Science.gov

Sample records for radiation epidemiological research

  1. [Epidemiological research in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, R; Lourenço-De-Oliveira, R; Cosac, S

    2001-08-01

    The current epidemiological research in Brazil is described. Secondary data sources were consulted, such as the year 2000 database of the Brazilian Directory of Research Groups and the National Board of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The criterion to identify a group as a research one relies on the existence of at least one research line in the field of epidemiology, as defined by the group leader. After identifying the defined universe of epidemiological research, which included 176 groups and 320 different research lines, the following issues were presented and discussed: the relationships between research financing and health research, focusing on CAPES (Coordination Center for the Advance of University Professionals) graduation programs, public health research and epidemiological research, geographic and institutional distribution and outreach of the current epidemiological research, the researchers and students directly participating in epidemiological research, research topics and patterns of disseminating research findings; the journals where papers in its fullness were published; the financial support of the epidemiological research focusing on the 23 officially recognized graduate programs in public health field. PMID:11600921

  2. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  3. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-08-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed IN UTERO : , and children of atomic bomb survivors (F1). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose-response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed IN UTERO : is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts. PMID:26976124

  4. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed in utero, and children of atomic bomb survivors (F1). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose–response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed in utero is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts. PMID:26976124

  5. Radiation epidemiology: Past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    Major advancements in radiation epidemiology have occurred during the last several years in studies of atomic bomb survivors, patients given medical radiation, and radiation workers, including underground miners. Risks associated with the Chernobyl accident, indoor radon and childhood exposure to I-131 have yet to be elucidated. Situations in the former Soviet Union around Chelyabinsk, a nuclear installation in the southern Urals, and in the Altai, which received radioactive fallout from weapons testing at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, have the potential to provide information on the effects of chronic radiation exposure. Since Roentgen`s discovery of x-rays just 100 years ago, a tremendous amount of knowledge has been accumulated about human health effects following irradiation. The 1994 UNSCEAR report contains the latest compilation and synthesis of radiation epidemiology. This overview will cover epidemiology from a radiation perspective. The different types of study methodologies will be described, followed by a kaleidoscope coverage of past and present studies; ending with some remaining questions in radiation epidemiology. This should set the stage for future chapters, and stimulate thinking about implications of the new data on radiation cancer risks.

  6. Cancer risk among children of atomic bomb survivors. A review of RERF epidemiologic studies. Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimoto, Y. )

    1990-08-01

    This article summarizes recent epidemiologic studies of cancer risk among the children of atomic bomb survivors conducted at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. These children include two groups: (1) the in utero-exposed children (ie, those born to mothers who had been pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) and (2) the F1 population, which was conceived after the atomic-bombings and born to parents of whom one or both were atomic bomb survivors. Although from 1950 to 1984 only 18 cancer cases were identified among the in utero sample, cancer risk did appear to significantly increase as maternal uterine dose increased. However, since the observed cases are too few in number to allow a site-specific review, the increased cancer risk cannot be definitively attributed to atomic bomb radiation, as yet. For those members of the F1 population who were less than 20 years old between 1946 and 1982, cancer risk did not appear to increase significantly as parental gonadal dose increased. Follow-up of this population will continue to determine if the patterns of adult-onset cancer are altered.

  7. Research initiatives in ionizing radiation research United States Department of Energy, Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Ginevan, M.E.

    1992-06-01

    This outline reports covers the following points: US DOE/US DHHS memo of understanding and the future of major epidemiologic studies; dose reconstruction at DOE sites; RERF: current status; internal emitters studies; development of the CEDR database; Biostatistical studies.

  8. Epidemiologic research in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

  9. About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally.

  10. [Epidemiological data and radiation risk estimates].

    PubMed

    Cardis, E

    2002-01-01

    The results of several major epidemiology studies on populations with particular exposure to ionizing radiation should become available during the first years of the 21(st) century. These studies are expected to provide answers to a number of questions concerning public health and radiation protection. Most of the populations concerned were accidentally exposed to radiation in ex-USSR or elsewhere or in a nuclear industrial context. The results will complete and test information on risk coming from studies among survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, particularly studies on the effects of low dose exposure and prolonged low-dose exposure, of different types of radiation, and environmental and host-related factors which could modify the risk of radiation-induced effects. These studies are thus important to assess the currently accepted scientific evidence on radiation protection for workers and the general population. In addition, supplementary information on radiation protection could be provided by formal comparisons and analyses combining data from populations with different types of exposure. Finally, in order to provide pertinent information for public health and radiation protection, future epidemiology studies should be targeted and designed to answer specific questions, concerning, for example, the risk for specific populations (children, patients, people with genetic predisposition). An integrated approach, combining epidemiology and studies on the mechanisms of radiation induction should provide particularly pertinent information. PMID:11938114

  11. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

  12. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Cardis, E.

    1996-05-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. 64 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. The use of epidemiology in alcohol research

    PubMed Central

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Norström, Thor

    2013-01-01

    Aims This paper presents examples to illustrate the utility and limitations in the use of epidemiology in alcohol research and discusses some promising new directions. Methods Review of literature, concentrating on epidemiological alcohol research with relevance to public health. Findings and conclusion Epidemiology offers tools for assessment of causes and effects of alcohol consumption as well as the effects of efforts to prevent alcohol consumption and its consequences. Epidemiological studies have made significant contributions to alcohol research with respect to public health and public policy. Fixed-effects modelling, difference-in-differences estimation and integrated qualitative and epidemiological methods are promising but underused methods in epidemiological studies. Many epidemiological studies have limited transferability of knowledge to other cultures and jurisdictions. PMID:23134358

  14. Clinical Epidemiology Unit - overview of research areas

    Cancer.gov

    Clinical Epidemiology Unit (CEU) conducts etiologic research with potential clinical and public health applications, and leads studies evaluating population-based early detection and cancer prevention strategies

  15. Radiation health research, 1986 - 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A collection of 225 abstracts of radiation research sponsored by NASA during the period 1986 through 1990 is reported. Each abstract was categorized within one of four discipline areas: physics, biology, risk assessment, and microgravity. Topic areas within each discipline were assigned as follows: Physics - atomic physics, nuclear science, space radiation, radiation transport and shielding, and instrumentation; Biology - molecular biology, cellular radiation biology, tissue, organs and organisms, radioprotectants, and plants; Risk assessment - radiation health and epidemiology, space flight radiation health physics, inter- and intraspecies extrapolation, and radiation limits and standards; and Microgravity. When applicable subareas were assigned for selected topic areas. Keywords and author indices are provided.

  16. DOE (Department of Energy) Epidemiologic Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Epidemiologic Research Program is to determine the human health effects resulting from the generation and use of energy, and of the operation of DOE facilities. The program is divided into seven general areas of activity; the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers, studies on internally deposited alpha emitters, medical/histologic studies, studies on the aspects of radiation damage, community health surveillance studies, and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible. Excluding the extensive literature from the RERF, the program has produced 340 publications in scientific journals, contributing significantly to improving the understanding of the health effects of ionizing radiation exposure. In addition, a large number of public presentations were made and are documented elsewhere in published proceedings or in books. The purpose of this bibliography is to present a guide to the research results obtained by scientists supported by the program. The bibliography, which includes doctoral theses, is classified by laboratory and by year and also summarizes the results from individual authors by journal.

  17. Gene-Environment Research and Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program supports extramural research that investigates both genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the etiology of cancer and/or impact cancer outcomes.

  18. Radiation epidemiology: a perspective on Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D

    2012-03-01

    For nearly 100 years, epidemiologic studies of human populations exposed to ionising radiation have provided quantitative information on health risks. High dose deterministic (tissue reaction) effects result when sufficient numbers of functioning cells are killed, such as in bone marrow depression that can lead to death. Lower dose stochastic effects are probabilistic in nature and include an increased risk of cancer later in life and heritable genetic defects, although genetic conditions in the children of irradiated parents have yet to be convincingly demonstrated. Radiation studies are of diverse populations and include not only the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, but also patients treated with radiation for malignant and non-malignant disease; patients exposed for diagnostic purposes; persons with intakes of radionuclides; workers occupationally exposed; and communities exposed to environmental and accidentally released sources of radiation. Much is known about radiation and its risks. The major unanswered question in radiation epidemiology, however, is not whether radiation causes cancer, but what the level of risk is following low dose (<100 mSv) or low dose rate exposures. Paracelsus is credited with first articulating that the 'poison is in the dose', which for radiation epidemiology translates as 'the lower the dose, the lower the risk' and, an important corollary, the lower the dose, the greater the difficulty in detecting any increase in the number of cancers possibly attributable to radiation. In contrast to the Chernobyl reactor accident, the Fukushima reactor accident has to date resulted in no deterministic effects and no worker deaths. Estimates to date of population doses suggest very low uptakes of radioactive iodine which was a major determinant of the epidemic of thyroid cancer following childhood exposures around Chernobyl. The estimates to date of population doses are also much lower (and the distribution much narrower) than the doses for

  19. Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series

    Cancer.gov

    Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series highlights emerging and cutting-edge research related to infection-associated cancers, shares scientific knowledge about technologies and methods, and fosters cross-disciplinary discussions on infectious agents and cancer epidemiology.

  20. Epidemiologic studies of ionizing radiation and cancer: past successes and future challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Samet, J M

    1997-01-01

    The health effects of radiation have been a focus for research since early in the 20th century. As the century ends, extensive experimental and epidemiologic evidence has been accumulated that addresses the adverse consequences of radiation exposure; epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed groups from the general population and specific occupational groups provide quantitative estimates of the cancer risks associated with exposure. This report provides a perspective on the extensive epidemiologic evidence on the health effects of ionizing radiation and on likely needs for further epidemiologic research on radiation and health. Epidemiologic studies have proved informative on the quantitative risks of radiation-caused cancer but we now face the challenges of more precisely characterizing risks at lower levels of exposure and also of assessing modifiers of the risks, including dose rate, genetic susceptibility, and other environmental exposures. This report considers investigative approaches, such as pooled analysis of multiple data sets, that can be used to address these complex questions and the limitations of these approaches for addressing societal concerns about the risks of radiation exposure. PMID:9255575

  1. Defending legitimate epidemiologic research: combating Lysenko pseudoscience.

    PubMed

    Enstrom, James E

    2007-01-01

    This analysis presents a detailed defense of my epidemiologic research in the May 17, 2003 British Medical Journal that found no significant relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and tobacco-related mortality. In order to defend the honesty and scientific integrity of my research, I have identified and addressed in a detailed manner several unethical and erroneous attacks on this research. Specifically, I have demonstrated that this research is not "fatally flawed," that I have not made "inappropriate use" of the underlying database, and that my findings agree with other United States results on this relationship. My research suggests, contrary to popular claims, that there is not a causal relationship between ETS and mortality in the U.S. responsible for 50,000 excess annual deaths, but rather there is a weak and inconsistent relationship. The popular claims tend to damage the credibility of epidemiology. In addition, I address the omission of my research from the 2006 Surgeon General's Report on Involuntary Smoking and the inclusion of it in a massive U.S. Department of Justice racketeering lawsuit. I refute erroneous statements made by powerful U.S. epidemiologists and activists about me and my research and I defend the funding used to conduct this research. Finally, I compare many aspect of ETS epidemiology in the U.S. with pseudoscience in the Soviet Union during the period of Trofim Denisovich Lysenko. Overall, this paper is intended to defend legitimate research against illegitimate criticism by those who have attempted to suppress and discredit it because it does not support their ideological and political agendas. Hopefully, this defense will help other scientists defend their legitimate research and combat "Lysenko pseudoscience." PMID:17927827

  2. Defending legitimate epidemiologic research: combating Lysenko pseudoscience

    PubMed Central

    Enstrom, James E

    2007-01-01

    This analysis presents a detailed defense of my epidemiologic research in the May 17, 2003 British Medical Journal that found no significant relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and tobacco-related mortality. In order to defend the honesty and scientific integrity of my research, I have identified and addressed in a detailed manner several unethical and erroneous attacks on this research. Specifically, I have demonstrated that this research is not "fatally flawed," that I have not made "inappropriate use" of the underlying database, and that my findings agree with other United States results on this relationship. My research suggests, contrary to popular claims, that there is not a causal relationship between ETS and mortality in the U.S. responsible for 50,000 excess annual deaths, but rather there is a weak and inconsistent relationship. The popular claims tend to damage the credibility of epidemiology. In addition, I address the omission of my research from the 2006 Surgeon General's Report on Involuntary Smoking and the inclusion of it in a massive U.S. Department of Justice racketeering lawsuit. I refute erroneous statements made by powerful U.S. epidemiologists and activists about me and my research and I defend the funding used to conduct this research. Finally, I compare many aspect of ETS epidemiology in the U.S. with pseudoscience in the Soviet Union during the period of Trofim Denisovich Lysenko. Overall, this paper is intended to defend legitimate research against illegitimate criticism by those who have attempted to suppress and discredit it because it does not support their ideological and political agendas. Hopefully, this defense will help other scientists defend their legitimate research and combat "Lysenko pseudoscience." PMID:17927827

  3. Clinical misconceptions dispelled by epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Kannel, W B

    1995-12-01

    The epidemiological approach to investigation of cardiovascular disease was innovated in 1948 by Ancel Keys' Seven Countries Study and T.R. Dawber's Framingham Heart Study. Conducted in representative samples of the general population, these investigations provided an undistorted perception of the clinical spectrum of cardiovascular disease, its incidence and prognosis, the lifestyles and personal attributes that predispose to cardiovascular disease, and clues to pathogenesis. The many insights gained corrected numerous widely held misconceptions derived from clinical studies. It was learned, for example, that the adverse consequences of hypertension do not derive chiefly from the diastolic pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy was not an incidental compensatory phenomenon, and small amounts of proteinuria were more than orthostatic trivia. Exercise was considered dangerous for cardiovascular disease candidates; smoking, cholesterol, and a fatty diet were regarded as questionable promoters of atherosclerosis. The entities of sudden death and unrecognized myocardial infarction were not widely appreciated as prominent features of coronary disease, and the disabling and lethal nature of cardiac failure and atrial fibrillation was underestimated. It took epidemiological research to coin the term "risk factor" and dispel the notion that cardiovascular disease must have a single origin. Epidemiological investigation provided health professionals with multifactorial risk profiles to more efficiently target candidates for cardiovascular disease for preventive measures. Clinicians now look to epidemiological research to provide definitive information about possible predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease and preventive measures that are justified. As a result, clinicians are less inclined to regard usual or average values as acceptable and are more inclined to regard optimal values as "normal." Cardiovascular events are coming to be regarded as a medical failure

  4. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-08-01

    The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

  5. Uses of ecologic analysis in epidemiologic research.

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, H

    1982-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of ecologic analysis in epidemiologic research and health planning, little attention has been given by health scientists and practitioners to the methodological aspects of this approach. This paper reviews the major types of ecologic study designs, the analytic methods appropriate for each, the limitations of ecologic data for making causal inferences and what can be done to minimize these problems, and the relative advantages of ecologic analysis. Numerous examples are provided to illustrate the important principles and methods. A careful distinction is made between ecologic studies that generate or test etiologic hypotheses and those that evaluate the impact of intervention programs or policies (given adequate knowledge of disease etiology). Failure to recognize this difference in the conduct of ecologic studies can lead to results that are not very informative or that are misinterpreted by others. PMID:7137430

  6. Children’s Exposure to Diagnostic Medical Radiation and Cancer Risk: Epidemiologic and Dosimetric Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Linet, Martha S.; Kim, Kwang pyo; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2009-01-01

    While the etiology of most childhood cancers is largely unknown, epidemiologic studies have consistently found an association between exposure to medical radiation during pregnancy and risk of childhood cancer in offspring. The relation between early life diagnostic radiation exposure and occurrence of pediatric cancer risks is less clear. This review summarizes current and historical estimated doses for common diagnostic radiologic procedures as well as the epidemiologic literature on the role of maternal prenatal, children’s postnatal and parental preconception diagnostic radiologic procedures on subsequent risk of childhood malignancies Risk estimates are presented according to factors such as the year of birth of the child, trimester and medical indication for the procedure, and the number of films taken. The paper also discusses limitations of the methods employed in epidemiologic studies to assess pediatric cancer risks, the effects on clinical practice of the results reported from the epidemiologic studies, and clinical and public health policy implications of the findings. Gaps in understanding and additional research needs are identified. Important research priorities include nationwide surveys to estimate fetal and childhood radiation doses from common diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic studies to quantify pediatric and lifetime cancer risks from prenatal and early childhood exposures to diagnostic radiography, computed tomography, and fluoroscopically-guided procedures. PMID:19083224

  7. Some recent issues in low-exposure radiation epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    MacMahon, B

    1989-01-01

    Three areas of activity in the field of low-level radiation epidemiology have been reviewed. They concern the questions of cancer risk related to antenatal X-ray exposure, occupational radiation exposure, and residence in areas of real or supposed increased levels of radiation. Despite the a priori unlikelihood of useful information developing from studies in any of these areas, such investigations are being pursued, and the results are proving to be stimulating. Much important information will be forthcoming in the near future. PMID:2667975

  8. DOE (Department of Energy) Epidemiologic Research Program: Selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Epidemiologic Research Program is to determine the human health effects resulting from the generation and use of energy, and from the operation of DOE facilities. The program has been divided into seven general areas of activity: the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers, studies on internally deposited alpha emitters, medical/histologic studies, studies on the genetic aspects of radiation damage, community health surveillance studies, and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible. Excluding the extensive literature from the RERF, the program has produced 380 publications in scientific journals, contributing significantly to improving the understanding of the health effects of ionizing radiation exposure. In addition, a large number of public presentations were made and are documented elsewhere in published proceedings or in books. The purpose of this bibliograhpy is to present a guide to the research results obtained by scientists supported by the program. The bibliography, which includes doctoral theses, is classified by national laboratory and by year. Multi-authored studies are indicated only once, according to the main supporting laboratory.

  9. Charms of radiation research.

    SciTech Connect

    Inokuti, M.; Physics

    2005-01-01

    Most of my professional efforts over nearly five decades have been devoted to radiation research, that is, studies of the physical, chemical, and biological actions of high-energy radiation on matter. (By the term 'high-energy radiation' I mean here x rays, .GAMMA. rays, neutrons, and charged particles of high enough energies to produce ionization in matter. I exclude visible light, infrared waves, microwaves, and sound waves.) Charms of radiation research lie in its interdisciplinary character; although my training was in basic physics, the scope of my interest has gradually increased to cover many other areas, to my deep satisfaction. High-energy radiation is an important component of the universe, and of our environment. It often provides an effective avenue for characterizing matter and understanding its behavior. Near Earth's surface this radiation is normally present in exceptionally low quantity, and yet it plays a significant role in some atmospheric phenomena such as auroras, and also in the evolution of life. The recent advent of various devices for producing high-energy radiation has opened up the possibility of many applications, including medical and industrial uses. I have worked on some aspects of those uses. At every opportunity to address a broad audience I try to convey a sense of intellectual fun, together with some of the elements of the basic science involved. A goal of radiation education might be to make the word 'radiation' as common and familiar as words such as 'fire' and 'electricity' through increased usage.

  10. Ionizing radiation and cancer risk: evidence from epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ron, E

    1998-11-01

    Epidemiological studies provide the primary data on the carcinogenic effects of radiation in humans. Much of what is known has come from studies of the atomic bomb survivors, and to a lesser extent from patients receiving radiotherapy. These studies demonstrate that exposure to moderate to high doses of radiation increases the risk of cancer in most organs. For all solid cancers combined, cancers of the thyroid, breast and lung, and leukemia, risk estimates are fairly precise, and associations have been found at relatively low doses (<0.2 Gy). Associations between radiation and cancers of the salivary glands, stomach, colon, bladder, ovary, central nervous system and skin have also been reported, but the relationships are not as well quantified. Associations between radiation and cancers of the liver and esophagus, and to a lesser extent multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, have been reported in a few studies, but results are inconsistent. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and cancers of the pancreas, prostate, testis and cervix have rarely been linked to radiation exposure. A linear no-threshold model adequately describes the dose-response relationship for solid cancers, although at extremely high doses the risk appears to flatten out. Because few populations have been followed until the end of life, the temporal patterns of risk are not completely known. An increased risk, however, does continue for several decades. In contrast, radiation-related leukemias begin to occur shortly (2-3 years) after exposure and, at least in the A-bomb survivors, a linear-quadratic dose response seems to fit the data better than a pure linear model. Radiation does not act entirely in isolation. It can interact with other carcinogens, e.g. tobacco or chemotherapeutic agents, and with host factors such as age at exposure, gender or reproductive history. Interactions with medical interventions or with certain heritable mutations have also been suggested. While

  11. Space radiation health research, 1991-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Jablin, M.H.; Brooks, C.; Ferraro, G.; Dickson, K.J.; Powers, J.V.; Wallace-Robinson, J.; Zafren, B.

    1993-10-01

    The present volume is a collection of 227 abstracts of radiation research sponsored by the NASA Space Radiation Health Program for the period 1991-1992. Each abstract has been categorized within one of three discipline areas: Physics, Biology and Risk Assessment. Topic areas within each discipline have been assigned as follows: Physics - Atomic Physics, Theory, Cosmic Ray and Astrophysics, Experimental, Environments and Environmental Models, Solar Activity and Prediction, Experiments, Radiation Transport and Shielding, Theory and Model Development, Experimental Studies, and Instrumentation. Biology - Biology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Radiation Biology, Transformation, Mutation, Lethality, Survival, DNA Damage and Repair, Tissue, Organs, and Organisms, In Vivo/In Vitro Systems, Carcinogenesis and Life Shortening, Cataractogenesis, Genetics/Developmental, Radioprotectants, Plants, and Other Effects. Risk Assessment - Risk Assessment, Radiation Health and Epidemiology, Space Flight Radiation Health Physics, Inter- and Intraspecies Extrapolation and Radiation Limits and Standards. Section I contains refereed journals; Section II contains reports/meetings. Keywords and author indices are provided.

  12. A New Era of Low-Dose Radiation Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Cari M; Linet, Martha S; Rajaraman, Preetha; Ntowe, Estelle; Berrington de González, Amy

    2015-09-01

    The last decade has introduced a new era of epidemiologic studies of low-dose radiation facilitated by electronic record linkage and pooling of cohorts that allow for more direct and powerful assessments of cancer and other stochastic effects at doses below 100 mGy. Such studies have provided additional evidence regarding the risks of cancer, particularly leukemia, associated with lower-dose radiation exposures from medical, environmental, and occupational radiation sources, and have questioned the previous findings with regard to possible thresholds for cardiovascular disease and cataracts. Integrated analysis of next generation genomic and epigenetic sequencing of germline and somatic tissues could soon propel our understanding further regarding disease risk thresholds, radiosensitivity of population subgroups and individuals, and the mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. These advances in low-dose radiation epidemiology are critical to our understanding of chronic disease risks from the burgeoning use of newer and emerging medical imaging technologies, and the continued potential threat of nuclear power plant accidents or other radiological emergencies. PMID:26231501

  13. Low-dose radiation epidemiology studies: status and issues.

    PubMed

    Shore, Roy E

    2009-11-01

    Although the Japanese atomic bomb study and radiotherapy studies have clearly documented cancer risks from high-dose radiation exposures, radiation risk assessment groups have long recognized that protracted or low exposures to low-linear energy transfer radiations are key radiation protection concerns because these are far more common than high-exposure scenarios. Epidemiologic studies of human populations with low-dose or low dose-rate exposures are one approach to addressing those concerns. A number of large studies of radiation workers (Chernobyl clean-up workers, U.S. and Chinese radiological technologists, and the 15-country worker study) or of persons exposed to environmental radiation at moderate to low levels (residents near Techa River, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl, or nuclear facilities) have been conducted. A variety of studies of medical radiation exposures (multiple-fluoroscopy, diagnostic (131)I, scatter radiation doses from radiotherapy, etc.) also are of interest. Key results from these studies are summarized and compared with risk estimates from the Japanese atomic bomb study. Ideally, one would like the low-dose and low dose-rate studies to guide radiation risk estimation regarding the shape of the dose-response curve, DDREF (dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor), and risk at low doses. However, the degree to which low-dose studies can do so is subject to various limitations, especially those pertaining to dosimetric uncertainties and limited statistical power. The identification of individuals who are particularly susceptible to radiation cancer induction also is of high interest in terms of occupational and medical radiation protection. Several examples of studies of radiation-related cancer susceptibility are discussed, but none thus far have clearly identified radiation-susceptible genotypes. PMID:19820457

  14. Low-dose ionising radiation and cardiovascular diseases--Strategies for molecular epidemiological studies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kreuzer, Michaela; Auvinen, Anssi; Cardis, Elisabeth; Hall, Janet; Jourdain, Jean-Rene; Laurier, Dominique; Little, Mark P; Peters, Annette; Raj, Ken; Russell, Nicola S; Tapio, Soile; Zhang, Wei; Gomolka, Maria

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that high-dose ionising radiation causes cardiovascular diseases. In contrast, the evidence for a causal relationship between long-term risk of cardiovascular diseases after moderate doses (0.5-5 Gy) is suggestive and weak after low doses (<0.5 Gy). However, evidence is emerging that doses under 0.5 Gy may also increase long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. This would have major implications for radiation protection with respect to medical use of radiation for diagnostic purposes and occupational or environmental radiation exposure. Therefore, it is of great importance to gain information about the presence and possible magnitude of radiation-related cardiovascular disease risk at doses of less than 0.5 Gy. The biological mechanisms implicated in any such effects are unclear and results from epidemiological studies are inconsistent. Molecular epidemiological studies can improve the understanding of the pathogenesis and the risk estimation of radiation-induced circulatory disease at low doses. Within the European DoReMi (Low Dose Research towards Multidisciplinary Integration) project, strategies to conduct molecular epidemiological studies in this field have been developed and evaluated. Key potentially useful European cohorts are the Mayak workers, other nuclear workers, uranium miners, Chernobyl liquidators, the Techa river residents and several diagnostic or low-dose radiotherapy patient cohorts. Criteria for informative studies are given and biomarkers to be investigated suggested. A close collaboration between epidemiology, biology and dosimetry is recommended, not only among experts in the radiation field, but also those in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26041268

  15. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Daniel J; Safdar, Nasia; Milstone, Aaron M; Anderson, Deverick J

    2016-06-01

    Research in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship (HE&AS) is rapidly expanding with the involvement of researchers from varied countries and backgrounds. Researchers must use scientific methods that will provide the strongest evidence to advance healthcare epidemiology, but there are limited resources for information on specific aspects of HE&AS research or easy ways to access examples of studies using specific methods with HE&AS. In response to this need, the SHEA Research Committee has developed a series of white papers on research methods in HE&AS. The objective of this series is to promote rigorous healthcare epidemiology research by summarizing critical components, practical considerations, and pitfalls of commonly used research methods. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:627-628. PMID:27074955

  16. Contributions of occupational epidemiologic studies to radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.

    1982-01-01

    Early evidence of health effects of occupational radiation exposure contributed importantly to the establishment of exposure standards, especially for internal emitters. Standards derived in this manner for radium body burdens and for air concentrations of radon and its daughters were especially influential. The body burden limits for plutonium and other bone-seeking radionuclides were based upon the radium standard. The exposure controls instituted as a consequence of those early limits have reduced the exposure of worker populations to the extent that the current, more sophisticated epidemiologic studies will probably not influence the revision of existing standards. The justification for conducting such studies is discussed.

  17. Radiation dose reconstruction for epidemiologic uses. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-12

    The report presents specific and practical recommendations for whether, when, and how dose-reconstruction studies should be conducted, with an emphasis on public participation. The book provides an overview of the basic requirements and technical aspects of dose reconstruction; presents lessons to be learned from dose reconstructions after Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and elsewhere; explores the potential benefits and limitations of using current available biological markers; discusses how to establish the source term determining what was released; explores methods for identifying the environmental pathways by which radiation reaches the body; offers details on three major categories of dose assessment; and examines priority-setting and strengths and limitations of epidemiological studies.

  18. Epidemiologic research programs at the Department of Energy: Looking to the future

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE) asked the National Research Council in 1989 to establish a Committee on Radiation Epidemiological Research Programs to provide scientific advice on the current status and future direction of DOE`s epidemiologic research program. This report is in response to a request from the National Research Council committee to provide advice regarding the future directions of OEHS`s epidemiologic research. This report begins with some of the background leading to the current activities of OEHS. In 1990, a committee (the Secretarial Panel for the Evaluation of Epidemiological Research Activities, or SPEERA) established by the secretary of the DOE recommended that DOE enter into a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Department of Health and Human Services that outlined the responsibilities of the two departments regarding epidemiologic research. The present report points out that the implementation of the SPEERA recommendations and the MoU by DOE have raised issues that have not been satisfactorily resolved.

