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1

Distribution effectiveness for space radiation dosimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified risk basis and a theory of hematological response are presented and applied to the problem of dosimetry in the manned space program. Unlike previous studies, the current work incorporates radiation exposure distribution effects into its definition of dose equivalent. The fractional cell lethality model for prediction of hematological response is integral in the analysis.

Wilson, J. W.

1975-01-01

2

Dosimetry of space radiations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Harmful effects of space radiation are discussed. Radiation dosimetry methods are given. Dosimetry monitoring is investigated. Methods for measuring space radiation by ionization, thermoluminescence, and nuclear photographic emulsions are described.

Arkhangelskiy, V. V.; Markelov, V. V.; Skvortsov, S. S.; Smirennyy, L. N.; Turkin, V. N.; Chernykh, I. V.

1973-01-01

3

Radiation dosimetry and biophysical models of space radiation effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimating the biological risks from space radiation remains a difficult problem because of the many radiation types including protons, heavy ions, and secondary neutrons, and the absence of epidemiology data for these radiation types. Developing useful biophysical parameters or models that relate energy deposition by space particles to the probabilities of biological outcomes is a complex problem. Physical measurements of space radiation include the absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra. In contrast to conventional dosimetric methods, models of radiation track structure provide descriptions of energy deposition events in biomolecules, cells, or tissues, which can be used to develop biophysical models of radiation risks. In this paper, we address the biophysical description of heavy particle tracks in the context of the interpretation of both space radiation dosimetry and radiobiology data, which may provide insights into new approaches to these problems.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu; Shavers, Mark R.; George, Kerry

2003-01-01

4

Standard Practice for Dosimetry of Proton Beams for use in Radiation Effects Testing of Electronics  

SciTech Connect

Representatives of facilities that routinely deliver protons for radiation effect testing are collaborating to establish a set of standard best practices for proton dosimetry. These best practices will be submitted to the ASTM International for adoption.

McMahan, Margaret A.; Blackmore, Ewart; Cascio, Ethan W.; Castaneda, Carlos; von Przewoski, Barbara; Eisen, Harvey

2008-07-25

5

Dosimetry for radiation processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both by international organizations (IAEA) and national laboratories have helped to improve the reliability of dose measurements. Several dosimeter systems like calorimetry, perspex, and radiochromic dye films are being improved and new systems have emerged, e.g. spectrophotometry of dichromate solution for reference and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading to traceable and reliable dosimetry are discussed.

Miller, Arne

6

Space radiation dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Dosimetry is the measurement of the energy deposited in matter by various forms of radiation. In space the radiation is primarily energetic electrons, protons and heavier ions from planetary radiation belts, solar flares, and interstellar cosmic rays. Experimentally, dose is frequently obtained by summing the individual energy deposits in a solid state detector. If the detector is calibrated and the sensitive mass is known, the energy sum can be converted directly to accumulated radiation dose in Gy (J/kg). Such detectors can also be used to provide an approximate separation of dose into the components due to electrons, protons, and heavier ions, which is useful if it is desired to convert the measured dose into a biological effective dose (Sv) for manned spaceflight purposes. The output can also be used to provide an essentially instantaneous dose rate for use as warning devices. This is the primary type of space radiation dosimeter to be discussed here. The MOS-type dosimeter is another solid state sensor which can be of small size and low power. These devices integrate the total dose once through, can not separate particle types, and are not suitable for instantaneous dose rate measurement at low levels. There are several additional methods of measuring space radiation dose using scintillators, etc., but are not discussed in detail. In this paper emphasis is given to descriptions of active solid state detector instruments which have successfully worked in space. Some results of in-orbit dose measurements are presented.

Hanser, F.A.; Dichter, B.K. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); [DLR Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne (Germany); [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

1993-12-31

7

Dosimetry for quantitative analysis of low dose ionizing radiation effects on humans in radiation therapy patients  

SciTech Connect

We have successfully developed a practical approach to predicting the location of skin surface dose at potential biopsy sites that receive 1 cGy and 10 cGy, respectively, in support of in vivo biologic dosimetry in humans. This represents a significant technical challenge as the sites lie on the patient surface out side the radiation fields. The PEREGRINE Monte Carlo simulation system was used to model radiation dose delivery and TLDs were used for validation on a phantom and confirmation during patient treatment. In the developmental studies the Monte Carlo simulations consistently underestimated the dose at the biopsy site by approximately 15% for a realistic treatment configuration, most likely due to lack of detail in the simulation of the linear accelerator outside the main beam line. Using a single, thickness-independent correction factor for the clinical calculations, the average of 36 measurements for the predicted 1 cGy point was 0.985 cGy (standard deviation: 0.110 cGy) despite patient breathing motion and other real world challenges. Since the 10 cGy point is situated in the region of high dose gradient at the edge of the field, patient motion had a greater effect and the six measured points averaged 5.90 cGy (standard deviation: 1.01 cGy), a difference that is equivalent to approximately a 6 mm shift on the patient's surface.

Lehmann, J; Stern, R L; Daly, T P; Schwieter, C W; Jones, G E; Arnold, M L; Hartmann-Siantar, C L; Goldberg, Z

2004-04-20

8

2015 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course  

Cancer.gov

Mark your calendars for the 2015 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course, offered by the Radiation Epidemiology Branch, part of NCI's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG). World renowned radiation experts will discuss basic principles and the most up-to-date thinking about the health effects of radiation exposure.

9

Status of radiation processing dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several milestones have marked the field of radiation processing dosimetry since IMRP 7. Among them are the IAEA symposium on High Dose Dosimetry for Radiation Processing and the international Workshops on Dosimetry for Radiation Processing organized by the ASTM. Several standards have been or are being published by the ASTM in this field, both on dosimetry procedures and on the proper use of specific dosimeter systems. Several individuals are involved in this international cooperation which contribute significantly to the broader understanding of the role of dosimetry in radiation processing. The importance of dosimetry is emphasized in the standards on radiation sterilization which are currently drafted by the European standards organization CEN and by the international standards organization ISO. In both standards, dosimetry plays key roles in characterization of the facility, in qualification of the process and in routine process control. As a function of the work on the standards, several issues are now receiving major attention. These include traceability and uncertainty limits of the dose measurements, calibration procedures, environmental influence and combination of influence factors such as dose rate and temperature. The increased attention to these factors have increased the demands on existing dosimeter systems, and rather than new dosimeters, the latest years have seen improvements on established dosimeters.

Miller, Arne

1993-10-01

10

Radiation effects on MOS devices - dosimetry, annealing, irradiation sequence, and sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports on some investigations of dosimetry, annealing, irradiation sequences, and radioactive sources, involved in the determination of radiation effects on MOS devices. Results show that agreement in the experimental and theoretical surface to average doses support the use of thermo-luminescent dosimeters (manganese activated calcium fluoride) in specifying the surface dose delivered to thin gate insulators of MOS devices. Annealing measurements indicate the existence of at least two energy levels,,s or a activation energies, for recovery of soft oxide MOS devices after irradiation by electrons, protons, and gammas. Damage sensitivities of MOS devices were found to be independent of combinations and sequences of radiation type or energies. Comparison of various gamma sources indicated a small dependence of damage sensitivity on the Cobalt facility, but a more significant dependence in the case of the Cesium source. These results were attributed to differences in the spectral content of the several sources.

Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Brucker, G. J.; Van Gunten, O.; Knudson, A. R.; Jordan, T. M.

1983-01-01

11

Ionizing Radiation Response Effects On Optical Fibers In Radiation Therapy Dosimetry Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation effects on optical fibers result in two different bffects: accumulated radiation damage resulting in a substantial loss of transmission and transient radiation response in which light is generated in the fiber material itself during exposure .too radiation. In various medical applications, optical fibers are often exposed to radiation during certain clinical procedures which makes their radiation response an effect of concern to the medical community. Thus, this effect needs to be studied and quantified in that kind of environment. This study involves radiation-resistant fibers and the quantification of their light emission response as a function of dose rate and irradiation field size for photon and electron beams at the various energises used in radiation therapy.

Beddar, Abdou-Samad; Higgins, Patrick D.

1989-04-01

12

Analysis of MIR-18 results for physical and biological dosimetry: radiation shielding effectiveness in LEO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We compare models of radiation transport and biological response to physical and biological dosimetry results from astronauts on the Mir space station. Transport models are shown to be in good agreement with physical measurements and indicate that the ratio of equivalent dose from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) to protons is about 3/2:1 and that this ratio will increase for exposures to internal organs. Two biological response models are used to compare to the Mir biodosimetry for chromosome aberration in lymphocyte cells; a track-structure model and the linear-quadratic model with linear energy transfer (LET) dependent weighting coefficients. These models are fit to in vitro data for aberration formation in human lymphocytes by photons and charged particles. Both models are found to be in reasonable agreement with data for aberrations in lymphocytes of Mir crew members: however there are differences between the use of LET dependent weighting factors and track structure models for assigning radiation quality factors. The major difference in the models is the increased effectiveness predicted by the track model for low charge and energy ions with LET near 10 keV/micrometers. The results of our calculations indicate that aluminum shielding, although providing important mitigation of the effects of trapped radiation, provides no protective effect from the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in low-earth orbit (LEO) using either equivalent dose or the number of chromosome aberrations as a measure until about 100 g/cm 2 of material is used.

Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Williams, J. R.; Dicello, J. F.

2000-01-01

13

Ultrasensitive Human Radiation Dosimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem we are addressing concerns the astronauts, and their exposure to radiation during spaceflight. The amount of this radiation is a variable depending on solar events and orbital characteristics. Our goal is to measure the total integrated quantity of radiation damage to the cell nucleus in astronauts or other people exposed to radiation. In my lab, we are turning up the microscope from the level of the chromosome, about eight orders of magnitude, to the molecular level. It is well known that radiation causes DNA and chromosome damage. We are developing methods to measure a specific molecular lesion. The lesion that we have selected to measure is thymidine diol, which is created by hydroxyl radicals adding across the 5.6 double bond of thymidine in DNA.

Hammen, Richard

1985-01-01

14

Advances in radiation therapy dosimetry  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, there has been an explosion of new radiation therapy planning and delivery tools. We went through a rapid transition from conventional three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments, and additional new techniques for motion-adaptive radiation therapy are being introduced. These advances push the frontiers in our effort to provide better patient care; and with the addition of IMRT, temporal dimensions are major challenges for the radiotherapy patient dosimetry and delivery verification. Advanced techniques are less tolerant to poor implementation than are standard techniques. Mis-administrations are more difficult to detect and can possibly lead to poor outcomes for some patients. Instead of presenting a manual on quality assurance for radiation therapy, this manuscript provides an overview of dosimetry verification tools and a focused discussion on breath holding, respiratory gating and the applications of four-dimensional computed tomography in motion management. Some of the major challenges in the above areas are discussed. PMID:20098555

Paliwal, Bhudatt; Tewatia, Dinesh

2009-01-01

15

Remote radiation dosimetry  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

1991-03-12

16

Remote radiation dosimetry  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission.

Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Jones, Scott C. (Pullman, WA)

1991-01-01

17

TESLA-FEL 2007-02 Radiation dosimetry in FLASH Tunnel using  

E-print Network

1 TESLA-FEL 2007-02 Radiation dosimetry in FLASH Tunnel using Passive dosimeters Bhaskar Mukherjee, Radiation dosimetry, Radiation effect, Superconducting Cavities, XFEL 1. INTRODUCTION In April 2006, at DESY) along the linac. #12;2 To circumvent the above shortcomings we have developed novel passive dosimetry

18

The radiation dosimetry of In-111 pentetreotide  

SciTech Connect

In-111 Pentetreotide is a somatostatin receptor imaging agent for use in the scintigraphic localization of neuroendocrine tumors. Biokinetic data were gathered in two centers for determining the radiation dosimetry of this agent. In total, 10 patients were studied; their data were pooled to provide a single set of dose estimates. Scintigraphic data were used to quantify the activity in kidneys, liver, and spleen. Activity excreted in urine was also measured up to 48 hours post injection. These data were fit to a multicompartmental model using the Simulation Analysis And Modeling (SAAM) software. Excretion through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was treated using the standard kinetic model of ICRP Publication 30, with input from the liver as determined by conservation of activity in the remainder of the model (no enterohepatic recycling was assumed). Residence times for the major organs (including GI organs) were averaged. Radiation dose estimates for all organs of the body, and the effective dose equivalent (EDE), were estimated using the MIRDOSE 3 software. Kidneys, spleen, and urinary bladder are all estimated to receive between 0.3 and 0.5 mGy/MBq. The lower large intestine wall receives approximately 0.08 mGy/MBq; all is approximately 0.1 mSv/MBq. These data should be used as the basis for the dosimetry of this agent.

Stabin, M.G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Kooij, P.P.M.; Bakker, W.H. [Univ. Hospital Dijkzigt, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [and others

1995-05-01

19

Radiochromic film for medical radiation dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photon, electron and proton radiations are used extensively for medical purposes in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Dosimetry of these radiation sources can be performed with radiochromic films, devices that have the ability to produce a permanent visible colour change upon irradiation. Within the last 10 years, the use of radiochromic films has expanded rapidly in the medical world due to

Martin J Butson; Peter K. N Yu; Tsang Cheung; Peter Metcalfe

2003-01-01

20

Radiation dosimetry and medical physics calculations using MCNP 5  

E-print Network

Six radiation dosimetry and medical physics problems were analyzed using a beta version of MCNP 5 as part of an international intercomparison of radiation dosimetry computer codes, sponsored by the European Commission committee on the quality...

Redd, Randall Alex

2004-09-30

21

EDITORIAL: Special issue on radiation dosimetry Special issue on radiation dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue of Metrologia on radiation dosimetry is the second in a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurements, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The work of Section II, on radionuclide metrology, was covered in issue 44(4), published in 2007, and that of Section III, on neutron metrology, will be covered in a special issue to be published shortly. This issue covers the work of Section I (x-rays and ? rays, and charged particles). The proposal to publish special issues of Metrologia covering the work of the CCRI Sections was first made in 2003 and refined at the two subsequent meetings of the CCRI in 2005 and 2007. The overall aim is to present the work of the CCRI to a wider metrological audience and to highlight the relevance and importance of the field. The main focus of our special issue on dosimetry metrology is on the 'state of the art' in the various areas covered, with an indication of the current developments taking place and the problems and challenges that remain. Where appropriate, this is set in a brief historical context, although it is not the aim to give a historical review. The need for accurate measurement has been appreciated from the pioneering days of the use of ionizing radiation in the early 20th century, particularly in the fields of diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. Over the years, the range of applications for ionizing radiation has expanded both in scope and in the types and energies of radiation employed. This has led to the need to develop a wide variety of measurement techniques and standards covering fields ranging from the low doses experienced in environmental and protection applications to the extremely high doses used in industrial processing. The different types of radiation employed give rise to the need for dose measurements in radiation beams whose effective penetration through a material such as water ranges from a few micrometres to several metres. The wide variety of radiation types and dose ranges posed a particular problem in selecting the topics to be included in this special issue and has inevitably meant that some fields of application have received less attention than others. It is hoped, however, that the topics covered are broad and varied enough to provide useful information for those with an interest in radiation dosimetry, both experienced practitioners and those entering the field. The extensive reference lists also provide a valuable resource. The issue begins with the important topic of mutual recognition of dosimetry standards and the procedures that have been put in place to achieve this, and continues with contributions on the principal measurement techniques employed: free-air chambers, air-kerma cavity standards, photon absorbed-dose standards and absorbed-dose standards for electron beams. The topics of brachytherapy and radiation protection dosimetry are covered in separate articles, and the issue concludes with a review of the mathematical modelling techniques that underpin much of the recent work described in the preceding sections. The work involved in the production of a document such as this is considerable and we have been extremely fortunate in securing the involvement of many of the acknowledged experts in the field of ionizing radiation dosimetry, both as named authors and serving as anonymous referees. The editors would like to thank all those who have given their time and commitment to producing this special issue, and particularly Professor Georgio Moscati, former President of the CCRI, and Dr Penny Allisy-Roberts, Executive Secretary of the CCRI, for their support and encouragement.

Sharpe, Peter

2009-04-01

22

Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs  

SciTech Connect

In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables.

Swaja, R.E.

1985-04-01

23

Original article Whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry  

E-print Network

Original article Whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry estimates for the PET dopamine Communications 2004, 25:737­742 Keywords: 18 F-FECNT, dopamine transporter, dosimetry, whole-body bio assessment of the resulting radiation exposure to organs of the body. Radiation dosimetry estimates were

Shen, Jun

24

Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed compartmental activities. From the estimated probability densities of the model parameters we were able to derive the densities for compartmental activities for a two compartment catenary model at different times. We also calculated the average activities and their standard deviation for a simple two compartment model.

Peter G. Groer

2002-09-29

25

Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 100, Nos 14, pp. 7174 (2002)  

E-print Network

71 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 100, Nos 1­4, pp. 71­74 (2002) Nuclear Technology Publishing (OSL) has become a very important method for radiation dosimetry. In many laboratories, it is replacing of this method for dosimetry and dating is basically dependent on this premise. There are, however, some reports

Chen, Reuven

26

1. Introduction Alanine-based ionizing radiation dosimetry is firmly  

E-print Network

1. Introduction Alanine-based ionizing radiation dosimetry is firmly woven into the fabric of high-dose radiation metrology. Because of its superior attributes, alanine dosimetry was recognized at an early stage of use at the NMI level, confidence in the system has grown such that ala- nine dosimetry use is growing

27

Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 100, Nos 14, pp. 207209 (2002)  

E-print Network

207 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 100, Nos 1­4, pp. 207­209 (2002) Nuclear Technology of these crystals to solid state dosimetry was also investigated. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUE A series of CsGd2F7 single

Chen, Reuven

28

Standard Guide for Performance Characterization of Dosimeters and Dosimetry Systems for Use in Radiation Processing  

E-print Network

1.1 This guide provides guidance on determining the performance characteristics of dosimeters and dosimetry systems used in radiation processing. 1.2 This guide describes the influence quantities that might affect the performance of dosimeters and dosimetry systems and that should be considered during dosimeter/dosimetry system characterization. 1.3 Users of this guide are directed to existing standards and literature for procedures to determine the effects from individual influence quantities and from combinations of more than one influence quantity. 1.4 Guidance is provided regarding the roles of the manufacturers, suppliers, and users in the characterization of dosimeters and dosimetry systems. 1.5 This guide does not address how the dosimeter/dosimetry system characterization information is to be used in radiation processing applications or in the calibration of dosimetry systems. Note 1For guidance on the use of dosimeter/dosimetry system characterization information for the selection and use o...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2009-01-01

29

Review article Radiation dosimetry using polymer gels: methods and  

E-print Network

Review article Radiation dosimetry using polymer gels: methods and applications 1 M MCJURY, PhD, 1 dosimetry, including gel manufacture, imaging, calibration and application to radiotherapy veri and stereotactic radiosurgery. All the studies have con®rmed the value and versatility of the dosimetry technique

Doran, Simon J.

30

The Dosimetry of Pulsed Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Publications of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) enjoy a justifiably high reputation for their relevance and accuracy. This is no exception. As the report is assumed to be the joint responsibility of all members of the Commission, no authors' names are given. Nevertheless, the various chapters clearly correspond to the interests of the four members of

J F Burns

1984-01-01

31

International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing  

SciTech Connect

Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab.

Farrar, H. IV

1989-01-01

32

Radiation Dosimetry of Binary Pulsars  

E-print Network

Companion stars exposed to high energy radiation from a primary neutron star or accreting black hole can experience significant spallation of their heavy elements, so that their atmospheres would be extremely rich in lithium, beryllium, and especially boron. In this paper we note that the detection or non-detection of these elements, and their relative abundances if detected, would provide a diagnostic of the high energy output of the primary, and possibly the shock acceleration of particles at the companion's bow shock in a pulsar wind.

David Eichler; Biman B. Nath

1995-08-04

33

Comparisons of biologically effective doses of solar UV-radiation determined with spore dosimetry and spectral photometry in 2000 2003 at Southern Space Observatory, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to assess the impact of solar-UV radiation on biosphere and human health, spore dosimetry and spectral photometry have been performed in parallel at the Southern Space Observatory, So Martinho da Serra in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (southern region of Brazil, latitude 29.44S, longitude 53.8W). Daily and monthly cumulative doses obtained from spore dosimeters were compared with the doses derived from the integration of the daily effectiveness spectra obtained by multiplications of the spectral irradiance from Brewer spectrophotometers with the action spectra for spore inactivation and erythema induction. For daily exposures performed on 24 days in 2002-2003, the values of the observed spore inactivation doses (SID) and the calculated ones were closely correlated with a mean ratio (observed SID/calculated SID) of 0.7 0.3, while the values of the observed SID were regressed to the erythemal doses (MED) by a power function with a correlation coefficient r2 0.9. For cumulative monthly doses, the values of calculated SID and MED were regressed to the observed values of SID by power functions for each year with r2 = 0.5-0.9 and r2 = 0.5-0.9, respectively. The applicability of the spore dosimetry for continuous long-term monitoring of biologically effective doses of solar-UV radiation has been verified in this work.

Schuch, A. P.; Guarnieri, R. A.; Rosa, M. B.; Pinheiro, D. K.; Munakata, N.; Schuch, N. J.

34

A practical three-dimensional dosimetry system for radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

There is a pressing need for a practical three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry system, convenient for clinical use, and with the accuracy and resolution to enable comprehensive verification of the complex dose distributions typical of modern radiation therapy. Here we introduce a dosimetry system that can achieve this challenge, consisting of a radiochromic dosimeter (PRESAGE trade mark sign ) and a commercial optical computed tomography (CT) scanning system (OCTOPUS trade mark sign ). PRESAGE trade mark sign is a transparent material with compelling properties for dosimetry, including insensitivity of the dose response to atmospheric exposure, a solid texture negating the need for an external container (reducing edge effects), and amenability to accurate optical CT scanning due to radiochromic optical contrast as opposed to light-scattering contrast. An evaluation of the performance and viability of the PRESAGE trade mark sign /OCTOPUS, combination for routine clinical 3D dosimetry is presented. The performance of the two components (scanner and dosimeter) was investigated separately prior to full system test. The optical CT scanner has a spatial resolution of {<=}1 mm, geometric accuracy within 1 mm, and high reconstruction linearity (with a R{sup 2} value of 0.9979 and a standard error of estimation of {approx}1%) relative to independent measurement. The overall performance of the PRESAGE trade mark sign /OCTOPUS system was evaluated with respect to a simple known 3D dose distribution, by comparison with GAFCHROMIC[reg] EBT film and the calculated dose from a commissioned planning system. The 'measured' dose distribution in a cylindrical PRESAGE trade mark sign dosimeter (16 cm diameter and 11 cm height) was determined by optical-CT, using a filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm. A three-way Gamma map comparison (4% dose difference and 4 mm distance to agreement), between the PRESAGE trade mark sign , EBT and calculated dose distributions, showed full agreement in measurable region of PRESAGE trade mark sign dosimeter ({approx}90% of radius). The EBT and PRESAGE trade mark sign distributions agreed more closely with each other than with the calculated plan, consistent with penumbral blurring in the planning data which was acquired with an ion chamber. In summary, our results support the conclusion that the PRESAGE trade mark sign optical-CT combination represents a significant step forward in 3D dosimetry, and provides a robust, clinically effective and viable high-resolution relative 3D dosimetry system for radiation therapy.

Guo Pengyi; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Rider University, Lawrenceville, New Jersey 08648 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

2006-10-15

35

Fiber optic radiation dosimetry for medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dosimetry with glass fibers perrilits for the first time the dose to be determined in the immediate vicinity of the tumour. A fiberoptic dosimeter can either be introduced during an operation or else inserted via a cannula into the vicinity of the tumour to be irradiated. The dosimeter should remain in the patient's body until radiation therapy has been completed. The basic principle of the fiberoptic dosimeter is to measure the additional attenuation generated in the fiber by irradiation. A lead-glass fiber with 60 weight - % PbO was used as a particular radiationsensitive fiber. This is a step-index fiber with a core diameter of 100 pm and a total diameter of 110 pm. Measurements of the spectral distribution of the induced loss result in a detection sensitivity of smaller than 0.1 Gy for the lead-glass fiber at a local resolution of about 2 cm. This satisfies the demands of radiotherapy.

Bueker, Harald; Haesing, Friedrich W.; Nicolai, S.; Wolters, B.

1990-07-01

36

Summary of current radiation dosimetry results on manned spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the experimental data existing on radiation levels inside orbiting spacecraft are currently limited. However, it is recognized that perhaps the single most important constraint to long-term manned space activity may be related to the complex space radiation environment. For this reason, it is important to know the radiological parameters which determine the biological effects of space radiation on humans. Attention is given to radiation dose measurements, LET (linear energy transfer) spectra for HZE particles, and dosimetry data from U.S. manned spaceflights. In particular, data are now available on dose rates in spacecraft at low altitudes (less than 300 km), while insufficient measurements exist for high altitude and high inclination orbits, geostationary orbits, and many orbits in between. Very little data exist on neutron dose and spectra.

Benton, E. V.

1984-01-01

37

Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in

E. R. Benton; E. V. Benton

2001-01-01

38

Film Dosimetry for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is an oncology treatment technique that employs non-uniform beam intensities to deliver highly conformal radiation to the targets while minimizing doses to normal tissues and critical organs. A key element for a successful clinical implementation of IMRT is establishing a dosimetric verification process that can ensure that delivered doses are consistent with calculated ones for each patient. To this end we are developing a fast quality control procedure, based on film dosimetry techniques, to be applied to the 6 MV Novalis linear accelerator for IMRT of the Instituto Nacional de Neurologa y Neurociruga (INNN) in Mexico City. The procedure includes measurements of individual fluence maps for a limited number of fields and dose distributions in 3D using extended dose-range radiographic film. However, the film response to radiation might depend on depth, energy and field size, and therefore compromise the accuracy of measurements. In this work we present a study of the dependence of Kodak EDR2 film's response on the depth, field size and energy, compared with those of Kodak XV2 film. The first aim is to devise a fast and accurate method to determine the calibration curve of film (optical density vs. doses) commonly called a sensitometric curve. This was accomplished by using three types of irradiation techniques: Step-and-shoot, dynamic and static fields.

Benites-Rengifo, J.; Martnez-Dvalos, A.; Celis, M.; Lrraga, J.

2004-09-01

39

2011 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course  

Cancer.gov

2011 - Three-day course intended for people with backgrounds in epidemiology who are interested in learning about the health effects of radiation exposureparticularly the relationship between ionizing radiation and cancer.

40

Review of retrospective dosimetry techniques for external ionising radiation exposures.  

PubMed

The current focus on networking and mutual assistance in the management of radiation accidents or incidents has demonstrated the importance of a joined-up approach in physical and biological dosimetry. To this end, the European Radiation Dosimetry Working Group 10 on 'Retrospective Dosimetry' has been set up by individuals from a wide range of disciplines across Europe. Here, established and emerging dosimetry methods are reviewed, which can be used immediately and retrospectively following external ionising radiation exposure. Endpoints and assays include dicentrics, translocations, premature chromosome condensation, micronuclei, somatic mutations, gene expression, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, neutron activation, haematology, protein biomarkers and analytical dose reconstruction. Individual characteristics of these techniques, their limitations and potential for further development are reviewed, and their usefulness in specific exposure scenarios is discussed. Whilst no single technique fulfils the criteria of an ideal dosemeter, an integrated approach using multiple techniques tailored to the exposure scenario can cover most requirements. PMID:21183550

Ainsbury, E A; Bakhanova, E; Barquinero, J F; Brai, M; Chumak, V; Correcher, V; Darroudi, F; Fattibene, P; Gruel, G; Guclu, I; Horn, S; Jaworska, A; Kulka, U; Lindholm, C; Lloyd, D; Longo, A; Marrale, M; Monteiro Gil, O; Oestreicher, U; Pajic, J; Rakic, B; Romm, H; Trompier, F; Veronese, I; Voisin, P; Vral, A; Whitehouse, C A; Wieser, A; Woda, C; Wojcik, A; Rothkamm, K

2011-11-01

41

Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

1991-10-01

42

Radiation accident dosimetry on electronic components by OSL.  

PubMed

In the event of large-scale radiation accidents and considering a growing terrorism concern, non-invasive and sufficiently accurate retrospective dosimetry methods are necessary to carry out a fast population triage in order to determine which radiation-exposed individuals need medical treatment. Retrospective dosimetry using different electronic components such as resistors, capacitors, and integrated circuits present on mobile phone circuit boards have been considered. Their response has been investigated with luminescence techniques (OSL, IRSL, and TL). The majority of these electronic components exhibit radiation-induced luminescence signals, and the OSL technique seems the most promising for these materials. Results concerning three types of components that present the most interesting OSL characteristics (in terms of signal annealing and sensitivity) and that are the most often present on mobile phone circuit boards are presented. Preheating effects on OSL signal, sensitization, and dose-response curves from 0.7 to 27 Gy for resistors and from 0.7 to 160 Gy for capacitors and integrated circuits, dose recovery tests, and signal stability 10 h after irradiation have been studied and interests and limits of their use evaluated. PMID:20065718

Bassinet, C; Trompier, F; Clairand, I

2010-02-01

43

Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 1, pp. 6973 (2001)  

E-print Network

69 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 1, pp. 69­73 (2001) Nuclear Technology Publishing BIOMARKERS SPECIFIC TO DENSELY-IONISING (HIGH LET) RADIATIONS D. J. Brenner, N. Okladnikova, P. Hande, L -- There have been several suggestions of biomarkers that are specific to high LET radiation. Such a biomarker

Brenner, David Jonathan

44

Dosimetry for Small Animal Studies Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital  

E-print Network

Dosimetry for Small Animal Studies Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital · Image-guidance Kilovoltage Radiation Sources (100-320 kVp) #12;Absolute Dosimetry · Absolute dosimetry #12;Relative Dosimetry · Percent depth dose (PDD) and relative output factors (ROF) · Small volume (0

45

Radiation dosimetry using three-dimensional optical random access memories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-dimensional optical random access memories (3D ORAMs) are a new generation of high-density data storage devices. Binary information is stored and retrieved via a light induced reversible transformation of an ensemble of bistable photochromic molecules embedded in a polymer matrix. This paper describes the application of 3D ORAM materials to radiation dosimetry. It is shown both theoretically and experimentally, that ionizing radiation in the form of heavy charged particles is capable of changing the information originally stored on the ORAM material. The magnitude and spatial distribution of these changes are used as a measure of the absorbed dose, particle type and energy. The effects of exposure on 3D ORAM materials have been investigated for a variety of particle types and energies, including protons, alpha particles and 12C ions. The exposed materials are observed to fluoresce when exposed to laser light. The intensity and the depth of the fluorescence is dependent on the type and energy of the particle to which the materials were exposed. It is shown that these effects can be modeled using Monte Carlo calculations. The model provides a better understanding of the properties of these materials. which should prove useful for developing systems for charged particle and neutron dosimetry/detector applications. c2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Moscovitch, M.; Phillips, G. W.

2001-01-01

46

Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.

2001-01-01

47

Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond.  

PubMed

Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars. PMID:11863032

Benton, E R; Benton, E V

2001-09-01

48

Basic aspects of high energy particle interactions and radiation dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

This report deals with fundamental considerations underlying the dosimetry of radiations having energies in excess of about 10/sup 8/eV (100 MeV). It considers the physics of high-energy radiation with particular emphasis on dosimetric aspects, and with the radition environment surrounding accelerators. An analysis of the problem of dose equivalent specifications is included.

Not Available

1980-01-01

49

Twenty new ISO standards on dosimetry for radiation processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty standards on essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing were published as new ISO standards in December 1998. The standards are based on 20 standard practices and guides developed over the past 14 years by Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The transformation to ISO standards using the 'fast track' process under ISO Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85) commenced in 1995 and resulted in some overlap of technical information between three of the new standards and the existing ISO Standard 11137 Sterilization of health care products Requirements for validation and routine control Radiation sterilization. Although the technical information in these four standards was consistent, compromise wording in the scopes of the three new ISO standards to establish precedence for use were adopted. Two of the new ISO standards are specifically for food irradiation applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, X-ray, and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruit, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes, and paper. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties using the new ISO Type A and Type B evaluations. Unfortunately, nine of the 20 standards just adopted by the ISO are not the most recent versions of these standards and are therefore already out of date. To help solve this problem, efforts are being made to develop procedures to coordinate the ASTM and ISO development and revision processes for these and future ASTM-originating dosimetry standards. In the meantime, an additional four dosimetry standards have recently been published by the ASTM but have not yet been submitted to the ISO, and six more dosimetry standards are under development.

Farrar, H., IV

2000-03-01

50

Reliability, calibration and metrology in ionizing radiation dosimetry  

E-print Network

Radiation dosimetry systems are complex systems, comprised of a milieu of components, designed for determining absorbed dose after exposure to ionizing radiation. Although many materials serve as absorbing media for measurement, thermoluminescent dosimeters represent some of the more desirable materials available; yet, reliability studies have revealed a clear and definite decrement in dosimeter sensitivity after repeated use. Unfortunately, repeated use of any such material for absorbing media in ionizing radiation dosimetry will in time experience performance decrements; thus, in order to achieve the most accuracy and/or precision in dosimetry, it is imperative proper compensation be made in calibration. Yet, analysis proves the majority of the measured decrement in sensitivity experienced by dosimeters is attributable to drift noise and not to any degradation in dosimeter performance, at least, not to any great degree. In addition to investigating dosimeter reliability, implications for metrological tracea...

Cundin, Luisiana X

2013-01-01

51

Radiation dosimetry for the Gemini program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principal source of radiation for low-earth-orbit, low inclination space flights is in the area of the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly. None of the Gemini dose measurements reported in the paper are of high enough intensity to be considered hazardous. There is a trend toward larger doses as missions are flown higher and longer. Extended orbital operations between 1400 and 4400 kilometers would encounter high interior radiation levels. Pronounced spacecraft geometry effects have been measured in manned spacecraft. Instrumentation for radiation measurements on Gemini spacecraft is described.

Richmond, R. G.

1972-01-01

52

Simulation of competing irradiation and fading effects in thermoluminescence dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article is to give some useful expressions for fading correction in practical situations as they can be encountered in radiation protection dosimetry monitoring, i.e. personal, environmental and clinical dosimetry. They are obtained considering the general case in which, for both first and second-order kinetics, during the experimental period of time two effects are in competition between them: one is the trapping rate due to the irradiation, the second is the detrapping rate which takes place at the same time, owing to thermal fading. Various practical situations are taken into consideration.

Kitis, G.; Furetta, C.

2005-07-01

53

Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 3, pp. 279-285 (2001)  

E-print Network

1 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 97, No. 3, pp. 279-285 (2001) Nuclear Technology Publishing of radioactive airborne particles, internal radiation dosimetry, and the dose-response relationships for internally deposited radionuclides. He is editor of the textbook, Internal Radiation Dosimetry, published

Brenner, David Jonathan

54

Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry.

Not Available

1984-10-01

55

Radiation protection and dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technological advances that occurred during the last few decades paved the way to the dissemination of CT-based procedures in radiology, to an increasing number of procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology as well as to new techniques and hybrid modalities in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy. These technological advances encompass the exposure of patients and medical staff to unprecedentedly high dose values that are a cause for concern due to the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation to the human health. As a consequence, new issues and challenges in radiological protection and dosimetry in the medical applications of ionizing radiation have emerged. The scientific knowledge of the radiosensitivity of individuals as a function of age, gender and other factors has also contributed to raising the awareness of scientists, medical staff, regulators, decision makers and other stakeholders (including the patients and the public) for the need to correctly and accurately assess the radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Pediatric exposures and their late effects became a cause of great concern. The scientific communities of experts involved in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have made a strong case about the need to undertake low dose radiation research and the International System of Radiological Protection is being challenged to address and incorporate issues such as the individual sensitivities, the shape of dose-response relationship and tissue sensitivity for cancer and non-cancer effects. Some of the answers to the radiation protection and dosimetry issues and challenges in the medical applications of ionizing radiation lie in computational studies using Monte Carlo or hybrid methods to model and simulate particle transport in the organs and tissues of the human body. The development of sophisticated Monte Carlo computer programs and voxel phantoms paves the way to an accurate dosimetric assessment of the medical applications of ionizing radiation. In this paper, the aforementioned topics will be reviewed. The current status and the future trends in the implementation of the justification and optimization principles, pillars of the International System of Radiological Protection, in the medical applications of ionizing radiation will be discussed. Prospective views will be provided on the future of the system of radiological protection and on dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation.

Vaz, Pedro

2014-11-01

56

High LET, passive space radiation dosimetry and spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of high linear energy transfer (LET), passive radiation dosimetry and spectrometry is needed for the purpose of accurate determination of equivalent doses and assessment of health risks to astronauts on long duration missions. Progress in the following research areas is summerized: intercomparisons of cosmic ray equivalent dose and LET spectra measurements between STS missions and between astronauts; increases

E. V. Benton; A. L. Frank; E. R. Benton; R. P. Keegan; L. A. Frigo; D. Sanner; V. Rowe

1995-01-01

57

Twenty new ISO standards on dosimetry for radiation processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty standards on essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing were published as new ISO standards in December 1998. The standards are based on 20 standard practices and guides developed over the past 14 years by Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The transformation to ISO standards using the fast track process under ISO

H. Farrar IV

2000-01-01

58

Radiochromic film for medical radiation dosimetry Martin J. Butsona,b  

E-print Network

Radiochromic film for medical radiation dosimetry Martin J. Butsona,b , Peter K.N. Yua,* , Tsang extensively for medical purposes in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Dosimetry of these radiation) dosimetry more accurately and inexpensively. Radiochromic film dosimeters are now available in formats

Yu, K.N.

59

Human Biodistribution and Radiation Dosimetry of the Tachykinin NK1 Antagonist Radioligand  

E-print Network

Human Biodistribution and Radiation Dosimetry of the Tachykinin NK1 Antagonist Radioligand [18FRadiation Dosimetry Systems, Inc., San Francisco, California 18F-Labeled substance P antagonist and not concentrated in a small number of radiation sensitive organs. Key Words: [18F]SPA-RQ; PET dosimetry

Shen, Jun

60

Whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry in monkeys and humans of the phosphodiesterase 4 radioligand [11  

E-print Network

Whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry in monkeys and humans of the phosphodiesterase 4. Keywords: [11 C](R)-Rolipram; Positron emission tomography; Dosimetry; Biodistribution 1. Introduction

Shen, Jun

61

A theoretical approach for non-equilibrium radiation dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a theoretical approach to the dosimetry for small and non-equilibrium radiation fields. We applied the newly developed VMCBC algorithm to the dosimetry for megavoltage photon beams using Monte Carlo techniques. The approach assumes that a Monte Carlo simulated beam can be calibrated per incident particle at the target in an x-ray tube or in an accelerator head. Since the geometry of the accelerator head and beam defining systems can be modeled in detail, the output of a radiation beam can be accurately related to the number of incident particles through particle transport calculations. The proposed methodology is benchmarked and validated using existing radiosurgery beam commissioning data, which were experimentally measured for narrow beams defined by conical collimators with diameters ranging from 7.5 mm to 30 mm. The Monte Carlo predicted beam outputs agree with the measurement values within the uncertainty of the experiments. The Monte Carlo approach developed and introduced in this study allows the user to perform absolute radiation dosimetry in addition to relative dose distributions at locations where charged-particle equilibrium (CPE) does not exist, such as radiation dose from a narrow stereotactic radiosurgery beam, and where experimental measurements are difficult. The BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc code was employed in the Monte Carlo simulations.

Ding, George X.; Duggan, Dennis M.; Coffey, Charles W.

2008-07-01

62

Internal radiation dosimetry for clinical testing of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies  

SciTech Connect

In gauging the efficacy of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in cancer treatment, it is important to know the amount of radiation energy absorbed by tumors and normal tissue per unit administered activity. This paper describes methods for estimating absorbed doses to human tumors and normal tissues, including intraperitoneal tissue surfaces, red marrow, and the intestinal tract from incorporated radionuclides. These methods use the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) scheme; however, they also incorporate enhancements designed to solve specific dosimetry problems encountered during clinical studies, such as patient-specific organ masses obtained from computerized tomography (CT) volumetrics, estimates of the dose to tumor masses within normal organs, and multicellular dosimetry for studying dose inhomogeneities in solid tumors. Realistic estimates of absorbed dose are provided within the short time requirements of physicians so that decisions can be made with regard to patient treatment and procurement of radiolabeled antibodies. Some areas in which further research could improve dose assessment are also discussed. 16 refs., 3 figs.

Fisher, D.R.; Durham, J.S.; Hui, T.E.; Hill, R.L.

1990-11-01

63

NIAID/NCI/NIST Workshop on Radiation Dosimetry Standardization for Radiobiology  

E-print Network

1 NIAID/NCI/NIST Workshop on Radiation Dosimetry Standardization for Radiobiology September 15 ­ 16, 2011, NIST Why is Dosimetry and Standardization Important in Radiobiology? ­ The Physics Framework and Precision? ·Typical uncertainties associated with dosimetry. ·Impact of today's increased resolution

64

MODIFICATION OF SHIRT BUTTONS FOR RETROSPECTIVE RADIATION DOSIMETRY AFTER A RADIOLOGICAL EVENT  

E-print Network

Note MODIFICATION OF SHIRT BUTTONS FOR RETROSPECTIVE RADIATION DOSIMETRY AFTER A RADIOLOGICAL EVENT. Health Phys. 100(5):542­547; 2011 Key words: detector, thermoluminescent; dosimetry, person- nel to calculate doses on an individual basis, exposures might have to be assessed by biological dosimetry in order

Brenner, David Jonathan

65

Electromagnetic and heat transfer computations for non-ionizing radiation dosimetry.  

PubMed

Reliable information on the heat distribution inside biological tissues is essential for the planning and optimization of experiments which aim to study the effects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR). In electrodynamics, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique has become the dominant technique for radiofrequency dosimetry. In order to obtain the electromagnetic field and heat distributions within the same simulation run without changing discretization, a heat diffusion solver has been directly integrated into an advanced electrodynamic FDTD kernel. The implementation enables both coupled and sequential simulations. It also includes the ability to work with complex bodies and to accelerate heat diffusion. This paper emphasizes the importance of this combination in the field of NIR dosimetry. Two examples from this area are given: the validation of dosimetry with temperature probes and the estimation of the highest thermal load during bioexperiments. PMID:10958191

Samaras, T; Regli, P; Kuster, N

2000-08-01

66

Electromagnetic and heat transfer computations for non-ionizing radiation dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable information on the heat distribution inside biological tissues is essential for the planning and optimization of experiments which aim to study the effects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR). In electrodynamics, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique has become the dominant technique for radiofrequency dosimetry. In order to obtain the electromagnetic field and heat distributions within the same simulation run without changing discretization, a heat diffusion solver has been directly integrated into an advanced electrodynamic FDTD kernel. The implementation enables both coupled and sequential simulations. It also includes the ability to work with complex bodies and to accelerate heat diffusion. This paper emphasizes the importance of this combination in the field of NIR dosimetry. Two examples from this area are given: the validation of dosimetry with temperature probes and the estimation of the highest thermal load during bioexperiments.

Samaras, T.; Regli, P.; Kuster, N.

2000-08-01

67

Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S. [eds.

1988-11-01

68

High LET, passive space radiation dosimetry and spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of high linear energy transfer (LET), passive radiation dosimetry and spectrometry is needed for the purpose of accurate determination of equivalent doses and assessment of health risks to astronauts on long duration missions. Progress in the following research areas is summerized: intercomparisons of cosmic ray equivalent dose and LET spectra measurements between STS missions and between astronauts; increases LET spectra measurement accuracy with ATAS; space radiation measurements for intercomparisons of passive (PNTD, TLD, TRND, Emulsion) and active (TEPC, RME-111) dosimeters; interaction of cosmic ray particles with nuclei in matter; radiation measurements after long duration space exposures; ground based dosimeter calibrations; neutron detector calibrations; radiation measurements on Soviet/Russian spacecraft; space radiation measurements under thin shielding; and space radiation.

Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.; Keegan, R. P.; Frigo, L. A.; Sanner, D.; Rowe, V.

1995-01-01

69

Effect of Normal Lung Definition on Lung Dosimetry and Lung Toxicity Prediction in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study aimed to compare lung dosevolume histogram (DVH) parameters such as mean lung dose (MLD) and the lung volume receiving ?20 Gy (V20) of commonly used definitions of normal lung in terms of tumor/target subtraction and to determine to what extent they differ in predicting radiation pneumonitis (RP). Methods and Materials: One hundred lung cancer patients treated with definitive radiation therapy were assessed. The gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical planning target volume (PTV{sub c}) were defined by the treating physician and dosimetrist. For this study, the clinical target volume (CTV) was defined as GTV with 8-mm uniform expansion, and the PTV was defined as CTV with an 8-mm uniform expansion. Lung DVHs were generated with exclusion of targets: (1) GTV (DVH{sub G}); (2) CTV (DVH{sub C}); (3) PTV (DVH{sub P}); and (4) PTV{sub c} (DVH{sub Pc}). The lung DVHs, V20s, and MLDs from each of the 4 methods were compared, as was their significance in predicting radiation pneumonitis of grade 2 or greater (RP2). Results: There are significant differences in dosimetric parameters among the various definition methods (all Ps<.05). The mean and maximum differences in V20 are 4.4% and 12.6% (95% confidence interval 3.6%-5.1%), respectively. The mean and maximum differences in MLD are 3.3 Gy and 7.5 Gy (95% confidence interval, 1.7-4.8 Gy), respectively. MLDs of all methods are highly correlated with each other and significantly correlated with clinical RP2, although V20s are not. For RP2 prediction, on the receiver operating characteristic curve, MLD from DVH{sub G} (MLD{sub G}) has a greater area under curve of than MLD from DVH{sub C} (MLD{sub C}) or DVH{sub P} (MLD{sub P}). Limiting RP2 to 30%, the threshold is 22.4, 20.6, and 18.8 Gy, for MLD{sub G}, MLD{sub C}, and MLD{sub P}, respectively. Conclusions: The differences in MLD and V20 from various lung definitions are significant. MLD from the GTV exclusion method may be more accurate in predicting clinical significant radiation pneumonitis.

