PM) subjects are sufficiently similar to those in live subjects to justify the use of deceased subjects in future dosimetry and image quality studies. Methods: 4 MOSFET radiation dosimeters were placed enterically in each subject (2 sedated Rhesus Macaques) to measure the RD at 4 levels (carina, lung, heart, and liver) during CT scanning. The CT protocol was performed ante-mortem (AM) and 2 and 3 hours PM. For TP analysis, additional scans were taken at 24 hours PM. To compare AM and PM TP, regions-of-interest were drawn on selected organs and the average CT density with standard deviation (in units of HU) were taken; additionally, visual comparisons of images were made at each PM interval. Results: No significant difference was observed in 8 of 9 measurements comparing AM and PM RD. Only one measurement (liver of the first subject) showed a significant difference (7% lower on PM measurement), possibly due to subject re-positioning. Initial TP visual and quantitative analyses show little to no change PM. Conclusion: Our results suggest that realistic radiation dosimetry and image quality measurements based on tissue properties can be performed reliably on recently deceased subjects.

  19. The effects of variations in the density and composition of eye materials on ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Asadi, Somayeh; Masoudi, Seyed Farhad; Shahriari, Majid

    2012-04-01

    In ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry, it is common to consider the water phantom as human eye anatomy. However, for better clinical analysis, there is a need for the dose determination in different parts of the eye. In this work, a full human eye is simulated with MCNP-4C code by considering all parts of the eye, i.e., the lens, cornea, retina, choroid, sclera, anterior chamber, optic nerve, and bulk of the eye comprising vitreous body and tumor. The average dose in different parts of this full model of the human eye is determined and the results are compared with the dose calculated in water phantom. The central axes depth dose and the dose in whole of the tumor for these 2 simulated eye models are calculated as well, and the results are compared.

  20. Multiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation Response Effects of Radiation Quality and HypoxiaEffects of Radiation Quality and Hypoxia

    E-print Network

    Stewart, Robert D.

    the spectrum of DNA damages formed by ionizing radiation. Radiat Res. 161(4), 451-457 (2004) · R.D. Stewart, WMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation Response Effects of Radiation Quality

  1. Potential health effects of space radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chui-Hsu; Craise, Laurie M.

    1993-01-01

    Crewmembers on missions to the Moon or Mars will be exposed to radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, and possibly solar particle events. The potential health hazards due to these space radiations must be considered carefully to ensure the success of space exploration. Because there is no human radioepidemiological data for acute and late effects of high-LET (Linear-Energy-Transfer) radiation, the biological risks of energetic charged particles have to be estimated from experimental results on animals and cultured cells. Experimental data obtained to date indicate that charged particle radiation can be much more effective than photons in causing chromosome aberrations, cell killing, mutation, and tumor induction. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) varies with biological endpoints and depends on the LET of heavy ions. Most lesions induced by low-LET radiation can be repaired in mammalian cells. Energetic heavy ions, however, can produce large complex DNA damages, which may lead to large deletions and are irreparable. For high-LET radiation, therefore, there are less or no dose rate effects. Physical shielding may not be effective in minimizing the biological effects on energetic heavy ions, since fragments of the primary particles can be effective in causing biological effects. At present the uncertainty of biological effects of heavy particles is still very large. With further understanding of the biological effects of space radiation, the career doses can be kept at acceptable levels so that the space radiation environment need not be a barrier to the exploitation of the promise of space.

  2. EPR dosimetry of teeth in past and future accidents: a prospective look at a retrospective method

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, E.H.; Kenner, G.H.; Hayes, R.B.; Chumak, V.; Shalom, S.

    1996-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of tooth enamel is a relatively new technique for retrospective dosimetry that in the past two years has seen increasing effort towards its development and evaluation. Efforts have centered on determining the accuracy which may be achieved with current measurement techniques as well as the minimum doses detectable. The study was focused on evaluating some factors which influence the accuracy of EPR dosimetry of enamel. Reported are studies on sample intercomparisions, instrumental considerations, and effects of dental x-rays, environmental sunlight and ultraviolet radiation.

  3. 10 CFR 35.50 - Training for Radiation Safety Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactivity, radiation biology, and radiation dosimetry; or (2)(i) Hold a master's or doctor's degree in... the use and measurement of radioactivity; (D) Radiation biology; and (E) Radiation dosimetry; and...

  4. 10 CFR 35.50 - Training for Radiation Safety Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactivity, radiation biology, and radiation dosimetry; or (2)(i) Hold a master's or doctor's degree in... to the use and measurement of radioactivity; (D) Radiation biology; and (E) Radiation dosimetry;...

  5. 10 CFR 35.50 - Training for Radiation Safety Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactivity, radiation biology, and radiation dosimetry; or (2)(i) Hold a master's or doctor's degree in... to the use and measurement of radioactivity; (D) Radiation biology; and (E) Radiation dosimetry;...

  6. 10 CFR 35.50 - Training for Radiation Safety Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactivity, radiation biology, and radiation dosimetry; or (2)(i) Hold a master's or doctor's degree in... the use and measurement of radioactivity; (D) Radiation biology; and (E) Radiation dosimetry; and...

  7. Methods to Estimate Solar Radiation Dosimetry in Coral Reefs Using Remote Sensed, Modeled, and in Situ Data.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar irradiance has been increasingly recognized as an important determinant of bleaching in coral reefs, but measurements of solar radiation exposure within coral reefs have been relatively limited. Solar irradiance and diffuse down welling attenuation coefficients (Kd, m-1) we...

  8. Sci—Fri PM: Dosimetry—01: Radiation-induced refraction artefacts in the optical CT readout of polymer gel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Warren G; Jirasek, Andrew; Wells, Derek M

    2014-08-15

    Polymer gel dosimeters (PGDs) are a desirable tool for the verification of advanced radiotherapy treatments. Fully 3D, deformable, and tissue-equivalent, the PGD polymerizes wherever it absorbs dose. To measure the dose absorbed by a PGD, optical computed tomography (CT) can be used to evaluate, in full 3D, the opacity distribution that coincides with polymerization. In addition to an increase in opacity with dose, an increase in refractive index (RI) is also known to occur in irradiated polymer gels. The increase in RI is slight and was previously assumed insignificant. This work reveals the effects that radiation-induced RI changes can have on the optical CT readout of PGDs. A fan-beam optical CT scanner was used to image a cylindrical PGD irradiated by a pair of 3×3 cm{sup 2}, 6 MV photon beams in an orthogonal arrangement. Investigative scans were performed to evaluate refraction errors occurring: i) within the plane, and ii) out of the plane of the fan-beam. In-plane refraction was shown to cause distinct streaking artefacts along dose gradients (i.e. RI gradients) due to higher intensity rays being refracted into more opaque regions. Out-of-plane refraction was shown to produce severe, widespread artefacts due to rays missing the detector array. An iterative Savitzky-Golay filtering technique was developed to reduce both types of artefacts by specifically targeting structured errors in sinogram space. Results introduce a new category of imaging artefacts to be aware of when using optical CT for PGD readout.

  9. Some characteristics and effects of natural radiation.

    PubMed

    Mc Laughlin, J P

    2015-11-01

    Since life first appeared on the Earth, it has, in all its subsequent evolved forms including human, been exposed to natural radiation in the environment both from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources. Being an environmental mutagen, ionising natural radiation may have played a role of some significance in the evolution of early life forms on Earth. It has been estimated by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation that at the present time, exposure to natural radiation globally results in an annual average individual effective dose of about 2.4 mSv. This represents about 80 % of the total dose from all sources. The three most important components of natural radiation exposure are cosmic radiation, terrestrial radioactivity and indoor radon. Each of these components exhibits both geographical and temporal variabilities with indoor radon exposure being the most variable and also the largest contributor to dose for most people. In this account, an overview is given of the characteristics of the main components of the natural radiation environment and some of their effects on humans. In the case of cosmic radiation, these range from radiation doses to aircrew and astronauts to the controversial topic of its possible effect on climate change. In the case of terrestrial natural radiation, accounts are given of a number of human exposure scenarios. PMID:25904693

  10. Aging and Radiation Effects in Stockpile Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E.F.

    1999-03-25

    It is likely that aging is affecting the radiation hardness of stockpile electronics, and we have seen apparent examples of aging that affects the electronic radiation hardness. It is also possible that low-level intrinsic radiation that is inherent during stockpile life will damage or in a sense age electronic components. Both aging and low level radiation effects on radiation hardness and stockpile reliability need to be further investigated by using both test and modeling strategies that include appropriate testing of electronic components withdrawn from the stockpile.

  11. Effects of Radiation on Commercial Power Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selva, Luis; Becker, Heidi; Chavez, Rosa; Scheick, Leif

    2006-01-01

    The effects of radiation on various commercial power devices are presented. The devices have proved to be very fragile to single event effects, with some of the devices actually succumbing to catastrophic SEE with protons.

  12. Dosimetry implant for treating restenosis and hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Suresh; Gonzales, Gilbert R; Howell, Roger W; Bolch, Wesley E; Adzic, Radoslav

    2014-09-16

    The present invention discloses a method of selectively providing radiation dosimetry to a subject in need of such treatment. The radiation is applied by an implant comprising a body member and .sup.117mSn electroplated at selected locations of the body member, emitting conversion electrons absorbed immediately adjacent selected locations while not affecting surrounding tissue outside of the immediately adjacent area.

  13. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects.

    SciTech Connect

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-02-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic calculations, the continuum calculations and the experiments.

  14. Radiation effects in optoelectronic devices. [Review

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.E.; Wiczer, J.J.

    1984-05-01

    Purpose of this report is to provide not only a summary of radiation damage studies at Sandia National Laboratories, but also of those in the literature on the components of optoelectronic systems: light emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, optical fibers, and optical isolators. This review of radiation damage in optoelectronic components is structured according to device type. In each section, a brief discussion of those device properties relevant to radiation effects is given.

  15. Organ doses received by atomic bomb survivors during radiological examinations at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    PubMed

    Kazuo, K; Antoku, S; Sawada, S; Russell, W J

    1991-08-01

    When evaluating the risks of oncogenesis and cancer mortality following exposure to the radiations of the atomic bombs (A-bombs), the medical X-ray doses received by the A-bomb survivors must also be estimated and considered. Using a human phantom, dosimetry was performed to estimate the X-ray doses received by A-bomb survivors during medical examinations at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) as part of the long-term follow-up on the Adult Health Study (AHS). These examinations have been estimated to represent nearly 45% of the survivors' cumulative medical irradiation dose. Doses to the salivary glands, thyroid gland, lung, breast, stomach and colon were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The results, which are reported here, will aid in estimating organ doses received by individual AHS participants. PMID:1884121

  16. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material...

  17. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material...

  18. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material...

  19. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material...

  20. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material...

  1. Polymer gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, L. J.; Olding, T.; McAuley, K. B.

    2010-11-01

    Polymer gels are chemical dosimeters based on dose dependent radiation-induced polymerization and cross-linking of monomers in an irradiated volume. The changes are spatially localized in the volume by incorporating the initial monomers in an aqueous gel matrix in the dosimeter and can be probed by various imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), x-ray computed tomography (CT), and optical CT. As they are chemical dosimeters, polymer gels are sensitive to preparation conditions. The three dimensional dose readout is sensitive to the imaging modality and also to the technical conditions in use during specific scans. This brief article is intended to present an introduction to these points which need to be taken into account as one attempts to establish this dosimetry in the clinic.

  2. Radiation effects on a ceramic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadooghi, P.; Aghanajafi, C.

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of a heat-conducting, absorbing, and emitting layer of ceramic is considered, during transient combined conductive-radiative heat transfer. The solution includes the equation of radiative transfer within the material coupled to a transient energy equation that contains both radiative and conductive terms. It is based on nodal analysis and Hottel's zonal method extended by the ray tracing method. The transient energy equation including a radiative internal energy source is solved using a time marching finite difference procedure with variable space and time increments. The effects of the influence parameters, optical thicknesses, and refractive index of the layer are considered carefully.

  3. Radiation effects in magnetic and superconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert D.; Cost, James R.

    1990-02-01

    Many of the newly developed materials, such as rare-earth permanent magnets, amorphous alloys and oxide superconductors, have important applications in radiation environments. These environments can have various negative or beneficial effects on the properties, depending on the amount of radiation and the nature of material. Properties such as the critical current in superconductors can actually be increased by radiation, while critical temperature is decreased. More detailed study of the mechanisms responsible for such radiation-induced changes may lead to materials with greater stability in these challenging environments.

  4. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry of the head and neck: A comparison of treatment plans using linear accelerator-based IMRT and helical tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Ke . E-mail: ks2mc@virginia.edu; Molloy, Janelle A.; Read, Paul W.

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To date, most intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery has occurred using linear accelerators (linacs), although helical tomotherapy has become commercially available. To quantify the dosimetric difference, we compared linac-based and helical tomotherapy-based treatment plans for IMRT of the oropharynx. Methods and Materials: We compared the dosimetry findings of 10 patients who had oropharyngeal carcinoma. Five patients each had cancers in the base of the tongue and tonsil. Each plan was independently optimized using either the CORVUS planning system (Nomos Corporation, Sewickly, PA), commissioned for a Varian 2300 CD linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with 1-cm multileaf collimator leaves, or helical tomotherapy. The resulting treatment plans were evaluated by comparing the dose-volume histograms, equivalent uniform dose (EUD), dose uniformity, and normal tissue complication probabilities. Results: Helical tomotherapy plans showed improvement of critical structure avoidance and target dose uniformity for all patients. The average equivalent uniform dose reduction for organs at risk (OARs) surrounding the base of tongue and the tonsil were 17.4% and 27.14% respectively. An 80% reduction in normal tissue complication probabilities for the parotid glands was observed in the tomotherapy plans relative to the linac-based plans. The standard deviation of the planning target volume dose was reduced by 71%. In our clinic, we use the combined dose-volume histograms for each class of plans as a reference goal for helical tomotherapy treatment planning optimization. Conclusions: Helical tomotherapy provides improved dose homogeneity and normal structure dose compared with linac-based IMRT in the treatment of oropharyngeal carcinoma resulting in a reduced risk for complications from focal hotspots within the planning target volume and for the adjacent parotid glands.

  5. Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on Prostate Dose Distribution under Ir-192 Internal and 18 MV External Radiotherapy Procedures Using Gel Dosimetry and Monte Carlo Method

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, H.; Hashemi, B.; Mahdavi, S. R.; Hejazi, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gel polymers are considered as new dosimeters for determining radiotherapy dose distribution in three dimensions. Objective The ability of a new formulation of MAGIC-f polymer gel was assessed by experimental measurement and Monte Carlo (MC) method for studying the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in prostate dose distributions under the internal Ir-192 and external 18MV radiotherapy practices. Method A Plexiglas phantom was made representing human pelvis. The GNP shaving 15 nm in diameter and 0.1 mM concentration were synthesized using chemical reduction method. Then, a new formulation of MAGIC-f gel was synthesized. The fabricated gel was poured in the tubes located at the prostate (with and without the GNPs) and bladder locations of the phantom. The phantom was irradiated to an Ir-192 source and 18 MV beam of a Varian linac separately based on common radiotherapy procedures used for prostate cancer. After 24 hours, the irradiated gels were read using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. The absolute doses at the reference points and isodose curves resulted from the experimental measurement of the gels and MC simulations following the internal and external radiotherapy practices were compared. Results The mean absorbed doses measured with the gel in the presence of the GNPs in prostate were 15% and 8 % higher than the corresponding values without the GNPs under the internal and external radiation therapies, respectively. MC simulations also indicated a dose increase of 14 % and 7 % due to presence of the GNPs, for the same experimental internal and external radiotherapy practices, respectively. Conclusion There was a good agreement between the dose enhancement factors (DEFs) estimated with MC simulations and experiment gel measurements due to the GNPs. The results indicated that the polymer gel dosimetry method as developed and used in this study, can be recommended as a reliable method for investigating the DEF of GNPs in internal and external radiotherapy practices.  PMID:25973406

  6. Flare loop radiative hydrodynamics. III - Nonlocal radiative transfer effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, R. C.; Fisher, G. H.; Mcclymont, A. N.

    1983-01-01

    The study has three goals. The first is to demonstrate that processes exist whose intrinsic nonlocal nature cannot be represented by local approximations. The second is to elucidate the physical nature and origins of these nonlocal processes. The third is to suggest that the methods and results described here may prove useful in constructing semiempirical models of the chromosphere by means more efficient than trial and error. Matrices are computed that describe the effect of a temperature perturbation at an arbitrary point in the loop on density, hydrogen ionized fraction, total radiative loss rate, and radiative loss rate of selected hydrogen lines and continua at all other points. It is found that the dominant nonlocal radiative transfer effects can be separated into flux divergence coefficient effects and upper level population effects. The former are most important when the perturbation takes place in a region of significant opacity. Upper level population effects arise in both optically thick and thin regions in response to nonlocal density, ionization, and interlocking effects.