  19. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

  20. Innovative multidisciplinary research in environmental epidemiology: the challenges and needs.

    PubMed

    Vena, J E; Weiner, J M

    1999-01-01

    The ability of epidemiology to determine the relationships between health and environmental insults has become exceedingly difficult. The multifactorial nature of disease and the diversity of the insults, which include biologic, physical, social and cultural factors, combined with genetic susceptibility, suggest the need to develop better models of multidisciplinary epidemiologic investigation. This paper highlights the needs of an environmental epidemiologic team, discusses ways to incorporate new ideas across disciplines and to integrate constructs and paradigms of social, ecological, cultural and population determinants with individual-based exposure assessments. Innovation will be the key to the survival and increasing importance of epidemiology in addressing the public health needs of the future, but what are the ways to enhance and encourage creativity in environmental epidemiology? The process of self-renewal and continuing education will be highlighted. Additionally, the complexity of the problems and the need for clear supervision and control of multidisciplinary research efforts require a forum of communication and an 'information-processing approach' beyond those in traditional epidemiologic studies. New approaches in data management and medical informatics must be incorporated into the epidemiologic investigative framework. Methods to be included should focus on opportunities for computer-supported sharing of ideas. Such capabilities minimise the geographic distances and the disparate knowledge and training of the investigators and bring the team closer to the objectives and functions inherent in multidisciplinary investigation. PMID:10703183

  1. Synchrotron radiation sources and research

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.C.

    1995-12-31

    This is an introduction and a review of Synchrotron Radiation sources and the research performed using synchrotron radiation. I will begin with a brief discussion of the two principal uses of particle storage rings: for colliding beams (Collider) and for synchrotron radiation (Radiator). Then I will concentrate on discussions of synchrotron radiation topics, starting with a historical account, followed by descriptions of the features of the storage ring and the features of the radiation from the simplest source -- the bending magnet. I will then discuss the special insertion device sources -- wigglers and undulators -- and their radiations, and end with a brief general account of the research and other applications of synchrotron radiation.

  2. Divorce Workshops: An Opportunity for Preventive Education & Epidemiological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalafat, John; And Others

    This paper describes the program and research related to the "Making It" series of 18 multi-media divorce workshops co-sponsored by a community mental health center (CMHC) and a chapter of Parents without Partners (PWP). An introductory section discusses the rationale for larger scale community intervention and epidemiological research. The…

  3. Epigenetic research in cancer epidemiology: trends, opportunities, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh; Rogers, Scott; Divi, Rao L; Schully, Sheri D; Nelson, Stefanie; Joseph Su, L; Ross, Sharon A; Pilch, Susan; Winn, Deborah M; Khoury, Muin J

    2014-02-01

    Epigenetics is emerging as an important field in cancer epidemiology that promises to provide insights into gene regulation and facilitate cancer control throughout the cancer care continuum. Increasingly, investigators are incorporating epigenetic analysis into the studies of etiology and outcomes. To understand current progress and trends in the inclusion of epigenetics in cancer epidemiology, we evaluated the published literature and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported research grant awards in this field to identify trends in epigenetics research. We present a summary of the epidemiologic studies in NCI's grant portfolio (from January 2005 through December 2012) and in the scientific literature published during the same period, irrespective of support from the NCI. Blood cells and tumor tissue were the most commonly used biospecimens in these studies, although buccal cells, cervical cells, sputum, and stool samples were also used. DNA methylation profiling was the focus of the majority of studies, but several studies also measured microRNA profiles. We illustrate here the current status of epidemiologic studies that are evaluating epigenetic changes in large populations. The incorporation of epigenomic assessments in cancer epidemiology studies has and is likely to continue to provide important insights into the field of cancer research. PMID:24326628

  4. Radiation epidemiology and recent paediatric computed tomography studies.

    PubMed

    Boice, J D

    2015-06-01

    Recent record-linkage studies of cancer risk following computed tomography (CT) procedures among children and adolescents under 21 years of age must be interpreted with caution. The reasons why the examinations were performed were not known, and the dosimetric approaches did not include individual dose reconstructions or account for the possibility for missed examinations. The recent report (2013) on children by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation concluded that the associations may have resulted from confounding by indication (also called 'reverse causation'), and not radiation exposure. The reported cancer associations may very well have been related to the patients' underlying health conditions that prompted the examinations. Reverse causation has been observed in other epidemiological investigations, such as a Swedish study of thyroid cancer risk following I-131 scintillation imaging scans, and in studies of brain cancer risk following Thorotrast for cerebral angiography. Epidemiological patterns reported in the CT studies were also inconsistent with the world's literature. For example, in a UK study, teenagers had a higher risk of brain tumour than young children; in an Australian study, cancers not previously linked to radiation were significantly elevated; and in a Taiwanese study, the risk of benign tumours decreased with age at the time of CT examination. In all studies, solid tumours appeared much earlier than previously reported. Remarkably, in the Australian study, brain cancer excesses were seen regardless of whether or not the CT was to the head, i.e. a significant excess was reported for CT examinations of the abdomen and extremities, which involved no radiation exposure to the brain. In the UK study, the significance of the 'leukaemia' finding was only because myelodysplastic syndrome was added to the category, and there was no significance for leukaemia alone. Without knowledge of why CT examinations were

  5. [Interdisciplinary Network for Epidemiological Research in Berlin--EpiBerlin].

    PubMed

    Bau, A M

    2004-06-01

    The Interdisciplinary Network for Epidemiological Research in Berlin (EpiBerlin) has the goal of bringing together epidemiologists and experts in epidemiology and public health in Germany's capital city of Berlin and to offer them opportunities for knowledge transfer and networking. In that way, existing resources may be strengthened and additional potential in Berlin as a science center may be developed. EpiBerlin was founded by an initiative of the Berlin Center of Public Health (BZPH) and is closely affiliated with the three universities in Berlin (Free University, Technical University, and Humboldt University) as well as the Robert Koch Institute, Germany's national center for health research. EpiBerlin is evenly funded by the state of Berlin, through the Senatsverwaltung für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kultur (Senate Administration for Science, Research, and Culture), and the Bund-Länder-Kommission (Commission of the Federation and States). The development of a databank of the epidemiological databases in the region of Berlin (EpiDB) aims to show the variety of epidemiological work in the area. The aim of EpiDB is to provide transparency and an overview of existing and current research in Berlin, which may also benefit external users. Cooperation, networking, and division of labor for joint venture research may be promoted, also beyond the region of Berlin. PMID:15221106

  6. Radiation-induced cardiovascular diseases: Is the epidemiologic evidence compatible with the radiobiologic data?

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz-Hector, Susanne . E-mail: susanne.schultz-hector@helmholtz.de; Trott, Klaus-Ruediger Prof.

    2007-01-01

    The Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors demonstrates that radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of developing ischemic heart disease, in particular myocardial infarction. Similarly, epidemiologic investigations in very large populations of patients who had received postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer or for peptic ulcer demonstrate that radiation exposure of the heart with an average equivalent single dose of approximately 2 Gy significantly increased the risk of developing ischemic heart disease more than 10 years after irradiation. These epidemiologic findings are compatible with radiobiologic data on the pathogenesis of radiation-induced heart disease in experimental animals. The critical target structure appears to be the endothelial lining of blood vessels, in particular arteries, leading to early functional alterations such as pro-inflammatory responses and other changes, which are slowly progressive. Research should concentrate on the interaction of these radiation-induced endothelial changes with the early stages of age-related atherosclerosis to develop criteria for optimizing treatment plans in radiotherapy and also potential interventional strategies.

  7. Ultraviolet radiation and the eye: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, H R

    1989-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence from biochemical, animal, and epidemiologic studies suggests an association between exposure to UV-B radiation (290 nm to 320 nm) and cataract. Such an association had not been proven because it had not been possible to quantify ocular UV-B exposure of individuals or to reliably grade the type and severity of cataract in field studies. We undertook an epidemiologic survey of cataract among 838 watermen who work on the Chesapeake Bay. Their individual ocular UV-B exposure was quantified for each year of life over the age of 16, on the basis of a detailed occupational history combined with laboratory and field measurements of ocular UV-B exposure. Cataracts were graded by both type and severity through clinical and photographic means. SMD changes were ascertained by fundal photography. A general medical history was taken to discover potentially confounding factors. This study showed that people with cortical lens opacities had a 21% higher UV-B exposure at each year of life than people without these opacities. A doubling in lifetime UV-B exposure led to a 60% increase in the risk of cortical cataract, and those with a high annual UV-B exposure increased their risk of cortical cataract over threefold. Corneal changes, namely pterygium and CDK, were also strongly associated with high UV-B exposure. No association was found between nuclear lens opacities or macular degeneration and UV-B exposure. This study also indicated several simple, practical measures, such as wearing spectacles or a hat, that effectively protect the eye from UV-B exposure. Thus it is easily within the power of individuals to protect their eyes from excessive UV-B exposure and reduce their risk of cortical cataract. A program of public education in this area could be a cost-effective means of reducing this important disease. PMID:2562534

  8. [Epidemiological perspectives of migration research: the example of cancer].

    PubMed

    Zeeb, Hajo; Spallek, Jacob; Razum, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic research on migration and health in Germany is increasingly focusing on chronic diseases. Migrant studies can help to identify causes of diseases. They also help to identify health inequalities and can thus contribute to improvements in health care. With regard to cancer, descriptive studies among Turkish migrants and ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union have shown overall low, but slowly increasing cancer rates as compared to autochthonous Germans. For individual cancer sites such as stomach cancer, migrants appear to experience higher risks than the comparison population. Epidemiologic approaches studying cancer care and services for migrants, as well as analytic studies that allow assessing the particular temporal dynamics of cancer risks among migrant groups, are scarce in Germany. Thus, major challenges for cancer epidemiology among migrants exist in Germany. PMID:18421652

  9. An epidemiologic review on occupational sleep research among Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuriko

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiologic sleep research on Japanese workers has been increasing in recent years. It is timely to give an overview of the sleep issues facing the Japanese working population by reviewing the accumulated epidemiological evidence, which will contribute to the promotion of a sound occupational health policy and the development of occupational sleep research in epidemiology. This paper reviews 24 studies, 13 for non-shift and 11 for shift Japanese workers, identified by using MEDLINE and Japan Cetra Revuo Medicina. The results reviewed are as follows: 1) the prevalence of insomnia and other sleep problems is substantially varied, 5 to 45% for non-shift and 29 to 38% for shift workers, 2) poor sleep quality is related to health, occupational activities and personal relations, 3) the risk or associated factors are identified in pathophysiology (e.g., hypertension), lifestyle behaviors (e.g., diet, alcohol, tobacco), job-related conditions (e.g., job stress, social support, job dissatisfaction, workload, shift schedules) and psychopathology (e.g., depressed mood). The methodological limitations found in the studies and the strategies of future epidemiologic sleep research in workers are discussed. PMID:15732297

  10. Space radiation health research, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jablin, M. H. (Compiler); Brooks, C. (Compiler); Ferraro, G. (Compiler); Dickson, K. J. (Compiler); Powers, J. V. (Compiler); Wallace-Robinson, J. (Compiler); Zafren, B. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The present volume is a collection of 227 abstracts of radiation research sponsored by the NASA Space Radiation Health Program for the period 1991-1992. Each abstract has been categorized within one of three discipline areas: Physics, Biology and Risk Assessment. Topic areas within each discipline have been assigned as follows: Physics - Atomic Physics, Theory, Cosmic Ray and Astrophysics, Experimental, Environments and Environmental Models, Solar Activity and Prediction, Experiments, Radiation Transport and Shielding, Theory and Model Development, Experimental Studies, and Instrumentation. Biology - Biology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Radiation Biology, Transformation, Mutation, Lethality, Survival, DNA Damage and Repair, Tissue, Organs, and Organisms, In Vivo/In Vitro Systems, Carcinogenesis and Life Shortening, Cataractogenesis, Genetics/Developmental, Radioprotectants, Plants, and Other Effects. Risk Assessment - Risk Assessment, Radiation Health and Epidemiology, Space Flight Radiation Health Physics, Inter- and Intraspecies Extrapolation and Radiation Limits and Standards. Section I contains refereed journals; Section II contains reports/meetings. Keywords and author indices are provided. A collection of abstracts spanning the period 1986-1990 was previously issued as NASA Technical Memorandum 4270.

  11. Epidemiology and Clinical Research Design, Part 2: Principles

    PubMed Central

    Manja, Veena; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2015-01-01

    This is the third article covering core knowledge in scholarly activities for neonatal physicians. In this article, we discuss various principles of epidemiology and clinical research design. A basic knowledge of these principles is necessary for conducting clinical research and for proper interpretation of studies. This article reviews bias and confounding, causation, incidence and prevalence, decision analysis, cost-effectiveness, sensitivity analysis, and measurement. PMID:26236171

  12. NASA Human Research Program Space Radiation Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Lori; Huff, Janice; Patel, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Hu, Shaowwen; Kidane, Yared; Myung-Hee, Kim; Li, Yongfeng; Nounu, Hatem; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem; Hada, Megumi

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is to ensure that crews can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. Current work is focused on developing the knowledge base and tools required for accurate assessment of health risks resulting from space radiation exposure including cancer and circulatory and central nervous system diseases, as well as acute risks from solar particle events. Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) Space Radiation Team scientists work at multiple levels to advance this goal, with major projects in biological risk research; epidemiology; and physical, biophysical, and biological modeling.

  13. The risk linked to ionizing radiation: an alternative epidemiologic approach.

    PubMed Central

    de Brouwer, C; Lagasse, R

    2001-01-01

    Radioprotection norms have been based on risk models that have evolved over time. These models show relationships between exposure and observed effects. There is a high level of uncertainty regarding lower doses. Recommendations have been based on the conservative hypothesis of a linear relationship without threshold value. This relationship is still debated, and the diverse observations do not allow any definitive conclusion. Available data are contradictory, and various interpretations can be made. Here we review an alternative approach for defining causation and reconciling apparently contradictory conclusions. This alternative epidemiologic approach is based on causal groups: Each component of a causal group is necessary but not sufficient for causality. Many groups may be involved in causality. Thus, ionizing radiation may be a component of one or several causal groups. This formalization reconciles heterogeneous observations but implies searching for the interactions between components, mostly between critical components of a causal profile, and, for instance, the reasons why specific human groups would not show any effect despite exposure, when an effect would be expected. PMID:11673115

  14. Modelling spatial connectivity in epidemiological systems, dengue fever in Thailand on networks from radiation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stollenwerk, Nico; Götz, Thomas; Mateus, Luis; Wijaya, Putra; Willems, David; Skwara, Urszula; Marguta, Ramona; Ghaffari, Peyman; Aguiar, Maíra

    2016-06-01

    We model the connectivity between Thai provinces in terms of human mobility via a radiation model in order to describe dengue fever spreading in Thailand, for which long term epidemiological data are available.

  15. Mental health epidemiological research in South America: recent findings

    PubMed Central

    Silva de Lima, Maurício; Garcia de Oliveira Soares, Bernardo; de Jesus Mari, Jair

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to review the recent mental health epidemiological research conducted in South America. The Latin American and the Caribbean (LILACS) database was searched from 1999 to 2003 using a specific strategy for identification of cohort, case-control and cross-sectional population-based studies in South America. The authors screened references and identified relevant studies. Further studies were obtained contacting local experts in epidemiology. 140 references were identified, and 12 studies were selected. Most selected studies explored the prevalence and risk factors for common mental disorders, and several of them used sophisticated methods of sample selection and analysis. There is a need for improving the quality of psychiatric journals in Latin America, and for increasing the distribution and access to research data. Regionally relevant problems such as violence and substance abuse should be considered in designing future investigations in this area. PMID:16633474

  16. Risk of Cancer in relation to Natural Radiation, including Radon: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Baysson, Helene; Tirmarche, Margot; Laurier, Dominique

    2008-08-07

    A review of recently published epidemiological studies on populations exposed to natural background ionizing radiation is proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of epidemiological studies as well as the uncertainty linked to multiple exposures are discussed. As radon is the greatest source of natural radiation, particular attention is given to quantification of risk obtained through cohort studies of uranium miners and after joint analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and residential radon.

  17. Risk of Cancer in relation to Natural Radiation, including Radon: Evidence from Epidemiological Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baysson, Hélène; Tirmarche, Margot; Laurier, Dominique

    2008-08-01

    A review of recently published epidemiological studies on populations exposed to natural background ionizing radiation is proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of epidemiological studies as well as the uncertainty linked to multiple exposures are discussed. As radon is the greatest source of natural radiation, particular attention is given to quantification of risk obtained through cohort studies of uranium miners and after joint analysis of case-control studies on lung cancer and residential radon.

  18. Methodologic research needs in environmental epidemiology: data analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, R L; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of data analysis methods for the identification and quantification of associations between environmental exposures and health events of interest. Data analysis methods are outlined for each of the study designs mentioned, with an emphasis on topics in need of further research. Particularly noted are the need for improved methods for accommodating exposure assessment measurement errors in analytic epidemiologic studies and for improved methods for the conduct and analysis of aggregate data (ecologic) studies. PMID:8206041

  19. Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research.

    PubMed

    Gillette-Guyonnet, Sophie; Secher, Marion; Vellas, Bruno

    2013-03-01

    The prevention of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a growing public health concern, due to a lack of effective curative treatment options and a rising global prevalence. Various potential risk or preventive factors have been suggested by epidemiological research, including modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet. Current epidemiological data are in favour of a protective role of certain micronutrients (B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish) in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Some factors have been targeted by interventions tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but many of the results are conflicting with observational evidence. Epidemiological analysis of the relations between nutrient consumption and cognitive decline is complex and it is highly unlikely that a single component plays a major role. In addition, since multiple factors across the life course influence brain function in late life, multidomain interventions might be more promising in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Designing such trials remains very challenging for researchers. The main objective of this paper is to review the epidemiologic data linking potential protective factors to cognitive decline or dementia/AD, focusing particularly on the roles of adiposity, caloric restriction, micro (group B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish). Limitations of the current data, divergence with results of interventional prevention studies and challenges for future research are discussed. PMID:23384081

  20. Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research

    PubMed Central

    Gillette‐Guyonnet, Sophie; Secher, Marion; Vellas, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a growing public health concern, due to a lack of effective curative treatment options and a rising global prevalence. Various potential risk or preventive factors have been suggested by epidemiological research, including modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet. Current epidemiological data are in favour of a protective role of certain micronutrients (B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti‐oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega‐3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish) in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Some factors have been targeted by interventions tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but many of the results are conflicting with observational evidence. Epidemiological analysis of the relations between nutrient consumption and cognitive decline is complex and it is highly unlikely that a single component plays a major role. In addition, since multiple factors across the life course influence brain function in late life, multidomain interventions might be more promising in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Designing such trials remains very challenging for researchers. The main objective of this paper is to review the epidemiologic data linking potential protective factors to cognitive decline or dementia/AD, focusing particularly on the roles of adiposity, caloric restriction, micro (group B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti‐oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega‐3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish). Limitations of the current data, divergence with results of interventional prevention studies and challenges for future research are discussed. PMID:23384081

  1. Sampling in epidemiological research: issues, hazards and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Tyrer, Stephen; Heyman, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Surveys of people's opinions are fraught with difficulties. It is easier to obtain information from those who respond to text messages or to emails than to attempt to obtain a representative sample. Samples of the population that are selected non-randomly in this way are termed convenience samples as they are easy to recruit. This introduces a sampling bias. Such non-probability samples have merit in many situations, but an epidemiological enquiry is of little value unless a random sample is obtained. If a sufficient number of those selected actually complete a survey, the results are likely to be representative of the population. This editorial describes probability and non-probability sampling methods and illustrates the difficulties and suggested solutions in performing accurate epidemiological research. PMID:27087985

  2. Core elements of developmental epidemiologically based prevention research.

    PubMed

    Kellam, S G; Koretz, D; Mościcki, E K

    1999-08-01

    In the early 1990's, important progress was documented in prevention research on mental and behavioral disorders, with recommendations for a prevention research agenda. One of the earliest implementation efforts was the workshop, "A Scientific Structure for the Emerging Field of Prevention Research," sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health and The Johns Hopkins University Prevention Research Center, and held in Baltimore, Maryland, in December of 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to merge three perspectives from the traditionally disparate areas of epidemiology, life course development, and intervention trials technology into an integrated, interdisciplinary effort that would define a scientific structure enabling rapid advancement in prevention science. As a consequence of that workshop, the papers were written that are contained in this and the next special issue on prevention of the American Journal of Community Psychology. This first paper is a description of the salient features of developmental epidemiologically-based prevention research. Beyond the above three perspectives, we discuss the role of developmental and intervention theories; measurement of implementation, mediators, and moderators, including multi-stage sampling and measurement; the central role of multilevel growth modeling; concepts of attributable risk and prevented fraction; proximal/distal modeling and effect sizes; and partnerships between researchers and communities. PMID:10573831

  3. The Role of Epidemiology in the Era of Molecular Epidemiology and Genomics: Summary of the 2013 AJE-sponsored Society of Epidemiologic Research Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Kuller, Lewis H.; Bracken, Michael B.; Ogino, Shuji; Prentice, Ross L.; Tracy, Russell P.

    2013-01-01

    On June 20, 2013, the American Journal of Epidemiology sponsored a symposium at the Society for Epidemiologic Research's 46th Annual Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts, entitled, “What Is the Role of Epidemiology in the Era of Molecular Biology and Genomics?” The future of epidemiology depends on innovation in generating interesting and important testable hypotheses that are relevant to population health. These new strategies will depend on new technology, both in measurement of agents and environment and in the fields of pathophysiology and outcomes, such as cellular epidemiology and molecular pathology. The populations to be studied, sample sizes, and study designs should be selected based on the hypotheses to be tested and include case-control, cohort, and clinical trials. Developing large mega cohorts without attention to specific hypotheses is inefficient, will fail to address many associations with high-quality data, and may well produce spurious results. PMID:24105654

  4. Feminism meets the "new" epidemiologies: toward an appraisal of antifeminist biases in epidemiological research on women's health.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, M C; Whittle, K L

    2001-09-01

    This essay explores an alternative paradigm for epidemiology, one which is explicitly informed by a feminist perspective. We intend to expand upon recent critiques and debates within the emergent fields of "critical", "popular", and "alternative" epidemiology to examine how epidemiology's conceptual models--which are meant to contribute to the prevention of social inequalities in health, but may instead reinforce social hierarchies based on gender, race, and class--constrain our understanding of health and disease. Specifically, we examine persistent antifeminist biases in contemporary epidemiological research on women's health. Issues highlighted include: problem definition and knowledge production in women's health: biological essentialization of women as reproducers; and decontextualization and depoliticization of women's health risks. As part of this critique, we include suggestions for an emancipatory epidemiology that incorporates an alternative feminist framework. PMID:11478536

  5. Combining Radiation Epidemiology With Molecular Biology-Changing From Health Risk Estimates to Therapeutic Intervention.

    PubMed

    Abend, Michael; Port, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    The authors herein summarize six presentations dedicated to the key session "molecular radiation epidemiology" of the ConRad meeting 2015. These presentations were chosen in order to highlight the promise when combining conventional radiation epidemiology with molecular biology. Conventional radiation epidemiology uses dose estimates for risk predictions on health. However, combined with molecular biology, dose-dependent bioindicators of effect hold the promise to improve clinical diagnostics and to provide target molecules for potential therapeutic intervention. One out of the six presentations exemplified the use of radiation-induced molecular changes as biomarkers of exposure by measuring stabile chromosomal translocations. The remaining five presentations focused on molecular changes used as bioindicators of the effect. These bioindicators of the effect could be used for diagnostic purposes on colon cancers (genomic instability), thyroid cancer (CLIP2), or head and neck squamous cell cancers. Therapeutic implications of gene expression changes were examined in Chernobyl thyroid cancer victims and Mayak workers. PMID:27356062

  6. [Ethnicity and race as variables in epidemiological research about inequity].

    PubMed

    Vanegas L, Jairo; Villalón C, Marcelo; Valenzuela Y, Carlos

    2008-05-01

    Epidemiology analyzes differences in states of health and disease of populations. Public Policies are established considering inequities associated with ethnicity and race. In this context, the identification of vulnerable groups for concentration of resources is relevant. Nevertheless, the lack of a clear definition of these variables might lead to biased results and interpretations. Two problems about the use of these variables are discussed. First, lack of a measurable and objective characteristic, even considering self reference (gold standard), considering that the opinion of a person can change in time. The second problem is a consequence of the former, basing research on a poorly defined variable. Uses of ethnicity and race variables between 1920-1999 in the American Journal of Epidemiology, Health Services Research and American Journal of Public Health were reviewed. In 919 articles, 27 different names identified to describe these variables and more than half did not describe the reason to use these variables. Almost half did not describe analytical methods. Although some articles found statistically significant relationships, less than half discussed those results. It has been suggested that there is enough evidence to exclude these variables in biomedical investigations. However, others propose that they cannot be excluded, given their multidimensional condition that includes social, cultural and genetic features. Therefore, provided the lack of clear definition, the assessment of ethnicity and race effects must be done as rigorously as possible. PMID:18769813

  7. An attempt to develop a database for epidemiological research in Semipalatinsk.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hiroaki; Apsalikov, Kazbek N; Gusev, Boris I; Galich, Boris; Madieva, Madina; Koshpessova, Gulsum; Abdikarimova, Asel; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2006-02-01

    The present paper reports progress and problems in our development of a database for comprehensive epidemiological research in Semipalatinsk whose ultimate aim is to examine the effects of low dose radiation exposure on the human body. The database was constructed and set up at the Scientific Research Institute of Radiation Medicine Ecology in 2003, and the number of data entries into the database reached 110,000 on 31 January 2005. However, we face some problems concerning size, accuracy and reliability of data which hinder full epidemiological analysis. Firstly we need fuller bias free data. The second task is to establish a committee for a discussion of the analysis, which should be composed of statisticians and epidemiologists, to conduct a research project from a long-term perspective, and carry out the collection of data effectively, along the lines of the project. Due to the insufficiency of data collected so far, our analysis is limited to showing the trends in mortality rates in the high and low dose areas. PMID:16571937

  8. Current pathways for epidemiological research in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Factor-Litvak, Pam; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Ascherio, Alberto; Bradley, Walter; Chío, Adriano; Garruto, Ralph; Hardiman, Orla; Kamel, Freya; Kasarskis, Edward; McKee, Ann; Nakano, Imaharu; Nelson, Lorene M; Eisen, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease. The current status of the epidemiology, challenges to its study, and novel study design options are discussed in this paper. We focus on recent results from large-scale population based prospective studies, case-control studies and population based registries, risk factors, and neuropathologic findings in chronic traumatic encephalomyelopathy. We identify areas of interest for future research, including time-trends in the incidence and prevalence of ALS; the meaning of lifetime risk; the phenotypic description of ALS; the definition of familial versus sporadic ALS, syndromic aspects of ALS; specific risk factors such as military service, life style factors such as smoking, the use of statins, and the presence of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), an excitotoxic amino acid derivative possibly produced by cyanobacteria found in almost every terrestrial and aquatic habitat; the emergence and disappearance of an endemic ALS in areas of the Pacific; and gene-environment interactions in the etiology of ALS. To move the epidemiology forward, we suggest using well-characterized cohorts of newly diagnosed ALS patients to identify risk and prognostic factors; storing biological material for future studies; building on the National ALS Registry as a resource of future studies; working in multidisciplinary consortia; and addressing the possible early life etiology of ALS. PMID:23678878

  9. EURADOS strategic research agenda: vision for dosimetry of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Fantuzzi, E; Harrison, R; Schuhmacher, H; Vanhavere, F; Alves, J; Bottollier Depois, J F; Fattibene, P; Knežević, Ž; Lopez, M A; Mayer, S; Miljanić, S; Neumaier, S; Olko, P; Stadtmann, H; Tanner, R; Woda, C

    2016-02-01

    Since autumn 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been developing its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which is intended to contribute to the identification of future research needs in radiation dosimetry in Europe. The present article summarises-based on input from EURADOS Working Groups (WGs) and Voting Members-five visions in dosimetry and defines key issues in dosimetry research that are considered important for the next decades. The five visions include scientific developments required towards (a) updated fundamental dose concepts and quantities, (b) improved radiation risk estimates deduced from epidemiological cohorts, (c) efficient dose assessment for radiological emergencies, (d) integrated personalised dosimetry in medical applications and (e) improved radiation protection of workers and the public. The SRA of EURADOS will be used as a guideline for future activities of the EURADOS WGs. A detailed version of the SRA can be downloaded as a EURADOS report from the EURADOS website (www.eurados.org). PMID:25752758

  10. After epidemiological research: what next? Community action for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, J G

    1994-01-01

    The underlying purpose of all epidemiological research is ultimately to use inferences in order to prevent disease and promote health and well-being. Effective skills in translating results into appropriate policy, programs, and interventions are inherently tricky, and often politically controversial. Generally they are not taught to epidemiologists formally, even though they are a traditionally part of public health practice. To move from findings to policy change requires that the informed and committed epidemiologist should known how to: (1) organize affected parties to negotiate successfully with government and industry; (2) activate populations at risk to protect their health (3) communicate responsibly with lay persons about their health risks so as to encourage effective activism; (4) collaborate with other professionals to achieve disease prevention and health promotion goals. The paper presents and discusses four case studies to illustrate these strategies: (1) the grass-roots social action that was the response of the community to the environmental contamination at Love Canal, New York; (2) mobilization of recognized leaders within the gay community to disseminate HIV risk reduction techniques; (3) collaboration with an existing voluntary organization interested in community empowerment through health promotion in a Chicago slum by using existing hospital, emergency room admissions, and local motor vehicle accident data; (4) a self-help group, MADD (mothers against drunk driving) which fought to change public policy to limit and decrease drunk driving. In addition, the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration and responsible communication with the public is emphasized. Factors that limit the ability of the epidemiologist to move into public health action are discussed, including who owns the research findings, what is the degree of scientific uncertainty, and the cost-benefit balance of taking affirmative public action. Putting epidemiological

