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1

Overview of radiation environments and human exposures.  

PubMed

Human exposures to ionizing radiation have been vastly altered by developing technology in the last century. This has been most obvious in the development of radiation generating devices and the utilization of nuclear energy. But even air travel has had its impact on human exposure. Human exposure increases with advancing aircraft technology as a result of the higher operating altitudes reducing the protective cover provided by Earth's atmosphere from extraterrestrial radiations. This increase in operating altitudes is taken to a limit by human operations in space. Less obvious is the changing character of the radiations at higher altitudes. The associated health risks are less understood with increasing altitude due to the increasing complexity and new field components found in high-altitude and space operations. PMID:11045522

Wilson, J W

2000-11-01

2

Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains…

Tenkate, Thomas D.

1998-01-01

3

Human performance analysis of industrial radiography radiation exposure events  

SciTech Connect

A set of radiation overexposure event reports were reviewed as part of a program to examine human performance in industrial radiography for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Incident records for a seven year period were retrieved from an event database. Ninety-five exposure events were initially categorized and sorted for further analysis. Descriptive models were applied to a subset of severe overexposure events. Modeling included: (1) operational sequence tables to outline the key human actions and interactions with equipment, (2) human reliability event trees, (3) an application of an information processing failures model, and (4) an extrapolated use of the error influences and effects diagram. Results of the modeling analyses provided insights into the industrial radiography task and suggested areas for further action and study to decrease overexposures.

Reece, W.J.; Hill, S.G.

1995-12-01

4

Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation  

SciTech Connect

The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures. (ACR)

Fabrikant, J.I.

1981-05-01

5

Human radiation exposures related to nuclear weapons industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented of radiation exposures resulting from American nuclear weapons test, nuclear weapons fabrication and from non-nuclear accidents involving nuclear weapons. 221 refs., 50 figs., 45 tabs. (DTT)

R. G. Cuddihy; G. J. Newton

1985-01-01

6

Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation. A Review Pertinent to Air Force Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents analyses studies, research results, and other pertinent information related to investigations of human exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR). The topics discussed are the ANSI/IEEE RFR-exposure guidelines; environmental levels in...

L. N. Heynick P. Polson

1996-01-01

7

Evaluating compliance with FCC(Federal Communications Commission) specified guidelines for human exposure to radiofrequency radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical bulletin provides information and guidelines for use in evaluating compliance with FCC-specified environmental rules dealing with human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. It provides assistance in determining whether an FCC-regulated facility might create a significant environmental effect due to human exposure to levels of RF radiation in excess of specified radiation-protection guides. Emphasis is placed on exposure from

1985-01-01

8

Evaluating compliance with FCC-(Federal Communications Commission) specified guidelines for human exposure to radiofrequency radiation  

SciTech Connect

The technical bulletin provides information and guidelines for use in evaluating compliance with FCC-specified environmental rules dealing with human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. It provides assistance in determining whether an FCC-regulated facility might create a significant environmental effect due to human exposure to levels of RF radiation in excess of specified radiation-protection guides. Emphasis is placed on exposure from broadcast facilities. However, the bulletin also contains information relevant to certain other RF-emitting sources.

Cleveland, R.F.

1985-10-01

9

Radiation exposure to human trachea from Xenon-133 procedures  

SciTech Connect

The general dosimetry of {sup 133}Xe for human studies is well documented, but the resultant radiation exposure to tracheal tissue is poorly known. This organ is of central relevance because the tracer is primarily eliminated through exhalation. We report actual {sup 133}Xe concentrations in respiratory air during measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), when the tracer is administered both by inhalation and intravenous injection. Data were collected from 102 patients, with equal gender representation and an age range of 18-82 yr. Most of the patients had subarachnoid hemorrhage or Alzheimer`s disease or were normal control subjects. Average administered doses were 18 {plus_minus} 4 mCi by inhalation and 15 {plus_minus} 3 intravenously. We found average respiratory concentrations of about 1.80 mCi/liter during a 1-min inhalation and 0.74 mCi/liter following intravenous injection of standard doses. These activities drop rapidly: average respiratory concentrations during the second minute are 0.70 mCi/liter for inhalation and 0.19 mCi/liter for intravenous injection and reach negligible levels thereafter. We calculate that the tracheal absorbed dose from {sup 133}Xe procedures is approximately 28 mrad following inhalation and about 11 mrad following intravenous injection. These values reflect the full 11-min exposure, but most of the activity is only present initially. These values will agree with previous estimates and indicate an excellent safety margin. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Prohovnik, I.; Metz, C.D.; Atkins, H.L. [New York State Psychiatric Inst., New York, NY (United States)]|[Brookhaven National Laboratories, Upton, NY (United States)]|[Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