  7. The Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Mammalian Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biaglow, John E.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the effects of radiation on dividing cells and factors influencing these effects; also briefly reviews the radical mechanism for radiation damage. Emphasizes the importance of oxygen in radiation effects. (CS)

  8. Estimating Effective Dose from Phantom Dose Measurements in Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Procedures and Comparison of MOSFET and TLD Detectors in a Small Animal Dosimetry Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson-Evans, Colin David

    Two different studies will be presented in this work. The first involves the calculation of effective dose from a phantom study which simulates an atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation procedure. The second involves the validation of metal-oxide semiconducting field effect transistors (MOSFET) for small animal dosimetry applications as well as improved characterization of the animal irradiators on Duke University's campus. Atrial Fibrillation is an ever increasing health risk in the United States. The most common type of cardiac arrhythmia, AF is associated with increased mortality and ischemic cerebrovascular events. Managing AF can include, among other treatments, an interventional procedure called catheter ablation. The procedure involves the use of biplane fluoroscopy during which a patient can be exposed to radiation for as much as two hours or more. The deleterious effects of radiation become a concern when dealing with long fluoroscopy times, and because the AF ablation procedure is elective, it makes relating the risks of radiation ever more essential. This study hopes to quantify the risk through the derivation of dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) from the dose-area product (DAP) with the intent that DCCs can be used to provide estimates of effective dose (ED) for typical AF ablation procedures. A bi-plane fluoroscopic and angiographic system was used for the simulated AF ablation procedures. For acquisition of organ dose measurements, 20 diagnostic MOSFET detectors were placed at selected organs in a male anthropomorphic phantom, and these detectors were attached to 4 bias supplies to obtain organ dose readings. The DAP was recorded from the system console and independently validated with an ionization chamber and radiochromic film. Bi-plane fluoroscopy was performed on the phantom for 10 minutes to acquire the dose rate for each organ, and the average clinical procedure time was multiplied by each organ dose rate to obtain individual organ doses. The effective dose was computed by summing the product of each organ dose and the corresponding tissue weighting factor from the ICRP publication 103. Further risk calculations were done according to the BEIR VII Phase 2 report to obtain relative and lifetime attributable risks of cancer for an average AF ablation procedure. The ED was computed separately for the biplane fluoroscopic and angiographic system's 'low' and 'normal fluoro' automated settings, yielding 27.9 mSv and 45.6 mSv respectively for an average procedure time of 88.2 minutes. The corresponding DAP was 48.7 Gy cm2 and 79.1 Gy cm2 for low and normal settings respectively. The independently measured DAP was found to be within 0.1 % of that measured by the fluoroscopy system's onboard flat panel detectors. DCCs were calculated to be 0.573 and 0.577 for the respective low and normal settings. The results proved to be very closely matched, which was to be expected. The calculated cancer risks were fairly low due to the age of most patients (less than 5 incidences of solid tumor per 100,000 exposed for liver colon and stomach; 100-300 incidences per 100,000 exposed for lungs), but concern remains that longer procedures could increase the risk of erythema or other serious skin injuries. The second section of this thesis study involves the quantification and distribution of radiation dose in small animals undergoing irradiation in an orthovoltage x-ray unit. Extensive research is being done with small animals, particularly mice and rats, in fields such as cancer therapy, radiation biology and radiological countermeasures. Results and conclusion are often drawn from research based solely on manufacturer's specifications of the delivered dose rate without independent verification or adequate understanding of the machines' capabilities. Accurate radiation dose information is paramount when conducting research in this arena. Traditional methods of dosimetry, namely thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) are challenging and often time consuming. This section hopes to show that in place of TLDs, MOSFETs can provide acc

  9. Historical Evaluation of Film Badge Dosimetry Y-12 Plant: Part 2–Neutron Radiation ORAUT-OTIB-0045

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr GD, Frome EL, Watkins JP, Tankersley WG

    2009-12-14

    A summary of the major neutron sources involved in radiation exposures to Y-12 workers is presented in this TIB. Graphical methods are used to evaluate available neutron dose data from quarterly exposures to Y-12 workers and to determine how the data could be used to derive neutron-to-gamma dose ratios for dose reconstruction purposes. This TIB provides estimates of neutron-to-gamma dose ratios for specific departments and a default value for the neutron-to-gamma dose ratio based on the pooled neutron dose data for all Y-12 departments.

  10. LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS RADIATION EFFECTS ON HIGH

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS RADIATION EFFECTS ON HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS Harald W. Weber;LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS Options / Materials "Demo" design (magnetic field, temperature, fluence · Higher temperatures: Coated conductors (RE-123) ~ 65 -77 K #12;LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS Production of 14

  11. RADIATION EFFECTS IN NUCLEAR WASTE MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this multidisciplinary, multi-institutional research effort is to develop a fundamental understanding at the atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic levels of radiation effects in glass and ceramics that provides the underpinning science and models for evaluation an...

  12. Assurance Against Radiation Effects on Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: The Space Radiation Environment. The Effects on Electronics. The Environment in Action. NASA Approaches to Commercial Electronics: the mission mix, flight projects, and proactive research. Final Thoughts: atomic interactions, direct ionization, interaction with nucleus.

  13. Effects of solar radiation on glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Kinser, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of solar radiation of selected glasses are reported. Optical property degradation is studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Strength changes are measured using a concentric ring bend test. Direct fracture toughness measurements using an indentation test are planned.

  14. Radiation Effect on Human Tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert C.; Cruz, Angela; Bors, Karen; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Predicting the occurrence of human cancer following exposure of an epidemiologic population to any agent causing genetic damage is a difficult task. To an approximation, this is because the uncertainty of uniform exposure to the damaging agent, and the uncertainty of uniform processing of that damage within a complex set of biological variables, degrade the confidence of predicting the delayed expression of cancer as a relatively rare event within clinically normal individuals. This situation begs the need for alternate controlled experimental models that are predictive for the development of human cancer following exposures to agents causing genetic damage. Such models historically have not been of substantial proven value. It is more recently encouraging, however, that developments in molecular and cell biology have led to an expanded knowledge of human carcinogenesis, and of molecular markers associated with that process. It is therefore appropriate to consider new laboratory models developed to accomodate that expanded knowledge in order to assess the cancer risks associated with exposures to genotoxic agents. When ionizing radiation of space is the genotoxic agent, then a series of additional considerations for human cancer risk assessment must also be applied. These include the dose of radiation absorbed by tissue at different locations in the body, the quality of the absorbed radiation, the rate at which absorbed dose accumulates in tissue, the way in which absorbed dose is measured and calculated, and the alterations in incident radiation caused by shielding materials. It is clear that human cancer risk assessment for damage caused by ionizing radiation is a multidisciplinary responsibility, and that within this responsibility no single discipline can hold disproportionate sway if a risk assessment model of radiation-induced human cancer is to be developed that has proven value. Biomolecular and cellular markers from the work reported here are considered for use in assessing human cancer risk related to exposure to space radiation. This potential use must be integrated within the specified multidisciplinary context in order to create a new tool of molecular epidemiology that can hopefully then realistically assess this cancer risk.

  15. Radiation effects in the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Coggle, J E; Lambert, B E; Moores, S R

    1986-01-01

    This article outlines the principles of radiobiology that can explain the time of onset, duration, and severity of the complex reactions of the lung to ionizing radiation. These reactions have been assayed biochemically, cell kinetically, physiologically, and pathologically. Clinical and experimental data are used to describe the acute and late reactions of the lung to both external and internal radiation including pneumonitis, fibrosis and carcinogenesis. Acute radiation pneumonitis, which can be fatal, develops in both humans and animals within 6 months of exposure to doses greater than or equal to 8 Gy of low LET radiation. It is divisible into a latent period lasting up to 4 weeks; an exudative phase (3-8 weeks) and with an acute pneumonitic phase between 2 and 6 months. The latter is an inflammatory reaction with intra-alveolar and septal edema accompanied by epithelial and endothelial desquamation. The critical role of type II pneumonocytes is discussed. One favored hypothesis suggests that the primary response of the lung is an increase in microvascular permeability. The plasma proteins overwhelm the lymphatic and other drainage mechanisms and this elicits the secondary response of type II cell hyperplasia. This, in its turn, produces an excess of surfactant that ultimately causes the fall in compliance, abnormal gas exchange values, and even respiratory failure. The inflammatory early reaction may progress to chronic fibrosis. There is much evidence to suggest that pneumonitis is an epithelial reaction and some evidence to suggest that this early damage may not be predictive of late fibrosis. However, despite detailed work on collagen metabolism, the pathogenesis of radiation fibrosis remains unknown. The data on radiation-induced pulmonary cancer, both in man and experimental animals from both external and internal irradiation following the inhalation of both soluble and insoluble alpha and beta emitting radionuclides are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the data showing that alpha emitters are at least an order of magnitude more hazardous than beta/gamma radiation and on recent data showing that the more homogeneous the irradiation of the lung, the greater is the carcinogenic hazard which contradicts the so-called "hot particle" theory. Images FIGURE 6. PMID:3549278

  16. Cloud effects on middle ultraviolet global radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borkowski, J.; Chai, A.-T.; Mo, T.; Green, A. E. O.

    1977-01-01

    An Eppley radiometer and a Robertson-Berger sunburn meter are employed along with an all-sky camera setup to study cloud effects on middle ultraviolet global radiation at the ground level. Semiempirical equations to allow for cloud effects presented in previous work are compared with the experimental data. The study suggests a means of defining eigenvectors of cloud patterns and correlating them with the radiation at the ground level.

  17. INTERSPECIES DOSIMETRY MODELS FOR PULMONARY PHARMACOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interspecies Dosimetry Models for Pulmonary Pharmacology

    Ted B. Martonen, Jeffry D. Schroeter, and John S. Fleming

    Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangl...

  18. Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 18th, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, July 21-24, 1981, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tasca, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Single event upset phenomena are discussed, taking into account cosmic ray induced errors in IIL microprocessors and logic devices, single event upsets in NMOS microprocessors, a prediction model for bipolar RAMs in a high energy ion/proton environment, the search for neutron-induced hard errors in VLSI structures, soft errors due to protons in the radiation belt, and the use of an ion microbeam to study single event upsets in microcircuits. Basic mechanisms in materials and devices are examined, giving attention to gamma induced noise in CCD's, the annealing of MOS capacitors, an analysis of photobleaching techniques for the radiation hardening of fiber optic data links, a hardened field insulator, the simulation of radiation damage in solids, and the manufacturing of radiation resistant optical fibers. Energy deposition and dosimetry is considered along with SGEMP/IEMP, radiation effects in devices, space radiation effects and spacecraft charging, EMP/SREMP, and aspects of fabrication, testing, and hardness assurance.

  19. Inverse Faraday Effect driven by Radiation Friction

    E-print Network

    Liseykina, T V; Macchi, A

    2015-01-01

    In the interaction of extremely intense ($>10^{23}~\\mbox{W cm}^{-2}$), circularly polarized laser pulses with thick targets, theory and simulations show that a major fraction of the laser energy is converted into incoherent radiation because of collective electron motion during the "hole boring" dynamics. The effective dissipation due to radiative losses allows the absorption of electromagnetic angular momentum, which in turn leads to the generation of an axial magnetic field of tens of gigagauss value. This peculiar "inverse Faraday effect" is demonstrated in three-dimensional simulations including radiation friction.

  20. Ninth Annual Warren K. Sinclair Keynote Address: effects of childhood radiation exposure: an issue from computed tomography scans to Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Fred A; Constine, Louis S; Nosske, Dietmar; Shore, Roy E

    2013-11-01

    The acute and chronic effects of radiation on children have been and will continue to be of great social, public health, scientific, and clinical importance. The focus of interest on ionizing radiation and children has been clear for over half a century and ranges from the effects of fallout from nuclear weapons testing to exposures from accidents, natural radiation, and medical procedures. There is a loosely stated notion that "children are three to five times more sensitive to radiation than adults." Is this really true? In fact, children are at greater risk for some health effects, but not all. For a few sequelae, children may be more resistant than adults. Which are those effects? How and why do they occur? While there are clear instances of increased risk of some radiation-induced tumors in children compared to adults, there are other tumor types in which there appears to be little or no difference in risk by age at exposure and some in which published models that assume the same relative increase in risks for child compared to adult exposures apply to nearly all tumor types are not supported by the scientific data. The United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has a task group producing a comprehensive report on the subject. The factors to be considered include relevant radiation sources; developmental anatomy and physiology; dosimetry; and stochastic, deterministic, and hereditary effects. PMID:24077040

  1. Properties of thin film radiation detectors and their application to dosimetry and quality assurance in x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshahat, Bassem

    The characteristics of two different types of thin-film radiation detectors are experimentally investigated: organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) and a new self-powered detector that operates based on high-energy secondary electrons (HEC). Although their working principles are substantially different, they both can be used for radiation detection and image formation in medical applications. OPVs with different active layer material thicknesses and aluminum electrode areas were fabricated. The OPV cell consisted of P3HT: PCBM photoactive materials, composed of donor and acceptor semiconducting organic materials, sandwiched between an aluminum electrode as anode and an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode as a cathode. The detectors were exposed to 60150 kVp x rays, which generated photocurrent in the active layer. The electric charge production in the OPV cells was measured. The net current as function of beam energy (kVp) was proportional to ~1/kVp0.45 when adjusted for x-ray beam output. The best combination of parameters for these cells was 270-nm active layer thicknesses for 0.7cm-2 electrode area. The measured current ranged from about 0.7 to 2.4 nA/cm2 for 60-150 kVp, corresponding to about 0.09 -- 0.06 nA/cm2/mGy, respectively, when adjusted for the output x-ray source flux. The HEC detection concept was recently proposed and experimentally demonstrated by a UML/HMS research group. HEC detection employs direct conversion of high-energy electron current to detector signal without external power and amplification. The potential of using HEC detectors for diagnostic imaging application was investigated by using a heterogeneous phantom consisting of a water cylinder with Al and wax rod inserts.

  2. Perturbed effects at radiation physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Külahc?, Fatih; ?en, Zekâi

    2013-09-01

    Perturbation methodology is applied in order to assess the linear attenuation coefficient, mass attenuation coefficient and cross-section behavior with random components in the basic variables such as the radiation amounts frequently used in the radiation physics and chemistry. Additionally, layer attenuation coefficient (LAC) and perturbed LAC (PLAC) are proposed for different contact materials. Perturbation methodology provides opportunity to obtain results with random deviations from the average behavior of each variable that enters the whole mathematical expression. The basic photon intensity variation expression as the inverse exponential power law (as Beer-Lambert's law) is adopted for perturbation method exposition. Perturbed results are presented not only in terms of the mean but additionally the standard deviation and the correlation coefficients. Such perturbation expressions provide one to assess small random variability in basic variables.

  3. Radiation effects on polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    It is important to study changes in properties of polymeres after irradiation with charged particles, with ultraviolet radiation, and with combinations of both. An apparatus for this purpose has been built at the NASA Langley Research Center. It consists of a chamber 9 inches in diameter and 9 inches high with a port for an electron gun, another port for a mass spectrometer, and a quartz window through which an ultraviolet lamp can be focused. The chamber, including the electron gun and the mass spectrometer, can be evacuated to a pressure of 10 to the 8th power torr. A sample placed in the chamber can be irradiated with electrons and ultraviolet radiation separately, sequentially, or simultaneously, while volatile products can be monitored during all irradiations with the mass spectrometer. The apparatus described above has been used to study three different polymer films: lexan; a polycarbonate; P1700, a polysulfone; and mylar, a polyethylene terephthalate. All three polymers had been studied extensively with both electrons and ultraviolet radiation separately, but not simultaneously. Also, volatile products had not been monitored during irradiation for the materials. A high electron dose rate of 530 Mrads/hr was used so that a sufficient concentration of volatile products would be formed to yield a reasonable mass spectrum.

  4. Radiation Effects in Fission and Fusion Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odette, G. Robert; Wirth, Brian D.

    Since the prediction of "Wigner disease" [1] and the subsequent observation of anisotropic growth of the graphite used in the Chicago Pile, the effects of radiation on materials has been an important technological concern. The broad field of radiation effects impacts many critical advanced technologies, ranging from semiconductor processing to severe materials degradation in nuclear reactor environments. Radiation effects also occur in many natural environments, ranging from deep space to inside the Earth's crust. As selected examples that involve many basic phenomena that cross-cut and illustrate the broader impacts of radiation exposure on materials, this article focuses on modeling microstructural changes in iron-based ferritic alloys under high-energy neutron irradiation relevant to light water fission reactor pressure vessels. We also touch briefly on radiation effects in structural alloys for fusion reactor first wall and blanket structures; in this case the focus is on modeling the evolution of self-interstitial atom clusters and dislocation loops. Note, since even the narrower topic of structural materials for nuclear energy applications encompass a vast literature dating from 1942, the references included in this article are primarily limited to these two narrower subjects. Thus, the references cited here are presented as examples, rather than comprehensive bibliographies. However, the interested reader is referred to proceedings of continuing symposia series that have been sponsored by several organizations, several monographs [2-4] and key journals (e.g., Journal of Nuclear Materials, Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids).