  11. Three Mile Island epidemiologic radiation dose assessment revisited: 25 years after the accident.

    PubMed

    Field, R William

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, public health concerns following the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident prompted several epidemiologic investigations in the vicinity of TMI. One of these studies is ongoing. This commentary suggests that the major source of radiation exposure to the population has been ignored as a potential confounding factor or effect modifying factor in previous and ongoing TMI epidemiologic studies that explore whether or not TMI accidental plant radiation releases caused an increase in lung cancer in the community around TMI. The commentary also documents the observation that the counties around TMI have the highest regional radon potential in the United States and concludes that radon progeny exposure should be included as part of the overall radiation dose assessment in future studies of radiation-induced lung cancer resulting from the TMI accident. PMID:15657112

  12. Epidemiology in a changing world: implications for population-based research on mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Cooper, B

    2014-06-01

    Introduction and objectives. Population-based research on mental disorders needs to keep pace with trends in general epidemiology. At present, this requirement is complicated by uncertainty within the parent discipline about its future development. The present study examines proposals for new directions in strategy and methods and considers their significance for psychiatric epidemiology. Method. Narrative review, cross-checked by search of English-language journals of epidemiology for new trends and developments reported in the years from 2000 onwards. Results. The proposals reviewed here are divided into three groups: 1. A new research paradigm of 'eco-epidemiology', which includes both individual risk factors and macro-environmental systems that mediate population levels of health and sickness. 2. Improved 'translation' of research findings - i.e. more rapid and effective implementation of epidemiological evidence into health policy and practice. 3. Adaptation of epidemiology to a globalised economy, with firmer regulation of funding and resources. Conclusions. Each of these proposals has implications for psychiatric epidemiology. Workers in this field, however, are still preoccupied by relatively specific problems of definition, measurement and classification, and so far the current debates in general epidemiology are scarcely reflected. The proposals outlined above call for: • a working model of eco-epidemiology as it relates to psychiatric disorders; • implementation strategies to encourage more active participation in epidemiological research by community health services and caregiver organisations; • international collaborative projects that offer practical benefits in training and service facilities for the countries taking part. PMID:24345606

  13. Development of a combined database for meta-epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Savović, Jelena; Harris, Ross J; Wood, Lesley; Beynon, Rebecca; Altman, Doug; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Balk, Ethan M; Deeks, Jonathan; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Gluud, Christian; Ioannidis, John P A; Jűni, Peter; Moher, David; Pildal, Julie; Schulz, Kenneth F; Sterne, Jonathan A C

    2010-07-01

    Collections of meta-analyses assembled in meta-epidemiological studies are used to study associations of trial characteristics with intervention effect estimates. However, methods and findings are not consistent across studies. To combine data from 10 meta-epidemiological studies into a single database, and derive a harmonized dataset without overlap between meta-analyses. The database design allowed trials to be contained in different meta-analyses, multiple meta-analyses in systematic reviews, overlapping meta-analyses between systematic reviews, and multiple references to the same trial or review. Unique identifiers were assigned to each reference and used to identify duplicate trials. Sets of meta-analyses with overlapping trials were identified and duplicates removed. Overlapping trials were used to examine agreement between assessments of trial characteristics. The combined database contained 427 reviews, 454 meta-analyses and 4874 trial results. Of these, 258 meta-analyses were unique, while for 196 at least one trial overlapped with another meta-analysis. Median kappa statistics for reliability of assessments were 0.60 for sequence generation, 0.58 for allocation concealment and 0.87 for blinding. Based on inspection of sets of overlapping meta-analyses, 91 meta-analyses containing 1344 trial results were removed. Additionally, 24 duplicated trial results were removed from 16 meta-analyses, to derive a final database containing 363 meta-analyses and 3477 unique trial results. The final database will be used to examine the combined evidence on sources of bias in randomized controlled trials. The strategy used to remove overlap between meta-analyses may be of use for future empirical research. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26061467

  14. Encouraging primary care research: evaluation of a one-year, doctoral clinical epidemiology research course

    PubMed Central

    Liira, Helena; Koskela, Tuomas; Thulesius, Hans; Pitkälä, Kaisu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Research and PhDs are relatively rare in family medicine and primary care. To promote research, regular one-year research courses for primary care professionals with a focus on clinical epidemiology were started. This study explores the academic outcomes of the first four cohorts of research courses and surveys the participants’ perspectives on the research course. Design An electronic survey was sent to the research course participants. All peer-reviewed scientific papers published by these students were retrieved by literature searches in PubMed. Setting Primary care in Finland. Subjects A total of 46 research course participants who had finished the research courses between 2007 and 2012. Results Of the 46 participants 29 were physicians, eight nurses, three dentists, four physiotherapists, and two nutritionists. By the end of 2014, 28 of the 46 participants (61%) had published 79 papers indexed in PubMed and seven students (15%) had completed a PhD. The participants stated that the course taught them critical thinking, and provided basic research knowledge, inspiration, and fruitful networks for research. Conclusion A one-year, multi-professional, clinical epidemiology based research course appeared to be successful in encouraging primary care research as measured by research publications and networking. Activating teaching methods, encouraging focus on own research planning, and support from peers and tutors helped the participants to embark on research projects that resulted in PhDs for 15% of the participants. Key PointsClinical research and PhDs are rare in primary care in Finland, which has consequences for the development of the discipline and for the availability of clinical lecturers at the universities.A clinical epidemiology oriented, one-year research course increased the activity in primary care research. Focus on own research planning and learning the challenges of research with peers appeared to enhance the success of a doctoral

  15. Malaria Molecular Epidemiology: Lessons from the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Escalante, Ananias A.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Volkman, Sarah K.; Cui, Liwang; Gamboa, Dionicia; Krogstad, Donald J.; Barry, Alyssa E.; Carlton, Jane M.; van Eijk, Anna Maria; Pradhan, Khageswar; Mueller, Ivo; Greenhouse, Bryan; Andreina Pacheco, M.; Vallejo, Andres F.; Herrera, Socrates; Felger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology leverages genetic information to study the risk factors that affect the frequency and distribution of malaria cases. This article describes molecular epidemiologic investigations currently being carried out by the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) network in a variety of malaria-endemic settings. First, we discuss various novel approaches to understand malaria incidence and gametocytemia, focusing on Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Second, we describe and compare different parasite genotyping methods commonly used in malaria epidemiology and population genetics. Finally, we discuss potential applications of molecular epidemiological tools and methods toward malaria control and elimination efforts. PMID:26259945

  16. Research Findings on Radiation Hormesis and Radon Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Sadao

    1999-06-06

    Radiation hormesis research in Japan to determine the validity of Luckey's claims has revealed information on the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific data of animal tests we obtained and successful results actually brought by radon therapy on human patients show us a clearer understanding of the health effects of low-level radiation. We obtained many animal test results and epidemiological survey data through our research activities cooperating with more than ten universities in Japan, categorized as follows: 1. suppression of cancer by enhancement of the immune system based on gene activation; 2. rejuvenation and suppression of aging by increasing cell membrane permeability and enzyme syntheses; 3. adaptive response by activation of gene expression on DNA repair and cell apoptosis; 4. pain relief and stress moderation by hormone formation in the brain and central nervous system; 5. avoidance and therapy of obstinate diseases by enhancing damage control systems and form one formation.

  17. Research Strategies for Nutritional and Physical Activity Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    In response to a series of controversial articles about nutritional epidemiology and cancer published in 2014, staff from the Environmental Epidemiology Branch initiated a series of meetings to refine programmatic priorities for human nutrition/physical activity and cancer etiology research in the near term.

  18. Radiation chemistry research using PULAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaikwad, Parimal; Priyadarsini, K. I.; Rao, B. S. M.

    2008-10-01

    The details of the recently installed 7 MeV Pune University LINAC Facility (PULAF) coupled with the optical absorption technique for pulse radiolysis studies at the National Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Pune, India are described. The facility has a selection of electron pulse widths in the range 10 ns-3 μs with corresponding doses of about 5-144 Gy per pulse. The operation of the machine and the detection system are fully automated. Several researchers from various Indian universities and national laboratories use the PULAF and some of the projects that are currently undertaken by our group and others include the radiation chemistry of indole and chalcone derivatives, herbal antioxidants, structure-reactivity studies in cinnamates, redox chemistry of inorganic metal complexes, studies on oxidation of pyrimidine analogues and aromatic sulphur compounds. Some of them are briefly discussed here.

  19. Ionizing Radiation and Cancer Risks: What Have We Learned From Epidemiology?

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Ethel S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologic studies of persons exposed to ionizing radiation offer a wealth of information on cancer risks in humans. The Life Span Study cohort of Japanese A-bomb survivors, a large cohort that includes all ages and both sexes with a wide range of well-characterized doses, is the primary resource for estimating carcinogenic risks from low linear energy transfer external exposure. Extensive data on persons exposed for therapeutic or diagnostic medical reasons offer the opportunity to study fractionated exposure, risks at high therapeutic doses, and risks of site-specific cancers in non-Japanese populations. Studies of persons exposed for occupational and environmental reasons allow a direct evaluation of exposure at low doses and dose rates, and also provide information on different types of radiation such as radon and iodine-131. This article summarizes the findings from these studies with emphasis on studies with well-characterized doses. Conclusions Epidemiologic studies provide the necessary data for quantifying cancer risks as a function of dose and for setting radiation protection standards. Leukemia and most solid cancers have been linked with radiation. Most solid cancer data are reasonably well described by linear-dose response functions although there may be a downturn in risks at very high doses. Persons exposed early in life have especially high relative risks for many cancers, and radiation-related risk of solid cancers appears to persist throughout life. PMID:19401906

  20. Assessment of radiation exposure from cesium-137 contaminated roads for epidemiological studies in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Keun; Ju, Young-Su; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung Sik; Yim, Sang-Hyuk; Yoo, Sang-Chul; Lee, Jieon; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Burm, Eunae; Ha, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the radiation exposure for epidemiologic investigation in residents exposed to radiation from roads that were accidentally found to be contaminated with radioactive cesium-137 (137Cs) in Seoul. Methods Using information regarding the frequency and duration of passing via the 137Cs contaminated roads or residing/working near the roads from the questionnaires that were obtained from 8875 residents and the measured radiation doses reported by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, we calculated the total cumulative dose of radiation exposure for each person. Results Sixty-three percent of the residents who responded to the questionnaire were considered as ever-exposed and 1% of them had a total cumulative dose of more than 10 mSv. The mean (minimum, maximum) duration of radiation exposure was 4.75 years (0.08, 11.98) and the geometric mean (minimum, maximum) of the total cumulative dose was 0.049 mSv (<0.001, 35.35) in the exposed. Conclusions An individual exposure assessment was performed for an epidemiological study to estimate the health risk among residents living in the vicinity of 137Cs contaminated roads. The average exposure dose in the exposed people was less than 5% of the current guideline. PMID:26184047

  1. Low Dose Radiation Cancer Risks: Epidemiological and Toxicological Models

    SciTech Connect

    David G. Hoel, PhD

    2012-04-19

    The basic purpose of this one year research grant was to extend the two stage clonal expansion model (TSCE) of carcinogenesis to exposures other than the usual single acute exposure. The two-stage clonal expansion model of carcinogenesis incorporates the biological process of carcinogenesis, which involves two mutations and the clonal proliferation of the intermediate cells, in a stochastic, mathematical way. The current TSCE model serves a general purpose of acute exposure models but requires numerical computation of both the survival and hazard functions. The primary objective of this research project was to develop the analytical expressions for the survival function and the hazard function of the occurrence of the first cancer cell for acute, continuous and multiple exposure cases within the framework of the piece-wise constant parameter two-stage clonal expansion model of carcinogenesis. For acute exposure and multiple exposures of acute series, it is either only allowed to have the first mutation rate vary with the dose, or to have all the parameters be dose dependent; for multiple exposures of continuous exposures, all the parameters are allowed to vary with the dose. With these analytical functions, it becomes easy to evaluate the risks of cancer and allows one to deal with the various exposure patterns in cancer risk assessment. A second objective was to apply the TSCE model with varing continuous exposures from the cancer studies of inhaled plutonium in beagle dogs. Using step functions to estimate the retention functions of the pulmonary exposure of plutonium the multiple exposure versions of the TSCE model was to be used to estimate the beagle dog lung cancer risks. The mathematical equations of the multiple exposure versions of the TSCE model were developed. A draft manuscript which is attached provides the results of this mathematical work. The application work using the beagle dog data from plutonium exposure has not been completed due to the fact

  2. Stray radiation research in CSRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Baolin; Li, Lin; Huang, Yifan; Han, Xing; Ma, Bin

    2010-10-01

    Cryogenic space remote sensor(CSRS), working on the Sun-synchronous orbit, is used to make observation of deep space and implement scientific research tasks. To observe small targets in deep space, CSRS should have quite low noise. Stray light is a major part of noise that affects the imaging quality, therefore, stray light control is a critical part of CSRS. CSRS is cooled to 10K, and works on the orbit which is never directly illuminated by the Sun and far away from other radiation sources such as the Earth and the Moon, so stray light from these objects can be neglected. This paper focuses on stray light from self thermal emissions of CSRS components, which plays a more important role in acquiring qualified image. Based on the theory of radiation energy transfer in the optical system, a method is proposed to calculate self thermal emission. After analysis of self thermal emission, measures suppressing stray light are put forward. Also in the paper, a few simulations to testify the scheme mentioned above are presented. Component emittance and paint absorbance are measured at various wavelengths as inputs for simulations. The results show that peak value of irradiance is well restricted to meet the system's requirement.

  3. Accelerator Facilities for Radiation Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1999-01-01

    HSRP Goals in Accelerator Use and Development are: 1.Need for ground-based heavy ion and proton facility to understand space radiation effects discussed most recently by NAS/NRC Report (1996). 2. Strategic Program Goals in facility usage and development: -(1) operation of AGS for approximately 600 beam hours/year; (2) operation of Loma Linda University (LLU) proton facility for approximately 400 beam hours/year; (3) construction of BAF facility; and (4) collaborative research at HIMAC in Japan and with other existing or potential international facilities. 3. MOA with LLU has been established to provide proton beams with energies of 40-250 important for trapped protons and solar proton events. 4. Limited number of beam hours available at Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

  4. [Emphasis of biological research for space radiation].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, T; Nagaoka, S

    1998-03-01

    The paper summarized issues, current status and the recent topics in biological research of space radiation. Researches to estimate a risk associated with space radiation exposure during a long-term manned space flight, such as in the International Space Station, is emphasized because of the large uncertainty of biological effects and a complexity of the radiation environment in space. The Issues addressed are; 1) biological effects and end points in low dose radiation, 2) biological effects under low dose rate and long-term radiation exposure, 3) modification of biological responses to radiation under space environments, 4) various aspects of biological end points vs. cellular and molecular mechanisms, 5) estimation of human risk associated with radiation exposure in space flight, 6) regulations for radiation exposure limits for space workers. The paper also summarized and introduced recent progress in space related radiation researches with various biological systems. PMID:11541824

  5. Challenges for environmental epidemiology research: are biomarker concentrations altered by kidney function or urine concentration adjustment?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological monitoring has become a standard approach to exposure assessment in occupational and environmental epidemiology. The use of biological effect markers to identify early adverse changes in target organs has also become widely adopted. Recently, nephrotoxicant research us...

  6. Epidemiologic research topics in Germany: a keyword network analysis of 2014 DGEpi conference presentations.

    PubMed

    Peter, Raphael Simon; Brehme, Torben; Völzke, Henry; Muche, Rainer; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Büchele, Gisela

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of epidemiologic research topics as well as trends is useful for scientific societies, researchers and funding agencies. In recent years researchers recognized the usefulness of keyword network analysis for visualizing and analyzing scientific research topics. Therefore, we applied keyword network analysis to present an overview of current epidemiologic research topics in Germany. Accepted submissions to the 9th annual congress of the German Society for Epidemiology (DGEpi) in 2014 were used as data source. Submitters had to choose one of 19 subject areas, and were ask to provide a title, structured abstract, names of authors along with their affiliations, and a list of freely selectable keywords. Keywords had been provided for 262 (82 %) submissions, 1030 keywords in total. Overall the most common keywords were: "migration" (18 times), "prevention" (15 times), followed by "children", "cohort study", "physical activity", and "secondary data analysis" (11 times each). Some keywords showed a certain concentration under one specific subject area, e.g. "migration" with 8 of 18 in social epidemiology or "breast cancer" with 4 of 7 in cancer epidemiology. While others like "physical activity" were equally distributed over multiple subject areas (cardiovascular & metabolic diseases, ageing, methods, paediatrics, prevention & health service research). This keyword network analysis demonstrated the high diversity of epidemiologic research topics with a large number of distinct keywords as presented at the annual conference of the DGEpi. PMID:26994764

  7. Epidemiological studies of human exposures to radiofrequency radiation. A critical review.

    PubMed

    Roberts, N J; Michaelson, S M

    1985-01-01

    The health effects to exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) remain undefined and controversial. Epidemiological studies of human exposures to RFR are confounded by difficulties in determining the type and true extent of exposures, in selecting an appropriate control group for comparisons, in determining the existence and influence of many concomitant environmental factors, and in establishing the presence or measuring the frequency or severity of subjective complaints was well as objective findings in the studied populations. This paper reviews reported RFR effects on general health, growth and development, physiological systems such as the cardiovascular and nervous systems, and organs such as the eye. Criteria for reliable epidemiological studies are presented to allow critical analysis of such reports. PMID:3905624

  8. Epidemiologic Study of One Million American Workers and Military Veterans Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, John D.

    2015-02-27

    A pilot study was completed demonstrating the feasibility of conducting an epidemiologic study assessing cancer and other disease mortality among nearly one million US veterans and workers exposed to ionizing radiation, a population 10 times larger than atomic bomb survivor study with high statistical power to evaluate low dose rate effects. Among the groups enumerated and/or studied were: (1) 194,000 Department of Energy Uranium Workers; (2) 6,700 Rocketdyne Radiation Workers; (3) 7,000 Mound Radiation Workers; (4) 156,000 DOE Plutonium Workers; (5) 212,000 Nuclear Power Plant Workers; (6) 130,000 Industrial Radiography Workers; (7) 1.7 million Medical Workers and (8) 135,000 Atomic Veterans.

  9. Survivors and scientists: Hiroshima, Fukushima, and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 1975-2014.

    PubMed

    Lindee, Susan

    2016-04-01

    In this article, I reflect on the Radiation Effects Research Foundation and its ongoing studies of long-term radiation risk. Originally called the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (1947-1975), the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has carried out epidemiological research tracking the biomedical effects of radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki for almost 70 years. Radiation Effects Research Foundation scientists also played a key role in the assessment of populations exposed at Chernobyl and are now embarking on studies of workers at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. I examine the role of estimating dosimetry in post-disaster epidemiology, highlight how national identity and citizenship have mattered in radiation risk networks, and track how participants interpreted the relationships between nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. Industrial interests in Japan and the United States sought to draw a sharp line between the risks of nuclear war and the risks of nuclear power, but the work of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (which became the basis of worker protection standards for the industry) and the activism of atomic bomb survivors have drawn these two nuclear domains together. This is so particularly in the wake of the Fukushima disaster, Japan's 'third atomic bombing'. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation is therefore a critical node in a complex global network of scientific institutions that adjudicate radiation risk and proclaim when it is present and when absent. Its history, I suggest, can illuminate some properties of modern disasters and the many sciences that engage with them. PMID:27263236

  10. Epidemiological Research on Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhi-Chao; Kou, Zeng-Qiang; Bai, Yong-Juan; Cong, Xiang; Wang, Li-Hong; Li, Chun; Zhao, Li; Yu, Xue-Jie; Wang, Zhi-Yu; Wen, Hong-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which has led to millions of attacks and several outbreaks across the world and become more predominant in Asia-Pacific Region, especially in Mainland China, is caused by several Human Enteroviruses including new enterovirus, coxsakievirus and echovirus. In recent years, much research has focused on the epidemiological characteristics of HFMD. In this article, multiple characteristics of HFMD such as basic epidemiology, etiology and molecular epidemiology; influencing factors; detection; and surveillance are reviewed, as these can be help protect high risks groups, prevalence prediction and policy making for disease prevention. PMID:26690202

  11. Prevention of AIDS and HIV infection: needs and priorities for epidemiologic research.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J R; Curran, J W

    1988-01-01

    By the end of 1987, almost 50,000 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) will have been reported in the United States. Although the primary epidemiology of the disease has been described, much work remains to be done to complete our understanding of the dynamics of transmission and infection with the causative virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). At the state and local level, the highest priorities for epidemiologic research are to understand better the precise populations at risk of prevalent and incident HIV infection, and to use this information to direct and monitor specific prevention programs that are likely to be effective for the populations at risk. These parallel efforts-sophisticated investigative epidemiologic research and applied epidemiologic and serosurveillance studies-must be expanded rapidly and continued for the forseeable future if we are to accomplish the goal of preventing further spread of HIV. PMID:3279836

  12. [A review of porcine torovirus research: etiology and epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Zhu, Ling; Zhou, Yuan-Cheng; Guo, Wan-Zhu

    2013-11-01

    Porcine Torovirus (PToV) is widely distributed in the world with high prevalence rate in swinery. Due to the high detection rate in diarrhea pigs, PToV is thought to be a potential pathogen of swine diarrhea. In recent years, epidemic outbreaks of diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality in China have caused great economic losses. Intertypic recombination events and antigenic cross-reactivity among toroviruses implies potential zoonotic transmission of PToV. The review represented the development history of PToV and made a brief summary of the features in genome and protein epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of the PToV, and so on. PMID:24520775

  13. Applications of radiation belt research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2011-10-01

    When Arthur Clark and John Pierce proposed geosynchronous and low-Earth-orbiting (GEO and LEO) communications satellites, respectively, they did not envision that the environment in which their concepts would fly would be anything but benign. Discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts in 1958 fundamentally altered understanding of Earth's near-space environment and its impacts on technologies. Indeed, the first commercial telecommunications satellite, Telstar 1, in LEO, failed some 6 months after launch (10 July 1962) due to trapped radiation that had been enhanced from the Starfish Prime high-altitude nuclear test on the day prior to launch. Today radiation trapped in the geomagnetic field, as well as solar energetic particles that can access the magnetosphere, forms critical constraints on the design and operations of satellite systems. These considerations were important factors in the planning of the AGU Chapman Conference on radiation belts that was hosted in July 2011 by the Memorial University of Newfoundland in St. John's, Canada (see "Chapman Conference on Radiation Belts and the Inner Magnetosphere," page 4). The conference presentations, discussions, and hallway conversations illuminated current understanding of Earth's radiation belts and critical issues remaining. Certainly, fundamental understanding of radiation belt origins remains elusive. The relative roles of adiabatic processes, geomagnetic storm injections, and wave heating, among other considerations, are central topics of intense debate and of competing modeling regimes by numerous active groups.

  14. Japan's ethical guidelines for epidemiologic research: a history of their development.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Takeo; Sakai, Michi; Slingsby, Brian Taylor

    2005-07-01

    During the latter half of the 1990s, Japanese healthcare professionals and policy-makers recognized the value of an "evidence-based" approach. At the same time, an increased social awareness of the need to protect research participants and personal information began to appear. Recognition of an evidence-based approach further promoted epidemiologic research while regulations on personal information protection imposed certain limitations on this same research. In April 2000, as a solution to this conflict, a working group funded by Japan's Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW; currently the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare: MHLW) proposed a first draft of ethical guidelines for epidemiologic research. Over the next two years, the collection of domestic and foreign data by working groups and governmental ad hoc committees, questions raised by the mass media, and public statements made by organizations, such as the Science Council of Japan and the Japan Epidemiologic Association (JEA), led to a collaborative effort between the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and the MHLW. This effort led to the creation of the Ethical Guidelines for Epidemiologic Research in June 2002, which was revised in 2004. Furthermore, JEA also announced the Ethical Guidelines for Conducting of Epidemiologic Research in October 2002. While the development of these ethical guidelines has been a challenge for Japanese epidemiologists, it has also allowed the epidemiologic community to understand their role in society. This review aims to provide insight into the interaction between the epidemiologic community and society by assessing historically the developmental process of these ethical guidelines. PMID:16141628

  15. The NASA Space Radiation Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of the NASA Space Radiation Research Program. This program combines basic research on the mechanisms of radiobiological action relevant for improving knowledge of the risks of cancer, central nervous system and other possible degenerative tissue effects, and acute radiation syndromes from space radiation. The keystones of the NASA Program are five NASA Specialized Center's of Research (NSCOR) investigating space radiation risks. Other research is carried out through peer-reviewed individual investigations and in collaboration with the US Department of Energies Low-Dose Research Program. The Space Radiation Research Program has established the Risk Assessment Project to integrate data from the NSCOR s and other peer-reviewed research into quantitative projection models with the goals of steering research into data and scientific breakthroughs that will reduce the uncertainties in current risk projections and developing the scientific knowledge needed for future individual risk assessment approaches and biological countermeasure assessments or design. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was created by the Program to simulate space radiation on the ground in support of the above research programs. New results from NSRL will be described.

  16. Overview of NASA's space radiation research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2003-01-01

    NASA is developing the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk in space. The strategy employed has three research components: (1) ground-based simulation of space radiation components to develop a science-based understanding of radiation risk; (2) space-based measurements of the radiation environment on planetary surfaces and interplanetary space, as well as use of space platforms to validate predictions; and, (3) implementation of countermeasures to mitigate risk. NASA intends to significantly expand its support of ground-based radiation research in line with completion of the Booster Applications Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, expected in summer of 2003. A joint research solicitation with the Department of Energy is under way and other interagency collaborations are being considered. In addition, a Space Radiation Initiative has been submitted by the Administration to Congress that would provide answers to most questions related to the International Space Station within the next 10 years.

  17. [EpiInfo as a research and teaching tool in epidemiology and statistics: strengths and weaknesses].

    PubMed

    Mannocci, Alice; Bontempi, Claudio; Giraldi, Guglielmo; Chiaradia, Giacomina; de Waure, Chiara; Sferrazza, Antonella; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    EpiInfo is a free software developed in 1988 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta to facilitate field epidemiological investigations and statistical analysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether the software represents, in the Italian biomedical field, an effective analytical research tool and a practical and simple epidemiology and biostatistics teaching tool. A questionnaire consisting of 20 multiple-choice and open questions was administered to 300 healthcare workers, including doctors, biologists, nurses, medical students and interns, at the end of a CME course in epidemiology and biostatistics. Sixty-four percent of participants were aged between 26 and 45 years, 52% were women and 73% were unmarried. Results show that women are more likely to utilize EpiInfo in their research activities with respect to men (p = 0.023), as are individuals aged 26-45 years with respect to the older and younger age groups (p = 0.023) and unmarried participants with respect to those married (p = 0.010). Thirty-one percent of respondents consider EpiInfo to be more than adequate for analysis of their research data and 52% consider it to be sufficiently so. The inclusion of an EpiInfo course in statistics and epidemiology modules facilitates the understanding of theoretical concepts and allows researchers to more easily perform some of the clinical/epidemiological research activities. PMID:22507994

  18. Design and analysis of metabolomics studies in epidemiologic research: a primer on -omic technologies.

    PubMed

    Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Ebbels, Timothy M D; Valdes, Ana; Elliott, Paul; Ioannidis, John P A

    2014-07-15

    Metabolomics is the field of "-omics" research concerned with the comprehensive characterization of the small low-molecular-weight metabolites in biological samples. In epidemiology, it represents an emerging technology and an unprecedented opportunity to measure environmental and other exposures with improved precision and far less measurement error than with standard epidemiologic methods. Advances in the application of metabolomics in large-scale epidemiologic research are now being realized through a combination of improved sample preparation and handling, automated laboratory and processing methods, and reduction in costs. The number of epidemiologic studies that use metabolic profiling is still limited, but it is fast gaining popularity in this area. In the present article, we present a roadmap for metabolomic analyses in epidemiologic studies and discuss the various challenges these data pose to large-scale studies. We discuss the steps of data preprocessing, univariate and multivariate data analysis, correction for multiplicity of comparisons with correlated data, and finally the steps of cross-validation and external validation. As data from metabolomic studies accumulate in epidemiology, there is a need for large-scale replication and synthesis of findings, increased availability of raw data, and a focus on good study design, all of which will highlight the potential clinical impact of metabolomics in this field. PMID:24966222

  19. Physics as an element of radiation research.

    SciTech Connect

    Inokuti, M.; Seltzer, S.; Physics; National Inst. of Standards and Technology

    2002-07-01

    Since its inception in 1954, Radiation Research has published an estimated total of about 8700 scientific articles up to August 2001, about 520, or roughly 6%, of which are primarily related to physics. This average of about 11 articles per year indicates steadily continuing contributions by physicists, though there are appreciable fluctuations from year to year. These works of physicists concern radiation sources, dosimetry, instrumentation for measurements of radiation effects, fundamentals of radiation physics, mechanisms of radiation actions, and applications. In this review, we have selected some notable accomplishments for discussion and present an outlook for the future.