1995-08-01

10

The boundary element electromagnetic–thermal analysis of human exposure to base station antennas radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic–thermal analysis of human exposure to base station antennas radiation is presented in this article. The formulation is based on a simplified cylindrical representation of the human body. Electromagnetic analysis involves incident and internal field dosimetry, while the thermal model deals with the bio-heat transfer phenomena in the body. The electric field induced in the body is determined from the

Dragan Poljak; Andres Peratta; Carlos A. Brebbia

2004-01-01

11

Response of intracerebral human glioblastoma xenografts to multifraction radiation exposures  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We investigated the effects of fractionated radiation treatments on the life spans of athymic rats bearing intracerebral brain tumors. Methods and Materials: U-251 MG or U-87 MG human glioblastoma cells were implanted into the brains of athymic rats, and the resulting tumors were irradiated once daily with various doses of ionizing radiation for 5 consecutive days or for 10 days with a 2-day break after Day 5. Results: Five daily doses of 1 and 1.5 Gy, and 10 doses of 0.75 and 1 Gy, cured some U-251 MG tumors. However, five daily doses of 0.5 Gy increased the survival time of animals bearing U-251 MG tumors 5 days without curing any animals of their tumors. Ten doses of 0.3 Gy given over 2 weeks extended the lifespan of the host animals 9 days without curing any animals. For U-87 MG tumors, 5 daily doses of 3 Gy produced an increased lifespan of 8 days without curing any animals, and 10 doses of 1 Gy prolonged lifespan 5.5 days without curing any animals. The differences in extension of life span between the 5- and 10-fraction protocols were minor for either tumor type. Conclusion: The finding that the U-251 MG tumors are more sensitive than U-87 MG tumors, despite the fact that U-251 MG tumors contain many more hypoxic cells than U-87 MG tumors, suggests the intrinsic cellular radiosensitivities of these cell lines are more important than hypoxia in determining their in vivo radiosensitivities.

Ozawa, Tomoko [Brain Tumor Research Center, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Faddegon, Bruce A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hu, Lily J. [Brain Tumor Research Center, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Bollen, Andrew W. [Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lamborn, Kathleen R. [Brain Tumor Research Center, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Deen, Dennis F. [Brain Tumor Research Center, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)]. E-mail: ddeen@itsa.ucsf.edu

2006-09-01

12

Radiation Exposure  

MedlinePLUS

Radiation is energy that travels in the form of waves or high-speed particles. It occurs naturally in sunlight. Man-made radiation is used in X-rays, nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants and cancer treatment. If you are exposed to small amounts of radiation over a long time, it raises ...

13

Human Space Exploration and Radiation Exposure from EVA: 1981-2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several risks for any human space exploration endeavor. One such inevitable risk is exposure to the space radiation environment of which extra vehicular activity (EVA) demands more challenges due to limited amount of protection from space suit shielding. We recently compiled all EVA data comprising low-earth orbit (LEO) from Space Shuttle (STS) flights, International Space Station (ISS) expeditions, and Shuttle-Mir missions. Assessment of such radiation risk is very important, particularly for the anticipated long-term, deep-space human explorations in the near future. We present our assessment of anticipated radiation exposure and space radiation dose contribution to each crew member from a listing of 350 different EVA events resulting in more than 1000+ hrs of total EVA time. As of July 12, 2011, 197 astronauts have made spacewalks (out of 520 people who have gone into Earth orbit). Only 11 women have been on spacewalks.

Way, A. R.; Saganti, S. P.; Erickson, G. M.; Saganti, P. B.

2011-12-01

14

Problems of human exposure in electromagnetic fields and radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent technological applications with radio waves induced public fear about possible adverse effects. A brief and simple overview and classification of the effects when exposed to non ionizing electromagnetic fields and radiation is presented. Basics are given of the actual guidelines to protect people and some discrepancies are discussed. The introduction of safety factors (SF) and health factors (HF) is

V. L. Walter

2008-01-01

15

Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation.  

PubMed Central

The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain, for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.

Fabrikant, J. I.