  5. Correlated Uncertainties in Radiation Shielding Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werneth, Charles M.; Maung, Khin Maung; Blattnig, Steve R.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    2013-01-01

    The space radiation environment is composed of energetic particles which can deliver harmful doses of radiation that may lead to acute radiation sickness, cancer, and even death for insufficiently shielded crew members. Spacecraft shielding must provide structural integrity and minimize the risk associated with radiation exposure. The risk of radiation exposure induced death (REID) is a measure of the risk of dying from cancer induced by radiation exposure. Uncertainties in the risk projection model, quality factor, and spectral fluence are folded into the calculation of the REID by sampling from probability distribution functions. Consequently, determining optimal shielding materials that reduce the REID in a statistically significant manner has been found to be difficult. In this work, the difference of the REID distributions for different materials is used to study the effect of composition on shielding effectiveness. It is shown that the use of correlated uncertainties allows for the determination of statistically significant differences between materials despite the large uncertainties in the quality factor. This is in contrast to previous methods where uncertainties have been generally treated as uncorrelated. It is concluded that the use of correlated quality factor uncertainties greatly reduces the uncertainty in the assessment of shielding effectiveness for the mitigation of radiation exposure.

  6. A Treatment Planning Method for Sequentially Combining Radiopharmaceutical Therapy and External Radiation Therapy;External beam therapy; Radiopharmaceutical therapy; Three-dimensional dosimetry; Treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, Robert F.; McNutt, Todd; Baechler, Sebastien; He Bin; Esaias, Caroline E.; Frey, Eric C.; Loeb, David M.; Wahl, Richard L.; Shokek, Ori; Sgouros, George

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Effective cancer treatment generally requires combination therapy. The combination of external beam therapy (XRT) with radiopharmaceutical therapy (RPT) requires accurate three-dimensional dose calculations to avoid toxicity and evaluate efficacy. We have developed and tested a treatment planning method, using the patient-specific three-dimensional dosimetry package 3D-RD, for sequentially combined RPT/XRT therapy designed to limit toxicity to organs at risk. Methods and Materials: The biologic effective dose (BED) was used to translate voxelized RPT absorbed dose (D{sub RPT}) values into a normalized total dose (or equivalent 2-Gy-fraction XRT absorbed dose), NTD{sub RPT} map. The BED was calculated numerically using an algorithmic approach, which enabled a more accurate calculation of BED and NTD{sub RPT}. A treatment plan from the combined Samarium-153 and external beam was designed that would deliver a tumoricidal dose while delivering no more than 50 Gy of NTD{sub sum} to the spinal cord of a patient with a paraspinal tumor. Results: The average voxel NTD{sub RPT} to tumor from RPT was 22.6 Gy (range, 1-85 Gy); the maximum spinal cord voxel NTD{sub RPT} from RPT was 6.8 Gy. The combined therapy NTD{sub sum} to tumor was 71.5 Gy (range, 40-135 Gy) for a maximum voxel spinal cord NTD{sub sum} equal to the maximum tolerated dose of 50 Gy. Conclusions: A method that enables real-time treatment planning of combined RPT-XRT has been developed. By implementing a more generalized conversion between the dose values from the two modalities and an activity-based treatment of partial volume effects, the reliability of combination therapy treatment planning has been expanded.

  7. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.

  8. Dosimetry procedures for an industrial irradiation plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grahn, Ch.

    Accurate and reliable dosimetry procedures constitute a very important part of process control and quality assurance at a radiation processing plant. ?-Dose measurements were made on the GBS 84 irradiator for food and other products on pallets or in containers. Chemical dosimeters wre exposed in the facility under conditions of the typical plant operation. The choice of the dosimeter systems employed was based on the experience in chemical dosimetry gained over several years. Dose uniformity information was obtained in air, spices, bulbs, feeds, cosmetics, plastics and surgical goods. Most products currently irradiated require dose uniformity which can be efficiently provided by pallet or box irradiators like GBS 84. The radiation performance characteristics and some dosimetry procedures are discussed.

  9. Neutron dosimetry for low dose rate Cf-252 AT sources and adherence to recent clinical dosimetry protocol for brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, M.J.; Wierzbicki, J.G.; Van den Heuvel, F.; Martin, R.C.

    1997-12-01

    In 1995, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 43 (AAPM TG-43) published a protocol obsoleting all mixed-field radiation dosimetry for Cf-252. Recommendations for a new brachytherapy dosimetry formalism made by this Task Group favor quantification of source strength in terms of air kerma rather than apparent Curies or other radiation units. Additionally, representation of this dosimetry data in terms of radial dose functions, anisotropy functions, geometric factors, and dose rate constants are in an angular and radial (spherical) coordinate system as recommended, rather than the along-away dosimetry data (Cartesian coordinate system) currently available. This paper presents the initial results of calculated neutron dosimetry in a water phantom for a Cf-252 applicator tube (AT) type medical source soon available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  10. 76 FR 11483 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Reconstruction Considerations for Mallinckrodt Workers''), OTIB-014 (``Rocky Flats Internal Dosimetry Co-Worker... (``Internal Dosimetry Coworker Data for Y-12''), OTIB-0047 (``External Radiation Monitoring at the...

  11. A new correction method serving to eliminate the parabola effect of flatbed scanners used in radiochromic film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Poppinga, D. Schoenfeld, A. A.; Poppe, B.; Doerner, K. J.; Blanck, O.; Harder, D.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is the correction of the lateral scanner artifact, i.e., the effect that, on a large homogeneously exposed EBT3 film, a flatbed scanner measures different optical densities at different positions along thex axis, the axis parallel to the elongated light source. At constant dose, the measured optical densitiy profiles along this axis have a parabolic shape with significant dose dependent curvature. Therefore, the effect is shortly called the parabola effect. The objective of the algorithm developed in this study is to correct for the parabola effect. Any optical density measured at given position x is transformed into the equivalent optical density c at the apex of the parabola and then converted into the corresponding dose via the calibration of c versus dose. Methods: For the present study EBT3 films and an Epson 10000XL scanner including transparency unit were used for the analysis of the parabola effect. The films were irradiated with 6 MV photons from an Elekta Synergy accelerator in a RW3 slab phantom. In order to quantify the effect, ten film pieces with doses graded from 0 to 20.9 Gy were sequentially scanned at eight positions along thex axis and at six positions along the z axis (the movement direction of the light source) both for the portrait and landscape film orientations. In order to test the effectiveness of the new correction algorithm, the dose profiles of an open square field and an IMRT plan were measured by EBT3 films and compared with ionization chamber and ionization chamber array measurement. Results: The parabola effect has been numerically studied over the whole measuring field of the Epson 10000XL scanner for doses up to 20.9 Gy and for both film orientations. The presented algorithm transforms any optical density at positionx into the equivalent optical density that would be measured at the same dose at the apex of the parabola. This correction method has been validated up to doses of 5.2 Gy all over the scanner bed with 2D dose distributions of an open square photon field and an IMRT distribution. Conclusions: The algorithm presented in this study quantifies and corrects the parabola effect of EBT3 films scanned in commonly used commercial flatbed scanners at doses up to 5.2 Gy. It is easy to implement, and no additional work steps are necessary in daily routine film dosimetry.

  12. SU-E-T-111: Development of Proton Dosimetry System Using Fiber-Optic Cerenkov Radiation Sensor Array

    SciTech Connect

    Son, J; Kim, M; Shin, D; Lim, Y; Lee, S; Kim, J; Kim, J; Hwang, U; Yoon, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We had developed and evaluated a new dosimetric system for proton therapy using array of fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor (FOCRS) which can measure a percent depth dose (PDD) instantly. In this study, the Bragg peaks and spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) of the proton beams measured by FOCRS array were compared with those measured by an ion chamber. Methods and Method: We fabricated an optical fiber array of FOCRS in a handmade phantom which is composed of poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA). There are 75 holes of 1mm diameter inside the phantom which is designed to be exposed in direction of beam when it is emerged in water phantom. The proton beam irradiation was carried out using IBA cyclotron PROTEUS 235 at national cancer center in Korea and a commercial data acquisition system was used to digitize the analog signal. Results: The measured Bragg peak and SOBP for the proton ranges of 7? 20 cm were well matched with the result from ion chamber. The comparison results show that the depth of proton beam ranges and the width of SOBP measured by array of FOCRS are comparable with the measurement from multi-layer ion chamber (MLIC) although there are some uncertainty in the measurement of FOCRS array for some specific beam ranges. Conclusion: The newly developed FOCRS array based dosimetric system for proton therapy can efficiently reduce the time and effort needed for proton beam range measurement compared to the conventional method and has the potential to be used for the proton pencil beam application.

  13. Radiation effect on rocket engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Huei-Huang

    1988-01-01

    The effects of radiation on the performance of modern rocket propulsion systems operating at high pressure and temperature were recognized as a key issue in the design and operation of various liquid rocket engines of the current and future generations. Critical problem areas of radiation coupled with combustion of bipropellants are assessed and accounted for in the formulation of a universal scaling law incorporated with a radiation-enhanced vaporization combustion model. Numerical algorithms are developed and the pertaining data of the Variable Thrust Engine (VTE) and Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) are used to conduct parametric sensitivity studies to predict the principal intercoupling effects of radiation. The analysis reveals that low enthalpy engines, such as the VTE, are vulnerable to a substantial performance set back by the radiative loss, whereas the performance of high enthalpy engines such as the SSME, are hardly affected over a broad range of engine operation. Additionally, combustion enhancement by the radiative heating of the propellant has a significant impact in those propellants with high absorptivity. Finally, the areas of research related with radiation phenomena in bipropellant engines are identified.

  14. Radiation effects on optical data transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskovar, Branko

    1988-04-01

    The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides and receivers in both steady state and pulsed radiation environments is reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of irradiation on the performance of light emitting and laser diodes, optical fiber waveguides and photodiodes. The influence of radiation-induced attenuation of optical fibers due to total dose, dose rate, time after irradiation, temperature, radiation history, photobleaching, OH and impurity content, dopand type and concentration is described. The performance of candidate components of the transmission system intended for deployment in the Superconducting Super Collider Detector and primary beam tunnel nuclear environment is discussed.

  15. Breast dosimetry in clinical mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevides, Luis Alberto Do Rego

    The objective of this study was show that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. In the study, AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The protocol proposes the use of a fiber-optic coupled (FOCD) or Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter to measure the entrance skin exposure at the time of the mammogram without interfering with diagnostic information of the mammogram. The study showed that FOCD had sensitivity with less than 7% energy dependence, linear in all tube current-time product stations, and was reproducible within 2%. FOCD was superior to MOSFET dosimeter in sensitivity, reusability, and reproducibility. The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. In addition, the study population anthropometric measurements enabled the development of analytical equations to calculate the whole breast area, estimate for the skin layer thickness and optimal location for automatic exposure control ionization chamber. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  16. Radiation effects concerns at a spallation source

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    Materials used at spallation neutron sources are exposed to energetic particle and photon radiation. Mechanical and physical properties of these materials are altered; radiation damage on the atomic scale leads to radiation effects on the macroscopic scale. Most notable among mechanical-property radiation effects in metals and metal alloys are changes in tensile strength and ductility, changes in rupture strength, dimensional stability and volumetric swelling, and dimensional changes due to stress-induced creep. Physical properties such as electrical resistivity also are altered. The fission-reactor community has accumulated a good deal of data on material radiation effects. However, when the incident particle energy exceeds 50 MeV or so, a new form of radiation damage ensues; spallation reactions lead to more energetic atom recoils and the subsequent temporal and spatial distribution of point defects is much different from that due to a fission-reactor environment. In addition, spallation reactions cause atomic transmutations with these new atoms representing an impurity in the metal. The higher-energy case is of interest at spallation sources; limited detailed data exist for material performance in this environment. 35 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  17. 1985 Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 22nd, Monterey, CA, July 22-24, 1985, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. W. (editor)

    1985-01-01

    Basic mechanisms of radiation effects in structures and materials are discussed, taking into account the time dependence of interface state production, process dependent build-up of interface states in irradiated N-channel MOSFETs, bias annealing of radiation and bias induced positive charges in n- and p-type MOS capacitors, hole removal in thin-gate MOSFETs by tunneling, and activation energies of oxide charge recovery in SOS or SOI structures after an ionizing pulse. Other topics investigated are related to radiation effects in devices, radiation effects in integrated circuits, spacecraft charging and space radiation effects, single-event phenomena, hardness assurance and radiation sources, SGEMP/IEMP phenomena, EMP phenomena, and dosimetry and energy-dependent effects. Attention is given to a model of the plasma wake generated by a large object, gate charge collection and induced drain current in GaAs FETs, simulation of charge collection in a multilayer device, and time dependent dose enhancement effects on integrated circuit transient response mechanisms.

  18. Anti-damping effect of radiation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Li, H.; Shen, Y. F.; Yuan, X. Z.; Zi, J.

    2010-01-01

    The anti-damping effect of radiation reaction, which means the radiation reaction does non-negative work on a radiating charge, is investigated at length by using the Lorentz-Dirac equation (LDE) for the motion of a point charge respectively acted on by (a) a pure electric field, (b) a pure magnetic field and (c) the fields of an electromagnetic wave. We found that the curvature of the charge's trajectory plays an important role in the radiation reaction force, and the anti-damping effect cannot take place for the real macroscopic motions of a point charge. The condition for this anti-damping effect to take place is that the gradient of the external force field must exceed a certain value over the region of magnitude of the classical radius of massive charges (~10-15 m). Our results are potentially helpful to lessen the controversy on LDE and justify it as the correct classical equation describing the radiating charge's motion. If this anti-damping effect of LDE were a real existing physical process, it could serve as a mechanism within the context of classical electrodynamics for the stability of hydrogen atoms. Using the picture of an electron in quantum electrodynamics, namely the negative bare charge surrounded by the polarized positive charges of vacuum, we can obtain a reasonable explanation for the energy transferred to the electron during the occurrence of the anti-damping effect, on which the venerable work of Wheeler and Feynman has thrown some light.

  19. A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

    2014-07-01

    Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and 125I, 90Y, 211At, 99mTc, 111In, 177Lu, 131I and 18F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons (125I) or high-LET alpha particles (211At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver.

  20. Differences in Radiation Dosimetry and Anorectal Function Testing Imply That Anorectal Symptoms May Arise From Different Anatomic Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Smeenk, Robert Jan; Hopman, Wim P.M.; Hoffmann, Aswin L.; Lin, Emile N.J.Th. van; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the influence of functional changes and dosimetric parameters on specific incontinence-related anorectal complaints after prostate external beam radiotherapy and to estimate dose-effect relations for the anal wall and rectal wall. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients, irradiated for localized prostate cancer, underwent anorectal manometry and barostat measurements to evaluate anal pressures, rectal capacity, and rectal sensory functions. In addition, 30 untreated men were analyzed as a control group. In 36 irradiated patients, the anal wall and rectal wall were retrospectively delineated on planning computed tomography scans, and dosimetric parameters were retrieved from the treatment plans. Functional and dosimetric parameters were compared between patients with and without complaints, focusing on urgency, incontinence, and frequency. Results: After external beam radiotherapy, reduced anal pressures and tolerated rectal volumes were observed, irrespective of complaints. Patients with urgency and/or incontinence showed significantly lower anal resting pressures (mean 38 and 39 vs. 49 and 50 mm Hg) and lower tolerated rectal pressures (mean 28 and 28 vs. 33 and 34 mm Hg), compared to patients without these complaints. In patients with frequency, almost all rectal parameters were reduced. Several dosimetric parameters to the anal wall and rectal wall were predictive for urgency (e.g., anal D{sub mean}>38Gy), whereas some anal wall parameters correlated to incontinence and no dose-effect relation for frequency was found. Conclusions: Anorectal function deteriorates after external beam radiotherapy. Different incontinence-related complaints show specific anorectal dysfunctions, suggesting different anatomic and pathophysiologic substrates: urgency and incontinence seem to originate from both anal wall and rectal wall, whereas frequency seems associated with rectal wall dysfunction. Also, dose-effect relations differed between these complaints. This implies that anal wall and rectal wall should be considered separate organs in radiotherapy planning.