Wang, Weili [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, the Fourth Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Xu, Yaping [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Schipper, Matthew; Matuszak, Martha M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ritter, Timothy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Veteran Administration Hospital, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kong, Feng-Ming, E-mail: fkong@gru.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veteran Administration Hospital, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2013-08-01

70

Dissolution rate and radiation dosimetry of metal tritides  

SciTech Connect

Metal tritides including titanium tritide (Ti{sup 3}H{sub x}) and erbium tritide (Er{sup 3}H{sub x}) have been used as components of neutron generators. These compounds can be released to the air as aerosols during fabrication, assembling and testing of components or in accidental or fugitive releases. As a result, workers could be exposed to these compounds by inhalation. A joint research project between SNL and ITRI (Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute) was initiated last fall to investigate the solubility of metal tritides, retention and translocation of inhaled particles and internal dosimetry of metal tritides. The current understanding of metal tritides and their radiation dosimetry for internal exposure are very limited. There is no provision in the ICRP-30 for tritium dosimetry in metal tritide form. However, a few papers in the literature suggested that the solubility of metal tritide could be low. The current radiation protection guidelines for metal tritide particles are based on the assumption that the biological behavior is similar to tritiated water which behaves like body fluid with a relative short biological half life (10 days). If the solubility of metal tritide is low, the biological half life of metal tritide particles and the dosimetry of inhalation exposure to these particles could be quite different from tritiated water. This would have major implications in current radiation protection guidelines for metal tritides Including annual limits of intakes and derived air concentrations. The preliminary results of metal tritide dissolution study at ITRI indicate that the solubility of titanium tritide is low. The outlines of the project, the preliminary results and future work will be discussed in presentation.

Jow, Hong-Nian [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cheng, Yung-Sung [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-06-01

71

Plastic scintillation dosimetry for radiation therapy: minimizing capture of Cerenkov radiation noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, there has been an increased interest in scintillation dosimetry using small water-equivalent plastic scintillators, because of their favourable characteristics when compared with other more commonly used detector systems. Although plastic scintillators have been shown to have many desirable dosimetric properties, as yet there is no successful commercial detector system of this type available for routine clinical use in radiation oncology. The main factor preventing this new technology from realizing its full potential in commercial applications is the maximization of signal coupling efficiency and the minimization of noise capture. A principal constituent of noise is Cerenkov radiation. This study reports the calculated capture of Cerenkov radiation by an optical fibre in the special case where the radiation is generated by a relativistic particle on the fibre axis and the fibre axis is parallel to the Cerenkov cone. The fraction of radiation captured is calculated as a function of the fibre core refractive index and the refractive index difference between the core and the cladding of the fibre for relativistic particles. This is then used to deduce the relative intensity captured for a range of fibre core refractive indices and fibre core-cladding refractive index differences. It is shown that the core refractive index has little effect on the amount of radiation captured compared to the refractive index difference. The implications of this result for the design of radiation therapy plastic scintillation dosimeters are considered.

Beddar, A. Sam; Suchowerska, Natalka; Law, Susan H.

2004-03-01

72

Plastic scintillation dosimetry for radiation therapy: minimizing capture of Cerenkov radiation noise.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, there has been an increased interest in scintillation dosimetry using small water-equivalent plastic scintillators, because of their favourable characteristics when compared with other more commonly used detector systems. Although plastic scintillators have been shown to have many desirable dosimetric properties, as yet there is no successful commercial detector system of this type available for routine clinical use in radiation oncology. The main factor preventing this new technology from realizing its full potential in commercial applications is the maximization of signal coupling efficiency and the minimization of noise capture. A principal constituent of noise is Cerenkov radiation. This study reports the calculated capture of Cerenkov radiation by an optical fibre in the special case where the radiation is generated by a relativistic particle on the fibre axis and the fibre axis is parallel to the Cerenkov cone. The fraction of radiation captured is calculated as a function of the fibre core refractive index and the refractive index difference between the core and the cladding of the fibre for relativistic particles. This is then used to deduce the relative intensity captured for a range of fibre core refractive indices and fibre core-cladding refractive index differences. It is shown that the core refractive index has little effect on the amount of radiation captured compared to the refractive index difference. The implications of this result for the design of radiation therapy plastic scintillation dosimeters are considered. PMID:15070202

Beddar, A Sam; Suchowerska, Natalka; Law, Susan H

2004-03-01

73

Phantom dosimetry calculations for use in radiation-effects correlations. Technical report, 1 April 1983-30 July 1984  

SciTech Connect

Models corresponding to an adult Rhesus Monkey and a simple analogue were created in combinatorial geometry for use in Monte Carlo radiation-transport calculations. The complex monkey phantom is based on anatomical measurements of a sectioned cadaver. Adjoint Monte Carlo calculations were performed to obtain the energy- and angle-differential adjoint fluence for the mid-head, mid-thorax locations in both phantoms and active marrow in the complex monkey phantom. The results were also convoluted with free-field spectra for two TRIGA reactor exposure room configurations at the Armed Forces Radiobiological Research Institute, using the VCS code system. Comparisons are made between calculated and measured KERMA values in the simple phantom. Good agreement is obtained. However, it is found that good agreement cannot be obtained using simple scalar coupling.

Kaul, D.C.; Roberts, J.A.; Egbert, S.D.

1984-07-30

74

Effect of processor temperature on film dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Optical density (OD) of a radiographic film plays an important role in radiation dosimetry, which depends on various parameters, including beam energy, depth, field size, film batch, dose, dose rate, air film interface, postexposure processing time, and temperature of the processor. Most of these parameters have been studied for Kodak XV and extended dose range (EDR) films used in radiation oncology. There is very limited information on processor temperature, which is investigated in this study. Multiple XV and EDR films were exposed in the reference condition (d{sub max.}, 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2}, 100 cm) to a given dose. An automatic film processor (X-Omat 5000) was used for processing films. The temperature of the processor was adjusted manually with increasing temperature. At each temperature, a set of films was processed to evaluate OD at a given dose. For both films, OD is a linear function of processor temperature in the range of 29.4-40.6 Degree-Sign C (85-105 Degree-Sign F) for various dose ranges. The changes in processor temperature are directly related to the dose by a quadratic function. A simple linear equation is provided for the changes in OD vs. processor temperature, which could be used for correcting dose in radiation dosimetry when film is used.

Srivastava, Shiv P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Reid Hospital and Health Care Services, Richmond, IN (United States); Das, Indra J., E-mail: idas@iupui.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

2012-07-01

75

Optical dosimetry of radiotherapy beams using Cherenkov radiation: the relationship between light emission and dose.  

PubMed

Recent studies have proposed that light emitted by the Cherenkov effect may be used for a number of radiation therapy dosimetry applications. There is a correlation between the captured light and expected dose under certain conditions, yet discrepancies have also been observed and a complete examination of the theoretical differences has not been done. In this study, a fundamental comparison between the Cherenkov emission and absorbed dose was explored for x-ray photons, electrons, and protons using both a theoretical and Monte Carlo-based analysis. Based on the findings of where dose correlates with Cherenkov emission, it was concluded that for x-ray photons the light emission would be optimally suited for narrow beam stereotactic radiation therapy and surgery validation studies, for verification of dynamic intensity-modulated and volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans in water tanks, near monoenergetic sources (e.g., Co-60 and brachy therapy sources) and also for entrance and exit surface imaging dosimetry of both narrow and broad beams. For electron use, Cherenkov emission was found to be only suitable for surface dosimetry applications. Finally, for proton dosimetry, there exists a fundamental lack of Cherenkov emission at the Bragg peak, making the technique of little use, although post-irradiation detection of light emission from radioisotopes could prove to be useful. PMID:24938928

Glaser, Adam K; Zhang, Rongxiao; Gladstone, David J; Pogue, Brian W

2014-07-21

76

REVIEW ARTICLE: Water calorimetry for radiation dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calorimetry has a long history as a technique for establishing the absorbed dose, and graphite calorimetry has often been used to establish absorbed dose standards for use in radiation therapy. However, a conversion process is necessary to convert from dose to graphite to dose to water, which is the quantity of clinical interest. In order to more directly measure the

C. K. Ross; N. V. Klassen

1996-01-01

77

Spore dosimetry of solar UV radiation: applications to monitoring of daily irradiance and personal exposure.  

PubMed

Environmental UV radiation can be quantified using spore dosimetry, which measures the inactivation of repair-deficient Bacillus subtilis spores dried on a membrane filter. The system exhibits highly selective sensitivity to UV radiation, not being affected by various environmental adversities, such as high and low temperature and humidity. Biologically-effective dose rate and cumulative dose of ambient radiation are measurable under various conditions at various places on the earth, including tropical, temperate, and polar sites. Applications to monitor the exposure at the surface of organisms including humans and plants have also been advanced. PMID:12038485

Munakata, N; Makita, K; Bolsee, D; Gillotay, D; Horneck, G

2000-01-01

78

Radiation Dosimetry via Automated Fluorescence Microscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A developmental instrument for assessment of radiation-induced damage in human lymphocytes includes an automated fluorescence microscope equipped with a one or more chargecoupled- device (CCD) video camera(s) and circuitry to digitize the video output. The microscope is also equipped with a three-axis translation stage that includes a rotation stage, and a rotary tray that holds as many as thirty specimen slides. The figure depicts one version of the instrument. Once the slides have been prepared and loaded into the tray, the instrument can operate unattended. A computer controls the operation of the stage, tray, and microscope, and processes the digital fluorescence-image data to recognize and count chromosomes that have been broken, presumably by radiation. The design and method of operation of the instrument exploit fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of metaphase chromosome spreads, which is a technique that has been found to be valuable for monitoring the radiation dose to circulating lymphocytes. In the specific FISH protocol used to prepare specimens for this instrument, metaphase lymphocyte cultures are chosen for high mitotic index and highly condensed chromosomes, then several of the largest chromosomes are labeled with three of four differently colored whole-chromosome-staining dyes. The three dyes, which are used both individually and in various combinations, are fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), Texas Red (or equivalent), and Cy5 (or equivalent); The fourth dye 4',6-diamidino- 2-phenylindole (DAPI) is used as a counterstain. Under control by the computer, the microscope is automatically focused on the cells and each slide is scanned while the computer analyzes the DAPI-fluorescence images to find the metaphases. Each metaphase field is recentered in the field of view and refocused. Then a four-color image (more precisely, a set of images of the same view in the fluorescent colors of the four dyes) is acquired. By use of pattern-recognition software developed specifically for this instrument, the images in the various colors are processed to recognize the metaphases and count the chromosome fragments of each color within the metaphases. The intermediate results are then further processed to estimate the proportion of cells that have suffered genetic damage. The prototype instrument scans at an average areal rate of 4.7 mm2/h in unattended operation, finding about 14 metaphases per hour. The false-alarm rate is typically less than 3 percent, and the metaphase-miss rate has been estimated to be less than 5 percent. The counts of chromosomes and fragments thereof are 50 to 70 percent accurate.

Castleman, Kenneth R.; Schulze, Mark

2005-01-01

79

Handbook of Anatomical Models for Radiation Dosimetry (To be published in 2009 in "Series in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering")  

E-print Network

Handbook of Anatomical Models for Radiation Dosimetry (To be published in 2009 in "Series, USA Preface Chapter 1 Computational Phantoms for Radiation Dosimetry: A 40-Year History of Evolution X for Experimental Radiation Dosimetry David Hintenlang, William Moloney, James Winslow Applications Chapter 17

Linhardt, Robert J.

80

DATE: NVLAP LAB CODE: IONIZING RADIATION DOSIMETRY APPLICATION (REV. 2010-01-08) PAGE 1 OF 4  

E-print Network

DATE: NVLAP LAB CODE: IONIZING RADIATION DOSIMETRY APPLICATION (REV. 2010-01-08) PAGE 1 OF 4 IONIZING RADIATION DOSIMETRY PROGRAM-SPECIFIC APPLICATION PART 1: PROCESSING EQUIPMENT USED Indicate Processing Devices (For example, Track Etch) #12;DATE: NVLAP LAB CODE: IONIZING RADIATION DOSIMETRY

81

In vivo EPR tooth dosimetry for triage after a radiation event involving large populations.  

PubMed

The management of radiation injuries following a catastrophic event where large numbers of people may have been exposed to life-threatening doses of ionizing radiation will rely critically on the availability and use of suitable biodosimetry methods. In vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) tooth dosimetry has a number of valuable and unique characteristics and capabilities that may help enable effective triage. We have produced a prototype of a deployable EPR tooth dosimeter and tested it in several in vitro and in vivo studies to characterize the performance and utility at the state of the art. This report focuses on recent advances in the technology, which strengthen the evidence that in vivo EPR tooth dosimetry can provide practical, accurate, and rapid measurements in the context of its intended use to help triage victims in the event of an improvised nuclear device. These advances provide evidence that the signal is stable, accurate to within 0.5 Gy, and can be successfully carried out in vivo. The stability over time of the radiation-induced EPR signal from whole teeth was measured to confirm its long-term stability and better characterize signal behavior in the hours following irradiation. Dosimetry measurements were taken for five pairs of natural human upper central incisors mounted within a simple anatomic mouth model that demonstrates the ability to achieve 0.5 Gy standard error of inverse dose prediction. An assessment of the use of intact upper incisors for dose estimation and screening was performed with volunteer subjects who have not been exposed to significant levels of ionizing radiation and patients who have undergone total body irradiation as part of bone marrow transplant procedures. Based on these and previous evaluations of the performance and use of the in vivo tooth dosimetry system, it is concluded that this system could be a very valuable resource to aid in the management of a massive radiological event. PMID:24711003

Williams, Benjamin B; Flood, Ann Barry; Salikhov, Ildar; Kobayashi, Kyo; Dong, Ruhong; Rychert, Kevin; Du, Gaixin; Schreiber, Wilson; Swartz, Harold M

2014-05-01

82

Application of Cerenkov radiation generated in plastic optical fibers for therapeutic photon beam dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Cerenkov fiber-optic dosimeter (CFOD) is fabricated using plastic optical fibers to measure Cerenkov radiation induced by a therapeutic photon beam. We measured the Cerenkov radiation generated in optical fibers in various irradiation conditions to evaluate the usability of Cerenkov radiation for a photon beam therapy dosimetry. As a results, the spectral peak of Cerenkov radiation was measured at a wavelength of 515 nm, and the intensity of Cerenkov radiation increased linearly with increasing irradiated length of the optical fiber. Also, the intensity peak of Cerenkov radiation was measured in the irradiation angle range of 30 to 40 deg. In the results of Monte Carlo N-particle transport code simulations, the relationship between fluxes of electrons over Cerenkov threshold energy and energy deposition of a 6 MV photon beam had a nearly linear trend. Finally, percentage depth doses for the 6 MV photon beam could be obtained using the CFOD and the results were compared with those of an ionization chamber. Here, the mean dose difference was about 0.6%. It is anticipated that the novel and simple CFOD can be effectively used for measuring depth doses in radiotherapy dosimetry.

Jang, Kyoung Won; Yagi, Takahiro; Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Yoo, Wook Jae; Shin, Sang Hun; Jeong, Chiyoung; Min, Byung Jun; Shin, Dongho; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Lee, Bongsoo

2013-02-01

83

Preclinical radiation dosimetry for the novel SV2A radiotracer [18F]UCB-H  

PubMed Central

Background [18F]UCB-H was developed as a novel radiotracer with a high affinity for synaptic vesicle protein 2A, the binding site for the antiepileptic levetiracetam. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the radiation dosimetry of [18F]UCB-H in a preclinical trial and to determine the maximum injectable dose according to guidelines for human biomedical research. The radiation dosimetry was derived by organ harvesting and dynamic micro positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in mice, and the results of both methods were compared. Methods Twenty-four male C57BL-6 mice were injected with 6.96 0.81 MBq of [18F]UCB-H, and the biodistribution was determined by organ harvesting at 2, 5, 10, 30, 60, and 120 min (n = 4 for each time point). Dynamic microPET imaging was performed on five male C57BL-6 mice after the injection of 9.19 3.40 MBq of [18F]UCB-H. A theoretical dynamic bladder model was applied to simulate urinary excretion. Human radiation dose estimates were derived from animal data using the International Commission on Radiological Protection 103 tissue weighting factors. Results Based on organ harvesting, the urinary bladder wall, liver and brain received the highest radiation dose with a resulting effective dose of 1.88E-02 mSv/MBq. Based on dynamic imaging an effective dose of 1.86E-02 mSv/MBq was calculated, with the urinary bladder wall and liver (brain was not in the imaging field of view) receiving the highest radiation. Conclusions This first preclinical dosimetry study of [18F]UCB-H showed that the tracer meets the standard criteria for radiation exposure in clinical studies. The dose-limiting organ based on US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European guidelines was the urinary bladder wall for FDA and the effective dose for Europe with a maximum injectable single dose of approximately 325 MBq was calculated. Although microPET imaging showed significant deviations from organ harvesting, the Pearsons correlation coefficient between radiation dosimetry derived by either method was 0.9666. PMID:23647774

2013-01-01

84

ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE DOSIMETRY FOR A LARGE-SCALE RADIATION INCIDENT  

PubMed Central

With possibilities for radiation terrorism and intensified concerns about nuclear accidents since the recent Fukushima Daiichi event, the potential exposure of large numbers of individuals to radiation that could lead to acute clinical effects has become a major concern. For the medical community to cope with such an event and avoid overwhelming the medical care system, it is essential to identify not only individuals who have received clinically significant exposures and need medical intervention but also those who do not need treatment. The ability of electron paramagnetic resonance to measure radiation-induced paramagnetic species, which persist in certain tissues (e.g., teeth, fingernails, toenails, bone, and hair), has led this technique to become a prominent method for screening significantly exposed individuals. Although the technical requirements needed to develop this method for effective application in a radiation event are daunting, remarkable progress has been made. In collaboration with General Electric, and through funding committed by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, electron paramagnetic resonance tooth dosimetry of the upper incisors is being developed to become a Food and Drug Administration-approved and manufacturable device designed to carry out triage for a threshold dose of 2 Gy. Significant progress has also been made in the development of electron paramagnetic resonance nail dosimetry based on measurements of nails in situ under point-of-care conditions, and in the near future this may become a second field-ready technique. Based on recent progress in measurements of nail clippings, we anticipate that this technique may be implementable at remotely located laboratories to provide additional information when the measurements of dose on site need to be supplemented. We conclude that electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry is likely to be a useful part of triage for a large-scale radiation incident. PMID:22850230

Swartz, Harold M.; Flood, Ann Barry; Williams, Benjamin B.; Dong, Ruhong; Swarts, Steven G.; He, Xiaoming; Grinberg, Oleg; Sidabras, Jason; Demidenko, Eugene; Gui, Jiang; Gladstone, David J.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Kmiec, Maciej M.; Kobayashi, Kyo; Lesniewski, Piotr N.; Marsh, Stephen D.P.; Matthews, Thomas P.; Nicolalde, Roberto J.; Pennington, Patrick M.; Raynolds, Timothy; Salikhov, Ildar; Wilcox, Dean E.; Zaki, Bassem I.

2013-01-01

85

Variable transformation of calibration equations for radiation dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For radiation dosimetry, dosimetric equipment must be calibrated by using known doses. The calibration is done to determine an equation that relates the absorbed dose to a physically measurable quantity. Since the calibration equation is accompanied by unavoidable uncertainties, the doses estimated with such equations suffer from inherent uncertainties. We presented mathematical formulation of the calibration when the calibration relation is either linear or nonlinear. We also derived equations for the uncertainty of the estimated dose as a function of the uncertainties of the parameters in the equations and the measured physical quantity. We showed that a dosimeter with a linear calibration equation with zero dose-offset enables us to perform relative dosimetry without calibration data. Furthermore, a linear equation justifies useful data manipulations such as rescaling the dose and changing the dose-offset for comparing dose distributions. Considering that some dosimeters exhibit linear response with a large dose-offset or often nonlinear response, we proposed variable transformations of the measured physical quantity, namely, linear- and log-transformation methods. The proposed methods were tested with Kodak X-Omat V radiographic film and BANG polymer gel dosimeter. We demonstrated that the variable transformation methods could lead to linear equations with zero dose-offset and could reduce the uncertainty of the estimated dose.

Watanabe, Yoichi

2005-03-01

86

Variable transformation of calibration equations for radiation dosimetry.  

PubMed

For radiation dosimetry, dosimetric equipment must be calibrated by using known doses. The calibration is done to determine an equation that relates the absorbed dose to a physically measurable quantity. Since the calibration equation is accompanied by unavoidable uncertainties, the doses estimated with such equations suffer from inherent uncertainties. We presented mathematical formulation of the calibration when the calibration relation is either linear or nonlinear. We also derived equations for the uncertainty of the estimated dose as a function of the uncertainties of the parameters in the equations and the measured physical quantity. We showed that a dosimeter with a linear calibration equation with zero dose-offset enables us to perform relative dosimetry without calibration data. Furthermore, a linear equation justifies useful data manipulations such as rescaling the dose and changing the dose-offset for comparing dose distributions. Considering that some dosimeters exhibit linear response with a large dose-offset or often nonlinear response, we proposed variable transformations of the measured physical quantity, namely, linear- and log-transformation methods. The proposed methods were tested with Kodak X-Omat V radiographic film and BANG polymer gel dosimeter. We demonstrated that the variable transformation methods could lead to linear equations with zero dose-offset and could reduce the uncertainty of the estimated dose. PMID:15798318

Watanabe, Yoichi

2005-03-21

87

Radiation Dosimetry Using Three-Dimensional Optical Random Access Memories  

SciTech Connect

The ability to determine particle type and energy plays an important role in the dosimetry of heavy charged particles (HCP) and neutrons. A new approach to radiation dosimetry is presented, which is shown to be capable of particle type and energy discrimination. This method is based on utilizing radiation induced changes in the digital information stored on three-dimensional optical random access memories (3D ORAM). 3D ORAM is a small cube (a few mm{sup 3}) composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with a photochromic dye, and it was originally proposed as a memory device in high speed parallel computers. A Nd:YAG laser system is used to write and read binary information (bits) on the ORAM, which functions as a charged particle detector. Both the read and the write processes use two laser beams that simultaneously strike the material to cause a color change at their intersection (similar to the darkening of light-sensitive sunglasses when exposed to sunlight.) The laser produces color changes in the ORAM, which then reverts to the original color (''bit-flips'') at sites where energy is deposited from interaction with incident HCP or neutron-recoil protons. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. Calculations based on track structure theory (TST) predict that when HCP interact with the ORAM material, the local energy deposition is capable of inducing measurable ''bit-flips''. These predictions were recently confirmed experimentally using two types of ORAM systems, one based on spirobenzopyran and the other on anthracene, as the photochromic dyes.

Moscovitch, M

2001-08-20

88

Radiation dosimetry data management using VAX C, FMS, RMS, DCL, and Oracle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The External Dosimetry Badge System was developed to support the radiation protection program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The radiation protection program is responsible for monitoring external radiation exposures to approximately 7,500 Laboratory employees, visitors and contractors each month. External radiation exposure is measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The system is used to control the assembly and distribution of TLD

M. J. Jr. Voltin; A. K. Martin

1991-01-01

89

IONIZING RADIATION DOSIMETRY PT APPLICATION (REV. 2013-01-15) PAGE 1 OF 8 INSTRUCTIONS FOR PARTICIPATING IN PROFICIENCY TESTING  

E-print Network

IONIZING RADIATION DOSIMETRY PT APPLICATION (REV. 2013-01-15) PAGE 1 OF 8 INSTRUCTIONS FOR PARTICIPATING IN PROFICIENCY TESTING FOR WHOLE BODY, ELECTRONIC and EXTREMITY DOSIMETERS The NVLAP dosimetry ONLY) After the initial accreditation, dosimetry processors must perform proficiency testing

90

Effects of dose fractionation on the response of alanine dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alanine dosimetry is well established as a transfer standard and is becoming more prevalently used in routine dosimetry systems for radiation processing. Many routine measurement applications in radiation processing involve absorbed dose measurements resulting from fractioned exposures to ionizing radiation. Fractioning of absorbed dose is identified as an influence quantity (ISO/ASTM, 2013). This paper reports on study results of absorbed dose fractioning characteristics of alanine for gamma and high energy electron beam radiation sources. The results of this study indicate a radiation response difference due to absorbed dose fractioning in response can be observed after four fractionations for high-energy electron beams and no difference up to seven fractions for gamma rays using an ANOVA evaluation method.

Lundahl, Brad; Logar, John; Desrosiers, Marc; Puhl, James

2014-12-01

91

Intrinsic Dosimetry: Elemental Composition Effects on the Thermoluminescence of Commercial Borosilicate Glass  

SciTech Connect

Intrinsic dosimetry is the method of measuring total absorbed dose received by the walls of a container holding radioactive material. By considering this dose in tandem with the physical characteristics of the radioactive material housed within the container, this method can provide enhanced pathway information for interdicted radioactive samples. Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry was used to measure ionizing radiation dose effects on stock borosilicate glass. Differences in TL glow curve shape and intensity were observed for glasses from different geographical origins. The different TL signatures strongly correlated with the concentration of alkaline earth metals and the ratio of sodium to the total amount of alkali metal present in the borosilicate glass.

Clark, Richard A.; Robinson, J. D.; Schwantes, Jon M.

2013-12-07

92

Intrinsic Dosimetry: Elemental Composition Effects on the Thermoluminescence of Commercial Borosilicate Glass  

SciTech Connect

Intrinsic dosimetry is the method of measuring total absorbed dose received by the walls of a container holding radioactive material. By considering this dose in tandem with the physical characteristics of the radioactive material housed within the container, this method can provide enhanced pathway information for interdicted radioactive samples. Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry was used to measure ionizing radiation dose effects on stock borosilicate glass. Differences in TL glow curve shape and intensity were observed for glasses from different geographical origins. The different TL signatures strongly correlated with the concentration of alkaline earth metals and the ratio of sodium to the total amount of alkali metal present in the borosilicate glass.

Richard A. Clark; J. David Robertson; Jon M. Schwantes

2013-12-01

93

In vivo dosimetry for gynaecological brachytherapy using a novel position sensitive radiation detector: Feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In gynecological radiotherapy with high dose rate (HDR){sup 192}Ir brachytherapy, the treatment complexity has increased due to improved optimization techniques and dose constraints. As a consequence, it has become more important to verify the dose delivery to the target and also to the organs at risk (e.g., the bladder). In vivo dosimetry, where dosimeters are placed in or on the patient, is one way of verifying the dose but until recently this was hampered by motion of the radiation detectors with respect to the source. The authors present a novel dosimetry method using a position sensitive radiation detector. Methods: The prototype RADPOS system (Best Medical Canada) consists of a metal oxide field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter coupled to a position-sensor, which deduces its 3D position in a magnetic field. To assess the feasibility of in vivo dosimetry based on the RADPOS system, different characteristics of the detector need to be investigated. Using a PMMA phantom, the positioning accuracy of the RADPOS system was quantified by comparing position readouts with the known position of the detector along the x and y-axes. RADPOS dose measurements were performed at various distances from a Nucletron{sup 192}Ir source in a PMMA phantom to evaluate the energy dependence of the MOSFET. A sensitivity analysis was performed by calculating the dose after varying (1) the position of the RADPOS detector to simulate organ motion and (2) the position of the first dwell position to simulate errors in delivery. The authors also performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the action level (AL) that should be used during in vivo dosimetry. Results: Positioning accuracy is found to be within 1 mm in the 1-10 cm range from the origin along the x-axis (away from the transmitter), meeting the requirements for in vivo dosimetry. Similar results are obtained for the other axes. The ALs are chosen to take into account the total uncertainty on the measurements. As a consequence for in vivo dosimetry, it is determined that the RADPOS sensor, if placed, for example, in the bladder Foley balloon, would detect a 2 mm motion of the bladder, at a 5% chance of a false positive, with an AL limit of 9% of the dose delivered. The authors found that source position errors, caused by, e.g., a wrong first dwell position, are more difficult to detect; indeed, with our single RADPOS detector, positioned in the bladder, dwell position errors below 5 mm and resulting in a dose error within 10%, could be detected in the tandem but not in the colpostats. A possible solution to improve error detection is to use multiple MOSFETs to obtain multiple dose values. Conclusions: In this study, the authors proposed a dosimetry procedure, based on the novel RADPOS system, to accurately determine the position of the radiation dosimeter with respect to the applicator. The authors found that it is possible to monitor the delivered dose in a point and compare it to the predetermined dose. This allows in principle the detection of problems such as bladder motion/filling or source mispositioning. Further clinical investigation is warranted.

Reniers, B.; Landry, G.; Eichner, R.; Hallil, A.; Verhaegen, F. [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6229 ET (Netherlands); Best Medical Canada, Ottawa K2K 0E4 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6229 ET (Netherlands) and Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

2012-04-15

94

Workshop report on atomic bomb dosimetry-residual radiation exposure: recent research and suggestions for future studies.  

PubMed

There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report. PMID:23799498

Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Beck, Harold L; Cullings, Harry M; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Kaul, Dean C; Maruyama, Satoshi; Reeves, Glen I; Ruehm, Werner; Sakaguchi, Aya; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stram, Daniel O; Tonda, Tetsuji; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Young, Robert W

2013-08-01

95

Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies  

SciTech Connect

There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

none,

2013-06-06

96

Phys. Med. Biol. 45 (2000) 18631868. Printed in the UK PII: S0031-9155(00)10622-0 Ultraviolet radiation dosimetry with radiochromic film  

E-print Network

radiation dosimetry with radiochromic film Martin J Butson¶, Tsang Cheung, Peter K N Yu, Donna Abbati radiation produced by a solar simulator and examined for dosimetry in ultraviolet radiation. Results show with a dedicated UVA dosimeter. Using a double exposure technique as used in radiation dosimetry where the film

Yu, K.N.

97

Radiation hardness of the storage phosphor europium doped potassium chloride for radiation therapy dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: An important property of a reusable dosimeter is its radiation hardness, that is, its ability to retain its dosimetric merits after irradiation. The radiation hardness of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu{sup 2+}), a storage phosphor material recently proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry, is examined in this study. Methods: Pellet-style KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The pellets were exposed by a 6 MV photon beam or in a high dose rate {sup 137}Cs irradiator. Macroscopic properties, such as radiation sensitivity, dose response linearity, and signal stability, were studied with a laboratory photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout system. Since phosphor performance is related to the state of the storage centers and the activator, Eu{sup 2+}, in the host lattice, spectroscopic and temporal measurements were carried out in order to explore radiation-induced changes at the microscopic level. Results: KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters retained approximately 90% of their initial signal strength after a 5000 Gy dose history. Dose response was initially supralinear over the dose range of 100-700 cGy but became linear after 60 Gy. Linearity did not change significantly in the 0-5000 Gy dose history spanned in this study. Annealing high dose history chips resulted in a return of supralinearity and a recovery of sensitivity. There were no significant changes in the PSL stimulation spectra, PSL emission spectra, photoluminescence spectra, or luminescence lifetime, indicating that the PSL signal process remains intact after irradiation but at a reduced efficiency due to reparable radiation-induced perturbations in the crystal lattice. Conclusions: Systematic studies of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} material are important for understanding how the material can be optimized for radiation therapy dosimetry purposes. The data presented here indicate that KCl:Eu{sup 2+} exhibits strong radiation hardness and lends support for further investigations of this novel material.

Driewer, Joseph P.; Chen, Haijian; Osvet, Andres; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 and Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, E4431 Lafferre Hall, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstrasse 7, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

2011-08-15

98

Developing a high performance superoxide dismutase based electrochemical biosensor for radiation dosimetry of thallium 201  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To develop a new biosensor for measurement of superoxide free radical generated in radiolysis reaction, three combinations of SOD-based biosensors including Au/Cys/SOD, Au/GNP/Cys/SOD and Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit were fabricated. In these biosensors Au, GNP, Cys, SOD and Chit represent gold electrode, gold nano-particles, cysteine, superoxide dismutase and chitosan, respectively. For biosensors fabrication, SOD, GNP, Cys and Chit were immobilized at the surface of gold electrode. Cyclic voltametry and chronoamperometry were utilized for evaluation of biosensors performances. The results showed that Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit has significantly better responses compared to Au/Cys/SOD and Au/GNP/Cys/SOD. As a result, this biosensor was selected for dosimetry of ionizing radiation. For this purpose, thallium 201 at different volumes was added to buffer phosphate solution in electrochemical cell. To obtain analytical parameters of Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit, calibration curve was sketched. The results showed that this biosensor has a linear response in the range from 0.5 to 4 Gy, detection limit 0.03 ?M. It also has a proper sensitivity (0.6038 nA/Gy), suitable long term stability and cost effective as well as high function for radiation dosimetry.

Salem, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Hassan; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Riazi, Abbas

2014-09-01

99

THE RADIATION SAFETY INFORMATION COMPUTATIONAL CENTER: A RESOURCE FOR REACTOR DOSIMETRY SOFTWARE AND NUCLEAR DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) was established in 1963 to collect and disseminate computational nuclear technology in the form of radiation transport, shielding and safety software and corresponding nuclear cross sections. Approximately 1700 nuclear software and data packages are in the RSICC collection, and the majority are applicable to reactor dosimetry.

B. L. KIRK; Bernadette Lugue

2009-01-01

100

Radiation-hardness testing of electronic devices: A study of facility dosimetry practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a program to develop better quality assurance in the measurement of total dose in the field of radiation-hardness testing of electronic devices, a survey was conducted at twelve radiation test facilities. The survey was carried out through personal visits during which various characteristics of the test facilities and dosimetry procedures were noted. This report summarizes the results

J. C. Humphreys; S. E. Chappell

1976-01-01

101

The Application of FLUKA to Dosimetry and Radiation Therapy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monte Carlo transport codes like FLUKA are useful for many purposes, and one of those is the simulation of the effects of radiation traversing the human body. In particular, radiation has been used in cancer therapy for a long time, and recently this has been extended to include heavy ion particle beams. The advent of this particular type of therapy has led to the need for increased capabilities in the transport codes used to simulate the detailed nature of the treatment doses to the Y O U S tissues that are encountered. This capability is also of interest to NASA because of the nature of the radiation environment in space.[l] While in space, the crew members bodies are continually being traversed by virtually all forms of radiation. In assessing the risk that this exposure causes, heavy ions are of primary importance. These arise both from the primary external space radiation itself, as well as fragments that result from interactions during the traversal of that radiation through any intervening material including intervening body tissue itself. Thus the capability to characterize the details of the radiation field accurately within a human body subjected to such external 'beams" is of critical importance.

Wilson, Thomas L.; Andersen, Victor; Pinsky, Lawrence; Ferrari, Alfredo; Battistoni, Giusenni

2005-01-01

102

Statistical issues in biological radiation dosimetry for risk assessment using stable chromosome aberrations  

SciTech Connect

Biological dosimeters are useful for epidemiologic risk assessment in populations exposed to catastrophic nuclear events and as a means of validating physical dosimetry in radiation workers. Application requires knowledge of the magnitude of uncertainty in the biological dose estimates and an understanding of potential statistical pitfalls arising from their use. This paper describes the statistical aspects of biological dosimetry in general and presents a detailed analysis in the specific case of dosimetry for risk assessment using stable chromosome aberration frequency. Biological dose estimates may be obtained from a dose-response curve, but negative estimates can result and adjustment must be made for regression bias due to imprecise estimation when the estimates are used in regression analyses. Posterior-mean estimates, derived as the mean of the distribution of true doses compatible with a given value of the biological endpoint, have several desirable properties: they are nonnegative, less sensitive to extreme skewness in the true dose distribution, and implicitly adjusted to avoid regression bias. The methods necessitate approximating the true-dose distribution in the population in which biological dosimetry is being applied, which calls for careful consideration of this distribution through other information. An important question addressed here is to what extent the methods are robust to misspecification of this distribution, because in many applications of biological dosimetry it cannot be characterized well. The findings suggest that dosimetry based solely on stable chromosome aberration frequency may be useful for population-based risk assessment.

Cologne, J.B.; Preston, D.L. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan). Dept. of Statistics; Pawel, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-11-01

103

Optimization of MAGIC gel formulation for three-dimensional radiation therapy dosimetry  

PubMed Central

Polymer gel dosimetry aims to provide three-dimensional images of radiation therapy dose distributions in irradiated aqueous gels. The first gels required manufacture in an oxygen-free environment, but later the MAGIC formulation was introduced, which could be made in normal atmospheric conditions. Here we report our studies of the effects of variations in the composition of the MAGIC gel performed in order to optimize its performance over the useful dose range of 0 to 20 Gy. A new formulation (termed MAGIC-2) is comprised of 87% water, 4% methacrylic acid, 9% gelatin, 17.38 10?6 M Cu2+ and a molar ratio of ascorbic acid to [Cu2+] of 1000:1. MAGIC-2 has a doseresponse slope-to-intercept ratio that is 78% greater than the original formulation and other more favorable properties. PMID:17473340

Luci, J J; Whitney, H M; Gore, J C

2013-01-01

104

Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts  

SciTech Connect

This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S. [eds.] [eds.

1994-10-01

105

Cooling rate effects in thermoluminescence dosimetry grade lithium flouride. Implications for practical dosimetry.  

PubMed

A systematic investigation of the effects of cooling rates in the range of 10(-1) to 2 X 10(5) degrees C min-1 applied to TLD-700, LiF thermoluminescence dosemeters has shown that the 'transfer sensitivity' effect observed by Booth, Johnson and Attix (1972) is only of importance for cooling rates greater than 10(3) degrees C min-1. Although it is concluded that for practical dosimetry purposes the effect may be ignored it is not clear why Booth et al. observed such large changes and until this discrepancy is explained it is recommended that a low temperature pre-irradiation anneal should be used. PMID:1267932

Mason, E W; McKinlay, A F; Clark, I

1976-01-01

106

Radiochromic film dosimetry: Recommendations of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 55  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) for the radio- chromic film dosimetry are presented. These guidelines were prepared by a task group of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee and have been reviewed and approved by the AAPM Science Council. 1998 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. (S0094-2405(98)00211-9)

Azam Niroomand-Rad; Charles Robert Blackwell; Bert M. Coursey; Kenneth P. Gall; James M. Galvin; William L. McLaughlin; Ali S. Meigooni; Ravinder Nath; James E. Rodgers; Christopher G. Soares

1998-01-01

107

Dosimetry of Atomic Bomb Radiation in Hiroshima by Thermoluminescence of Roof Tiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoluminescence dosimetry is a powerful tool for obtaining the distribution of gamma dose, heretofore unknown, from the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Roof tiles irradiated by the bombs show intense thermoluminescence, and the radiation dose for samples irradiated below 100 r by the bomb can be measured by this method.

Takenobu Higashimura; Yoneta Ichikawa; Tunahiko Sidei

1963-01-01

108

Targeted radiotherapy dosimetry of 153Sm hydroxide macroaggregates for radiation synovectomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dosimetry of the recently developed 153Sm hydroxide macroaggregates (153Sm-MH) for radiation synovectomy has been studied as an agent for the treatment of arthritic synovial joint diseases. This pharmaceutical formulation presents optimal properties in terms of particle size (average 4 ?m) sedimentation (0.008 cm min-1) and biological behavior. Direct measurements of depth dose distributions for this beta-gamma emitter present a difficult task; therefore, calculations of depth dose profiles are an invaluable tool for investigating the effectiveness of this therapeutic technique. In spite of the importance of these calculations there are only a few studies dealing with the experimental validation of these calculated depth dose distributions. On the present work the Monte Carlo (MCNP4B) calculated beta-gamma depth dose profiles for a liquid 153Sm beta-gamma source used in radiation synovectomy are compared with experimental depth dose distribution obtained using radiochromic dye film dosimetry (GafChromic). The calculated and experimental depth dose distribution showed a very good agreement (within 5%) on the region where the dose deposition is dominated by the bta-particle component (first 800 microns depth on tissue equivalent material). The agreement worsens reaching a maximum deviation of 15% at depths close to the maximum range of the beta-particles. Finally the agreement improves for the region where the gamma component accounts for one third of the total absorbed dose (depths>1 mm). The possible contributions to these differences are discussed as well as their relevance for the application of 153Sm for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

Villarreal, Jos E.; Ferro, Guillermina; Hernndez, Omar; Carmona, Juan

2001-10-01

109

Impact of Track Structure Effects on Shielding and Dosimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) consisting of nuclei of all the known elements with kinetic energies extending from tens to millions of MeV pose a significant health hazard to future deep space operations. Even half of the radiation exposures expected in ISS will result from GCR components. The biological actions of these radiations are known to depend on the details of the energy deposition (not just linear energy transfer, LET, but the lateral dispersion of energy deposition about the particle track). Energy deposits in tissues are dominated by the transfer of tens to hundreds of eV to the tissue's atomic electrons. In the case of low LET radiations, the collisions are separated by large dimensions compared to the size of important biomolecular structures. If such events are also separated in time, then the radiation adds little to the background of radicals occurring from ordinary metabolic processes and causes little or no biological injury. Hence, dose rate is a strong determinant of the action of low LET exposures. The GCR exposures are dominated by ions of high charge and energy (HZE) characterized by many collisions with atomic electrons over biomolecular dimensions, resulting in high radical- density events associated with a few isolated ion paths through the cell and minimal dose rate dependence at ordinary exposure levels. The HZE energy deposit declines quickly laterally and merges with the background radical density in the track periphery for which the exact lateral distribution of the energy deposit is the determinant of the biological injury. Although little data exists on human exposures from HZE radiations, limited studies in mice and mammalian cell cultures allow evaluation of the effects of track structure on shield attenuation properties and evaluation of implications for dosimetry. The most complete mammalian cell HZE exposure data sets have been modeled including the C3H10T1/2 survival and transformation data of Yang et al., the V79 survival and mutation data of various groups, and the Harderian gland tumor data of Alpen et al. Model results for the Harderian gland tumor data in comparison with data from Alpen et al. The Harderian target cell initiation cross section compares closely with the transformation cross section found for the C3H10T1/2 cell transformation data of Yang et al. The most notable feature of the cross sections are the multivalued cross sections for a given LET which implies the corresponding relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is dependent not only on the LET but also the ion type. This fact is at variance with the latest ICRP recommended quality factor which is a defined function of only the LET.

Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Schimmerling, W.; Kim, M. Y.

1999-01-01

110

RADIATION DOSIMETRY AT THE BNL HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR AND MEDICAL RESEARCH REACTOR.  

SciTech Connect

RADIATION DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS HAVE BEEN PERFORMED OVER A PERIOD OF MANY YEARS AT THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR (HFBR) AND THE MEDICAL RESEARCH REACTOR (BMRR) AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ON THE ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEUTRON FLUX, NEUTRON DOSE RATES, GAMMA-RAY FLUXES AND GAMMA-RAY DOSE RATES. THE MCNP PARTICLE TRANSPORT CODE PROVIDED MONTE CARLO RESULTS TO COMPARE WITH VARIOUS DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS PERFORMED AT THE EXPERIMENTAL PORTS, AT THE TREATMENT ROOMS AND IN THE THIMBLES AT BOTH HFBR AND BMRR.

HOLDEN,N.E.

1999-09-10

111

Analytical and experimental dosimetry techniques for calibrating a low energy X-ray radiation source  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the method used to calibrate a large-volume continuous-wave X-ray radiation test chamber. The X-ray tube has a tungsten target and emits a bremsstrahlung X-ray spectrum with end point energies up to 160 keV. Analytical tools and experimental dosimetry techniques were developed to map the radiation field intensity and the resulting dose-deposition profiles in a variety of materials

R. D. Bellem; K. L. Critchfield; R. M. Pelzl; R. D. Pugh; R. W. Tallon

1994-01-01

112

Effect of recent changes in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on cancer mortality risk estimates.  

PubMed

The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has recently implemented a new dosimetry system, DS02, to replace the previous system, DS86. This paper assesses the effect of the change on risk estimates for radiation-related solid cancer and leukemia mortality. The changes in dose estimates were smaller than many had anticipated, with the primary systematic change being an increase of about 10% in gamma-ray estimates for both cities. In particular, an anticipated large increase of the neutron component in Hiroshima for low-dose survivors did not materialize. However, DS02 improves on DS86 in many details, including the specifics of the radiation released by the bombs and the effects of shielding by structures and terrain. The data used here extend the last reported follow-up for solid cancers by 3 years, with a total of 10,085 deaths, and extends the follow-up for leukemia by 10 years, with a total of 296 deaths. For both solid cancer and leukemia, estimated age-time patterns and sex difference are virtually unchanged by the dosimetry revision. The estimates of solid-cancer radiation risk per sievert and the curvilinear dose response for leukemia are both decreased by about 8% by the dosimetry revision, due to the increase in the gamma-ray dose estimates. The apparent shape of the dose response is virtually unchanged by the dosimetry revision, but for solid cancers, the additional 3 years of follow-up has some effect. In particular, there is for the first time a statistically significant upward curvature for solid cancer on the restricted dose range 0-2 Sv. However, the low-dose slope of a linear-quadratic fit to that dose range should probably not be relied on for risk estimation, since that is substantially smaller than the linear slopes on ranges 0-1 Sv, 0-0.5 Sv, and 0- 0.25 Sv. Although it was anticipated that the new dosimetry system might reduce some apparent dose overestimates for Nagasaki factory workers, this did not materialize, and factory workers have significantly lower risk estimates. Whether or not one makes allowance for this, there is no statistically significant city difference in the estimated cancer risk. PMID:15447045

Preston, Dale L; Pierce, Donald A; Shimizu, Yukiko; Cullings, Harry M; Fujita, Shoichiro; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kodama, Kazunori

2004-10-01

113

Application of radiation physics to improve dosimetry in early breast cancer radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Radiotherapy for early breast cancer has been shown to be a highly effective treatment in a number of long term studies. The radiation dose uniformity of the current standard treatments is often poor, however, with dose variations across the breast much higher than those recommended in international guidelines. This work aimed to explore methods for improving this aspect of the radiation dosimetry of early breast cancer radiotherapy. An experimental method was validated by applying it to computed tomography data from 14 patients with a variety of breast shapes and sizes. The volume of the breast receiving the desired dose levels increased by a mean of 6.9% (range -0.8% to 15.9%) and this benefit was shown to increase with breast volume. The quality of reference images in the verification of treatments was improved by introducing differential filtering to the imaging beams on a radiotherapy simulator. The positive results from the first two studies were applied in a clinical trial (which used the experimental technique). The unique set of data from the trial was analyzed and confirmation of dosimetric improvement, and the increased benefit, for larger breasted women were found. In addition, an analysis of the position of high doses showed these occurred in the upper or lower third of the breast and affected 46% and 30% of patients, respectively, with standard treatment but only 1% of patients with the improved method. Other published methods for improving breast dosimetry were explored by building a simple physical model and carrying out a comparative planning study. The physical model was shown to be effective in predicting the dosimetric consequences of each method. The planning study showed that there was little difference between the methods generally but dosimetric improvement could be increased for larger breast volumes by an appropriate choice of technique. A final study explored how breathing control could be used to reduce cardiac doses in patients with left breast disease. This work has shown that early breast cancer radiotherapy treatments may be significantly improved by applying principles of radiation physics.