  20. Epidemiology and statistics at the Nordic School of Public Health: Teaching and research 1979-2014.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Bo

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) was jointly founded in 1953 by the Nordic countries. Until 1979, the school provided ad hoc courses on public health topics, using external teachers drawn mainly from the Nordic countries. At the time, the permanent staff of the school was small. In 1979, it began a Master's degree programme and a few academic positions were established and filled, to support these courses. The programme included four main areas: Epidemiology, Social Medicine, Environmental Health and Health Services Administration. Epidemiology was compulsory in all Master of Public Health (MPH) exams, but there were a handful of optional courses that could be substituted for the other subjects.This paper tells the story of Epidemiology at NHV from about 1980, up until closure of the school in 2014. The original MPH model ran until 1995. Nursing Science entered NHV from about 1985 and worked mainly with qualitative research that often focused on individual patients. The new methods attracted nurses, midwives, psychologists and other groups that previously had been less represented in NHV. Being quantitative and population oriented, Epidemiology lost its unique position as a mandatory subject for the MPH examination. In addition the 'New Public Health' proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) that advocated health promotion and the philosophy of salutogenesis became a challenge for the programme in epidemiology: pathogenesis no longer was of primary interest. From 1995, the MPH format changed repeatedly and a DrPH programme was begun. For the last 8 years of its existence, NHV offered a reasonably comprehensive, basic course in Epidemiology.Throughout the years, epidemiology training and research at NHV were very traditional. In being a relatively free institution in terms of academic choices, NHV should have contributed to the development and innovation of epidemiology in public health. For several reasons, this did not happen. PMID:26311794

  1. A pilot study: research poster presentations as an educational tool for undergraduate epidemiology students

    PubMed Central

    Deonandan, Raywat; Gomes, James; Lavigne, Eric; Dinh, Thy; Blanchard, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Students in a fourth year epidemiology course were surveyed after participating in a formal Science Research Day in which they presented original research, in poster form, to be judged by scientists from the community. Of 276 participating students, 80 (29%) responded to the study survey. As a result, 19% of respondents were more likely to pursue a career in science, and 27.5% were more likely to pursue a career in epidemiology. Only one respondent reported being less likely to pursue a science career, while seven were less likely to pursue epidemiology. A majority of respondents felt that the poster experience was on par with, or superior to, a comparable research paper, in terms of both educational appeal and enjoyment. Mandatory, formal poster presentations are an innovative format for teaching advanced health sciences, and may more accurately reflect the realities of a science career than do more traditional educational formats. PMID:24101888

  2. Second Solid Cancers After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiologic Studies of the Radiation Dose-Response Relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Gilbert, Ethel; Curtis, Rochelle; Inskip, Peter; Kleinerman, Ruth; Morton, Lindsay; Rajaraman, Preetha; Little, Mark P.

    2013-06-01

    Rapid innovations in radiation therapy techniques have resulted in an urgent need for risk projection models for second cancer risks from high-dose radiation exposure, because direct observation of the late effects of newer treatments will require patient follow-up for a decade or more. However, the patterns of cancer risk after fractionated high-dose radiation are much less well understood than those after lower-dose exposures (0.1-5 Gy). In particular, there is uncertainty about the shape of the dose-response curve at high doses and about the magnitude of the second cancer risk per unit dose. We reviewed the available evidence from epidemiologic studies of second solid cancers in organs that received high-dose exposure (>5 Gy) from radiation therapy where dose-response curves were estimated from individual organ-specific doses. We included 28 eligible studies with 3434 second cancer patients across 11 second solid cancers. Overall, there was little evidence that the dose-response curve was nonlinear in the direction of a downturn in risk, even at organ doses of ≥60 Gy. Thyroid cancer was the only exception, with evidence of a downturn after 20 Gy. Generally the excess relative risk per Gray, taking account of age and sex, was 5 to 10 times lower than the risk from acute exposures of <2 Gy among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. However, the magnitude of the reduction in risk varied according to the second cancer. The results of our review provide insights into radiation carcinogenesis from fractionated high-dose exposures and are generally consistent with current theoretical models. The results can be used to refine the development of second solid cancer risk projection models for novel radiation therapy techniques.

  3. Measuring sun exposure in epidemiological studies: Matching the method to the research question.

    PubMed

    King, Laura; Xiang, Fan; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Lucas, Robyn M

    2015-12-01

    Sun exposure has risks and benefits for health. Testing these associations requires tools for measuring sun exposure that are feasible and relevant to the time-course of the health outcome. Recent sun exposure, e.g. the last week, is best captured by dosimeters and sun diaries. These can also be used for medium-term sun exposure e.g. over several weeks, but incur a high participant burden. Self-reported data on "typical time outdoors" for working and non-working days, is less detailed and not influenced by day-to-day variation. Over a longer period, e.g. the lifetime, or for particular life stages, proxies of sun exposure, such as latitude of residence or ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels (from satellites or ground-level monitoring) can be used, with additional detail provided by lifetime sun exposure calendars that include locations of residence, usual time outdoors, and detail of sunburn episodes. Objective measures of lifetime sun exposure include microtopography of sun-exposed skin (e.g. using silicone casts) or conjunctival UV autofluorescence. Potential modifiers of the association between sun exposure and the health outcome, such as clothing coverage and skin colour, may also need to be measured. We provide a systematic approach to selecting sun exposure measures for use in epidemiological health research. PMID:26555640

  4. Obesity. An analysis of epidemiological and prognostic research

    PubMed Central

    Wierzejska, Ewelina; Zielińska, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Apart from its medical dimension, the current problem with obesity has acquired social urgency. This serious lifestyle disease has a negative impact on a number of life processes in the body, causing distortions and damaging different structures. It also contributes to clinical complications, lowers the quality of life and reduces life expectancy. Apart from health-related consequences, it can bring such unfavourable results as social, mental and emotional disorders. Material and methods A systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies on obesity in Poland relative to selected countries in Europe and the world over the past 15 years was conducted. Also an attempt was made at forecasting the development of the obesity problem. Results The analysed results demonstrated that the percentage of obese people among the adult population of Poland was on the rise in the period under investigation. Taking into account the estimated growth rate, we can assume that the percentage of obese people in Poland right now might total 23.7% for men and 23.3% for women. If no changes are introduced in this respect, in 2020 we can expect a rise to, respectively, 30.3% and 27.3%, and in 2030 to 37% for men and 31.4% for women. Conclusions The increase in the percentage of obese people among the adult population in Poland is most likely connected with a positive energy balance. In comparison to other European countries Poland has the highest percentage of obese men and women. PMID:25861287

  5. Radiation Exposure, the ATM Gene, and Contralateral Breast Cancer in the Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Haile, Robert W.; Stovall, Marilyn; Boice, John D.; Shore, Roy E.; Langholz, Bryan; Thomas, Duncan C.; Lynch, Charles F.; Olsen, Jorgen H.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Rosenstein, Barry S.; Teraoka, Sharon N.; Diep, Anh T.; Smith, Susan A.; Capanu, Marinela; Reiner, Anne S.; Liang, Xiaolin; Gatti, Richard A.; Concannon, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Background Ionizing radiation is a known mutagen and an established breast carcinogen. The ATM gene is a key regulator of cellular responses to the DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation. We investigated whether genetic variants in ATM play a clinically significant role in radiation-induced contralateral breast cancer in women. Methods The Women's Environmental, Cancer, and Radiation Epidemiology Study is an international population-based case–control study nested within a cohort of 52 536 survivors of unilateral breast cancer diagnosed between 1985 and 2000. The 708 case subjects were women with contralateral breast cancer, and the 1397 control subjects were women with unilateral breast cancer matched to the case subjects on age, follow-up time, registry reporting region, and race and/or ethnicity. All women were interviewed and underwent full mutation screening of the entire ATM gene. Complete medical treatment history information was collected, and for all women who received radiotherapy, the radiation dose to the contralateral breast was reconstructed using radiotherapy records and radiation measurements. Rate ratios (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by using multivariable conditional logistic regression. All P values are two-sided. Results Among women who carried a rare ATM missense variant (ie, one carried by <1% of the study participants) that was predicted to be deleterious, those who were exposed to radiation (mean radiation exposure = 1.2 Gy, SD = 0.7) had a statistically significantly higher risk of contralateral breast cancer compared with unexposed women who carried the wild-type genotype (0.01–0.99 Gy: RR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.2 to 6.5; ≥1.0 Gy: RR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.4 to 8.0) or compared with unexposed women who carried the same predicted deleterious missense variant (0.01–0.99 Gy: RR = 5.3, 95% CI = 1.6 to 17.3; ≥1.0 Gy: RR = 5.8, 95% CI = 1.8 to 19.0; Ptrend = .044). Conclusions Women who carry rare

  6. Overview of radiation effects research in photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Robert C.; Cohn, Lewis M.; Taylor, Edward W.; Greenwell, Roger A.

    1995-05-01

    A brief overview of ongoing radiation effects research in photonics is presented focusing on integrated optic and acousto-optic components. A short summary of radiation-induced effects in electro-optic modulators, detector arrays, and other photonic technologies is presented along with extensive references. The coordinated radiation effects studies among researchers within the Tri-Service Organizations and international experimental teams are beginning to demonstrate consistent measurements of radiation-induced effects in photonic components and confirming earlier reported data. This paper will present an overview of these coordinated investigations and focus on key research being conducted with the AFMC Phillips Laboratory, Naval Research Laboratory, Defence Nuclear Agency, NATO Nuclear Effects Task Group, and the Tri-Service Photonics Coordinating Committee.

  7. Risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer--the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, A M

    2000-03-01

    The risk of low-dose radiation exposures has--for a variety of reasons--been highly politicised. This has led to a frequently exaggerated perception of the potential health effects, and to lasting public controversies. A balanced view requires a critical reassessment of the epidemiological basis of current assumptions. There is reliable quantitative information available on the increase of cancer rates due to moderate and high doses. This provides a firm basis for the derivation of probabilities of causation, e.g. after high radiation exposures. For small doses or dose rates, the situation is entirely different: potential increases of cancer rates remain hidden below the statistical fluctuations of normal rates, and the molecular mechanisms of cancerogenesis are not sufficiently well known to allow numerical predictions. Risk coefficients for radiation protection must, therefore, be based on the uncertain extrapolation of observations obtained at moderate or high doses. While extrapolation is arbitrary, it is, nevertheless, used and mostly with the conservative assumption of a linear dose dependence with no threshold (LNT model). All risk estimates are based on this hypothesis. They are, thus, virtual guidelines, rather than firm numbers. The observations on the A-bomb survivors are still the major source of information on the health effects of comparatively small radiation doses. A fairly direct inspection of the data shows that the solid cancer mortality data of the A-bomb survivors are equally consistent with linearity in dose and with reduced effectiveness at low doses. In the leukemia data a reduction is strongly indicated. With one notable exception -- leukemia after prenatal exposure--these observations are in line with a multitude of observations in groups of persons exposed for medical reasons. The low-dose effects of densely ionizing radiations--such as alpha-particles from radon decay products or high-energy neutrons--are a separate important issue. For

  8. Radiation, chemicals, and occupational health research

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation protection and its interplay with physical research programs are described. Differences and similarities between problems in health protection for chemicals and for radiation are discussed. The importance of dosimetry in radiation work and its relevance to chemicals are cited. A collaborative program between physical and biological scientists on the toxicity of metals is briefly described. It serves as an example of new research directed toward the development of fundamental concepts and principles as a basis for understanding and controlling occupational and population exposures to chemicals. 12 references, 4 figures.

  9. Epidemiological and Clinical Services Research on Hispanics' Mental Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogler, Lloyd H.

    The quality of mental health research on Hispanic populations has not kept pace with the quantity, resulting in a poorly integrated body of scientific knowledge. A conceptual framework for clinical service research with Hispanic populations highlights specific goals and orientations, following a hypothetical five-step temporal sequence. Research…

  10. A Research Agenda for Radiation Oncology: Results of the Radiation Oncology Institute's Comprehensive Research Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E.; Brawley, Otis W.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Michalski, Jeff M.; Movsas, Benjamin; Thomas, Charles R.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To promote the rational use of scarce research funding, scholars have developed methods for the systematic identification and prioritization of health research needs. The Radiation Oncology Institute commissioned an independent, comprehensive assessment of research needs for the advancement of radiation oncology care. Methods and Materials: The research needs assessment used a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative social scientific approach, including structured interviews with diverse stakeholders, focus groups, surveys of American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) members, and a prioritization exercise using a modified Delphi technique. Results: Six co-equal priorities were identified: (1) Identify and develop communication strategies to help patients and others better understand radiation therapy; (2) Establish a set of quality indicators for major radiation oncology procedures and evaluate their use in radiation oncology delivery; (3) Identify best practices for the management of radiation toxicity and issues in cancer survivorship; (4) Conduct comparative effectiveness studies related to radiation therapy that consider clinical benefit, toxicity (including quality of life), and other outcomes; (5) Assess the value of radiation therapy; and (6) Develop a radiation oncology registry. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this prioritization exercise is the only comprehensive and methodologically rigorous assessment of research needs in the field of radiation oncology. Broad dissemination of these findings is critical to maximally leverage the impact of this work, particularly because grant funding decisions are often made by committees on which highly specialized disciplines such as radiation oncology are not well represented.

  11. [Social inequality and health: Status and prospects of socio-epidemiological research in Germany].

    PubMed

    Lampert, Thomas; Richter, Matthias; Schneider, Sven; Spallek, Jacob; Dragano, Nico

    2016-02-01

    Social differences in morbidity and mortality have always been a central topic in public health research. In recent years, there has been a growing research interest that has clearly resonated with the general public and the political arena as well. This article describes the development and establishment of social epidemiology in Germany and presents the current status of research. In addition, it describes different models for explaining health inequalities. On this basis, selected challenges and prospects of socio-epidemiological research are demonstrated. The reason why the analysis of social differences in morbidity and mortality will continue to be a key task of public health research in the national and international context in the future is also explained. PMID:26631008

  12. Recent progress and future direction of cancer epidemiological research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sobue, Tomotaka

    2015-06-01

    In 2006, the Cancer Control Act was approved and a Basic Plan, to Promote the Cancer Control Program at the national level, was developed in 2007. Cancer research is recognized as a fundamental component to provide evidence in cancer control program. Cancer epidemiology plays central role in connecting research and policy, since it directly deals with data from humans. Research for cancer epidemiology in Japan made substantial progress, in the field of descriptive studies, cohort studies, intervention studies and activities for summarizing evidences. In future, promoting high-quality large-scale intervention studies, individual-level linkage studies, simulation models and studies for elderly population will be of great importance, but at the same time research should be promoted in well-balanced fashion not placing too much emphasis on one particular research field. PMID:25762798

  13. Research priorities for occupational radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines.

  14. Education and training for radiation scientists: radiation research program and American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Workshop, Bethesda, Maryland, May 12-14, 2003.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C Norman; Stone, Helen B; Alexander, George A; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Bedford, Joel S; Bristow, Robert G; Dynlacht, Joseph R; Fuks, Zvi; Gorelic, Lester S; Hill, Richard P; Joiner, Michael C; Liu, Fei-Fei; McBride, William H; McKenna, W Gillies; Powell, Simon N; Robbins, Michael E C; Rockwell, Sara; Schiff, Peter B; Shaw, Edward G; Siemann, Dietmar W; Travis, Elizabeth L; Wallner, Paul E; Wong, Rosemary S L; Zeman, Elaine M

    2003-12-01

    Current and potential shortfalls in the number of radiation scientists stand in sharp contrast to the emerging scientific opportunities and the need for new knowledge to address issues of cancer survivorship and radiological and nuclear terrorism. In response to these challenges, workshops organized by the Radiation Research Program (RRP), National Cancer Institute (NCI) (Radiat. Res. 157, 204-223, 2002; Radiat. Res. 159, 812-834, 2003), and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) (Nature, 421, 787, 2003) have engaged experts from a range of federal agencies, academia and industry. This workshop, Education and Training for Radiation Scientists, addressed the need to establish a sustainable pool of expertise and talent for a wide range of activities and careers related to radiation biology, oncology and epidemiology. Although fundamental radiation chemistry and physics are also critical to radiation sciences, this workshop did not address workforce needs in these areas. The recommendations include: (1) Establish a National Council of Radiation Sciences to develop a strategy for increasing the number of radiation scientists. The strategy includes NIH training grants, interagency cooperation, interinstitutional collaboration among universities, and active involvement of all stakeholders. (2) Create new and expanded training programs with sustained funding. These may take the form of regional Centers of Excellence for Radiation Sciences. (3) Continue and broaden educational efforts of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), and the Radiation Research Society (RRS). (4) Foster education and training in the radiation sciences for the range of career opportunities including radiation oncology, radiation biology, radiation epidemiology, radiation safety, health/government policy, and industrial research. (5) Educate other

  15. A framework to analyse gender bias in epidemiological research

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz‐Cantero, María Teresa; Vives‐Cases, Carmen; Artazcoz, Lucía; Delgado, Ana; del Mar García Calvente, Maria; Miqueo, Consuelo; Montero, Isabel; Ortiz, Rocío; Ronda, Elena; Ruiz, Isabel; Valls, Carme

    2007-01-01

    The design and analysis of research may cause systematic gender dependent errors to be produced in results because of gender insensitivity or androcentrism. Gender bias in research could be defined as a systematically erroneous gender dependent approach related to social construct, which incorrectly regards women and men as similar/different. Most gender bias can be found in the context of discovery (development of hypotheses), but it has also been found in the context of justification (methodological process), which must be improved. In fact, one of the main effects of gender bias in research is partial or incorrect knowledge in the results, which are systematically different from the real values. This paper discusses some forms of conceptual and methodological bias that may affect women's health. It proposes a framework to analyse gender bias in the design and analysis of research carried out on women's and men's health problems, and on specific women's health issues. Using examples, the framework aims to show the different theoretical perspectives in a social or clinical research context where forms of selection, measurement and confounding bias are produced as a result of gender insensitivity. Finally, this paper underlines the importance of re‐examining results so that they may be reinterpreted to produce new gender based knowledge. PMID:18000118

  16. Problems and potential of researching epidemiological transition: examples from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D R

    1991-01-01

    The concept of epidemiological transition is now quite widely recognized, if not so widely accepted. The transition appears to progress at varying speeds and to different extents spatially; it seems that there can be considerable international, regional and local variations in its progress. The paper examines this contention in the case of a number of countries in Southeast Asia, principally Hong Kong, Malaysia and Thailand. Drawing on evidence from this region, the paper highlights the importance when researching epidemiological transition of the time period under consideration; socio-cultural variations; the nature and quality of data, and spatial scale. It makes some suggestions as to the potential of the concept of epidemiological transition in health care planning and development studies. PMID:1948152

  17. Concerted Uranium Research in Europe (CURE): toward a collaborative project integrating dosimetry, epidemiology and radiobiology to study the effects of occupational uranium exposure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Olivier; Gomolka, Maria; Haylock, Richard; Blanchardon, Eric; Giussani, Augusto; Atkinson, Will; Baatout, Sarah; Bingham, Derek; Cardis, Elisabeth; Hall, Janet; Tomasek, Ladislav; Ancelet, Sophie; Badie, Christophe; Bethel, Gary; Bertho, Jean-Marc; Bouet, Ségolène; Bull, Richard; Challeton-de Vathaire, Cécile; Cockerill, Rupert; Davesne, Estelle; Ebrahimian, Teni; Engels, Hilde; Gillies, Michael; Grellier, James; Grison, Stephane; Gueguen, Yann; Hornhardt, Sabine; Ibanez, Chrystelle; Kabacik, Sylwia; Kotik, Lukas; Kreuzer, Michaela; Lebacq, Anne Laure; Marsh, James; Nosske, Dietmar; O'Hagan, Jackie; Pernot, Eileen; Puncher, Matthew; Rage, Estelle; Riddell, Tony; Roy, Laurence; Samson, Eric; Souidi, Maamar; Turner, Michelle C; Zhivin, Sergey; Laurier, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    The potential health impacts of chronic exposures to uranium, as they occur in occupational settings, are not well characterized. Most epidemiological studies have been limited by small sample sizes, and a lack of harmonization of methods used to quantify radiation doses resulting from uranium exposure. Experimental studies have shown that uranium has biological effects, but their implications for human health are not clear. New studies that would combine the strengths of large, well-designed epidemiological datasets with those of state-of-the-art biological methods would help improve the characterization of the biological and health effects of occupational uranium exposure. The aim of the European Commission concerted action CURE (Concerted Uranium Research in Europe) was to develop protocols for such a future collaborative research project, in which dosimetry, epidemiology and biology would be integrated to better characterize the effects of occupational uranium exposure. These protocols were developed from existing European cohorts of workers exposed to uranium together with expertise in epidemiology, biology and dosimetry of CURE partner institutions. The preparatory work of CURE should allow a large scale collaborative project to be launched, in order to better characterize the effects of uranium exposure and more generally of alpha particles and low doses of ionizing radiation. PMID:27183135

  18. Center for Applied Radiation Research (CARR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogarty, Thomas N.

    1997-01-01

    Prairie View A&M University (PVAMU) Center for Applied Radiation Research (CARR) was established in 1995 to address the tasks, missions and technological needs of NASA. CARR is built on a tradition of radiation research at Prairie View A&M started in 1984 with NASA funding. This continuing program has lead to: (1) A more fundamental and practical understanding of radiation effects on electronics and materials; (2) A dialog between space, military and commercial electronics manufacturers; (3) Innovative electronic circuit designs; (4) Development of state-of-the-art research facilities at PVAMU; (5) Expanded faculty and staff to mentor student research; and (6) Most importantly, increased flow in the pipeline leading to expanded participation of African-Americans and other minorities in science and technological fields of interest to NASA.

  19. Epidemiology of Inhalant Abuse: An Update. NIDA Research Monograph 85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crider, Raquel A., Ed.; Rouse, Beatrice A., Ed.

    This publication consists of papers and discussion from a comprehensive RAUS (Research Analysis and Utilization System) review focusing on factors relating to a multi-year increase in inhalant abuse among high school seniors. The document contains the following articles: (1) "Inhalant Overview" (Raquel A. Crider and Beatrice A. Rouse); (2)…

  20. Issues in environmental epidemiological research: the example of environmental lead and health.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J

    1989-01-01

    Modern environmental epidemiology encompasses the "traditional" area of physico-chemical hazards, along with health hazards in the societal environment (e.g. noise, stress, social organisation), and, increasingly, supranational problems (e.g. ozone depletion, global warming). As governments undertake environmental management, improved quantitative estimates of environmental risks to health are needed. Methodological difficulties of environmental epidemiological research include problems of exposure measurement, of estimating exposure at the level of the individual, and of detecting relatively small effects (particularly at low exposure levels). The health hazards of occupational lead exposure are well documented. The health hazards of environmental exposure to lead, within the general population, remain a focus of continuing epidemiological research. Indeed, the reported adverse effects upon the developing central nervous system of young children are now central to public health debate about environmental lead exposure standards. Recent evidence from cohort studies in several countries indicates adverse effects of environmental lead exposure upon early childhood mental development. In South Australia, a cohort study of children born in a lead smelter community, Port Pirie, has revealed evidence of such an effect. After controlling for many potential confounding factors (social, behavioural, family, and medical), cumulative postnatal lead exposure was found to be weakly associated with an adverse effect upon mental development at age two years and, more strongly, at age four years. The relations between environmental epidemiological research and public health policy are discussed. PMID:2803846

  1. A new dynamical atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) model for epidemiological studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Angelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Goldhagen, P. E.; Wilson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    A new Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) model is currently being developed for use in radiation dose evaluation in epidemiological studies targeted to atmospheric flight personnel such as civilian airlines crewmembers. The model will allow computing values for biologically relevant parameters, e.g. dose equivalent and effective dose, for individual flights from 1945. Each flight is described by its actual three dimensional flight profile, i.e. geographic coordinates and altitudes varying with time. Solar modulated primary particles are filtered with a new analytical fully angular dependent geomagnetic cut off rigidity model, as a function of latitude, longitude, arrival direction, altitude and time. The particle transport results have been obtained with a technique based on the three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA, with a special procedure to deal with HZE particles. Particle fluxes are transformed into dose-related quantities and then integrated all along the flight path to obtain the overall flight dose. Preliminary validations of the particle transport technique using data from the AIR Project ER-2 flight campaign of measurements are encouraging. Future efforts will deal with modeling of the effects of the aircraft structure as well as inclusion of solar particle events. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  2. The role of epidemiology in MS research: Past successes, current challenges and future potential.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Steve; Taylor, Bruce V; van der Mei, Ingrid

    2015-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifaceted condition, with a range of environmental, behavioural and genetic factors implicated in its aetiology and clinical course. Successes in advancing our appreciation of the roles of Epstein-Barr virus, vitamin D/UV and the HLA-DRB1 locus; and our greater understanding of these and related factors' modes of action in MS and other conditions, can be attributed in no small part to the work of generations of epidemiologists. Hardly content to rest on our laurels, however, there are yet a range of unsolved conundrums in MS, including some changes in epidemiological characteristics (e.g. increasing incidence and sex ratio), to say nothing of the unresolved parts regarding what underlies MS risk and its clinical course. There is evidence that epidemiology will continue to play a crucial role in unravelling the architecture of MS causation and clinical course. While classic epidemiological methods are ongoing, novel avenues for research include gene-environment interaction studies, the world of '-omic' research, and the utilisation of mobile and social media tools to both access and track study populations, which means that the epidemiological discoveries of the past century may be but a glimpse of our understanding in the next few decades. PMID:25767125

  3. Knowledge in process? Exploring barriers between epidemiological research and local health policy development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands municipalities are legally required to draw up a Local Health Policy Memorandum every four years. This policy memorandum should be based on (local) epidemiological research as performed by the Regional Health Services. However, it is largely unknown if and in what way epidemiological research is used during local policy development. As part of a larger study on knowledge utilization at the local level in The Netherlands, an analytical framework on the use of epidemiological research in local health policy development in the Netherlands is presented here. Method Based on a literature search and a short inventory on experiences from Regional Health Services, we made a description of existing research utilization models and concepts about research utilization. Subsequently we mapped different barriers in research transmission. Results The interaction model is regarded as the main explanatory model. It acknowledges the interactive and incremental nature of policy development, which takes place in a context and includes diversity within the groups of researchers and policymakers. This fits well in the dynamic and complex setting of local Dutch health policy. For the conceptual framework we propose a network approach, in which we "extend" the interaction model. We not only focus on the one-to-one relation between an individual researcher and policymaker but include interactions between several actors participating in the research and policy process. In this model interaction between actors in the research and the policy network is expected to improve research utilization. Interaction can obstruct or promote four clusters of barriers between research and policy: expectations, transfer issues, acceptance, and interpretation. These elements of interactions and barriers provide an actual explanation of research utilization. Research utilization itself can be measured on the individual level of actors and on a policy process level. Conclusion The

  4. Proposed classification of lymphoid neoplasms for epidemiologic research from the Pathology Working Group of the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph)

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Jennifer J.; Cerhan, James R.; Linet, Martha S.; Treseler, Patrick A.; Clarke, Christina A.; Jack, Andrew; Cozen, Wendy; Maynadié, Marc; Spinelli, John J.; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Rüdiger, Thomas; Scarpa, Aldo; Zheng, Tongzhang; Weisenburger, Dennis D.

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that there is etiologic heterogeneity among the various subtypes of lymphoid neoplasms. However, epidemiologic analyses by disease subtype have proven challenging due to the numerous clinical and pathologic schemes used to classify lymphomas and lymphoid leukemias over the last several decades. On behalf of the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) Pathology Working Group, we present a proposed nested classification of lymphoid neoplasms to facilitate the analysis of lymphoid neoplasm subtypes in epidemiologic research. The proposed classification is based on the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms and the International Classification of Diseases–Oncology, Third Edition (ICD-O-3). We also provide a translation into the proposed classification from previous classifications, including the Working Formulation, Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification, and ICD-O-2. We recommend that epidemiologic studies include analyses by lymphoma subtype to the most detailed extent allowable by sample size. The standardization of groupings for epidemiologic research of lymphoma subtypes is essential for comparing subtype-specific reports in the literature, harmonizing cases within a single study diagnosed using different systems, as well as combining data from multiple studies for the purpose of pooled analysis or meta-analysis, and will probably prove to be critical for elucidating etiologies of the various lymphoid neoplasms. PMID:17389762

  5. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jeffrey W.; McGinty, E. Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Methods Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Results Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms–related fatalities. Conclusions Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. PMID:24861430

  6. A novel framework for assessing metadata quality in epidemiological and public health research settings

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Christiana; Denaxas, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    Metadata are critical in epidemiological and public health research. However, a lack of biomedical metadata quality frameworks and limited awareness of the implications of poor quality metadata renders data analyses problematic. In this study, we created and evaluated a novel framework to assess metadata quality of epidemiological and public health research datasets. We performed a literature review and surveyed stakeholders to enhance our understanding of biomedical metadata quality assessment. The review identified 11 studies and nine quality dimensions; none of which were specifically aimed at biomedical metadata. 96 individuals completed the survey; of those who submitted data, most only assessed metadata quality sometimes, and eight did not at all. Our framework has four sections: a) general information; b) tools and technologies; c) usability; and d) management and curation. We evaluated the framework using three test cases and sought expert feedback. The framework can assess biomedical metadata quality systematically and robustly. PMID:27570670

  7. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  8. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  9. Earth Radiation Budget Research at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.