  1. Radiation dosimetry for highly contaminated Belarusian, Russian and Ukrainian populations, and for less contaminated populations in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bouville, André; Likhtarev, Illya A; Kovgan, Lina N; Minenko, Victor F; Shinkarev, Sergei M; Drozdovitch, Vladimir V

    2007-11-01

    The explosions at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) in Ukraine early in the morning of 26 April 1986 led to a considerable release of radioactive materials during 10 d. The cloud from the reactor spread many different radionuclides, particularly those of iodine (131I) and cesium (134Cs and 137Cs), over the majority of European countries, but the greatest contamination occurred over vast areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. As the major health effect of Chernobyl is an elevated thyroid cancer incidence in children and adolescents, much attention has been paid to the thyroid doses resulting from intakes of 131I, which were delivered within 2 mo following the accident. The thyroid doses received by the inhabitants of the contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine varied in a wide range, mainly according to age, level of ground contamination, milk consumption rate, and origin of the milk that was consumed. Reported individual thyroid doses varied up to approximately 40,000 mGy, with average doses of a few to 1,000 mGy, depending on the area where people were exposed. In addition, the presence in the environment of long-lived 134Cs and 137Cs has led to a relatively homogeneous exposure of all organs and tissues of the body via external and internal irradiation, albeit at low rates. Excluding the thyroid doses, the whole-body (or effective) dose estimates for the general population accumulated during 20 y after the accident (1986-2005) range from a few millisieverts (mSv) to some hundred mSv with an average dose of approximately 10 mSv in the contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. In other European countries, both the thyroid and the effective doses are, on average, much smaller. PMID:18049225

  2. Polymer gel dosimetry technique

    SciTech Connect

    Maryanski, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    Recent advances in radiation therapy techniques, including non-coplanar beams, dynamic wedge, multi-leaf collimator, sterotactic radiosurgery, high-dose-rate brachytherapy using remote afterloading and shielded applicators, and heavy-particle beams such as protons, have created a need for three-dimensional, tissue-equivalent dosimeters, capable of recording time-integrated dose distributions with high spatial resolution and accuracy, and independent of energy and dose rate. All these requirements are met by the recently developed polymer gel dosimetry technique, based on radiation induced formation of polymer microparticles in a tissue-equivalent gel. A permanent image of the dose distribution is encoded in the gel as the distribution of its optical turbidity and of the NMR relaxation rates of the water protons in the gel. Three dimensional dose distributions can be measured using magnetic resonance imaging or optical transmission tomography. The prototype gel, called BANG{trademark}, is now being tested at several hospital sites throughout the U.S. and Europe.

  3. Plutonium, Mineralogy and Radiation Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, R. C.

    2006-05-01

    During the past fifty years, more than 1,800 metric tonnes of Pu and substantial quantities of other "minor" actinides, such as Np, Am and Cm, have been generated in nuclear reactors. Some of these transuranic elements can be a source of energy in fission reactions (e.g., 239Pu), a source of fissile material for nuclear weapons (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np), or are of environmental concern because of their long half- lives and radiotoxicity (e.g., 239Pu, t1/2 = 24,100 years, and 237Np, t1/2 = 2.1 million years). There are two basic strategies for the disposition of these elements: 1.) to "burn" or transmute the actinides using nuclear reactors or accelerators; 2.) to "sequester" the actinides in chemically durable, radiation-resistant materials that are suitable for geologic disposal. There has been substantial interest in the use of actinide-bearing minerals, such as zircon or isometric pyrochlore, A2B2O7 (A = rare earths; B = Ti, Zr, Sn, Hf; Fd3m; Z=8), for the immobilization of actinides, particularly plutonium. One of the principal concerns has been the accumulation of structural damage caused by alpha-decay events, particularly from the recoil nucleus. Systematic ion beam irradiation studies of rare-earth pyrochlores have led to the discovery that certain compositions (B = Zr, Hf) are stable to very high fluences of alpha-decay event damage. Some compositions, Gd2Ti2O7, are amorphized at relatively low doses (0.2 displacements per atom, dpa, at room temperature), while other compositions, Gd2Zr2O7, do not amorphize (even at doses of > 40 dpa at 25K), but instead disorder to a defect fluorite structure. By changing the composition of the A-site (e.g., substitution of different rare earth elements), the temperature above which the pyrochlore composition can no longer be amorphized, Tc, varies by >600 K (e.g., Lu2Ti2O7: Tc = 480 K; Gd2Ti2O7: Tc = 1120 K). The variation in response to irradiation as a function of composition can be used to model the long-term accumulation of radiation damage as a function of the thermal period of a geologic repository. As an example, with a 10 wt.% loading of 239Pu, Gd2Ti2O7 will become amorphous in less than 1,000 years, while Gd2Zr2O7 will persist as a disordered defect fluorite structure. Thus, the radiation stability of different pyrochlores is closely related to the structural distortions that occur for specific pyrochlore compositions and the electronic structure of the B-site cation. This understanding provides the basis for designing materials for the safe, long-term immobilization and sequestration of actinides.

  4. Radiation effects in LDD MOS devices

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, R.L.; Adams, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the response of lightly doped drain (LDD) n-channel transistors to ionizing radiation. Transistors were fabricated with conventional (non-LDD) and lightly doped drain (LDD) structures using both standard (non-hardened) and radiation hardened gate oxides. Characterization of the transistors began with a correlation of the total-dose effects due to 10 keV x-rays with Co-60 gamma rays. The authors find that for the gate oxides and transistor structures investigated in this work, 10 keV x-rays produce more fixed-charge guild-up in the gate oxide, and more interface charge than do Co-60 gamma rays. They determined that the radiation response of LDD transistors is similar to that of conventional (non-LDD) transistors. In addition, both standard and radiation-hardened transistors subjected to hot carrier stress before irradiation show a similar radiation response. After exposure to 1.0 x 10/sup 6/ rads(Si), non-hardened transistors show increased susceptibility to hot-carrier graduation, while the radiation-hardened transistors exhibit similar hot-carrier degradation to non-irradiated devices. The authors have demonstrated a fully-integrated radiation hardened process tht is solid to 1.0 x 10/sup 6/ rads(Si), and shows promise for achieving 1.0 x 10/sup 7/ rad(Si) total-dose capability.

  5. Dosimetry of an Implantable 252 Californium Source

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, G.D. Jr.

    2001-08-29

    The radiation dose from 252 Californium needles designed for use as a source of neutrons for radiotherapy has been measured. The dosimetry information presented in this paper will enable clinical studies of neutron radiotherapy with 252 Californium needles to be planned and begun.

  6. Oide Effect and Radiation in Bending Magnets

    E-print Network

    Blanco, Oscar; Bambade, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Including radiation effects during lattice design optimization is crucial in high energy accelerators. Oide effect and radiation in bending magnets are reviewed aiming to include them in the optical design process to minimize the IP beam size. The Oide double integral is expressed in simpler terms in order to speed up calculations, concluding in how longer quadrupoles with lower gradients may help reducing the Oide effect. Radiation in bending magnets is reviewed for linear lattices, generalizing to the case when the final dispersion is different from zero and making comparisons with theoretical results and particle tracking. An agreement between the theory, the implemented approximation included in MAPCLASS2 and the six-dimensional tracking in PLACET has been found.

  7. Contrasting the direct radiative effect and direct radiative forcing of aerosols

    E-print Network

    Heald, Colette L.

    The direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols, which is the instantaneous radiative impact of all atmospheric particles on the Earth's energy balance, is sometimes confused with the direct radiative forcing (DRF), which ...

  8. Effect of gamma radiation on DNA methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinich, J.F.; Catravas, G.N.; Snyder, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation on DNA methylation was studied in four cultured cell lines. In all cases a dose-dependent decrease in 5-methylcytosine was observed at 24,48, and 72 h postexposure to 0.5-10 Gy. Nuclear DNA methyltransferase activity decreased while cytoplasmic activity increased in irradiated (10 Gy) V79A03 cells as compared to controls. No DNA demethylase activity was detected in the nuclei of control or irradiated V79A03 cells. Additionally gamma radiation resulted in the differentiation of C-1300 N1E-115 cells, a mouse neuroblastoma line, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that (1) genes may be turned on following radiation via a mechanism involving hypomethylation of cytosine and (2) radiation-induced hypomethylation results from decreased intranuclear levels of DNA methyltransferase.

  9. Effect of gamma radiation on DNA methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinich, J.F.; Catravas, G.N.; Snyder, S.L.

    1989-02-01

    The effect of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation on DNA methylation was studied in four cultured cell lines. In all cases a dose-dependent decrease in 5-methylcytosine was observed at 24, 48, and 72 h postexposure to 0.5-10 Gy. Nuclear DNA methyltransferase activity decreased while cytoplasmic activity increased in irradiated (10 Gy) V79A03 cells as compared to controls. No DNA demethylase activity was detected in the nuclei of control or irradiated V79A03 cells. Additionally, gamma radiation resulted in the differentiation of C-1300 N1E-115 cells, a mouse neuroblastoma line, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that (1) genes may be turned on following radiation via a mechanism involving hypomethylation of cytosine and (2) radiation-induced hypomethylation results from decreased intranuclear levels of DNA methyltransferase.

  10. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour.

  11. DECOHERENCE EFFECTS OF MOTION-INDUCED RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    P. NETO; D. DALVIT

    2000-12-01

    The radiation pressure coupling with vacuum fluctuations gives rise to energy damping and decoherence of an oscillating particle. Both effects result from the emission of pairs of photons, a quantum effect related to the fluctuations of the Casimir force. We discuss different alternative methods for the computation of the decoherence time scale. We take the example of a spherical perfectly-reflecting particle, and consider the zero and high temperature limits. We also present short general reviews on decoherence and dynamical Casimir effect.

  12. RESMDD'02 Radiation in Life Sciences: Hartmut F.-W. Sadrozinski , SCIPP Radiation Effects in

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    RESMDD'02 Radiation in Life Sciences: Hartmut F.-W. Sadrozinski , SCIPP SCIPPSCIPP Radiation Effects in Life Sciences oocyte eggs in uterus spermatheca gonad vulva Quality of Radiation Biological Radiation in Life Sciences: Hartmut F.-W. Sadrozinski , SCIPP SCIPPSCIPP Radiation in Life Sciences Why

  13. PET/CT-Based Dosimetry in 90Y-Microsphere Selective Internal Radiation Therapy: Single Cohort Comparison With Pretreatment Planning on 99mTc-MAA Imaging and Correlation With Treatment Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yoo Sung; Paeng, Jin Chul; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Chung, Jin Wook; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Keon Wook

    2015-01-01

    Abstract 90Y PET/CT can be acquired after 90Y-microsphere selective radiation internal therapy (SIRT) to describe radioactivity distribution. We performed dosimetry using 90Y-microsphere PET/CT data to evaluate treatment efficacy and appropriateness of activity planning from 99mTc-MAA scan and SPECT/CT. Twenty-three patients with liver malignancy were included in the study. 99mTc-MAA was injected during planning angiography and whole body 99mTc-MAA scan and liver SPECT/CT were acquired. After SIRT using 90Y-resin microsphere, 90Y-microsphere PET/CT was acquired. A partition model (PM) using 4 compartments (tumor, intarget normal liver, out-target normal liver, and lung) was adopted, and absorbed dose to each compartment was calculated based on measurements from 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT and 90Y-microsphere PET/CT, respectively, to be compared with each other. Progression-free survival (PFS) was evaluated in terms of tumor absorbed doses calculated by 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT and 90Y-microsphere PET/CT results. Lung shunt fraction was overestimated on 99mTc-MAA scan compared with 90Y-microsphere PET/CT (0.060?±?0.037 vs. 0.018?±?0.026, P?200 Gy on 90Y-microsphere PET/CT had longer PFS than those with tumor absorbed dose ?200 Gy (286?±?56 days vs. 92?±?20 days, P?=?0.046). Tumor absorbed dose calculated by 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT was not a significant predictor for PFS. Activity planning based on 99mTc-MAA scan and SPECT/CT can be effectively used as a conservative method. Post-SIRT dosimetry based on 90Y-microsphere PET/CT is an effective method to predict treatment efficacy. PMID:26061323

  14. PET/CT-Based Dosimetry in 90Y-Microsphere Selective Internal Radiation Therapy: Single Cohort Comparison With Pretreatment Planning on (99m)Tc-MAA Imaging and Correlation With Treatment Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Song, Yoo Sung; Paeng, Jin Chul; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Chung, Jin Wook; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Keon Wook

    2015-06-01

    ??Y PET/CT can be acquired after ??Y-microsphere selective radiation internal therapy (SIRT) to describe radioactivity distribution. We performed dosimetry using ??Y-microsphere PET/CT data to evaluate treatment efficacy and appropriateness of activity planning from (99m)Tc-MAA scan and SPECT/CT. Twenty-three patients with liver malignancy were included in the study. (99m)Tc-MAA was injected during planning angiography and whole body (99m)Tc-MAA scan and liver SPECT/CT were acquired. After SIRT using ??Y-resin microsphere, ??Y-microsphere PET/CT was acquired. A partition model (PM) using 4 compartments (tumor, intarget normal liver, out-target normal liver, and lung) was adopted, and absorbed dose to each compartment was calculated based on measurements from (99m)Tc-MAA SPECT/CT and ??Y-microsphere PET/CT, respectively, to be compared with each other. Progression-free survival (PFS) was evaluated in terms of tumor absorbed doses calculated by (99m)Tc-MAA SPECT/CT and ??Y-microsphere PET/CT results. Lung shunt fraction was overestimated on (99m)Tc-MAA scan compared with ??Y-microsphere PET/CT (0.060?±?0.037 vs. 0.018?±?0.026, P?200 Gy on ??Y-microsphere PET/CT had longer PFS than those with tumor absorbed dose ?200 Gy (286?±?56 days vs. 92?±?20 days, P?=?0.046). Tumor absorbed dose calculated by (99m)Tc-MAA SPECT/CT was not a significant predictor for PFS. Activity planning based on (99m)Tc-MAA scan and SPECT/CT can be effectively used as a conservative method. Post-SIRT dosimetry based on ??Y-microsphere PET/CT is an effective method to predict treatment efficacy. PMID:26061323

  15. Scintillation properties of the YVO4:Eu(3+) compound in powder form: its application to dosimetry in radiation fields produced by pulsed mega-voltage photon beams.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Nahuel; Teichmann, Tobias; Molina, Pablo; Sommer, Marian; Santiago, Martin; Henniger, Jürgen; Caselli, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    The investigation of scintillation properties of europium doped yttrium orthovanadate shows the suitability of this material for fiber-based dose rate measurements. All measurements were carried out with a 6 MV Varian linear accelerator. The temperature dependence of the signal is lower than that of the plastic scintillators reported so far. By measuring the afterglow of probes between Linac-pulses, the signal due to the stem effect can be successfully eliminated. Comparison of depth dose profiles in a water phantom for radiation field dimensions between 1 x 1 cm(2) and 10 x 10 cm(2) shows that the probes are suitable for small fields having dimensions up to 1 x 1 cm(2). The high light yield of probes having dimensions of 1 mm opens up the possibility for their use in spatially confined radiation fields, such as in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volume-modulated radiation therapy (VMAT). PMID:25957990

  16. Tracking patient radiation exposure: challenges to integrating nuclear medicine with other modalities.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, Mathew; Rehani, Madan M; Einstein, Andrew J

    2012-10-01

    The cumulative radiation exposure to the patient from multiple radiological procedures can place some individuals at significantly increased risk for stochastic effects and tissue reactions. Approaches, such as those in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Smart Card program, have been developed to track cumulative radiation exposures to individuals. These strategies often rely on the availability of structured dose reports, typically found in the DICOM header. Dosimetry information is currently readily available for many individual x-ray-based procedures. Nuclear medicine, of which nuclear cardiology constitutes the majority of the radiation burden in the US, currently lags behind x-ray-based procedures with respect to reporting of radiation dosimetric information. This article discusses qualitative differences between nuclear medicine and x-ray-based procedures, including differences in the radiation source and measurement of its strength, the impact of biokinetics on dosimetry, and the capability of current scanners to record dosimetry information. These differences create challenges in applying, monitoring, and reporting strategies used in x-ray-based procedures to nuclear medicine, and integrating dosimetry information across modalities. A concerted effort by the medical imaging community, dosimetry specialists, and manufacturers of imaging equipment is required to develop strategies to improve the reporting of radiation dosimetry data in nuclear medicine. Some ideas on how to address this issue are suggested. PMID:22695788

  17. An analytical method for estimating the {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole resonance parameters of organic compounds with complex free induction decays for radiation effects studies

    SciTech Connect

    Iselin, L.H.