Donovan, Ellen Mary [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Downs Road, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)

2005-07-15

114

A portable organic plastic scintillator dosimetry system for low energy X-rays: A feasibility study using an intraoperative X-ray unit as the radiation source  

PubMed Central

The effective use of near water equivalent organic plastic scintillators (OPS) for radiation dosimetry with high-energy sources under laboratory conditions is recognized. In this work, an OPS-based dosimeter using a photodiode combined with improved solid state detection and signal processing techniques has been developed; it offers the potential for the construction of a stable and fully portable dosimeter which will extend the useful range of measurement beyond the usual MeV area and provide reliable readings down to sub-100 keV X-ray energy levels. In these experiments, the instrument described has been used for the dosimetry of INTRABEAM intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) equipment at distances as low as 1.8 mm from the effective source, i.e., 0.2 mm from the X-ray probe surface. Comparison is shown with dosimetry measurements made using the calibrated reference ion chamber supplied by the IORT equipment manufacturer. PMID:21157539

Williams, Kerry; Robinson, Neil; Trapp, Jamie; Ackerly, Trevor; Das, Ram; Kemp, Penny; Geso, Moshi

2007-01-01

115

Monte Carlo modeling in CT-based geometries: dosimetry for biological modeling experiments with particle beam radiation  

PubMed Central

The space radiation environment imposes increased dangers of exposure to ionizing radiation, particularly during a solar particle event (SPE). These events consist primarily of low energy protons that produce a highly inhomogeneous dose distribution. Due to this inherent dose heterogeneity, experiments designed to investigate the radiobiological effects of SPE radiation present difficulties in evaluating and interpreting dose to sensitive organs. To address this challenge, we used the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation framework to develop dosimetry software that uses computed tomography (CT) images and provides radiation transport simulations incorporating all relevant physical interaction processes. We found that this simulation accurately predicts measured data in phantoms and can be applied to model dose in radiobiological experiments with animal models exposed to charged particle (electron and proton) beams. This study clearly demonstrates the value of Monte Carlo radiation transport methods for two critically interrelated uses: (i) determining the overall dose distribution and dose levels to specific organ systems for animal experiments with SPE-like radiation, and (ii) interpreting the effect of random and systematic variations in experimental variables (e.g. animal movement during long exposures) on the dose distributions and consequent biological effects from SPE-like radiation exposure. The software developed and validated in this study represents a critically important new tool that allows integration of computational and biological modeling for evaluating the biological outcomes of exposures to inhomogeneous SPE-like radiation dose distributions, and has potential applications for other environmental and therapeutic exposure simulations. PMID:24309720

Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Dolney, Derek; Schaettler, Maximilian; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Mcdonough, James; Cengel, Keith A.

2014-01-01

116

EBT GAFCHROMIC{sup TM} film dosimetry in compensator-based intensity modulated radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

The electron benefit transfer (EBT) GAFCHROMIC films possess a number of features making them appropriate for high-quality dosimetry in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Compensators to deliver IMRT are known to change the beam-energy spectrum as well as to produce scattered photons and to contaminate electrons; therefore, the accuracy and validity of EBT-film dosimetry in compensator-based IMRT should be investigated. Percentage-depth doses and lateral-beam profiles were measured using EBT films in perpendicular orientation with respect to 6 and 18 MV photon beam energies for: (1) different thicknesses of cerrobend slab (open, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 cm), field sizes (55, 1010, and 2020 cm{sup 2}), and measurement depths (D{sub max}, 5.0 and 10.0 cm); and (2) step-wedged compensator in a solid phantom. To verify results, same measurements were implemented using a 0.125 cm{sup 3} ionization chamber in a water phantom and also in Monte Carlo simulations using the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code. The mean energy of photons was increased due to beam hardening in comparison with open fields at both 6 and 18 MV energies. For a 2020 cm{sup 2} field size of a 6 MV photon beam and a 6.0 cm thick block, the surface dose decreased by about 12% and percentage-depth doses increased up to 3% at 30.0 cm depth, due to the beam-hardening effect induced by the block. In contrast, at 18 MV, the surface dose increased by about 8% and depth dose reduced by 3% at 30.0 cm depth. The penumbral widths (80% to 20%) increase with block thickness, field size, and beam energy. The EBT film results were in good agreement with the ionization chamber dose profiles and Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code simulation behind the step-wedged compensator. Also, there was a good agreement between the EBT-film and the treatment-planning results on the anthropomorphic phantom. The EBT films can be accurately used as a 2D dosimeter for dose verification and quality assurance of compensator-based C-IMRT.

Vaezzadeh, Seyedali [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahverdi, Mahmoud, E-mail: alahverdi@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of RadiotherapyOncology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nedaie, Hasan A. [Department of RadiotherapyOncology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ay, Mohammadreza [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirazi, Alireza; Yarahmadi, Mehran [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-07-01

117

Risks of circulatory diseases among Mayak PA workers with radiation doses estimated using the improved Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008.  

PubMed

The new Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008 (MWDS-2008) was published in 2013 and supersedes the Doses-2005 dosimetry system for Mayak Production Association (PA) workers. It provides revised external and internal dose estimates based on the updated occupational history data. Using MWDS-2008, a cohort of 18,856 workers first employed at one of the main Mayak PA plants during 1948-1972 and followed up to 2005 was identified. Incidence and mortality risks from ischemic heart disease (IHD) (International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 codes 410-414) and from cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) (ICD-9 codes 430-438) were examined in this cohort and compared with previously published risk estimates in the same cohort based on the Doses-2005 dosimetry system. Significant associations were observed between doses from external gamma-rays and IHD and CVD incidence and also between internal doses from alpha-radiation and IHD mortality and CVD incidence. The estimates of excess relative risk (ERR)/Gy were consistent with those estimates from the previous studies based on Doses-2005 system apart from the relationship between CVD incidence and internal liver dose where the ERR/Gy based on MWDS-2008 was just over three times higher than the corresponding estimate based on Doses-2005 system. Adjustment for smoking status did not show any effect on the estimates of risk from internal alpha-particle exposure. PMID:24482017

Moseeva, Maria B; Azizova, Tamara V; Grigoryeva, Evgenia S; Haylock, Richard

2014-05-01

118

Energy absorption buildup factors, exposure buildup factors and Kerma for optically stimulated luminescence materials and their tissue equivalence for radiation dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) materials are sensitive dosimetric materials used for precise and accurate dose measurement for low-energy ionizing radiation. Low dose measurement capability with improved sensitivity makes these dosimeters very useful for diagnostic imaging, personnel monitoring and environmental radiation dosimetry. Gamma ray energy absorption buildup factors and exposure build factors were computed for OSL materials using the five-parameter Geometric Progression (G-P) fitting method in the energy range 0.015-15 MeV for penetration depths up to 40 mean free path. The computed energy absorption buildup factor and exposure buildup factor values were studied as a function of penetration depth and incident photon energy. Effective atomic numbers and Kerma relative to air of the selected OSL materials and tissue equivalence were computed and compared with that of water, PMMA and ICRU standard tissues. The buildup factors and kerma relative to air were found dependent upon effective atomic numbers. Buildup factors determined in the present work should be useful in radiation dosimetry, medical diagnostics and therapy, space dosimetry, accident dosimetry and personnel monitoring.

Singh, Vishwanath P.; Badiger, N. M.

2014-11-01

119

Ultrasound Thermometry for Therapy-level Radiation Dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation oncology is the process of administering a specified dose of radiation to a patient currently receiving treatment for a form of cancer. In this process, it is vital to know the delivered dose for a given radiation beam to correctly treat a patient. The primary reference standard for absorbed dose is established using water calorimetry. The absorbed dose, typically

Courtney Taylor

2010-01-01

120

18F-Fluorothymidine Radiation Dosimetry in Human PET Imaging Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

3-Deoxy-3-18F-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) is a PET imaging agent that shows promise for studying cellular proliferation in human cancers. FLT is a nucleoside analog that enters cells and is phosphorylated by human thymidine kinase 1, but the 3 substitution prevents further incorporation into DNA. We esti- mated the radiation dosimetry for this tracer from data gathered in patient studies. Methods: Time-dependent tissue

Hubert Vesselle; John Grierson; Lanell M. Peterson; Mark Muzi; David A. Mankoff; Kenneth A. Krohn

121

Targeted radiotherapy dosimetry of 153Sm hydroxide macroaggregates for radiation synovectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dosimetry of the recently developed 153Sm hydroxide macroaggregates (153Sm-MH) for radiation synovectomy has been studied as an agent for the treatment of arthritic synovial joint diseases. This pharmaceutical formulation presents optimal properties in terms of particle size (average 4 ?m) sedimentation (0.008 cm min?1) and biological behavior. Direct measurements of depth dose distributions for this beta-gamma emitter present a

Jose E. Villarreal; Guillermina Ferro; Omar Hernandez; Juan Carmona

2001-01-01

122

Targeted radiotherapy dosimetry of 153Sm hydroxide macroaggregates for radiation synovectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dosimetry of the recently developed 153Sm hydroxide macroaggregates (153Sm-MH) for radiation synovectomy has been studied as an agent for the treatment of arthritic synovial joint diseases. This pharmaceutical formulation presents optimal properties in terms of particle size (average 4 mum) sedimentation (0.008 cm min-1) and biological behavior. Direct measurements of depth dose distributions for this beta-gamma emitter present a

Jos E. Villarreal; Guillermina Ferro; Omar Hernndez; Juan Carmona

2001-01-01

123

ASSESSMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE RADIATION DOSES FOR THE TECHA RIVER DOSIMETRY SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide more accurate and precise estimates of individual dose (and thus more precise estimates of radiation risk) for the members of the ETRC, a new dosimetric calculation system, the Techa River Dosimetry System-2009 (TRDS-2009) has been prepared. The deterministic version of the improved dosimetry system TRDS-2009D was basically completed in April 2009. Recent developments in evaluation of dose-response models in light of uncertain dose have highlighted the importance of different types of uncertainties in the development of individual dose estimates. These include uncertain parameters that may be either shared or unshared within the dosimetric cohort, and also the nature of the type of uncertainty as aleatory or epistemic and either classical or Berkson. This report identifies the nature of the various input parameters and calculational methods incorporated in the Techa River Dosimetry System (based on the TRDS-2009D implementation), with the intention of preparing a stochastic version to estimate the uncertainties in the dose estimates. This report reviews the equations, databases, and input parameters, and then identifies the authors interpretations of their general nature. It presents the approach selected so that the stochastic, Monte-Carlo, implementation of the dosimetry System - TRDS-2009MC - will provide useful information regarding the uncertainties of the doses.

Napier, Bruce A.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Shagina, N. B.

2009-10-23

124

GENII: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 1, Conceptual representation  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). The purpose of this coupled system of computer codes is to analyze environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil. This is accomplished by calculating radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. The third volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the user who requires knowledge of code detail. It includes code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets, example hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. 72 refs., 15 figs., 34 tabs.

Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

1988-12-01

125

Space radiation shielding analysis and dosimetry for the Space Shuttle program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active and passive radiation dosimeters have been flown on every Space Shuttle mission to measure the naturally-occurring, background Van Allen and galactic cosmic radiation doses that astronauts and radiation-sensitive experiments and payloads receive. A review of the various models utilized at the NASA/Johnson Space Center, Radiation Analysis and Dosimetry is presented. An analytical shielding model of the Shuttle was developed as an engineering tool to aid in making premission radiation dose calculations and is discussed in detail. The anatomical man models are also discussed. A comparison between the onboard dosimeter measurements for the 24 Shuttle missions to date and the dose calculations using the radiation environment and shielding models is presented.

Atwell, William; Beever, E. R.; Hardy, A. C.; Richmond, R. G.; Cash, B. L.

1989-01-01

126

Radiation effects test facility at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beam line end station, associated instrumentation and dosimetry used at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility for radiation effects research and testing with up to 200 MeV protons are described. Access to beam for radiation effects studies is greatly enhanced by the capability to share beam with other users on a millisecond time scale. Use of shared beam mandates that

C. C. Foster; S. L. Casey; A. L. Johnson; P. Miesle; N. Sifri; A. H. Skees; K. M. Murray

1997-01-01

127

Dosimetry associated with exposure to non-ionizing radiation: very low frequency to microwaves.  

PubMed

The interpretation of the effects in biological systems exposed to electromagnetic (EM) fields requires knowledge of the internal fields and absorbed energy. The quantification of the specific absorption rate (SAR) is called dosimetry. The SAR given in units of watts per kilogram is a complex function of the source configuration, shape and size of the exposed subjects, orientation of the subject with respect to the source, and the frequency. The average and maximum SAR in the exposed subject may vary over many orders of magnitude for a given exposure level. In order to relate observed biological effects in exposed laboratory animals to safe exposure levels for man, both the fields within the environment and SAR within the exposed tissues must be determined. The environmental fields and the SAR can often be determined from EM theory, but in most cases one must rely on instrumentation such as field survey meters for quantifying the exposure fields and electric field probes, thermocouples, thermistors, fiber optic probes, thermography, and calorimetry for quantifying the SAR in the tissues or equivalent models. A combination of techniques, each valid for a particular model over a particular frequency range, have been used to determine average and peak SARs in humans and animals exposed to plane wave radiation. Though it has been considerably more difficult to quantify these quantities for near field and partial-body exposure conditions, progress is continually being made in this area. PMID:3679822

Guy, A W

1987-12-01

128

Computational dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a definition of the term ``Computational Dosimetry`` that is interpreted as the sub-discipline of computational physics which is devoted to radiation metrology. It is shown that computational dosimetry is more than a mere collection of computational methods. Computational simulations directed at basic understanding and modelling are important tools provided by computational dosimetry, while another very important application is the support that it can give to the design, optimization and analysis of experiments. However, the primary task of computational dosimetry is to reduce the variance in the determination of absorbed dose (and its related quantities), for example in the disciplines of radiological protection and radiation therapy. In this paper emphasis is given to the discussion of potential pitfalls in the applications of computational dosimetry and recommendations are given for their avoidance. The need for comparison of calculated and experimental data whenever possible is strongly stressed.

Siebert, B.R.L.; Thomas, R.H.

1996-01-01

129

The Schwarzschild effect of the dosimetry film Kodak EDR 2.  

PubMed

The magnitude of the Schwarzschild effect or failure of the reciprocity law has been experimentally investigated for the dosimetry film EDR 2 from Kodak. When the dose rate applied to achieve a given dose was reduced by a factor of 12, the net optical density was reduced by up to 5%. The clinical importance of this effect is negligible as long as the films are calibrated at a value of the dose rate approximately representative of the dose rates occurring in the target volume, but in target regions of strongly reduced dose rate the Schwarzschild effect should be allowed for by a correction of the net optical density. PMID:16237231

Djouguela, A; Kollhoff, R; Rubach, A; Harder, D; Poppe, B

2005-11-01

130

1987 Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, Snowmass Village, CO, July 28-31, 1987, Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various papers on nuclear and space radiation effects are presented. The general topics addressed include: basic mechanisms of radiation effects, single-event phenomena, temperature and field effects, modeling and characterization of radiation effects, IC radiation effects and hardening, and EMP/SGEMP/IEMP phenomena. Also considered are: dosimetry/energy-dependent effects, sensors in and for radiation environments, spacecraft charging and space radiation effects, radiation effects and devices, radiation effects on isolation technologies, and hardness assurance and testing techniques.

1987-01-01

131

Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation: In Search of an Ideal Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Proper dose measurement skills are of the utmost importance for all applications of ionizing radiation in medicine. For years,\\u000a since the discovery of ionizing radiation, the delivered dose to exposed people has been evaluated by means of subjective\\u000a methods. In radiotherapy, the unit erythema dose was widely used. The erythema dose was connected to the reaction of the\\u000a skin to

Pawel Kukolowicz

132

An EPR dosimetry method for rapid scanning of children following a radiation accident using deciduous teeth  

SciTech Connect

Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry may be applied to whole deciduous teeth of children. This makes it feasible to make direct measurement of absorbed gamma ray dose in the days and weeks following a nuclear accident, particularly if used in conjunction with a public awareness program. The technique reported here requires little sample preparation and has resulted in precision of approximately 30 mGy (1 {sigma}) for a deciduous incisor. Under conditions for rapid screening procedures, the methodology is estimated to provide 0.5 Gy accuracy. The largest error in the process is the determination of an appropriate background native signal for subtraction from the whole tooth spectrum. The native signal is superimposed on the radiation-induced signal, and the subtraction requires knowledge of a sample`s relative content of enamel and dentin along with their relative native signal intensities. Using a composite background standard, an equivalent absorbed dose of 70 {+-} 38 mGy (1 {sigma}) was determined. The lower detection limit of the technique was achieved by the elimination of anisotropic effects through rotation of the sample during measurement, together with subtraction of the standard native background signal and empty tube background spectra from the sample spectra.

Haskell, E.H.; Hayes, R.B.; Kenner, G.H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1999-02-01

133

A method for estimating occupational radiation dose to individuals, using weekly dosimetry data  

SciTech Connect

Statistical analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to radiation have been based on recorded annual radiation doses. It is usually assumed that the annual dose values are known exactly, although it is generally recognized that the data contain uncertainty due to measurement error and bias. We propose the use of a probability distribution to describe an individual`s dose during a specific period of time. Statistical methods for estimating this dose distribution are developed. The methods take into account the ``measurement error`` that is produced by the dosimetry system, and the bias that was introduced by policies that lead to right censoring of small doses as zero. The method is applied to a sample of dose histories obtained from hard copy dosimetry records at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The result of this evaluation raises serious questions about the validity of the historical personnel dosimetry data that is currently being used in low-dose studies of nuclear industry workers. In particular, it appears that there was a systematic underestimation of doses for ORNL workers. This could result in biased estimates of dose-response coefficients and their standard errors.

Mitchell, T.J.; Ostrouchov, G.; Frome, E.L.; Kerr, G.D.

1993-12-01

134

Dosimetry protocol for the preclinical trials in white-beam minibeam radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In the quest of a curative radiotherapy treatment for gliomas, new delivery modes are being explored. At the Biomedical Beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, a new spatially fractionated technique, called minibeam radiation therapy (MBRT), is under development. The aims of this work were to assess different dosimetric aspects and to establish a dosimetry protocol to be applied in the forthcoming animal (rat) studies in order to evaluate the therapeutic index of this new radiotherapy approach. Methods: Absolute dosimetry was performed with a thimble ionization chamber (PTW semiflex 31010) whose center was positioned at 2 g cm{sup -2} depth. To translate the dose measured in broad beam configuration to the dose deposited with a minibeam, the scatter factors were used. Those were assessed by using the Monte Carlo simulations and verified experimentally with Gafchromic films and a Bragg Peak chamber. The comparison of the theoretical and experimental data were used to benchmark the calculations. Finally, the dose distributions in a rat phantom were evaluated by using the validated Monte Carlo calculations. Results: The absolute dosimetry in broad beam configuration was measured in reference conditions. The dose rate was in the range between 168 and 224 Gy/min, depending on the storage ring current. A scatter factor of 0.80 {+-} 0.04 was obtained. Percentage depth dose and lateral profiles were evaluated both in homogenous and heterogeneous slab phantoms. The general good agreement between Monte Carlo simulations and experimental data permitted the benchmark of the calculations. Finally, the peak doses in the rat head phantom were assessed from the measurements in reference conditions. In addition, the peak-to-valley dose ratio values as a function of depth in the rat head were evaluated. Conclusions: A new promising radiotherapy approach is being explored at the ESRF: Minibeam Radiation Therapy. To assess the therapeutic index of this new modality, in vivo experiments are being planned, for which an accurate knowledge of the dosimetry is essential. For that purpose, a complete set of measurements and Monte Carlo simulations was performed. The first dosimetry protocol for preclinical trials in minibeam radiation therapy was established. This protocol allows to have reproducibility in terms of dose for the different biological studies.

Prezado, Y.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Thengumpallil, S.; Deman, P. [ID17 Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6, Rue Jules Horowitz B.P.220, 38043 Grenoble (France); ID17 Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6, Rue Jules Horowitz B.P. 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France) and Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); ID17 Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6, Rue Jules Horowitz B.P.220, 38043 Grenoble (France) and Dipartimento di Fisica ''E. Amaldi'', Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, 84, Via della Vasca Navale, 00146 Rome (Italy); ID17 Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6, Rue Jules Horowitz B.P.220, 38043 Grenoble (France); INSERM, U836, Equipe 6, F-38042 Grenoble 9 (France) and University Grenoble 1, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

2011-09-15

135

Selective internal radiation therapy: validation of intraoperative dosimetry.  

PubMed

In selective internal radiation (SIR) therapy of hepatic metastases, tumor vasculature is preferentially embolized with high-energy beta-emitting yttrium-90-labeled microspheres. To enable accurate estimation of the resultant absorbed radiation doses to tissues, an intraoperative beta detection probe is used to scan the liver surface. The validity of the response of this probe to Y-90 and its clinical application were assessed with a phantom containing varying activities and with biopsy samples obtained from patients being treated with SIR therapy. A linear relationship was found between the probe counts taken from the biopsy samples and the calculated tissue radiation doses from the specific activities of each sample. This relationship was repeated with probe counts determined against a water phantom containing various activities of Y-90. The probe was shown to respond minimally to bremsstrahlung. The use of the probe in measuring tissue radiation doses at laparotomy provides the opportunity to control dose administration during SIR therapy. In this way, subtherapeutic exposure of normal tissue can be assured while tumor tissue receives maximal radiation levels. PMID:2315490

Burton, M A; Gray, B N; Kelleher, D K; Klemp, P F

1990-04-01

136

Space radiation dosimetry on US and Soviet manned missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation measurements obtained on board U.S. and Soviet spacecraft are presented and discussed. A considerable amount of data has now been collected and analyzed from measurements with a variety of detector types in low-Earth orbit. The objectives of these measurements have been to investigate the dose and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra within the complex shielding of large spacecraft. The shielding modifies the external radiation (trapped protons, electrons, cosmic ray nuclei) which, in turn, is quite dependent on orbital parameters (altitude, inclination). For manned flights, these measurements provide a crew exposure record and a data base for future spacecraft design and flight planning. For the scientific community they provide useful information for planning and analyzing data from experiments with high sensitivity to radiation. In this paper, results of measurements by both passive and active detectors are described. High-LET spectra measurements were obtained by means of plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD's) while thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) measured the dose.

Parnell, T. A.; Benton, E. V.

1995-01-01

137

A Novel Technique for Performing Space Based Radiation Dosimetry Using DNA-Results from GRaDEx-I and the Design of GRaDEx-II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the large amounts of cosmic radiation in the space environment relative to that on earth, the effects of radiation on the physiology of astronauts is of major concern. Doses of radiation which can cause acute or chronic biological effects are to be avoided, therefore determination of the amount of radiation exposure encountered during space flight and assessment of its impact on biological systems is critical. Quantifying the radiation dosage and damage to biological systems, especially to humans during repetitive high altitude flight and during long duration space flight is important for several reasons. Radiation can cause altered biosynthesis and long term genotoxicity resulting in cancer and birth defects etc. Radiation damage to biological systems depends in a complex way on incident radiation species and their energy spectra. Typically non-biological, i.e. film or electronic monitoring systems with narrow energy band sensitivity are used to perform dosimetry and then results are extrapolated to biological models. For this reason it may be desirable to perform radiation dosimetry by using biological molecules e.g. DNA or RNA strands as passive sensors. A lightweight genotoxicology experiment was constructed to determine the degree to which in vitro naked DNA extracted from tissues of a variety of vertebrate organisms is damaged by exposure to radiation in a space environment. The DNA is assayed by means of agarose gel electrophoresis to determine damage such as strand breakage caused by high momentum particles and photons, and base oxidation caused by free radicals. The length distribution of DNA fragments is directly correlated with the radiation dose. It is hoped that a low mass, low cost, passive biological system to determine dose response relationship (increase in strand breaks with increase in exposure) can be developed to perform radiation dosimetry in support of long duration space flight, and to predict negative effects on biological systems (e.g. astronauts and greenhouses) in space. The payload was flown in a 2.5 cubic foot Get Away Special (GAS) container through NASA's GAS program. It was subjected to the environment of the space shuttle cargo bay for the duration of the STS-91 mission (9 days). Results of the genotoxicology and radiation dosimetry experiment (GRaDEx-1) as well as the design of an improved follow on payload are presented.

Ritter, Joe; Branly, R.; Theodorakis, C.; Bickham, J.; Swartz, C.; Friedfeld, R.; Ackerman, E.; Carruthers, C.; DiGirolamo, A.; Faranda, J.

1999-01-01

138

A Novel Technique for Performing Space Based Radiation Dosimetry Using DNA: Results from GRaDEx-I and the Design of GRaDEx-II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the large amounts of cosmic radiation in the space environment relative to that on earth, the effects of radiation on the physiology of astronauts is of major concern. Doses of radiation which can cause acute or chronic biological effects are to be avoided, therefore determination of the amount of radiation exposure encountered during space flight and assessment of its impact on biological systems is critical. Quantifying the radiation dosage and damage to biological systems, especially to humans during repetitive high altitude flight and during long duration space flight is important for several reasons. Radiation can cause altered biosynthesis and long term genotoxicity resulting in cancer and birth defects, etc. Radiation damage to biological systems depends in a complex way on incident radiation species and their energy spectra. Typically non-biological, i.e. film or electronic monitoring systems with narrow energy band sensitivity are used to perform dosimetry and then results are extrapolated to biological models. For this reason it may be desirable to perform radiation dosimetry by using biological molecules e.g. DNA or RNA strands as passive sensors. A lightweight genotoxicology experiment was constructed to determine the degree to which in-vitro naked DNA extracted from tissues of a variety of vertebrate organisms is damaged by exposure to radiation in a space environment. The DNA is assayed by means of agarose gel electrophoresis to determine damage such as strand breakage caused by high momentum particles and photons, and base oxidation caused by free radicals. The length distribution of DNA fragments is directly correlated with the radiation dose. It is hoped that a low mass, low cost, passive biological system to determine dose-response relationship (increase in strand breaks with increase in exposure) can be developed to perform radiation dosimetry in support of long duration space flight, and to predict negative effects on biological systems (e.g. astronauts and greenhouses) in space. The payload was flown in a 2.5 cubic foot Get Away Special (GAS) container through NASA's GAS program. It was subjected to the environment of the space shuttle cargo bay for the duration of the STS-91 mission (9 days). Results of the genotoxicology and radiation dosimetry experiment (GRaDEx-I) as well as the design of an improved follow on payload are presented.

Ritter, Joe; Branly, R.; Theodorakis, C.; Bickham, J.; Swartz, C.; Friedfeld, R.; Ackerman, E.; Carruthers, C.; DiGirolamo, A.; Faranda, J.; Howard, E.; Bruno, C.

1999-01-01

139

Biological effects of radiation accidents on humans. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the impact of radiation accidents on humans. Citations discuss exposure assessment, malfunction and misuse of radiation sources, dosimetry, radiation epidemiology, radiation-induced neoplasms, and nuclear facility licensing. Environmental and occupational exposures, case studies, nuclear fallout, and radiation effects on food chains are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-06-01

140

MIXED RADIATION DOSIMETRY OF A PLUTONIUM-BERYLLIUM NEUTRON SOURCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dose rate delivered to an assumed standard tissue by the fast-; neutron and gamma -radiation from a standard 1 c plutonium-beryllium neutron ; source was determined by measurements with ethylene-filled polyethylene and CO\\/; sub 2-\\/ filled Teflon ionization chambers. The resulting ionization currents as ; measured with a calibrated vibrating-reed electrometer were used to obtain a ; measure of

Donald C. Lawrence

1962-01-01

141

Internal dosimetry for radiation therapy in coronary arteries.  

PubMed

Acute myocardial infarction, which occurs because of the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries, is the most common form of cardiovascular disease. Balloon angioplasty is often used to treat coronary artery occlusion and is less invasive than surgery involving revascularisation of the myocardium, thus promising a better quality of life for patients. Unfortunately, the rate of re-stenosis after balloon angioplasty is high (approximately 30-50% within the first year after treatment). Intravascular radiation therapy has been used with several types of radiation source, and researchers have observed some success in decreasing the rate of re-stenosis. In this paper theoretical radiation dose distributions for monoenergetic electrons (with discrete energies) and photons are calculated for blood vessels of diameter 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 mm with balloon and wire sources using the radiation transport code MCNP4B. Stent sources employing 32P are also simulated. Advantages and disadvantages of the radionuclides and source geometries are discussed, as well as issues regarding possible benefits to the patients. PMID:12382782

Compos, L; Stabin, M

2002-01-01

142

Ion-kill dosimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unanticipated late effects in neutron and heavy ion therapy, not attributable to overdose, imply a qualitative difference between low and high LET therapy. We identify that difference as 'ion kill', associated with the spectrum of z/beta in the radiation field, whose measurement we label 'ion-kill dosimetry'.

Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Fromm, M.; Chambaudet, A.

2001-01-01

143

Radiation-hardness testing of electronic devices: a survey of facility dosimetry practices. Final report Jan--Sep 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a program to develop better quality assurance in the measurement of total dose in the field of radiation-hardness testing of electronic devices, a survey was conducted at twelve radiation test facilities. The survey was carried out through personal visits during which various characteristics of the test facilities and dosimetry procedures were noted. This report summarizes the results

J. C. Humphreys; S. E. Chappell

1976-01-01

144

Genetic and molecular dosimetry of HZE radiation (7-IML-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the study are to determine the kinetics of production and to characterize the unique aspects of genetic and developmental lesion induced in animal cells by radiation present in the space environment. Special attention is given to heavy charged particles. The organism Caenorhabditis elegans, a simple nematode, is used as a model system for a coordinated set of ground-based and flight experiments.

Nelson, Gregory A.

1992-01-01

145

Gene Expression-Based Dosimetry by Dose and Time in Mice Following Acute Radiation Exposure  

PubMed Central

Rapid and reliable methods for performing biological dosimetry are of paramount importance in the event of a large-scale nuclear event. Traditional dosimetry approaches lack the requisite rapid assessment capability, ease of use, portability and low cost, which are factors needed for triaging a large number of victims. Here we describe the results of experiments in which mice were acutely exposed to 60Co gamma rays at doses of 0 (control) to 10 Gy. Blood was obtained from irradiated mice 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days after exposure. mRNA expression levels of 106 selected genes were obtained by reverse-transcription real time PCR. Stepwise regression of dose received against individual gene transcript expression levels provided optimal dosimetry at each time point. The results indicate that only 47 different gene transcripts are needed to explain ? 0.69 of the variance (R2), and that receiver-operator characteristics, a measure of sensitivity and specificity, of ? 0.93 for these statistical models were achieved at each time point. These models provide an excellent description of the relationship between the actual and predicted doses up to 6 Gy. At doses of 8 and 10 Gy there appears to be saturation of the radiation-response signals with a corresponding diminution of accuracy. These results suggest that similar analyses in humans may be advantageous for use in a field-portable device designed to assess exposures in mass casualty situations. PMID:24358280

Tucker, James D.; Divine, George W.; Grever, William E.; Thomas, Robert A.; Joiner, Michael C.; Smolinski, Joseph M.; Auner, Gregory W.

2013-01-01

146

Geometric correction for spherical ion chambers. [space radiation dosimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dose at the center and the average dose of a spherical ion chamber were calculated for various inner and outer radii for a radiation spectrum described by E raised to a negative exponent, where the exponent ranges from 2.5 to 7. When the ratio of the chamber's inner radius to the wall thickness is small, the dose at the center does not deviate significantly from the average dose. However, when the ratio equals 5, the center dose exceeds the average dose by about 100% for an exponent of 7, and by about 30% for an exponent of 2.5.

Khandelwal, G. S.; Costner, C. M.; Wilson, J. W.

1974-01-01

147

Radiochromic film dosimetry of HDR {sup 192}Ir source radiation fields  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A radiochromic film based dosimetry system for high dose rate (HDR) Iridium-192 brachytherapy source was described. A comparison between calibration curves established in water and Solid Water was provided. Methods: Pieces of EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film were irradiated in both water and Solid Water with HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source in a dose range from 0 to 50 Gy. Responses of EBT-2 GAFCHROMIC film were compared for irradiations in water and Solid Water by scaling the dose between media through Monte Carlo calculated conversion factor for both setups. To decrease uncertainty in dose delivery due to positioning of the film piece with respect to the radiation source, traceable calibration irradiations were performed in a parallel-opposed beam setup. Results: The EBT-2 GAFCHROMIC film based dosimetry system described in this work can provide an overall one-sigma dose uncertainty of 4.12% for doses above 1 Gy. The ratio of dose delivered to the sensitive layer of the film in water to the dose delivered to the sensitive layer of the film in Solid Water was calculated using Monte Carlo simulations to be 0.9941 {+-} 0.0007. Conclusions: A radiochromic film based dosimetry system using only the green color channel of a flatbed document scanner showed superior precision if used alone in a dose range that extends up to 50 Gy, which greatly decreases the complexity of work. In addition, Solid Water material was shown to be a viable alternative to water in performing radiochromic film based dosimetry with HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources.

Aldelaijan, Saad; Mohammed, Huriyyah; Tomic, Nada; Liang Liheng; DeBlois, Francois; Sarfehnia, Arman; Abdel-Rahman, Wamied; Seuntjens, Jan; Devic, Slobodan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Department of Radiation Oncology, SMBD Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2 (Canada); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Department of Radiation Oncology, SMBD Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2 (Canada)

2011-11-15

148

Review on the characteristics of radiation detectors for dosimetry and imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enormous advances in the understanding of human anatomy, physiology and pathology in recent decades have led to ever-improving methods of disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Many of these achievements have been enabled, at least in part, by advances in ionizing radiation detectors. Radiology has been transformed by the implementation of multi-slice CT and digital x-ray imaging systems, with silver halide films now largely obsolete for many applications. Nuclear medicine has benefited from more sensitive, faster and higher-resolution detectors delivering ever-higher SPECT and PET image quality. PET/MR systems have been enabled by the development of gamma ray detectors that can operate in high magnetic fields. These huge advances in imaging have enabled equally impressive steps forward in radiotherapy delivery accuracy, with 4DCT, PET and MRI routinely used in treatment planning and online image guidance provided by cone-beam CT. The challenge of ensuring safe, accurate and precise delivery of highly complex radiation fields has also both driven and benefited from advances in radiation detectors. Detector systems have been developed for the measurement of electron, intensity-modulated and modulated arc x-ray, proton and ion beams, and around brachytherapy sources based on a very wide range of technologies. The types of measurement performed are equally wide, encompassing commissioning and quality assurance, reference dosimetry, in vivo dosimetry and personal and environmental monitoring. In this article, we briefly introduce the general physical characteristics and properties that are commonly used to describe the behaviour and performance of both discrete and imaging detectors. The physical principles of operation of calorimeters; ionization and charge detectors; semiconductor, luminescent, scintillating and chemical detectors; and radiochromic and radiographic films are then reviewed and their principle applications discussed. Finally, a general discussion of the application of detectors for x-ray nuclear medicine and ion beam imaging and dosimetry is presented.

Seco, Joao; Clasie, Ben; Partridge, Mike

2014-10-01

149

Dosimetry protocol for the forthcoming clinical trials in synchrotron stereotactic radiation therapy (SSRT)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: An adequate dosimetry protocol for synchrotron radiation and the specific features of the ID17 Biomedical Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility are essential for the preparation of the forthcoming clinical trials in the synchrotron stereotactic radiation therapy (SSRT). The main aim of this work is the definition of a suitable protocol based on standards of dose absorbed to water. It must allow measuring the absolute dose with an uncertainty within the recommended limits for patient treatment of 2%-5%. Methods: Absolute dosimetry is performed with a thimble ionization chamber (PTW semiflex 31002) whose center is positioned at 2 g cm{sup -2} equivalent depth in water. Since the available synchrotron beam at the ESRF Biomedical Beamline has a maximum height of 3 mm, a scanning method was employed to mimic a uniform exposition of the ionization chamber. The scanning method has been shown to be equivalent to a broad beam irradiation. Different correction factors have been assessed by using Monte Carlo simulations. Results: The absolute dose absorbed to water at 80 keV was measured in reference conditions with a 2% global uncertainty, within the recommended limits. The dose rate was determined to be in the range between 14 and 18 Gy/min, that is to say, a factor two to three times higher than the 6 Gy/min achievable in RapidArc or VMAT machines. The dose absorbed to water was also measured in a RW3 solid water phantom. This phantom is suitable for quality assurance purposes since less than 2% average difference with respect to the water phantom measurements was found. In addition, output factors were assessed for different field sizes. Conclusions: A dosimetry protocol adequate for the specific features of the SSRT technique has been developed. This protocol allows measuring the absolute dose absorbed to water with an accuracy of 2%. It is therefore satisfactory for patient treatment.

Prezado, Y.; Vautrin, M.; Martinez-Rovira, I. [ID17 Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38043 Grenoble (France); and others

2011-03-15

150

Review on the characteristics of radiation detectors for dosimetry and imaging.  

PubMed

The enormous advances in the understanding of human anatomy, physiology and pathology in recent decades have led to ever-improving methods of disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Many of these achievements have been enabled, at least in part, by advances in ionizing radiation detectors. Radiology has been transformed by the implementation of multi-slice CT and digital x-ray imaging systems, with silver halide films now largely obsolete for many applications. Nuclear medicine has benefited from more sensitive, faster and higher-resolution detectors delivering ever-higher SPECT and PET image quality. PET/MR systems have been enabled by the development of gamma ray detectors that can operate in high magnetic fields. These huge advances in imaging have enabled equally impressive steps forward in radiotherapy delivery accuracy, with 4DCT, PET and MRI routinely used in treatment planning and online image guidance provided by cone-beam CT.The challenge of ensuring safe, accurate and precise delivery of highly complex radiation fields has also both driven and benefited from advances in radiation detectors. Detector systems have been developed for the measurement of electron, intensity-modulated and modulated arc x-ray, proton and ion beams, and around brachytherapy sources based on a very wide range of technologies. The types of measurement performed are equally wide, encompassing commissioning and quality assurance, reference dosimetry, in vivo dosimetry and personal and environmental monitoring.In this article, we briefly introduce the general physical characteristics and properties that are commonly used to describe the behaviour and performance of both discrete and imaging detectors. The physical principles of operation of calorimeters; ionization and charge detectors; semiconductor, luminescent, scintillating and chemical detectors; and radiochromic and radiographic films are then reviewed and their principle applications discussed. Finally, a general discussion of the application of detectors for x-ray nuclear medicine and ion beam imaging and dosimetry is presented. PMID:25229250

Seco, Joao; Clasie, Ben; Partridge, Mike

2014-10-21

151

Radiation dosimetry at the BNL Medical Research Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Medical Research Reactor, BMRR, at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, BNL, is a three megawatt, 3 MW, heterogeneous, tank-type, light water cooled and moderated, graphite reflected reactor, which was designed for biomedical studies, and became operational in 1959. It provides thermal and epithermal neutron beams suitable for research studies such as radiation therapy of various types of tumors. At the present time, the major program at BMRR is Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT. Modifications have been made to the BMRR to significantly increase the available epithermal neutron flux density to a patient in clinical trials of BNCT. The data indicate that the flux density and dose rate are concentrated in the center of the beam, the patient absorbs neutrons rather than gamma radiation and as noted previously even with the increasing flux values, gamma-ray dose received by the attending personnel has remained minimal. Flux densities in the center of the thermal port and epithermal port beams have been characterized with an agreement between the measurements and the calculations.

Holden, N.E.; Reciniello, R.N.; Greenberg, D.D.; Hu, J.P.

1998-11-01

152

Characterization of a parallel beam CCD optical-CT apparatus for 3D radiation dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the initial steps we have taken in establishing CCD based optical-CT as a viable alternative for 3-D radiation dosimetry. First, we compare the optical density (OD) measurements from a high quality test target and variable neutral density filter (VNDF). A modulation transfer function (MTF) of individual projections is derived for three positions of the sinusoidal test target within the scanning tank. Our CCD is then characterized in terms of its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Finally, a sample reconstruction of a scan of a PRESAGETM (registered trademark of Heuris Pharma, NJ, Skillman, USA.) dosimeter is given, demonstrating the capabilities of the apparatus.

Krstaji?, Nikola; Doran, Simon J.

2006-12-01

153

Physical mechanism of the Schwarzschild effect in film dosimetry--theoretical model and comparison with experiments.  

PubMed

In consideration of the importance of film dosimetry for the dosimetric verification of IMRT treatment plans, the Schwarzschild effect or failure of the reciprocity law, i.e. the reduction of the net optical density under 'protraction' or 'fractionation' conditions at constant dose, has been experimentally studied for Kodak XOMAT-V (Martens et al 2002 Phys. Med. Biol. 47 2221-34) and EDR 2 dosimetry films (Djouguela et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 N317-N321). It is known that this effect results from the competition between two solid-state physics reactions involved in the latent-image formation of the AgBr crystals, the aggregation of two Ag atoms freshly formed from Ag(+) ions near radiation-induced occupied electron traps and the spontaneous decomposition of the Ag atoms. In this paper, we are developing a mathematical model of this mechanism which shows that the interplay of the mean lifetime tau of the Ag atoms with the time pattern of the irradiation determines the magnitude of the observed effects of the temporal dose distribution on the net optical density. By comparing this theory with our previous protraction experiments and recent fractionation experiments in which the duration of the pause between fractions was varied, a value of the time constant tau of roughly 10 s at room temperature has been determined for EDR 2. The numerical magnitude of the Schwarzschild effect in dosimetry films under the conditions generally met in radiotherapy amounts to only a few per cent of the net optical density (net OD), so that it can frequently be neglected from the viewpoint of clinical applications. But knowledge of the solid-state physical mechanism and a description in terms of a mathematical model involving a typical time constant of about 10 s are now available to estimate the magnitude of the effect should the necessity arise, i.e. in cases of large fluctuations of the temporal pattern of film exposure. PMID:16912385

Djouguela, A; Kollhoff, R; Rhmann, A; Willborn, K C; Harder, D; Poppe, B

2006-09-01

154

CytoBayesJ: software tools for Bayesian analysis of cytogenetic radiation dosimetry data.  

PubMed

A number of authors have suggested that a Bayesian approach may be most appropriate for analysis of cytogenetic radiation dosimetry data. In the Bayesian framework, probability of an event is described in terms of previous expectations and uncertainty. Previously existing, or prior, information is used in combination with experimental results to infer probabilities or the likelihood that a hypothesis is true. It has been shown that the Bayesian approach increases both the accuracy and quality assurance of radiation dose estimates. New software entitled CytoBayesJ has been developed with the aim of bringing Bayesian analysis to cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory practice. CytoBayesJ takes a number of Bayesian or 'Bayesian like' methods that have been proposed in the literature and presents them to the user in the form of simple user-friendly tools, including testing for the most appropriate model for distribution of chromosome aberrations and calculations of posterior probability distributions. The individual tools are described in detail and relevant examples of the use of the methods and the corresponding CytoBayesJ software tools are given. In this way, the suitability of the Bayesian approach to biological radiation dosimetry is highlighted and its wider application encouraged by providing a user-friendly software interface and manual in English and Russian. PMID:23792213

Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Vinnikov, Volodymyr; Puig, Pedro; Maznyk, Nataliya; Rothkamm, Kai; Lloyd, David C

2013-08-30

155

Radiation dosimetry in digital breast tomosynthesis: report of AAPM Tomosynthesis Subcommittee Task Group 223.  

PubMed

The radiation dose involved in any medical imaging modality that uses ionizing radiation needs to be well understood by the medical physics and clinical community. This is especially true of screening modalities. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently been introduced into the clinic and is being used for screening for breast cancer in the general population. Therefore, it is important that the medical physics community have the required information to be able to understand, estimate, and communicate the radiation dose levels involved in breast tomosynthesis imaging. For this purpose, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 223 on Dosimetry in Tomosynthesis Imaging has prepared this report that discusses dosimetry in breast imaging in general, and describes a methodology and provides the data necessary to estimate mean breast glandular dose from a tomosynthesis acquisition. In an effort to maximize familiarity with the procedures and data provided in this Report, the methodology to perform the dose estimation in DBT is based as much as possible on that used in mammography dose estimation. PMID:25186375

Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Sabol, John M; Berglund, Johan; Bolch, Wesley E; Brateman, Libby; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Flynn, Michael; Geiser, William; Goodsitt, Mitchell; Jones, A Kyle; Lo, Joseph Y; Maidment, Andrew D A; Nishino, Kazuyoshi; Nosratieh, Anita; Ren, Baorui; Segars, W Paul; Von Tiedemann, Miriam

2014-09-01

156

Hanford Technical Basis for Multiple Dosimetry Effective Dose Methodology  

SciTech Connect

The current method at Hanford for dealing with the results from multiple dosimeters worn during non-uniform irradiation is to use a compartmentalization method to calculate the effective dose (E). The method, as documented in the current version of Section 6.9.3 in the 'Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual, PNL-MA-842,' is based on the compartmentalization method presented in the 1997 ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard, 'Criteria for Performing Multiple Dosimetry.' With the adoption of the ICRP 60 methodology in the 2007 revision to 10 CFR 835 came changes that have a direct affect on the compartmentalization method described in the 1997 ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard, and, thus, to the method used at Hanford. The ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard committee is in the process of updating the standard, but the changes to the standard have not yet been approved. And, the drafts of the revision of the standard tend to align more with ICRP 60 than with the changes specified in the 2007 revision to 10 CFR 835. Therefore, a revised method for calculating effective dose from non-uniform external irradiation using a compartmental method was developed using the tissue weighting factors and remainder organs specified in 10 CFR 835 (2007).

Hill, Robin L.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

2010-08-01

157

Low-dose ionizing radiation and chromosome translocations: a review of the major considerations for human biological dosimetry.  