    2014-01-01

    In the 1970s research studies concentrating on satellite measurements of Earth's radiation budget started at the NASA Langley Research Center. Since that beginning, considerable effort has been devoted to developing measurement techniques, data analysis methods, and time-space sampling strategies to meet the radiation budget science requirements for climate studies. Implementation and success of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) was due to the remarkable teamwork of many engineers, scientists, and data analysts. Data from ERBE have provided a new understanding of the effects of clouds, aerosols, and El Nino/La Nina oscillation on the Earth's radiation. CERES spacecraft instruments have extended the time coverage with high quality climate data records for over a decade. Using ERBE and CERES measurements these teams have created information about radiation at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and throughout the atmosphere for a better understanding of our climate. They have also generated surface radiation products for designers of solar power plants and buildings and numerous other applications

  10. Geometrical assessment of ocular exposure to environmental UV radiation--implications for ophthalmic epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Sliney, D H

    1999-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of the influence of environmental ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in the development of cataract, pterygium, droplet keratopathies and age-related macular degeneration have produced inconsistent findings. The lack of consistent results may be due largely to either incomplete or erroneous estimates of outdoor UV exposure dose. Geometrical factors dominate the determination of UVR exposure of the eye. The degree of lid opening limits ocular exposure to only those rays entering at angles near the horizon. Clouds redistribute overhead UVR to the horizon sky. Mountains, trees and building shield the eye from direct sky exposure. Most ground surfaces reflect little UVR. The result is that the highest UVR exposure occurs during light overcast where the horizon is visible and ground surface reflection is high. By contrast, exposure in a high mountain valley with green foliage results in a much lower ocular dose. Other findings of these studies show that retinal exposure to light and UVR in daylight occurs largely in the superior retina. PMID:10709347

  11. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  12. Preventing insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: the environmental challenge. Diabetes Epidemiology Research International.

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The epidemiology of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was evaluated to determine the degree to which the disease results from environmental agents and therefore might be prevented. The results of research indicate that insulin dependent diabetes can be produced in animal models by environmental factors, there are major geographical variations in diabetes, certain populations have shown rapid changes in incidence over time, migrants appear to take on the risk of diabetes in their new country, and certain viruses and chemicals cause insulin dependent diabetes in humans. The results of genetic and epidemiological studies also show that at least 60% of insulin dependent diabetes world wide, and perhaps over 95%, is environmentally determined and thus potentially avoidable. It is concluded that the primary worldwide determinants of diabetes are environmental not immunogenetic and that identifying and altering the diabetogenic environmental factor(s) are likely to be more effective and less risky in preventing insulin dependent diabetes than current immunogenetic approaches. PMID:3117180

  13. Social epidemiology and complex system dynamic modelling as applied to health behaviour and drug use research

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro; Hall, Chris; Kaplan, George A

    2009-01-01

    A social epidemiologic perspective considers factors at multiple levels of influence (e.g., social networks, neighborhoods, states) that may individually or jointly affect health and health behaviour. This provides a useful lens through which to understand the production of health behaviours in general, and drug use in particular. However, the analytic models that are commonly applied in population health sciences limit the inference we are able to draw about the determination of health behaviour by factors, likely interrelated, across levels of influence. Complex system dynamic modelling techniques may be useful in enabling the adoption of a social epidemiologic approach in health behaviour and drug use research. We provide an example of a model that aims to incorporate factors at multiple levels of influence in understanding drug dependence. We conclude with suggestions about future directions in the field and how such models may serve as virtual laboratories for policy experiments aimed at improving health behaviour. PMID:18930649

  14. At the crossroads of anthropology and epidemiology: Current research in cultural psychiatry in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Cultural psychiatry research in the UK comprises a broad range of diverse methodologies, academic disciplines, and subject areas. Methodologies range from epidemiological to anthropological/ethnographic to health services research; mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular, as are public health and health promotional topics. After briefly outlining the history of cultural psychiatry in the UK we will discuss contemporary research. Prominent themes include: the epidemiology of schizophrenia among Africans/Afro-Caribbeans, migration and mental health, racism and mental health, cultural identity, pathways to care, explanatory models of mental illness, cultural competence, and the subjective experiences of healthcare provision among specific ethnic groups such as Bangladeshis and Pakistanis. Another strand of research that is attracting increasing academic attention focuses upon the relationship between religion, spirituality, and mental health, in particular, the phenomenology of religious experience and its mental health ramifications, as well as recent work examining the complex links between theology and psychiatry. The paper ends by appraising the contributions of British cultural psychiatrists to the discipline of cultural psychiatry and suggesting promising areas for future research. PMID:24114263

  15. [The NINFEA project and the emerging forms of engagement of citizens in epidemiological research].

    PubMed

    Richiardi, Lorenzo; Pizzi, Costanza; Rusconi, Franca; Merletti, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade a new form of participation of the citizens in research activities and in the production of knowledge has emerged.This development has started to reach epidemiological research, as illustrated in the recent section "EpiChange" of the journal Epidemiologia e Prevenzione. The conduction of epidemiological research through the engagement of citizens and new forms of production of knowledge - including peer-production - is still in its infancy. In 2005,we started in Italy a birth cohort, the NINFEA project, which uses the Internet to recruit pregnant women and to follow-up their children. Participants are volunteers who decide to take part in the research project. In this paper, we consider the aspects of the NINFEA project that are consistent with the concept of collaborative production of knowledge. In particular,we discuss issues related to the motivation of the participants, the selection of the research hypotheses to be evaluated and the definition of the population of interest of the study. PMID:25855542

  16. Novel Phenotype Issues Raised in Cross-National Epidemiological Research on Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Stage-transition models based on the American Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) generally are applied in epidemiology and genetics research on drug dependence syndromes associated with cannabis, cocaine, and other internationally regulated drugs (IRD). Difficulties with DSM stage-transition models have surfaced during cross-national research intended to provide a truly global perspective, such as the work of the World Mental Health Surveys (WMHS) Consortium. Alternative simpler dependence-related phenotypes are possible, including population-level count process models for steps early and before coalescence of clinical features into a coherent syndrome (e.g., zero-inflated Poisson regression). Selected findings are reviewed, based on ZIP modeling of alcohol, tobacco, and IRD count processes, with an illustration that may stimulate new research on genetic susceptibility traits. The annual National Surveys on Drug Use and Health can be readily modified for this purpose, along the lines of a truly anonymous research approach that can help make NSDUH-type cross-national epidemiological surveys more useful in the context of subsequent genome wide association (GWAS) research and post-GWAS investigations with a truly global health perspective. PMID:20201862

  17. Malaria Epidemiology and Control within the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research

    PubMed Central

    Moss, William J.; Dorsey, Grant; Mueller, Ivo; Laufer, Miriam K.; Krogstad, Donald J.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Guzman, Mitchel; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel M.; Herrera, Socrates; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Chery, Laura; Kumar, Ashwani; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K.; Ramanathapuram, Lalitha; Srivastava, H. C.; Cui, Liwang; Zhou, Guofa; Parker, Daniel M.; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Kazura, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the epidemiological features and metrics of malaria in endemic populations is a key component to monitoring and quantifying the impact of current and past control efforts to inform future ones. The International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) has the opportunity to evaluate the impact of malaria control interventions across endemic regions that differ in the dominant Plasmodium species, mosquito vector species, resistance to antimalarial drugs and human genetic variants thought to confer protection from infection and clinical manifestations of plasmodia infection. ICEMR programs are conducting field studies at multiple sites with the aim of generating standardized surveillance data to improve the understanding of malaria transmission and to monitor and evaluate the impact of interventions to inform malaria control and elimination programs. In addition, these epidemiological studies provide a vast source of biological samples linked to clinical and environmental “meta-data” to support translational studies of interactions between the parasite, human host, and mosquito vector. Importantly, epidemiological studies at the ICEMR field sites are integrated with entomological studies, including the measurement of the entomological inoculation rate, human biting index, and insecticide resistance, as well as studies of parasite genetic diversity and antimalarial drug resistance. PMID:26259946

  18. The Next Generation of Large-Scale Epidemiologic Research: Implications for Training Cancer Epidemiologists

    PubMed Central

    Spitz, Margaret R.; Lam, Tram Kim; Schully, Sheri D.; Khoury, Muin J.

    2014-01-01

    There is expanding consensus on the need to modernize the training of cancer epidemiologists to accommodate rapidly emerging technological advancements and the digital age, which are transforming the practice of cancer epidemiology. There is also a growing imperative to extend cancer epidemiology research that is etiological to that which is applied and has the potential to affect individual and public health. Medical schools and schools of public health are recognizing the need to develop such integrated programs; however, we lack the data to estimate how many current training programs are effectively equipping epidemiology students with the knowledge and tools to design, conduct, and analyze these increasingly complex studies. There is also a need to develop new mentoring approaches to account for the transdisciplinary team-science environment that now prevails. With increased dialogue among schools of public health, medical schools, and cancer centers, revised competencies and training programs at predoctoral, doctoral, and postdoctoral levels must be developed. Continuous collection of data on the impact and outcomes of such programs is also recommended. PMID:25234430

  19. Malaria Epidemiology and Control Within the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research.

    PubMed

    Moss, William J; Dorsey, Grant; Mueller, Ivo; Laufer, Miriam K; Krogstad, Donald J; Vinetz, Joseph M; Guzman, Mitchel; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel M; Herrera, Socrates; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Chery, Laura; Kumar, Ashwani; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K; Ramanathapuram, Lalitha; Srivastava, H C; Cui, Liwang; Zhou, Guofa; Parker, Daniel M; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Kazura, James W

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the epidemiological features and metrics of malaria in endemic populations is a key component to monitoring and quantifying the impact of current and past control efforts to inform future ones. The International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) has the opportunity to evaluate the impact of malaria control interventions across endemic regions that differ in the dominant Plasmodium species, mosquito vector species, resistance to antimalarial drugs and human genetic variants thought to confer protection from infection and clinical manifestations of plasmodia infection. ICEMR programs are conducting field studies at multiple sites with the aim of generating standardized surveillance data to improve the understanding of malaria transmission and to monitor and evaluate the impact of interventions to inform malaria control and elimination programs. In addition, these epidemiological studies provide a vast source of biological samples linked to clinical and environmental "meta-data" to support translational studies of interactions between the parasite, human host, and mosquito vector. Importantly, epidemiological studies at the ICEMR field sites are integrated with entomological studies, including the measurement of the entomological inoculation rate, human biting index, and insecticide resistance, as well as studies of parasite genetic diversity and antimalarial drug resistance. PMID:26259946

  20. 50 years of radiation research: medicine.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Theodore L

    2002-10-01

    The advances brought about by research in radiation medicine over the past 50 years are presented. The era began with the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the establishment of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission to understand what damage was caused by exposure of a large population to radiation. A better understanding of the effects of whole-body exposure led to the development of whole-body radiation treatment techniques and to bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of leukemias. The field of diagnostic imaging was revolutionized by a series of inventions that included angiography, mammography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and ultrasound imaging. The field of nuclear medicine came of age through new man-made radionuclides and the invention of scanning and imaging techniques including positron emission tomography. Radiotherapy, a minor sideline of radiology, developed into radiation oncology, an extremely important component of modern cancer therapy. The advances in clinical radiotherapy were made possible by discoveries and inventions in physics and engineering and by insights and discoveries in radiobiology. The result of the last 50 years of progress is a very powerful set of clinical tools. PMID:12236808

  1. Medical surveillance, exposure registries, and epidemiologic research for workers exposed to nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Trout, Douglas B; Schulte, Paul A

    2010-03-10

    While there is a growing body of information about hazards of nanomaterials, little is known about the risks to workers exposed to them. However, workers are the first people in society that are being exposed to the growing inventory of "nano-enabled" products in commerce. The number of workers involved in the investigation, manufacture, production, and disposal of these types of products is growing. Although toxicologic research is still the highest priority, it is time to actively anticipate the health needs of workers. To date, precautionary risk management approaches have been widely advocated. Now there is a need to initiate an evolving process to identify the issues in medical surveillance, utilization of exposure registries, and the conduct of epidemiologic research. Each of these are related complex endeavors that build on the toxicologic evidence and extent of exposure. There is a need to assess the scientific basis and research needs for determining early functional changes, organ system and disease responses for use in targeted medical surveillance. There is also need for development of criteria for extrapolating toxicological data in biological systems to predict the risk of adverse outcomes in humans. In the meantime, exposure registries may be pivotal in helping societies act in the face of uncertainty in a precautionary manner, but legal, ethical, and logistical issues need resolution. Epidemiologic research will build on these efforts and may ultimately contribute critical definitive rationale for medical screening, risk assessment and management. PMID:20006668

  2. Human tissue monitoring and specimen banking: opportunities for exposure assessment, risk assessment, and epidemiologic research.

    PubMed

    Lee, L W; Griffith, J; Zenick, H; Hulka, B S

    1995-04-01

    A symposium on Human Tissue Monitoring and Specimen Banking: Opportunities for Exposure Assessment, Risk Assessment, and Epidemiologic Research was held from 30 March to 1 April 1993 in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. There were 117 registered participants from 18 states and 5 foreign countries. The first 2 days featured 21 invited speakers from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, various other government agencies, and universities in the United States, Canada, Germany, and Norway. The speakers provided a state-of-the-art overview of human exposure assessment techniques (especially applications of biological markers) and their relevance to human tissue specimen banking. Issues relevant to large-scale specimen banking were discussed, including program design, sample design, data collection, tissue collection, and ethical ramifications. The final group of presentations concerned practical experiences of major specimen banking and human tissue monitoring programs in the United States and Europe. The symposium addressed the utility and research opportunities afforded by specimen banking programs for future research needs in the areas of human exposure assessment, risk assessment, and environmental epidemiology. The third day of the symposium consisted of a small workshop convened to discuss and develop recommendations to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regarding applications and utility of large-scale specimen banking, biological monitoring, and biological markers for risk assessment activities. PMID:7635108

  3. Ethical and social issues in the use of biomarkers in epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Schulte, P A; Hunter, D; Rothman, N

    1997-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in epidemiological research may raise ethical and social issues. These issues stem from the belief that research participants have 'rights' to appropriate information before, during and after studies so that they can make informed decisions. Ethical issues can arise during protocol development, obtaining participation, and in the interpretation and notification of text and study results. Additionally, there are ethical considerations concerning the use of biological specimens collected and stored for one purpose and subsequently used for other research purposes. A major ethical issue is the maintenance of participants' privacy and the confidentiality of their test and study results. Ethics committees need to be well-informed about the scope, limitations and expectations of biomarker research in order to be able to respond to social and scientific developments in the use of biomarkers. PMID:9354930

  4. Beyond trauma-focused psychiatric epidemiology: bridging research and practice with war-affected populations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kenneth E; Kulkarni, Madhur; Kushner, Hallie

    2006-10-01

    This article examines the centrality of trauma-focused psychiatric epidemiology (TFPE) in research with war-affected populations. The authors question the utility of the dominant focus on posttraumatic stress disorder and other disorders of Western psychiatry, and they identify a set of critical research foci related to mental health work with communities affected by political violence. Core assumptions of TFPE and its roots in logical positivism and the biomedical model of contemporary psychiatry are explored. The authors suggest that an alternative framework--social constructivism--can serve as a bridge between researchers and practitioners by helping to refocus research efforts in ways that are conceptually and methodologically more attuned to the needs of war-affected communities and those working to address their mental health needs. PMID:17209709

  5. WHO Child Growth Standards Are Often Incorrectly Applied to Children Born Preterm in Epidemiologic Research.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Nandita; Gaffey, Michelle F; Bassani, Diego G; Roth, Daniel E

    2015-11-01

    In epidemiologic research, there is no standard approach for accounting for gestational age (GA) at birth when interpreting postnatal anthropometric data in analyses of cohorts that include children born preterm (CBP). A scoping review was conducted to describe analytical approaches to account for GA at birth when applying the WHO Growth Standards (WHO-GS) to anthropometric data in epidemiologic studies. We searched PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science for studies that applied WHO-GS, included CBP in the study population, had access to data within 1 mo of age, and were published between 2006 and 2015 in English. Of the 80 included studies that used the WHO-GS, 80% (64 of 80) included all children regardless of GA, whereas 20% (16 of 80) restricted analyses that used WHO-GS to term-born children. Among the 64 studies that included all children, 53 (83%) used chronological age and 11 (17%) used corrected age for CBP. Of the 53 studies that used chronological age, 12 (23%) excluded data that were likely contributed by CBP (e.g., very low birth weight or extremely low outlying z scores) and 19 (36%) adjusted for or stratified by GA at birth in regression analyses. In summary, researchers commonly apply WHO-GS to CBP, usually based on chronological age. Methodologic challenges of analyzing data from CBP in the application of WHO-GS were rarely explicitly addressed. Further efforts are required to establish acceptable approaches to account for heterogeneity in GA at birth in the analysis of post-term anthropometric data in epidemiologic research. PMID:26377758

  6. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 2 - Epidemiology, Wildlife and Economics.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Robinson, L; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    We assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research, and in this study, we consider (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) economics. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-2015) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD research. During 2011-2015, modelling studies were dominant in the broad field of epidemiology; however, continued efforts are required to develop robust models for use during outbreaks in FMD-free countries, linking epidemiologic and economics models. More guidance is needed for both the evaluation and the setting of targets for vaccine coverage, population immunity and vaccine field efficacy. Similarly, methods for seroprevalence studies need to be improved to obtain more meaningful outputs that allow comparison across studies. To inform control programmes in endemic countries, field trials assessing the effectiveness of vaccination in extensive smallholder systems should be performed to determine whether FMD can be controlled with quality vaccines in settings where implementing effective biosecurity is challenging. Studies need to go beyond measuring only vaccine effects and should extend our knowledge of the impact of FMD and increase our understanding of how to maximize farmer participation in disease control. Where wildlife reservoirs of virus exist, particularly African Buffalo, we need to better understand when and under what circumstances transmission to domestic animals occurs in order to manage this risk appropriately, considering the impact of control measures on livelihoods and wildlife. For settings where FMD eradication is unfeasible, further ground testing of commodity-based trade is recommended. A thorough review of global FMD control programmes, covering successes and failures, would be extremely valuable and could be used to guide other control programmes. PMID:27320163

  7. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants

    PubMed Central

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938

  8. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants.

    PubMed

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938

  9. The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Linet, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards.

  10. The U.S.-Russian radiation health effects research program in the Southern Urals.

    PubMed

    Seligman, P J

    2000-07-01

    The Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) was established through a bilateral U.S.-Russian agreement to support research and exchange information on radiation health effects. The U.S. member agencies include the Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Department of Defense (DoD), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Russians are represented by the Ministries of Emergencies (EMERCOM), Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and Health (MINZDRAV), and the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE). The focus of this research is on the workers from the Mayak Production Association (MAYAK) in the Southern Urals and on the neighboring populations along the Techa River exposed to contamination from the plant. The goal of the program is to better define the relationship between the health effects and the chronic low dose and dose-rate exposure, these data being essential to validate current radiation protection standards and practices. The current primary areas of JCCRER research include dose reconstruction, epidemiologic health studies, molecular epidemiology/biodosimetry, and the creation of tissue banks. The organization of the ongoing research conducted under the aegis of the JCCRER and the rationale for this work are described. PMID:10855771

  11. Current research on transcultural psychiatry in the Anglophone Caribbean: epistemological, public policy, and epidemiological challenges.

    PubMed

    Hickling, Frederick W; Gibson, Roger C; Hutchinson, Gerard

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we review recent research on mental health in the Caribbean. Three major themes emerge: (a) the effects of colonialism on the Caribbean psyche; (b) decolonization of psychiatric public policy, including innovative treatment approaches, deinstitutionalization, and community and policy responses to mental health issues; and (c) the nature and epidemiology of psychiatric pathology among contemporary Caribbean people, with particular focus on migration, genetic versus social causation of psychosis and personality disorders, and mechanisms of resilience and social capital. Caribbean transcultural psychiatry illustrates the principles of equipoise unique to developing countries that protect the wellness and continued survival of postcolonial Caribbean people. PMID:24151148

  12. Radiation combined injury: overview of NIAID research.

    PubMed

    DiCarlo, Andrea L; Ramakrishnan, Narayani; Hatchett, Richard J

    2010-06-01

    The term "radiation combined injury" (RCI) is used to describe conditions where radiation injury is coupled with other insults such as burns, wounds, infection, or blunt trauma. A retrospective account of injuries sustained following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima estimates that RCI comprised approximately 65% of all injuries observed. Much of the research that has been performed on RCI was carried out during the Cold War and our understanding of the clinical problem RCI presents does not reflect the latest advances in medicine or science. Because concerns have increased that terrorists might employ radiological or nuclear weapons, and because of the likelihood that victims of such terrorism would experience RCI, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health sponsored a meeting in 2007 to explore the state of the research in this area, identify programmatic gaps, and establish priorities for future research. As a follow-up to that meeting, in 2008 NIAID sponsored an initiative on RCI, leading to the award of several exploratory/developmental grants, the goals of which are to better understand biological synergy involved in RCI-induced damage, develop improved animal models for various type of RCI, and advance identification and testing of potential countermeasures to treat injuries that would be expected following a radiological or nuclear event. This program has already yielded new insight into the nature of combined injuries and has identified a number of novel and existing compounds that may be effective treatments for this condition. PMID:20445395

  13. Exposure Assessment for Atmospheric Ultrafine Particles (UFPs) and Implications in Epidemiologic Research

    PubMed Central

    Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J.; Singh, Manisha

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiologic research has shown increases in adverse cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes in relation to mass concentrations of particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5 or ≤10 μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, respectively). In a companion article [Delfino RJ, Sioutas C, Malik S. 2005. Environ Health Perspect 113(8):934–946]), we discuss epidemiologic evidence pointing to underlying components linked to fossil fuel combustion. The causal components driving the PM associations remain to be identified, but emerging evidence on particle size and chemistry has led to some clues. There is sufficient reason to believe that ultrafine particles < 0.1 μm (UFPs) are important because when compared with larger particles, they have order of magnitudes higher particle number concentration and surface area, and larger concentrations of adsorbed or condensed toxic air pollutants (oxidant gases, organic compounds, transition metals) per unit mass. This is supported by evidence of significantly higher in vitro redox activity by UFPs than by larger PM. Although epidemiologic research is needed, exposure assessment issues for UFPs are complex and need to be considered before undertaking investigations of UFP health effects. These issues include high spatial variability, indoor sources, variable infiltration of UFPs from a variety of outside sources, and meteorologic factors leading to high seasonal variability in concentration and composition, including volatility. To address these issues, investigators need to develop as well as validate the analytic technologies required to characterize the physical/chemical nature of UFPs in various environments. In the present review, we provide a detailed discussion of key characteristics of UFPs, their sources and formation mechanisms, and methodologic approaches to assessing population exposures. PMID:16079062

  14. [UNIFICATION OF THE MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF THE TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, S Y; Mukhacheva, T A

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic techniques and approaches in epidemiological studies were breakthrough in the understanding of the laws, ways, and mechanisms of the spread of the pathogens. However, lack of standard methods makes it difficult to compare results obtained by different scientific groups. In this work we propose to choose one fragment of the TBEV genome as a genetic marker whose sequencing would be both obligatory and sufficient for the molecular epidemiological studies. The best candidate for this purpose may be a fragment of the gene E of 454 nucleotides in length. The deduced amino acid sequence of this fragment was a basis for a new approach for the TBEV differentiation with clusteron being a structural unit (Kovalev and Mukhacheva, 2013). The clusteron approach was proved to be informative for studying the genetic structure of the TBEV-Sib population in the Middle Urals. TBE foci were shown to be unique in both quantitative and qualitative composition of the clusterons. The greatest clusteron diversity in the south of the Middle Urals, through the Trans-Siberian way, may reflect the history of the colonization, closely associated with the roads between Siberia and the European part of Russia. The age of three clusterons did not exceed 50 years, which may indicate an ongoing evolutionary process taking place in the TBEV-Sib populations. In turn, their spatial distribution indicates the crucial role of human factors in the spread of the TBEV (Kovalev & Mukhacheva, 2014). The clusteron approach provides formalization of ideas about the structure of the viral populations and could be used not only by researchers but also by epidemiological surveillance services. Unification of the studies of the TBEV on the basis of a standard genetic marker would consolidate the efforts of researchers from different regions of Russia and other countries. PMID:27451502

  15. Coordinating Centers in Cancer-Epidemiology Research: The Asia Cohort Consortium Coordinating Center

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Betsy; Smith, Briana R; Potter, John D

    2011-01-01

    Although it is tacitly recognized that a good Coordinating Center (CC) is essential to the success of any multi-site collaborative project, very little study has been done on what makes a CC successful, why some CCs fail, or how to build a CC that meets the needs of a given project. Moreover, very little published guidance is available, as few CCs outside the clinical-trial realm write about their work. The Asia Cohort Consortium (ACC) is a collaborative cancer-epidemiology research project that has made strong scientific and organizational progress over the past three years by focusing its CC on the following activities: collaboration development; operations management; statistical and data management; and communications infrastructure and tool development. Our hope is that, by sharing our experience building the ACC CC, we can begin a conversation about what it means to run a coordinating center for multi-institutional collaboration in cancer epidemiology, help other collaborative projects solve some of the issues associated with collaborative research, and learn from others. PMID:21803842

  16. Coordinating centers in cancer epidemiology research: the Asia Cohort Consortium coordinating center.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Betsy; Smith, Briana R; Potter, John D

    2011-10-01

    Although it is tacitly recognized that a good coordinating center (CC) is essential to the success of any multisite collaborative project, very little study has been done on what makes a CC successful, why some CCs fail, or how to build a CC that meets the needs of a given project. Moreover, very little published guidance is available, as few CCs outside the clinical trial realm write about their work. The Asia Cohort Consortium (ACC) is a collaborative cancer epidemiology research project that has made strong scientific and organizational progress over the past 3 years by focusing its CC on the following activities: collaboration development; operations management; statistical and data management; and communications infrastructure and tool development. Our hope is that, by sharing our experience building the ACC CC, we can begin a conversation about what it means to run a CC for multi-institutional collaboration in cancer epidemiology, help other collaborative projects solve some of the issues associated with collaborative research, and learn from others. PMID:21803842

  17. Age-Adjustment and Related Epidemiology Rates in Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John D.; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence,…

  18. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) Research: SST - Present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; DeAngelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent (1990) lowering of recommended exposure limits by the International Commission on Radiological Protection with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  19. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research: SST-present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; De Angelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    2003-01-01

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  20. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) research: SST-present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnson, V.; Clem, J.; Deangelis, G.

    The Super Sonic Transport (SST) program, proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant passengers and crew by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in effects due to particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Standing Committee provided recommendations on SST radiobiological issues and operational requirements. The lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits (1990) with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum (June 1997) and studies of effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in 2000 and more recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes brings renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  1. Overview of atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) Research: SST-present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Rafnsson, V.; Clem, J. M.; De Angelis, G.; Friedberg, W.

    The Supersonic Transport (SST) program proposed in 1961, first raised concern for the exposure of pregnant occupants by solar energetic particles (SEP), and neutrons were suspected to have a main role in particle propagation deep into the atmosphere. An eight-year flight program confirmed the role of SEP as a significant hazard and of the neutrons as contributing over half of the galactic cosmic ray exposures, with the largest contribution from neutrons above 10 MeV. The FAA Advisory Committee on the Radiobiological Aspects of the SST provided operational requirements. The more recent lowering of ICRP-recommended exposure limits 1990 with the classification of aircrew as "radiation workers" renewed interest in GCR background exposures at commercial flight altitudes and stimulated epidemiological studies in Europe, Japan, Canada and the USA. The proposed development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) required validation of the role of high-energy neutrons, and this resulted in ER-2 flights at solar minimum June 1997 and studies on effects of aircraft materials on interior exposures. Recent evaluation of health outcomes of DOE nuclear workers resulted in legislation for health compensation in year 2000 and recent European aircrew epidemiological studies of health outcomes bring renewed interest in aircraft radiation exposures. As improved radiation models become available, it is imperative that a corresponding epidemiological program of US aircrew be implemented.