    1992-12-31

    The use of {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) as a radiation dosimetry tool has only recently been explored. An analytical method for analyzing {sup 14}N NQR complex free induction decays is presented with the background necessary to conduct pulsed NQR experiments. The {sup 14}N NQR energy levels and possible transitions are derived in step-by-step detail. The components of a pulsed NQR spectrometer are discussed along with the experimental techniques for conducting radiation effects experiments using the spectrometer. Three data analysis techniques -- the power spectral density Fourier transform, state space singular value decomposition (HSVD), and nonlinear curve fitting (using the downhill simplex method of global optimization and the Levenberg-Marquart method) -- are explained. These three techniques are integrated into an analytical method which uses these numerical techniques in this order to determine the physical NQR parameters. Sample data sets of urea and guanidine sulfate data are used to demonstrate how these methods can be employed to analyze both simple and complex free induction decays. By determining baseline values for biologically significant organics, radiation effects on the NQR parameters can be studied to provide a link between current radiation dosimetry techniques and the biological effects of radiation.

  18. Effects of gamma radiation on solid trisodium citrate dihydrate: radical kinetics, radiosensitivity and dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Tuner, H; Korkmaz, M

    2010-11-01

    In the present work, radiosensitivity and dosimetric potential of solid trisodium citrate dihydrate (SC) were explored through a detailed electron spin resonance (ESR) study performed at various temperatures. Irradiated SC was observed to exhibit an ESR spectrum consisting of many intense and weak resonance lines spread over a magnetic field range of 7 mT and centered at g = 2.0039. An evaluation technique based on the variations of the characteristic resonance line intensities and the spectrum area under different experimental conditions was adopted, to determine the spectroscopic, kinetic and dosimetric features of radical species responsible for the observed experimental ESR spectrum. Radicals exhibiting similar ESR characteristics to those reported in the literature for irradiated tricarboxilic acids and their organic compounds were shown to be also produced in gamma-irradiated SC. PMID:20563594

  19. Thermoluminescence and Thermoluminescent Dosimetry, v. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    This work is a comprehensive, in-depth review and guide to the fields of thermoluminescence and thermoluminescent dosimetry. Three up-to-date volumes contain useful tables, illustrations, formulas and references to aid researchers in radiation and nuclear science, dosimetry and solid state physics. Volume I concentrates on the basics of thermoluminescence (TL) study. It provides a general introduction, explains models of TL trapping, recombination centers and kinetics, outlines the complexity of the TL mechanism, and discusses important TL and dosimetric characteristics of commonly used TLD materials.

  20. Radiation Effects on Current Field Programmable Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; LaBel, K.; Wang, J. J.; Cronquist, B.; Koga, R.; Penzin, S.; Swift, G.

    1997-01-01

    Manufacturers of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAS) take different technological and architectural approaches that directly affect radiation performance. Similar y technological and architectural features are used in related technologies such as programmable substrates and quick-turn application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). After analyzing current technologies and architectures and their radiation-effects implications, this paper includes extensive test data quantifying various devices total dose and single event susceptibilities, including performance degradation effects and temporary or permanent re-configuration faults. Test results will concentrate on recent technologies being used in space flight electronic systems and those being developed for use in the near term. This paper will provide the first extensive study of various configuration memories used in programmable devices. Radiation performance limits and their impacts will be discussed for each design. In addition, the interplay between device scaling, process, bias voltage, design, and architecture will be explored. Lastly, areas of ongoing research will be discussed.

  1. Uncertainty in 3D gel dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Yves; Jirasek, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry has a unique role to play in safeguarding conformal radiotherapy treatments as the technique can cover the full treatment chain and provides the radiation oncologist with the integrated dose distribution in 3D. It can also be applied to benchmark new treatment strategies such as image guided and tracking radiotherapy techniques. A major obstacle that has hindered the wider dissemination of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy centres is a lack of confidence in the reliability of the measured dose distribution. Uncertainties in 3D dosimeters are attributed to both dosimeter properties and scanning performance. In polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout, discrepancies in dose response of large polymer gel dosimeters versus small calibration phantoms have been reported which can lead to significant inaccuracies in the dose maps. The sources of error in polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout are well understood and it has been demonstrated that with a carefully designed scanning protocol, the overall uncertainty in absolute dose that can currently be obtained falls within 5% on an individual voxel basis, for a minimum voxel size of 5 mm3. However, several research groups have chosen to use polymer gel dosimetry in a relative manner by normalizing the dose distribution towards an internal reference dose within the gel dosimeter phantom. 3D dosimetry with optical scanning has also been mostly applied in a relative way, although in principle absolute calibration is possible. As the optical absorption in 3D dosimeters is less dependent on temperature it can be expected that the achievable accuracy is higher with optical CT. The precision in optical scanning of 3D dosimeters depends to a large extend on the performance of the detector. 3D dosimetry with X-ray CT readout is a low contrast imaging modality for polymer gel dosimetry. Sources of error in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry (XCT) are currently under investigation and include inherent limitations in dosimeter homogeneity, imaging performance, and errors induced through post-acquisition processing. This overview highlights a number of aspects relating to uncertainties in polymer gel dosimetry.

  2. Dosimetry Methods of Fast Neutron Using the Semiconductor Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. Zaki, Dizaji; Kakavand, T.; F. Abbasi, Davani

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor detectors based on a silicon pin diode are frequently used in the detection of different nuclear radiations. For the detection and dosimetry of fast neutrons, these silicon detectors are coupled with a fast neutron converter. Incident neutrons interact with the converter and produce charged particles that can deposit their energy in the detectors and produce a signal. In this study, three methods are introduced for fast neutron dosimetry by using the silicon detectors, which are: recoil proton spectroscopy, similarity of detector response function with conversion function, and a discriminator layer. Monte Carlo simulation is used to calculate the response of dosimetry systems based on these methods. In the different doses of an 241Am-Be neutron source, dosimetry responses are evaluated. The error values of measured data for dosimetry by these methods are in the range of 15-25%. We find fairly good agreement in the 241Am-Be neutron sources.

  3. LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS RADIATION EFFECTS ON

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS RADIATION EFFECTS ON FUSION MAGNET COMPONENTS ­ 1: SUPERCONDUCTORS Harald W Conclusions WAMSDO Workshop, Geneva 14 November 2011 #12;LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS Overview: ITER 300-500 s INTRODUCTION #12;LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS ITER Magnet System (5 K / 6.5 K) Central Solenoid (CS) (Bmax~13 T

  4. LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS RADIATION EFFECTS ON

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS RADIATION EFFECTS ON FUSION MAGNET COMPONENTS Harald W. Weber Vienna Stabilizer Insulation Conclusions ESS, 4th High Power Targetry Workshop, Malmö 5 May 2011 #12;LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS Overview: ITER 300-500 s INTRODUCTION #12;LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS ITER Magnet System (5 K / 6.5 K

  5. GENETIC AND CELLULAR EFFECTS OF MICROWAVE RADIATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program was initiated with the overall objective of determining genetic and cellular effects from exposure of unicellular organisms to selected frequencies of CW and pulsed microwave radiation which is prevalent in the biosphere. Several tester strains of the bacter...

  6. Memory effects in radiative jet energy loss

    E-print Network

    Frank Michler; Björn Schenke; Carsten Greiner

    2009-05-18

    In heavy-ion collisions the created quark-gluon plasma forms a quickly evolving background, leading to a time dependent radiative behavior of high momentum partons traversing the medium. We use the Schwinger Keldysh formalism to describe the jet evolution as a non-equilibrium process including the Landau-Pomeranschuk-Migdal effect. Concentrating on photon emission, a comparison of our results to a quasistatic calculation shows good agreement, leading to the conclusion that the radiative behavior follows the changes in the medium almost instantaneously.

  7. A boundary-representation method for designing whole-body radiation dosimetry models: pregnant females at the ends of three gestational periods—RPI-P3, -P6 and -P9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. George; Taranenko, Valery; Zhang, Juying; Shi, Chengyu

    2007-12-01

    Fetuses are extremely radiosensitive and the protection of pregnant females against ionizing radiation is of particular interest in many health and medical physics applications. Existing models of pregnant females relied on simplified anatomical shapes or partial-body images of low resolutions. This paper reviews two general types of solid geometry modeling: constructive solid geometry (CSG) and boundary representation (BREP). It presents in detail a project to adopt the BREP modeling approach to systematically design whole-body radiation dosimetry models: a pregnant female and her fetus at the ends of three gestational periods of 3, 6 and 9 months. Based on previously published CT images of a 7-month pregnant female, the VIP-Man model and mesh organ models, this new set of pregnant female models was constructed using 3D surface modeling technologies instead of voxels. The organ masses were adjusted to agree with the reference data provided by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and previously published papers within 0.5%. The models were then voxelized for the purpose of performing dose calculations in identically implemented EGS4 and MCNPX Monte Carlo codes. The agreements of the fetal doses obtained from these two codes for this set of models were found to be within 2% for the majority of the external photon irradiation geometries of AP, PA, LAT, ROT and ISO at various energies. It is concluded that the so-called RPI-P3, RPI-P6 and RPI-P9 models have been reliably defined for Monte Carlo calculations. The paper also discusses the needs for future research and the possibility for the BREP method to become a major tool in the anatomical modeling for radiation dosimetry.

  8. Working group written presentation: Trapped radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vampola, Alfred L.; Stuckey, Wayne K.; Coulter, D.; Friebele, E. J.; Hand, K. J.; Hardy, D. A.; Higby, P.; Kolasinski, W. A.; Santoro, R. T.; Tompkins, Stephen S.

    1989-01-01

    The results of the Trapped Radiation Effects Panel for the Space Environmental Effects on Materials Workshop are presented. The needs of the space community for new data regarding effects of the space environment on materials, including electronics are listed. A series of questions asked of each of the panels at the workshop are addressed. Areas of research which should be pursued to satisfy the requirements for better knowledge of the environment and better understanding of the effects of the energetic charged particle environment on new materials and advanced electronics technology are suggested.

  9. Investigation of effect of variations in bone fraction and red marrow cellularity on bone marrow dosimetry in radio-immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilderman, S. J.; Roberson, P. L.; Bolch, W. E.; Dewaraja, Y. K.

    2013-07-01

    A method is described for computing patient-specific absorbed dose rates to active marrow which accounts for spatial variation in bone volume fraction and marrow cellularity. A module has been added to the 3D Monte Carlo dosimetry program DPM to treat energy deposition in the components of bone spongiosa distinctly. Homogeneous voxels in regions containing bone spongiosa (as defined on CT images) are assumed to be comprised only of bone, active (red) marrow and inactive (yellow) marrow. Cellularities are determined from biopsy, and bone volume fractions are computed from cellularities and CT-derived voxel densities. Electrons are assumed to deposit energy locally in the three constituent components in proportions determined by electron energy absorption fractions which depend on energy, cellularity, and bone volume fraction, and which are either taken from the literature or are derived from Monte Carlo simulations using EGS5. Separate algorithms are used to model primary ? particles and secondary electrons generated after photon interactions. Treating energy deposition distinctly in bone spongiosa constituents leads to marrow dosimetry results which differ from homogeneous spongiosa dosimetry by up to 20%. Dose rates in active marrow regions with cellularities of 20, 50, and 80% can vary by up to 20%, and can differ by up to 10% as a function of bone volume fraction. Dose to bone marrow exhibits a strong dependence on marrow cellularity and a potentially significant dependence on bone volume fraction.

  10. Drosophila Melanogaster Show a Threshold Effect in Response to Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Antosh, Michael; Fox, David; Hasselbacher, Thomas; Lanou, Robert; Neretti, Nicola; Cooper, Leon N.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the biological effects of radiation using adult Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism, focusing on gene expression and lifespan analysis to determine the effect of different radiation doses. Our results support a threshold effect in response to radiation: no effect on lifespan and no permanent effect on gene expression is seen at incident radiation levels below 100 J/kg. We also find that it is more appropriate to compare radiation effects in flies using the absorbed energy rather than incident radiation levels. PMID:25552957

  11. [Concepts of dosimetry].

    PubMed

    Gambini, D-J

    2010-11-01

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation are determined by the absorbed dose D. The equivalent dose H takes into consideration the variation in probability of a stochastic effect (cancer, leukemia, genetic mutation) based on the quality of the exposure. The effective dose E takes into account the sensitivity of tissues (T) to stochastic effects from radiation exposure. Optimization of radiation exposure to patients in diagnostic radiology in based on diagnostic reference levels (DRL): entrance surface dose or dose-area product for conventional radiology; CT dose index and DLP for CT. PMID:21178890

  12. CHRONIC IRRADIATION OF SCOTS PINE TREES (PINUS SYLVESTRIS) IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE: DOSIMETRY AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 years old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y{sup -1}) to approximately 7 Gy y{sup -1} in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  13. Effect of image uncertainty on the dosimetry of trigeminal neuralgia irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jursinic, Paul A. . E-mail: Pjursinic@radonc.mcw.edu; Rickert, Kim; Gennarelli, Thomas A.; Schultz, Christopher J.

    2005-08-01

    Objective: Our objective was to quantify the uncertainty in localization of the trigeminal nerve (TGN) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) and to determine the effect of this uncertainty on gamma-knife dose delivery. Methods: An MR/CT test phantom with 9, 0.6-mm diameter, copper rings was devised. The absolute ring positions in stereotactic space were determined by the angiographic module of the LGP software. The standard deviation, {sigma}, in the difference between the absolute and MR-measured or CT-measured coordinates of the rings was determined. The trigeminal nerve in 52 previously treated patients was contoured and expanded by 1{sigma} and 2{sigma} margins to model the uncertainty in the location of the nerve. For gamma-knife treatment, a single isocenter was used and was located at the distal cisternal portion of the trigeminal nerve root. Irradiation methods included a 4-mm collimator, 90 Gy to isocenter and a 4 and 8-mm collimator, 70 Gy to isocenter. A patient outcome survey that sampled pain relief and morbidity was done. Results: The MR coordinate {sigma} was 0.7 mm left-right, 0.8 mm anterior-posterior, and 0.6 mm superior-inferior, and the CT coordinate {sigma} was 0.4 mm left-right, 0.2 mm anterior-posterior, and 0.2 mm superior-inferior. A 45% higher dose line covered the TGN with the 4 and 8-mm method. No significant increase in pain reduction or morbidity occurred. Conclusions: The uncertainty of target location by MRI is more than twice that found in CT imaging. The 4 and 8-mm collimator method covers the trigeminal root cross section with a higher isodose line than does the 4-mm method. This higher dose did not significantly reduce pain or increase morbidity.

  14. Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

    1999-05-17

    Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space.

  15. Transverse effects of microbunch radiative interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Derbenev, Ya.S.; Shiltsev, V.D.

    1996-06-03

    In this article the authors study effects of microbunch cooperative electromagnetic radiation in a bend on transverse beam dynamics. An overtaking radiative interaction between different parts of the bunch results in three major forces variable along the bunch. Longitudinal force leads to energy loss and causes the bunch emittance growth in the bend due to the dispersion effect. Radial force consists of logarithmically large ``Talman`` centrifugal force and smaller centripetal force. Due to general radius-energy dependence in the bend, the ``Talman`` force does not affect beam dynamics while the centripetal force leads to projected emittance growth. Finally, radial and vertical focusing forces lead to trajectory distortions which vary along the bunch. These cooperative forces significantly affect the dynamics of short high-populated bunch in bends.

  16. The Importance of Dosimetry Standardization in Radiobiology

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Marc; DeWerd, Larry; Deye, James; Lindsay, Patricia; Murphy, Mark K; Mitch, Michael; Macchiarini, Francesca; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Stone, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Radiation dose is central to much of radiobiological research. Precision and accuracy of dose measurements and reporting of the measurement details should be sufficient to allow the work to be interpreted and repeated and to allow valid comparisons to be made, both in the same laboratory and by other laboratories. Despite this, a careful reading of published manuscripts suggests that measurement and reporting of radiation dosimetry and setup for radiobiology research is frequently inadequate, thus undermining the reliability and reproducibility of the findings. To address these problems and propose a course of action, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) brought together representatives of the radiobiology and radiation physics communities in a workshop in September, 2011. The workshop participants arrived at a number of specific recommendations as enumerated in this paper and they expressed the desirability of creating dosimetry standard operating procedures (SOPs) for cell culture and for small and large animal experiments. It was also felt that these SOPs would be most useful if they are made widely available through mechanism(s) such as the web, where they can provide guidance to both radiobiologists and radiation physicists, be cited in publications, and be updated as the field and needs evolve. Other broad areas covered were the need for continuing education through tutorials at national conferences, and for journals to establish standards for reporting dosimetry. This workshop did not address issues of dosimetry for studies involving radiation focused at the sub-cellular level, internally-administered radionuclides, biodosimetry based on biological markers of radiation exposure, or dose reconstruction for epidemiological studies. PMID:26401441

  17. Advanced CMOS Radiation Effects Testing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan Allen; Marshall, Paul W.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Gordon, Michael S.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Schwank, James R.; Dodds, Nathaniel A.; Castaneda, Carlos M.; Berg, Melanie D.; Kim, Hak S.; Phan, Anthony M.; Seidleck, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Presentation at the annual NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Electronic Technology Workshop (ETW). The material includes an update of progress in this NEPP task area over the past year, which includes testing, evaluation, and analysis of radiation effects data on the IBM 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The testing was conducted using test vehicles supplied by directly by IBM.