PubMed

Chromosome translocations are a molecular signature of ionizing radiation exposure. Translocations persist significantly longer after exposure than other types of chromosome exchanges such as dicentrics. This persistence makes translocations the preferred aberration type for performing radiation dosimetry under conditions of protracted exposure or when exposure assessments are temporally delayed. Low doses of radiation are inherently difficult to quantify because the frequency of induced events is low and the background level of translocations among unexposed subjects can show considerable variability. Analyses of translocation frequencies can be confounded by several factors, including age of the subject, lifestyle choices such as cigarette smoking, the presence of clones of abnormal cells, and possibly genotypic variability among subjects. No significant effects of gender or race have been observed, but racial differences have not been completely ruled out. Translocation analyses may be complicated by the presence of different types of exchanges, i.e., reciprocal or non-reciprocal, and because translocations sometimes occur as a component of complex exchanges that include other forms of chromosome rearrangements. Rates of radiation exposure, ranging from acute to chronic, are known to influence the accumulation of translocations and may also affect their persistence. The influences on translocation frequencies of low-dose radiation hypersensitivity as well as the bystander effect and the adaptive response remain poorly characterized. Thus, quantifying the relationship between radiation dose and the frequency of translocations in any given subject requires attention to multiple issues. Part of the solution to understanding the in vivo dose-response relationship is to have accurate estimates of the baseline levels of translocations in healthy unexposed subjects, and some work in this area has been accomplished. Long-term cytogenetic follow-up of exposed subjects is needed to characterize translocation persistence, which is especially relevant for risk analyses. More work also needs to be done in the area of quantifying the role of known confounders. Characterizing the role of genotype will be especially important. Improvements in the ability to use translocation frequencies for low-dose biological dosimetry will require scoring very large numbers of cells per subject, which may be accomplished by developing a rapid automated image analysis system. This work would enhance our comprehension of the effects of low-dose radiation exposure and could lead to significant improvements in understanding the relationship between chromosome damage and human health. PMID:18485804

Tucker, James D

2008-01-01

158

Boundary Electron and Beta Dosimetry-Quantification of the Effects of Dissimilar Media on Absorbed Dose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work quantifies the changes effected in electron absorbed dose to a soft-tissue equivalent medium when part of this medium is replaced by a material that is not soft -tissue equivalent. That is, heterogeneous dosimetry is addressed. Radionuclides which emit beta particles are the electron sources of primary interest. They are used in brachytherapy and in nuclear medicine: for example, beta -ray applicators made with strontium-90 are employed in certain ophthalmic treatments and iodine-131 is used to test thyroid function. More recent medical procedures under development and which involve beta radionuclides include radioimmunotherapy and radiation synovectomy; the first is a cancer modality and the second deals with the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, the possibility of skin surface contamination exists whenever there is handling of radioactive material. Determination of absorbed doses in the examples of the preceding paragraph requires considering boundaries of interfaces. Whilst the Monte Carlo method can be applied to boundary calculations, for routine work such as in clinical situations, or in other circumstances where doses need to be determined quickly, analytical dosimetry would be invaluable. Unfortunately, few analytical methods for boundary beta dosimetry exist. Furthermore, the accuracy of results from both Monte Carlo and analytical methods has to be assessed. Although restricted to one radionuclide, phosphorus -32, the experimental data obtained in this work serve several purposes, one of which is to provide standards against which calculated results can be tested. The experimental data also contribute to the relatively sparse set of published boundary dosimetry data. At the same time, they may be useful in developing analytical boundary dosimetry methodology. The first application of the experimental data is demonstrated. Results from two Monte Carlo codes and two analytical methods, which were developed elsewhere, are compared with experimental data. Monte Carlo results compare satisfactory with experimental results for the boundaries considered. The agreement with experimental results for air interfaces is of particular interest because of discrepancies reported previously by another investigator who used data obtained from a different experimental technique. Results from one of the analytical methods differ significantly from the experimental data obtained here. The second analytical method provided data which approximate experimental results to within 30%. This is encouraging but it remains to be determined whether this method performs equally well for other source energies.

Nunes, Josane C.

1991-02-01

159

Measurements of the radiation dose to LDEF by means of passive dosimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A very simple experiment was fielded on LDEF to measure the energetic radiation dose by means of passive dosimetry. It consisted of two identical packets of 16 LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) arranged in planar arrays. One array was placed on the leading edge of the spacecraft, the other on the trailing edge. These arrays were installed in opaque packets of 1 mil Al foil and Kapton tape mounted behind an Al plate of 30 mils thickness. The nominal energy thresholds were 14 MeV for protons and 650 keV for electrons. In addition to the flight arrays, two control arrays were prepared which were kept with the flight arrays as long as possible during experimental integration and then stored in the lab. The flight and control arrays were read out alternating in groups of four; it was found that the control dose was negligible. The flight and control detectors were exposed to a 55 MeV proton beam in order to provide a recalibration of the detectors. It was found that the post-flight and pre-flight calibrations were in good agreement. A comparison of results with the prediction shows that the measured dose was a factor of 4 to 5 low. It is possible that there was in-flight annealing of the TLDs as a result of the long mission and perhaps temperature excursions of the sensors. The East-West effect was larger than expected. The ratio of 1.65 is approximately what was expected for the protons alone. Electrons should reduce the dose ratio since electrons add equally to the leading and trailing edge dose. A possible explanation is that the electron dose was negligible compared to the proton dose.

Blake, J. B.; Imamoto, S. S.

1992-01-01

160

Physical and biological dosimetries of Cf-252 radiation  

SciTech Connect

With a greater availability of Cf-252, more extensive use of Cf-252 as a fast neutron source has become possible. Recently Cf-252 sources containing 300 ..mu..g have become available in a size identical to 1 Ci of Cs-137 and with the use of remotely controlled afterloading apparatus, safe therapy with little exposure to the therapist is now possible. Radiation leakage from the Cf-252 apparatus and from the treatment room was measured with REM-meter and it was possible to reduce the leakage from the treatment room to less than 1 mrem/h (gamma rays) and 0.5 mrem/h (neutrons). Measurement of fast neutrons was made with a twin chamber composed of a tissue equivalent ionization chamber and a carbon ionization chamber. The neutron dose in air and the absorbed dose in tissue equivalent water tank were measured, which showed that in air, neutrons were 70% and photons were 30% of dose. In water, greater distances from the source, neutrons attenuate and gamma rays increase in dose. The results of studies on the skin reaction of mice and sperm cleavage delay time of sea urchins indicated that the RBE ranges from 1.5 to 3.0 using the authors' high dose rate system. Neutrons are remarkably affected by a time factor. With the use of high dose rate sources, the dose rate has become higher, but the overall time has been extended through dose fractionation and the authors have considered it advisable to employ an RBE of 3-4 in their studies.

Yamashita, H.; Wada, M.; Dokiya, T.; Hashimoto, S.

1986-01-01

161

Radiation dosimetry measurements during U.S. Space Shuttle missions with the RME-III  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time-resolved radiation dosimetry measurements inside the crew compartment have been made during recent Shuttle missions with the U.S. Air Force Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III), a portable battery-powered four-channel tissue equivalent proportional counter. Results from the first six missions are presented and discussed. Half of the missions had orbital inclinations of 28.5 degrees with the remainder at inclinations of 57 degrees or greater; altitudes ranged from 300 to 600 km. The determined dose equivalent rates ranged from 70 to 5300 microSv/day. The RME-III measurements are in good agreement with other dosimetry measurements made aboard the vehicles. Measurements indicate that medium- and high-LET particles contribute less than 2% of the particle fluence for all missions, but up to 50% of the dose equivalent, depending on the spacecraft's altitude and orbital inclination. Isocontours of fluence, dose and dose equivalent rate have been developed from measurements made during the STS-28 mission. The drift rate of the South Atlantic Anomaly is estimated to be 0.49 degrees W/yr and 0.12 degrees N/yr. The calculated trapped proton and GCR dose for the STS-28 mission was significantly lower than the measured values.

Golightly, M. J.; Hardy, K.; Quam, W.

1994-01-01

162

Radiation dosimetry measurements during U.S. Space Shuttle missions with the RME-III.  

PubMed

Time-resolved radiation dosimetry measurements inside the crew compartment have been made during recent Shuttle missions with the U.S. Air Force Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III), a portable battery-powered four-channel tissue equivalent proportional counter. Results from the first six missions are presented and discussed. Half of the missions had orbital inclinations of 28.5 degrees with the remainder at inclinations of 57 degrees or greater; altitudes ranged from 300 to 600 km. The determined dose equivalent rates ranged from 70 to 5300 microSv/day. The RME-III measurements are in good agreement with other dosimetry measurements made aboard the vehicles. Measurements indicate that medium- and high-LET particles contribute less than 2% of the particle fluence for all missions, but up to 50% of the dose equivalent, depending on the spacecraft's altitude and orbital inclination. Isocontours of fluence, dose and dose equivalent rate have been developed from measurements made during the STS-28 mission. The drift rate of the South Atlantic Anomaly is estimated to be 0.49 degrees W/yr and 0.12 degrees N/yr. The calculated trapped proton and GCR dose for the STS-28 mission was significantly lower than the measured values. PMID:11538011

Golightly, M J; Hardy, K; Quam, W

1994-01-01

163

Polyvinyltoluene scintillators for relative ion dosimetry: an investigation with Helium, Carbon and Neon beams.  

E-print Network

Polyvinyltoluene scintillators for relative ion dosimetry: an investigation with Helium, Carbon beam dosimetry, tested with Helium, Carbon and Neon ions having an equivalent range in water of 150 mm and the relative dose. Keywords: Scintillation detectors, dosimetry, ion radiation effects, ion

Boyer, Edmond

164

Gamma radiation dosimetry in mega rad range using sugar solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of Malonaldehyde under gamma irradiation of solid sucrose and aqueous sucrose, fructose and arabinose solutions has been studied in the Mega rad range. Malonaldehyde (MA) concentration was estimated spectrophotometrically after complexing with 2-Thio-barbituric acid. The effect of free radical scavengers (KI and N2O) on the yield of Ma was investigated. Of the systems studied a 5% aqueous sucrose

R. Venkataramani; Sudershan K. Mehta; S. D. Soman

1976-01-01

165

Standard Guide for Dosimetry In Radiation Processing of Fluidized Beds and Fluid Streams  

E-print Network

1.1 This guide describes several dosimetry systems and methods suitable for the documentation of the irradiation of product transported as fluid or in a fluidized bed. 1.2 The sources of penetrating ionizing radiation included in this guide are electron beams, X-rays (bremsstrahlung) and gamma rays. 1.3 Absorbed doses from 10 to 100,000 gray are considered, including applications such as disinfestation, disinfection, bioburden reduction, sterilization, crosslinking and graft modification of products, particularly powders and aggregates. 1.4 This guide does not purport to address the safety concerns, if any, associated with the use of fluidized beds and streams incorporating sources of ionizing radiation. It is the responsibility of the user of this guide to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine compliance with regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2004-01-01

166

1989 IEEE Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 26th, Marco Island, FL, July 25-29, 1989, Proceedings. Part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various papers on nuclear science are presented. The general topics addressed include: basic mechanics of radiation effects, dosimetry and energy-dependent effects, hardness assurance and testing techniques, spacecraft charging and space radiation effects, EMP/SGEMP/IEMP phenomena, device radiation effects and hardening, radiation effects on isolation technologies, IC radiation effects and hardening, and single-event phenomena.

Ochoa, Agustin, Jr. (editor)

1989-01-01

167

Hand held instruments for landmine detection: View from radiation dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hand held instruments have been proposed and widely studied for landmine detection. However, the operator is not included in these design studies. In this paper, the dose rate received by an operator of a hand held instrument for landmine detection is analyzed using a computational phantom model with Monte Carlo simulations for different source types and source-to-operator distances. The analysis is performed for bare and shielded sources in order to assess the impact of shielding on the operator dose. Additionally, the impact of having soil with varying moisture content has also been investigated. The analysis results, based on Monte Carlo simulations, showed that in addition to source properties, energy, shielding, and source-to-operator distance, the dose received by the operator also depends on soil characteristics. Furthermore, although the effective dose decreases as a function of source-to-operator distance, the absorbed and equivalent dose to some organs at radiogenic risk; e.g. the lungs, thyroid, and stomach, increases with source-to-operator distances, up to 125 cm.

Akkurt, Hatice; Wagner, John; Eckerman, Keith

2007-08-01

168

Radiation dosimetry data management using VAX C, FMS, RMS, DCL, and Oracle  

SciTech Connect

The External Dosimetry Badge System was developed to support the radiation protection program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The radiation protection program is responsible for monitoring external radiation exposures to approximately 7,500 Laboratory employees, visitors and contractors each month. External radiation exposure is measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The system is used to control the assembly and distribution of TLD badges. The system monitors badge return and disassembly at the end of each month, and analyzes the TLDs to determine individual radiation exposure levels. Results are reported and stored in a database designed to maintain detailed individual exposure records. The system maintains a complete history of annual summaries for external exposures. The system is user-friendly with user prompts, menus, and extensive help functions. The completely menu-driven system uses VAX C, VAX Forms Management System, VMS Record Management Services, VMS Digital Command Language, and the Oracle Relational Database Management System. Design and development issues faced, and methods and techniques used in developing the system will be described. Topics discussed include consistent user interface design approaches, considerations for using VAX/VMS programming tools versus Oracle development tools to develop and implement the application, and overall system benefits. 3 refs.

Voltin, M.J. Jr.; Martin, A.K.

1991-01-01

169

DOSIMETRY SERVICE REQUEST ADDITION DELETION  

E-print Network

DOSIMETRY SERVICE REQUEST ADDITION DELETION Use only this form and submit the completed form only for initiation of dosimetry service. If you have no occupational exposure to radiation this calendar year, write dosimetry, information will be furnished to the dosimetry vendor to provide lifetime tracking of dose

170

20. Ruhm, W. et al. The dosimetry system DS86 and the neutron discrepancy in Hiroshima--historical review, present status, and future options. Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 37, 293310 (1998).  

E-print Network

20. Ru¨hm, W. et al. The dosimetry system DS86 and the neutron discrepancy in Hiroshima of Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry in Hiroshima And Nagasaki-Final Report Vol. 2 (ed. Roesch, W. C.) 283 analytical capability may provide solution to the neutron dosimetry problem in Hiroshima. Radiat. Prot. Dosim

Losos, Jonathan B.

171

Toward 3D dosimetry of intensity modulated radiation therapy treatments with plastic scintillation detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we present a novel two Dimensional Plastic Scintillation Detector (2D-PSD) array designed to measure dose distributions generated by high energy photon beams from medical linear accelerators. This study aim to demonstrate that the dose distribution in the irradiated volume is not modified by the presence of several hundred plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs). The 2D-PSD consists of 781 PSDs inserted in a plastic water slab. The dose distributions measured with the 2D-PSD were compared to calculations from a treatment planning system (Pinnacle3, Philips Medical Systems) and with measurements taken with an ionization chambers array (MatriXX Evolution, IBA Dosimetry). Furthermore, a clinical head and neck IMRT plan was delivered on the 2D-PSD. A good agreement is obtained between the measured and planned dose distributions. The results show that the 2D arrangement presented in this work is water equivalent and transparent to x-ray radiation. As a consequence, our design could be extended to multiple detection planes, opening the possibility for 3D dosimetry with PSDs.

Guillot, M.; Gingras, L.; Archambault, L.; Beddar, S.; Beaulieu, L.

2010-11-01

172

Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 16th, Santa Cruz, Calif., July 17-20, 1979, Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers are presented on the following topics: radiation effects in bipolar microcircuits; basic radiation mechanisms in materials and devices; energy deposition and dosimetry; and system responses from SGEMP, IEMP, and EMP. Also considered are basic processes in SGEMP and IEMP, radiation effects in MOS microcircuits, and space radiation effects and spacecraft charging.

Bombardt, J.

1979-01-01

173

Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak.  

PubMed

In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points--three TLDs per point--to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak. PMID:24880371

Rasouli, C; Pourshahab, B; Hosseini Pooya, S M; Orouji, T; Rasouli, H

2014-05-01

174

Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points - three TLDs per point - to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T.; Rasouli, H.

2014-05-01

175

Effects of shipment on diffusive dosimetry recovery efficiency for pentane, hexane and heptane  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF SHIPMENT ON DIFFUSIVE DOSIMETRY RECOVERY EPFICIENCY FOR PENTANE, HEXANE AND HEPTANE A Thesis Ronald Bruce Read Submitted to the Graduate College of' Texas A&? University in partial fullf illment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF S CIENCE December 1981 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene EFFECTS OF SHIPMENT ON DIFFUSIVE DOSIMETRY RECOVERY EFFICIENCY FOR PENTANE, HEXANE AND HEPTANE A Thesis by Ronald Bruce Read Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman...

Read, Ronald Bruce

2012-06-07

176

Epid Dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were introduced originally for patient position verification. The idea of using EPIDs for dosimetry was realised in the 1980s. Little was published on the topic until the mid 1990's, when the interest in EPIDs for dosimetry increased rapidly and continues to grow. The increasing research on EPID dosimetry coincided with the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). EPIDs are well suited to IMRT dosimetry because they are high resolution, two-dimensional (2D) digital detectors. They are also pre-existing on almost all modern linear accelerators. They generally show a linear response to increasing dose. Different types of EPIDs have been clinically implemented, and these have been described in several review papers. The current generation of commercially available EPIDs are indirect detection active matrix flat panel imagers, also known as amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs. Disadvantages of a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry include non-water equivalent construction materials, and the energy sensitivity and optical scatter of the phosphor scintillators used to create optical signal from the megavoltage beam. This report discusses current knowledge regarding a-Si EPIDs for dosimetry.

Greer, Peter B. [Dept.Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Locked Bag 7, Hunter Region Mail Centre, Newcastle, NSW 2310 (Australia); Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2298 (Australia); Vial, Philip [Dept Medical Physics, Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centre, Liverpool, NSW 2170 (Australia); School of Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2050 (Australia)

2011-05-05

177

A measurement of the radiation dose to LDEF by passive dosimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results from a pair of thermoluminescent dosimeter experiments flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) show an integrated dose several times smaller than that predicted by the NASA environmental models for shielding thicknesses much greater than 0.10 gm/sq cm aluminum. For thicknesses between 0.01 and 0.1 gm/sq cm, the measured dose was in agreement with predictions. The Space and Environment Technology Center of The Aerospace Corporation fielded two related experiments on LDEF to measure the energetic radiation dose by means of passive dosimetry. The sensors were LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters mounted behind various thicknesses of shielding. The details of the experiment are described first, followed by the results of the observations. A comparison is made with the predictions based upon the NASA environmental models and the actual mission profile flown by LDEF; conclusions follow.

Blake, J. B.; Imamoto, S. S.

1993-01-01

178

Evaluation of a fast method of EPID-based dosimetry for intensity modulated radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) could potentially be useful for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) QA. The data density, high resolution, large active area, and efficiency of the MV EPID make it an attractive option. However, EPIDs were designed to be effective imaging devices, but not dosimeters, and as a result they do not measure dose in tissue-equivalent materials. EPIDose (Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL) is a tool designed for the use of EPIDs in IMRT QA that uses raw MV EPID images (no additional build-up and independent of gantry angle, but with dark and flood field corrections applied) to estimate absolute dose planes normal to the beam axis in a homogeneous media, i.e. similar to conventional IMRT QA methods. However, because of the inherent challenges of the EPID-based dosimetry, validating and commissioning such a system must be done very carefully, exploring the range of use cases and using well-proven standards for comparison. In this work, a multi-institutional study was performed to verify accurate EPID image to dose plane conversion over a variety of conditions. Converted EPID images were compared to 2D diode array absolute dose measurements for one hundred and eighty eight (188) fields from twenty eight (28) clinical IMRT treatment plans generated using a number of commercially available treatment planning systems (TPS) covering various treatment sites including prostate, head and neck, brain, and lung. The data included three beam energies (6, 10, and 15 MV) and both step-and-shoot and dynamic MLC fields. Out of 26,207 points of comparison over 188 fields analyzed the average overall field pass rate was 99.7% when 3mm/3% DTA criteria were used (range 94.0-100 per field). The pass rates for more stringent criteria were 97.8% for 2mm/2% DTA (range 82.0-100 per field), and 84.6% for 1mm/1% DTA (range 54.7-100 per field). Individual patient specific sites as well as different beam energies followed similar trends to the overall pass rates. PMID:20592703

Nelms, Benjamin E.; Rasmussen, Karl H.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

2010-01-01

179

The Influence of Stopping Powers upon Dosimetry for Radiation Therapy with Energetic Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following a recent recommendation from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), air filled ionization chambers (calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water) should be used for the dosimetry in radiation therapy with fast ions. According to IAEA, the main source of uncertainty in the dose determination is resulting from the stopping power ratio water to air, which is introduced in order to convert the dose measured in the air cavity to the dose to water, which is used as the standard reference medium. We show that our knowledge of suitable stopping power data is very limited, but that the dependence of the stopping power ratio on the mean ionization energies Iwater and Iair is dominating this quantity over a large energy range. We discuss the I-values used in ICRU Reports 37, 49, and 73, and we show how the various choices affect the ratio of stopping powers and the stopping power ratio. In doing so, we also investigate a choice of I-values differing from the ICRU recommendations. The stopping power ratio is calculated as the fluence-weighted average ratio of stopping powers using the Monte Carlo program SHIELD-HIT v2, for primary carbon ions at 50 and 400 MeV/nucleon, including the effect of secondary fragments produced by nuclear reactions. Using a single set of I-values for all primary and secondary particles, we find that the stopping power ratio hardly differs from the simple ratio of stopping powers for C ions over a large energy range. Compared to an earlier result [O. Geithner et al., Phys. Med. Biol. 51 (2006) 2279] there are some minor differences, arising from a combination of different I-values from different stopping power tables (ICRU 49 for protons and alphas, ICRU 73 for the heavier ions). For the very low energy region, which is important for dosimetrical measurements close to the Bragg peak, the simple ratio of stopping powers is no longer valid. When using a consistent set of I-values it is shown that the deviation of the stopping power ratio (including nuclear fragmentation) from the recommendation of IAEA is very small at high energies, but increases up to 3% in the stopping region. Concerning future investigations, we think it is worthwhile to reanalyze the various sources of I-values taking into account not only stopping power data but also precision range measurements, since the calculated ranges critically depend on the selected I-value.

Paul, Helmut; Geithner, Oksana; Jkel, Oliver

180

Verification of intensity modulated radiation therapy beams using a tissue equivalent plastic scintillator dosimetry system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes the development and implementation of a novel method for the dosimetric verification of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields with several advantages over current techniques. Through the use of a tissue equivalent plastic scintillator sheet viewed by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, this method provides a truly tissue equivalent dosimetry system capable of efficiently and accurately performing field-by-field verification of IMRT plans. This work was motivated by an initial study comparing two IMRT treatment planning systems. The clinical functionality of BrainLAB's BrainSCAN and Varian's Helios IMRT treatment planning systems were compared in terms of implementation and commissioning, dose optimization, and plan assessment. Implementation and commissioning revealed differences in the beam data required to characterize the beam prior to use with the BrainSCAN system requiring higher resolution data compared to Helios. This difference was found to impact on the ability of the systems to accurately calculate dose for highly modulated fields, with BrainSCAN being more successful than Helios. The dose optimization and plan assessment comparisons revealed that while both systems use considerably different optimization algorithms and user-control interfaces, they are both capable of producing substantially equivalent dose plans. The extensive use of dosimetric verification techniques in the IMRT treatment planning comparison study motivated the development and implementation of a novel IMRT dosimetric verification system. The system consists of a water-filled phantom with a tissue equivalent plastic scintillator sheet built into the top surface. Scintillation light is reflected by a plastic mirror within the phantom towards a viewing window where it is captured using a CCD camera. Optical photon spread is removed using a micro-louvre optical collimator and by deconvolving a glare kernel from the raw images. Characterization of this new dosimetric verification system indicates excellent dose response and spatial linearity, high spatial resolution, and good signal uniformity and reproducibility. Dosimetric results from square fields, dynamic wedged fields, and a 7-field head and neck IMRT treatment plan indicate good agreement with film dosimetry distributions. Efficiency analysis of the system reveals a 50% reduction in time requirements for field-by-field verification of a 7-field IMRT treatment plan compared to film dosimetry.

Petric, Martin Peter

181

JPL Radiation Effects Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation Effects Group investigates the effects of space radiation on present and future microelectronic and optoelectronic technologies, evaluate the risk of using them in specific space missions, and recommend component and design techniques for JPL and NASA programs to reduce reliability risk from space radiation.

Thorbourn, Dennis

2013-01-01

182

Opportunities for single event and other radiation effects testing and research at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beam line end station, associated instrumentation and dosimetry used at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility for radiation effects research and testing with up to 200 MeV protons are described

C. C. Foster; S. L. Casey; A. L. Johnson; P. Miesle; N. Sifri; A. H. Skees; K. M. Murray

1996-01-01

183

Intercomparison of luminescence detectors for space radiation dosimetry within Proton-ICCHIBAN experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luminescence detectors for space radiation dosimetry are frequently used to estimate personal and environmental doses in the International Space Station and other space vehicles. Detector responses for cosmic rays and their secondaries were investigated for a long time and it is well-known that luminescence detectors have dependencies of response on LET (Linear Energy Transfer). Some of luminescence detectors show over-response to gamma rays (used for routine calibration) and others have similar responses to gamma rays. But, because of lack of sufficient and reliable calibration data in the low LET region (about 1 keV/?m), it is the responses of these detectors at LET is poorly known. Protons make up the dominant portion of the fluence from space radiation, so the LET region corresponding to energetic protons must be characterized very well. For that purpose, calibration and intercomparison experiments were performed using relatively low energy (30 to 80 MeV) proton beams at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan. In this paper, the results of these intercomparison experiments, including high energy protons and light ions, are reported and illustrate the response of luminescence detectors in the low LET region. This research will help improve our understanding of space dosimeters and reliable dose measurement for astronauts and cosmonauts in low earth orbit.

Uchihori, Yukio; Ploc, Ondrej; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Berger, Thomas; Hajek, Michael; Kodaira, Satoshi; Benton, Eric; Ambrozova, Iva; Kitamura, Hisashi

2012-07-01

184

Distinction of metaphases in the first cell cycle for automated system in radiation dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of the biological improvements for developing an automated scoring system of radiation induced chromosome aberrations for radiation dosimetry, we introduce a new method for identifying the metaphases in the first cell cycle. Differing from the conventional method with BrdUrd, it focuses on the difference of chromosome number to be induced by inhibiting the cytokinesis with Cytochalasin B. Majority of the cells with 46 chromosomes were in the first cell cycle, and the ratio of those with 46 chromosomes in the second division was less than one per cent both when Cytochalasin B of 1.5 ?g/ml was added to the culture of irradiated lymphocytes and when that of 1.8 ?g/ml was added to that of non-irradiated cells for one day, respectively. The ratio of metaphases with over-condensed chromosomes is reduced, the clear-cut image of chromosomes is obtained, culture and staining processes are simpler, and the device of UV irradiation is not necessary. Thus the present Cytochalasin B method offers more qualified input, data based on the numerical difference, than conventional image based recognition, and upgrades the quality of the scoring in the automated analysis system.

Hayata, I.; Kajima, J.; Okabe, N.

185

Radiation effects in space  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented. (ACR)

Fry, R.J.M.

1986-01-01

186

In-vivo dosimetry by diode semiconductors in combination with portal films during TBI: reporting a 5-year clinical experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: In-vivo dosimetry is vital to assure an accurate delivery of total body irradiation (TBI). In-vivo lung dosimetry is strongly recommended because of the risk of radiation-induced interstitial pneumonia (IP). Here we report on our 5-year experience with in-vivo dosimetry using diodes in combination with portal films and assessing the effectiveness of in-vivo dosimetry in improving the accuracy

Paola Mangili; Claudio Fiorino; Alberto Rosso; Giovanni Mauro Cattaneo; Rossella Parisi; Eugenio Villa; Riccardo Calandrino

1999-01-01

187

Implementation of Japanese Male and Female Tomographic Phantoms to Multiparticle Monte Carlo Code for Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese male and female tomographic phantoms, which have been developed for radio-frequency electromagnetic-field dosimetry, were implemented into multi-particle Monte Carlo transport code to evaluate realistic dose distribution in human body exposed to radiation field. Japanese tomographic phantoms, which were developed from the whole body magnetic resonance images of Japanese average adult male and female, were processed as follows to be

Choonsik LEE; Tomoaki NAGAOKA; Jai-Ki LEE

2006-01-01

188

(Biological dosimetry)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

Preston, R.J.

1990-12-17

189

Estimating the effective density of engineered nanomaterials for in vitro dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for accurate in vitro dosimetry remains a major obstacle to the development of cost-effective toxicological screening methods for engineered nanomaterials. An important key to accurate in vitro dosimetry is the characterization of sedimentation and diffusion rates of nanoparticles suspended in culture media, which largely depend upon the effective density and diameter of formed agglomerates in suspension. Here we present a rapid and inexpensive method for accurately measuring the effective density of nano-agglomerates in suspension. This novel method is based on the volume of the pellet obtained by benchtop centrifugation of nanomaterial suspensions in a packed cell volume tube, and is validated against gold-standard analytical ultracentrifugation data. This simple and cost-effective method allows nanotoxicologists to correctly model nanoparticle transport, and thus attain accurate dosimetry in cell culture systems, which will greatly advance the development of reliable and efficient methods for toxicological testing and investigation of nano-bio interactions in vitro.

Deloid, Glen; Cohen, Joel M.; Darrah, Tom; Derk, Raymond; Rojanasakul, Liying; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Wohlleben, Wendel; Demokritou, Philip

2014-03-01

190

In vivo dosimetry for estimation of effective doses in multislice CT coronary angiography  

SciTech Connect

In vivo dosimetry represents a technique that has been widely employed to evaluate the dose to the patient mainly in radiotherapy. Considering the increment in dose to the population due to new high-dose multislice CT examinations, such as coronary angiography, it is becoming important to more accurately know the dose to the patient. The desire to know patient dose extends even to radiological examinations. Thermoluminescent dosimeters are considered the gold standard for in vivo dosimetry, but their use is time consuming. A rapid, less labor-intensive method has been developed to perform in vivo dosimetry using radiochromic film positioned next to the patient's skin. Multislice CT scanners allow the estimation of the effective dose to the patient from the dose length product (DLP) parameter, the value of which is displayed on the acquisition console, simply multiplying the DLP by published conversion factors. The method represents only an approximation based on standard size circular phantoms and neglects the actual size of the patient. More accurate evaluations can be carried out using software-based Monte Carlo simulations. However, these methods do not consider possible dose reduction techniques, such as automatic tube-current modulation. For 22 patients effective doses measured by in vivo dosimetry and calculated by software were compared. The technique of using in vivo dosimetry measured with radiochromic film appears a promising procedure for improving the assessment of the effective dose to the patient.

De Denaro, M.; Bregant, P.; Severgnini, M.; De Guarrini, F. [Department of Medical Physics, A.O.U. 'Ospedali Riuniti' Trieste (Italy)

2007-10-15

191

On application of low doses from beta radiation source in OSL retrospective dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reports on three levels of dose rates obtainable from single beta source: (1333) mGy/s, (17.80.3) mGy/s and (1.940.04) mGy/s, as calibrated for quartz sand grains. These values were achieved for different attenuation stages of beta radiation emitted by standard 90Sr/90Y source with the nominal activity of 1.48 GBq attached to an automatic luminescence reader. Lower dose rates give opportunity for exact dosing, which is especially required in luminescence dating applied to young samples as well as in environmental dosimetry. Moreover new method for determining time lag in opening the source in the Riso beta irradiator is presented. This allowed to resolve the contradiction appearing in the literature. The time delay was found to be (0.150.01) s per single irradiation. For improving accuracy the dose rate correction is suggest to be taken into account for irradiations shorter than 30 s.

Przegietka, K.; Chruscinska, A.

2014-11-01

192

Radiation risk assessment in neonatal radiographic examinations of the chest and abdomen: a clinical and Monte Carlo dosimetry study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seeking to assess the radiation risk associated with radiological examinations in neonatal intensive care units, thermo-luminescence dosimetry was used for the measurement of entrance surface dose (ESD) in 44 AP chest and 28 AP combined chest-abdominal exposures of a sample of 60 neonates. The mean values of ESD were found to be equal to 44 16 Gy and 43 19 Gy, respectively. The MCNP-4C2 code with a mathematical phantom simulating a neonate and appropriate x-ray energy spectra were employed for the simulation of the AP chest and AP combined chest-abdominal exposures. Equivalent organ dose per unit ESD and energy imparted per unit ESD calculations are presented in tabular form. Combined with ESD measurements, these calculations yield an effective dose of 10.2 3.7 Sv, regardless of sex, and an imparted energy of 18.5 6.7 J for the chest radiograph. The corresponding results for the combined chest-abdominal examination are 14.7 7.6 Sv (males)/17.2 7.6 Sv (females) and 29.7 13.2 J. The calculated total risk per radiograph was low, ranging between 1.7 and 2.9 per million neonates, per film, and being slightly higher for females. Results of this study are in good agreement with previous studies, especially in view of the diversity met in the calculation methods.

Makri, T.; Yakoumakis, E.; Papadopoulou, D.; Gialousis, G.; Theodoropoulos, V.; Sandilos, P.; Georgiou, E.

2006-10-01

193

1990 IEEE Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 27th, Reno, NV, July 16-20, 1990, Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various papers on nuclear and space radiation effects are presented. The general topics addressed include: basic mechanisms of radiation effects, dosimetry and energy-dependent effects, hardness assurance and testing techniques, single-event upset and latchup, isolation technologies, device and integrated circuit effects and hardening, spacecraft charging and electromagnetic effects.

Fleetwood, Daniel M. (editor)

1990-01-01

194

Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 17th, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., July 15-18, 1980, Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conference covered the radiation effects on devices, circuits, and systems, physics and basic radiation effects in materials, dosimetry and radiation transport, spacecraft charging, and space radiation effects. Other subjects included single particle upset phenomena, systems-generated electromagnetic pulse phenomena, fabrication of hardened components, testing techniques, and hardness assurance.

Mcgarrity, J. M.

1980-01-01

195

Validation of QuickScan dicentric chromosome analysis for high throughput radiation biological dosimetry.  

PubMed

Currently, the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) is used to estimate radiation doses to individuals following accidental radiological and nuclear overexposures when traditional dosimetry methods are not available. While being an exceptionally sensitive method for estimating doses by radiation, conventional DCA is time-intensive and requires highly trained expertise for analysis. For this reason, in a mass casualty situation, triage-quality conventional DCA struggles to provide dose estimations in a timely manner for triage purposes. In Canada, a new scoring technique, termed DCA QuickScan, has been devised to increase the throughput of this assay. DCA QuickScan uses traditional DCA sample preparation methods while adapting a rapid scoring approach. In this study, both conventional and QuickScan methods of scoring the DCA assay were compared for accuracy and sensitivity. Dose response curves were completed on four different donors based on the analysis of 1,000 metaphases or 200 events at eight to nine dose points by eight different scorers across two laboratories. Statistical analysis was performed on the data to compare the two methods within and across the laboratories and to test their respective sensitivities for dose estimation. This study demonstrated that QuickScan is statistically similar to conventional DCA analysis and is capable of producing dose estimates as low as 0.1 Gy but up to six times faster. Therefore, DCA QuickScan analysis can be used as a sensitive and accurate method for scoring samples for radiological biodosimetry in mass casualty situations or where faster dose assessment is required. PMID:22217587

Flegal, F N; Devantier, Y; Marro, L; Wilkins, R C

2012-02-01

196

NASA astronaut dosimetry: Implementation of scalable human phantoms and benchmark comparisons of deterministic versus Monte Carlo radiation transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts are exposed to a unique radiation environment in space. United States terrestrial radiation worker limits, derived from guidelines produced by scientific panels, do not apply to astronauts. Limits for astronauts have changed throughout the Space Age, eventually reaching the current National Aeronautics and Space Administration limit of 3% risk of exposure induced death, with an administrative stipulation that the risk be assured to the upper 95% confidence limit. Much effort has been spent on reducing the uncertainty associated with evaluating astronaut risk for radiogenic cancer mortality, while tools that affect the accuracy of the calculations have largely remained unchanged. In the present study, the impacts of using more realistic computational phantoms with size variability to represent astronauts with simplified deterministic radiation transport were evaluated. Next, the impacts of microgravity-induced body changes on space radiation dosimetry using the same transport method were investigated. Finally, dosimetry and risk calculations resulting from Monte Carlo radiation transport were compared with results obtained using simplified deterministic radiation transport. The results of the present study indicated that the use of phantoms that more accurately represent human anatomy can substantially improve space radiation dose estimates, most notably for exposures from solar particle events under light shielding conditions. Microgravity-induced changes were less important, but results showed that flexible phantoms could assist in optimizing astronaut body position for reducing exposures during solar particle events. Finally, little overall differences in risk calculations using simplified deterministic radiation transport and 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport were found; however, for the galactic cosmic ray ion spectra, compensating errors were observed for the constituent ions, thus exhibiting the need to perform evaluations on a particle differential basis with common cross-section libraries.

Bahadori, Amir Alexander

197

A review of dosimetry studies on external-beam radiation treatment with respect to second cancer induction  

PubMed Central

It has been long known that patients treated with ionizing radiation carry a risk of developing a second cancer in their lifetimes. Factors contributing to the recently renewed concern about the second cancer include improved cancer survival rate, younger patient population as well as emerging treatment modalities such as intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) and proton therapy that can potentially elevate secondary exposures to healthy tissues distant from the target volume. In the past 30 years, external-beam treatment technologies have evolved significantly, and a large amount of data exist but appear to be difficult to comprehend and compare. This review article aims to provide readers with an understanding of the principles and methods related to scattered doses in radiation therapy by summarizing a large collection of dosimetry and clinical studies. Basic concepts and terminology are introduced at the beginning. That is followed by a comprehensive review of dosimetry studies for external-beam treatment modalities including classical radiation therapy, 3D-conformal x-ray therapy, intensity-modulated x-ray therapy (IMRT and tomotherapy) and proton therapy. Selected clinical data on second cancer induction among radiotherapy patients are also covered. Problems in past studies and controversial issues are discussed. The needs for future studies are presented at the end. PMID:18540047

Xu, X George; Bednarz, Bryan; Paganetti, Harald

2014-01-01

198

Hyper pure quartz as a promising material for retrospective and radiation processing dosimetry using ESR technique.  

PubMed

Samples of highly purified naturally occurring silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) commercially named clear fused quartz (CFQ), both in bulk and in powder form were exposed to 4 and 8 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator (radiotherapy unit) at doses between 0.5 and 60 Gy (minimum and maximum attainable dose, respectively). After irradiation, the samples were subjected to electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis readout to test their use as a mean of measuring absorbed doses in the samples. A good linearity between the absorbed dose (from 2 Gy up to the maximum dose applied of 60 Gy) and the ESR intensity of the samples was observed while a poor linearity at low doses (between the absorbed dose from 0.5 to 10 Gy and the ESR intensity) is seen. The background intensity in the case of the powder was higher than for the cylindrical samples and the ESR intensity was also lower in the former case, which gave rise to a dose curve response with a lower slope for the powders. No energy dependence was apparent for electrons of 4 and 8 MeV energy. The thermal fading of CFQ at room temperature showed a relatively sharp decay of approximately 30% over a period of 10 days after which the decay rate was negligible for a measured period of 80 days. The results in this study plus the previous work done (gamma irradiation of the samples) by the authors suggest that the materials could, by using the ESR technique, be a suitable candidate for alternative dose measurements in radiation processing and retrospective dosimetry. PMID:18353657

Ranjbar, A H; Randle, K

2008-09-01

199

The UF family of reference hybrid phantoms for computational radiation dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational human phantoms are computer models used to obtain dose distributions within the human body exposed to internal or external radiation sources. In addition, they are increasingly used to develop detector efficiencies for in vivo whole-body counters. Two classes of computational human phantoms have been widely utilized for dosimetry calculation: stylized and voxel phantoms that describe human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Stylized phantoms are flexible in that changes to organ position and shape are possible given avoidance of region overlap, while voxel phantoms are typically fixed to a given patient anatomy, yet can be proportionally scaled to match individuals of larger or smaller stature, but of equivalent organ anatomy. Voxel phantoms provide much better anatomical realism as compared to stylized phantoms which are intrinsically limited by mathematical surface equations. To address the drawbacks of these phantoms, hybrid phantoms based on non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces have been introduced wherein anthropomorphic flexibility and anatomic realism are both preserved. Researchers at the University of Florida have introduced a series of hybrid phantoms representing the ICRP Publication 89 reference newborn, 15 year, and adult male and female. In this study, six additional phantoms are added to the UF family of hybrid phantomsthose of the reference 1 year, 5 year and 10 year child. Head and torso CT images of patients whose ages were close to the targeted ages were obtained under approved protocols. Major organs and tissues were segmented from these images using an image processing software, 3D-DOCTOR. NURBS and polygon mesh surfaces were then used to model individual organs and tissues after importing the segmented organ models to the 3D NURBS modeling software, Rhinoceros. The phantoms were matched to four reference datasets: (1) standard anthropometric data, (2) reference organ masses from ICRP Publication 89, (3) reference elemental compositions provided in ICRP 89 as well as ICRU Report 46, and (4) reference data on the alimentary tract organs given in ICRP Publications 89 and 100. Various adjustments and refinements to the organ systems of the previously described newborn, 15 year and adult phantoms are also presented. The UF series of hybrid phantoms retain the non-uniform scalability of stylized phantoms while maintaining the anatomical realism of patient-specific voxel phantoms with respect to organ shape, depth and inter-organ distance. While the final versions of these phantoms are in a voxelized format for radiation transport simulation, their primary format is given as NURBS and polygon mesh surfaces, thus permitting one to sculpt non-reference phantoms using the reference phantoms as an anatomic template.

Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Hurtado, Jorge; Pafundi, Deanna; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

2010-01-01

200

COMPUTATIONAL LYMPHATIC NODE MODELS IN PEDIATRIC AND ADULT HYBRID PHANTOMS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY  

PubMed Central

We developed models of lymphatic nodes for 6 pediatric and 2 adult hybrid computational phantoms to calculate the lymphatic node dose estimates from external and internal radiation exposures. We derived the number of lymphatic nodes from the recommendations in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 23 and 89 at 16 cluster locations for the lymphatic nodes: extrathoracic, cervical, thoracic (upper and lower), breast (left and right), mesentery (left and right), axillary (left and right), cubital (left and right), inguinal (left and right), and popliteal (left and right), for different ages (newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-year-old, and adult). We modeled each lymphatic node within the voxel format of the hybrid phantoms by assuming that all nodes have identical size derived from published data except narrow cluster sites. The lymph nodes were generated by the following algorithm: (1) selection of the lymph node site among the 16 cluster sites; (2) random sampling of the location of the lymph node within a spherical space centered at the chosen cluster site; (3) creation of the sphere or ovoid of tissue representing the node based on lymphatic node characteristics defined in ICRP Publications 23 and 89. We created lymph nodes until the pre-defined number of lymphatic nodes at the selected cluster site was reached. This algorithm was applied to pediatric (newborn, 1-, 5-, and 10-year-old male, and 15-year-old males) and adult male and female ICRP-compliant hybrid phantoms after voxelization. To assess the performance of our models for internal dosimetry, we calculated dose conversion coefficients, called S values, for selected organs and tissues with Iodine-131 distributed in 6 lymphatic node cluster sites using MCNPX2.6, a well validated Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Our analysis of the calculations indicates that the S values were significantly affected by the location of the lymph node clusters and that the values increased for smaller phantoms due to the shorter inter-organ distances compared to the bigger phantoms. By testing sensitivity of S values to random sampling and voxel resolution, we confirmed that the lymph node model is reasonably stable and consistent for different random samplings and voxel resolutions. PMID:23391692

Lee, Choonsik; Lamart, Stephanie; Moroz, Brian E.

2013-01-01

201

1988 IEEE Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 25th, Portland, OR, July 12-15, 1988, Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of nuclear and space radiation on the performance of electronic devices are discussed in reviews and reports of recent investigations. Topics addressed include the basic mechanisms of radiation effects, dosimetry and energy-dependent effects, sensors in and for radiation environments, EMP/SGEMP/IEMP phenomena, radiation effects on isolation technologies, and spacecraft charging and space radiation effects. Consideration is given to device radiation effects and hardening, hardness assurance and testing techniques, IC radiation effects and hardening, and single-event phenomena.

Coakley, Peter G. (editor)

1988-01-01

202

Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNLs Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNLs Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database.

Rathbone, Bruce A.

2005-02-25

203

Study of the secondary neutral radiation in proton therapy: Toward an indirect in vivo dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Secondary particles produced in the collision of protons with beam modifiers are of concern in proton therapy. Nevertheless, secondary radiation can provide information on the dosimetric parameters through its dependency on the modulating accessories (range shifter and range modulating wheel). Relatively little data have been reported in the literature for low-energy proton beams. The present study aims at characterizing the neutron and photon secondary radiation at the low-energy proton therapy facility of the Centre Antoine Lacassagne (CAL), and studying their correlation to the dosimetric parameters to explore possible practical uses of secondary radiation in the treatment quality for proton therapy. Methods: The Monte Carlo code MCNPX was used to simulate the proton therapy facility at CAL. Neutron and photon fluence, {Phi}, and ambient dose equivalent per proton dose, H*(10)/D, were determined across the horizontal main plane spanning the whole treatment room. H*(10)/D was also calculated at two positions of the treatment room where dosimetric measurements were performed for validation of the Monte Carlo calculations. Calculations and measurements were extended to 100 clinical spread-out Bragg Peaks (SOBPs) covering the whole range of therapeutic dose rates (D/MU) employed at CAL. In addition, the values of D and MU were also calculated for each SOBP and the results analyzed to study the relationship between secondary radiation and dosimetric parameters. Results: The largest production of the secondary particles takes place at the modulating devices and the brass collimators located along the optical bench. Along the beam line and off the beam axis to 2.5 m away, H*(10)/D values ranged from 5.4 {mu}Sv/Gy to 5.3 mSv/Gy for neutrons, and were 1 order of magnitude lower for photons. H*(10)/D varied greatly with the distance and angle to the beam axis. A variation of a factor of 5 was found for the different range of modulations (SOBPs). The ratios between calculations and measurements were 2.3 and 0.5 for neutrons and photons, respectively, and remained constant for all the range of SOBPs studied, which provided validation for the Monte Carlo calculations. H*(10)/D values were found to correlate to the proton dose rate D/MU with a power fit, both for neutrons and photons. This result was exploited to implement a system to obtain D/MU values from the measurement of the integrated photon ambient dose equivalent H*(10) during treatment, which provides a method to control the dosimetric parameters D/MU and D. Conclusions: The treatment room at CAL is moderately polluted by secondary particles. The constant ratio between measurements and calculations for all SOBPs showed that simulations correctly predict the dosimetric parameters and the dependence of the production of secondary particles on the modulation. The correlation between H*(10)/D and D/MU is a useful tool for quality control and is currently used at CAL. This system works as an indirect in vivo dosimetry method, which is so far not feasible in proton therapy. This tool requires very simple instrumentation and can be implemented from the measurement of either photons or neutrons.