  2. Current status and future prospects of epidemiology and public health training and research in the WHO African region

    PubMed Central

    Nachega, Jean B; Uthman, Olalekan A; Ho, Yuh-Shan; Lo, Melanie; Anude, Chuka; Kayembe, Patrick; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Gomo, Exnevia; Sow, Papa Salif; Obike, Ude; Kusiaku, Theophile; Mills, Edward J; Mayosi, Bongani M; IJsselmuiden, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Background To date little has been published about epidemiology and public health capacity (training, research, funding, human resources) in WHO/AFRO to help guide future planning by various stakeholders. Methods A bibliometric analysis was performed to identify published epidemiological research. Information about epidemiology and public health training, current research and challenges was collected from key informants using a standardized questionnaire. Results From 1991 to 2010, epidemiology and public health research output in the WHO/AFRO region increased from 172 to 1086 peer-reviewed articles per annum [annual percentage change (APC) = 10.1%, P for trend < 0.001]. The most common topics were HIV/AIDS (11.3%), malaria (8.6%) and tuberculosis (7.1%). Similarly, numbers of first authors (APC = 7.3%, P for trend < 0.001), corresponding authors (APC = 8.4%, P for trend < 0.001) and last authors (APC = 8.5%, P for trend < 0.001) from Africa increased during the same period. However, an overwhelming majority of respondents (>90%) reported that this increase is only rarely linked to regional post-graduate training programmes in epidemiology. South Africa leads in publications (1978/8835, 22.4%), followed by Kenya (851/8835, 9.6%), Nigeria (758/8835, 8.6%), Tanzania (549/8835, 6.2%) and Uganda (428/8835, 4.8%) (P < 0.001, each vs South Africa). Independent predictors of relevant research productivity were ‘in-country numbers of epidemiology or public health programmes’ [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 3.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.90–6.11; P = 0.03] and ‘number of HIV/AIDS patients’ (IRR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.02–1.66; P < 0.001). Conclusions Since 1991, there has been increasing epidemiological research productivity in WHO/AFRO that is associated with the number of epidemiology programmes and burden of HIV/AIDS cases. More capacity building and training initiatives in epidemiology are required to promote research and address the public health challenges

  3. Occupational epidemiology and work related inequalities in health: a gender perspective for two complementary approaches to work and health research

    PubMed Central

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Borrell, Carme; Cortès, Imma; Escribà‐Agüir, Vicenta; Cascant, Lorena

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To provide a framework for epidemiological research on work and health that combines classic occupational epidemiology and the consideration of work in a structural perspective focused on gender inequalities in health. Methods Gaps and limitations in classic occupational epidemiology, when considered from a gender perspective, are described. Limitations in research on work related gender inequalities in health are identified. Finally, some recommendations for future research are proposed. Results Classic occupational epidemiology has paid less attention to women's problems than men's. Research into work related gender inequalities in health has rarely considered either social class or the impact of family demands on men's health. In addition, it has rarely taken into account the potential interactions between gender, social class, employment status and family roles and the differences in social determinants of health according to the health indicator analysed. Conclusions Occupational epidemiology should consider the role of sex and gender in examining exposures and associated health problems. Variables should be used that capture the specific work environments and health conditions of both sexes. The analysis of work and health from a gender perspective should take into account the complex interactions between gender, family roles, employment status and social class. PMID:18000116

  4. Prevalence and Epidemiologic Characteristics of FASD From Various Research Methods with an Emphasis on Recent In-School Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Philip A.; Gossage, J. Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Robinson, Luther K.; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Hoyme, H. Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Researching the epidemiology and estimating the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) for mainstream populations anywhere in the world has presented a challenge to researchers. Three major approaches have been used in the past: surveillance and record review systems, clinic-based studies, and…

  5. Leveraging Epidemiology and Clinical Studies of Cancer Outcomes: Recommendations and Opportunities for Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    As the number of cancer survivors continues to grow, research investigating the factors that affect cancer outcomes, such as disease recurrence, risk of second malignant neoplasms, and the late effects of cancer treatments, becomes ever more important. Numerous epidemiologic studies have investigated factors that affect cancer risk, but far fewer have addressed the extent to which demographic, lifestyle, genomic, clinical, and psychosocial factors influence cancer outcomes. To identify research priorities as well as resources and infrastructure needed to advance the field of cancer outcomes and survivorship research, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a workshop titled “Utilizing Data from Cancer Survivor Cohorts: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities” on November 3, 2011, in Washington, DC. This commentary highlights recent findings presented at the workshop, opportunities to leverage existing data, and recommendations for future research, data, and infrastructure needed to address high priority clinical and research questions. Multidisciplinary teams that include epidemiologists, clinicians, biostatisticians, and bioinformaticists will be essential to facilitate future cancer outcome studies focused on improving clinical care of cancer patients, identifying those at high risk of poor outcomes, and implementing effective interventions to ultimately improve the quality and duration of survival. PMID:23197494

  6. Greetings: 50 years of Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-Radiation Effects Research Foundation studies.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, I

    1998-05-12

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was established in Hiroshima in 1947 and in Nagasaki in 1948 under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to initiate a long-term and comprehensive epidemiological and genetic study of the atomic bomb survivors. It was replaced in 1975 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation which is a nonprofit Japanese foundation binationally managed and supported with equal funding by the governments of Japan and the United States. Thanks to the cooperation of the survivors and the contributions of a multitude of scientists, these studies flourish to this day in what must be the most successful long-term research collaboration between the two countries. Although these studies are necessarily limited to the effects of acute, whole-body, mixed gamma-neutron radiation from the atom bombs, their comprehensiveness and duration make them the most definitive descriptions of the late effects of radiation in humans. For this reason, the entire world relies heavily on these data to set radiation standards. As vital as the study results are, they still represent primarily the effects of radiation on older survivors. Another decade or two should correct this deficiency and allow us to measure definitively the human risk of heritable mutation from radiation. We look to the worldwide radiation and risk community as well as to the survivors who have contributed so much to what has been done already to accomplish this goal. PMID:9576897

  7. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-12-31

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ``gold standards`` to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications.

  8. Current status of liquid sheet radiator research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.

    1993-01-01

    Initial research on the external flow, low mass liquid sheet radiator (LSR), has been concentrated on understanding its fluid mechanics. The surface tension forces acting at the edges of the sheet produce a triangular planform for the radiating surface of width, W, and length, L. It has been experimentally verified that (exp L)/W agrees with the theoretical result, L/W = (We/8)exp 1/2, where We is the Weber number. Instability can cause holes to form in regions of large curvature such as where the edge cylinders join the sheet of thickness, tau. The W/tau limit that will cause hole formation with subsequent destruction of the sheet has yet to be reached experimentally. Although experimental measurements of sheet emissivity have not yet been performed because of limited program scope, calculations of the emissivity and sheet lifetime is determined by evaporation losses were made for two silicon based oils; Dow Corning 705 and Me(sub 2). Emissivities greater than 0.75 are calculated for tau greater than or equal to 200 microns for both oils. Lifetimes for Me(sub 2) are much longer than lifetimes for 705. Therefore, Me(sub 2) is the more attractive working fluid for higher temperatures (T greater than or equal to 400 K).

  9. Contribution of the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS) to research on blood transfusion safety in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Paula; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Proietti, Anna Bárbara Carneiro; Capuani, Ligia; Gonçalez, Thelma Terezinha; de Oliveira, Claudia Di Lorenzo; Leão, Silvana Carneiro; Lopes, Maria Inês; Sampaio, Divaldo; Patavino, Giuseppina Maria; Ferreira, João Eduardo; Blatyta, Paula Fraiman; Lopes, Maria Esther Duarte; Mendrone-Junior, Alfredo; Salles, Nanci Alves; King, Melissa; Murphy, Edward; Busch, Michael; Custer, Brian; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira

    2014-03-01

    The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS) program was established in the United States in 1989 with the purpose of increasing blood transfusion safety in the context of the HIV/AIDS and human T-lymphotropic virus epidemics. REDS and its successor, REDS-II were at first conducted in the US, then expanded in 2006 to include international partnerships with Brazil and China. In 2011, a third wave of REDS renamed the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III) was launched. This seven-year research program focuses on both blood banking and transfusion medicine research in the United States of America, Brazil, China, and South Africa. The main goal of the international programs is to reduce and prevent the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other known and emerging infectious agents through transfusion, and to address research questions aimed at understanding global issues related to the availability of safe blood. This article describes the contribution of REDS-II to transfusion safety in Brazil. Articles published from 2010 to 2013 are summarized, including database analyses to characterize blood donors, deferral rates, and prevalence, incidence and residual risk of the main blood-borne infections. Specific studies were developed to understand donor motivation, the impact of the deferral questions, risk factors and molecular surveillance among HIV-positive donors, and the natural history of Chagas disease. The purpose of this review is to disseminate the acquired knowledge and briefly summarize the findings of the REDS-II studies conducted in Brazil as well as to introduce the scope of the REDS-III program that is now in progress and will continue through 2018. PMID:24790542

  10. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  11. Use of epidemiological data and direct bioassay for prioritization of affected populations in a large-scale radiation emergency.

    PubMed

    Miller, Charles W; Ansari, Armin; Martin, Colleen; Chang, Art; Buzzell, Jennifer; Whitcomb, Robert C

    2011-08-01

    Following a radiation emergency, evacuated, sheltered or other members of the public would require monitoring for external and/or internal contamination and, if indicated, decontamination. In addition, the potentially-impacted population would be identified for biodosimetry/bioassay or needed medical treatment (chelation therapy, cytokine treatment, etc.) and prioritized for follow-up. Expeditious implementation of these activities presents many challenges, especially when a large population is affected. Furthermore, experience from previous radiation incidents has demonstrated that the number of people seeking monitoring for radioactive contamination (both external and internal) could be much higher than the actual number of contaminated individuals. In the United States, the Department of Health and Human Services is the lead agency to coordinate federal support for population monitoring activities. Population monitoring includes (1) monitoring people for external contamination; (2) monitoring people for internal contamination; (3) population decontamination; (4) collecting epidemiologic data regarding potentially exposed and/or contaminated individuals to prioritize the affected population for limited medical resources; (5) administering available pharmaceuticals for internal decontamination as deemed necessary by appropriate health officials; (6) performing dose reconstruction; and (7) establishing a registry to conduct long-term monitoring of this population for potential long-term health effects. This paper will focus on screening for internal contamination and will describe the use of early epidemiologic data as well as direct bioassay techniques to rapidly identify and prioritize the affected population for further analysis and medical attention. PMID:21709510

  12. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute retrovirus epidemiology donor studies (Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study and Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II): twenty years of research to advance blood product safety and availability.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Steven; King, Melissa R; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Glynn, Simone A

    2012-10-01

    The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS), conducted from 1989 to 2001, and the REDS-II, conducted from 2004 to 2012, were National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded, multicenter programs focused on improving blood safety and availability in the United States. The REDS-II also included international study sites in Brazil and China. The 3 major research domains of REDS/REDS-II have been infectious disease risk evaluation, blood donation availability, and blood donor characterization. Both programs have made significant contributions to transfusion medicine research methodology by the use of mathematical modeling, large-scale donor surveys, innovative methods of repository sample storage, and establishing an infrastructure that responded to potential emerging blood safety threats such as xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus. Blood safety studies have included protocols evaluating epidemiologic and/or laboratory aspects of human immunodeficiency virus, human T-lymphotropic virus 1/2, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, West Nile virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 8, parvovirus B19, malaria, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, influenza, and Trypanosoma cruzi infections. Other analyses have characterized blood donor demographics, motivations to donate, factors influencing donor return, behavioral risk factors, donors' perception of the blood donation screening process, and aspects of donor deferral. In REDS-II, 2 large-scale blood donor protocols examined iron deficiency in donors and the prevalence of leukocyte antibodies. This review describes the major study results from over 150 peer-reviewed articles published by these 2 REDS programs. In 2011, a new 7-year program, the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III, was launched. The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III expands beyond donor-based research to include studies of blood transfusion recipients in the hospital setting and adds a third country, South Africa

  13. Recommendations for Cancer Epidemiologic Research in Understudied Populations and Implications for Future Needs.

    PubMed

    Martin, Damali N; Lam, Tram Kim; Brignole, Katy; Ashing, Kimlin T; Blot, William J; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Chen, Jarvis T; Dignan, Mark; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Martinez, Maria Elena; Matthews, Alicia; Palmer, Julie R; Perez-Stable, Eliseo J; Schootman, Mario; Vilchis, Hugo; Vu, Alexander; Srinivasan, Shobha

    2016-04-01

    Medically underserved populations in the United States continue to experience higher cancer burdens of incidence, mortality, and other cancer-related outcomes. It is imperative to understand how health inequities experienced by diverse population groups may contribute to our increasing unequal cancer burdens and disparate outcomes. The National Cancer Institute convened a diverse group of scientists to discuss research challenges and opportunities for cancer epidemiology in medically underserved and understudied populations. This report summarizes salient issues and discusses five recommendations from the group, including the next steps required to better examine and address cancer burden in the United States among our rapidly increasing diverse and understudied populations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 573-80. ©2016 AACR SEE ALL ARTICLES IN THIS CEBP FOCUS SECTION, "MULTILEVEL APPROACHES TO ADDRESSING CANCER HEALTH DISPARITIES". PMID:27196089

  14. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship: Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Deverick J; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Morgan, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCT) produce the strongest level of clinical evidence when comparing interventions. RCTs are technically difficult, costly, and require specific considerations including the use of patient- and cluster-level randomization and outcome selection. In this methods paper, we focus on key considerations for RCT methods in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship (HE&AS) research, including the need for cluster randomization, conduct at multiple sites, behavior modification interventions, and difficulty with identifying appropriate outcomes. We review key RCTs in HE&AS with a focus on advantages and disadvantages of methods used. A checklist is provided to aid in the development of RCTs in HE&AS. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:629-634. PMID:27108848

  15. Challenges for environmental epidemiology research: are biomarker concentrations altered by kidney function or urine concentration adjustment?

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Kotchmar, Dennis J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2016-01-01

    Biomonitoring has become a standard approach for exposure assessment in occupational and environmental epidemiology. The use of biological effect markers to identify early adverse changes in target organs has also become widely adopted. However, the potential for kidney function to affect biomarker levels in the body and the optimal approach to adjustment of biomarker concentrations in spot urine samples for hydration status are two important but underappreciated challenges associated with biomarker use. Several unexpected findings, such as positive associations between urine nephrotoxicant levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), have been reported recently in research using biomarkers. These and other findings, discussed herein, suggest an impact of kidney glomerular filtration or tubule processing on biomarker levels. This is more commonly raised in the context of decreased kidney filtration, traditionally referred to as reverse causality; however, recent data suggest that populations with normal kidney filtration may be affected as well. Misclassification bias would result if biomarkers reflect kidney function as well as either exposures or early biological effect outcomes. Furthermore, urine biomarker associations with eGFR that differ markedly by approach used to adjust for urine concentration have been reported. Associations between urine measures commonly used for this adjustment, such as urine creatinine, and specific research outcomes could alter observed biomarker associations with outcomes. Research recommendations to address the potential impact of kidney function and hydration status adjustment on biomarkers are provided, including a range of approaches to study design, exposure and outcome assessment, and adjustment for urine concentration. PMID:25736163

  16. Using data collected for production or economic purposes to research production animal welfare: an epidemiological approach.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Cate; Haley, Charles; Widowski, Tina; Friendship, Robert; Sunstrum, Janet; Richardson, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiologists use the analyses of large data sets collected for production or economic purposes to research production nonhuman animal welfare issues in the commercial setting. This approach is particularly useful if the welfare issue is rare or hard to reproduce. However, to ensure the information is accurate, it is essential to carefully validate these data. The study used economic data to research in-transit deaths of finishing pigs. The most appropriate model to fit the distribution of the outcome must be selected. A negative binomial model fit these data because the prevalence was low and most lots of pigs had no deaths. The study used hierarchical dummy variables to identify thresholds of temperature and humidity above which in-transit losses increased. Multiple variable modeling provides the foundation for the strength of epidemiological research. The model identifies the association between each factor and the outcome after controlling for the other factors in the model. The study evaluated confounding and interaction. Bias may be introduced when data are limited to one farm system, one abattoir, or one season. Census data enable us to understand the entire industry. PMID:19319713

  17. A reconsideration of the role of self-identified races in epidemiology and biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Ludovica; Bacchini, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    A considerable number of studies in epidemiology and biomedicine investigate the etiology of complex diseases by considering (self-identified) race as a relevant variable and focusing on the differences in risk among racial groups in the United States; they extensively draw on a genetic hypothesis--viz. the hypothesis that differences in the risk of complex diseases among racial groups are largely due to genetic differences covarying with genetic ancestry--that appears highly problematic in the light of both current biological evidence and the theory of human genome evolution. Is this reason for dismissing self-identified races? No. An alternative promising use of self-identified races exists, and ironically is suggested by those studies that investigate the etiology of complex diseases without focusing on racial differences. These studies provide a large amount of empirical evidence supporting the primacy of the contribution of non-genetic as opposed to genetic factors to the risk of complex diseases. We show that differences in race--or, better, in racial self-identification--may be critically used as proxies for differences in risk-related exposomes and epigenomes in the context of the United States. Self-identified race is what we need to capture the complexity of the effects of present and past racism on people's health and investigate risk-related external and internal exposures, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetic events. In fact patterns of racial self-identifications on one side, and patterns of risk-related exposomes and epigenomes on the other side, constantly coevolve and tend to match each other. However, there is no guarantee that using self-identified races in epidemiology and biomedical research will be beneficial all things considered: special attention must be paid at balancing positive and negative consequences. PMID:25791919

  18. The School Psychologist's Primer on Childhood Depression: A Review of Research Regarding Epidemiology, Etiology, Assessment, and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruderman, Matthew A.; Stifel, Skye W. F.; O'Malley, Meagan; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide school psychologists with a synthesis of important information regarding the epidemiology, etiology, assessment, and treatment of childhood depression. A review of the recent research and relevant literature is summarized reflecting the contemporary knowledge regarding depression during childhood and…

  19. 11th International Conference of Radiation Research

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-18

    Topics discussed in the conference included the following: Radiation Physics, Radiation Chemistry and modelling--Radiation physics and dosimetry; Electron transfer in biological media; Radiation chemistry; Biophysical and biochemical modelling; Mechanisms of DNA damage; Assays of DNA damage; Energy deposition in micro volumes; Photo-effects; Special techniques and technologies; Oxidative damage. Molecular and cellular effects-- Photobiology; Cell cycle effects; DNA damage: Strand breaks; DNA damage: Bases; DNA damage Non-targeted; DNA damage: other; Chromosome aberrations: clonal; Chromosomal aberrations: non-clonal; Interactions: Heat/Radiation/Drugs; Biochemical effects; Protein expression; Gene induction; Co-operative effects; ``Bystander'' effects; Oxidative stress effects; Recovery from radiation damage. DNA damage and repair -- DNA repair genes; DNA repair deficient diseases; DNA repair enzymology; Epigenetic effects on repair; and Ataxia and ATM.

  20. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  1. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  2. Extending Lkn Climate Regionalization with Spatial Regularization: AN Application to Epidemiological Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liss, Alexander; Gel, Yulia R.; Kulinkina, Alexandra; Naumova, Elena N.

    2016-06-01

    Regional climate is a critical factor in public health research, adaptation studies, climate change burden analysis, and decision support frameworks. Existing climate regionalization schemes are not well suited for these tasks as they rarely take population density into account. In this work, we are extending our recently developed method for automated climate regionalization (LKN-method) to incorporate the spatial features of target population. The LKN method consists of the data limiting step (L-step) to reduce dimensionality by applying principal component analysis, a classification step (K-step) to produce hierarchical candidate regions using k-means unsupervised classification algorithm, and a nomination step (N-step) to determine the number of candidate climate regions using cluster validity indexes. LKN method uses a comprehensive set of multiple satellite data streams, arranged as time series, and allows us to define homogeneous climate regions. The proposed approach extends the LKN method to include regularization terms reflecting the spatial distribution of target population. Such tailoring allows us to determine the optimal number and spatial distribution of climate regions and thus, to ensure more uniform population coverage across selected climate categories. We demonstrate how the extended LKN method produces climate regionalization can be better tailored to epidemiological research in the context of decision support framework.

  3. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Andrew J.; McDonald, Mark W.; Chang, Andrew L.; Esiashvili, Natia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  4. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a phenomenal growth in the number of dedicated synchrotron radiation facilities and a corresponding growth in the number of applications in both basic and applied sciences. The high flux and brightness, tunable beams, time structure and polarization of synchrotron radiation provide an ideal x- ray source for many applications in the medical sciences. There is a dual aspect to the field of medical applications of synchrotron radiation. First there are the important in-vitro programs such as structural biology, x-ray microscopy, and radiation cell biology. Second there are the programs that are ultimately targeted at in-vivo applications. The present status of synchrotron coronary angiography, bronchography, multiple energy computed tomography, mammography and radiation therapy programs at laboratories around the world is reviewed.

  5. Data sharing and intellectual property in a genomic epidemiology network: policies for large-scale research collaboration.

    PubMed Central

    Chokshi, Dave A.; Parker, Michael; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.

    2006-01-01

    Genomic epidemiology is a field of research that seeks to improve the prevention and management of common diseases through an understanding of their molecular origins. It involves studying thousands of individuals, often from different populations, with exacting techniques. The scale and complexity of such research has required the formation of research consortia. Members of these consortia need to agree on policies for managing shared resources and handling genetic data. Here we consider data-sharing and intellectual property policies for an international research consortium working on the genomic epidemiology of malaria. We outline specific guidelines governing how samples and data are transferred among its members; how results are released into the public domain; when to seek protection for intellectual property; and how intellectual property should be managed. We outline some pragmatic solutions founded on the basic principles of promoting innovation and access. PMID:16710548

  6. Bilogical effects of ionizing radiation: epidemiological surveys and laboratory animal experiments. Implications for risk evaluation and decision processes

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-04-01

    General background is given for an understanding of the potential health effects in populations exposed to low-level ionizing radiations. The discussion is within the framework of the scientific deliberations and controversies that arose during preparation of the current report of the committee on the biological effects of ionizing radiation of the National Academy of Science - National Research Council (1980 Beir-III Report). (ACR)

  7. Efficient data management in a large-scale epidemiology research project.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jens; Ostrzinski, Stefan; Fredrich, Daniel; Havemann, Christoph; Krafczyk, Janina; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2012-09-01

    This article describes the concept of a "Central Data Management" (CDM) and its implementation within the large-scale population-based medical research project "Personalized Medicine". The CDM can be summarized as a conjunction of data capturing, data integration, data storage, data refinement, and data transfer. A wide spectrum of reliable "Extract Transform Load" (ETL) software for automatic integration of data as well as "electronic Case Report Forms" (eCRFs) was developed, in order to integrate decentralized and heterogeneously captured data. Due to the high sensitivity of the captured data, high system resource availability, data privacy, data security and quality assurance are of utmost importance. A complex data model was developed and implemented using an Oracle database in high availability cluster mode in order to integrate different types of participant-related data. Intelligent data capturing and storage mechanisms are improving the quality of data. Data privacy is ensured by a multi-layered role/right system for access control and de-identification of identifying data. A well defined backup process prevents data loss. Over the period of one and a half year, the CDM has captured a wide variety of data in the magnitude of approximately 5terabytes without experiencing any critical incidents of system breakdown or loss of data. The aim of this article is to demonstrate one possible way of establishing a Central Data Management in large-scale medical and epidemiological studies. PMID:21256617

  8. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: The North Denmark Bacteremia Research Database

    PubMed Central

    Schønheyder, Henrik C; Søgaard, Mette

    2010-01-01

    Bacteremia is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Improving prevention and treatment requires better knowledge of the disease and its prognosis. However, in order to study the entire spectrum of bacteremia patients, we need valid sources of information, prospective data collection, and complete follow-up. In North Denmark Region, all patients diagnosed with bacteremia have been registered in a population-based database since 1981. The information has been recorded prospectively since 1992 and the main variables are: the patient’s unique civil registration number, date of sampling the first positive blood culture, date of admission, clinical department, date of notification of growth, place of acquisition, focus of infection, microbiological species, antibiogram, and empirical antimicrobial treatment. During the time from 1981 to 2008, information on 22,556 cases of bacteremia has been recorded. The civil registration number makes it possible to link the database to other medical databases and thereby build large cohorts with detailed longitudinal data that include hospital histories since 1977, comorbidity data, and complete follow-up of survival. The database is suited for epidemiological research and, presently, approximately 60 studies have been published. Other Danish departments of clinical microbiology have recently started to record the same information and a population base of 2.3 million will be available for future studies. PMID:20865114

  9. An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.

    PubMed

    Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented. PMID:24079487

  10. Traumatic brain injury in the US military: epidemiology and key clinical and research programs.

    PubMed

    Helmick, Katherine M; Spells, Cynthia A; Malik, Saafan Z; Davies, Cathleen A; Marion, Donald W; Hinds, Sidney R

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), and particularly concussion, is a major concern for the U.S. Military because of the associated short term disability, long term cognitive and pain symptoms suffered by some, and risk of prolonged or permanent neurologic injury if the Service member incurs a second TBI before full recovery from the first. Concussions were seen more often during the recent conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq than in prior conflicts, such as the Vietnam War, because of the use of improvised explosive devices that typically caused non-penetrating closed head injury. Since 2000 more than 300,000 Service members were diagnosed with TBI, of which more than 80 % were concussions. Improved TBI screening tools also have identified a higher than expected incidence of concussions occurring in garrison. In this review we summarize current epidemiologic data for TBI in the Military, and describe contemporary Military procedures and strategies for TBI prevention, identification, evaluation, and acute and chronic care. Key TBI clinical research priorities and programs are described, and innovative organizational plans to address future TBI needs are summarized. PMID:25972118

  11. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Biomedical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Page, Matthew J.; Shamseer, Larissa; Altman, Douglas G.; Tetzlaff, Jennifer; Tricco, Andrea C.; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Li, Lun; Reid, Emma K.; Sarkis-Onofre, Rafael; Moher, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews (SRs) can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of reporting of SRs across different specialties. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a more recent cross-section of SRs. Methods and Findings We searched MEDLINE to identify potentially eligible SRs indexed during the month of February 2014. Citations were screened using prespecified eligibility criteria. Epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 300 SRs were extracted by one reviewer, with a 10% sample extracted in duplicate. We compared characteristics of Cochrane versus non-Cochrane reviews, and the 2014 sample of SRs versus a 2004 sample of SRs. We identified 682 SRs, suggesting that more than 8,000 SRs are being indexed in MEDLINE annually, corresponding to a 3-fold increase over the last decade. The majority of SRs addressed a therapeutic question and were conducted by authors based in China, the UK, or the US; they included a median of 15 studies involving 2,072 participants. Meta-analysis was performed in 63% of SRs, mostly using standard pairwise methods. Study risk of bias/quality assessment was performed in 70% of SRs but was rarely incorporated into the analysis (16%). Few SRs (7%) searched sources of unpublished data, and the risk of publication bias was considered in less than half of SRs. Reporting quality was highly variable; at least a third of SRs did not report use of a SR protocol, eligibility criteria relating to publication status, years of coverage of the search, a full Boolean search logic for at least one database, methods for data extraction, methods for study risk of bias assessment, a primary

  12. Epidemiological surveys of, and research on, soil-transmitted helminths in Southeast Asia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Julia C; Turner, Hugo C; Tun, Aung; Anderson, Roy M

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections of humans fall within the World Health Organization's (WHO) grouping termed the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It is estimated that they affect approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide. A significant proportion of these infections are in the population of Southeast Asia. This review analyses published data on STH prevalence and intensity in Southeast Asia over the time period of 1900 to the present to describe age related patterns in these epidemiological measures. This is with a focus on the four major parasite species affecting humans; namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms; Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Data were also collected on the diagnostic methods used in the published surveys and how the studies were designed to facilitate comparative analyses of recorded patterns and changes therein over time. PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infections search engines were used to identify studies on STH in Southeast Asia with the search based on the major key words, and variants on, "soil-transmitted helminth" "Ascaris" "Trichuris" "hookworm" and the country name. A total of 280 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria from 11 Southeast Asian countries; Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam. It was concluded that the epidemiological patterns of STH infection by age and species mix in Southeast Asia are similar to those reported in other parts of the world. In the published studies there were a large number of different diagnostic methods used with differing sensitivities and specificities, which makes comparison of the results both within and between countries difficult. There is a clear requirement to standardise the methods of both STH diagnosis in faecal material and how the

  13. Robotic Delivery of Complex Radiation Volumes for Small Animal Research

    PubMed Central

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Iordachita, Iulian; Wong, John; Kazanzides, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is a novel and complete system capable of delivering multidirectional (focal), kilo-voltage radiation fields to targets in small animals under robotic control using cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance. The capability of the SARRP to deliver highly focused beams to multiple animal models provides new research opportunities that more realistically bridge laboratory research and clinical translation. This paper describes the design and operation of the SARRP for precise radiation delivery. Different delivery procedures are presented which enable the system to radiate through a series of points, representative of a complex shape. A particularly interesting case is shell dose irradiation, where the goal is to deliver a high dose of radiation to the shape surface, with minimal dose to the shape interior. The ability to deliver a dose shell allows mechanistic research of how a tumor interacts with its microenvironment to sustain its growth and lead to its resistance or recurrence. PMID:21643448

  14. Cognitive epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

    2007-01-01

    This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology. PMID:17435201

  15. Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics: Recent Research and Trends in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, B. E.; Kharrazi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To survey advances in public health and epidemiology informatics over the past three years. Methods We conducted a review of English-language research works conducted in the domain of public health informatics (PHI), and published in MEDLINE between January 2012 and December 2014, where information and communication technology (ICT) was a primary subject, or a main component of the study methodology. Selected articles were synthesized using a thematic analysis using the Essential Services of Public Health as a typology. Results Based on themes that emerged, we organized the advances into a model where applications that support the Essential Services are, in turn, supported by a socio-technical infrastructure that relies on government policies and ethical principles. That infrastructure, in turn, depends upon education and training of the public health workforce, development that creates novel or adapts existing infrastructure, and research that evaluates the success of the infrastructure. Finally, the persistence and growth of infrastructure depends on financial sustainability. Conclusions Public health informatics is a field that is growing in breadth, depth, and complexity. Several Essential Services have benefited from informatics, notably, “Monitor Health,” “Diagnose & Investigate,” and “Evaluate.” Yet many Essential Services still have not yet benefited from advances such as maturing electronic health record systems, interoperability amongst health information systems, analytics for population health management, use of social media among consumers, and educational certification in clinical informatics. There is much work to be done to further advance the science of PHI as well as its impact on public health practice. PMID:26293869

  16. Overview of epidemiologic research on electric and magnetic fields and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A. )

    1993-04-01

    This overview of epidemiologic research addresses the potential role of 60 Hertz electric and magnetic fields (EMF) in the etiology of cancer. The key findings are summarized with notation of the methodological challenges with which investigators must content. Although exposure is ubiquitous, long-term average EMF is influenced primarily by the background levels in homes, use of selected electric appliances such as electric blankets, and workplace exposures to energized equipment. Studies of residential exposure have focused on childhood cancer, starting with the report of an excess of wire configurations associated with elevated magnetic fields near the homes of children who developed cancer compared to healthy children. Several subsequent studies have tended to confirm that association, although the evidence falls short of demonstrating a causal association between magnetic fields and cancer. Exposures from electric appliances have been less extensively pursued, with some suggestions of an association with childhood cancer. A more extensive literature has evaluated the association between workplace exposure to EMF, based on job titles of electrical workers and cancer. Across many different study designs and settings, certain groups of electrical workers show elevated occurrence of leukemia and brain cancer. The consistency of findings is notable, but the key question is whether the association with job title is due to EMF or some other agent in the workplace. Future research would benefit from specification of testable challenges to a causal association between EMF exposure in the home or workplace and cancer, along with continued efforts to improve our understanding and measurement of EMF exposure. 64 refs.