  18. Advanced CMOS Radiation Effects Testing and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, J. A.; Marshall, P. W.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.; LaBel, K. A.; Schwank, J. R.; Dodds, N. A.; Castaneda, C. M.; Berg, M. D.; Kim, H. S.; Phan, A. M.; Seidleck, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Presentation at the annual NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Electronic Technology Workshop (ETW). The material includes an update of progress in this NEPP task area over the past year, which includes testing, evaluation, and analysis of radiation effects data on the IBM 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The testing was conducted using test vehicles supplied by directly by IBM.

  19. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring.

  20. 47 CFR 95.855 - Transmitter effective radiated power limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transmitter effective radiated power limitation. The effective radiated power (ERP) of each CTS and RTU shall... with an ERP exceeding 20 watts. No mobile RTU may transmit with an ERP exceeding 4 watts....

  1. 47 CFR 22.867 - Effective radiated power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Effective radiated power limits. The effective radiated power (ERP) of ground and airborne stations... peak ERP of airborne mobile station transmitters must not exceed 12 Watts. (b) The peak ERP of...

  2. 47 CFR 22.659 - Effective radiated power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Effective radiated power limits. 22.659 Section 22.659 Telecommunication FEDERAL...Mhz Trunked Mobile Operation § 22.659 Effective radiated power...are the locations of record as of September 1974, and these do not...

  3. 47 CFR 22.659 - Effective radiated power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Effective radiated power limits. 22.659 Section 22.659 Telecommunication FEDERAL...Mhz Trunked Mobile Operation § 22.659 Effective radiated power...are the locations of record as of September 1974, and these do not...

  4. Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What to Expect Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Cancer & Tumors > Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation Print A A A Text Size What's in ...

  5. A comparative study of radiation effects in medical-grade polymers: UHMWPE, PCU and PEEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahan, Muhammad S.; Walters, Benjamin M.; Riahinasab, Tayebeh; Gnawali, Rudra; Adhikari, Dipendra; Trieu, Hai

    2016-01-01

    In this study, three medical-grade polymers, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), polycarbonate urethane (PCU) and poly (ether ether ketone) PEEK, were tested immediately after x-irradiation. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a qualitative comparison of the radiation-sensitivity of these polymers. To evaluate radiation-induced defects or trapped charges, radiation dosimetry method, known as thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) or thermoluminescence (TL), was employed, and for free radical comparison, electron spin resonance (ESR) was used. When these polymers were x-irradiated at room temperature and subsequently heated, broad luminescence was detected as a function of temperature (known as a glow curve) in the temperature region of 75 °C to 250 °C. In particular, TSL of PCU exhibited glow peaks near 140 °C and 225 °C, that of PEEK near 100 °C and 150 °C, and of UHMWPE near 100 °C and 140 °C. In each case, totalTSL was found to increase as a function of x-ray exposure, suggesting the production of radiation-induced species in the respective polymer matrix. Compared to PCU or PEEK, UHMWPE was found to form more than one order of magnitude of free radicals per unit mass per unit x-ray exposure. In two hours in air at room temperature after irradiation, UHMWPE lost 42% of its initial radical concentration, while PCU lost 75%. X-ray induced PEEK radicals (peroxy/phenoxy) decayed in about one week. Unlike UHMWPE or PCU, non-irradiated (as-received) PEEK was found to contain residual radicals. In UHMWPE, primary radicals reportedly decay to oxygen-centered polyenyl radicals in about three months. In all the results did find significant radical formation via ESR and supporting radiation sensitivity measurements via TSL, warranting further investigation into the effects of radiation on PEEK and PCU.

  6. Impact of Radiation Biology on Fundamental in Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, Richard B.

    1983-01-20

    Research supported by OHER and its predecessors has as one of its major goals an understanding of the effects of radiation at low doses and dose rates on biological systems, so as to predict their effects on humans. It is not possible to measure such effects directly. They must be predicted from basic knowledge on how radiation affects cellular components such as DNA and membranes and how cells react to such changes. What is the probability of radiation producing human mutations and what are the probabilities of radiation producing cancer? The end results of such studies are radiation exposure standards for workers and for the general population. An extension of these goals is setting standards for exposure to chemicals involved in various energy technologies. This latter problem is much more difficult because chemical dosimetry is is a primitive state compared to radiation dosimetry.

  7. Cost-effective pediatric head and body phantoms for computed tomography dosimetry and its evaluation using pencil ion chamber and CT dose profiler

    PubMed Central

    Saravanakumar, A.; Vaideki, K.; Govindarajan, K. N.; Jayakumar, S.; Devanand, B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, a pediatric head and body phantom was fabricated using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) at a low cost when compared to commercially available phantoms for the purpose of computed tomography (CT) dosimetry. The dimensions of head and body phantoms were 10 cm diameter, 15 cm length and 16 cm diameter, 15 cm length, respectively. The dose from a 128-slice CT machine received by the head and body phantom at the center and periphery were measured using a 100 mm pencil ion chamber and 150 mm CT dose profiler (CTDP). Using these values, the weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIw) and in turn the volumetric CTDI (CTDIv) were calculated for various combinations of tube voltage and current-time product. A similar study was carried out using standard calibrated phantom and the results have been compared with the fabricated ones to ascertain that the performance of the latter is equivalent to that of the former. Finally, CTDIv measured using fabricated and standard phantoms were compared with respective values displayed on the console. The difference between the values was well within the limits specified by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), India. These results indicate that the cost-effective pediatric phantom can be employed for CT dosimetry. PMID:26500404

  8. Radiation and transmutation effects relevant to solid nuclear waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, E.R.; Roy, R.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1981-03-15

    Radiation effects in insulating solids are discussed in a general way as an introduction to the quite sparse published work on radiation effects in candidate nuclear waste forms other than glasses. Likely effects of transmutation in crystals and the chemical mitigation strategy are discussed. It seems probable that radiation effects in solidified HLW will not be serious if the actinides can be wholly incorporated in such radiation-resistant phases as monazite or uraninite.

  9. Jupiters radiation belts and their effects on spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. H.; Divita, E. L.; Gigas, G.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of electron and proton radiation on spacecraft which will operate in the trapped radiation belts of the planet Jupiter are described, and the techniques and results of the testing and simulation used in the radiation effects program are discussed. Available data from the Pioneer 10 encounter of Jupiter are compared with pre-encounter models of the Jupiter radiation belts. The implications that the measured Jovian radiation belts have for future missions are considered.

  10. Radiative effects of polar stratospheric clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Kinne, S.; Toon, O.B. )

    1990-03-01

    Radiative transfer calculations are performed for polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) using newly acquired PSC properties and polar atmospheric data. PSC radiative effects depend strongly on upwelling thermal radiation and vary from infrared heating over warm polar surfaces, such as oceans, to cooling over cold surfaces, such as the Antarctic plateau. Heating and cooling rates of nitric acid PSCs are smaller than {plus minus}0.1K/day. Rates for optically thicker ice PSCs vary from 1.0 to {minus}0.2K/day, those for orographically forced ice PSCs even from 3.0 to {minus}0.5K/day. Frequently observed optically thick cirrus decks near the tropopause provide a very cold radiative surface. These clouds not only act to prevent heating and enhance cooling in ice PSCs to {minus}0.5K/day and orographic ice PSCs to {minus}2K/day, but such cirrus cloud decks also cool the entire stratosphere by up to {minus}0.5K/day over warm surfaces, even in the absence of PSCs.

  11. TU-C-BRE-11: 3D EPID-Based in Vivo Dosimetry: A Major Step Forward Towards Optimal Quality and Safety in Radiation Oncology Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Mijnheer, B; Mans, A; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I; Rozendaal, R; Spreeuw, H; Herk, M van

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a 3D in vivo dosimetry method that is able to substitute pre-treatment verification in an efficient way, and to terminate treatment delivery if the online measured 3D dose distribution deviates too much from the predicted dose distribution. Methods: A back-projection algorithm has been further developed and implemented to enable automatic 3D in vivo dose verification of IMRT/VMAT treatments using a-Si EPIDs. New software tools were clinically introduced to allow automated image acquisition, to periodically inspect the record-and-verify database, and to automatically run the EPID dosimetry software. The comparison of the EPID-reconstructed and planned dose distribution is done offline to raise automatically alerts and to schedule actions when deviations are detected. Furthermore, a software package for online dose reconstruction was also developed. The RMS of the difference between the cumulative planned and reconstructed 3D dose distributions was used for triggering a halt of a linac. Results: The implementation of fully automated 3D EPID-based in vivo dosimetry was able to replace pre-treatment verification for more than 90% of the patient treatments. The process has been fully automated and integrated in our clinical workflow where over 3,500 IMRT/VMAT treatments are verified each year. By optimizing the dose reconstruction algorithm and the I/O performance, the delivered 3D dose distribution is verified in less than 200 ms per portal image, which includes the comparison between the reconstructed and planned dose distribution. In this way it was possible to generate a trigger that can stop the irradiation at less than 20 cGy after introducing large delivery errors. Conclusion: The automatic offline solution facilitated the large scale clinical implementation of 3D EPID-based in vivo dose verification of IMRT/VMAT treatments; the online approach has been successfully tested for various severe delivery errors.

  12. Solid-state and solar sintering of YAP:Mn,Hf ceramics applicable for thermoluminescent dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhydachevskii, Ya.; Fidelus, J. D.; Luchechko, A.; Cabaj, A.; Pieni??ek, A.; Berkowski, M.; Suchocki, A.; Cañadas Martinez, I.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.

    2015-07-01

    The paper reports on the (Mn, Hf)-doped YAP (YAlO3) ceramics sintered by the solid-state method and under concentrated solar radiation at temperature up to 1860 °C. The obtained ceramic samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and the luminescent techniques including radioluminescence at X-ray excitation, photoluminescence and thermoluminescence. Thermoluminescent properties of the materials were studied from the point of view of their possible application in thermoluminescent dosimetry of ionizing radiation. Effect of sintering gas atmosphere and Hf-codoping is discussed.

  13. Effective spectrum width of the synchrotron radiation

    E-print Network

    V. G. Bagrov; D. M. Gitman; A. D. Levin; A. S. Loginov; A. D. Saprykin

    2015-11-16

    For an exact quantitative description of spectral properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), the concept of effective width of the spectrum is introduced. In the most interesting case, which corresponds to the ultrarelativistic limit of SR, the effective width of the spectrum is calculated for the polarization components, and new physically important quantitative information on the structure of spectral distributions is obtained. For the first time, the spectral distribution for the circular polarization component of the SR for the upper half-space is obtained within classical theory.

  14. 47 CFR 80.765 - Effective radiated power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effective radiated power. 80.765 Section 80.765 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.765 Effective radiated power. Effective radiated...

  15. 47 CFR 22.535 - Effective radiated power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective radiated power limits. 22.535 Section... MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service Paging Operation § 22.535 Effective radiated power limits. The effective radiated power (ERP) of transmitters operating on the channels listed in §...

  16. Biologically based multistage modeling of radiation effects

    SciTech Connect

    William Hazelton; Suresh Moolgavkar; E. Georg Luebeck

    2005-08-30

    This past year we have made substantial progress in modeling the contribution of homeostatic regulation to low-dose radiation effects and carcinogenesis. We have worked to refine and apply our multistage carcinogenesis models to explicitly incorporate cell cycle states, simple and complex damage, checkpoint delay, slow and fast repair, differentiation, and apoptosis to study the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in mouse intestinal crypts, as well as in other tissues. We have one paper accepted for publication in ''Advances in Space Research'', and another manuscript in preparation describing this work. I also wrote a chapter describing our combined cell-cycle and multistage carcinogenesis model that will be published in a book on stochastic carcinogenesis models edited by Wei-Yuan Tan. In addition, we organized and held a workshop on ''Biologically Based Modeling of Human Health Effects of Low dose Ionizing Radiation'', July 28-29, 2005 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. We had over 20 participants, including Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff as keynote speaker, talks by most of the low-dose modelers in the DOE low-dose program, experimentalists including Les Redpath (and Mary Helen), Noelle Metting from DOE, and Tony Brooks. It appears that homeostatic regulation may be central to understanding low-dose radiation phenomena. The primary effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are cell killing, delayed cell cycling, and induction of mutations. However, homeostatic regulation causes cells that are killed or damaged by IR to eventually be replaced. Cells with an initiating mutation may have a replacement advantage, leading to clonal expansion of these initiated cells. Thus we have focused particularly on modeling effects that disturb homeostatic regulation as early steps in the carcinogenic process. There are two primary considerations that support our focus on homeostatic regulation. First, a number of epidemiologic studies using multistage carcinogenesis models that incorporate the ''initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion'' paradigm of carcinogenesis are indicating that promotion of initiated cells is the most important cellular mechanism driving the shape of the age specific hazard for many types of cancer. Second, we have realized that many of the genes that are modified in early stages of the carcinogenic process contribute to one or more of four general cellular pathways that confer a promotional advantage to cells when these pathways are disrupted.

  17. Tumor dosimetry for I-131 trastuzumab therapy in a Her2+ NCI N87 xenograft mouse model using the Siemens SYMBIA E gamma camera with a pinhole collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Sub; Kim, Jin Su; Deuk Cho, Kyung; Kang, Joo Hyun; Moo Lim, Sang

    2015-07-01

    We performed imaging and therapy using I-131 trastuzumab and a pinhole collimator attached to a conventional gamma camera for human use in a mouse model. The conventional clinical gamma camera with a 2-mm radius-sized pinhole collimator was used for monitoring the animal model after administration of I-131 trastuzumab The highest and lowest radiation-received organs were osteogenic cells (0.349 mSv/MBq) and skin (0.137 mSv/MBq), respectively. The mean coefficients of variation (%CV) of the effective dose equivalent and effective dose were 0.091 and 0.093 mSv/MBq respectively. We showed the feasibility of the pinholeattached conventional gamma camera for human use for the assessment of dosimetry. Mouse dosimetry and prediction of human dosimetry could be used to provide data for the safety and efficacy of newly developed therapeutic schemes.

  18. Specific issues in small animal dosimetry and irradiator calibration

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizumi, Terry; Brady, Samuel L.; Robbins, Mike E.; Bourland, J. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In response to the increased risk of radiological terrorist attack, a network of Centers for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (CMCR) has been established in the United States, focusing on evaluating animal model responses to uniform, relatively homogenous whole- or partial-body radiation exposures at relatively high dose rates. The success of such studies is dependent not only on robust animal models but on accurate and reproducible dosimetry within and across CMCR. To address this issue, the Education and Training Core of the Duke University School of Medicine CMCR organised a one-day workshop on small animal dosimetry. Topics included accuracy in animal dosimetry accuracy, characteristics and differences of cesium-137 and X-ray irradiators, methods for dose measurement, and design of experimental irradiation geometries for uniform dose distributions. This paper summarises the information presented and discussed. Conclusions Without ensuring accurate and reproducible dosimetry the development and assessment of the efficacy of putative countermeasures will not prove successful. Radiation physics support is needed, but is often the weakest link in the small animal dosimetry chain. We recommend: (i) A user training program for new irradiator users, (ii) subsequent training updates, and (iii) the establishment of a national small animal dosimetry center for all CMCR members. PMID:21961967

  19. Analytic approximate radiation effects due to Bremsstrahlung

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi I.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this note is to provide analytic approximate expressions that can provide quick estimates of the various effects of the Bremsstrahlung radiation produced relatively low energy electrons, such as the dumping of the beam into the beam stop at the ERL or field emission in superconducting cavities. The purpose of this work is not to replace a dependable calculation or, better yet, a measurement under real conditions, but to provide a quick but approximate estimate for guidance purposes only. These effects include dose to personnel, ozone generation in the air volume exposed to the radiation, hydrogen generation in the beam dump water cooling system and radiation damage to near-by magnets. These expressions can be used for other purposes, but one should note that the electron beam energy range is limited. In these calculations the good range is from about 0.5 MeV to 10 MeV. To help in the application of this note, calculations are presented as a worked out example for the beam dump of the R&D Energy Recovery Linac.

  20. Radiation protection for manned space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, T. M.

    1983-01-01

    The Earth's natural radiation environment poses a hazard to manned space activities directly through biological effects and indirectly through effects on materials and electronics. The following standard practices are indicated that address: (1) environment models for all radiation species including uncertainties and temporal variations; (2) upper bound and nominal quality factors for biological radiation effects that include dose, dose rate, critical organ, and linear energy transfer variations; (3) particle transport and shielding methodology including system and man modeling and uncertainty analysis; (4) mission planning that includes active dosimetry, minimizes exposure during extravehicular activities, subjects every mission to a radiation review, and specifies operational procedures for forecasting, recognizing, and dealing with large solar flaes.