Carnicer, A.; Letellier, V.; Rucka, G.; Angellier, G.; Sauerwein, W.; Herault, J. [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Cyclotron Biomedical, 227 Avenue de la Lanterne, 06200 Nice (France); Institut Curie, Centre de Protontherapie, Campus Universitaire d'Orsay, Batiment 101, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Hopital de la Croix Rouge, Centre de radiotherapie St Louis, Rue Andre Blondel, 83100 Toulon (France); Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Cyclotron Biomedical, 227 Avenue de la Lanterne, 06200 Nice (France); Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Strahlenklinik, 45122 Essen (Germany); Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Cyclotron Biomedical, 227 Avenue de la Lanterne, 06200 Nice (France)

2012-12-15

204

Optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models and the conceptual framework necessary for an understanding of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) are described. Examples of various OSL readout schemes are described, along with examples of the use of OSL in radiation dosimetry.

Stephen W. S. McKeever

2001-01-01

205

Summary of radiation dosimetry results on U.S. and Soviet manned spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the radiation environment aboard U.S. and Soviet manned spacecraft are reviewed and summarized. Data obtained mostly from passive and some active radiation detectors now exist for the case of low-earth-orbit missions. Major uncertainties still exist for space exposure in high-altitude, high-inclination geostationary orbits, in connection with solar effects and that of shielding. Data from active detectors flown in Spacelabs 1 and 2 suggest that a variety of phenomena must be understood before the effects of long-term exposure at the Space Station type of orbit and shielding can be properly assessed.

Benton, E. V.

1986-01-01

206

Focusing optics of a parallel beam CCD optical tomography apparatus for 3D radiation gel dosimetry.  

PubMed

Optical tomography of gel dosimeters is a promising and cost-effective avenue for quality control of radiotherapy treatments such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Systems based on a laser coupled to a photodiode have so far shown the best results within the context of optical scanning of radiosensitive gels, but are very slow ( approximately 9 min per slice) and poorly suited to measurements that require many slices. Here, we describe a fast, three-dimensional (3D) optical computed tomography (optical-CT) apparatus, based on a broad, collimated beam, obtained from a high power LED and detected by a charged coupled detector (CCD). The main advantages of such a system are (i) an acquisition speed approximately two orders of magnitude higher than a laser-based system when 3D data are required, and (ii) a greater simplicity of design. This paper advances our previous work by introducing a new design of focusing optics, which take information from a suitably positioned focal plane and project an image onto the CCD. An analysis of the ray optics is presented, which explains the roles of telecentricity, focusing, acceptance angle and depth-of-field (DOF) in the formation of projections. A discussion of the approximation involved in measuring the line integrals required for filtered backprojection reconstruction is given. Experimental results demonstrate (i) the effect on projections of changing the position of the focal plane of the apparatus, (ii) how to measure the acceptance angle of the optics, and (iii) the ability of the new scanner to image both absorbing and scattering gel phantoms. The quality of reconstructed images is very promising and suggests that the new apparatus may be useful in a clinical setting for fast and accurate 3D dosimetry. PMID:16585845

Krstaji?, Nikola; Doran, Simon J

2006-04-21

207

The 15-Country Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry: study of errors in dosimetry.  

PubMed

To provide direct estimates of cancer risk after low-dose protracted exposure to ionizing radiation, a large-scale epidemiological study of nuclear industry workers was conducted in 15 countries. As part of this study, identification and quantification of errors in historical recorded doses was conducted based on a review of dosimetric practices and technologies in participating facilities. The main sources of errors on doses from "high-energy" photons (100-3000 keV) were identified as the response of dosimeters in workplace exposure conditions and historical calibration practices. Errors related to dosimetry technology and radiation fields were quantified to derive period- and facility-specific estimates of bias and uncertainties in recorded doses. This was based on (1) an evaluation of predominant workplace radiation from measurement studies and dosimetry expert assessment and (2) an estimation of the energy and geometry response of dosimeters used historically in study facilities. Coefficients were derived to convert recorded doses to H(p) (10) and organ dose, taking into account different aspects of the calibration procedures. A parametric, lognormal error structure model was developed to describe errors in doses as a function of facility and time period. Doses from other radiation types, particularly neutrons and radionuclide intake, could not be adequately reconstructed in the framework of the 15-Country Study. Workers with substantial doses from these radiation types were therefore identified and excluded from analyses. Doses from "lower-energy" photons (<100 keV) and from "higher-energy" photons (>3 MeV) were estimated to be small. PMID:17388692

Thierry-Chef, I; Marshall, M; Fix, J J; Bermann, F; Gilbert, E S; Hacker, C; Heinmiller, B; Murray, W; Pearce, M S; Utterback, D; Bernar, K; Deboodt, P; Eklof, M; Griciene, B; Holan, K; Hyvonen, H; Kerekes, A; Lee, M-C; Moser, M; Pernicka, F; Cardis, E

2007-04-01

208

Evaluation of a fast method of EPID-based dosimetry for intensity-modulated radiation therapy.  

PubMed

Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) could potentially be useful for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) QA. The data density, high resolution, large active area, and efficiency of the MV EPID make it an attractive option. However, EPIDs were designed as imaging devices, not dosimeters, and as a result they do not inherently measure dose in tissue equivalent media. EPIDose (Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL) is a tool designed for the use of EPIDs in IMRT QA that uses raw MV EPID images (no additional build-up and independent of gantry angle, but with dark and flood field corrections applied) to estimate absolute dose planes normal to the beam axis in a homogeneous media (i.e. similar to conventional IMRT QA methods). However, because of the inherent challenges of the EPID-based dosimetry, validating and commissioning such a system must be done very carefully, by exploring the range of use cases and using well-proven "standards" for comparison. In this work, a multi-institutional study was performed to verify accurate EPID image to dose plane conversion over a variety of conditions. Converted EPID images were compared to 2D diode array absolute dose measurements for 188 fields from 28 clinical IMRT treatment plans. These plans were generated using a number of commercially available treatment planning systems (TPS) covering various treatment sites including prostate, head and neck, brain, and lung. The data included three beam energies (6, 10, and 15 MV) and both step-and-shoot and dynamic MLC fields. Out of 26,207 points of comparison over 188 fields analyzed, the average overall field pass rate was 99.7% when 3 mm/3% DTA criteria were used (range 94.0-100 per field). The pass rates for more stringent criteria were 97.8% for 2mm/2% DTA (range 82.0-100 per field), and 84.6% for 1 mm/1% DTA (range 54.7-100 per field). Individual patient-specific sites as well, as different beam energies, followed similar trends to the overall pass rates. PMID:20592703

Nelms, Benjamin E; Rasmussen, Karl H; Tome, Wolfgang A

2010-01-01

209

Performance of neutron and gamma personnel dosimetry in mixed radiation fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1974 to 1980, six personnel dosimetry intercomparison studies (PDIS) were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the performance of personnel dosimeters in a variety of neutron and gamma fields produced by operating the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) in the steady state mode with and without spectral modifying shields. A total of 58 different organizations

R. E. Swaja; C. S. Sims

1981-01-01

210

Evaluation of The Combined Effects of Hyperthermia, Cobalt-60 Gamma Rays and IUdR on Cultured Glioblastoma Spheroid Cells and Dosimetry Using TLD-100  

PubMed Central

Objective In radiation treatment, the irradiation which is effective enough to control the tumors far exceeds normal-tissues tolerance. Thus to avoid such unfavourable outcomes, some methods sensitizing the tumor cells to radiation are used. Iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) is a halogenated thymidine analogue that known to be effective as a radiosensitizer in human cancer therapy. Improving the potential efficacy of radiation therapy after combining to hyperthermia depends on the magnitude of the differential sensitization of the hyperthermic effects or on the differential cytotoxicity of the radiation effects on the tumor cells. In this study, we evaluated the combined effects of IUdR, hyperthermia and gamma rays of 60Co on human glioblastoma spheroids culture. Materials and Methods In this experimental study,the cultured spheroids with 100m diameter were treated by 1 M IUdR, 43C hyperthermia for an hour and 2 Gy gamma rays, respectively. The DNA damages induced in cells were compared using alkaline comet assay method, and dosimetry was then performed by TLD-100. Comet scores were calculated as mean standard error of mean (SEM) using one-way ANOVA. Results Comparison of DNA damages induced by IUdR and hyperthermia + gamma treatment showed 2.67- and 1.92-fold enhancement, respectively, as compared to the damages induced by radiation alone or radiation combined IUdR. Dosimetry results showed the accurate dose delivered to cells. Conclusion Analysis of the comet tail moments of spheroids showed that the radiation treatments combined with hyperthermia and IUdR caused significant radiosensitization when compared to related results of irradiation alone or of irradiation with IUdR. These results suggest a potential clinical advantage of combining radiation with hyperthermia and indicate effectiveness of hyperthermia treatment in inducing cytotoxicity of tumor cells. PMID:25383332

Neshasteh-Riz, Ali; Rahdani, Rozhin; Mostaar, Ahmad

2014-01-01

211

Source and detector polarization effects on radiographic film dosimetry.  

PubMed

Kodak X-Omat V radiographic film has been tested for its polarization properties when using polarized and non-polarized light sources and detectors. The radiographic film has been shown to produce a relatively small but not negligible (less than 5%) variation in 90 degrees cycles in measured optical density within the visible spectrum when the light source is fully linear polarized and the film is rotated through 360 degrees angle. Negligible variations are seen when the detector is linearly polarized. If both light source and detector are linearly polarized, variations in measured optical density can reach 35% when the film is rotated through 360 degrees angle. This seems to be due to variations in the degree and axis of rotation in polarized light caused by the radiographic film and is independent of exposure level as the intensity of variation in absolute optical density is relatively the same for all film exposures. We recommend that a polarization test be performed on a densitometry system to establish the extent of its polarization properties before accurate dosimetry is performed with radiographic film. PMID:14703171

Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K N; Butson, Martin J

2003-12-01

212

NOTE: Source and detector polarization effects on radiographic film dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kodak X-Omat V radiographic film has been tested for its polarization properties when using polarized and non-polarized light sources and detectors. The radiographic film has been shown to produce a relatively small but not negligible (less than 5%) variation in 90 cycles in measured optical density within the visible spectrum when the light source is fully linear polarized and the film is rotated through 360 angle. Negligible variations are seen when the detector is linearly polarized. If both light source and detector are linearly polarized, variations in measured optical density can reach 35% when the film is rotated through 360 angle. This seems to be due to variations in the degree and axis of rotation in polarized light caused by the radiographic film and is independent of exposure level as the intensity of variation in absolute optical density is relatively the same for all film exposures. We recommend that a polarization test be performed on a densitometry system to establish the extent of its polarization properties before accurate dosimetry is performed with radiographic film.

Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K. N.; Butson, Martin J.

2003-12-01

213

natural background radiation dosimetry in the highest altitude region of Iran.  

PubMed

The natural background radiation has been measured in one of the highest altitude regions (Zagros Mountains), Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, in the south west of Iran. The outdoors-environmental monitoring exposure rate of radiation was measured in 200 randomly chosen regions using portable Geiger-Muller and scintillation detectors. Eight measurements were made in each region and an average value was used to calculate the exposure rate from natural background radiation. The average exposure rate was found to be 0.246 microGy/h and the annual average effective dose equivalent was found to be 0.49 mSv. An overall population-weighted mean outdoor dose rate was calculated to be 49 nGy/h, which is higher than the world-wide mean value of 44 nGy/h, as reported by UNSCEAR in 1998, and is comparable to the annual effective dose equivalent of 0.38 mSv. A good correlation between the altitude and the exposure rate was observed, as the higher altitude regions have higher natural background radiation levels. PMID:14646234

Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush

2003-09-01

214

Estimating the effective density of engineered nanomaterials for in vitro dosimetry  

PubMed Central

The need for accurate in vitro dosimetry remains a major obstacle to the development of cost-effective toxicological screening methods for engineered nanomaterials. An important key to accurate in vitro dosimetry is the characterization of sedimentation and diffusion rates of nanoparticles suspended in culture media, which largely depend upon the effective density and diameter of formed agglomerates in suspension. Here we present a rapid and inexpensive method for accurately measuring the effective density of nano-agglomerates in suspension. This novel method is based on the volume of the pellet obtained by bench-top centrifugation of nanomaterial suspensions in a packed cell volume tube, and is validated against gold-standard analytical ultracentrifugation data. This simple and cost-effective method allows nanotoxicologists to correctly model nanoparticle transport, and thus attain accurate dosimetry in cell culture systems, which will greatly advance the development of reliable and efficient methods for toxicological testing and investigation of nano-bio interactions in vitro. PMID:24675174

DeLoid, Glen; Cohen, Joel M.; Darrah, Tom; Derk, Raymond; Wang, Liying; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Wohlleben, Wendel; Demokritou, Philip

2014-01-01

215

A-bomb survivor dosimetry update  

SciTech Connect

A-bomb survivor data have been generally accepted as applicable. Also, the initial radiations have tended to be accepted as the dominant radiation source for all survivors. There was general acceptance of the essential reliability of both the biological effects data and the causative radiation dose values. There are considerations casting doubt on these acceptances, but very little quantification of th implied uncertainties has been attempted. The exception was A-bomb survivor dosimetry, where free-field kerma values for initial radiations were thought to be accurate to about 30%, and doses to individual survivors were treated as effectively error-free. In 1980, a major challenge to the accepted A-bomb survivor dosimetry was announced, and was quickly followed by a succession of explanations and displays showing the soundness of that challenge. In fact, a complete replacement set of free-field kerma values was provided which was suitable for use in constructing an entire new dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The new values showed many changes greater than the accepted 30% uncertainty. An approximate new dosimetry was indeed constructed, and used to convert existing leukemia cause-and-effect data from the old to the new dose values, by way of assessing the impact. (ERB)

Loewe, W.E.

1982-06-01

216

Improved radiation dosimetry/risk estimates to facilitate environmental management of plutonium contaminated sites. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The objective of this research is to evaluate distributions of possible alpha radiation doses to the lung, bone, and liver and associated health-risk distributions for plutonium (Pu) inhalation-exposure scenarios relevant to environmental management of PuO{sub 2}-contaminated sites. Currently available dosimetry/risk models do not apply to exposure scenarios where, at most, a small number of highly radioactive PuO{sub 2} particles are inhaled (stochastic exposure [SE] paradigm). For the SE paradigm, risk distributions are more relevant than point estimates of risk. The focus of the research is on the SE paradigm and on high specific activity, alpha-emitting (HSA-aE) particles such as 238 PuO{sub 2} . The scientific goal is to develop a stochastic respiratory tract dosimetry/risk computer model for evaluating the desired absorbed dose distributions and associated health-risk distributions, for Department of Energy (DOE) workers and members of the public. This report summarizes results after 1 year of a 2-year project.'

Scott, B.R.

1998-06-01

217

Biodistribution, toxicology and radiation dosimetry of 5-HT1A receptor agonist Positron Emission Tomography ligand [11C]CUMI-101  

PubMed Central

Sprague Dawley rats (10/sex/group) were given a single iv dose of CUMI-101 to determine acute toxicity of CUMI-101 and radiation dosimetry estimations were conducted in baboons with [11C]CUMI-101. Intravenous administration of CUMI-101 did not produce overt biologically or toxicologically significant adverse effects except transient hypoactivity immediately post dose in the mid and high dose groups, which is not considered to be a dose limiting toxic effect. No adverse effects were observed in the low dose group. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) is considered to be 44.05 g/kg for a single iv dose administration in rats. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was estimated to be 881 g/kg for a single iv dose administration. The Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRDOSE) estimates indicate the maximum, permissible single study dosage of [11C]CUMI-101 in human is 52 mCi with testes and urinary bladder as the critical organ for male and female, respectively. PMID:21994241

Kumar, Dileep J. S.; Bai, Bing; Ng, Hanna H.; Mirsalis, Jon C.; Erlandsson, Kjell; Milak, Matthew S.; Majo, Vattoly J.; Prabhakaran, Jaya; Mann, J. J.; Parsey, R. V.

2013-01-01

218

Cancer risk among atomic bomb survivors. The RERF Life Span Study. Radiation Effects Research Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the risk of cancer among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We focus primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation from 1950 through 1985 based on recently revised dosimetry procedures. We report the risk of cancer other than

Y. Shimizu; W. J. Schull; H. Kato

1990-01-01

219

A review of the use and potential of the GATE Monte Carlo simulation code for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications.  

PubMed

In this paper, the authors' review the applicability of the open-source GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the GEANT4 toolkit for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications. The many applications of GATE for state-of-the-art radiotherapy simulations are described including external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, intraoperative radiotherapy, hadrontherapy, molecular radiotherapy, and in vivo dose monitoring. Investigations that have been performed using GEANT4 only are also mentioned to illustrate the potential of GATE. The very practical feature of GATE making it easy to model both a treatment and an imaging acquisition within the same framework is emphasized. The computational times associated with several applications are provided to illustrate the practical feasibility of the simulations using current computing facilities. PMID:24877844

Sarrut, David; Bardis, Manuel; Boussion, Nicolas; Freud, Nicolas; Jan, Sbastien; Ltang, Jean-Michel; Loudos, George; Maigne, Lydia; Marcatili, Sara; Mauxion, Thibault; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Perrot, Yann; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Robert, Charlotte; Schaart, Dennis R; Visvikis, Dimitris; Buvat, Irne

2014-06-01

220

Historical review of personnel dosimetry development and its use in radiation protection programs at Hanford 1944 to the 1980s  

SciTech Connect

This document is an account of the personnel dosimetry programs as they were developed and practiced at Hanford from their inception in 1943 to 1944 to the 1980s. This history is divided into sections covering the general categories of external and internal measurement methods, in vivo counting, radiation exposure recordkeeping, and calibration of personnel dosimeters. The reasons and circumstances surrounding the inception of these programs at Hanford are discussed. Information about these programs was obtained from documents, letters, and memos that are available in our historical records; the personnel files of many people who participated in these programs; and from the recollections of many long-time, current, and past Hanford employees. For the most part, the history of these programs is presented chronologically to relate their development and use in routine Hanford operations. 131 refs., 38 figs., 23 tabs.

Wilson, R.H.

1987-02-01

221

1992 IEEE Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 29th, New Orleans, LA, July 13-17, 1992, Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of recent theoretical and experimental research related to nuclear and space radiation effects. Topics dicussed include single event phenomena, radiation effects in particle detectors and associated electronics for accelerators, spacecraft charging, and space environments and effects. The discussion also covers hardness assurance and testing techniques, electromagnetic effects, radiation effects in devices and integrated circuits, dosimetry and radiation facilities, isolation techniques, and basic mechanisms.

Van Vonno, Nick W. (editor)

1992-01-01

222

Photo-luminescence of Ris B3 and PVB films for application in radiation dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ris B3 film dosimeters (23 ?m) prepared from poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) incorporating pararosaniline cyanide, as the radiation-sensitive element and PVB films (25 ?m) prepared from PVB without any additives are investigated for ?-radiation measurement using spectrofluorimetry based on their emission properties. The unirradiated Ris B3 film when excited at 554 nm shows an emission band at 602 nm while PVB film shows an emission band at 305 nm when excited at 235 nm wavelength. The fluorescence intensity of both emission bands decreases with the increase of absorbed dose due to the damage caused by ionizing radiation. The useful dose range of Ris B3 film extends up to 120 kGy while that of PVB film extends up to 60 kGy. The response of Ris B3 film increases with the increase of relative humidity during irradiation while that of PVB has less effect in the humidity range of 20-70%. The percent uncertainty associated with the measurement of the dose response was found to be 3% (1 ?) for both films. Ris B3 and PVB films show good post-irradiation stability in dark and indirect daylight where the deviation in the response overall a 2-month storage period was found to be 5% for Ris B3 and 2% for PVB.

Abdel-Fattah, A. A.; Beshir, W. B.; Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; Ezz El-Din, H.

2001-12-01

223

US plant and radiation dosimetry experiments flown on the Soviet satellite Cosmos 1129  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments included: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats used for wide range physiological studies; experiments with plants, fungi, insects, and mammalian tissue cultures; radiation physics experiments; a heat convection study; a rat embryology experiment in which an attempt was made to breed 2 male and 5 female rats during the flight; and fertile quail eggs used to determine the effects of spaceflight on avian embryogenesis. Specimens for US experiments were initially prepared at the recovery site or in Moscow and transferred to US laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the fourteen US experiments aboard Cosmos 1129 is presented.

Heinrich, M. R. (editor); Souza, K. A. (editor)

1981-01-01

224

US plant and radiation dosimetry experiments flown on the soviet satellite COSMOS 1129. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Experiments included: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats used for wide range physiological studies Kosmos Satellites experiments with plants, fungi, insects, and mammalian tissue cultures; radiation physics experiments; a heat convection study; a rat embryology experiment in which an attempt was made to breed 2 male and 5 female rats during the flight; and fertile quail eggs used to determine the effects of spaceflight on avian embryogenesis. Specimens for US experiments were initially prepared at the recovery site or in Moscow and transferred to US laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the fourteen US experiments aboard Cosmos 1129 is presented.

Heinrich, M.R.; Souza, K.A.

1981-05-01

225

Protocol for emergency EPR dosimetry in fingernails.  

PubMed

There is an increased need for after-the-fact dosimetry because of the high risk of radiation exposures due to terrorism or accidents. In case of such an event, a method is needed to make measurements of dose in a large number of individuals rapidly and with sufficient accuracy to facilitate effective medical triage. Dosimetry based on EPR measurements of fingernails potentially could be an effective tool for this purpose. This paper presents the first operational protocols for EPR fingernail dosimetry, including guidelines for collection and storage of samples, parameters for EPR measurements, and the method of dose assessment. In a blinded test of this protocol application was carried out on nails freshly sampled and irradiated to 4 and 20 Gy; this protocol gave dose estimates with an error of less than 30%. PMID:18163158

Trompier, F; Kornak, L; Calas, C; Romanyukha, A; Leblanc, B; Mitchell, C A; Swartz, H M; Clairand, I

2007-08-01

226

Preclinical animal research on therapy dosimetry with dual isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preclinical research into radionuclide therapies based on radiation dosimetry will enable the use of any LET-equivalent radionuclide.\\u000a Radiation dose and dose rate have significant influence on dose effects in the tumour depending on its radiation sensitivity,\\u000a possibilities for repair of sublethal damage, and repopulation during or after the therapy. Models for radiation response\\u000a of preclinical tumour models after peptide receptor

Mark W. Konijnenberg; Marion de Jong

2011-01-01

227

Radiation-dosimetry and chemical-toxicity considerations for /sup 99/Tc  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99 (T/sub 1/2/ = 2.13 x 10/sup 5/ y) is produced in the fission of /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu. Technitium-99 has been found to contaminate some areas of the uranium re-enrichment process. ICRP-30 Part 2 gives the Annual Limit on Intake (ALI) for /sup 99/Tc as 2 x 10/sup 8/ Bq (5.4 mCi) for class D inhaled material (IC80). The ICRP states clearly that ALIs are based on radiation risk only and that chemical toxicity is not considered (IC79). No data wer found on the chemical toxicity of /sup 99/Tc, possibly because there are no stable isotopes of technetium with which to study the toxicity, although, because of its long T/sub 1/2/, /sup 99/Tc can, for all practical purposes, be considered stable. The ALI values for /sup 99/Tc are based on data obtained using high specific activity /sup 99m/Tc (T/sub 1/2/ = 6 h) and /sup 95m/Tc (T/sub 1/2/ = 61 days). Since the specific activities of /sup 99/Tc and Na/sup 99/TcO/sub 4/ are quite low (17 mCi/g and 9 mCi/g, respectively) and /sup 99/Tc is available in abundant supply, we have attempted to assess the relative radiation and chemical hazards that are associated with this radionuclide. The approach in this study was (1) to study the effect of chemical dose on the whole body retention of /sup 99/Tc sodium pertechnetate in rats and to relate these effects to the radiation dose and the ALI and (2) to compare the chemical toxicity of /sup 99/Tc sodium pertechnetate with the ALI at different chemical dose levels.

Coffey, J.L.; Hayes, R.L.; Rafter, J.J.; Watson, E.E.; Carlton, J.E.

1982-01-01

228

Radiation Effects: Core Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The risks to personnel in space from the naturally occurring radiations are generally considered to be one of the most serious limitations to human space missions, as noted in two recent reports of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. The Core Project of the Radiation Effects Team for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute is the consequences of radiations in space in order to develop countermeasure, both physical and pharmaceutical, to reduce the risks of cancer and other diseases associated with such exposures. During interplanetary missions, personnel in space will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays, including high-energy protons and energetic ions with atomic masses of iron or higher. In addition, solar events will produce radiation fields of high intensity for short but irregular durations. The level of intensity of these radiations is considerably higher than that on Earth's surface, and the biological risks to astronauts is consequently increased, including increased risks of carcinogenesis and other diseases. This group is examining the risk of cancers resulting from low-dose, low-dose rate exposures of model systems to photons, protons, and iron by using ground-based accelerators which are capable of producing beams of protons, iron, and other heavy ions at energies comparable to those encountered in space. They have begun the first series of experiments using a 1-GeV iron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and 250-MeV protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center's proton synchrotron facility. As part of these studies, this group will be investigating the potential for the pharmaceutical, Tamoxifen, to reduce the risk of breast cancer in astronauts exposed to the level of doses and particle types expected in space. Theoretical studies are being carried out in a collaboration between scientists at NASA's Johnson Space Center and Johns Hopkins University in parallel with the experimental program have provided methods and predictions which are being used to assess the levels of risks to be encountered and to evaluate appropriate strategies for countermeasures. Although the work in this project is primarily directed toward problems associated with space travel, the problem of protracted exposures to low-levels of radiation is one of national interest in our energy and defense programs, and the results may suggest new paradigms for addressing such risks.

Dicello, John F.

1999-01-01

229

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) dosimetry system and the use of Ge-doped silica optical fibres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown that over exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), either from sunlight or artificial sources, can cause severe biological effects including cataracts, photokeratitis and skin cancer. In this respect, there exists the need to introduce a sensitive UV dosimetric material capable of measuring radiation dose to high accuracy in order to deliver UVR safely and efficiently. Present study has focussed on the investigation of the potential thermoluminescent (TL) sensitivity of commercially available germanium (Ge)-doped silica (SiO2) optical fibres subjected to UVR. The main interest of this study is to find out whether these doped SiO2 optical fibres can be used as a sensible integrator of environmental UV exposures. In the present study, commercially available Ge-doped SiO2 optical fibres have been used with a core diameter of 11 ?m (CorActive, Canada), 23 ?m (Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute Kolkata, India) and 50 ?m (Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute Kolkata, India) and a cladding diameter of 1250.1 ?m, irradiated over a wide range of UV dose. Results have shown that these fibres exhibit a linear dose response (with correlation coefficient better than 0.9852). The 50 ?m fibre produces greater TL response than that obtained for 11- and 23 ?m fibres. The TL results are compared with that of the well-established TL dosimeter material lithium fluoride.

Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Taufek; Abu Bakar, Noor Khairunnisa; Chandra Paul, Mukul; Bradley, D. A.

2014-11-01

230

Fourth international radiopharmaceutical dosimetry symposium  

SciTech Connect

The focus of the Fourth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium was to explore the impact of current developments in nuclear medicine on absorbed dose calculations. This book contains the proceedings of the meeting including the edited discussion that followed the presentations. Topics that were addressed included the dosimetry associated with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and blood elements, ultrashort-lived radionuclides, and positron emitters. Some specific areas of discussion were variations in absorbed dose as a result of alterations in the kinetics, the influence of radioactive contaminants on dose, dose in children and in the fetus, available instrumentation and techniques for collecting the kinetic data needed for dose calculation, dosimetry requirements for the review and approval of new radiopharmaceuticals, and a comparison of the effect on the thyroid of internal versus external irradiation. New models for the urinary blader, skeleton including the active marrow, and the blood were presented. Several papers dealt with the validity of traditional ''average-organ'' dose estimates to express the dose from particulate radiation that has a short range in tissue. These problems are particularly important in the use of monoclonal antibodies and agents used to measure intracellular functions. These proceedings have been published to provide a resource volume for anyone interested in the calculation of absorbed radiation dose.

Schlafke-Stelson, A.T.; Watson, E.E. (eds.)

1986-04-01

231

"Mir" radiation dosimetry results during the solar proton events in September-October 1989.  

PubMed

Using data from dosimetry-radiometry system "Liulin" on board of "Mir"-space station the particle flux and doserate during September-October, 1989 has been studied. The orbit of the station was 379 km perigee, 410 km apogee and 51.6 degrees inclination. Special attention has been paid to the flux and doserate changes inside the station after intensive solar proton events (SPE) on 29 of September, 1989. The comparison between the doses before and after the solar flares shows increase of the calculated mean dose per day by factor of 10 to 200. During the SPE on the 29 of September the additional dose was 310 mrad. The results of the experiment are compared with the data for the solar proton fluxes obtained on the GOES-7 satellite. PMID:11537022

Dachev TsP; Matviichuk YuN; Bankov, N G; Semkova, J V; Koleva, R T; Ivanov YaJ; Tomov, B T; Petrov, V M; Shurshakov, V A; Bengin, V V; Machmutov, V S; Panova, N A; Kostereva, T A; Temny, V V; Ponomarev YuN; Tykva, R

1992-01-01

232

Unruh radiation and Interference effect  

E-print Network

A uniformly accelerated charged particle feels the vacuum as thermally excited and fluctuates around the classical trajectory. Then we may expect additional radiation besides the Larmor radiation. It is called Unruh radiation. In this report, we review the calculation of the Unruh radiation with an emphasis on the interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the radiation from the fluctuating motion. Our calculation is based on a stochastic treatment of the particle under a uniform acceleration. The basics of the stochastic equation are reviewed in another report in the same proceeding. In this report, we mainly discuss the radiation and the interference effect.

Satoshi Iso; Yasuhiro Yamamoto; Sen Zhang

2011-02-23

233

ESTIMATING SOLAR RADIATION EXPOSURE IN WETLANDS USING RADIATION MODELS, FIELD DATA, AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This seminar will describe development of methods for the estimation of solar radiation doses in wetlands. The methodology presents a novel approach to incorporating aspects of solar radiation dosimetry that have historically received limited attention. These include effects of a...

234

The effect of isotope on the dosimetry of inhaled plutonium oxide  

SciTech Connect

Results of experimental studies in which animals inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} or {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} aerosols have shown that the biokinetics and associated radiation dose patterns for these two isotopes differ significantly due to differences in in-vivo solubility caused by the 260-fold difference in specific activity between {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} and {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. We have adapted a biokinetics and dosimetry model derived from results of the ITRI dog studies to humans and have calculated dose commitments and annual limits on intake (ALI) for both Pu isotopes. Our results show that the ALI calculated in this study is one-third that for class Y {sup 238}Pu from ICRP 30, and one-half or equal to that for class Y {sup 239}Pu, depending on how activity in the thoracic lymph nodes is treated dosimetrically.

Guilmette, R.A., Griffith, W.C. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.; Hickman, A.W. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)

1991-12-31

235

Correction-less dosimetry of nonstandard photon fields: a new criterion to determine the usability of radiation detectors.  

PubMed

In the IAEA-AAPM dosimetry formalism, detector measurements in general nonstandard conditions are corrected using the factor k(f(clin),f(msr))(Q(clin),Q(msr)). This factor needs to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis which is difficult to accomplish in practice. The present paper aims to provide a method that allows neglecting correction factors for small and composite IMRT fields by first determining a radiation detector's usability in these fields. Detailed models of nine radiation detectors are built: four ionization chambers (NE2571, A12, A1SL, A14), three small field detectors (PTW31018 microLion, PTW60003 natural diamond, PTW60012 unshielded diode) and two near water-equivalent detectors (alanine, W1 scintillating fiber). Using the egs_chamber Monte Carlo code, dose response functions at 6 MV and 25 MV are sampled for each detector and their corresponding volume of water. These functions are then used with a newly derived criterion to evaluate an upper bound ?(f(ns),f(msr))(Q(ns),Q(msr)) on the variable ?(f(ns),f(msr))(Q(ns),Q(msr)) if no field collimation/modulation occurs over a given perturbation zone. The variable ?(f(ns),f(msr))(Q(ns),Q(msr)) is defined as the absolute value of the relative deviation from unity of a nonstandard field quality correction factor k(f(ns),f(msr))(Q(ns),Q(msr)). Using the same criterion, perturbation zones are evaluated by finding the smallest field size allowed for correction-less dosimetry with a given tolerance ?(f(ns),f(msr))(Q(ns),Q(msr)). For composite fields, the sensitivity of detectors to the non-uniformity of virtual symmetric collapsed beams over regions of interest specified by the criterion is studied to estimate an upper bound ? ?(f(ns),f(ref))(Q(ns),Q) on ?(f(ns),f(ref))(Q(ns),Q) for a given beam flatness. Finally, a newly defined perturbation function is used to minimize the perturbations of the microLion chamber through density compensation. The theoretical criterion shows good agreement with full Monte Carlo simulations of ?(f(ns),f(msr))(Q(ns) Q(msr)). Perturbation zones are shown to be sensitive to both the energy of the beam and the orientation of the detector. The density-compensated microLion shows significantly improved response in both axial and radial orientations in small and composite IMRT fields. Finally, the new Exradin W1 scintillator is shown to have ?(f(ns),f(msr))(Q(ns),Q(msr)) values under 1% in small fields. The methods presented in this work theoretically show that correction-less dosimetry of nonstandard field can be accomplished by knowing the limit of usability of radiation detectors in these conditions. Potential applications include small field output factor measurements and absolute absorbed dose to water verification in the QA of clinical IMRT fields. PMID:25118890

Kamio, Y; Bouchard, H

2014-09-01

236

Correction-less dosimetry of nonstandard photon fields: a new criterion to determine the usability of radiation detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the IAEA-AAPM dosimetry formalism, detector measurements in general nonstandard conditions are corrected using the factor k_{{{Q}_{\\text{clin}}},{{Q}_{\\text{msr}}}}^{{{f}_{\\text{clin}}},{{f}_{\\text{msr}}}} . This factor needs to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis which is difficult to accomplish in practice. The present paper aims to provide a method that allows neglecting correction factors for small and composite IMRT fields by first determining a radiation detectors usability in these fields. Detailed models of nine radiation detectors are built: four ionization chambers (NE2571, A12, A1SL, A14), three small field detectors (PTW31018 microLion, PTW60003 natural diamond, PTW60012 unshielded diode) and two near water-equivalent detectors (alanine, W1 scintillating fiber). Using the egs_chamber Monte Carlo code, dose response functions at 6 MV and 25 MV are sampled for each detector and their corresponding volume of water. These functions are then used with a newly derived criterion to evaluate an upper bound \\xi _{{{Q}_{\\text{ns}}},{{Q}_{\\text{msr}}}}^{{{f}_{\\text{ns}}},{{f}_{\\text{msr}}}} on the variable \\epsilon _{{{Q}_{\\text{ns}}},{{Q}_{\\text{msr}}}}^{{{f}_{\\text{ns}}},{{f}_{\\text{msr}}}} if no field collimation/modulation occurs over a given perturbation zone. The variable \\epsilon _{{{Q}_{\\text{ns}}},{{Q}_{\\text{msr}}}}^{{{f}_{\\text{ns}}},{{f}_{\\text{msr}}}} is defined as the absolute value of the relative deviation from unity of a nonstandard field quality correction factor k_{{{Q}_{\\text{ns}}},{{Q}_{\\text{msr}}}}^{{{f}_{\\text{ns}}},{{f}_{\\text{msr}}}} . Using the same criterion, perturbation zones are evaluated by finding the smallest field size allowed for correction-less dosimetry with a given tolerance \\xi _{{{Q}_{\\text{ns}}},{{Q}_{\\text{msr}}}}^{{{f}_{\\text{ns}}},{{f}_{\\text{msr}}}} . For composite fields, the sensitivity of detectors to the non-uniformity of virtual symmetric collapsed beams over regions of interest specified by the criterion is studied to estimate an upper bound \\tilde{\\xi}_{{{Q}_{\\text{ns}}},Q}^{{{f}_{\\text{ns}}},{{f}_{\\text{ref}}}} on \\epsilon _{{{Q}_{\\text{ns}}},Q}^{{{f}_{\\text{ns}}},{{f}_{\\text{ref}}}} for a given beam flatness. Finally, a newly defined perturbation function is used to minimize the perturbations of the microLion chamber through density compensation. The theoretical criterion shows good agreement with full Monte Carlo simulations of \\epsilon _{{{Q}_{\\text{ns}}},{{Q}_{\\text{msr}}}}^{{{f}_{\\text{ns}}},{{f}_{\\text{msr}}}} . Perturbation zones are shown to be sensitive to both the energy of the beam and the orientation of the detector. The density-compensated microLion shows significantly improved response in both axial and radial orientations in small and composite IMRT fields. Finally, the new Exradin W1 scintillator is shown to have \\xi _{{{Q}_{\\text{ns}}},{{Q}_{\\text{msr}}}}^{{{f}_{\\text{ns}}},{{f}_{\\text{msr}}}} values under 1% in small fields. The methods presented in this work theoretically show that correction-less dosimetry of nonstandard field can be accomplished by knowing the limit of usability of radiation detectors in these conditions. Potential applications include small field output factor measurements and absolute absorbed dose to water verification in the QA of clinical IMRT fields.

Kamio, Y.; Bouchard, H.

2014-09-01

237

Jaw Dysfunction Related to Pterygoid and Masseter Muscle Dosimetry After Radiation Therapy in Children and Young Adults With Head-and-Neck Sarcomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between jaw function, patient and treatment variables, and radiation dosimetry of the mandibular muscles and joints in children and young adults receiving radiation for soft-tissue and bone sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four pediatric and young adult patients with head-and-neck sarcomas were treated on an institutional review board-approved prospective study of focal radiation therapy for local tumor control. Serial jaw depression measurements were related to radiation dosimetry delivered to the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles, masseter muscles, and temporomandibular joints to generate mathematical models of jaw function. Results: Baseline jaw depression was only influenced by the degree of surgical resection. In the first 12 weeks from initiation of radiation, surgical procedures greater than a biopsy, administration of cyclophosphamide containing chemotherapy regimes, and large gross tumor volumes adversely affected jaw depression. Increasing dose to the pterygoid and masseter muscles above 40 Gy predicted loss of jaw function over the full course of follow-up. Conclusions: Clinical and treatment factors are related to initial and subsequent jaw dysfunction. Understanding these complex interactions and the affect of specific radiation doses may help reduce the risk for jaw dysfunction in future children and young adults undergoing radiation therapy for the management of soft-tissue and bone sarcomas.

Krasin, Matthew J., E-mail: matthew.krasin@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Wiese, Kristin M. [Department of Rehabilitation Services, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Spunt, Sheri L. [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Hua, Chia-ho [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Daw, Najat [Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Navid, Fariba [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Davidoff, Andrew M. [Department of Surgery, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); McGregor, Lisa [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, TN (United States); Merchant, Thomas E.; Kun, Larry E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); McCrarey, Lola [Department of Rehabilitation Services, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); and others

2012-01-01

238

Compounds of 6Li and natural Li for EPR dosimetry in photon/neutron mixed radiation fields.  

PubMed

Formates and dithionates of 6Li, enriched and 7Li in natural composition of Li offer a possibility to measure the absorbed dose from photons and thermal neutrons in a mixed radiation field for instance at a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility. Tests with formates and dithionates of enriched 6Li and lithium compounds with natural composition have been performed at the BNCT facility at Studsvik, Sweden. Irradiations have been performed at 3 cm depth in a Perspex phantom in a fluence rate of thermal neutrons 1.8 x 10(9) n cm(-2) s(-1). The compounds were also irradiated in a pure X-ray field from a 4MV linear accelerator at 5 cm depth in a phantom with accurately determined absorbed doses. The signal intensity and shape was investigated within 3 h after the irradiation. A single line spectrum attributed to the CO2- radical was observed after irradiation of lithium formate. An increase in line width occurring after neutron irradiation in comparison with photon irradiation of the 6Li sample was attributed to dipolar broadening between CO2- radicals trapped in the tracks of the alpha particles. A spectrum due to the SO3- radical anion was observed after irradiation of lithium dithionate. The signal amplitude increased using the 6Li in place of the Li with natural composition of isotopes, in studies with low energy X-ray irradiation. Due to the decreased line width, caused by the difference in g(N) and I between the isotopes, the sensitivity with 6Li dithionate may be enhanced by an order of magnitude compared to alanine dosimetry. After comprehensive examination of the different combinations of compounds with different amounts of 6Li and 7Li regarding dosimetry, radiation chemistry and EPR properties these dosimeter material might be used for dose determinations at BNCT treatments and for biomedical experiments. Interesting properties of the radical formation might be visible due to the large difference in ionization density of neutrons compared to photons. PMID:15134730

Lund, E; Gustafsson, H; Danilczuk, M; Sastry, M D; Lund, A

2004-05-01

239

Compounds of 6Li and natural Li for EPR dosimetry in photon/neutron mixed radiation fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formates and dithionates of 6Li, enriched and 7Li in natural composition of Li offer a possibility to measure the absorbed dose from photons and thermal neutrons in a mixed radiation field for instance at a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility. Tests with formates and dithionates of enriched 6Li and lithium compounds with natural composition have been performed at the BNCT facility at Studsvik, Sweden. Irradiations have been performed at 3 cm depth in a Perspex phantom in a fluence rate of thermal neutrons 1.810 9 n cm -2 s -1. The compounds were also irradiated in a pure X-ray field from a 4 MV linear accelerator at 5 cm depth in a phantom with accurately determined absorbed doses. The signal intensity and shape was investigated within 3 h after the irradiation. A single line spectrum attributed to the CO 2- radical was observed after irradiation of lithium formate. An increase in line width occurring after neutron irradiation in comparison with photon irradiation of the 6Li sample was attributed to dipolar broadening between CO 2- radicals trapped in the tracks of the ? particles. A spectrum due to the SO 3- radical anion was observed after irradiation of lithium dithionate. The signal amplitude increased using the 6Li in place of the Li with natural composition of isotopes, in studies with low energy X-ray irradiation. Due to the decreased line width, caused by the difference in gN and I between the isotopes, the sensitivity with 6Li dithionate may be enhanced by an order of magnitude compared to alanine dosimetry. After comprehensive examination of the different combinations of compounds with different amounts of 6Li and 7Li regarding dosimetry, radiation chemistry and EPR properties these dosimeter material might be used for dose determinations at BNCT treatments and for biomedical experiments. Interesting properties of the radical formation might be visible due to the large difference in ionization density of neutrons compared to photons.

Lund, E.; Gustafsson, H.; Danilczuk, M.; Sastry, M. D.; Lund, A.

2004-05-01

240

A new water-equivalent 2D plastic scintillation detectors array for the dosimetry of megavoltage energy photon beams in radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The objective of this work is to present a new 2D plastic scintillation detectors array (2D-PSDA) designed for the dosimetry of megavoltage (MV) energy photon beams in radiation therapy and to characterize its basic performance. Methods: We developed a 2D detector array consisting of 781 plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) inserted into a plane of a water-equivalent phantom. The PSDs were distributed on a 26 x 26 cm{sup 2} grid, with an interdetector spacing of 10 mm, except for two perpendicular lines centered on the detection plane, where the spacing was 5 mm. Each PSD was made of a 1 mm diameter by 3 mm long cylindrical polystyrene scintillating fiber coupled to a clear nonscintillating plastic optical fiber. All of the light signals emitted by the PSDs were read simultaneously with an optical system at a rate of one measurement per second. We characterized the performance of the optical system, the angular dependency of the device, and the perturbation of dose distributions caused by the hundreds of PSDs inserted into the phantom. We also evaluated the capacity of the system to monitor complex multileaf collimator (MLC) sequences such as those encountered in step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. We compared our results with calculations performed by a treatment planning system and with measurements taken with a 2D ionization chamber array and with a radiochromic film. Results: The detector array that we developed allowed us to measure doses with an average precision of better than 1% for cumulated doses equal to or greater than 6.3 cGy. Our results showed that the dose distributions produced by the 6-MV photon beam are not perturbed (within {+-}1.1%) by the presence of the hundreds of PSDs located into the phantom. The results also showed that the variations in the beam incidences have little effect on the dose response of the device. For all incidences tested, the passing rates of the gamma tests between the 2D-PSDA and the treatment planning system were higher than 97.5% when the standard clinical tolerances of 3% or 3 mm were used. Excellent agreement was obtained between the doses measured and calculated when we used the 2D-PSDA for monitoring a MLC sequence from a step-and-shoot IMRT plan. Conclusions: We demonstrated the feasibility of using a large number of PSDs in a new 2D-PSDA for the dosimetry of MV energy photon beams in radiation therapy. The excellent precision, accuracy, and low angular dependence of the device indicate that such a prototype could potentially be used as a high-accuracy quality assurance tool for IMRT and arc therapy patient plan verification. The homogeneity and water-equivalence of the prototype we built suggest that this technology could be extended to multiple detection planes by arranging the fibers into more complex orientations, opening the possibility for 3D dosimetry with PSDs.