  17. Radiation-epidemiological analysis of incidence of non-cancer diseases among the Chernobyl liquidators.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V K; Maksioutov, M A; Chekin SYu; Kruglova, Z G; Petrov, A V; Tsyb, A F

    2000-05-01

    The work is concerned with assessment of radiation risks for non-cancer disease among the Chernobyl liquidators from 1986 to 1996. As of 1 January 1999, the Russian National Medical and Dosimetric Registry contains medical and dosimetric data for 174,000 liquidators. The cohort of 68,309 liquidators for whom best verified medical data are available is discussed. The dose dependency of incidence of non-cancer diseases was estimated by the cohort method and using the software package Epicure. For some classes of non-cancer diseases among liquidators, statistically significant estimates of radiation risk were derived for the first time. The highest excess relative risk per 1 Gy was found for cerebrovascular diseases; ERR Gy(-1)=1.17 at the 95% confidence interval (0.45; 1.88). PMID:10772021

  18. Epidemiology of Oropharyngeal Candida Colonization and Infection in Patients Receiving Radiation for Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Redding, Spencer W.; Zellars, Richard C.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; McAtee, Robert K.; Caceres, Marta A.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L.; Bailey, Cliff W.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    Oral mucosal colonization and infection with Candida are common in patients receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Infection is marked by oral pain and/or burning and can lead to significant patient morbidity. The purpose of this study was to identify Candida strain diversity in this population by using a chromogenic medium, subculturing, molecular typing, and antifungal susceptibility testing of clinical isolates. These results were then correlated with clinical outcome in patients treated with fluconazole for infection. Specimens from 30 patients receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancer were cultured weekly for Candida. Patients exhibiting clinical infection were treated with oral fluconazole. All isolates were plated on CHROMagar Candida and RPMI medium, subcultured, and submitted for antifungal susceptibility testing and molecular typing. Infections occurred in 27% of the patients and were predominantly due to Candida albicans (78%). Candida carriage occurred in 73% of patients and at 51% of patient visits. Yeasts other than C. albicans predominated in carriage, as they were isolated from 59% of patients and at 52% of patient visits. All infections responded clinically, and all isolates were susceptible to fluconazole. Molecular typing showed that most patients had similar strains throughout their radiation treatment. One patient, however, did show the acquisition of a new strain. With this high rate of infection (27%), prophylaxis to prevent infection should be evaluated for these patients. PMID:10565903

  19. Internet addiction: a systematic review of epidemiological research for the last decade.

    PubMed

    Kuss, D J; Griffiths, M D; Karila, L; Billieux, J

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, Internet usage has grown tremendously on a global scale. The increasing popularity and frequency of Internet use has led to an increasing number of reports highlighting the potential negative consequences of overuse. Over the last decade, research into Internet addiction has proliferated. This paper reviews the existing 68 epidemiological studies of Internet addiction that (i) contain quantitative empirical data, (ii) have been published after 2000, (iii) include an analysis relating to Internet addiction, (iv) include a minimum of 1000 participants, and (v) provide a full-text article published in English using the database Web of Science. Assessment tools and conceptualisations, prevalence, and associated factors in adolescents and adults are scrutinised. The results reveal the following. First, no gold standard of Internet addiction classification exists as 21 different assessment instruments have been identified. They adopt official criteria for substance use disorders or pathological gambling, no or few criteria relevant for an addiction diagnosis, time spent online, or resulting problems. Second, reported prevalence rates differ as a consequence of different assessment tools and cut-offs, ranging from 0.8% in Italy to 26.7% in Hong Kong. Third, Internet addiction is associated with a number of sociodemographic, Internet use, and psychosocial factors, as well as comorbid symptoms and disorder in adolescents and adults. The results indicate that a number of core symptoms (i.e., compulsive use, negative outcomes and salience) appear relevant for diagnosis, which assimilates Internet addiction and other addictive disorders and also differentiates them, implying a conceptualisation as syndrome with similar etiology and components, but different expressions of addictions. Limitations include the exclusion of studies with smaller sample sizes and studies focusing on specific online behaviours. Conclusively, there is a need for nosological

  20. Interdisciplinary communication of infectious disease research - translating complex epidemiological findings into understandable messages for village chicken farmers in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Henning, Joerg; Hla, Than; Meers, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in animal disease control and prevention is dependent on several factors including farmers' uptake of new technologies and skills, particularly in developing countries. Extension is the means by which information about these technologies and skills is delivered to farmers, in order that they can use this knowledge to improve farming practices and their quality of life. This implies a shift from traditional methods to new science-based methods of production. However, in many developing countries farmers are illiterate and unable to understand written outcomes of scientific research. This paper summarizes approaches to communicate epidemiological findings and reports on experiences obtained from a research project in Myanmar, where results from epidemiological field investigations and intervention studies were 'translated' in an understandable manner to village communities. Rural chicken farmers were the central focus of this extension work and simple and sustainable methods to improve the health and production of scavenging chicken flocks were promoted. Unique extension materials transformed scientific outputs published in international journals into clear pictographic messages comprehendible by villagers, while maintaining country-specific, traditional, religious and public perspectives. Benefits, difficulties and pitfalls in using extension methods to communicate advice on preventive veterinary medicine measures in different cross-cultural settings are discussed and guidelines on how to distribute epidemiological research results to illiterate farmers are provided. PMID:25674462

  1. Epidemiological studies of Fukushima residents exposed to ionising radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant prefecture--a preliminary review of current plans.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Suminori

    2012-03-01

    It is now more than six months since the beginning of the accident on 11 March 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. The Japanese government and local health authorities have started to collect the information necessary to estimate radiation doses received by those living in the area around the plant, drafted plans for the health care of residents, and started to implement some of them. This paper reviews and discusses the studies necessary for risk evaluation of cancer and non-cancer diseases, including those already planned, mainly from the view point of evaluating health risk using epidemiological approaches. In the long run, it is important to establish a cohort with a control group. Even if the cumulative doses are estimated to be so low that it is difficult to evaluate the risk of cancer and non-cancer diseases, it is necessary to conduct such a study to reassure residents. The health care programme of the Fukushima Prefecture government, including health check-ups of residents, will help to assess indirect effects of radiation exposure, including psychological problems. The success of any studies of radiation epidemiology depends on the collection of accurate information on radiation doses received by the study subjects. However, some of the dosimetry surveys were not conducted in a timely manner. (It should be recognised, though, that such a problem might have been inevitable, considering the chaotic condition after the nuclear accident.) Accurate estimation of the radiation dose received by each resident is not only important for scientific risk evaluation but also to inform each resident about his or her potential risk. Otherwise, residents will bear an undue psychological burden from uncertainties regarding their radiation exposure and its health consequences. One of other important tasks in Fukushima is the improvement of the quality of the regional cancer registry in this prefecture. It is also important to start thyroid cancer

  2. Radiation and Nuclear Materials Detection Research and Development at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Jim E; Wright, Michael C

    2009-01-01

    Research and development is underway to improve radiation and nuclear detection capabilities. This research and development in radiation and nuclear detection includes areas such as advanced materials, applied research and engineering for designing and fabricating customized detection equipment, and theoretical modeling and computational support. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a distinctive set of detector materials fabrication and characterization capabilities and recently created a Center for Radiation Detection Materials and Systems. Applied research and engineering efforts have led to the development of improved detectors for specific applications including safeguards, treaty monitoring, and science experiments. All sizes, types, and capabilities of detector systems have been addressed from miniature to man-portable and from neutrons to gamma radiation. Dedicated test beds, in-house and in the field, have been established to analyze, characterize, and improve detection systems.

  3. Age-adjustment and related epidemiology rates in education and research.

    PubMed

    Baker, John D; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence, crude, age-specific and age-adjustment rates into the gerontology classroom. Background information and formulas for each rate, as well as examples of how they can be applied are provided. A recent change, encouraged by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, from a 1940 to a 2000 "standard million population" for ageadjusted rates, is reviewed. Finally, a teaching module with answers is provided for use in the gerontology classroom. PMID:16873207

  4. The Foundations of Radiation Belt Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    The United States undertook the launching of an artificial Earth satellite as part of its contribution to the International Geophysical Year. The Vanguard program was established to meet that commitment, and it developed a launch vehicle, ground station network, and suite of scientific payloads, including the cosmic ray experiment proposed by James A. Van Allen. Although Vanguard eventually exceeded all of its pre-stated goals, the preemptive launches of Sputniks I and II by the Soviets in October and November 1957 spurred the U.S. into a frenzy of activity, resulting in the launches of Explorers I and III in January and March of 1958. The data from those two satellites quickly revealed the lower boundary of an unexpected region of high intensity radiation trapped in the Earth's magnetic field. The original announcement in May 1958 stated that the radiation was probably composed of either protons or electrons, and that, if electrons, it was probably bremsstrahlung formed in the satellite shell. Immediately following that announcement, approval was received for what became Explorer IV, whose announced purpose was to follow up on the new discovery. Another reason for the satellite, unmentioned at the time, was its inclusion as a component of the highly classified Argos program, a covert military program to test whether the detonation of nuclear devices at high altitude would inject measurable numbers of charged particles into durable trajectories in the Earth's magnetic field. Our team at Iowa produced the satellites under the oversight of, and with assistance by, the Army Ballistic Missile Agency in Huntsville, and with the contributions of key hardware from several other government laboratories. The project was completed in the unbelievably short period of seventy-seven days from approval to launch. Launched into a higher-inclination orbit than the earlier Explorers, Explorer IV confirmed the discovery and greatly expanded our understanding of the natural

  5. Quantifying lifetime exposure to ultraviolet radiation in the epidemiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, C.S.; Selvin, S. . Dept. of Biomedical and Environmental Health Sciences Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA ); Buffler, P.A. . Dept. of Biomedical and Environmental Health Sciences); Scotto, J. . Biostatistics Branch); Berwick, M. (Cancer Pre

    1992-10-01

    This pilot study uses a unique method to calculate cumulative lifetime exposure to, ultraviolet radiation-b to determine if this refined method would indicate differences in lifetime cumulative UVB exposure between age and sex matched controls. Forty-four age and sex matched cases and controls demonstrated no significant difference in mean cumulative lifetime UVB exposure based on the duration and location of residence. This pilot study suggests that further analysis of the dataset should be conducted to determine if the cumulative lifetime exposure hypothesis is of primary importance regarding the association between UVB exposure and development of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

  6. Use of a State-Vector Model of Radiation Carcinogenesis to Integrate Information from in vitro, in vivo, Epidemiological and Physiological Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Doug Crawford-Brown; Marc Serre

    2006-06-01

    This project focused on extension of a generalized state-vector model developed by Crawford-Brown and Hofmann (1-4). The model incorporates phenomena such as DNA damage and repair, intercellular communication mechanisms, both spontaneous and radiation-induced cell death and cell division, to predict cellular transformation following exposure to ionizing radiation. Additionally, this model may be simulated over time periods that correspond to the temporal scale of biological mechanisms. The state-vector model has been shown to generally reproduce transformation frequency patterns for in vitro studies (2), but still significantly underpredicted in vivo cancer incidence data at the higher doses for high-LET radiations when biologically realistic rate constants for cell killing are included (1). Mebust et al. (1) claimed that one reason for this underprediction might be that the model's ability to fit the in vitro data is due in part to compensating errors that only reveal themselves when the more complex in vivo and epidemiological data are considered. This implies that the original in vitro model may be based on incomplete assumptions regarding the underlying biological mechanisms. The present research considered this explanation for the case of low LET radiation. An extension of the in vitro state-vector model was tested that includes additional biological mechanisms in order to improve model predictions with respect to dose-response data on in vitro oncogenic transformation of C3H10T1/2 mouse fibroblast cells exposed to acute doses of X-radiation (5). These data display a plateau of transformation frequency per surviving cell in the X-ray dose range of 0.1 to 1 Gy, with an increase in transformation frequency at higher acute doses. To reproduce these trends in the data, additional biological processes were formulated mathematically and incorporated into the existing model as parameters whose values could be adjusted and tested by an optimization method (genetic

  7. Application Description and Policy Model in Collaborative Environment for Sharing of Information on Epidemiological and Clinical Research Data Sets

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Elias César Araujo; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Simkins, Julie; Martins, Henrique; Shah, Jatin; Rajgor, Dimple; Shah, Anand; Rockart, Scott; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Background Sharing of epidemiological and clinical data sets among researchers is poor at best, in detriment of science and community at large. The purpose of this paper is therefore to (1) describe a novel Web application designed to share information on study data sets focusing on epidemiological clinical research in a collaborative environment and (2) create a policy model placing this collaborative environment into the current scientific social context. Methodology The Database of Databases application was developed based on feedback from epidemiologists and clinical researchers requiring a Web-based platform that would allow for sharing of information about epidemiological and clinical study data sets in a collaborative environment. This platform should ensure that researchers can modify the information. A Model-based predictions of number of publications and funding resulting from combinations of different policy implementation strategies (for metadata and data sharing) were generated using System Dynamics modeling. Principal Findings The application allows researchers to easily upload information about clinical study data sets, which is searchable and modifiable by other users in a wiki environment. All modifications are filtered by the database principal investigator in order to maintain quality control. The application has been extensively tested and currently contains 130 clinical study data sets from the United States, Australia, China and Singapore. Model results indicated that any policy implementation would be better than the current strategy, that metadata sharing is better than data-sharing, and that combined policies achieve the best results in terms of publications. Conclusions Based on our empirical observations and resulting model, the social network environment surrounding the application can assist epidemiologists and clinical researchers contribute and search for metadata in a collaborative environment, thus potentially facilitating

  8. Childhood exposure to ultraviolet radiation and harmful skin effects: Epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Green, Adèle C.; Wallingford, Sarah C.; McBride, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    We review the general amount and patterns of exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation that children and teenagers experience and the spectrum of UV-related skin damage that can occur as a result. Data about the amount of solar UV received by children and teenagers are relatively few but suggest that around 40–50% of total UV to age 60 occurs before age 20. Among white children, those with the palest complexions suffer the most damage. Comparisons of prevalence and incidence of outcomes in children and teenagers sharing common ancestry, but living at different latitudes, show that prevalence rates of photoaging and melanocytic naevi are higher in Australian compared with British children, and similarly for melanoma. Genetic risk for the majority of the melanomas in teens is a function of genes controlling naevus propensity and pigmentation in the skin. High numbers of naevi and freckles, red hair, blue eyes, inability to tan, as well as a family history are the primary determinants of melanoma among adolescents. Beyond the signs of skin damage seen in children are the latent effects observed later in adulthood. Childhood is believed to be a susceptible window for long-term harmful effects of UV, as evidenced by clear differences in skin cancer risk between child and adult migrants from high to low latitudes. Effective UV radiation protection from childhood is necessary to control both immediate and long-term harmful effects on children’s skin. PMID:21907230

  9. Radiative flux opens new window on climate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinker, R. T.; Laszlo, I.; Whitlock, C. H.; Charlock, T. P.

    1995-01-01

    For several decades, global satellite observations have been made of the rate at which electromagnetic energy (radiative flux) is emerging from the top of the atmosphere of our planet in the spectral range of about 0.2-50.0 microns. At the same time, models have been developed to infer the radiative flux at the surface from the values observed by the satellites at the upper boundary. The balance of incoming and outgoing radiative flux (radiation budget) at both boundaries, determines the net gain or loss of the radiative energy within an atmospheric column. Climate researchers can use the radiative flux as a tool to validate climate models, separate the radiative impact of clouds from surface and atmosphere contributions, and to understand the global hydrological cycle. When applied to physical processes occurring at the surface, information on the radiative flux has the potential to substantially advance our understanding of the transport of heat, moisture, and momentum across the surface/atmosphere interface. Geophysicists of many disciplines stand to benefit from efforts to improve the use of this latter untapped resource. Oceanographers can improve the representation of the selective absorption of radiation in the oceans; biologists and ecologists can improve their models for carbon dioxide exchange and biological heating in oceans; agronomists can model more realistically biomass and crop yields; and environmentalists can obtain better assessment of natural resources of radiation.

  10. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution. PMID:26023265

  11. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rajan R.; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution. PMID:26023265

  12. Research issues for radiation protection for man during prolonged spaceflight

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.J.; Hagan, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    For the purpose of this article, radiation protection is defined as any physical, chemical, biological, or pharmacological modality that accomplishes the goal of protecting the astronaut from radiation hazard or increases his ability to assist other astronauts or spacecraft. Thoughtful examination of these largely operational considerations led to identification of medical and radiobiological research required to support the industrialization of near-Earth space. The scope of these research efforts involves thematic issues that have been defined after review of the available preliminary research from several scientific disciplines that relate to the problem of radiation protection in space. This article serves to highlight areas of research requiring further investigation. While certain of these needs for research are driven by the planned orbits involving small designated astronaut populations and well-defined durations that may be specific to the military, it is the use of geostationary orbits, permanent lunar basing, and the proposed Mars mission that form the primary basis for these operational considerations.

  13. Research needs and opportunities in radiation chemistry workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara, Paul F

    1998-04-19

    There is a growing urgency for forefront basic research on ionizing radiation-induced chemical reactions, due to the relevance of these reactions in such areas of critical national need as environmental waste management, environmental remediation, nuclear energy production, and medical diagnosis and radiation therapy. Fortunately, the emergence of new theoretical and experimental tools for the study of radiation-induced chemical and physical processes, i.e. Radiation Chemistry, makes future progress quite promising. Nevertheless, a recent decline in he number of young investigators in radiation chemistry, as well as a natural obsolescence of large research facilities in radiation chemistry are serious obstacles to further progress. Understanding radiation-induced processes is of vital significance in such diverse fields as waste remediation in environmental cleanup, radiation processing of polymers and food, medical diagnosis and therapy, catalysis of chemical reactions, environmentally benign synthesis, and nuclear energy production. Radiation chemistry provides for these fields fundamental quantitative data, such as reaction rate coefficients, diffusion coefficients, radiation chemical yields, etc. As well as providing useful quantitative information of technological and medical importance, radiation chemistry is also a valuable tool for solving fundamental problems in chemistry and in material sciences. Exploiting the many facets of radiation chemistry requires a thorough and comprehensive understanding of the underlying chemical and physical processes. An understanding of the structure and dynamics of “tracks” produced by ionizing radiation is a central issue in the field. There is a continuing need to study the ultrafast processes that link the chemistry and physics of radiation-induced phenomena. This is especially true for practically important, but less well understood, nonstandard environments such as interfacial systems, supercritical media, and

  14. Small animal radiation research platform: imaging, mechanics, control and calibration.

    PubMed

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Gray, Owen; Iordachita, Iulian; Kennedy, Chris; Ford, Eric; Wong, John; Taylor, Russell H; Kazanzides, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In cancer research, well characterized small animal models of human cancer, such as transgenic mice, have greatly accelerated the pace of development of cancer treatments. The goal of the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is to make those same models available for the development and evaluation of novel radiation therapies. In combination with advanced imaging methods, small animal research allows detailed study of biological processes, disease progression, and response to therapy, with the potential to provide a natural bridge to the clinical environment. The SARRP will realistically model human radiation treatment methods in standard animal models. In this paper, we describe the mechanical and control structure of the system. This system requires accurate calibration of the x-ray beam for both imaging and radiation treatment, which is presented in detail in the paper. PMID:18044657

  15. Molecular epidemiologic research on the effects of environmental pollutants on the fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, F P; Jedrychowski, W; Rauh, V; Whyatt, R M

    1999-01-01

    Evidence shows that fetuses and infants are more affected than adults by a variety of environmental toxicants because of differential exposure, physiologic immaturity, and a longer lifetime over which disease initiated in early life can develop. In this article we review data on the effects of in utero exposure to common environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particulate matter and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). We then summarize results from our molecular epidemiologic study to assess risks from in utero exposures to ambient air pollution and ETS. This research study, conducted in Poland, used biomarkers to measure the internal and bioeffective dose of toxicants and individual susceptibility factors. The study included 160 mothers and 160 newborns. Ambient air pollution was significantly associated (p= 0.05) with the amount of PAH bound to DNA (PAH-DNA adducts) in both maternal and infant cord white blood cells (WBC). Newborns with elevated PAH-DNA adducts (greater than the median) had significantly decreased birth weight (p= 0.05), birth length (p= 0.02), and head circumference (p= 0.0005) compared to the newborns with lower adducts (n= 135). Maternal and infant cotinine levels were increased by active and passive cigarette smoke exposure of the mother (p= 0.01). An inverse correlation was seen between newborn plasma cotinine (nanograms per milliliter) and birth weight (p= 0.0001) and length (p= 0.003). Adducts were elevated in placental tissue and WBC of newborns who were heterozygous or homozygous for the cytochrome P4501A1 MspI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) compared to newborns without the RFLP. Levels of PAH-DNA and cotinine were higher in newborns than mothers. These results document that there is significant transplacental transfer of PAH and ETS constituents from mother to fetus; that PAH-DNA adduct levels in maternal and newborn WBC were increased with environmental exposure to PAH from ambient

  16. What can be learned from epidemiologic studies of persons exposed to low doses of radiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-04-01

    The main objective of radiation risk assessment is to determine the risk of various adverse health effects associated with exposure to low doses and low dose rates. Extrapolation of risks from studies of persons exposed at high doses (generally exceeding 1 Sv) and dose rates has been the primary approach used to achieve this objective. The study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has played an especially important role in risk assessment efforts. A direct assessment of the dose-response function based on studies of persons exposed at low doses and dose rates is obviously desirable. This paper focuses on the potential of both current and future nuclear workers studies for investigating the dose-response functions at low doses, and also discusses analyses making use of the low dose portion of the atomic bomb survivor data. Difficulties in using these data are the statistical imprecision of estimated dose-response parameters, and potential bias resulting from confounding factors and from uncertainties in dose estimates.

  17. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: cohort description and related epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Tekkel, Mare; Veidebaum, Toomas; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Bigbee, William L; Hartshorne, Michael F; Inskip, Peter D; Boice, John D

    2015-12-01

    The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers was one of the first investigations to evaluate the possible health consequences of working in the Chernobyl area (the 30 km exclusion zone and/or adjacent territories) after the 1986 reactor accident. The cohort consists of 4831 men who were dispatched in 1986-1991 for tasks involving decontamination, construction of buildings, transport, radiation measurement, guard duty or other activities. By 31 December 2012, the follow-up of the cohort yielded 102 158 person-years of observation. Exposure and health data were collected by postal questionnaires, biodosimetry evaluations, thyroid screenings, and record-linkages with cancer, causes of death and health insurance reimbursement registers and databases. These data cover socio-demographic factors, employment history, aspects of health behaviour, medical history, work and living conditions in the Chernobyl area, biomarkers of exposure, cancer and non-cancer disease occurrence and causes of death. Cancer incidence data were obtained for 1986-2008, mortality data for 1986-2011 and non-cancer morbidity data for 2004-2012. Although the cohort is relatively small, it has been extensively examined and benefited from comprehensive nationwide population and health registers. The major finding was an increased risk of suicide. Thyroid examinations did not reveal an association with thyroid nodular disease and radiation dose, but did indicate the importance of accounting for screening when making comparisons with unscreened populations. No risk of leukaemia was observed and risks higher than 2.5-fold could be excluded with 95% confidence. Biodosimetry included GPA analyses and chromosomal translocation analyses and indicated that the Estonian cleanup workers experienced a relatively low mean exposure of the order of 0.1 Gy. One value of the Estonian study is in the methodologic processes brought to bear in addressing possible health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Twenty

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  19. Ionizing radiation: Future etiologic research and preventive strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, S.C.; Inskip, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    Estimates of cancer risks following exposure to ionizing radiation traditionally have been based on the experience of populations exposed to substantial (and known) doses delivered over short periods of time. Examples include survivors of the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and persons treated with radiation for benign or malignant disease. Continued follow-up of these populations is important to determine the long-term effects of exposure in childhood, to characterize temporal patterns of excess risk for different types of cancer, and to understand better the interactions between radiation and other host and environmental factors. Studies of nuclear workers chronically exposed over a working lifetime provide data that preliminary indications are that the risks per unit dose for most cancers other than leukemia are similar to those for acute exposure. However, these results are subject to considerable uncertainty, and further information on this question is needed. Residential radon is the major source of population exposure to high-LET radiation. Current estimates of the risk of lung cancer due to residential exposure to radon and radon daughters are based on the experience of miners exposed to much higher concentrations. Data indicate that lung cancer risk among miners is inversely associated with exposure rate, and also is influenced by the presence of other lung carcinogens such as arsenic in the mine environment. Further study of populations of radon-exposed miners would be informative, particularly those exposed at below-average levels. More direct evidence on the effects of residential exposure to radon also is desirable but might be difficult to come by, as risks associated with radon levels found in most homes might be too low to be quantified accurately in epidemiological studies. 29 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Estimation of the radiation dose from radiotherapy for skin haemangiomas in childhood: the ICTA software for epidemiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsaldin, A.; Lundell, M.; Diallo, I.; Ligot, L.; Chavaudra, J.; de Vathaire, F.

    2000-12-01

    Radium applicators and pure beta emitters have been widely used in the past to treat skin haemangioma in early childhood. A well defined relationship between the low doses received from these applicators and radiation-induced cancers requires accurate dosimetry. A human-based CT scan phantom has been used to simulate every patient and treatment condition and then to calculate the source-target distance when radium and pure beta applicators were used. The effective transmission factor ϕ(r) for the gamma spectrum emitted by the radium sources applied on the skin surface was modelled using Monte Carlo simulations. The well-known quantization approach was used to calculate gamma doses delivered from radium applicators to various anatomical points. For 32P, 90Sr/90Y applicators and 90Y needles we have used the apparent exponential attenuation equation. The dose calculation algorithm was integrated into the ICTA software (standing for a model that constructs an Individualized phantom based on CT slices and Auxological data), which has been developed for epidemiological studies of cohorts of patients who received radium and beta-treatments for skin haemangioma. The ϕ(r) values obtained for radium skin applicators are in good agreement with the available values in the first 10 cm but higher at greater distances. Gamma doses can be calculated with this algorithm at 165 anatomical points throughout the body of patients treated with radium applicators. Lung heterogeneity and air crossed by the gamma rays are considered. Comparison of absorbed doses in water from a 10 mg equivalent radium source simulated by ICTA with those measured at the Radiumhemmet, Karolinska Hospital (RAH) showed good agreement, but ICTA estimation of organ doses did not always correspond those estimated at the RAH. Beta doses from 32P, 90Sr/90Y applicators and 90Y needles are calculated up to the maximum beta range (11 mm).