  1. PDSOI and Radiation Effects: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forgione, Joshua B.

    2005-01-01

    Bulk silicon substrates are a common characteristic of nearly all commercial, Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS), integrated circuits. These devices operate well on Earth, but are not so well received in the space environment. An alternative to bulk CMOS is the Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI), in which a &electric isolates the device layer from the substrate. SO1 behavior in the space environment has certain inherent advantages over bulk, a primary factor in its long-time appeal to space-flight IC designers. The discussion will investigate the behavior of the Partially-Depleted SO1 (PDSOI) device with respect to some of the more common space radiation effects: Total Ionized Dose (TID), Single-Event Upsets (SEUs), and Single-Event Latchup (SEL). Test and simulation results from the literature, bulk and epitaxial comparisons facilitate reinforcement of PDSOI radiation characteristics.

  2. Biological Effects of Space Radiation and Development of Effective Countermeasures

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronaut exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronaut health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling), oxidative stress, gastrointestinal tract bacterial translocation and immune system activation, peripheral hematopoietic cell counts, emesis, blood coagulation, skin, behavior/fatigue (including social exploration, submaximal exercise treadmill and spontaneous locomotor activity), heart functions, alterations in biological endpoints related to astronaut vision problems (lumbar puncture/intracranial pressure, ocular ultrasound and histopathology studies), and survival, as well as long-term effects such as cancer and cataract development. A number of different countermeasures have been identified that can potentially mitigate or prevent the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to space radiation. PMID:25258703

  3. Technical Note: Estimating Aerosol Effects on Cloud Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Ghan, Steven J.

    2013-10-09

    Estimating anthropogenic aerosol effects on the planetary energy balance through the aerosol influence on clouds using the difference in cloud radiative forcing from simulations with and without anthropogenic emissions produces estimates that are positively biased. A more representative method is suggested using the difference in cloud radiative forcing calculated with aerosol radiative effects neglected. The method also yields an aerosol radiative forcing decomposition that includes a term quantifying the impact of changes in surface albedo. The method requires only two additional diagnostic calculations: the whole-sky and clear-sky top-of-atmosphere radiative flux with aerosol radiative effects neglected.

  4. Radiation Effects on DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, De-Xin; AbdulMazid, M. D.; Attia, John O.; Kankam, Mark D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this work, several DC-DC converters were designed and built. The converters are Buck Buck-Boost, Cuk, Flyback, and full-bridge zero-voltage switched. The total ionizing dose radiation and single event effects on the converters were investigated. The experimental results for the TID effects tests show that the voltages of the Buck Buck-Boost, Cuk, and Flyback converters increase as total dose increased when using power MOSFET IRF250 as a switching transistor. The change in output voltage with total dose is highest for the Buck converter and the lowest for Flyback converter. The trend of increase in output voltages with total dose in the present work agrees with those of the literature. The trends of the experimental results also agree with those obtained from PSPICE simulation. For the full-bridge zero-voltage switch converter, it was observed that the dc-dc converter with IRF250 power MOSFET did not show a significant change of output voltage with total dose. In addition, for the dc-dc converter with FSF254R4 radiation-hardened power MOSFET, the output voltage did not change significantly with total dose. The experimental results were confirmed by PSPICE simulation that showed that FB-ZVS converter with IRF250 power MOSFET's was not affected with the increase in total ionizing dose. Single Event Effects (SEE) radiation tests were performed on FB-ZVS converters. It was observed that the FB-ZVS converter with the IRF250 power MOSFET, when the device was irradiated with Krypton ion with ion-energy of 150 MeV and LET of 41.3 MeV-square cm/mg, the output voltage increased with the increase in fluence. However, for Krypton with ion-energy of 600 MeV and LET of 33.65 MeV-square cm/mg, and two out of four transistors of the converter were permanently damaged. The dc-dc converter with FSF254R4 radiation hardened power MOSFET's did not show significant change at the output voltage with fluence while being irradiated by Krypton with ion energy of 1.20 GeV and LET of 25.97 MeV-square cm/mg. This might be due to fact that the device is radiation hardened.

  5. Overview of research on aircraft crew dosimetry during the last solar cycle.

    PubMed

    Beck, P

    2009-10-01

    Cosmic radiation was discovered successfully in the beginning of the twentieth century by the Austrian Nobel Price winner Victor Hess. Radiation effects to humans are of major concern during human space missions and also due to the increasing aviation altitudes and flight time. ICRP recommendations lead to adaptations of the Basic Safety Standards by the European Council. Beginning in the 1990 s up to now, significant improvements and findings in aviation dosimetry and epidemiology were done word-wide. Five research projects on measurements and modelling cosmic radiation exposure were supported by European Research Framework Programmes. In-flight measurements with remarkable agreement (+/-25%) were carried out to validate calculation codes for routine dose assessment within +/-30% for galactic cosmic radiation. Measurements and improvements of modelling radiation exposure due to solar particle events (SPE) is still an objective for future research projects. PMID:19706723

  6. Effects of UV radiation on phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Raymond C.; Cullen, John J.

    1995-07-01

    It is now widely documented that reduced ozone will result in increased levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, especially UV-B (280-320nm), incident at the surface of the earth [Watson, 1988; Anderson et al., 1991; Schoeberl and Hartmann, 1991; Frederick and Alberts, 1991; WMO, 1991; Madronich, 1993; Kerr and McElroy, 1993], and there is considerable and increasing evidence that these higher levels of UV-B radiation may be detrimental to various forms of marine life in the upper layers of the ocean. With respect to aquatic ecosystems, we also know that this biologically- damaging mid-ultraviolet radiation can penetrate to ecologically- significant depths in marine and freshwater systems [Jerlov, 1950; Lenoble, 1956; Smith and Baker, 1979; Smith and Baker, 1980; Smith and Baker, 1981; Kirk et al., 1994]. This knowledge, plus the dramatic decline in stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic continent each spring, now known to be caused by anthropogenically released chemicals [Solomon, 1990; Booth et al., 1994], has resulted in increased UV-environmental research and a number of summary reports. The United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) has provided recent updates with respect to the effects of ozone depletion on aquatic ecosystems (Hader, Worrest, Kumar in UNEP 1989, 1991, Hader, Worrest, Kumar and Smith UNEP 1994) and the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) has provided [SCOPE, 1992] a summary of the effects of increased UV radiation on biological systems. SCOPE has also reported [SCOPE, 1993] on the effects of increased UV on the biosphere. In addition, several books have recently been published reviewing various aspects of environmental UV photobiology [Young et al., 1993], UV effects on humans, animals and plants [Tevini, 1993], the biological effects of UV radiation in Antarctica [Weiler and Penhale, 1994], and UV research in freshwater ecosystems [Williamson and Zagarese, 1994]. Several other reviews are relevant [NAS, 1984; Caldwell et al., 1986; Worrest, 1986; NOAA, 1987; Smith, 1989; Smith and Baker, 1989; Voytek, 1990; Häder, 1993; Acevedo and Nolan, 1993; Holm-Hansen et al., 1993; Vincent and Roy, 1993; Biggs and Joyner, 1994; Williamson and Zagarese, 1994; Karentz, 1994; Cullen and Neale, 1993; Cullen and Neale, 1994]. As Hader et al. have summarized [UNEP, 1989; UNEP, 1991], "UV-B radiation in aquatic systems: 1) affects adaptive strategies (e.g., motility, orientation); 2) impairs important physiological functions (e.g., photosynthesis and enzymatic reactions); and 3) threatens marine organisms during their developmental stages (e.g., the young of finfish, shrimp larvae, crab larvae)". Possible consequences to aquatic systems include: reduced biomass production; changes in species composition and biodiversity; and alterations of aquatic ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles associated with the above changes. Within the past four years, our knowledge with respect to the environmental effects of ozone-related increased levels of UV-B has increased significantly, and numerous efforts have been directed toward process-oriented studies of UV responses in plants and animals. Consensus is building toward the view that current levels of UV play a major role as an ecological determinant, influencing both survival and distribution, and are thus deserving of increased study independent of ozone-related UV-B increases. This review outlines U.S. research subsequent to 1991 and emphasizes studies concerned with phytoplankton.

  7. Quantification of differences in the effective atomic numbers of healthy and cancerous tissues: A discussion in the context of diagnostics and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, M. L.

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: There are a range of genetic and nongenetic factors influencing the elemental composition of different human tissues. The elemental composition of cancerous tissues frequently differs from healthy tissue of the same organ, particularly in high-Z trace element concentrations. For this reason, one could suggest that this may be exploited in diagnostics and perhaps even influence dosimetry. Methods: In this work, for the first time, effective atomic numbers are computed for common cancerous and healthy tissues using a robust, energy-dependent approach between 10 keV and 100 MeV. These are then quantitatively compared within the context of diagnostics and dosimetry. Results: Differences between effective atomic numbers of healthy and diseased tissues are found to be typically less than 10%. Fibrotic tissues and calcifications of the breast exhibit substantial (tens to hundreds of percent) differences to healthy tissue. Expectedly, differences are most pronounced in the photoelectric regime and consequently most relevant for kV imaging/therapy and radionuclides with prominent low-energy peaks. Cancerous tissue of the testes and stomach have lower effective atomic numbers than corresponding healthy tissues, while diseased tissues of the other organ sites typically have higher values. Conclusions: As dose calculation approaches improve in accuracy, there may be an argument for the explicit inclusion of pathologies. This is more the case for breast, penile, prostate, nasopharyngeal, and stomach cancer, less so for testicular and kidney cancer. The calculated data suggest dual-energy computed tomography could potentially improve lesion identification in the aforementioned organs (with the exception of testicular cancer), with most import in breast imaging. Ultimately, however, the differences are very small. It is likely that the assumption of a generic 'tissue ramp' in planning will be sufficient for the foreseeable future, and that the Z differences do not notably aid lesion detection beyond that already facilitated by differences in mass density.

  8. The environmental effects of radiation on flight crews

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, C.W.

    1991-08-01

    A review is presented of a continuing investigation of flight deck radiation and its potential effects on flight crews. Attention is given to the various critical factors concerned in UV radiation exposure and detection including skin cancer classifications, skin types, effectiveness of different sun protection factors, and flight deck color configuration and sunglasses. Consideration is given to both UV and ionizing radiation.

  9. Effects of Nuclear Interactions in Space Radiation Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei; Barghouty, A. F.

    2004-01-01

    Space radiation transport codes have been developed to calculate radiation effects behind materials in human missions to the Moon, Mars or beyond. We study how nuclear fragmentation processes affect predictions from such radiation transport codes. In particular, we investigate the effects of fragmentation cross sections at different energies on fluxes, dose and dose-equivalent from galactic cosmic rays behind typical shielding materials.

  10. Effects of Nuclear Interactions in Space Radiation Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei; Barghouty, A. F.

    2005-01-01

    Space radiation transport codes have been developed to calculate radiation effects behind materials in human mission to the Moon, Mars or beyond. We study how nuclear fragmentation processes affect predictions from such radiation transport codes. In particular, we investigate the effects of fragmentation cross sections at different energies on fluxes, dose and dose-equivalent from galactic cosmic rays behind typical shielding materials.

  11. 47 CFR 22.659 - Effective radiated power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective radiated power limits. 22.659 Section 22.659 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC... radiated power limits. The purpose of the rules in this section, which limit effective radiated power...

  12. 47 CFR 22.593 - Effective radiated power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective radiated power limits. 22.593 Section... power limits. The effective radiated power of fixed stations operating on the channels listed in § 22.591 must not exceed 150 Watts. The equivalent isotropically radiated power of existing fixed...

  13. 47 CFR 22.627 - Effective radiated power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective radiated power limits. 22.627 Section 22.627 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC... radiated power limits. The effective radiated power (ERP) of transmitters operating on the channels...

  14. Development of an optimal anisotropic responding (OAR) dosimeter for two-dosimeter dosimetry for better estimation of effective dose equivalent (He) and the impact of dosimeter misposition on estimating effective dose equivalent using isotropic dosimeters 

    E-print Network

    Han, Hsiang-Jung

    1998-01-01

    A single dosimeter is commonly worn on a radiation worker's chest to monitor radiation exposure. However, when a radiation worker is exposed to a posterior photon beam, effective dose equivalent (HE) can be severely ...

  15. A Practical Use for FXG Gel Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olding, T.; Salomons, G.; Darko, J.; Schreiner, L. J.

    2010-11-01

    In-phantom Fricke-xylenol orange-gelatin (FXG) gel dosimetry yields three dimensional (3D) dose data for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plan verification within 18-24 hours from the point of request. The information obtained from a 3% dose difference, 3 mm distance-to-agreement gamma function comparison between treatment plan dose and gel-measured dose then provides a useful secondary 3D quality assurance check of the treatment plan prior to delivery.

  16. Update on GI Radiopharmaceuticals and Dosimetry Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    The gold standard technique for measuring gastric emptying is scintigraphy using radiolabeled test meals. Recently, a standardized radiolabeled solid meal has been proposed and adopted by many centers. There is still a need for alternative meals and several such meals with demonstrated radiolabel stability have been evaluated in small numbers of subjects. Updated radiation dosimetry associated with these meals has been calculated for adult males and adult females with normal GI transit as well as transit abnormalities. PMID:22293168

  17. The ionizing radiation environment in space and its effects

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Jim; Falconer, David; Fry, Dan

    2012-11-20

    The ionizing radiation environment in space poses a hazard for spacecraft and space crews. The hazardous components of this environment are reviewed and those which contribute to radiation hazards and effects identified. Avoiding the adverse effects of space radiation requires design, planning, monitoring and management. Radiation effects on spacecraft are avoided largely though spacecraft design. Managing radiation exposures of space crews involves not only protective spacecraft design and careful mission planning. Exposures must be managed in real time. The now-casting and forecasting needed to effectively manage crew exposures is presented. The techniques used and the space environment modeling needed to implement these techniques are discussed.

  18. Predicting Nonauditory Adverse Radiation Effects Following Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannoma: A Volume and Dosimetric Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; Bernstein, Mark; Gentili, Fred; Heydarian, Mostafa; Tsao, May; Schwartz, Michael; Prooijen, Monique van; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Menard, Cynthia; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Laperriere, Norm; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To define clinical and dosimetric predictors of nonauditory adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma treated with a 12 Gy prescription dose. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our experience of vestibular schwannoma patients treated between September 2005 and December 2009. Two hundred patients were treated at a 12 Gy prescription dose; 80 had complete clinical and radiological follow-up for at least 24 months (median, 28.5 months). All treatment plans were reviewed for target volume and dosimetry characteristics; gradient index; homogeneity index, defined as the maximum dose in the treatment volume divided by the prescription dose; conformity index; brainstem; and trigeminal nerve dose. All adverse radiation effects (ARE) were recorded. Because the intent of our study was to focus on the nonauditory adverse effects, hearing outcome was not evaluated in this study. Results: Twenty-seven (33.8%) patients developed ARE, 5 (6%) developed hydrocephalus, 10 (12.5%) reported new ataxia, 17 (21%) developed trigeminal dysfunction, 3 (3.75%) had facial weakness, and 1 patient developed hemifacial spasm. The development of edema within the pons was significantly associated with ARE (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only target volume is a significant predictor of ARE (p = 0.001). There is a target volume threshold of 5 cm3, above which ARE are more likely. The treatment plan dosimetric characteristics are not associated with ARE, although the maximum dose to the 5th nerve is a significant predictor of trigeminal dysfunction, with a threshold of 9 Gy. The overall 2-year tumor control rate was 96%. Conclusions: Target volume is the most important predictor of adverse radiation effects, and we identified the significant treatment volume threshold to be 5 cm3. We also established through our series that the maximum tolerable dose to the 5th nerve is 9 Gy.

  19. STATUS REPORT: EVIDENCE BASED ADVANCES IN INHALATION DOSIMETRY FOR GASES WITH EFFECTS IN THE LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT AND IN THE BODY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the status of specific inhalation dosimetry procedures for gases as outlined in U.S. EPA’s 1994 Methods for Derivation of Inhalation Reference Concentrations and Applications of Inhalation Dosimetry (U.S. EPA 1994) and reviews recent scientific advances in...

  20. Solar radiative effect of the El Chichon volcanic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Long

    1988-08-01

    Using the data of the clear-sky solar radiation observed for the period between winter 1964 to winter 1983, it is shown from the analysis that significant and sustained change of the direct radiation, scattered radiation, and total radiation in China was caused by the El Chichon volcanic eruption between March 28 and April 4, 1982. The effect feature is found to be consistent with the radiative effect caused by a few great volcanic eruptions in the last 100 years. The primary cause was the changing of the atmospheric transparency as a result of the strong back-scattering, and absorption of radiation by the volcanic aerosol.