Guillot, Mathieu; Beaulieu, Luc; Archambault, Louis; Beddar, Sam; Gingras, Luc [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, Unit 94, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada)

2011-12-15

241

Effect of spine hardware on small spinal stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo (MC) modeling of a 6 MV photon beam was used to study the dose perturbation from a titanium rod 5 mm in diameter in various small fields range from 2 2 to 5 5 cm2. The results showed that the rod increased the dose to water by 6% at the water-rod interface because of electron backscattering and decreased the dose by 7% in the shadow of the rod because of photon attenuation. The Pinnacle3 treatment planning system calculations matched the MC results at the depths more than 1 cm past the rod when the correct titanium density of 4.5 g cm-3 was used, but significantly underestimated the backscattering dose at the water-rod interface. A CT-density table with a top density of 1.82 g cm-3 (cortical bone) is a practical way to reduce the dosimetric error from the artifacts by preventing high density assignment to them, but can underestimates the attenuation by the titanium rod by 6%. However, when multi-beam with intensity modulation is used in actual patient spinal stereotactic radiosurgery treatment, the dosimetric effect of assigning 4.5 instead of 1.82 g cm-3 to titanium implants is complicated. It ranged from minimal effect to 2% dose difference affecting 15% target volume in the study. When hardware is in the beam path, density override to the titanium hardware is recommended.

Wang, Xin; Yang, James N.; Li, Xiaoqiang; Tailor, Ramesh; Vassilliev, Oleg; Brown, Paul; Rhines, Laurence; Chang, Eric

2013-10-01

242

Characterization of a parallel-beam CCD optical-CT apparatus for 3D radiation dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

3D measurement of optical attenuation is of interest in a variety of fields of biomedical importance, including spectrophotometry, optical projection tomography (OPT) and analysis of 3D radiation dosimeters. Accurate, precise and economical 3D measurements of optical density (OD) are a crucial step in enabling 3D radiation dosimeters to enter wider use in clinics. Polymer gels and Fricke gels, as well

Nikola Krstajic; Simon J. Doran

2007-01-01

243

Radiation Therapy: Preventing and Managing Side Effects  

MedlinePLUS

... effects of radiation therapy Preventing and managing side effects of radiation therapy When the radiation damages nearby ... radiation therapy section for more on this. Side effects can vary. Your doctor and nurse are the ...

244

Radiation dosimetry measurements with real time radiation monitoring device (RRMD)-II in Space Shuttle STS-79  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The real-time measurement of radiation environment was made with an improved real-time radiation monitoring device (RRMD)-II onboard Space Shuttle STS-79 (S/MM#4: 4th Shuttle MIR Mission, at an inclination angle of 51.6 degrees and an altitude of 250-400km) for 199 h during 17-25 September, 1996. The observation of the detector covered the linear energy transfer (LET) range of 3.5-6000 keV/micrometer. The Shuttle orbital profile in this mission was equivalent to that of the currently planned Space Station, and provided an opportunity to investigate variations in count rate and dose equivalent rate depending on altitude, longitude, and latitude in detail. Particle count rate and dose equivalent rate were mapped geographically during the mission. Based on the map of count rate, an analysis was made by dividing whole region into three regions: South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region, high latitude region and other regions. The averaged absorbed dose rate during the mission was 39.3 microGy/day for a LET range of 3.5-6000 keV/micrometer. The corresponding average dose equivalent rates during the mission are estimated to be 293 microSv/day with quality factors from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-Pub. 60 and 270 microSv/day with quality factors from ICRP-Pub. 26. The effective quality factors for ICRP-Pub. 60 and 26 are 7.45 and 6.88, respectively. From the present data for particles of LET > 3.5keV/micrometer, we conclude that the average dose equivalent rate is dominated by the contribution of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles. The dose-detector depth dependence was also investigated.

Sakaguchi, T.; Doke, T.; Hayashi, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Hasebe, N.; Kashiwagi, T.; Takashima, T.; Takahashi, K.; Nakano, T.; Nagaoka, S.; Takahashi, S.; Yamanaka, H.; Yamaguchi, K.; Badhwar, G. D.

1997-01-01

245

Application of real-time radiation dosimetry using a new silicon LET sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new type of real-time radiation monitoring device, RRMD-III, consisting of three double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs), has been developed and tested on-board the Space Shuttle mission STS-84. The test succeeded in measuring the linear energy transfer (LET) distribution over the range of 0.2 keV/micrometer to 600 keV/micrometer for 178 h. The Shuttle cruised at an altitude of 300 to 400 km and an inclination angle of 51.6 degrees for 221.3 h, which is equivalent to the International Space Station orbit. The LET distribution obtained for particles was investigated by separating it into galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles and trapped particles in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region. The result shows that the contribution in dose-equivalent due to GCR particles is almost equal to that from trapped particles. The total absorbed dose rate during the mission was 0.611 mGy/day; the effective quality factor, 1.64; and the dose equivalent rate, 0.998 mSv/day. The average absorbed dose rates are 0.158 mGy/min for GCR particles and 3.67 mGy/min for trapped particles. The effective quality factors are 2.48 for GCR particles and 1.19 for trapped particles. The absorbed doses obtained by the RRMD-III and a conventional method using TLD (Mg(2)SiO(4)), which was placed around the RRMD-III were compared. It was found that the TLDs showed a lower efficiency, just 58% of absorbed dose registered by the RRMD-III.

Doke, T.; Hayashi, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Nagaoka, S.; Nakano, T.; Sakaguchi, T.; Terasawa, K.; Badhwar, G. D.

1999-01-01

246

Medical dosimetry in Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation exposure of medical staff during cardiological and radiological procedures was investigated. The exposure of medical staff is directly connected to patient exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of doses on uncovered part of body of medical staff using LiF thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters in seven locations. Individual Kodak film dosimeters (as authorized dosimetry system) were used for the assessment of medical staff's effective dose. Results achieved on dose distribution measurements confirm that wearing only one film badge under the lead apron does not provide enough information on the personal dose. The value of estimated annual doses on eye lens and extremities (fingers) were in good correlation with international publications.

Turk, O.; Osvay, M.; Ballay, L.

2012-09-01

247

A revised model for radiation dosimetry in the human gastrointestinal tract  

E-print Network

specific regions or structures within the organ were delineated as radiation use increased and as more was understood about the biodistribution of radioactive materials in an organ. In the late 1950?s and 1960?s, high-speed digital computers... specific regions or structures within the organ were delineated as radiation use increased and as more was understood about the biodistribution of radioactive materials in an organ. In the late 1950?s and 1960?s, high-speed digital computers...

Bhuiyan, Md. Nasir Uddin

2004-09-30

248

Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNLs Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNLs Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document.

Rathbone, Bruce A.

2009-08-28

249

Practical dosimetry methods for the determination of effective skin and breast dose for a modern CT system, incorporating partial irradiation and prospective cardiac gating  

PubMed Central

Objective For CT coronary angiography (CTCA), a generic chest conversion factor returns a significant underestimate of effective dose. The aim of this manuscript is to communicate new dosimetry methods to calculate weighted CT dose index (CTDIw), effective dose, entrance surface dose (ESD) and organ dose to the breast for prospectively gated CTCA. Methods CTDIw in 32 cm diameter Perspex phantom was measured using an adapted technique, accounting for the segmented scan characteristic. Gafchromic XRCT film (International Speciality Products, New Jersey, NJ) was used to measure the distribution and magnitude of ESD. Breast dose was measured using high sensitivity metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors and compared to the computer based imaging performance assessment of CT scanners (ImPACT) dosimetry calculations. Results For a typical cardiac scan the mean ESD remained broadly constant (79 mGy) when averaged over the circumference of the Perspex phantom. Typical absorbed dose to the breast with prospectively gated protocols was within the range 215 mGy. The subsequent lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence to the breast was found at 0.010.06 for a 20-year-old female. This compares favourably to 100 mGy (LAR ?0.43) for a retrospectively gated CTCA. Conclusions Care must be taken when considering radiation dosimetry associated with prospectively gated scanning for CTCA and a method has been conveyed to account for this. Breast doses for prospectively gated CTCA are an order of magnitude lower than retrospectively gated scans. Optimisation of cardiac protocols is expected to show further dose reduction. PMID:21896660

Loader, R J; Gosling, O; Roobottom, C; Morgan-Hughes, G; Rowles, N

2012-01-01

250

A quality factor to compare the dosimetry of gamma knife radiosurgery and intensity-modulated radiation therapy quantitatively as a function of target volume and shape. Technical note.  

PubMed

The authors have developed a quality factor (QF) to compare gamma knife radiosurgery, linear accelerator radiosurgery, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry. This QF relates the percentage of target covered (PTC) by the prescription radiation isodose, target volume (V(T)), and enclosed tissue volume, which receives greater than a particular dose (V(X)): QF(X) = PTCxV(T)/V(X). The authors investigated target shape independent of volume in predicting radiosurgical complication rates. Plastic targets of a defined volume (0.2, 0.5, 1.5, and 10 cm3) and four increasingly complex shapes (spherical, ellipsoid, simulated arteriovenous malformation [AVM], and horseshoe) were created. Dosimetry was studied on the Leksell GammaPlan, Adac/Pinnacle, and Nomos Corvus workstations. The dosimetry of a new 4 mm x 10-mm IMRT collimator array (the Nomos Beak) not yet validated for use in our clinical practice was studied. Particularly for larger targets, the gamma knife and IMRT Beak plans show similar conformality (QF assuming 15-Gy volume [QF15]). Particularly for small and round targets the gamma knife plan quality is significantly higher (QF assuming 12-Gy volume [QF12]). As V(T) and complexity increase, the IMRT Beak QF12 approaches that of the gamma knife. The QF12 of gamma knife dosimetry has an inverse correlation with target shape complexity independent of V(T). At a prescription dose of 15 Gy to the target margin, the QF15 is a conformality index. The 12-Gy volume (volume enclosed by 12-Gy surface/volume receiving at least 12 Gy) estimates the radiosurgical normal tissue complication rate for AVMs. When the target is well covered, the QF12 is inversely proportional to the complication risk and is a measure of the plan quality. PMID:11143254

Borden, J A; Mahajan, A; Tsai, J S

2000-12-01

251

Proton Radiotherapy for Pediatric Bladder/Prostate Rhabdomyosarcoma: Clinical Outcomes and Dosimetry Compared to Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this study, we report the clinical outcomes of 7 children with bladder/prostate rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) treated with proton radiation and compare proton treatment plans with matched intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans, with an emphasis on dose savings to reproductive and skeletal structures. Methods and Materials: Follow-up consisted of scheduled clinic appointments at our institution or direct communication with the treating physicians for referred patients. Each proton radiotherapy plan used for treatment was directly compared to an IMRT plan generated for the study. Clinical target volumes and normal tissue volumes were held constant to facilitate dosimetric comparisons. Each plan was optimized for target coverage and normal tissue sparing. Results: Seven male patients were treated with proton radiotherapy for bladder/prostate RMS at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 2002 and 2008. Median age at treatment was 30 months (11-70 months). Median follow-up was 27 months (10-90 months). Four patients underwent a gross total resection prior to radiation, and all patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Radiation doses ranged from 36 cobalt Gray equivalent (CGE) to 50.4 CGE. Five of 7 patients were without evidence of disease and with intact bladders at study completion. Target volume dosimetry was equivalent between the two modalities for all 7 patients. Proton radiotherapy led to a significant decrease in mean organ dose to the bladder (25.1 CGE vs. 33.2 Gy; p = 0.03), testes (0.0 CGE vs. 0.6 Gy; p = 0.016), femoral heads (1.6 CGE vs. 10.6 Gy; p = 0.016), growth plates (21.7 CGE vs. 32.4 Gy; p = 0.016), and pelvic bones (8.8 CGE vs. 13.5 Gy; p = 0.016) compared to IMRT. Conclusions: This study provides evidence of significant dose savings to normal structures with proton radiotherapy compared to IMRT and is well tolerated in this patient population. The long-term impact of these reduced doses can be tested in future studies incorporating extended follow-up, objective outcome measures, and quality-of-life analyses.

Cotter, Shane E. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Herrup, David A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Friedmann, Alison [Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Macdonald, Shannon M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Pieretti, Raphael V. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Robinson, Gregoire; Adams, Judith; Tarbell, Nancy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Yock, Torunn I., E-mail: tyock@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

2011-12-01

252

Radiation-chemical formation of hcl in poly(vinyl butyral) films containing chloral hydrate for use in radiation dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for calculation of concentration of radiation-formed HCl in poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) films containing chloral hydrate [CCl 3 CH(OH) 2 , 2,2,2-trichloroethane-1,1-diol] and acid-sensitive dye (thymol blue, TB), was developed. These plastic films undergo color change from yellow (the alkaline form of TB) to red (the acidic form of TB), indicating acid formation. The concentration of radiation-formed HCl

A. A. Abdel-Fattah; El-Sayed A. Hegazy; H. Ezz El-Din

2002-01-01

253

Evaluation of the biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of the 18F-labelled amyloid imaging probe [18F]FACT in humans  

PubMed Central

Background The biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of the 18F-labelled amyloid imaging probe ([18F] FACT) was investigated in humans. Methods Six healthy subjects (three males and three females) were enrolled in this study. An average of 160.8 MBq of [18F] FACT was intravenously administered, and then a series of whole-body PET scans were performed. Nineteen male and 20 female source organs, and the remainder of the body, were studied to estimate time-integrated activity coefficients. The mean absorbed dose in each target organ and the effective dose were estimated from the time-integrated activity coefficients in the source organs. Biodistribution data from [18F] FACT in mice were also used to estimate absorbed doses and the effective dose in human subjects; this was compared with doses of [18F] FACT estimated from human PET data. Results The highest mean absorbed doses estimated using human PET data were observed in the gallbladder (333 251 ?Gy/MBq), liver (77.5 14.5 ?Gy/MBq), small intestine (33.6 30.7 ?Gy/MBq), upper large intestine (29.8 15.0 ?Gy/MBq) and lower large intestine (25.2 12.6 ?Gy/MBq). The average effective dose estimated from human PET data was 18.6 3.74 ?Sv/MBq. The highest mean absorbed dose value estimated from the mouse data was observed in the small intestine (38.5 ?Gy/MBq), liver (25.5 ?Gy/MBq) and urinary bladder wall (43.1 ?Gy/MBq). The effective dose estimated from the mouse data was 14.8 ?Sv/MBq for [18F] FACT. Conclusions The estimated effective dose from the human PET data indicated that the [18F] FACT PET study was acceptable for clinical purposes. PMID:23618099

2013-01-01

254

On the uncertainties of photon mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for radiation dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic analysis of the available data has been carried out for mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for air, graphite and water for photon energies between 1 keV and 2 MeV, using representative kilovoltage x-ray spectra for mammography and diagnostic radiology below 100 kV, and for 192Ir and 60Co gamma-ray spectra. The aim of this work was to establish an envelope of uncertainty based on the spread of the available data. Type A uncertainties were determined from the results of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations with the PENELOPE and EGSnrc systems, yielding mean values for en/? with a given statistical standard uncertainty. Type B estimates were based on two groupings. The first grouping consisted of MC calculations based on a similar implementation but using different data and/or approximations. The second grouping was formed by various datasets, obtained by different authors or methods using the same or different basic data, and with different implementations (analytical, MC-based, or a combination of the two); these datasets were the compilations of NIST, Hubbell, Johns-Cunningham, Attix and Higgins, plus MC calculations with PENELOPE and EGSnrc. The combined standard uncertainty, uc, for the en/? values for the mammography x-ray spectra is 2.5%, decreasing gradually to 1.6% for kilovoltage x-ray spectra up to 100 kV. For 60Co and 192Ir, uc is approximately 0.1%. The Type B uncertainty analysis for the ratios of en/? values includes four methods of analysis and concludes that for the present data the assumption that the data interval represents 95% confidence limits is a good compromise. For the mammography x-ray spectra, the combined standard uncertainties of (en/?)graphite,air and (en/?)graphite,water are 1.5%, and 0.5% for (en/?)water,air, decreasing gradually down to uc = 0.1% for the three en/? ratios for the gamma-ray spectra. The present estimates are shown to coincide well with those of Hubbell (1977 Rad. Res. 70 58-81), except for the lowest energy range (radiodiagnostic) where it is concluded that current databases and their systematic analysis represent an improvement over the older Hubbell estimations. The results for (en/?)graphite,air for the gamma-ray dosimetry range are moderately higher than those of Seltzer and Bergstrom (2005 private communication).

Andreo, Pedro; Burns, David T.; Salvat, Francesc

2012-04-01

255

The thermoluminescence response of Ge-doped silica fibres for synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In radiation cancer therapy, the aim is to destroy the tumour cells in the treated area while minimizing damage to the surrounding normal tissue. Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy offers considerable promise in this respect, based on knowledge that normal tissue can tolerate high doses of radiation over small volumes. At the ESRF microbeam radiation therapy facility, one of the several aspects being investigated is measurement of very high dose gradients (changing by hundreds of Gy over 10 ?m), as there is no established physical dosimetric system simultaneously providing accurate measurements of the doses in the microbeam peaks and valleys. Monte Carlo simulations have been obtained but these have yet to be validated by measurements. One possible means of obtaining micro dosimetric evaluations is use of the thermoluminescence (TL) produced by optical fibres. Previous studies at conventional electron linac radiotherapy facilities have shown that germanium-doped silica fibres offer useful sensitivity to radiotherapy doses it is being further established that commercially produced Ge-doped optical fibres can provide a TL-yield reproducibility of better than 4% (1 SD). Present experiments have investigated the thermoluminescence response of such fibres at incident energies of several tens of keV, for a wide range of doses, from 1 Gy to 10 kGy, revealing a linear correlation of r2?0.998 up to a dose of 2 kGy, encompassing the dosimetric needs of both conventional and synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy.

Abdul Rahman, A. T.; Bradley, D. A.; Doran, S. J.; Thierry, Brochard; Bruer-Krisch, Elke; Bravin, A.

2010-07-01

256

Thermoluminescence characterization of functionalized grafted polymers and its application for radiation dosimetry at low doses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functionalized polymers were prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of binary monomer system acrylic acid/acrylamide (AAc/AAm) onto low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) films using direct radiation-grafting technique. Sulfonation was carried out for the prepared grafted copolymers using concentrated sulfuric acid (97%) at 60 degrees C for 15 min. The grafted and sulfonated grafted films found to have good properties such as thermal stability and hydrophilic properties. The sulfonated grafted films found to have a better hydrophilic character than the grafted ones due to ionic character resulted by this conversion. The thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of a set of grafted and sulfonated films have been studied with regard to their use as off-line dosimeters in radiotherapy. The structural characterization has been performed by means of infrared spectroscopy. Their TL responses have been tested with radiotherapy beams of Co-60 photons in the dose range 0.1-7 Gy. The dosimetric characterization has yielded a very good reproducibility and is independent of the radiation energy. The TL signal is not influenced by the dose rate and exhibits a very low thermal fading. Moreover, the sensitivity of the samples compares favorably with that of the standard TLD100 dosimeters. Finally, at the same dose, the TL response for LDPE-g-P (AAm/AAc) films is higher than the PP-g-P(AAm/AAc), and the sulfonated grafted films are more sensitive to radiation than the grafted ones.

Diab, H. M.; Ghaffar, A. M.; El-Arnaouty, M. B.

2005-09-01

257

Effect of different breathing patterns in the same patient on stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy dosimetry for primary renal cell carcinoma: A case study  

SciTech Connect

Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) for primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) targets requires motion management strategies to verify dose delivery. This case study highlights the effect of a change in patient breathing amplitude on the dosimetry to organs at risk and target structures. A 73-year-old male patient was planned for receiving 26 Gy of radiation in 1 fraction of SABR for a left primary RCC. The patient was simulated with four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and the tumor internal target volume (ITV) was delineated using the 4DCT maximum intensity projection. However, the initially planned treatment was abandoned at the radiation oncologist's discretion after pretreatment cone-beam CT (CBCT) motion verification identified a greater than 50% reduction in superior to inferior diaphragm motion as compared with the planning 4DCT. This patient was resimulated with respiratory coaching instructions. To assess the effect of the change in breathing on the dosimetry to the target, each plan was recalculated on the data set representing the change in breathing condition. A change from smaller to larger breathing showed a 46% loss in planning target volume (PTV) coverage, whereas a change from larger breathing to smaller breathing resulted in an 8% decrease in PTV coverage. ITV coverage was similarly reduced by 8% in both scenarios. This case study highlights the importance of tools to verify breathing motion prior to treatment delivery. 4D image guided radiation therapy verification strategies should focus on not only verifying ITV margin coverage but also the effect on the surrounding organs at risk.

Pham, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.Pham@petermac.org [Radiotherapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Kron, Tomas [Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Foroudi, Farshad; Siva, Shankar [Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

2013-10-01

258

Radiation effects in nanoelectronic elements  

SciTech Connect

Radiation defects induced in planar nanosized structures by steady and pulsed ionizing radiation have been analyzed. Characteristics of test samples with a planar nanosized structure fabricated by deposition of an ultrathin titanium film onto a semi-insulating GaAs substrate and of field-effect transistor structures based on bundles of carbon nanotubes have been studied. Physical mechanisms responsible for the radiation-induced changes in characteristics of the nanoelectronic elements under consideration have been established.

Gromov, D. V.; Elesin, V. V.; Petrov, G. V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (National Research Nuclear University) (Russian Federation); Bobrinetskii, I. I.; Nevolin, V. K., E-mail: vkn@miee.ru [Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology (Technical University) (Russian Federation)

2010-12-15

259

Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium-Contaminated Sites  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes 4 years of research achievements in this Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project. The research described was conducted by scientists and supporting staff at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI)/Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). All project objectives and goals were achieved. A major focus was on obtaining improved cancer risk estimates for exposure via inhalation to plutonium (Pu) isotopes in the workplace (DOE radiation workers) and environment (public exposures to Pu-contaminated soil). A major finding was that low doses and dose rates of gamma rays can significantly suppress cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes. The suppression relates to stimulation of the body's natural defenses, including immunity against cancer cells and selective apoptosis which removes precancerous and other aberrant cells.

Scott, Bobby R.; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.; Osovets, Sergey V.; Syrchikov, Victor A., Belyaeva, Zinaida D.

2007-12-14

260

Dosimetry in steep dose-rate gradient radiation fields: A challenge in clinical applications  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental goal of radiotherapy is to reduce the damage to normal tissue and optimize the dose to the tumor with an associated high probability of cure. Because of this, an accurate and precise knowledge of the radiation dose distribution delivered around the tumor volume during radiotherapy treatments such as stereotactic radiosurgery, intensity modulated radiotherapy or brachytherapy with low-energy X-ray and beta particle sources is of great importance. However, in each of these radiation fields, there exists a steep dose-rate gradient which makes it very difficult to perform accurate dose measurements. In this work, the physics phenomena involved in the energy absorption for each of these situations are discussed, and a brief revision of what the Medical Physics community is doing is presented.

Massillon-JL, G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico)

2010-12-07

261

Nanosensor dosimetry of mouse blood proteins after exposure to ionizing radiation  

PubMed Central

Giant magnetoresistive (GMR) nanosensors provide a novel approach for measuring protein concentrations in blood for medical diagnosis. Using an in vivo mouse radiation model, we developed protocols for measuring Flt3 ligand (Flt3lg) and serum amyloid A1 (Saa1) in small amounts of blood collected during the first week after X-ray exposures of sham, 0.1, 1, 2, 3, or 6?Gy. Flt3lg concentrations showed excellent dose discrimination at ? 1?Gy in the time window of 1 to 7 days after exposure except 1?Gy at day 7. Saa1 dose response was limited to the first two days after exposure. A multiplex assay with both proteins showed improved dose classification accuracy. Our magneto-nanosensor assay demonstrates the dose and time responses, low-dose sensitivity, small volume requirements, and rapid speed that have important advantages in radiation triage biodosimetry. PMID:23868657

Kim, Dokyoon; Marchetti, Francesco; Chen, Zuxiong; Zaric, Sasa; Wilson, Robert J.; Hall, Drew A.; Gaster, Richard S.; Lee, Jung-Rok; Wang, Junyi; Osterfeld, Sebastian J.; Yu, Heng; White, Robert M.; Blakely, William F.; Peterson, Leif E.; Bhatnagar, Sandhya; Mannion, Brandon; Tseng, Serena; Roth, Kristen; Coleman, Matthew; Snijders, Antoine M.; Wyrobek, Andrew J.; Wang, Shan X.

2013-01-01

262

Nanosensor dosimetry of mouse blood proteins after exposure to ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

Giant magnetoresistive (GMR) nanosensors provide a novel approach for measuring protein concentrations in blood for medical diagnosis. Using an in vivo mouse radiation model, we developed protocols for measuring Flt3 ligand (Flt3lg) and serum amyloid A1 (Saa1) in small amounts of blood collected during the first week after X-ray exposures of sham, 0.1, 1, 2, 3, or 6?Gy. Flt3lg concentrations showed excellent dose discrimination at ? 1?Gy in the time window of 1 to 7 days after exposure except 1?Gy at day 7. Saa1 dose response was limited to the first two days after exposure. A multiplex assay with both proteins showed improved dose classification accuracy. Our magneto-nanosensor assay demonstrates the dose and time responses, low-dose sensitivity, small volume requirements, and rapid speed that have important advantages in radiation triage biodosimetry. PMID:23868657

Kim, Dokyoon; Marchetti, Francesco; Chen, Zuxiong; Zaric, Sasa; Wilson, Robert J; Hall, Drew A; Gaster, Richard S; Lee, Jung-Rok; Wang, Junyi; Osterfeld, Sebastian J; Yu, Heng; White, Robert M; Blakely, William F; Peterson, Leif E; Bhatnagar, Sandhya; Mannion, Brandon; Tseng, Serena; Roth, Kristen; Coleman, Matthew; Snijders, Antoine M; Wyrobek, Andrew J; Wang, Shan X

2013-01-01

263

Dosimetry in steep dose-rate gradient radiation fields: A challenge in clinical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental goal of radiotherapy is to reduce the damage to normal tissue and optimize the dose to the tumor with an associated high probability of cure. Because of this, an accurate and precise knowledge of the radiation dose distribution delivered around the tumor volume during radiotherapy treatments such as stereotactic radiosurgery, intensity modulated radiotherapy or brachytherapy with low-energy X-ray and beta particle sources is of great importance. However, in each of these radiation fields, there exists a steep dose-rate gradient which makes it very difficult to perform accurate dose measurements. In this work, the physics phenomena involved in the energy absorption for each of these situations are discussed, and a brief revision of what the Medical Physics community is doing is presented.

Massillon-JL, G.

2010-12-01

264

Application of the Medipix2 technology to space radiation dosimetry and hadron therapy beam monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Medipix2 Collaboration, based at CERN, has developed the TimePix version of the Medipix pixel readout chip, which has the ability to provide either an ADC or TDC capability separately in each of its 256נ256 pixels. When coupled to a Si detector layer, the device is an excellent candidate for application as an active dosimeter for use in Space Radiation

Lawrence Pinsky; Nicholas Stoffle; Anton Empl; Jan Jakubek; Stanislav Pospisil; Claude Leroy; Hisashi Kitamura; Nakahiro Yasuda; Yukio Uchihori

265

Epid cine acquisition mode for in vivo dosimetry in dynamic arc radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the cine acquisition mode of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been calibrated and tested to determine the in vivo dose for dynamic conformal arc radiation therapy (DCAT). The EPID cine acquisition mode, that allows a frame acquisition rate of one image every 1.66s, was studied with a monitor unit rate equal to 100UM\\/min. In these

Andrea Fidanzio; Alessandra Mameli; Elisa Placidi; Francesca Greco; Gerardina Stimato; Diego Gaudino; Sara Ramella; Rolando DAngelillo; Francesco Cellini; Lucio Trodella; Savino Cilla; Luca Grimaldi; Guido DOnofrio; Luigi Azario; Angelo Piermattei

2008-01-01

266

The small-animal radiation research platform (SARRP): dosimetry of a focused lens system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small animal radiation platform equipped with on-board cone-beam CT and conformal irradiation capabilities is being constructed for translational research. To achieve highly localized dose delivery, an x-ray lens is used to focus the broad beam from a 225 kVp x-ray tube down to a beam with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of approximately 1.5 mm in the energy

Hua Deng; Christopher W. Kennedy; Elwood Armour; Erik Tryggestad; Eric Ford; Todd McNutt; Licai Jiang; John Wong

2007-01-01

267

The UF Family of hybrid phantoms of the pregnant female for computational radiation dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts to assess in utero radiation doses and related quantities to the developing fetus should account for the presence of the surrounding maternal tissues. Maternal tissues can provide varying levels of protection to the fetus by shielding externally-emitted radiation or, alternatively, can become sources of internally-emitted radiation following the biokinetic uptake of medically-administered radiopharmaceuticals or radionuclides located in the surrounding environmentas in the case of the European Unions SOLO project (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations). The University of Florida had previously addressed limitations in available computational phantom representation of the developing fetus by constructing a series of hybrid computational fetal phantoms at eight different ages and three weight percentiles. Using CT image sets of pregnant patients contoured using 3D-DOCTORTM, the eight 50th percentile fetal phantoms from that study were systematically combined in RhinocerosTM with the UF adult non-pregnant female to yield a series of reference pregnant female phantoms at fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38?weeks post-conception. Deformable, non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces were utilized to alter contoured maternal anatomy in order to (1) accurately position and orient each fetus and surrounding maternal tissues and (2) match target masses of maternal soft tissue organs to reference data reported in the literature.

Maynard, Matthew R.; Long, Nelia S.; Moawad, Nash S.; Shifrin, Roger Y.; Geyer, Amy M.; Fong, Grant; Bolch, Wesley E.

2014-08-01

268

Cataractogenic effects of proton radiation  

E-print Network

CATARACTOGENIC EFFECTS OF PROTON RADIATION A Thesis by James Ronald Kyzar Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972 Major Subject...: Veterinary Physiology CATARACTOGENIC EFFECTS OF PROTON RADIATION A Thesis by James Ronald Kyzar Approved as to style and content by: (Char of Committee) (Head of Depar ent) (Membei / (Member (Member ) May 1972 ABSTRACT Cataractogenic Effects...

Kyzar, James Ronald

2012-06-07

269

1986 Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 23rd, Providence, RI, July 21-23, 1986, Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present conference on the effects of nuclear and space radiation on electronic hardware gives attention to topics in the basic mechanisms of radiation effects, dosimetry and energy-dependent effects, electronic device radiation hardness assurance, SOI/SOS radiation effects, spacecraft charging and space radiation, IC radiation effects and hardening, single-event upset (SEU) phenomena and hardening, and EMP/SGEMP/IEMP phenomena. Specific treatments encompass the generation of interface states by ionizing radiation in very thin MOS oxides, the microdosimetry of meson energy deposited on 1-micron sites in Si, total dose radiation and engineering studies, plasma interactions with biased concentrator solar cells, the transient imprint memory effect in MOS memories, mechanisms leading to SEU, and the vaporization and breakdown of thin columns of water.

Ellis, Thomas D. (editor)

1986-01-01

270

Non-reference condition correction factor kNR of typical radiation detectors applied for the dosimetry of high-energy photon fields in radiotherapy.  

PubMed

According to accepted dosimetry protocols, the "radiation quality correction factor"k(Q) accounts for the energy-dependent changes of detector responses under the conditions of clinical dosimetry for high-energy photon radiations. More precisely, a factor k(QR) is valid under reference conditions, i.e. at a point on the beam axis at depth 10 cm in a large water phantom, for 1010 cm(2) field size, SSD 100 cm and the given radiation quality with quality index Q. Therefore, a further correction factor k(NR) has been introduced to correct for the influences of spectral quality changes when detectors are used under non-reference conditions such as other depths, field sizes and off-axis distances, while under reference conditions k(NR) is normalized to unity. In this paper, values of k(NR) are calculated for 6 and 15 MV photon beams, using published data of the energy-dependent responses of various radiation detectors to monoenergetic photon radiations, and weighting these responses with validated photon spectra of clinical high-energy photon beams from own Monte-Carlo-calculations for a wide variation of the non-reference conditions within a large water phantom. Our results confirm the observation by Scarboro et al. [26] that k(NR) can be represented by a unique function of the mean energy Em, weighted by the spectral photon fluence. Accordingly, the numerical variations of Em with depth, field size and off-axis distance have been provided. Throughout all considered conditions, the deviations of the k(NR) values from unity are at most 2% for a Farmer type ion chamber, and they remain below 15% for the thermoluminescent detectors LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P. For the shielded diode EDP-10, k(NR) varies from unity up to 20%, while the unshielded diode EDD-5 shows deviations up to 60% in the peripheral region. Thereby, the restricted application field of unshielded diodes has been clarified. For small field dosimetry purposes k(NR) can be converted into k(NCSF), the non-calibration condition correction factor normalized to unity for a 44 cm(2) calibration field. For the unshielded Si diodes needed in small-field dosimetry, the values of k(NCSF) are closer to unity than the associated k(NR) values. PMID:22658451

Chofor, Ndimofor; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Bjrn

2012-09-01

271

Dosimetry of secondary cosmic radiation up to an altitude of 30 km.  

PubMed

Dosimetric measurements in the field of secondary cosmic radiation were extensively made during the last years. Since the majority of these measurements were performed on-board passenger aircraft at altitudes between 10 and 12 km, measurements at higher altitudes are desirable for the verification of the legal dose assessment procedures for aircrew. A simple solution is to use a high-altitude balloon that reaches altitudes as high as 30 km. In this work, it is shown that the dose rate profile up to 30 km can be measured with acceptable uncertainties using a Si-detector. PMID:24345463

Wissmann, F; Burda, O; Khurana, S; Klages, T; Langner, F

2014-10-01

272

Biological dosimetry - the use of hematological variables in the estimation of radiation dose  

E-print Network

by an equation of the type Y a + bX where Y and X are indices of response and dose, respectively. Storer, et. al. , [1957] used the quantitative relationship between radiation dose and weight decrease of the spleen and thymus of mice to generate dose...-response curves. After irradiation, the spleens and thymuses were dissected out, and the wet weights of the spleens determined to the nearest milligram. Re- gression lines were calculated from the data in which Y was the percent weight loss and X was the log...

Barranco, Samuel Christopher

2012-06-07

273

Radiation Effects Research at IUCF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the radiation effects research program at IUCF is to make available precisely calibrated doses of protons, neutrons, or other light ions for the study of radiation effects on technical hardware to be used in radiation environments. This work may include such studies as the observation of single event upsets in computer logic intended for space flight or satellite applications. Beam lines used in this work contain hardware to spread and collimate the beam, and to monitor low doses. Access for outside users is facilitated by joining the Indiana Radiation Effects Research Alliance. Applications of radiation effects also exist in materials science, involving, for example, the creation of pinning centers in superconducting material that trap and hold magnetic field. Radiation effects are studied in biological systems, such as Xenopus embryos, the mushroom Coprinus cinereus, RNase-P enzyme molecules, and human HeLa cells. Here damage and repair mechanisms are compared with comparable doses of gamma and neutron irradiation. Applications exist for this information in the areas of cancer research, radiation safety, and human space travel.

Cameron, J. M.

1996-10-01

274

Effect of radiation dose on radiation creep of polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In investigations of radiation creep and service life of polymers the question arises: Are these radiation effects not determined by increasing doses of ionizing radiation? The effect of a radiation dose may be manifested, in particular, in rupture of the chemical bonds responsible for the strength of the polymer, as loading might cause supplemental deformation; and, when irradiation takes place

V. F. Stepanov; S. . Vaisberg; V. L. Karpov

1974-01-01

275

Application of the Medipix2 technology to space radiation dosimetry and hadron therapy beam monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Medipix2 Collaboration, based at CERN, has developed the TimePix version of the Medipix pixel readout chip, which has the ability to provide either an ADC or TDC capability separately in each of its 256256 pixels. When coupled to a Si detector layer, the device is an excellent candidate for application as an active dosimeter for use in space radiation environments. In order to facilitate such a development, data have been taken with heavy ions at the HIMAC facility in Chiba, Japan. In particular, the problem of determining the resolution of such a detector system with respect to heavy ions of differing charges and energies, but with similar d E/d x values has been explored for several ions. The ultimate problem is to parse the information in the pixel "footprint" images from the drift of the charge cloud produced in the detector layer. In addition, with the use of convertor materials, the detector can be used as a neutron detector, and it has been used both as a charged particle and neutron detector to evaluate the detailed properties of the radiation fields produced by hadron therapy beams. New versions of the basic chip design are ongoing.

Pinsky, Lawrence; Stoffle, Nicholas; Jakubek, Jan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Leroy, Claude; Gutierrez, Andrea; Kitamura, Hisashi; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Uchihori, Yulio

2011-02-01

276

Radiation Therapy Side Effects Sheets  

Cancer.gov

Radiation therapy fact sheets that help patients understand their treatment and manage side effects. The fact sheets (also available in audio) have tips from patients and healthcare providers, and questions to ask providers.

277

Pediatric radiation dosimetry for positron-emitting radionuclides using anthropomorphic phantoms  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) plays an important role in the diagnosis, staging, treatment, and surveillance of clinically localized diseases. Combined PET/CT imaging exhibits significantly higher sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy than conventional imaging when it comes to detecting malignant tumors in children. However, the radiation dose from positron-emitting radionuclide to the pediatric population is a matter of concern since children are at a particularly high risk when exposed to ionizing radiation.Methods: The authors evaluate the absorbed fractions and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of monoenergy photons/electrons as well as S-values of 9 positron-emitting radionuclides (C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, Cu-64, Ga-68, Rb-82, Y-86, and I-124) in 48 source regions for 10 anthropomorphic pediatric hybrid models, including the reference newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-yr-old male and female models, using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended general purpose Monte Carlo transport code.Results: The self-absorbed SAFs and S-values for most organs were inversely related to the age and body weight, whereas the cross-dose terms presented less correlation with body weight. For most source/target organ pairs, Rb-82 and Y-86 produce the highest self-absorbed and cross-absorbed S-values, respectively, while Cu-64 produces the lowest S-values because of the low-energy and high-frequency of electron emissions. Most of the total self-absorbed S-values are contributed from nonpenetrating particles (electrons and positrons), which have a linear relationship with body weight. The dependence of self-absorbed S-values of the two annihilation photons varies to the reciprocal of 0.76 power of the mass, whereas the self-absorbed S-values of positrons vary according to the reciprocal mass.Conclusions: The produced S-values for common positron-emitting radionuclides can be exploited for the assessment of radiation dose delivered to the pediatric population from various PET radiotracers used in clinical and research settings. The mass scaling method for positron-emitters can be used to derive patient-specific S-values from data of reference phantoms.

Xie, Tianwu [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)] [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Bolch, Wesley E. [Departments of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)] [Departments of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Lee, Choonsik [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20850 (United States)] [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20850 (United States); Zaidi, Habib [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland) [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)

2013-10-15

278

Effect of brachytherapy technique and patient characteristics on cervical cancer implant dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between brachytherapy technique and patient characteristics on dose to organs-at-risk (OARs) in patients undergoing high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for cervical cancer. From 1998 to 2008, 31 patients with cervical cancer with full dosimetric data were identified who received definitive external-beam radiation and HDR brachytherapy with tandem and ovoid applicators. Doses were recorded at point A, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU)-38 rectal point, the ICRU-38 bladder point, the vaginal surface, and the pelvic sidewall. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the significance of changes in OAR to point A dose ratios with differences in brachytherapy technique or patient characteristics. Patients underwent a median of 5 brachytherapy procedures (range, 3 to 5), with a total of 179 procedures for 31 patients. For all brachytherapy treatments, the average ratios between the doses for the rectal, bladder, vaginal surface, and pelvic sidewall reference points to those at point A were 0.49, 0.59, 1.15, and 0.17, respectively. In general, decreased OAR dose was associated with a lower stage, younger age, increased ovoid size, increased tandem length, and earlier implant number. Increased tandem curvature significantly increased bladder dose and decreased rectal dose. Intravenous anesthesia usage was not correlated with improved dosimetry. This study allowed identification of patient and procedure characteristics influencing OAR dosing. Although the advent of 3-dimensional (3D) image-guided brachytherapy will bring new advances in treatment optimization, the actual technique involved at the time of the brachytherapy implant procedure will remain important.

Anker, Christopher J., E-mail: chris.anker@hci.utah.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Hospital, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); O'Donnell, Kristen [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Boucher, Kenneth M. [Department of Oncological Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gaffney, David K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Hospital, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

2013-01-01

279

Effect of brachytherapy technique and patient characteristics on cervical cancer implant dosimetry.  

PubMed

Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between brachytherapy technique and patient characteristics on dose to organs-at-risk (OARs) in patients undergoing high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for cervical cancer. From 1998 to 2008, 31 patients with cervical cancer with full dosimetric data were identified who received definitive external-beam radiation and HDR brachytherapy with tandem and ovoid applicators. Doses were recorded at point A, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU)-38 rectal point, the ICRU-38 bladder point, the vaginal surface, and the pelvic sidewall. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the significance of changes in OAR to point A dose ratios with differences in brachytherapy technique or patient characteristics. Patients underwent a median of 5 brachytherapy procedures (range, 3 to 5), with a total of 179 procedures for 31 patients. For all brachytherapy treatments, the average ratios between the doses for the rectal, bladder, vaginal surface, and pelvic sidewall reference points to those at point A were 0.49, 0.59, 1.15, and 0.17, respectively. In general, decreased OAR dose was associated with a lower stage, younger age, increased ovoid size, increased tandem length, and earlier implant number. Increased tandem curvature significantly increased bladder dose and decreased rectal dose. Intravenous anesthesia usage was not correlated with improved dosimetry. This study allowed identification of patient and procedure characteristics influencing OAR dosing. Although the advent of 3-dimensional (3D) image-guided brachytherapy will bring new advances in treatment optimization, the actual technique involved at the time of the brachytherapy implant procedure will remain important. PMID:23973016

Anker, Christopher J; O'Donnell, Kristen; Boucher, Kenneth M; Gaffney, David K

2013-01-01

280

Internal dosimetry technical basis manual  

SciTech Connect

The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

Not Available

1990-12-20

281

Application of different TL detectors for the photon dosimetry in mixed radiation fields used for BNCT.  

PubMed

Different approaches for the measurement of a relatively small gamma dose in strong fields of thermal and epithermal neutrons as used for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) have been studied with various thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs). CaF(2):Tm detectors are insensitive to thermal neutrons but not tissue-equivalent. A disadvantage of applying tissue-equivalent (7)LiF detectors is a strong neutron signal resulting from the unavoidable presence of (6)Li traces. To overcome this problem it is usual to apply pairs of LiF detectors with different (6)Li content. The experimental determination of the thermal neutron response ratio of such a pair at the Geesthacht Neutron Facility (GeNF) operated by PTB enables measurement of the photon dose. In the experimental mixed field of thermal neutrons and photons of the TRIGA reactor at Mainz the photon dose measured with different types of (7)LiF/(nat)LiF TLD pairs agree within a standard uncertainty of 6% whereas the CaF(2):Tm detectors exhibit a photon dose by more than a factor of 2 higher. It is proposed to determine suitable photon energy correction factors for CaF(2):Tm detectors with the help of the (7)LiF/(nat)LiF TLD pairs in the radiation field of interest. PMID:16644976

Burgkhardt, B; Bilski, P; Budzanowski, M; Bttger, R; Eberhardt, K; Hampel, G; Olko, P; Straubing, A

2006-01-01

282

Image guidance during breast radiotherapy: a phantom dosimetry and radiation-induced second cancer risk study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging procedures utilised for patient position verification during breast radiotherapy can add a considerable dose to organs surrounding the target volume on top of therapeutic scatter dose. This study investigated the dose from a breast kilovoltage cone-beam CT (kV-CBCT), a breast megavoltage fan-beam CT (MV-FBCT), and a TomoDirectTM breast treatment. Thermoluminescent dosimeters placed within a female anthropomorphic phantom were utilised to measure the dose to various organs and tissues. The contralateral breast, lungs and heart received 0.40 cGy, 0.45 cGy and 0.40 cGy from the kV-CBCT and 1.74 cGy, 1.39 cGy and 1.73 cGy from the MV-FBCT. In comparison to treatment alone, daily imaging would increase the contralateral breast, contralateral lung and heart dose by a relative 12%, 24% and 13% for the kV-CBCT, and 52%, 101% and 58% for the MV-FBCT. The impact of the imaging dose relative to the treatment dose was assessed with linear and linear-quadratic radiation-induced secondary cancer risk models for the contralateral breast. The additional imaging dose and risk estimates presented in this study should be taken into account when considering an image modality and frequency for patient position verification protocols in breast radiotherapy.

Quinn, A.; Holloway, L.; Metcalfe, P.

2013-06-01

283

Neutron personnel dosimetry intecomparison studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted sixteen Neutron Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Studies (PDIS) since 1974. During these studies dosimeters are mailed to DOSAR, exposed to low-level (typically in the 0.3 -- 5.0 mSv range) neutron dose equivalents in a variety of mixed neutron-gamma radiation fields, and then returned to the participants

Sims

1991-01-01

284

Dose levels of the occupational radiation exposures in Poland based on results from the accredited dosimetry service at the IFJ PAN, Krakow.  

PubMed

Individual dosimetry service based on thermoluminescence (TLD) detectors has started its activity at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ) in Krakow in 1965. In 2002, the new Laboratory of Individual and Environment Dosimetry (Polish acronym LADIS) was established and underwent the accreditation according to the EN-PN-ISO/IEC 17025 standard. Nowadays, the service is based on the worldwide known standard thermoluminescent detectors MTS-N (LiF:Mg,Ti) and MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P), developed at IFJ, processed in automatic thermoluminescent DOSACUS or RE2000 (Rados Oy, Finland) readers. Laboratory provides individual monitoring in terms of personal dose equivalent H(p)(10) and H(p)(0.07) in photon and neutron fields, over the range from 0.1 mSv to 1 Sv, and environmental dosimetry in terms of air kerma K(a) over the range from 30 ?Gy to 1 Gy and also ambient dose equivalent H*(10) over the range from 30 ?Sv to 1 Sv. Dosimetric service is currently performed for ca. 3200 institutions from Poland and abroad, monitored on quarterly and monthly basis. The goal of this paper is to identify the main activities leading to the highest radiation exposures in Poland. The paper presents the results of statistical evaluation of ? 100,000 quarterly H(p)(10) and K(a) measurements performed between 2002 and 2009. Sixty-five per cent up to 90 % of all individual doses in Poland are on the level of natural radiation background. The dose levels between 0.1 and 5 mSv per quarter are the most frequent in nuclear medicine, veterinary and industrial radiography sectors. PMID:21183549

Budzanowski, Maciej; Kope?, Renata; Obryk, Barbara; Olko, Pawe?