  1. NASA Self-Assessment of Space Radiation Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Space exploration involves unavoidable exposures to high-energy galactic cosmic rays whose penetration power and associated secondary radiation makes radiation shielding ineffective and cost prohibitive. NASA recognizing the possible health dangers from cosmic rays notified the U.S. Congress as early as 1959 of the need for a dedicated heavy ion accelerator to study the largely unknown biological effects of galactic cosmic rays on astronauts. Information and scientific tools to study radiation health effects expanded over the new decades as NASA exploration programs to the moon and preparations for Mars exploration were carried out. In the 1970 s through the early 1990 s a more than 3-fold increase over earlier estimates of fatal cancer risks from gamma-rays, and new knowledge of the biological dangers of high LET radiation were obtained. Other research has increased concern for degenerative risks to the central nervous system and other tissues at lower doses compared to earlier estimates. In 1996 a review by the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board re-iterated the need for a dedicated ground-based accelerator facility capable of providing up to 2000 research hours per year to reduce uncertainties in risks projections and develop effective mitigation measures. In 1998 NASA appropriated funds for construction of a dedicated research facility and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) opened for research in October of 2003. This year marks the 8th year of NSRL research were about 1000 research hours per year have been utilized. In anticipation of the approaching ten year milestone, funded investigators and selected others are invited to participate in a critical self-assessment of NSRL research progress towards NASA s goals in space radiation research. A Blue and Red Team Assessment format has been integrated into meeting posters and special plenary sessions to allow for a critical debate on the progress of the research and major gaps areas. Blue

  2. The Role of Professional Journals and Societies in the Future of a Field: A Reflection on the Partnership Between the American Journal of Epidemiology and the Society for Epidemiologic Research.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Kristen A; Galea, Sandro

    2016-03-01

    On this, the 100th anniversary of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, we take the opportunity to reflect on the ties between the School, the American Journal of Epidemiology, and the Society for Epidemiologic Research. We discuss briefly the intersection of the School, the Journal, and the Society throughout their histories, with the aim of providing some insight into how the Journal and the Society have contributed to the evolution of the field. In so doing, we articulate the challenges that the Journal and the Society jointly face today, with an eye to finding opportunities in these challenges that can be helpful in coming decades. PMID:26841948

  3. Activities of the National Academy of Sciences in relation to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    SciTech Connect

    Edington, C.W.

    1992-06-01

    This progress report relates progress in the various research projects evaluating the late health effects, both somatic and genetic, resulting from radiation exposure of the survivors of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Considerable progress has been made in the collection and utilization of the various epidemiological data bases. These include the Life Span Study, (LSS) cohort, the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort, the In Utero cohort, the leukemia registry and the F-1 Study population. Important progress has been made in using RERF Tumor and Tissue Registry records for evaluation of cancer incidence and radiation risk estimates for comparison with cancer mortality and risk in the LSS cohort. At the present time, a manuscript on the incidence of solid tumors (1950-1987) is undergoing internal and external review for publication as an RERF Technical report (TR) and for publication in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. In addition, manuscripts are in preparation on (1) a comprehensive report on the incidence of hematological cancers, including analysis of leukemia by cell type (1950-1987), (2) a general description of Tumor Registry operations and (3) a comparison of incidence- and mortality-based estimates of radiation risk in the LSS cohort.

  4. RADIATION CHEMISTRY 2010 GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE JULY 18-23

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Orlando

    2010-07-23

    The 2010 Gordon Conference on Radiation Chemistry will present cutting edge research regarding the study of radiation-induced chemical transformations. Radiation Chemistry or 'high energy' chemistry is primarily initiated by ionizing radiation: i.e. photons or particles with energy sufficient to create conduction band electrons and 'holes', excitons, ionic and neutral free radicals, highly excited states, and solvated electrons. These transients often interact or 'react' to form products vastly different than those produced under thermal equilibrium conditions. The non-equilibrium, non-thermal conditions driving radiation chemistry exist in plasmas, star-forming regions, the outer solar system, nuclear reactors, nuclear waste repositories, radiation-based medical/clinical treatment centers and in radiation/materials processing facilities. The 2010 conference has a strong interdisciplinary flavor with focus areas spanning (1) the fundamental physics and chemistry involved in ultrafast (atto/femtosecond) energy deposition events, (2) radiation-induced processes in biology (particularly spatially resolved studies), (3) radiation-induced modification of materials at the nanoscale and cosmic ray/x-ray mediated processes in planetary science/astrochemistry. While the conference concentrates on fundamental science, topical applied areas covered will also include nuclear power, materials/polymer processing, and clinical/radiation treatment in medicine. The Conference will bring together investigators at the forefront of their field, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present work in poster format or as contributors to the Young Investigator session. The program and format provides excellent avenues to promote cross-disciplinary collaborations.

  5. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: The clinical laboratory information system (LABKA) research database at Aarhus University, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Grann, Anne Fia; Erichsen, Rune; Nielsen, Anders Gunnar; Frøslev, Trine; Thomsen, Reimar W

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the clinical laboratory information system (LABKA) research database in Northern and Central Denmark. The database contains millions of stored laboratory test results for patients living in the two Danish regions, encompassing 1.8 million residents, or one-third of the country’s population. More than 1700 different types of blood test analyses are available. Therefore, the LABKA research database represents an incredible source for studies involving blood test analyses. By record linkage of different Danish registries with the LABKA research database, it is possible to examine a large number of biomarkers as predictors of disease risk and prognosis and as markers of disease severity, and to evaluate medical treatments regarding effectiveness and possible side effects. Large epidemiological studies using routinely stored blood test results for individual patients can be performed because it is possible to link the laboratory data to high-quality individual clinical patient data in Denmark. PMID:21487452

  6. The Rochester Epidemiology Project: exploiting the capabilities for population-based research in rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kremers, Hilal Maradit; Myasoedova, Elena; Crowson, Cynthia S.; Savova, Guergana; Gabriel, Sherine E.

    2011-01-01

    The Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) is a patient record-based database based upon a medical records-linkage system for all residents of the Olmsted County, MN, USA. This comprehensive system includes all health-care providers of patients resident in this geographically defined region. It uniquely enables long-term population-based studies of all medical conditions occurring in this population; their incidence and prevalence; permits examination of disease risk and protective factors, health resource utilization and cost as well as translational studies in rheumatic diseases. PMID:20627969

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  8. Critical radiation research for the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    The current Space Radiation program is intended to satisfy the needs of radiation protection of the crew on the International Space Station by the year 2010, with the research complete to the point of reducing uncertainties on ISS to be no greater than a factor of 3. This means that, at the 95% confidence level, three 180=day missions can be accomplished without exceeding career radiation risk limits. Several issues need to be addressed in order to manage radiation risk in the context of the new vision for NASA set by President Bush. The uncertainty in risk prediction of a Mars mission is currently estimated to be a factor of 6, and needs to be reduced significantly if a 1000-day mission to Mars can be carried out without exceeding risk limits at the 95% confidence level. The fundamental physics and biology knowledge required is being obtained using high energy heavy ion beams at the NASA Space Research Laboratory (NSRL) in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to simulate Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE). However, some of the work will have to be done on the Moon or on Mars in order to obtain data not accessible on Earth and in order to validate Earth-based predictions. The radiation research tasks likely to be required will be discussed.

  9. Development of outdoor exposure model of traffic-related air pollution for epidemiologic research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Isao; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nataami, Taro; Nitta, Hiroshi; Tamura, Kenji; Hasegawa, Shuichi; Shima, Masayuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Yokota, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    We developed an exposure estimation model for an epidemiological study on the effect of traffic-related air pollutants on respiratory diseases. The model estimates annual average outdoor concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and elemental carbon (EC). The model is composed of three nested plume dispersion type submodels treating different spatial scales from a few meters to tens of kilometers. The emissions from road traffic was estimated at high spatial resolution along the paths of roads taking into account the effects of individual building shape and traffic signals to secure accuracy near trunk roads where most of the subjects of the epidemiological study resided. Model performance was confirmed by field measurements at permanent local government stations and purpose-built temporary stations; the latter supplemented roadside monitoring points and provided EC concentrations, which are not measured routinely. We infer that EC emissions were underestimated by using the available database because there were significant contributions to EC concentrations from sources that did not emit much NOx. An adjustment concentration yielded good agreement between model estimates and field measurements. PMID:23715083

  10. Epidemiology, determinants and dynamics of cholera in Pakistan: gaps and prospects for future research.

    PubMed

    Naseer, Maliha; Jamali, Tanzil

    2014-11-01

    Cholera is one of the notifiable endemic diseases in Pakistan, but the reporting of cholera cases is still unsatisfactory. Most of the diagnosed cases are never reported to the relevant authorities. In the year 1993 - 2005, the country did not report any single case of cholera to the WHO. The objectives of this review were to understand the epidemiology and to identify the possible determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan. Medscape, Medline, PakMedinet and PubMed, was searched, using key words, epidemiology and determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan during 1995 - 2010. Morbidity and mortality due to cholera infection during 1995 - 2010, without any language restriction. Out of 27 articles published between 1995 - 2010, 17 articles were included in the review. Vibrio cholerae O139 identified as a major cause of infection in older age group, while O1 biotype of cholera as a predominant cause of cholera among young individuals. Mainly reported determinants of cholera in Pakistan include poor sanitation and hygiene practices, increased population density in urban areas, leading to rapid and unplanned urbanization of the major cities and climate change due to increased environmental pollution in Pakistan are plausible factors for endemicity of cholera in Pakistan. Cholera reporting as a notifiable disease to the relevant departments and timely action can prevent the risk of outbreaks. There is a need to identify specific behavioral and environmental determinants responsible for outbreaks and epidemics of cholera in Pakistan which can help to design appropriate preventive and control interventions. PMID:25404447

  11. [Epidemiologic aspects of dental fluorosis in Brazil: research in the period 1993-2006].

    PubMed

    Barros, Bruno Salles de Almeida; Tomita, Nilce Emy

    2010-01-01

    The epidemiology of dental fluorosis derives from surveys carried out in recent years, as a result of a better comprehension of metabolic aspects of fluoride in the human organism and oral health concerns. This reflection aims at presenting studies carried out on fluorosis between 1993 and 2006. The period of 1993-2004 delimits the interval between the 2nd and the 3rd National Conferences on Oral Health, and, in the period of 2005-2006, the search of primary data presented in scientific meetings confirmed the findings in the literature, showing that the Brazilian scientific agenda was not substantially influenced by the discussions engaged during the 3rd National Conference on Oral Health. Most studies concentrate on urban areas and the predominance, in Brazil, of 'very mild' and 'mild' levels of fluorosis shows that there is no compromising in terms of functional order. The low perception of fluorosis by the population, along with its low prevalence, evokes the necessary debate on public health issues, in the country. Since the national scientific production constitutes an important source of knowledge to subsidize the elaboration of public policies for the health sector, the successive and punctual studies analyzed show that, as far as fluorosis is concerned, the epidemiological diagnosis reaffirms the need, importance and safety of the fluoridation of public water supplies, as a public health measure. PMID:20169255

  12. A review of the application of inflammatory biomarkers in epidemiologic cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Darren R.; Scherer, Dominique; Muir, Kenneth; Schildkraut, Joellen; Boffetta, Paolo; Spitz, Margaret R.; LeMarchand, Loic; Chan, Andrew T.; Goode, Ellen L.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Hung, Rayjean J.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a facilitating process for multiple cancer types. It is believed to affect cancer development and progression through several etiologic pathways including increased levels of DNA adduct formation, increased angiogenesis and altered anti-apoptotic signaling. This review highlights the application of inflammatory biomarkers in epidemiologic studies and discusses the various cellular mediators of inflammation characterizing the innate immune system response to infection and chronic insult from environmental factors. Included is a review of six classes of inflammation-related biomarkers: cytokines/chemokines, immune-related effectors, acute phase proteins, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, prostaglandins and cyclooxygenase-related factors, and mediators such as transcription factors and growth factors. For each of these biomarkers we provide a brief overview of the etiologic role in the inflammation response and how they have been related to cancer etiology and progression within the literature. We provide a discussion of the common techniques available for quantification of each marker including strengths, weaknesses and potential pitfalls. Subsequently, we highlight a few under-studied measures to characterize the inflammatory response and their potential utility in epidemiologic studies of cancer. Finally, we suggest integrative methods for future studies to apply multi-faceted approaches to examine the relationship between inflammatory markers and their roles in cancer development. PMID:24962838

  13. The revised Trypanosoma cruzi subspecific nomenclature: rationale, epidemiological relevance and research applications.

    PubMed

    Zingales, Bianca; Miles, Michael A; Campbell, David A; Tibayrenc, Michel; Macedo, Andrea M; Teixeira, Marta M G; Schijman, Alejandro G; Llewellyn, Martin S; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Machado, Carlos R; Andrade, Sonia G; Sturm, Nancy R

    2012-03-01

    The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, its mammalian reservoirs, and vectors have existed in nature for millions of years. The human infection, named Chagas disease, is a major public health problem for Latin America. T. cruzi is genetically highly diverse and the understanding of the population structure of this parasite is critical because of the links to transmission cycles and disease. At present, T. cruzi is partitioned into six discrete typing units (DTUs), TcI-TcVI. Here we focus on the current status of taxonomy-related areas such as population structure, phylogeographical and eco-epidemiological features, and the correlation of DTU with natural and experimental infection. We also summarize methods for DTU genotyping, available for widespread use in endemic areas. For the immediate future multilocus sequence typing is likely to be the gold standard for population studies. We conclude that greater advances in our knowledge on pathogenic and epidemiological features of these parasites are expected in the coming decade through the comparative analysis of the genomes from isolates of various DTUs. PMID:22226704

  14. State Institution "National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" - research activities and scientific advance in 2013.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, D; Sushko, V; Chumak, A; Buzunov, V; Talko, V; Yanovych, L

    2014-09-01

    Research activities and scientific advance achieved in 2013 at the State Institution "National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" (NRCRM) concerning medical problems of the Chornobyl disaster, radiation medicine, radiobiology, radiation hygiene and epidemiology in collaboration with the WHO network of medical preparedness and assistance in radiation accidents are outlined in the annual report. Key points include the research results of XRCC1 and XPD gene polymorphism in thyroid cancer patients, CD38 gene GG genotype as a risk factor for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, frequency of 185delAG and 5382insC mutations in BRCA1 gene in women with breast cancer, cognitive function and TERF1, TERF2, TERT gene expression both with telomere length in human under the low dose radiation exposure. The "source-scattering/shielding structures- man" models for calculation of partial dose values to the eye lens and new methods for radiation risk assessment were developed and adapted. Radiation risks of leukemia including chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the cohort of liquidators were published according to the "case-control" study results after 20 years of survey. Increase of non-tumor morbidity in liquidators during the 1988-2011 with the maximum level 12-21 years upon irradiation was found. Incidence in evacuees appeared being of two-peak pattern i.e. in the first years after the accident and 12 years later. Experimental studies have concerned the impact of radio-modifiers on cellular systems, reproductive function in the population, features of the child nutrition in radiation contamination area were studied. Report also shows the results of scientific and organizational, medical and preventive work, staff training, and implementation of innovations. The NRCRM Annual Report was approved at the Scientific Council meeting of NAMS on March 3, 2014. PMID:25536544

  15. The changing landscape of scholarly publishing: will radiation research survive?

    PubMed

    Odell, Jere; Whipple, Elizabeth C

    2013-10-01

    As a society published journal, Radiation Research has been a successful and enduring project of the Radiation Research Society (RRS). In 59 years of publication, the journal has produced 732 issues and 10,712 articles. As a nonprofit organization, RRS, like most societies, has used revenues from subscriptions to support, in part, the life of the organization (meetings, conferences and grants to new scholars). The model for scientific publishing, however, continues to evolve. Radiation Research has weathered the rise of electronic publishing, consolidation in the commercial publishing industry, the aggregation of library subscriptions and library subscription cuts. Recent years have seen dramatic changes in how scholarly publishing is financed and new funder and institution policies will accelerate these changes. The growth of open access to journal articles reflects the information habits of readers and facilitates the dissemination of new knowledge. The Radiation Research Society, however, will need to account for and adapt to changes in the publishing market if it intends to support the communication of peer reviewed scholarship in the future. PMID:24044487

  16. Research on radiation detectors, boiling transients, and organic lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The accomplishments of a space projects research facility are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) a study of radiation resistant semiconductor devices, (2) synthesis of high temperature organic lubricants, (3) departure from phase equilibrium during boiling transients, (4) effects of neutron irradiation on defect state in tungsten, and (5) determination of photon response function of NE-213 liquid scintillation detectors.

  17. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cancer.gov

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  18. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J

    2002-01-01

    Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass

  19. GUI to Facilitate Research on Biological Damage from Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Frances A.; Ponomarev, Artem Lvovich

    2010-01-01

    A graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer program has been developed to facilitate research on the damage caused by highly energetic particles and photons impinging on living organisms. The program brings together, into one computational workspace, computer codes that have been developed over the years, plus codes that will be developed during the foreseeable future, to address diverse aspects of radiation damage. These include codes that implement radiation-track models, codes for biophysical models of breakage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by radiation, pattern-recognition programs for extracting quantitative information from biological assays, and image-processing programs that aid visualization of DNA breaks. The radiation-track models are based on transport models of interactions of radiation with matter and solution of the Boltzmann transport equation by use of both theoretical and numerical models. The biophysical models of breakage of DNA by radiation include biopolymer coarse-grained and atomistic models of DNA, stochastic- process models of deposition of energy, and Markov-based probabilistic models of placement of double-strand breaks in DNA. The program is designed for use in the NT, 95, 98, 2000, ME, and XP variants of the Windows operating system.

  20. Study designs for biobank-based epidemiologic research on chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Läärä, Esa

    2011-01-01

    A review is given on design options to be considered in epidemiologic studies on cancers or other chronic diseases in relation to risk factors, the measurement of which is based on stored specimens in large biobanks. The two major choices for valid and cost-efficient sampling of risk factor data from large biobank cohorts are provided by the nested case-control design, and the case-cohort design. The main features of both designs are outlined and their relative merits are compared. Special issues such as matching, stratification, and statistical analysis are also briefly discussed. It is concluded that the nested case-control design is -better suited for studies involving biomarkers that can be influenced by analytic batch, long-term storage, and freeze-thaw cycles. The case-cohort design is useful, especially when several outcomes are of interest, given that the measurements on stored materials remain sufficiently stable during the study. PMID:20949387

  1. A geographical profile of the South African population as a basis for epidemiological cancer research.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, I J

    1988-11-19

    Because people do not necessarily become ill proportionally, particular subgroups of the population are more susceptible to certain types of diseases than others. It is also essential to take spatial distribution and accessibility of the population into account when considering the optimal location of medical facilities. A geographical profile of the heterogeneous population of South Africa with regard to demographic and socioeconomic composition and urbanisation patterns is therefore presented. Analysis of the composition of the population by tabulating and mapping population census results reveals a complexity which arises from the diversity between the developed white profile and the developing black and coloured communities with their escalating numbers, relative youth and socio-economic backlog. Examination of the maps shows up an unbalanced spatial urbanisation profile with overconcentration in the five metropolitan core areas. Although such a population framework usually fits best to cancer epidemiology, most other diseases could benefit from such an approach. PMID:3187804

  2. The rising impact of mathematical modelling in epidemiology: antibiotic resistance research as a case study.

    PubMed

    Temime, L; Hejblum, G; Setbon, M; Valleron, A J

    2008-03-01

    Mathematical modelling of infectious diseases has gradually become part of public health decision-making in recent years. However, the developing status of modelling in epidemiology and its relationship with other relevant scientific approaches have never been assessed quantitatively. Herein, using antibiotic resistance as a case study, 60 published models were analysed. Their interactions with other scientific fields are reported and their citation impact evaluated, as well as temporal trends. The yearly number of antibiotic resistance modelling publications increased significantly between 1990 and 2006. This rise cannot be explained by the surge of interest in resistance phenomena alone. Moreover, modelling articles are, on average, among the most frequently cited third of articles from the journal in which they were published. The results of this analysis, which might be applicable to other emerging public health problems, demonstrate the growing interest in mathematical modelling approaches to evaluate antibiotic resistance. PMID:17767792

  3. Epidemiologic Research on Malformations Associated with Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Hiroshi; Iida, Koichi; Maeda, Tomoki; Takahashi, Mizuho; Fukushima, Naoki; Goshi, Terufumi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate malformations associated with cleft lip and cleft palate, we conducted surveys at neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and other non-NICU facilities and to determine whether there are differences among facilities. The regional survey investigated NICU facilities located in Oita Prefecture, including 92 patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) or cleft palate (CP) that occurred between 2004 and 2013, and the national survey investigated oral surgery, plastic surgery, and obstetrics and gynecology facilities located in Japan, including 16,452 patients with cleft lip (CL), CLP, or CP that occurred since 2000. The incidence per 10,000 births was 4.2, 6.2, and 2.8 for CL, CLP, and CP, respectively, according to the national survey, and 6.3 and 2.9 for CLP and CP, respectively according to the regional survey. These results indicated comparable incidences between the two surveys. In contrast, when the survey results on malformations associated with CLP and CP according to the ICD-10 classification were compared between the national survey conducted at oral surgery or plastic surgery facilities and the regional survey conducted at NICU facilities, the occurrence of associated malformations was 19.8% vs. 41.3% for any types of associated malformation, 6.8% vs. 21.7% for congenital heart disease, and 0.5% vs. 16.3% for chromosomal abnormalities. These results indicated that the incidences of all of these associated malformations were significantly greater in the survey conducted at NICU facilities and similar to the findings from international epidemiological surveys. When comparing the survey conducted at obstetrics facilities vs. NICU facilities, the occurrence of associated malformations was similar results as above. The incidence of CLP and CP was not different between surveys conducted at NICU facilities vs. non-NICU facilities; however, when conducting surveys on associated malformations, it is possible to obtain accurate epidemiological data by

  4. Proton and heavy ion acceleration facilities for space radiation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jack

    2003-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for medium energy nuclear physics and heavy charged particle radiobiology and radiotherapy at particle accelerators are in the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation health. In this article we survey some of the particle accelerator facilities in the United States and around the world that are being used for space radiation health and related research, and illustrate some of their capabilities with discussions of selected accelerator experiments applicable to the human exploration of space.

  5. Proton and heavy ion acceleration facilities for space radiation research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jack

    2003-06-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for medium energy nuclear physics and heavy charged particle radiobiology and radiotherapy at particle accelerators are in the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation health. In this article we survey some of the particle accelerator facilities in the United States and around the world that are being used for space radiation health and related research, and illustrate some of their capabilities with discussions of selected accelerator experiments applicable to the human exploration of space. PMID:12959128

  6. Conjoined Twins: A Worldwide Collaborative Epidemiological Study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    PubMed Central

    MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; LUNA-MUÑOZ, LEONORA; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; DUTRA, MARIA DA GRAÇA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MÉTNEKI, JULIA; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMAN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; ARTEAGA-VÁZQUEZ, JAZMÍN

    2015-01-01

    Conjoined twins (CT) are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births. The process by which monozygotic twins do not fully separate but form CT is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to analyze diverse epidemiological aspects of CT, including the different variables listed in the Introduction Section of this issue of the Journal. The study was made possible using the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR) structure. This multicenter worldwide research includes the largest sample of CT ever studied. A total of 383 carefully reviewed sets of CT obtained from 26,138,837 births reported by 21 Clearinghouse Surveillance Programs (SP) were included in the analysis. Total prevalence was 1.47 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.32–1.62). Salient findings including an evident variation in prevalence among SPs: a marked variation in the type of pregnancy outcome, a similarity in the proportion of CT types among programs: a significant female predominance in CT: particularly of the thoracopagus type and a significant male predominance in parapagus and parasitic types: significant differences in prevalence by ethnicity and an apparent increasing prevalence trend in South American countries. No genetic, environmental or demographic significant associated factors were identified. Further work in epidemiology and molecular research is necessary to understand the etiology and pathogenesis involved in the development of this fascinating phenomenon of nature. PMID:22002822

  7. Molecular epidemiology in cancer risk assessment and prevention: recent progress and avenues for future research.

    PubMed Central

    Wogan, G N

    1992-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is increasingly being applied in studies of cancer risks derived from exposure to environmental carcinogens of both endogenous and exogenous origins. Analytical methods have been developed that are capable of detecting and quantifying levels of covalent adducts of several important classes of carcinogens with cellular DNA and blood proteins. Methods of sufficient sensitivity and specificity to detect ambient levels of exposure are in current use. These are being used in studies related to tobacco use (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, tobacco-specific nitrosamines); dietary exposures (aflatoxins, N-nitrosamines, heterocyclic amines); medicinal exposures (cisplatin, alkylating agents, 8-methoxypsoralen, ultraviolet photoproducts); occupational exposures (aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, oxides of ethylene and styrene, and vinyl chloride); and oxidative damage (8-hydroxyguanine, thymine glycol). Methodologic improvements together with their expanded use in feasibility studies continue to produce results that support the validity of this approach for detecting and quantifying exposure to carcinogens. Genetic markers are also being used to detect early biological responses in efforts to link carcinogen exposure to initiating events in the carcinogenesis process. These include, in addition to traditional cytogenetic markers (e.g., chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, micronuclei), other alterations in chromosomal structure such as restriction fragment length polymorphisms, loss of heterozygosity, and translocation markers. Specific genetic changes have recently been identified as critical molecular events in the initiation and development of many cancers. Important among these are activation of oncogenes, especially those of the ras family, and inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes (e.g., p53 and Rb) by point mutations and/or chromosomal deletions and other structural changes. Although some of

  8. Combining epidemiology and biomechanics in sports injury prevention research: a new approach for selecting suitable controls.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caroline F; Ullah, Shahid; McIntosh, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    Several important methodological issues need to be considered when designing sports injury case-control studies. Major design goals for case-control studies include the accounting for prior injury risk exposure, and optimal definitions of both cases and suitable controls are needed to ensure this. This article reviews methodological aspects of published sports injury case-control studies, particularly with regard to the selection of controls. It argues for a new approach towards selecting controls for case-control studies that draws on an interface between epidemiological and biomechanical concepts. A review was conducted to identify sport injury case-control studies published in the peer-review literature during 1985-2008. Overall, 32 articles were identified, of which the majority related to upper or lower extremity injuries. Matching considerations were used for control selection in 16 studies. Specific mention of application of biomechanical principles in the selection of appropriate controls was absent from all studies, including those purporting to evaluate the benefits of personal protective equipment to protect against impact injury. This is a problem because it could lead to biased conclusions, as cases and controls are not fully comparable in terms of similar biomechanical impact profiles relating to the injury incident, such as site of the impact on the body. The strength of the conclusions drawn from case-control studies, and the extent to which results can be generalized, is directly influenced by the definition and recruitment of cases and appropriate controls. Future studies should consider the interface between epidemiological and biomechanical concepts when choosing appropriate controls to ensure that proper adjustment of prior exposure to injury risk is made. To provide necessary guidance for the optimal selection of controls in case-control studies of interventions to prevent sports-related impact injury, this review outlines a new case

  9. Nuclear model calculations and their role in space radiation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Heilbronn, L. H.

    2002-01-01

    Proper assessments of spacecraft shielding requirements and concomitant estimates of risk to spacecraft crews from energetic space radiation requires accurate, quantitative methods of characterizing the compositional changes in these radiation fields as they pass through thick absorbers. These quantitative methods are also needed for characterizing accelerator beams used in space radiobiology studies. Because of the impracticality/impossibility of measuring these altered radiation fields inside critical internal body organs of biological test specimens and humans, computational methods rather than direct measurements must be used. Since composition changes in the fields arise from nuclear interaction processes (elastic, inelastic and breakup), knowledge of the appropriate cross sections and spectra must be available. Experiments alone cannot provide the necessary cross section and secondary particle (neutron and charged particle) spectral data because of the large number of nuclear species and wide range of energies involved in space radiation research. Hence, nuclear models are needed. In this paper current methods of predicting total and absorption cross sections and secondary particle (neutrons and ions) yields and spectra for space radiation protection analyses are reviewed. Model shortcomings are discussed and future needs presented. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All right reserved.

  10. Nuclear model calculations and their role in space radiation research.

    PubMed

    Townsend, L W; Cucinotta, F A; Heilbronn, L H

    2002-01-01

    Proper assessments of spacecraft shielding requirements and concomitant estimates of risk to spacecraft crews from energetic space radiation requires accurate, quantitative methods of characterizing the compositional changes in these radiation fields as they pass through thick absorbers. These quantitative methods are also needed for characterizing accelerator beams used in space radiobiology studies. Because of the impracticality/impossibility of measuring these altered radiation fields inside critical internal body organs of biological test specimens and humans, computational methods rather than direct measurements must be used. Since composition changes in the fields arise from nuclear interaction processes (elastic, inelastic and breakup), knowledge of the appropriate cross sections and spectra must be available. Experiments alone cannot provide the necessary cross section and secondary particle (neutron and charged particle) spectral data because of the large number of nuclear species and wide range of energies involved in space radiation research. Hence, nuclear models are needed. In this paper current methods of predicting total and absorption cross sections and secondary particle (neutrons and ions) yields and spectra for space radiation protection analyses are reviewed. Model shortcomings are discussed and future needs presented. PMID:12539757