  1. OSL Based Anthropomorphic Phantom and Real-Time Organ Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Hintenlang, Ph.D

    2009-02-10

    The overall objective of this project was the development of a dosimetry system that provides the direct measurement of organ does in real-time with a sensitivity that makes it an effective tool for applications in a wide variety of health physics applications. The system included the development of a real-time readout system for fiber optic coupled (FOC) dosimeters that is integrated with a state-of-art anthropomorphic phantom to provide instantaneous measures of organ doses throughout the phantom. The small size of the FOC detectors and optical fibers allow the sensitive volume of the detector to be located at organ centroids (or multiple locations distributed through the organ) within a tissue equivalent, anthropomorphic phantom without perturbing the tissue equivalent features of the phantom. The developed phantom/dosimetry system can be used in any environment where personnel may be exposed to gamma or x-ray radiations to provide the most accurate determinations of organ and effective doses possible to date.

  2. Effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W. )

    1990-07-01

    Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation induces some effects that are seen at birth and others that cannot be detected until later in life. Data from A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki show a diminished number of births after exposure under 4 wk of gestational age. Although a wide array of congenital malformations has been found in animal experimentation after such exposure to x rays, in humans only small head size (exposure at 4-17 wk) and mental retardation (exposure primarily at 8-15 wk) have been observed. In Hiroshima, small head size occurred after doses of 0.10-0.19 Gy or more, and an excess of mental retardation at 0.2-0.4 Gy or more. Intelligence test scores were reduced among A-bomb survivors exposed at 8-15 wk of gestational age by 21-29 IQ points per Gy. Other effects of in-utero exposure to atomic radiation include long-lasting complex chromosome abnormalities.

  3. MEDICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF UV RADIATION.

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND, B.M.

    2001-07-26

    Organisms living on the earth are exposed to solar radiation, including its ultraviolet (UV) components (for general reviews, the reader is referred to Smith [1] and Young et al. [2]). UV wavelength regions present in sunlight are frequently designated as UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). In today's solar spectrum, UVA is the principal UV component, with UVB present at much lower levels. Ozone depletion will increase the levels of UVB reaching the biosphere, but the levels of UVA will not be changed significantly [3]. Because of the high efficiency of UVB in producing damage in biological organisms in the laboratory experiments, it has sometimes been assumed that UVA has little or no adverse biological effects. However, accumulating data [4, 5], including action spectra (efficiency of biological damage as a function of wavelength of radiation; see Section 5) for DNA damage in alfalfa seedlings [6], in human skin [7], and for a variety of plant damages (Caldwell, this volume) indicate that UVA can induce damage in DNA in higher organisms. Thus, understanding the differential effects of UVA and UVB wavebands is essential for estimating the biological consequences of stratospheric ozone depletion.

  4. Software for evaluation of EPR-dosimetry performance.

    PubMed

    Shishkina, E A; Timofeev, Yu S; Ivanov, D V

    2014-06-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with tooth enamel is a method extensively used for retrospective external dosimetry. Different research groups apply different equipment, sample preparation procedures and spectrum processing algorithms for EPR dosimetry. A uniform algorithm for description and comparison of performances was designed and implemented in a new computer code. The aim of the paper is to introduce the new software 'EPR-dosimetry performance'. The computer code is a user-friendly tool for providing a full description of method-specific capabilities of EPR tooth dosimetry, from metrological characteristics to practical limitations in applications. The software designed for scientists and engineers has several applications, including support of method calibration by evaluation of calibration parameters, evaluation of critical value and detection limit for registration of radiation-induced signal amplitude, estimation of critical value and detection limit for dose evaluation, estimation of minimal detectable value for anthropogenic dose assessment and description of method uncertainty. PMID:24876337

  5. Sci—Fri PM: Dosimetry—04: Radiation out-of-field dose in the treatment of pediatric central nervous system malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Taddei, P J; Tannous, J; Nabha, R; Feghali, J A; Ayoub, Z; Jalbout, W; Youssef, B

    2014-08-15

    Children diagnosed with central nervous system (CNS) malignancies often receive radiotherapy, which can cause radiogenic late effects. In order to identify and reduce the risk of these late effects, we must understand the radiation doses that these children receive. Modern treatment planning systems accurately estimate the absorbed dose within the treatment fields but poorly estimate the dose outside them. The purpose of our study was to measure the out-of-field dose for children receiving localized radiotherapy for CNS cancer and apply an analytical model for estimating dose as a function of distance from the field edge. Radiation fields designed for a 12-year-old boy treated in our clinic were applied to an anthropomorphic phantom containing more than 200 thermoluminescent dosimeters. A double-Gaussian function of absorbed dose versus distance from the field edge (i.e., 50% isodose line) was applied, and parameters were allowed to vary and were fit to the model by minimizing the root mean square deviation, RMSD. The fitted model accurately predicted the dose from distances of 4 cm to 50 cm (RMSD = 0.54 cGy/Gy), but the model was not useful in estimating dose for distances less than 4 cm because of wide variation in measured dose, and the double-Gaussian model failed by systematically underestimating the dose beyond 50 cm. In conclusion, the double-Gaussian model may be applicable for points at distances from the field edge between 4 cm and 50 cm, where most children's radiosensitive tissues are located, but for points beyond 50 cm, an improvement should be investigated.

  6. ALTEA/Alteino: studying functional effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narici, L.; For

    ALTEA project is based on the development of a facility to be used in the experimental studies in the International Space Station (ISS), on particle flux, human electrophysiology and psychophysics, dosimetry. Aim of the project is to define and measure descriptors for the elctrophysiological brain functioning and to follow their dynamics and the correlations with space environments. A specific focus will be posed on the abnormal visual perceptions (such as the reported perception of phosphenes ("light flashes") in orbit) and the impact of particle in microgravity conditions. Other experiments could proficiently use the features of this facility. A precursor of ALTEA, project `Alteino' is helping in preparing the experimental baseline for the ALTEA experiments, while providing novel information on the radiation environment in the ISS and on the dynamics of the astronauts' electrophysiology during orbital flights. Alteino have flown in the ISS with mission Marco Polo, on the Soyuz TM34. We present here the results from the Alteino investigation on brain dynamics correlated with particle fluxes and anomalous phosphene perceptions. Preliminary electrophysiological works on the effects of transient heavy ion radiation of the eye/cortex, as obtained in in vivo on mice (ALTEA -MICE) are being conducted. Detailed accounts of particle fluences as measured by Alteino's telescope "SilEye3" and of ALTEA -MICE are given elsewhere in this conference.

  7. Radiation effects in SYNROC-D

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Guinan, M.W.

    1981-09-30

    This paper describes SYNROC-D and the irradiation it will be subjected to over the first million years of storage. This will include about 8 x 10/sup 24/ alpha decays per m/sup 3/ and a total ionization dose of about 1 x 10/sup 11/ rads. Methods of simulating the radiation effects are discussed. Previous work by others is reviewed and compared on a dpa basis. /sup 238/Pu doping experiments to simulate internal alpha decay are described, and the progress is discussed. It is concluded that dose rate effects on swelling and metamictization of perovskite and zirconolite are small over a wide range of dose rate, and that swelling and metamictization in these minerals does not anneal significantly over geological time periods.

  8. Radiation damage effects on detectors and eletronic devices in harsh radiation environment

    E-print Network

    Fiore, S

    2015-01-01

    Radiation damage effects represent one of the limits for technologies to be used in harsh radiation environments as space, radiotherapy treatment, high-energy phisics colliders. Different technologies have known tolerances to different radiation fields and should be taken into account to avoid unexpected failures which may lead to unrecoverable damages to scientific missions or patient health.

  9. Audits for advanced treatment dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibbott, G. S.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has advanced rapidly over the last few decades, progressing from 3D conformal treatment to image-guided intensity modulated therapy of several different flavors, both 3D and 4D and to adaptive radiotherapy. The use of intensity modulation has increased the complexity of quality assurance and essentially eliminated the physicist's ability to judge the validity of a treatment plan, even approximately, on the basis of appearance and experience. Instead, complex QA devices and procedures are required at the institutional level. Similarly, the assessment of treatment quality through remote and on-site audits also requires greater sophistication. The introduction of 3D and 4D dosimetry into external audit systems must follow, to enable quality assurance systems to perform meaningful and thorough audits.

  10. The effects of solar radiation and black body re-radiation on thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Hodder, Simon; Parsons, Ken

    2008-04-01

    When the sun shines on people in enclosed spaces, such as in buildings or vehicles, it directly affects thermal comfort. There is also an indirect effect as surrounding surfaces are heated exposing a person to re-radiation. This laboratory study investigated the effects of long wave re-radiation on thermal comfort, individually and when combined with direct solar radiation. Nine male participants (26.0 +/- 4.7 years) took part in three experimental sessions where they were exposed to radiation from a hot black panel heated to 100 degrees C; direct simulated solar radiation of 600 Wm(-2) and the combined simulated solar radiation and black panel radiation. Exposures were for 30 min, during which subjective responses and mean skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that, at a surface temperature of 100 degrees C (close to maximum in practice), radiation from the flat black panel provided thermal discomfort but that this was relatively small when compared with the effects of direct solar radiation. It was concluded that re-radiation, from a dashboard in a vehicle, for example, will not have a major direct influence on thermal comfort and that existing models of thermal comfort do not require a specific modification. These results showed that, for the conditions investigated, the addition of re-radiation from internal components has an effect on thermal sensation when combined with direct solar radiation. However, it is not considered that it will be a major factor in a real world situation. This is because, in practice, dashboards are unlikely to maintain very high surface temperatures in vehicles without an unacceptably high air temperature. This study quantifies the contribution of short- and long-wave radiation to thermal comfort. The results will aid vehicle designers to have a better understanding of the complex radiation environment. These include direct radiation from the sun as well as re-radiation from the dashboard and other internal surfaces. PMID:18357536

  11. 11th International Conference of Radiation Research

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-18

    Topics discussed in the conference included the following: Radiation Physics, Radiation Chemistry and modelling--Radiation physics and dosimetry; Electron transfer in biological media; Radiation chemistry; Biophysical and biochemical modelling; Mechanisms of DNA damage; Assays of DNA damage; Energy deposition in micro volumes; Photo-effects; Special techniques and technologies; Oxidative damage. Molecular and cellular effects-- Photobiology; Cell cycle effects; DNA damage: Strand breaks; DNA damage: Bases; DNA damage Non-targeted; DNA damage: other; Chromosome aberrations: clonal; Chromosomal aberrations: non-clonal; Interactions: Heat/Radiation/Drugs; Biochemical effects; Protein expression; Gene induction; Co-operative effects; ``Bystander'' effects; Oxidative stress effects; Recovery from radiation damage. DNA damage and repair -- DNA repair genes; DNA repair deficient diseases; DNA repair enzymology; Epigenetic effects on repair; and Ataxia and ATM.

  12. Radiation Effects on Superconducting Fusion Magnet Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Harald W.

    Nuclear fusion devices based on the magnetic confinement principle heavily rely on the existence and performance of superconducting magnets and have always significantly contributed to advancing superconductor and magnet technology to their limits. In view of the presently ongoing construction of the tokamak device ITER and the stellerator device Wendelstein 7X and their record breaking parameters concerning size, complexity of design, stored energy, amperage, mechanical and magnetic forces, critical current densities and stability requirements, it is deemed timely to review another critical parameter that is practically unique to these devices, namely the radiation response of all magnet components to the lifetime fluence of fast neutrons and gamma rays produced by the fusion reactions of deuterium and tritium. I will review these radiation effects in turn for the currently employed standard "technical" low temperature superconductors NbTi and Nb3Sn, the stabilizing material (Cu) as well as the magnet insulation materials and conclude by discussing the potential of high temperature superconducting materials for future generations of fusion devices, such as DEMO.

  13. Particle radiation transport and effects models from research to space weather operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santin, Giovanni; Nieminen, Petteri; Rivera, Angela; Ibarmia, Sergio; Truscott, Pete; Lei, Fan; Desorgher, Laurent; Ivanchenko, Vladimir; Kruglanski, Michel; Messios, Neophytos

    Assessment of risk from potential radiation-induced effects to space systems requires knowledge of both the conditions of the radiation environment and of the impact of radiation on sensi-tive spacecraft elements. During sensitivity analyses, test data are complemented by models to predict how external radiation fields are transported and modified in spacecraft materials. Radiation transport is still itself a subject of research and models are continuously improved to describe the physical interactions that take place when particles pass through shielding materi-als or hit electronic systems or astronauts, sometimes down to nanometre-scale interactions of single particles with deep sub-micron technologies or DNA structures. In recent years, though, such radiation transport models are transitioning from being a research subject by itself, to being widely used in the space engineering domain and finally being directly applied in the context of operation of space weather services. A significant "research to operations" (R2O) case is offered by Geant4, an open source toolkit initially developed and used in the context of fundamental research in high energy physics. Geant4 is also being used in the space domain, e.g. for modelling detector responses in science payloads, but also for studying the radiation environment itself, with subjects ranging from cosmic rays, to solar energetic particles in the heliosphere, to geomagnetic shielding. Geant4-based tools are now becoming more and more integrated in spacecraft design procedures, also through user friendly interfaces such as SPEN-VIS. Some examples are given by MULASSIS, offering multi-layered shielding analysis capa-bilities in realistic spacecraft materials, or GEMAT, focused on micro-dosimetry in electronics, or PLANETOCOSMICS, describing the interaction of the space environment with planetary magneto-and atmospheres, or GRAS, providing a modular and easy to use interface to various analysis types in simple or complex and realistic 3D geometry models. GRAS will also be part of the space weather SEISOP system for supplying near-real-time detailed information on the interaction of the space radiation environment with selected spacecraft elements.

  14. Volumetric tumor burden and its effect on brachial plexus dosimetry in head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Romesser, Paul B.; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Truong, Minh Tam

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effect of gross tumor volume of the primary (GTV-P) and nodal (GTV-N) disease on planned radiation dose to the brachial plexus (BP) in head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Overall, 75 patients underwent definitive IMRT to a median total dose of 69.96 Gy in 33 fractions. The right BP and left BP were prospectively contoured as separate organs at risk. The GTV was related to BP dose using the unpaired t-test. Receiver operating characteristics curves were constructed to determine optimized volumetric thresholds of GTV-P and GTV-N corresponding to a maximum BP dose cutoff of > 66 Gy. Multivariate analyses were performed to account for factors associated with a higher maximal BP dose. A higher maximum BP dose (> 66 vs ? 66 Gy) correlated with a greater mean GTV-P (79.5 vs 30.8 cc; p = 0.001) and ipsilateral GTV-N (60.6 vs 19.8 cc; p = 0.014). When dichotomized by the optimized nodal volume, patients with an ipsilateral GTV-N ? 4.9 vs < 4.9 cc had a significant difference in maximum BP dose (64.2 vs 59.4 Gy; p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed that an ipsilateral GTV-N ? 4.9 cc was an independent predictor for the BP to receive a maximal dose of > 66 Gy when adjusted individually for BP volume, GTV-P, the use of a low anterior neck field technique, total planned radiation dose, and tumor category. Although both the primary and the nodal tumor volumes affected the BP maximal dose, the ipsilateral nodal tumor volume (GTV-N ? 4.9 cc) was an independent predictor for high maximal BP dose constraints in head and neck IMRT.

  15. Dosimetry in Thermal Neutron Irradiation Facility at BMRR

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J. P.; Holden, N. E.; Reciniello, R. N.

    2014-05-23

    Radiation dosimetry for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) has been performed since 1959 at Thermal Neutron Irradiation Facility (TNIF) of the three-megawatt light-water cooled Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). In the early 1990s when more effective drug carriers were developed for NCT, in which the eye melanoma and brain tumors in rats were irradiated in situ, extensive clinical trials of small animals began using a focused thermal neutron beam. To improve the dosimetry at irradiation facility, a series of innovative designs and major modifications made to enhance the beam intensity and to ease the experimental sampling at BMRR were performed; including (1) in-core fuel addition to increase source strength and balance flux of neutrons towards two ports, (2) out of core moderator remodeling, done by replacing thicker D2O tanks at graphite-shutter interfacial areas, to expedite neutron thermalization, (3) beam shutter upgrade to reduce strayed neutrons and gamma dose, (4) beam collimator redesign to optimize the beam flux versus dose for animal treatment, (5) beam port shielding installation around the shutter opening area (lithium-6 enriched polyester-resin in boxes, attached with polyethylene plates) to reduce prompt gamma and fast neutron doses, (6) sample holder repositioning to optimize angle versus distance for a single organ or whole body irradiation, and (7) holder wall buildup with neutron reflector materials to increase dose and dose rate from scattered therma