2011-03-01

285

Dosimetry challenges for implementing emerging technologies  

PubMed Central

During the last 10 years, radiation therapy technologies have gone through major changes, mainly related introduction of sophisticated delivery and imaging techniques to improve the target localization accuracy and dose conformity. While implementation of these emerging technologies such as image-guided SRS/SBRT, IMRT/IMAT, IGRT, 4D motion management, and special delivery technologies showed substantial clinical gains for patient care, many other factors, such as training/quality, efficiency/efficacy, and cost/effectiveness etc. remain to be challenging. This talk will address technical challenges for dosimetry verification of implementing these emerging technologies in radiation therapy. PMID:21617745

Yin, Fang-Fang; Oldham, Mark; Cai, Jing; Wu, Qiuwen

2010-01-01

286

Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

Tapio, Soile

287

Quantitative imaging of (124)I with PET/ CT in pretherapy lesion dosimetry. Effects impairing image quantification and their corrections.  

PubMed

Iodine-131-labelled agents are successfully used in cancer treatment. In the pretherapy dosimetry approach, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using (124)I provides a modality to estimate absorbed dose to tumours and can be considered as the preferred imaging method for this purpose in (131)I radiopharmaceutical therapies. For accurate dosimetry, serial measurements of activity concentrations (ACs) over an appropriate time period are necessary. Consequently, accurate AC determination is of paramount importance in PET/CT-based lesion dosimetry using (124)I-labelled agents. After presenting an historical overview of (124)I clinical application, this review focuses on factors impairing PET image quantification accuracy and on methods of correcting for these effects. Specifically, the emission of prompt gamma photons in the (124)I decay process that are detected in coincidence with each other and with the annihilation photon, and the low (124)I positron branching ration of only 23% raise concerns regarding image quantification accuracy. This review discusses this prompt gamma effect, its impact and approaches to correct for this phenomenon. In (124)I lesion dosimetry, recovery coefficients (RCs) are commonly used to compensate primarily for partial-volume effect but also, in a simplistic way, for prompt gamma coincidence effect; the main methodological factors affecting the RC-corrected (124)I AC are described. Finally, special issues in image (124)I quantification are reviewed, including coadministration of high therapeutic activities of 131I, shine-through artefact, and transmission-contamination effect occurring in stand-alone PET systems. PMID:21386783

Jentzen, W; Freudenberg, L; Bockisch, A

2011-02-01

288

A revised model for radiation dosimetry in the human gastrointestinal tract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents. Each wall was divided into many small regions so that the histologic and radiosensitive variations of the tissues across the wall could be distinguished. The characteristic parameters were determined based on the newest information available in the literature. Each of these sections except the stomach was subdivided into multiple subsections to include the spatiotemporal variations in the shape and characteristic parameters. This new GIT was integrated into an anthropomorphic phantom representing both an adult male and a larger-than-average adult female. The current phantom contains 14 different types of tissue. This phantom was coupled with the MCNP 4C Monte Carlo simulation package. The initial design and coding of the phantom and the Monte Carlo treatment employed in this study were validated using the results obtained by Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The code was used for calculating specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) in various organs and radiosensitive tissues from uniformly distributed sources of fifteen monoenergetic photons and electrons, 10 keV - 4 MeV, in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. The present studies showed that the average photon SAFs to the walls were significantly different from that to the radiosensitive cells (stem cells) for the energies below 50 keV. Above 50 keV, the photon SAFs were found to be almost constant across the walls. The electron SAF at the depth of the stem cells was a small fraction of the SAF routinely estimated at the contents-mucus interface. Electron studies showed that the "self-dose" for the energies below 300 keV and the "cross-dose" below 2 MeV were only from bremsstrahlung and fluorescent radiations at the depth of the stem cells and were not important.

Bhuiyan, Md. Nasir Uddin

289

Dosimetry analysis of small radiation fields in stereotactic radiosurgery of the brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate dosimetric data of narrow circular photon beams are needed for stereotactic radiosurgery of brain tumors. However, the measurement of dosimetric data of narrow circular beams is beset with several constraints. Usually, 6 MV photon beams produced by isocentric linear accelerators are mostly used for routine radiosurgery although other photon energies are available. Systematic dosimetric studies were performed on 12.5, 20, 30 and 40 mm diameter collimators using different measuring techniques in order to examine the possible accuracies associated in the measured dosimetric data of narrow circular photon beams. In addition, the relative suitabilities of 4, 6 and 10 MV photon beams for stereotactic radiosurgery were assessed. The lack of electronic equilibrium and steep dose gradient effects were found to be minimal for a 4 MV photon beam compared to the 6 and 10 MV photon beams. The measured output factors with a small volume (0.02 cc) ionization chamber were found to agree with film and MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) detector measurements for 4 MV photon beam even for smaller field sizes. The measured beam profiles were also found to be in better agreement with the expected shapes for the 4 MV beam than for 6 and 10 MV beams. The 80% isodose volumes for a typical 20.0 mm diameter field for 1 to 10 non-coplanar converging arcs showed that the volumes for the 4 MV beam are slightly larger than the corresponding volumes for the 6 and 10 MV photon beams for any given isodose level. The dose fall- off distances from the 80% to 50% isodoses are also, in general, found to be smaller for the 4 MV beam. Therefore, for radiosurgery, the dose calculations for the 4 MV beam have less uncertainty than the dose calculations for the 6 and 10 MV beams. The output factors can be measured with an ionization chamber for the 4 MV photon beam over the range 12.5 to 40.0 mm diameter field size, whereas for the 6 MV beam they can only be measured for the 20.0, 30.0 and 40.0 mm diameter collimators and for the 10 MV they can only be measured for the 30.0 and 40.0 mm collimators. The output factors can be measured with films for smaller collimators when using the 6 and 10 MV photon beams. However, an average value of several measurements should be used. Similarly, an average value of several measurements with films for off axis ratios can also be implemented. Tissue-Maximum Ratios can be measured with an ionization chamber. A critical examination of the present dosimetric data rates the suitability of the three photon beams for radiosurgery in the order 4, 6 and 10 MV respectively.

Al-Najjar, Waleed Hassan

290

Normal organ radiation dosimetry and associated uncertainties in nuclear medicine, with emphasis on iodine-131.  

PubMed

In many medical applications involving the administration of iodine-131 ((131)I) in the form of iodide (I(-)), most of the dose is delivered to the thyroid gland. To reliably estimate the thyroid absorbed dose, the following data are required: the thyroid gland size (i.e. mass), the fractional uptake of (131)I by the thyroid, the spatial distribution of (131)I within the thyroid, and the length of time (131)I is retained in the thyroid before it is released back to blood, distributed in other organs and tissues, and excreted from the body. Estimation of absorbed dose to nonthyroid tissues likewise requires knowledge of the time course of activity in each organ. Such data are rarely available, however, and therefore dose calculations are generally based on reference models. The MIRD and ICRP have published metabolic models and have calculated absorbed doses per unit intake for many nuclides and radioactive pharmaceuticals. Given the activity taken into the body, one can use such models and make reasonable calculations for average organ doses. When normal retention and excretion pathways are altered, the baseline models need to be modified, and the resulting organ dose estimates are subject to larger errors. This paper describes the historical evolution of radioactive isotopes in medical diagnosis and therapy. We nonmathematically summarize the methods used in current practice to estimate absorbed dose and summarize some of the risk data that have emerged from medical studies of patients with special attention to dose and effects observed in those who received (131)I-iodide in diagnosis and/or therapy. PMID:16808602

Brill, A B; Stabin, M; Bouville, A; Ron, E

2006-07-01

291

Evaluating noncancer effects of trichloroethylene: dosimetry, mode of action, and risk assessment.  

PubMed Central

Alternatives for developing chronic exposure limits for noncancer effects of trichloroethylene (TCE) were evaluated. These alternatives were organized within a framework for dose-response assessment--exposure:dosimetry (pharmacokinetics):mode of action (pharmacodynamics): response. This framework provides a consistent structure within which to make scientific judgments about available information, its interpretation, and use. These judgments occur in the selection of critical studies, internal dose metrics, pharmacokinetic models, approaches for interspecies extrapolation of pharmacodynamics, and uncertainty factors. Potentially limiting end points included developmental eye malformations, liver effects, immunotoxicity, and kidney toxicity from oral exposure and neurological, liver, and kidney effects by inhalation. Each end point was evaluated quantitatively using several methods. Default analyses used the traditional no-observed adverse effect level divided by uncertainty factors and the benchmark dose divided by uncertainty factors methods. Subsequently, mode-of-action and pharmacokinetic information were incorporated. Internal dose metrics were estimated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for TCE and its major metabolites. This approach was notably useful with neurological and kidney toxicities. The human PBPK model provided estimates of human exposure doses for the internal dose metrics. Pharmacodynamic data or default assumptions were used for interspecies extrapolation. For liver and neurological effects, humans appear no more sensitive than rodents when internal dose metrics were considered. Therefore, the interspecies uncertainty factor was reduced, illustrating that uncertainty factors are a semiquantitative approach fitting into the organizational framework. Incorporation of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics can result in values that differ significantly from those obtained with the default methods. PMID:10807562

Barton, H A; Clewell, H J

2000-01-01

292

Prenatal Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure in CD-1 Mice: Low-Dose Developmental Effects and Internal Dosimetry  

PubMed Central

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an environmental contaminant that causes adverse developmental effects in laboratory animals. To investigate the low-dose effects of PFOA on offspring, timed-pregnant CD-1 mice were gavage dosed with PFOA for all or half of gestation. In the full-gestation study, mice were administered 0, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg PFOA/kg body weight (BW)/day from gestation days (GD) 117. In the late-gestation study, mice were administered 0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg PFOA/kg BW/day from GD 1017. Exposure to PFOA significantly (p < 0.05) increased offspring relative liver weights in all treatment groups in the full-gestation study and in the 1.0 mg PFOA/kg group in the late-gestation study. In both studies, the offspring of all PFOA-treated dams exhibited significantly stunted mammary epithelial growth as assessed by developmental scoring. At postnatal day 21, mammary glands from the 1.0 mg/kg GD 1017 group had significantly less longitudinal epithelial growth and fewer terminal end buds compared with controls (p < 0.05). Evaluation of internal dosimetry in offspring revealed that PFOA concentrations remained elevated in liver and serum for up to 6 weeks and that brain concentrations were low and undetectable after 4 weeks. These data indicate that PFOA-induced effects on mammary tissue (1) occur at lower doses than effects on liver weight in CD-1 mice, an observation that may be strain specific, and (2) persist until 12 weeks of age following full-gestational exposure. Due to the low-dose sensitivity of mammary glands to PFOA in CD-1 mice, a no observable adverse effect level for mammary developmental delays was not identified in these studies. PMID:21482639

Macon, Madisa B.; Villanueva, LaTonya R.; Tatum-Gibbs, Katoria; Zehr, Robert D.; Strynar, Mark J.; Stanko, Jason P.; White, Sally S.; Helfant, Laurence

2011-01-01

293

THE FERNALD DOSIMETRY RECONSTRUCTION Task 1: Identification of Release Points  

E-print Network

THE FERNALD DOSIMETRY RECONSTRUCTION PROJECT Task 1: Identification of Release Points-l January 22, 1991 #12;THE FERNALD DOSIMETRY RECONSTRUCTION PROJECT Task 1: Identification of Release Points the standard in radiation health" #12;2 The Fernald Dosimetry Reconstruction Project Task 1 Report

294

THE FERNALD DOSIMETRY RECONSTRUCTION PROJECT Environmental Pathways -Models and Validation  

E-print Network

~\\ ( f C r L THE FERNALD DOSIMETRY RECONSTRUCTION PROJECT Task 4 Environmental Pathways - Models . . . . . . 8 RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM THE FMPC 9 MODELS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT AND DOSIMETRY 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Transport and Dosimetry for Radon and Radon Daughters 30 Direct Exposures from Gamma Radiation

295

School of Medical Dosimetry A JRCERT Accredited Program  

E-print Network

- 1 - 1 School of Medical Dosimetry A JRCERT Accredited Program Program Handbook #12;2 Table notice. #12;3 The Profession Medical dosimetry is the sub-specialty of Radiation Oncology that focuses calculations. #12;4 Mission "To provide world class education and training in medical dosimetry and provide

Weber, David J.

296

Dosimetry during space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparative radiation hazards due to various sources of radiation in several prominent manned space missions are surveyed, along with techniques for coping with the hazards. Cosmic radiation of solar and galactic origin, and Van Allen belt radiation, are the major hazards outside the earth's geomagnetic shield, and were a major problem in the Apollo missions. The Skylab missions, while within the geomagnetic field, were subject to extensive exposure to the trapped radiation belts (Van Allen belts), while the Soyuz-Apollo test project involved orbiting at a lower altitude, with lower exposure. No solar particle bursts affected Apollo missions, and the Solar Particle Alert Network devised to help cope with the problem is described. Dosimetry practices and devices are described. Radiation experience and dose readings logged with the various missions are reported.

Bailey, J. V.

1976-01-01

297

Radiation effects on video imagers  

SciTech Connect

Radiation sensitivity of several photoconductive, photoemissive, and solid state silicon-based video imagers was measured by analyzing stored photocharge induced by irradiation with continuous and pulsed sources of high energy photons and neutrons. Transient effects as functions of absorbed dose, dose rate, fluences, and ionizing particle energy are presented.

Yates, G.J.; Bujnosek, J.J.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Walton, R.B.; Martinez, T.M.; Black, J.P.

1985-01-01

298

Biologically weighted personal UV dosimetry.  

PubMed

People are exposed to natural or artificial UV radiation in different ways; unintentionally or intentionally, at their workplace on their spare time. To quantify the amount of individual UV exposure, a personal dosimetry is necessary. In research, polysulphone film (PSF) dosimeters are the most frequently used personal UV dosimeters. We use calculated weighting factors in the measurement processing of polysulphone film dosimeters. The special weighting factor transforms the dosimeter reading from an equivalent UV dose to the biologically effective UV dose. The factor depends on the investigated problem (action spectrum of the photobiological effect and spectral distribution of the incident UV source), the calibration of PSF was carried out once by a monochromatic radiation (gamma = 295 nm). The equivalent dose readings are available from this calibration curve for any investigated question. A presented result of this method is the seasonal measurement of erythemally effective UV exposure by ambient solar radiation, and the individual exposure level in a "normal" person concerning UV exposure and also in groups with the risk of a lack of sunshine. Further applications are occupational measurements of the risk of health damage by UV radiation (with respect to the limit of the maximum permissible 8 h-exposure according to IRPA/INIRC-guidelines). We controlled the extent of UV exposure in workers in the area of arc welding workplaces. The biological weighting of PSF readings simplifies a routine use of PSF in personal UV monitoring to investigators without the expending special measurement technology (e.g. spectroradiometer). PMID:8988614

Knuschke, P; Barth, J

1996-10-01

299

Mitigation of Space Radiation Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During low earth orbit and deep space missions, humans and spacecraft systems are exposed to high energy particles emanating from basically three sources: geomagnetically-trapped protons and electrons (Van Allen Belts), extremely high energy galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), and solar proton events (SPEs). The particles can have deleterious effects if not properly shielded. For humans, there can be a multitude of harmful effects depending on the degree of exposure. For spacecraft systems, especially electronics, the effects can range from single event upsets (SEUs) to catastrophic effects such as latchup and burnout. In addition, some materials, radio-sensitive experiments, and scientific payloads are subject to harmful effects. To date, other methods have been proposed such as electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding, but these approaches have not proven feasible due to cost, weight, and safety issues. The only method that has merit and has been effective is bulk or parasitic shielding. In this paper, we discuss in detail the sources of the space radiation environment, spacecraft, human, and onboard systems modeling methodologies, transport of these particles through shielding materials, and the calculation of the dose effects. In addition, a review of the space missions to date and a discussion of the space radiation mitigation challenges for lunar and deep space missions such as lunar outposts and human missions to Mars are presented.

Atwell, William

2012-02-01

300

Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 15th, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N. Mex., July 18-21, 1978, Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation effects in MOS devices and circuits are considered along with radiation effects in materials, space radiation effects and spacecraft charging, SGEMP, IEMP, EMP, fabrication of radiation-hardened devices, radiation effects in bipolar devices and circuits, simulation, energy deposition, and dosimetry. Attention is given to the rapid anneal of radiation-induced silicon-sapphire interface charge trapping, cosmic ray induced errors in MOS memory cells, a simple model for predicting radiation effects in MOS devices, the response of MNOS capacitors to ionizing radiation at 80 K, trapping effects in irradiated and avalanche-injected MOS capacitors, inelastic interactions of electrons with polystyrene, the photoelectron spectral yields generated by monochromatic soft X radiation, and electron transport in reactor materials.

Simons, M.

1978-01-01

301

Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

COOPER, J.R.

2000-04-17

302

Radiation effects in spacecraft electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Effects on the internal spacecraft electronics due to exposure to the natural and enhanced space radiation environment will be reviewed. The emphasis will be placed on the description of the nature of both the exposure environment and failure mechanisms in semiconductors. Understanding both the system environment and device effects is critical in the use of laboratory simulation environments to obtain the data necessary to design and qualify components for successful application.

Raymond, James P.

1989-01-01

303

New millennium frontiers of luminescence dosimetry.  

PubMed

What are the new frontiers' facing us in the new millennium with respect to luminescence dosimetry? I suggest that the first is in methodology. The fast, sensitive optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques developed recently have yielded the potential for rapid environmental monitoring, multiple measurements, dose imaging, and fast readout. New vistas of applications in medical dosimetry and remote dosimetry have opened. A second frontier is literally 'out of this world'--namely, space dosimetry. Extended stays in low Earth orbit and the potential for a 1000-day mission to Mars emphasise the challenges of dosimetry in this unique radiation environment. What role does luminescence dosimetry play in this field? This talk explores the possibilities and the challenges as we seek to penetrate these new frontiers. PMID:12382823

McKeever, S W S

2002-01-01

304

Feasibility study of online high-spatial-resolution MOSFET dosimetry in static and pulsed x-ray radiation fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements have been made in the measurement of dose profiles in several types of X-ray beams. These include 120-kVp X-ray beams from an orthovoltage X-ray machine, 6-MV Bremsstrahlung from a medical LINAC in conformal mode and the 50-200 keV energy spectrum of microbeams produced at the medical beamline station of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Using a quadruple metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect

Anatoly B. Rosenfeld; Michael L. F. Lerch; Tomas Kron; Elke Brauer-Krisch; Alberto Bravin; Andrew Holmes-Siedle; Barry J. Allen

2001-01-01

305

IAEA activities related to radiation biology and health effects of radiation.  

PubMed

The IAEA is involved in capacity building with regard to the radiobiological sciences in its member states through its technical cooperation programme. Research projects/programmes are normally carried out within the framework of coordinated research projects (CRPs). Under this programme, two CRPs have been approved which are relevant to nuclear/radiation accidents: (1) stem cell therapeutics to modify radiation-induced damage to normal tissue, and (2) strengthening biological dosimetry in IAEA member states. PMID:22395066

Wondergem, Jan; Rosenblatt, Eduardo

2012-03-01

306

A (238)Pu irradiator for exposure of cultured cells with alpha-radiation: construction, calibration and dosimetry.  

PubMed

An alpha-particle irradiator that can facilitate investigations of alpha-radiation effects on human cells in radiation protection, carcinogenesis and radioimmunotherapy was constructed. The irradiator was based on a 1.3 GBq (238)Pu source, housed in a stainless steel tube flushed with helium. Radiation provided by (238)Pu consists mainly of alpha-particles with energy of 5.5 MeV. The alpha-particle fluence and energy spectra were measured with a silicon semiconductor detector. Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the mean number of alpha-particles and the mean absorbed alpha-particle dose to cells for various irradiation times and distances between cells and source. There was a linear dependence between exposure time and alpha-particle fluence for exposure times above 1s. The alpha-particle activity concentration varied with a factor 2.7 over the source area, while the variation in energy peak position was <4%. At the cell nucleus position and with a distance of 45 mm between the source and the mylar dish surface, the alpha-fluence was 4.6 x 10(4)counts/(mm(2)s), the average incident alpha-particle energy was 2.5 MeV and the average linear energy transfer was 167 keV/microm. The average dose rate to the cells, with 5 microm diameter nucleus, was 1.2 Gy/s. The (238)Pu alpha-particle irradiator is feasible for irradiation of cells and it can be used for studies of both direct effects and bystander effects of alpha-radiation. PMID:19716308

Tisnek, Nikolai; Kalanxhi, Erta; Serkland, Camilla Walle; Iversen, Jrn; Belyakov, Oleg V; Dahle, Jostein

2009-11-01

307

Compensation of fading effects of radiation-induced loss by multiple wavelengths measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation induced loss of multimode lead glass fibers is measured during and after irradiation by a Co-60 source in the temperature range from 10 degree(s)C to 50 degree(s)C. The measurements were performed at visible and infrared LED wavelengths using time multiplexing of the LED's. The radiation sensitivity and relaxation effects of this fiber depend on temperature and on the wavelength of the read-out light. The wavelength dependence allows estimation of the actual fiber temperature. Thus a method can be developed to compensate temperature and fading effects on radiation induced loss in situations where the fiber temperature is unknown. The application of multiple wavelength measurements of induced loss for radiation dosimetry with optical fibers is discussed.

Bueker, Harald; Haesing, Friedrich W.; Gerhard, E.

1993-03-01

308

Experiment K-6-24, K-6-25, K-6-26. Radiation dosimetry and spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation experiments flown by the University of San Francisco on the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft were designed to measure the depth dependence of both total dose and heavy particle flux, dose and dose equivalent, down to very thin shielding. Three experiments were flown and were located both inside and outside the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft. Tissue absorbed dose rates of 264 to 0.028 rad d(-1) under shielding of 0.013 to 3.4 g/sq cm of (7)LiF were found outside the spacecraft and 0.025 rad d(-1) inside. Heavy particle fluxes of 3.43 to 1.03 x 10 to the minus 3rd power cm -2 sub s -1 sub sr -1 under shielding of 0.195 to 1.33 g/sq cm plastic were found outside the spacecraft and 4.25 times 10 to the minus 4th power cm -2 sub s -1 sub sr -1 inside (LET infinity H2O greater than or equal to 4 keV/micron m). The corresponding heavy particle dose equivalent rates outside the spacecraft were 30.8 to 19.8 mrem d(-1) and 11.4 mrem d(-1) inside. The large dose and particle fluxes found at small shielding thicknesses emphasize the importance of these and future measurements at low shielding, for predicting radiation effects on space materials and experiments where shielding is minimal and on astronauts during EVA. The Cosmos 1887 mission contained a variety of international radiobiological investigations to which the measurements apply. The high inclination orbit (62 degrees) of this mission provided a radiation environment which is seldom available to U.S. investigators. The radiation measurements will be compared with those of other research groups and also with those performed on the Shuttle, and will be used to refine computer models employed to calculate radiation exposures on other spacecraft, including the Space Station.

Benton, E. V.; Frank, A.; Benton, E. R.; Dudkin, V.; Marennyi, A.

1990-01-01

309

Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Biodistribution, Radiation Dosimetry, and Toxicology of 18 F-Fluoroacetate ( 18 F-FACE) in Non-human Primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionTo facilitate the clinical translation of 18F-fluoroacetate (18F-FACE), the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, radiolabeled metabolites, radiation dosimetry, and pharmacological safety\\u000a of diagnostic doses of 18F-FACE were determined in non-human primates.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a 18F-FACE was synthesized using a custom-built automated synthesis module. Six rhesus monkeys (three of each sex) were injected\\u000a intravenously with 18F-FACE (165.4??28.5MBq), followed by dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of

Ryuichi Nishii; William Tong; Richard Wendt; Suren Soghomonyan; Uday Mukhopadhyay; Julius Balatoni; Osama Mawlawi; Luc Bidaut; Peggy Tinkey; Agatha Borne; Mian Alauddin; Carlos Gonzalez-Lepera; Bijun Yang; Juri G. Gelovani

310

Effects of nuclear interactions on energy and stopping power in proton beam dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most experimental methods for proton beam dosimetry require stopping power values and proton energy distributions in the irradiated materials. At proton energies of interest in radiotherapy, nuclear interactions in biological tissue or in tissue-equivalent materials are not negligible. As a consequence of nuclear interactions the primary proton fluence is attenuated and lower energy secondary protons and other charged particles are

R. F. Laitano; M. Rosetti; M. Frisoni

1996-01-01

311

EURAMET.RI(I)-S7 comparison of alanine dosimetry systems for absorbed dose to water measurements in gamma- and x-radiation at radiotherapy levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) are involved in the European project 'External Beam Cancer Therapy', a project of the European Metrology Research Programme. Within this project, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)/alanine dosimetric method has been chosen for performing measurements in small fields such as those used in IMRT (intensity modulated radiation therapy). In this context, these three National Metrology Institutes (NMI) wished to compare the result of their alanine dosimetric systems (detector, modus operandi etc) at radiotherapy dose levels to check their consistency. This EURAMET.RI(I)-S7 comparison has been performed with the support of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) which collected and distributed the results as a neutral organization, to ensure the comparison was 'blind'. Irradiations have been made under reference conditions by each laboratory in a 60Co beam and in an accelerator beam (10 MV or 12 MV) in a water phantom of 30 cm 30 cm 30 cm in a square field of 10 cm 10 cm at the reference depth. Irradiations have been performed at known values of absorbed dose to water (Dw) within 10% of nominal doses of 5 Gy and 10 Gy, i.e. between 4.5 Gy and 5.5 Gy and between 9 Gy and 11 Gy, respectively. Each participant read out their dosimeters and assessed the doses using their own protocol (calibration curve, positioning device etc) as this comparison aims at comparing the complete dosimetric process. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the EPR/alanine dosimetry systems operated by National Metrology Institutes as a method of assuring therapy level doses with the accuracy required. The maximum deviation in the ratio of measured to applied dose is less than 1%. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Garcia, Tristan; Anton, Mathias; Sharpe, Peter

2012-01-01

312

Development of an optimal anisotropic responding (OAR) dosimeter for two-dosimeter dosimetry for better estimation of effective dose equivalent (He) and the impact of dosimeter misposition on estimating effective dose equivalent using isotropic dosimeters  

E-print Network

DEVELOPMENT OF AN OPTIMAL ANISOTROPIC RESPONDING (OAR) DOSIMETER FOR TWO-DOSIMETER DOSIMETRY FOR BETTER ESTIMATION OF EFFECTIVE DOSE EQUIVALENT (HR) AND THE IMPACT OF DOSIMETER MISPOSITION ON ESTIMATING EFFECTIVE DOSE EQUIVALENT USING ISOTROPIC... OF AN OPTIMAL ANISOTROPIC RESPONDING (OAR) DOSIMETER FOR TWO-DOSIMETER DOSIMETRY FOR BETTER ESTIMATION OF EFFECTIVE DOSE EQUIVALENT (HE) AND THE IMPACT OF DOSIMETER MISPOSITION ON ESTIMATING EFFECTIVE DOSE EQUIVALENT USING ISOTROPIC DOSIMKTERS A Thesis...

Han, Hsiang-Jung

2012-06-07

313

Neutron personnel dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments. (ACR)

Griffith, R.V.

1981-06-16

314

NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) TLD (Thermoluminescent Dosimetry) direct radiation monitoring network: Progress report, July-September 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network is operated by the NRC in cooperation with participating states to provide continuous measurement of the ambient radiation levels around licensed NRC facilities, primarily power reactors. Ambient radiation levels result from naturally occurring radionuclides present in the soil, cosmic radiation constantly bombarding the earth from outer space, and the contribution,

R. Struckmeyer; N. McNamara; L. Cohen

1987-01-01

315

Extension of the biological effective dose to the MIRD schema and possible implications in radionuclide therapy dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

In dosimetry-based treatment planning protocols, patients with rapid clearance of the radiopharmaceutical require a larger amount of initial activity than those with slow clearance to match the absorbed dose to the critical organ. As a result, the dose-rate to the critical organ is higher in patients with rapid clearance and may cause unexpected toxicity compared to patients with slow clearance. In order to account for the biological impact of different dose-rates, radiobiological modeling is beginning to be applied to the analysis of radionuclide therapy patient data. To date, the formalism used for these analyses is based on kinetics derived from activity in a single organ, the target. This does not include the influence of other source organs to the dose and dose-rate to the target organ. As a result, only self-dose irradiation in the target organ contributes to the dose-rate. In this work, the biological effective dose (BED) formalism has been extended to include the effect of multiple source organ contributions to the net dose-rate in a target organ. The generalized BED derivation has been based on the Medical Internal Radionuclide Dose Committee (MIRD) schema assuming multiple source organs following exponential effective clearance of the radionuclide. A BED-based approach to determine the largest safe dose to critical organs has also been developed. The extended BED formalism is applied to red marrow dosimetry, as well as kidney dosimetry considering the cortex and the medulla separately, since both those organs are commonly dose limiting in radionuclide therapy. The analysis shows that because the red marrow is an early responding tissue (high {alpha}/{beta}), it is less susceptible to unexpected toxicity arising from rapid clearance of high levels of administered activity in the marrow or in the remainder of the body. In kidney dosimetry, the study demonstrates a complex interplay between clearance of activity in the cortex and the medulla, as well as the initial activity ratio and the S value ratio between the two. In some scenarios, projected BED based on both the cortex and the medulla is a more appropriate constraint on the administered activity than the BED based on the cortex only. Furthermore, different fractionated regimens were considered to reduce renal toxicity. The MIRD-based BED formalism is expected to be useful for patient-specific adjustments of activity and to facilitate the investigation of dose-toxicity correlations with respect to dose-rate and tissue repair mechanism.

Baechler, Sebastien; Hobbs, Robert F.; Prideaux, Andrew R.; Wahl, Richard L.; Sgouros, George [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States) and University Institute of Radiation Physics (IRA-DUMSC), University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States)

2008-03-15

316

Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with requirements of 10 CFR 835, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program, the DOE Richland Operations Office, DOE Office of River Protection, DOE Pacific Northwest Office of Science, and Hanfords DOE contractors. The dosimetry system is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to PNNL and all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNLs Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Maintenance and distribution of controlled hard copies of the manual by PNNL was discontinued beginning with Revision 0.2.

Rathbone, Bruce A.

2011-04-04

317

Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with requirements of 10 CFR 835, the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program, the DOE Richland Operations Office, DOE Office of River Protection, DOE Pacific Northwest Office of Science, and Hanfords DOE contractors. The dosimetry system is operated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hanford External Dosimetry Program which provides dosimetry services to PNNL and all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNLs Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Maintenance and distribution of controlled hard copies of the manual by PNNL was discontinued beginning with Revision 0.2.

Rathbone, Bruce A.

2010-04-01

318

Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNLs Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. Rev. 0 marks the first revision to be released through PNNLs Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Revision Log: Rev. 0 (2/25/2005) Major revision and expansion. Rev. 0.1 (3/12/2007) Minor revision. Updated Chapters 5, 6 and 9 to reflect change in default ring calibration factor used in HEDP dose calculation software. Factor changed from 1.5 to 2.0 beginning January 1, 2007. Pages on which changes were made are as follows: 5.23, 5.69, 5.78, 5.80, 5.82, 6.3, 6.5, 6.29, 9.2.

Rathbone, Bruce A.

2007-03-12

319

RADIATION EFFECTS IN MATERIAL MICROSTRUCTURE.  

SciTech Connect

Next generation nuclear power systems, high-power particle accelerators and space technology will inevitably rely on higher performance materials that will be able to function in the extreme environments of high irradiation, high temperatures, corrosion and stress. The ability of any material to maintain its functionality under exposure to harsh conditions is directly linked to the material structure at the nano- and micro-scales. Understanding of the underlying processes is key to the success of such undertakings. This paper presents experimental results of the effects of radiation exposure on several unique alloys, composites and crystals through induced changes in the physio-mechanical macroscopic properties.

SIMOS,N.

2007-05-30

320

Development of Fast and Highly Efficient Gas Ionization Chamber For Patient Imaging and Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

In radiation therapy of cancer, more accurate delivery techniques spur the need for improved patient imaging during treatment. To this purpose, the megavoltage radiation protocol that is used for treatment is also used for imaging.

R. Hinderler; H. Keller; T.R. Mackie; M.L. Corradini

2003-09-08

321

The Chernobyl experience in the area of retrospective dosimetry.  

PubMed

The Chernobyl accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986 at a nuclear power plant located less than 150 km north of Kiev, was the largest nuclear accident to date. The unprecedented scale of the accident was determined not only by the amount of released activity, but also by the number of workers and of the general public involved, and therefore exposed to increased doses of ionising radiation. Due to the unexpected and large scale of the accident, dosimetry techniques and practices were far from the optimum; personal dosimetry of cleanup workers (liquidators) was not complete, and there were no direct measurements of the exposures of members of the public. As a result, an acute need for retrospective dose assessment was dictated by radiation protection and research considerations. In response, substantial efforts have been made to reconstruct doses for the main exposed cohorts, using a broad variety of newly developed methods: analytical, biological and physical (electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of teeth, thermoluminescence of quartz) and modelling. This paper reviews the extensive experience gained by the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Ukraine in the field of retrospective dosimetry of large cohorts of exposed population and professionals. These dose reconstruction projects were implemented, in particular, in the framework of epidemiological studies, designed to follow-up the medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident and study health effects of ionizing radiation, particularly Ukrainian-American studies of cataracts and leukaemia among liquidators. PMID:22394623

Chumak, Vadim V

2012-03-01

322

Fast neutron dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period.

DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

1992-01-01

323

Quantum dosimetry and online visualization of X-ray and charged particle radiation in commercial aircraft at operational flight altitudes with the pixel detector Timepix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the application of the hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix for precise characterization, quantum sensitivity dosimetry and visualization of the charged particle radiation and X-ray field inside commercial aircraft at operational flight altitudes. The quantum counting capability and granularity of Timepix provides the composition and spectral-characteristics of the X-ray and charged-particle field with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, high spatial resolution and particle type resolving power. For energetic charged particles the direction of trajectory and linear energy transfer can be measured. The detector is operated by the integrated readout interface FITPix for power, control and data acquisition together with the software package Pixelman for online visualization and real-time data processing. The compact and portable radiation camera can be deployed remotely being controlled simply by a laptop computer. The device performs continuous monitoring and accurate time-dependent measurements in wide dynamic range of particle fluxes, deposited energy, absorbed dose and equivalent dose rates. Results are presented for in-flight measurements at altitudes up to 12 km in various flights selected in the period 2006-2013.

Granja, Carlos; Pospisil, Stanislav

2014-07-01

324

Joint USNRC/EC consequence uncertainty study: The ingestion pathway, dosimetry and health effects expert judgment elicitations and results  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the European Commission (EC) have conducted a formal expert judgment elicitation jointly to systematically collect the quantitative information needed to perform consequence uncertainty analyses on a broad set of commercial nuclear power plants. Information from three sets of joint US/European expert panels was collected and processed. Information from the three sets of panels was collected in the following areas: in the phenomenological areas of atmospheric dispersion and deposition, in the areas of ingestion pathways and external dosimetry, and in the areas of health effects and internal dosimetry. This exercise has demonstrated that the uncertainty for particular issues as measured by the ratio of the 95th percentile to the 5th percentile can be extremely large (orders of magnitude), or rather small (factor of two). This information has already been used by many of the experts that were involved in this process in areas other than the consequence uncertainty field. The benefit to the field of radiological consequences is just beginning as the results of this study are published and made available to the consequence community.

Harper, F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Abbott, M. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01

325

INTRINSIC DOSIMETRY: A POTENTIAL NEW TOOL FOR NUCLEAR FORENSICS INVESTIGATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry was used to measure dose effects on the raw stock material of borosilicate container glass from different geographical locations. Effects were studied at times up to 60 days post-irradiation at doses from 0.15 to 20 Gy. The minimum detectable dose using this technique was estimated to be 0.15 Gy which is roughly equivalent to a 24 hr irradiation 1 cm from a 50 ng source of 60Co. Two peaks were identified in the TL glow curve, a relatively unstable peak around 125C and a more stable peak around 225C. Differences in TL glow curve shape and intensity were also observed for the glasses from different geographical origins. We investigate radiation induced defects in glass to further develop the technique of intrinsic dosimetrythe measurement of the total absorbed dose received by the walls of a container holding radioactive material. Intrinsic dosimetry is intended to be used as an interrogation tool to provide enhanced pathway information on interdicted or newly discovered waste containers of unknown origin or history by considering the total absorbed dose received by a container in tandem with the physical characteristics of the radioactive material housed within that container. One hypothetical scenario is presented to illustrate the application of intrinsic dosimetry to waste management and nuclear forensics.

Clark, Richard A.; Miller, Steven D.; Robertson, Dave J.; Gregg, Roger A.; Murphy, Mark K.; Schwantes, Jon M.

2010-08-11

326

Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual PNL-MA-842 documents the design and implementation of the external dosimetry system used at Hanford. The manual describes the dosimeter design, processing protocols, dose calculation methodology, radiation fields encountered, dosimeter response characteristics, limitations of dosimeter design under field conditions, and makes recommendations for effective use of the dosimeters in the field. The manual describes the technical basis for the dosimetry system in a manner intended to help ensure defensibility of the dose of record at Hanford and to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 835, DOELAP, DOE-RL, ORP, PNSO, and Hanford contractor requirements. The dosimetry system is operated by PNNLs Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) which provides dosimetry services to all Hanford contractors. The primary users of this manual are DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford using the dosimetry services of PNNL. Development and maintenance of this manual is funded directly by DOE and DOE contractors. Its contents have been reviewed and approved by DOE and DOE contractors at Hanford through the Hanford Personnel Dosimetry Advisory Committee (HPDAC) which is chartered and chaired by DOE-RL and serves as means of coordinating dosimetry practices across contractors at Hanford. This manual was established in 1996. Since its inception, it has been revised many times and maintained by PNNL as a controlled document with controlled distribution. The first revision to be released through PNNLs Electronic Records & Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) database was designated Revision 0. Revision numbers that are whole numbers reflect major revisions typically involving significant changes to all chapters in the document. Revision numbers that include a decimal fraction reflect minor revisions, usually restricted to selected chapters or selected pages in the document. Maintenance and distribution of controlled hard copies of the manual by PNNL was discontinued beginning with Revision 0.2. Revision Log: Rev. 0 (2/25/2005) Major revision and expansion. Rev. 0.1 (3/12/2007) Updated Chapters 5, 6 and 9 to reflect change in default ring calibration factor used in HEDP dose calculation software. Factor changed from 1.5 to 2.0 beginning January 1, 2007. Pages on which changes were made are as follows: 5.23, 5.69, 5.78, 5.80, 5.82, 6.3, 6.5, 6.29, and 9.2. Rev 0.2 (8/28/2009) Updated Chapters 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9. Chapters 6 and 8 were significantly expanded. References in the Preface and Chapters 1, 2, 4, and 7 were updated to reflect updates to DOE documents. Approved by HPDAC on 6/2/2009. Rev 1.0 (1/1/2010) Major revision. Updated all chapters to reflect the Hanford site wide implementation on January 1, 2010 of new DOE requirements for occupational radiation protection. The new requirements are given in the June 8, 2007 amendment to 10 CFR 835 Occupational Radiation Protection (Federal Register, June 8, 2007. Title 10 Part 835. U.S., Code of Federal Regulations, Vol. 72, No. 110, 31904-31941). Revision 1.0 to the manual replaces ICRP 26 dosimetry concepts and terminology with ICRP 60 dosimetry concepts and terminology and replaces external dose conversion factors from ICRP 51 with those from ICRP 74 for use in measurement of operational quantities with dosimeters. Descriptions of dose algorithms and dosimeter response characteristics, and field performance were updated to reflect changes in the neutron quality factors used in the measurement of operational quantities.

Rathbone, Bruce A.

2010-01-01

327

Solid-State Personal Dosimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is a web site page, and a data sheet about Personal protection (i.e., space suits) presented to the Radiation and Micrometeoroid Mitigation Technology Focus Group meeting. The website describes the work of the PI to improve solid state personal radiation dosimetry. The data sheet presents work on the active personal radiation detection system that is to provide real-time local radiation exposure information during EVA. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.

Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.

2005-01-01

328

Exposure Dose Reconstruction from EPR Spectra of Tooth Enamel Exposed to the Combined Effect of X-rays and Gamma Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used EPR dosimetry on tooth enamel to show that the combined effect of x-rays with effective energy 34 keV and gamma radiation with average energy 1250 keV leads to a significant increase in the reconstructed absorbed dose compared with the applied dose from a gamma source or from an x-ray source or from both sources of electromagnetic radiation. In simulation experiments, we develop an approach to estimating the contribution of diagnostic x-rays to the exposure dose formed in the tooth enamel by the combined effect of x-rays and gamma radiation.

Kirillov, V. A.; Kuchuro, J. I.

2014-09-01

329

Radiation effects in ferrate garnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation effects in four synthetic ferrate garnets (A 3B 2(XO 4) 3, Ia3 d, Z = 8) were examined by ion beam irradiations with in situ observation ( T = 298-873 K) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at the IVEM Tandem Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The garnet compositions include: A = Ca, Gd, Th, and Ce; B = Zr, Fe. The critical amorphization temperatures ( Tc), the temperature above which the target material cannot be amorphized due to dynamic annealing, were between 820 and 870 K. The amorphization doses at room temperature are between 0.17 and 0.19 dpa (displacement per atom), which is similar to that of silicate- and aluminate-garnets. The small variations in the amorphization dose and Tc of the different compositions suggest that radiation effects in ferrate garnets are structurally constrained. Qualitative analyses of the valence states of Ce and Fe in garnet before and after irradiation were completed using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The Ce and Fe in the unirradiated garnet were dominantly trivalent and divalent, respectively. The characteristic peaks of Ce 4+, at 5 eV higher energy for the M-edges, were present in unirradiated garnet as a minor peak, and the peaks did not disappear after complete amorphization, suggesting that the valence state did not change significantly. EELS analysis was conducted on a nearly pure andradite, Ca 3Fe 2Si 3O 12, which ideally contains only ferric iron. The andradite was amorphized at 0.18 dpa. EELS analysis revealed that some of ferric iron was converted to ferrous iron during the irradiation.

Utsunomiya, S.; Yudintsev, S.; Ewing, R. C.

2005-02-01

330

A survey of space radiation effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of space radiation and its significance for space missions, as they increase in scope, duration, and complexity are discussed. Type of radiation hazard may depend on location or on special equipment used. It is emphasized that it is necessary to search for potential radiation problems in the design stage of a mission. Problem areas such as radiation damage to solar cells and the revolutionary advances are discussed. Radiation effect to electronics components other than solar cells, and several specialized areas such as radioactivity and luminescence are also examined.

Hill, C. W.

1980-01-01

331

Liquid radiochromic dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By strategic combination of weak acid, mild oxidizing agent, and polar organic solvents containing millimolar concentrations of leucocyanides of certain triphenylmethane dyes, fairly broad ranges of absorbed doses of ionizing radiation can be determined. The yield of dye ions as determined by spectrophotometry can be made essentially constant with dose (i.e. linear response) from 0.01 to 30 kGy and it does not vary with dose rate upto 10 11 Gys -1. The radiation-induced color is stable and offers fast-retrieval dosimetry if N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone is used as solvent. Other possible polar solvents are 2-propanol, 2-methoxy ethanol, N, N-dimethyl formamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and triethyl phosphate. Dimethyl sulfoxide is found to give the widest and most linear response. Suitable dye precursors are leucocyanides of pararosaniline, new fuchsin, hexa (hydroxyethyl) pararosaniline, crystal violet, malachite green, setoglaucine, ethyl violet, helvetia green, basic violet-14, and formyl violet. Low concentrations of carboxylic acids contribute stability to the system. Typical mild oxidizing agents are nitrobenzene, and atmospheric oxygen, or oxygen released radiolytically from the solvents. The dosimetry systems do not require high-purity of ingredients or ultracleanliness of containers, although, for reproducibility of dye yields (G-values), thoroughly purified and uniform dye derivates are recommended.

Rativanich, N.; Radak, B. B.; Miller, A.; Uribe, R. M.; McLaughlin, W. L.

332

Multiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation Response Effects of Radiation Quality and HypoxiaEffects of Radiation Quality and Hypoxia  

E-print Network

Multiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation ResponseMultiscale Modeling of Radiation Response Effects of Radiation Quality and HypoxiaEffects of Radiation Quality and Hypoxia Robert D. Stewart, Ph.D.Robert D. Stewart, Ph

Stewart, Robert D.

333

A dosimetry study precisely outlining the heart substructure of left breast cancer patients using intensity-modulated radiation therapy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of delineating the substructure of the heart by using 64-slice spiral CT coronary angiography (CTA) in breast cancer patients who underwent left breast-conserving surgery, and to compare the dosimetric differences between the targets and organs at risk in the prone and supine positions in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning. From January to December 2011, ten patients who underwent left breast-conserving surgery were enrolled in this study. CTA was performed in both the supine and prone positions during the simulation, and conventional scanning without CTA was performed at the same time. Image registration was performed for paired image series using a commercially available planning system. In a conventional image series, the clinical target volume (CTV) of the whole breast, planning target volume (PTV), bilateral lungs (L-Lung, R-Lung), spinal cord, contralateral breast (R-Breast), and heart were delineated. In the CTA image series, the left ventricular (LV) and left anterior descending coronary arteries (LAD) and the planning risk volume (LAD-PRV) of the LAD (LAD with a 1 cm margin) were outlined. For each patient, two separate IMRT plans were developed for the supine and prone positions. A total of 20 plans were generated. The following indicators were compared: Dmean and D95 for the PTV; Dmean, V5, and V20 for the left lung; Dmean, V10, V20, V25, V30, and V40 for the heart and its substructures (LAD-PRV, LV); Dmean and V5 for the right lung; and Dmax and Dmean for the right breast. Using CTA to delineate the substructures of the heart is simple and straightforward. Plans for both the prone and supine positions reached the prescribed dose for the PTV without significant differences. Dose distributions were acceptable for both the prone and supine positions. However, the LAD-PRV, LV, heart, and L-Lung received smaller doses in the prone position plans than in the supine position plans. The Dmean values reduced by 445.83 cGy (p = 0.043), 575.00 cGy (p = 0.003), 402.00 cGy (p = 0.039), and 553.33 cGy (p = 0.004) in the LAD-PRV, LV, heart, and L-Lung. In addition, the V25 lessened 12.54% (p = 0.042) and 8.70% (p = 0.019) in the LV and heart, while the V20 was decreased 8.57% (p = 0.042), 15.21% (p = 0.026), 12.59% (p = 0.011), and 10.62% (p = 0.006) in the LAD-PRV, LV, heart, and L-Lung, respectively. Similarly, the V10 and V30 were reduced by 28.31% (p = 0.029) and 5.54% (p = 0.034) in the heart, while the V5 was cut back 27.86% (p = 0.031) in the L-Lung. For most Asian women with average-sized breasts after breast conserving treatment (BCT), prone positioning during IMRT radiation will reduce the dose to the ipsilateral lung, heart, and substructures of the heart, which may reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events after radiotherapy more than radiation therapy performed in a supine position. Using CTA to delineate the substructures of the heart is easy and intuitive. It is cost-effective and highly recommended for breast cancer IMRT. However, the dose-volume limits of the heart substructures remain to be determined. PMID:25207559

Fan, Ling-li; Luo, Yang-kun; Xu, Jing-hui; He, Ling; Wang, Jie; Du, Xiao-bo

2014-01-01

334

Potential health effects of space radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crewmembers on missions to the Moon or Mars will be exposed to radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, and possibly solar particle events. The potential health hazards due to these space radiations must be considered carefully to ensure the success of space exploration. Because there is no human radioepidemiological data for acute and late effects of high-LET (Linear-Energy-Transfer) radiation, the biological risks of energetic charged particles have to be estimated from experimental results on animals and cultured cells. Experimental data obtained to date indicate that charged particle radiation can be much more effective than photons in causing chromosome aberrations, cell killing, mutation, and tumor induction. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) varies with biological endpoints and depends on the LET of heavy ions. Most lesions induced by low-LET radiation can be repaired in mammalian cells. Energetic heavy ions, however, can produce large complex DNA damages, which may lead to large deletions and are irreparable. For high-LET radiation, therefore, there are less or no dose rate effects. Physical shielding may not be effective in minimizing the biological effects on energetic heavy ions, since fragments of the primary particles can be effective in causing biological effects. At present the uncertainty of biological effects of heavy particles is still very large. With further understanding of the biological effects of space radiation, the career doses can be kept at acceptable levels so that the space radiation environment need not be a barrier to the exploitation of the promise of space.

Yang, Chui-Hsu; Craise, Laurie M.

1993-01-01

335

Criteria for personal dosimetry in mixed radiation fields in space. [analyzing trapped protons, tissue disintegration stars, and neutrons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complexity of direct reading and passive dosimeters for monitoring radiation is studied to strike the right balance of compromise to simplify the monitoring procedure. Trapped protons, tissue disintegration stars, and neutrons are analyzed.

Schaefer, H. J.

1974-01-01

336

Methods to Estimate Solar Radiation Dosimetry in Coral Reefs Using Remote Sensed, Modeled, and in Situ Data.  

EPA Science Inventory

Solar irradiance has been increasingly recognized as an important determinant of bleaching in coral reefs, but measurements of solar radiation exposure within coral reefs have been relatively limited. Solar irradiance and diffuse down welling attenuation coefficients (Kd, m-1) we...

337

A Bayesian hierarchical method to account for random effects in cytogenetic dosimetry based on calibration curves.  

PubMed

The dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) is one of the most sensitive and reliable methods of inferring doses of radiation exposure in patients. In DCA, one calibration curve is prepared in advance by in vitro irradiation to blood samples from one or sometimes multiple healthy donors in considering possible inter-individual variability. Although the standard method has been demonstrated to be quite accurate for actual dose estimates, it cannot account for random effects, which come from such as the blood donor used to prepare the calibration curve, the radiation-exposed patient, and the examiners. To date, it is unknown how these random effects impact on the standard method of dose estimation. We propose a novel Bayesian hierarchical method that incorporates random effects into the dose estimation. To demonstrate dose estimation by the proposed method and to assess the impact of inter-individual variability in samples from multiple donors on the estimation, peripheral blood samples from 13 occupationally non-exposed, non-smoking, healthy individuals were collected and irradiated with gamma rays. The results clearly showed significant inter-individual variability and the standard method using a sample from a single donor gave anti-conservative confidence interval of the irradiated dose. In contrast, the Bayesian credible interval for irradiated dose calculated by the proposed method using samples from multiple donors properly covered the actual doses. Although the classical confidence interval of calibration curve with accounting inter-individual variability in samples from multiple donors was roughly coincident with the Bayesian credible interval, the proposed method has better reasoning and potential for extensions. PMID:25156016

Mano, Shuhei; Suto, Yumiko

2014-11-01

338

EPR dosimetry of teeth in past and future accidents: a prospective look at a retrospective method  

SciTech Connect

Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of tooth enamel is a relatively new technique for retrospective dosimetry that in the past two years has seen increasing effort towards its development and evaluation. Efforts have centered on determining the accuracy which may be achieved with current measurement techniques as well as the minimum doses detectable. The study was focused on evaluating some factors which influence the accuracy of EPR dosimetry of enamel. Reported are studies on sample intercomparisions, instrumental considerations, and effects of dental x-rays, environmental sunlight and ultraviolet radiation.

Haskell, E.H.; Kenner, G.H.; Hayes, R.B. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Center for Applied Dosimetry; Chumak, V.; Shalom, S. [All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine)

1996-01-01

339

Helical Cerenkov effect, a novel radiation source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observability of the helical Cerenkov effect as a novel radiation source is discussed. Depending on the value of the index of refraction of the medium, the strength of the uniform magnetic field, and the electron beam energy, helical Cerenkov radiation can occur in the same spectral regions as the ordinary Cerenkov effect, that is, from microwave to visible wavelengths.

Josip Soln

1994-01-01

340

The effects of variations in the density and composition of eye materials on ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

In ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry, it is common to consider the water phantom as human eye anatomy. However, for better clinical analysis, there is a need for the dose determination in different parts of the eye. In this work, a full human eye is simulated with MCNP-4C code by considering all parts of the eye, i.e., the lens, cornea, retina, choroid, sclera, anterior chamber, optic nerve, and bulk of the eye comprising vitreous body and tumor. The average dose in different parts of this full model of the human eye is determined and the results are compared with the dose calculated in water phantom. The central axes depth dose and the dose in whole of the tumor for these 2 simulated eye models are calculated as well, and the results are compared.

Asadi, Somayeh [Department of Physics, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masoudi, Seyed Farhad, E-mail: masoudi@kntu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahriari, Majid [Department of Radiation Application, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-04-01

341

Effects Of Radiation On Insulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents data on responses of electrically insulating thermosetting and thermoplastic polymers to radiation. Lowest-threshold-dose (LTD) levels and 25-percent-change levels presented for such properties as tensile strength and electrical resistivity. Data on radiation-induced outgassing also given.

Bouquet, Frank L.

1988-01-01

342

Practical neutron dosimetry at high energies  

SciTech Connect

Dosimetry at high energy particle accelerators is discussed with emphasis on physical measurements which define the radiation environment and provide an immutable basis for the derivation of any quantities subsequently required for risk evaluation. Results of inter-laboratory dosimetric comparisons are reviewed and it is concluded that a well-supported systematic program is needed which would make possible detailed evaluations and inter-comparisons of instruments and techniques in well characterized high energy radiation fields. High-energy dosimetry is so coupled with radiation transport that it is clear their study should proceed concurrently.

McCaslin, J.B.; Thomas, R.H.

1980-10-01

343

The biological effects of UVA radiation  

SciTech Connect

Interest in the biological effects of longwave radiation has increased dramatically in the last few years. The contributors to this state of the art volume discuss the most current knowledge of biological effects of UVA and provide guidelines regarding acceptable human exposure to this type of radiation. Contents include: historical aspects of UVA effects; mechanisms of UVA photosensitization; photorecovery by UVA; photoaugmentation of UVB effects by UVA; effects of UVA radiation on tissues of the eye; new UVA sunscreen; and recommendations for future research and possible actions.

Urbach, F.; Gange, R.

1986-01-01

344

Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity.  

PubMed

Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of the relative contribution of each tissue to the radiation detriment of stochastic effects from whole-body low-linear energy transfer irradiations. The rounded values of tissue and radiation weighting factors are chosen by ICRP on the basis of available scientific data from radiation epidemiology and radiation biology, and they are therefore subject to adjustment as new scientific information becomes available. Effective dose is a single, risk-related dosimetric quantity, used prospectively for planning and optimisation purposes, and retrospectively for demonstrating compliance with dose limits and constraints. In practical radiation protection, it has proven to be extremely useful. PMID:23089010

Menzel, H-G; Harrison, J

2012-01-01

345

Managing the adverse effects of radiation therapy.  

PubMed

Nearly two thirds of patients with cancer will undergo radiation therapy as part of their treatment plan. Given the increased use of radiation therapy and the growing number of cancer survivors, family physicians will increasingly care for patients experiencing adverse effects of radiation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown to significantly improve symptoms of depression in patients undergoing chemotherapy, although they have little effect on cancer-related fatigue. Radiation dermatitis is treated with topical steroids and emollient creams. Skin washing with a mild, unscented soap is acceptable. Cardiovascular disease is a well-established adverse effect in patients receiving radiation therapy, although there are no consensus recommendations for cardiovascular screening in this population. Radiation pneumonitis is treated with oral prednisone and pentoxifylline. Radiation esophagitis is treated with dietary modification, proton pump inhibitors, promotility agents, and viscous lidocaine. Radiation-induced emesis is ameliorated with 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists and steroids. Symptomatic treatments for chronic radiation cystitis include anticholinergic agents and phenazopyridine. Sexual dysfunction from radiation therapy includes erectile dysfunction and vaginal stenosis, which are treated with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and vaginal dilators, respectively. PMID:20704169

Berkey, Franklin J

2010-08-15

346

CRRES dosimetry results and comparisons using the space radiation dosimeter and p-channel MOS dosimeters. (Reannouncement with new availability information)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total dose response from two types of dosimeters onboard the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) are compared. Results from P-channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (PMOS) dosimeters were found to be in good agreement with those from the more conventional Space Radiation Dosimeter. The MOS type dosimeters offer cost and weight advantages over more sophisticated dosimeters designed to gather

K. P. Ray; E. G. Mullen; W. J. Stapor; R. R. Circle; P. T. McDonald

1992-01-01

347

Protective effects in radiation modification of elastomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturated character of ethylene/octene thermoplastic elastomers demands an application of nonconventional methods of crosslinking connections between chains of molecules. These are organic peroxides, usually in the presence of coagents or an application of ionizing radiation. Several approaches (radiation, peroxide, peroxide/plus radiation and radiation/plus peroxide) were applied in crosslinking of elastomere Engage 8200. Attention was directed to the protection effects by aromatic peroxides and by photo- and thermostabilizers on radiolysis of elastomers. Role of dose of radiation, dose rate of radiation as well as the role of composition of elastomere on the radiation yield of hydrogen and absorbtion of oxygen was investigated. DRS method was used to follow postirradiation degradation. Influence of crosslinking methods on properties of elastomers is described. Results were interpreted from the point of view of protective actions of aromatic compounds.

G?uszewski, Wojciech; Zagrski, Zbigniew P.; Rajkiewicz, Maria

2014-12-01

348

BNCT treatments - a human dosimetry evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes a comprehensive calculational study that provides an assessment of the radiation dose received by a glioblastoma multiforme patient treated by boron neutron capture therapy in Japan in mid-1993. This work is an extension of an earlier dosimetry evaluation of a different patient and uses a similar methodology to calculate the radiation doses.

Storr, G.J. [ANSTO, Menai (Australia); Wheeler, F.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1994-12-31

349

Solar dosimetry of the face: the relationship of natural ultraviolet radiation exposure to basal cell carcinoma localisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements have been made of the distribution of natural ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at 41 sites on the face of a large fibreglass model of a head. The dosemeter used was the polymer film polysulphone. The results have been correlated with published values of the distribution of basal cell carcinomas on the face. Although the comparison has highlighted the problems of

B L Diffey; T J Tate; A Davis

1979-01-01

350

EVALUATION OF INTENSITY MODULATED RADIATION THERAPY (IMRT) DELIVERY ERROR DUE TO IMRT TREATMENT PLAN COMPLEXITY AND IMPROPERLY MATCHED DOSIMETRY DATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a technique that delivers a highly conformal dose distribution to a target volume while attempting to maximally spare the surrounding normal tissues. IMRT is a common treatment modality used for treating head and neck (H&N) cancers, and the presence of many critical structures in this region requires accurate treatment delivery. The Radiological Physics Center

Jacqueline R Tonigan

2011-01-01

351

Results of 10 y of radiation protection dosimetry at the neutrontherapy facility in Louvain-la-Neuve  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 10 y of routine operation, radiation hazards to the neutron therapy staff at Louvain-la-Neuve were evaluated. These hazards to the staff in neutron therapy are a matter of concern, not only because of the dose levels due to induced activation after treatment but also because of the difficulty of evaluating adequately the dose equivalent rates (including the quality factor,

S. Vynckier; P. Pihet; A. Wambersie

1989-01-01

352

Biodistribution, Tumor Detection, and Radiation Dosimetry of 18F-DCFBC, a Low-Molecular-Weight Inhibitor of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen, in Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a type II integral membrane protein expressed on the surface of prostate cancer (PCa) cells, particularly in androgen-independent, advanced, and metastatic disease. Previously, we demonstrated that N-[N-[(S)-1,3-dicarboxypropyl]carbamoyl]-4-18F-fluorobenzyl-Lcysteine (18F-DCFBC) could image an experimental model of PSMA-positive PCa using PET. Here, we describe the initial clinical experience and radiation dosimetry of 18F-DCFBC in men with metastatic PCa. Methods Five patients with radiologic evidence of metastatic PCa were studied after the intravenous administration of 370 MBq (10 mCi) of 18F-DCFBC. Serial PET was performed until 2 h after administration. Time- activity curves were generated for selected normal tissues and metastatic foci. Radiation dose estimates were calculated using OLINDA/EXM 1.1. Results Most vascular organs demonstrated a slow decrease in radioactivity concentration over time consistent with clearance from the blood pool, with primarily urinary radiotracer excretion. Thirty-two PET-positive suspected metastatic sites were identified, with 21 concordant on both PET and conventional imaging for abnormal findings compatible with metastatic disease. Of the 11 PET-positive sites not identified on conventional imaging, most were within the bone and could be considered suggestive for the detection of early bone metastases, although further validation is needed. The highest mean absorbed dose per unit administered radioactivity (Gy/MBq) was in the bladder wall (32.4), and the resultant effective dose was 19.9 1.34 Sv/MBq (mean SD). Conclusion Although further studies are needed for validation, our findings demonstrate the potential of 18F-DCFBC as a new positron-emitting imaging agent for the detection of metastatic PCa. This study also provides dose estimates for 18F-DCFBC that are comparable to those of other PET radiopharmaceuticals such as 18F-FDG. PMID:23203246

Cho, Steve Y.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Senthamizhchelvan, Srinivasan; Holt, Daniel P.; Jeffrey-Kwanisai, Akimosa; Endres, Christopher J.; Dannals, Robert F.; Sgouros, George; Lodge, Martin; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Rodriguez, Ronald; Carducci, Michael A.; Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S.; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Pomper, Martin G.

2013-01-01

353

Radiation friction vs ponderomotive effect  

E-print Network

The concept of ponderomotive potential is upgraded to a regime in which radiation friction becomes dominant. The radiation friction manifests itself in novel features of long-term capturing of the particles released at the focus and impenetrability of the focus from the exterior. We apply time scales separation to the Landau-Lifshitz equation splitting the particle motion into quivering and slow drift of a guiding center. The drift equation is deduced by averaging over fast motion.

Fedotov, A M; Gelfer, E G; Narozhny, N B; Ruhl, H

2014-01-01

354

Sixth personnel dosimetry intercomparison study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sixth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was conducted March 25 to 27, 1980, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Dosimeters from 28 participating agencies were mounted on anthropomorphic phantoms and exposed to a range of low-level dose equivalents (1.8 to 11.5 mSv neutron, 0.1 to 1.1 mSv gamma) which could be encountered during routine personnel monitoring in mixed radiation fields.

R. E. Swaja; R. T. Greene; H. W. Dickson

1981-01-01

355

The Swiss IMRT dosimetry intercomparison using a thorax phantom H. Schiefer1  

E-print Network

The Swiss IMRT dosimetry intercomparison using a thorax phantom H. Schiefer1 , A. Fogliata2 , G: +41 71 494 2893 Email: johann.schiefer@kssg.ch #12;The Swiss IMRT dosimetry intercomparison using) dosimetry intercomparison was carried out for all 23 radiation oncology institutions in Switzerland

Krusche, Bernd

356

Dosimetry Procedure: 7.82 Created: 10/08/2013 Version: 1.0 Revised  

E-print Network

Dosimetry Procedure: 7.82 Created: 10/08/2013 Version: 1.0 Revised: Environmental Health & Safety schedule can be found online at http://www.ehs.columbia.edu/SafetyTrainingSchedules.html #12;Dosimetry contact 1. Dosimetry Coordinator: 212-305-5359 2. Radiation Safety: 212-305-0303 F. Medical Surveillance 1

Jia, Songtao

357

Dosimetry of X-Rays and Gamma-Rays by Radiophotoluminescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of high energy radiation on the luminescence properties of solids are surveyed. Of the four effects consideredradiophotoluminescence, radiophotostimulation, radiothermoluminescence, and the ``killing'' of luminescence by x-rays or gamma-raysthe first effect is shown to have advantages in principle over the others as a basis for dosimetry.The absorption, excitation, emission, sensitivity, energy dependence, and stability characteristics of a radiophotoluminescent Ag-activated

James H. Schulman; Robert J. Ginther; Clifford C. Klick; Raymond S. Alger; Robert A. Levy

1951-01-01

358

Optical properties of some fluoride compounds and their application to dosimetry N. Kristianpoller a,*, W. Chen b  

E-print Network

Optical properties of some fluoride compounds and their application to dosimetry N. Kristianpoller: Received 13 August 2009 Accepted 14 September 2009 Keywords: Fluorides Irradiation effects VUV radiation properties have been studied in various simple and complex fluoride crystals by using optical absorption, X

Chen, Reuven

359

Radiation effects on current field programmable technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturers of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) take different technological and architectural approaches that directly affect radiation performance. Similar technological and architectural features are used in related technologies such as programmable substrates and quick-turn application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). After analyzing current technologies and architectures and their radiation-effects implications, this paper includes extensive test data quantifying various devices' total dose

R. Katz; K. Label; J. J. Wang; B. Cronquist; R. Koga; S. Penzin; G. Swift

1997-01-01

360

Radiation effects in reactor structural alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural materials subjected to high doses of energetic neutron radiation in advanced fission reactors and planned fusion reactors experience profound changes in mechanical and physical properties. The important phenomena are swelling, creep, and embrittlement. Extensive programs of basic and applied radiation effects research are underway in the United States and in a number of other countries. This research has led

L. K. Mansur; E. E. Bloom

1982-01-01

361

Radiation effects in reactor structural alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural materials subjected to high doses of energetic neutron radiation in advanced fission reactors and in planned fusion reactors experience profound changes in mechanical and physical properties. The important phenomena are swelling, creep, and embrittlement. Extensive programs of basic and applied radiation effects research are underway in the United States and in a number of other countries. This research has

L. K. Mansur; E. E. Bloom

1982-01-01

362

Advances in medical imaging and related dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

This volume presents a treatise on the physics of the new imaging apparatus used in medicine, namely the x-ray computerized tomography, radio-isotope emission (single photon and positron emission) tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and imaging, and ultrasound imaging. A chapter is devoted to the radiation problems and health hazards associated with these diagnostic methods. Contents: Radiological Anatomy; Histology and Pathology; Algorithms for Image Reconstruction; Systems and Architectures; Software for Image Enhancement; Hardware for 2D and 3D Imaging; Types of Machines and Associated Radiation Dosimetry; Basic Physics of US, Including Dosimetry; Doppler Diagnostic Methods; Developments, Limitations and Clinical Results; Compton Tomography and Proton Radiography; Clinical Application and Associated Radiation Dosimetry; Advances in MWPC Cameras; NMR Imaging: General Principles and Different Techniques; Tissue Characterization and Tumor Detection; NMR Imaging for Radiotherapy Treatment Planning; Hazard to the Patient from Different Diagnostic Techniques.

Brill, A.; Del Guerra, A.; Mendez, V.; Rindi, A.

1986-01-01

363

Relation between effective radiation dose and outcome of radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of radioiodine scanning and quantitative radiation dosimetry was used to evaluate responses to therapeutic irradiation with 131I in 76 patients with thyroid adenocarcinoma. Fifty patients received 131I treatment for ablation of residual thyroid tissue after surgical thyroidectomy, and 26 had 131I treatment for metastatic thyroid cancer. Successful ablation was observed in patients receiving higher radiation doses to the

Harry R. Maxon; Stephen R. Thomas; Vicki S. Hertzberg; James G. Kereiakes; I-Wen Chen; Matthew I. Sperling; Eugene L. Saenger

1983-01-01

364

Radiation Effect on Human Tissue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predicting the occurrence of human cancer following exposure of an epidemiologic population to any agent causing genetic damage is a difficult task. To an approximation, this is because the uncertainty of uniform exposure to the damaging agent, and the uncertainty of uniform processing of that damage within a complex set of biological variables, degrade the confidence of predicting the delayed expression of cancer as a relatively rare event within clinically normal individuals. This situation begs the need for alternate controlled experimental models that are predictive for the development of human cancer following exposures to agents causing genetic damage. Such models historically have not been of substantial proven value. It is more recently encouraging, however, that developments in molecular and cell biology have led to an expanded knowledge of human carcinogenesis, and of molecular markers associated with that process. It is therefore appropriate to consider new laboratory models developed to accomodate that expanded knowledge in order to assess the cancer risks associated with exposures to genotoxic agents. When ionizing radiation of space is the genotoxic agent, then a series of additional considerations for human cancer risk assessment must also be applied. These include the dose of radiation absorbed by tissue at different locations in the body, the quality of the absorbed radiation, the rate at which absorbed dose accumulates in tissue, the way in which absorbed dose is measured and calculated, and the alterations in incident radiation caused by shielding materials. It is clear that human cancer risk assessment for damage caused by ionizing radiation is a multidisciplinary responsibility, and that within this responsibility no single discipline can hold disproportionate sway if a risk assessment model of radiation-induced human cancer is to be developed that has proven value. Biomolecular and cellular markers from the work reported here are considered for use in assessing human cancer risk related to exposure to space radiation. This potential use must be integrated within the specified multidisciplinary context in order to create a new tool of molecular epidemiology that can hopefully then realistically assess this cancer risk.

Richmond, Robert C.; Cruz, Angela; Bors, Karen; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

365

Radiation effect on rocket engine performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Critical problem areas involving the effect of radiation on the combustion of bipropellants are addressed by formulating a universal scaling law in combination with a radiation-enhanced vaporization combustion model. Numerical algorithms are developed and data pertaining to the Variable Thrust Engine (VTE) and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) are used to conduct parametric sensitivity studies to predict the principal intercoupling effects of radiation. The analysis reveals that low-enthalpy engines, such as the VTE, are vulnerable to a substantial performance setback due to radiative loss, whereas the performance of high-enthalpy engines such as the SSME are hardly affected over a broad range of engine operation. Combustion enhancement by radiative heating of the propellant has a significant impact on propellants with high absorptivity.

Chiu, Huei-Huang; Kross, K. W.; Krebsbach, A. N.

1990-01-01

366

RADIATION EFFECTS IN NUCLEAR WASTE MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this multidisciplinary, multi-institutional research effort is to develop a fundamental understanding at the atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic levels of radiation effects in glass and ceramics that provides the underpinning science and models for evaluation an...

367

Prediction of radiation damage effects in transistors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantative relationships between radiation dosage to transistors and resultant damage are established. Calculation of these dose levels is based on high energy particle population data and analysis of the shielding effect provided by the enclosures surrounding a given transistor.

1967-01-01

368

Assurance Against Radiation Effects on Electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: The Space Radiation Environment. The Effects on Electronics. The Environment in Action. NASA Approaches to Commercial Electronics: the mission mix, flight projects, and proactive research. Final Thoughts: atomic interactions, direct ionization, interaction with nucleus.

LaBel, Kenneth A.

2004-01-01

369

Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, 18th, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, July 21-24, 1981, Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single event upset phenomena are discussed, taking into account cosmic ray induced errors in IIL microprocessors and logic devices, single event upsets in NMOS microprocessors, a prediction model for bipolar RAMs in a high energy ion/proton environment, the search for neutron-induced hard errors in VLSI structures, soft errors due to protons in the radiation belt, and the use of an ion microbeam to study single event upsets in microcircuits. Basic mechanisms in materials and devices are examined, giving attention to gamma induced noise in CCD's, the annealing of MOS capacitors, an analysis of photobleaching techniques for the radiation hardening of fiber optic data links, a hardened field insulator, the simulation of radiation damage in solids, and the manufacturing of radiation resistant optical fibers. Energy deposition and dosimetry is considered along with SGEMP/IEMP, radiation effects in devices, space radiation effects and spacecraft charging, EMP/SREMP, and aspects of fabrication, testing, and hardness assurance.

Tasca, D. M.

1981-01-01

370

Cloud effects on middle ultraviolet global radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Eppley radiometer and a Robertson-Berger sunburn meter are employed along with an all-sky camera setup to study cloud effects on middle ultraviolet global radiation at the ground level. Semiempirical equations to allow for cloud effects presented in previous work are compared with the experimental data. The study suggests a means of defining eigenvectors of cloud patterns and correlating them with the radiation at the ground level.

Borkowski, J.; Chai, A.-T.; Mo, T.; Green, A. E. O.

1977-01-01

371

Fast Neutron Radiation Effects on Bacillus Subtili  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To examine the sterilizing effect and mechanism of neutron radiation, Bacillus subtilis var. niger. strain (ATCC 9372) spores were irradiated with the fast neutron from the Chinese fast burst reactor II(CFBR-II). The plate-count results indicated that the D10 value was 384.6 Gy with a neutron radiation dose rate of 7.4 Gy/min. The rudimental catalase activity of the spores declined obviously with the increase in the radiation dose. Meanwhile, under the scanning electron microscope, no visible influence of the neutron radiation on the spore configuration was detected even if the dose was increased to 4 kGy. The content and distribution of DNA double-strand breaks induced by neutron radiation at different doses were measured and quantified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Further analysis of the DNA release percentage (PR), the DNA breakage level (L), and the average molecular weight, indicated that DNA fragments were obviously distributed around the 5 kb regions at different radiation doses, which suggests that some points in the DNA molecule were sensitive to neutron radiation. Both PR and L varied regularly to some extent with the increase in radiation dose. Thus neutron radiation has a high sterilization power, and can induce falling enzyme activity and DNA breakage in Bacillus subtilis spores

Chen, Xiaoming; Ren, Zhenglong; Zhang, Jianguo; Zheng, Chun; Tan, Bisheng; Yang, Chengde; Chu, Shijin

2009-06-01

372

Radioprotective effect of amifostine in radiation pneumonitis.  

PubMed

Amifostine (Ethyol, WR-2721; MedImmune, Inc, Gaithersburg, MD) is a member of a sulfhydryl-containing class of compounds that protects normal tissue and organs against ionizing radiation damage by scavenging radiation-induced radicals. The goal of this study was to assess the preclinical and clinical data on the protective effect of amifostine in normal organs and tissue. The current literature was reviewed and assessed for progress in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced pulmonary injury. Preclinical and clinical data on the protective effect of amifostine in radiation-induced lung and esophageal injuries were also critically assessed. Significant progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis. Preclinical studies have shown strong evidence of the protective effect of amifostine in radiation-induced toxicities in rodents and monkeys. However, available clinical data are not conclusive in showing the protective effect of amifostine in radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis. Amifostine has been well tolerated with a low incidence of toxicities, which included nausea and vomiting (3% to 5%) and transient hypotension during intravenous infusion (7%). Preclinical data are promising for amifostine in protecting thoracic organs from radiation-induced toxicities. Studies measuring the magnitude of gain in tumor control and survival as a result of the enhanced protective effect of amifostine on normal tissue over that of tumor tissue are lacking. Such data would help in designing new approaches to maximize outcome. Additional well-designed phase III studies are necessary to confirm the clinical benefit of amifostine in minimizing radiation- and chemoradiation-related toxicities in patients with lung cancer. PMID:14727236

Choi, Noah C

2003-12-01

373

Perturbed effects at radiation physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perturbation methodology is applied in order to assess the linear attenuation coefficient, mass attenuation coefficient and cross-section behavior with random components in the basic variables such as the radiation amounts frequently used in the radiation physics and chemistry. Additionally, layer attenuation coefficient (LAC) and perturbed LAC (PLAC) are proposed for different contact materials. Perturbation methodology provides opportunity to obtain results with random deviations from the average behavior of each variable that enters the whole mathematical expression. The basic photon intensity variation expression as the inverse exponential power law (as Beer-Lambert's law) is adopted for perturbation method exposition. Perturbed results are presented not only in terms of the mean but additionally the standard deviation and the correlation coefficients. Such perturbation expressions provide one to assess small random variability in basic variables.

Klahc?, Fatih; ?en, Zeki

2013-09-01

374

Development of a fiber-optic dosimeter based on modified direct measurement for real-time dosimetry during radiation diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For applying modified direct measurement, we developed a fiber-optic dosimeter (FOD) with two dosimeter probes to infer the entrance surface dose (ESD) at the center of an x-ray beam field without the obstruction of radiation imaging. The dosimeter probe of the FOD was fabricated by coupling a plastic scintillating fiber to a plastic optical fiber. Under varying exposure parameters, we measured the scintillating light signals using two dosimeter probes, which were placed at the center and the edge of the beam field, respectively, and compared the results with the absorbed doses obtained using a conventional semiconductor dosimeter. Various correlations between the two dosimeter probes according to the exposure parameters were obtained for measuring ESD using a new modified direct measurement approach during a medical imaging task.

Yoo, W. J.; Shin, S. H.; Jeon, D.; Han, K.-T.; Hong, S.; Kim, S. G.; Cho, S.; Lee, B.

2013-09-01

375

Estimating Effective Dose from Phantom Dose Measurements in Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Procedures and Comparison of MOSFET and TLD Detectors in a Small Animal Dosimetry Setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two different studies will be presented in this work. The first involves the calculation of effective dose from a phantom study which simulates an atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation procedure. The second involves the validation of metal-oxide semiconducting field effect transistors (MOSFET) for small animal dosimetry applications as well as improved characterization of the animal irradiators on Duke University's campus. Atrial Fibrillation is an ever increasing health risk in the United States. The most common type of cardiac arrhythmia, AF is associated with increased mortality and ischemic cerebrovascular events. Managing AF can include, among other treatments, an interventional procedure called catheter ablation. The procedure involves the use of biplane fluoroscopy during which a patient can be exposed to radiation for as much as two hours or more. The deleterious effects of radiation become a concern when dealing with long fluoroscopy times, and because the AF ablation procedure is elective, it makes relating the risks of radiation ever more essential. This study hopes to quantify the risk through the derivation of dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) from the dose-area product (DAP) with the intent that DCCs can be used to provide estimates of effective dose (ED) for typical AF ablation procedures. A bi-plane fluoroscopic and angiographic system was used for the simulated AF ablation procedures. For acquisition of organ dose measurements, 20 diagnostic MOSFET detectors were placed at selected organs in a male anthropomorphic phantom, and these detectors were attached to 4 bias supplies to obtain organ dose readings. The DAP was recorded from the system console and independently validated with an ionization chamber and radiochromic film. Bi-plane fluoroscopy was performed on the phantom for 10 minutes to acquire the dose rate for each organ, and the average clinical procedure time was multiplied by each organ dose rate to obtain individual organ doses. The effective dose was computed by summing the product of each organ dose and the corresponding tissue weighting factor from the ICRP publication 103. Further risk calculations were done according to the BEIR VII Phase 2 report to obtain relative and lifetime attributable risks of cancer for an average AF ablation procedure. The ED was computed separately for the biplane fluoroscopic and angiographic system's 'low' and 'normal fluoro' automated settings, yielding 27.9 mSv and 45.6 mSv respectively for an average procedure time of 88.2 minutes. The corresponding DAP was 48.7 Gy cm2 and 79.1 Gy cm2 for low and normal settings respectively. The independently measured DAP was found to be within 0.1 % of that measured by the fluoroscopy system's onboard flat panel detectors. DCCs were calculated to be 0.573 and 0.577 for the respective low and normal settings. The results proved to be very closely matched, which was to be expected. The calculated cancer risks were fairly low due to the age of most patients (less than 5 incidences of solid tumor per 100,000 exposed for liver colon and stomach; 100-300 incidences per 100,000 exposed for lungs), but concern remains that longer procedures could increase the risk of erythema or other serious skin injuries. The second section of this thesis study involves the quantification and distribution of radiation dose in small animals undergoing irradiation in an orthovoltage x-ray unit. Extensive research is being done with small animals, particularly mice and rats, in fields such as cancer therapy, radiation biology and radiological countermeasures. Results and conclusion are often drawn from research based solely on manufacturer's specifications of the delivered dose rate without independent verification or adequate understanding of the machines' capabilities. Accurate radiation dose information is paramount when conducting research in this arena. Traditional methods of dosimetry, namely thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) are challenging and often time consuming. This section hopes to show that in place of TLDs, MOSFETs can provide acc

Anderson-Evans, Colin David

376

Radiation Effects in Reactor Structural Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural materials subjected to high doses of energetic neutron radiation in advanced fission reactors and in planned fusion reactors experience profound changes in mechanical and physical properties. The important phenomena are swelling, creep, and embrittlement. Extensive programs of basic and applied radiation effects research are underway in the United States and in a number of other countries. This research has led to both an understanding of the fundamental processes operating and to the broad result that the severity of radiation effects is quite sensitive to irradiation and materials parameters. By manipulating these sensitivities with guidance from a knowledge of the basic processes, physical metallurgists have been able to design improved alloys for radiation effects resistance.

Mansur, Louis K.; Bloom, Everett E.

1982-10-01

377

Correlated Uncertainties in Radiation Shielding Effectiveness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space radiation environment is composed of energetic particles which can deliver harmful doses of radiation that may lead to acute radiation sickness, cancer, and even death for insufficiently shielded crew members. Spacecraft shielding must provide structural integrity and minimize the risk associated with radiation exposure. The risk of radiation exposure induced death (REID) is a measure of the risk of dying from cancer induced by radiation exposure. Uncertainties in the risk projection model, quality factor, and spectral fluence are folded into the calculation of the REID by sampling from probability distribution functions. Consequently, determining optimal shielding materials that reduce the REID in a statistically significant manner has been found to be difficult. In this work, the difference of the REID distributions for different materials is used to study the effect of composition on shielding effectiveness. It is shown that the use of correlated uncertainties allows for the determination of statistically significant differences between materials despite the large uncertainties in the quality factor. This is in contrast to previous methods where uncertainties have been generally treated as uncorrelated. It is concluded that the use of correlated quality factor uncertainties greatly reduces the uncertainty in the assessment of shielding effectiveness for the mitigation of radiation exposure.

Werneth, Charles M.; Maung, Khin Maung; Blattnig, Steve R.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

2013-01-01

378

Perspective on genetic effects of radiation.  

PubMed

The BEIR -III estimates of genetic effects of radiation are combined with current estimates of radiation from the nuclear-energy industry to derive estimates of the genetic effects of the latter, and the results are put into perspective. All nuclear electricity would have genetic effects equivalent to those of increasing average parental age by 2.6 days (average age of parents shifted by 1.8 yr between 1940-1960), or of men spending 8 hr more per year wearing pants . If 0.5% of the taxes paid by the nuclear industry were used to combat genetic disease by currently available methods, this would avert 160 cases of genetic disease for each case caused by the nuclear industry. Using this money for genetic research would be even more profitable, by a large factor. It is pointed out that the activities of our generation have numerous impacts, both favorable and unfavorable, on future generations that are enormously more important than the genetic effects of our radiation. It is shown that the genetic effects of radiation cannot destroy the human race or create new type monsters. Genetic risks to children of radiation workers and non-radiation workers in the present generation are also treated. PMID:6586707

Cohen, B L

1984-05-01

379

Bone and mucosal dosimetry in skin radiation therapy: a Monte Carlo study using kilovoltage photon and megavoltage electron beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines variations of bone and mucosal doses with variable soft tissue and bone thicknesses, mimicking the oral or nasal cavity in skin radiation therapy. Monte Carlo simulations (EGSnrc-based codes) using the clinical kilovoltage (kVp) photon and megavoltage (MeV) electron beams, and the pencil-beam algorithm (Pinnacle3 treatment planning system) using the MeV electron beams were performed in dose calculations. Phase-space files for the 105 and 220 kVp beams (Gulmay D3225 x-ray machine), and the 4 and 6?MeV electron beams (Varian 21 EX linear accelerator) with a field size of 5 cm diameter were generated using the BEAMnrc code, and verified using measurements. Inhomogeneous phantoms containing uniform water, bone and air layers were irradiated by the kVp photon and MeV electron beams. Relative depth, bone and mucosal doses were calculated for the uniform water and bone layers which were varied in thickness in the ranges of 0.5-2 cm and 0.2-1 cm. A uniform water layer of bolus with thickness equal to the depth of maximum dose (dmax) of the electron beams (0.7 cm for 4 MeV and 1.5 cm for 6 MeV) was added on top of the phantom to ensure that the maximum dose was at the phantom surface. From our Monte Carlo results, the 4 and 6 MeV electron beams were found to produce insignificant bone and mucosal dose (<1%), when the uniform water layer at the phantom surface was thicker than 1.5 cm. When considering the 0.5 cm thin uniform water and bone layers, the 4 MeV electron beam deposited less bone and mucosal dose than the 6 MeV beam. Moreover, it was found that the 105 kVp beam produced more than twice the dose to bone than the 220 kVp beam when the uniform water thickness at the phantom surface was small (0.5 cm). However, the difference in bone dose enhancement between the 105 and 220 kVp beams became smaller when the thicknesses of the uniform water and bone layers in the phantom increased. Dose in the second bone layer interfacing with air was found to be higher for the 220 kVp beam than that of the 105 kVp beam, when the bone thickness was 1 cm. In this study, dose deviations of bone and mucosal layers of 18% and 17% were found between our results from Monte Carlo simulation and the pencil-beam algorithm, which overestimated the doses. Relative depth, bone and mucosal doses were studied by varying the beam nature, beam energy and thicknesses of the bone and uniform water using an inhomogeneous phantom to model the oral or nasal cavity. While the dose distribution in the pharynx region is unavailable due to the lack of a commercial treatment planning system commissioned for kVp beam planning in skin radiation therapy, our study provided an essential insight into the radiation staff to justify and estimate bone and mucosal dose.

Chow, James C. L.; Jiang, Runqing

2012-06-01

380

Bone and mucosal dosimetry in skin radiation therapy: a Monte Carlo study using kilovoltage photon and megavoltage electron beams.  

PubMed

This study examines variations of bone and mucosal doses with variable soft tissue and bone thicknesses, mimicking the oral or nasal cavity in skin radiation therapy. Monte Carlo simulations (EGSnrc-based codes) using the clinical kilovoltage (kVp) photon and megavoltage (MeV) electron beams, and the pencil-beam algorithm (Pinnacle(3)treatment planning system) using the MeV electron beams were performed in dose calculations. Phase-space files for the 105 and 220 kVp beams (Gulmay D3225 x-ray machine), and the 4 and 6?MeV electron beams (Varian 21 EX linear accelerator) with a field size of 5cm diameter were generated using the BEAMnrc code, and verified using measurements. Inhomogeneous phantoms containing uniform water, bone and air layers were irradiated by the kVp photon and MeV electron beams. Relative depth, bone and mucosal doses were calculated for the uniform water and bone layers which were varied in thickness in the ranges of 0.5-2cm and 0.2-1cm. A uniform water layer of bolus with thickness equal to the depth of maximum dose (d(max)) of the electron beams (0.7cm for 4 MeV and 1.5cm for 6 MeV) was added on top of the phantom to ensure that the maximum dose was at the phantom surface. From our Monte Carlo results, the 4 and 6 MeV electron beams were found to produce insignificant bone and mucosal dose (<1%), when the uniform water layer at the phantom surface was thicker than 1.5cm. When considering the 0.5cm thin uniform water and bone layers, the 4 MeV electron beam deposited less bone and mucosal dose than the 6 MeV beam. Moreover, it was found that the 105 kVp beam produced more than twice the dose to bone than the 220 kVp beam when the uniform water thickness at the phantom surface was small (0.5cm). However, the difference in bone dose enhancement between the 105 and 220 kVp beams became smaller when the thicknesses of the uniform water and bone layers in the phantom increased. Dose in the second bone layer interfacing with air was found to be higher for the 220 kVp beam than that of the 105 kVp beam, when the bone thickness was 1cm. In this study, dose deviations of bone and mucosal layers of 18% and 17% were found between our results from Monte Carlo simulation and the pencil-beam algorithm, which overestimated the doses. Relative depth, bone and mucosal doses were studied by varying the beam nature, beam energy and thicknesses of the bone and uniform water using an inhomogeneous phantom to model the oral or nasal cavity. While the dose distribution in the pharynx region is unavailable due to the lack of a commercial treatment planning system commissioned for kVp beam planning in skin radiation therapy, our study provided an essential insight into the radiation staff to justify and estimate bone and mucosal dose. PMID:22642985

Chow, James C L; Jiang, Runqing

2012-06-21

381

Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantomsmodeled entirely in mesh surfacesof the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.

Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

2010-07-01

382

INTERSPECIES DOSIMETRY MODELS FOR PULMONARY PHARMACOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Interspecies Dosimetry Models for Pulmonary Pharmacology Ted B. Martonen, Jeffry D. Schroeter, and John S. Fleming Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangl...

383

Radiation effect on rocket engine performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of radiation on the performance of modern rocket propulsion systems operating at high pressure and temperature were recognized as a key issue in the design and operation of various liquid rocket engines of the current and future generations. Critical problem areas of radiation coupled with combustion of bipropellants are assessed and accounted for in the formulation of a universal scaling law incorporated with a radiation-enhanced vaporization combustion model. Numerical algorithms are developed and the pertaining data of the Variable Thrust Engine (VTE) and Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) are used to conduct parametric sensitivity studies to predict the principal intercoupling effects of radiation. The analysis reveals that low enthalpy engines, such as the VTE, are vulnerable to a substantial performance set back by the radiative loss, whereas the performance of high enthalpy engines such as the SSME, are hardly affected over a broad range of engine operation. Additionally, combustion enhancement by the radiative heating of the propellant has a significant impact in those propellants with high absorptivity. Finally, the areas of research related with radiation phenomena in bipropellant engines are identified.

Chiu, Huei-Huang

1988-01-01

384

Measuring transient radiation effects in optical fibers  

SciTech Connect

We propose a new method for measuring transient radiation effects in optical fibers on a nanosecond timescale. The method, which incorporates a streak camera, allows more precise time resolution than other methods and has the advantage of measuring the radiation-induced attenuation as a function of wavelength and time simultaneously. By choosing different light sources and sweep speeds, radiation-induced attenuation may be measured under a variety of experimental configurations. Examples of the type of output obtained with our method are given.

Rotter, M.D.; Jander, D.R.

1984-07-01

385

Measuring transient radiation effects in optical fibers  

SciTech Connect

A new method is proposed for measuring transient radiation effects in optical fibers on a nanosecond timescale. The method, which incorporates a streak camera, allows more precise time resolution than other methods and has the advantage of measuring the radiation-induced attenuation as a function of wavelength and time simultaneously. By choosing different light sources and sweep speeds, radiation-induced attenuation may be measured under a variety of experimental configurations. Examples of the types of output obtained with our method are given. 4 references, 6 figures.

Rotter, M.D.; Jander, D.R.

1984-01-01

386

Effect of Bismuth Breast Shielding on Radiation Dose and Image Quality in Coronary CT Angiography  

PubMed Central

Background Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is associated with high radiation dose to the female breasts. Bismuth breast shielding offers the potential to significantly reduce dose to the breasts and nearby organs, but the magnitude of this reduction and its impact on image quality and radiation dose have not been evaluated. Methods Radiation doses from CCTA to critical organs were determined using metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors positioned in a customized anthropomorphic whole-body dosimetry verification phantom. Image noise and signal were measured in regions of interest (ROIs) including the coronary arteries. Results With bismuth shielding, breast radiation dose was reduced 4657% depending on breast size and scanning technique, with more moderate dose reduction to the heart, lungs, and esophagus. However, shielding significantly decreased image signal (by 14.6 HU) and contrast (by 28.4 HU), modestly but significantly increased image noise in ROIs in locations of coronary arteries, and decreased contrast-to-noise ratio by 20.9%.. Conclusions While bismuth breast shielding can significantly decrease radiation dose to critical organs, it is associated with an increase in image noise, decrease in contrast-to-noise, and changes tissue attenuation characteristics in the location of the coronary arteries. PMID:22068687

Einstein, Andrew J.; Elliston, Carl D.; Groves, Daniel W.; Cheng, Bin; Wolff, Steven D.; Pearson, Gregory D. N.; Peters, M. Robert; Johnson, Lynne L.; Bokhari, Sabahat; Johnson, Gary W.; Bhatia, Ketan; Pozniakoff, Theodore; Brenner, David J.

2011-01-01

387

The effects of radiation on angiogenesis.  

PubMed

The average human body contains tens of thousands of miles of vessels that permeate every tissue down to the microscopic level. This makes the human vasculature a prime target for an agent like radiation that originates from a source and passes through the body. Exposure to radiation released during nuclear accidents and explosions, or during cancer radiotherapy, is well known to cause vascular pathologies because of the ionizing effects of electromagnetic radiations (photons) such as gamma rays. There is however, another type of less well-known radiation - charged ion particles, and these atoms stripped of electrons, have different physical properties to the photons of electromagnetic radiation. They are either found in space or created on earth by particle collider facilities, and are of significant recent interest due to their enhanced effectiveness and increasing use in cancer radiotherapy, as well as a health risk to the growing number of people spending time in the space environment. Although there is to date, relatively few studies on the effects of charged particles on the vascular system, a very different picture of the biological effects of these particles compared to photons is beginning to emerge. These under researched biological effects of ion particles have a large impact on the health consequences of exposure. In this short review, we will discuss the effects of charged particles on an important biological process of the vascular system, angiogenesis, whi