1981-01-01

16

Human equivalent antenna model for transient electromagnetic radiation exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin-wire antenna model of the human body exposed to the transient excitation is presented in the paper. The analysis is based on the solution of the corresponding integral equation and it is carried out directly in the time domain (TD) . The integral equation is handled via the TD Galerkin-Bubnov scheme of the boundary element method. Numerical results are presented

Dragan Poljak; Choy Yoong Tham; Om Gandhi; Antonio Sarolic

2003-01-01

17

Dangers of Radiation Exposure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first part of the lesson, students calculate their yearly exposure rate to harmful high-energy radiation and cumulative effects over time. They then use the information to evaluate the various sources of radiation that are of greatest concern for them. In the second part of the lesson, students learn that spacecraft and other objects in space must be concerned with the same kinds of radiation to which humans are exposed. The MESSENGER spacecraft will orbit Mercury and be subjected to much more intense solar radiation than it would near Earth. Students discuss the notion that even though some of the radiation is needed to study the properties of the planet, too much of it can be quite damaging.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2005-03-15

18

Dynamics of the transcriptome response of cultured human embryonic stem cells to ionizing radiation exposure  

PubMed Central

One of the key consequences of exposure of human cells to genotoxic agents is the activation of DNA damage responses (DDR). While the mechanisms underpinning DDR in fully differentiated somatic human cells have been studied extensively, molecular signaling events and pathways involved in DDR in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) remain largely unexplored. We studied changes in the human genome-wide transcriptome of H9 hESC line following exposures to 1 Gy of gamma-radiation at 2 hrs and 16 hrs post-irradiation. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify the expression data for a subset of genes. In parallel, the cell growth, DDR kinetics, and expression of pluripotency markers in irradiated hESC were monitored. The changes in gene expression in hESC after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) are substantially different from those observed in somatic human cell lines. Gene expression patterns at 2 hr post-IR showed almost an exclusively p53-dependent, predominantly pro-apoptotic, signature with a total of only 30 up-regulated genes. In contrast, the gene expression patterns at 16 hr post-IR showed 354 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in pro-survival pathways, such as increased expression of metallothioneins, ubiquitin cycle, and general metabolism signaling. Cell growth data paralleled trends in gene expression changes. DDR in hESC followed the kinetics reported for human somatic differentiated cells. The expression of pluripotency markers characteristic of undifferentiated hESC was not affected by exposure to IR during the time course of our analysis. Our data on dynamics of transcriptome response of irradiated hESCs may provide a valuable tool to screen for markers of IR exposure of human cells in their most naive state; thus unmasking the key elements of DDR; at the same time, avoiding the complexity of interpreting distinct cell type-dependent genotoxic stress responses of terminally differentiated cells.

Sokolov, Mykyta V.; Panyutin, Irina V.; Panyutin, Igor G.; Neumann, Ronald D.

2011-01-01

19

Occupational radiation exposure: population studies.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in the medical setting differs from the acute exposure received by survivors of atomic bomb blasts. Yet, atomic bomb survivors' disease and mortality outcomes have been the standard data source on the effects of ionizing radiation on humans. Therefore, the prevailing estimated risks of ionizing radiation may not apply to radiologic technologists and other medical radiation workers. Carefully designed epidemiological trials provide evidence that helps determine the strength of association between exposure and onset of disease in selected populations. This article reviews radiation effects, explains some basic design concepts of epidemiologic trials and surveys the epidemiology literature related to radiation exposure to humans, with special attention to radiology staff. PMID:15732889

Schleipman, A Robert

20

Exposure to extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields and radiofrequency radiation: cardiovascular effects in humans.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular changes in humans exposed to nonionizing radiation [including extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMFs) and radiofrequency radiation (RFR)] are reviewed. Both acute and long-term effects have been investigated. In general, if heating does not occur during exposure, current flow appears to be necessary for major cardiovascular effects to ensue, such as those due to electric shock. Whereas most studies have revealed no acute effect of static or time-varying ELF EMFs on the blood pressure, heart rate, or electrocardiogram waveform, others have reported subtle effects on the heart rate. The possible health consequences of these results are unknown. Regarding long-term effects of ELF EMFs, reports from the former Soviet Union in the early 1960s indicated arrhythmias and tachycardia in high-voltage-switchyard workers. Subsequent studies in Western countries, however, did not confirm these findings. These studies are limited by uncertainties regarding exposure durations and appropriate control groups. Investigations of acute cardiovascular changes in humans purposely exposed to RFR have been limited to studies of magnetic resonance imaging (which, in addition to RFR, involves static and time-varying magnetic fields). It has been concluded that such exposures, as presently performed, are not likely to cause adverse cardiovascular effects. Reports of hypertension in workers potentially exposed to high levels of RFR during accidents are considered to be incidental (due to anxiety and posttraumatic stress). Soviet investigators have also indicated that long-term RFR exposure may result in hypotension and bradycardia or tachycardia. Other researchers, however, have been incapable of replicating these results, and some scientists have attributed the effects to chance variations and mishandling of data. In summary, studies have not yielded any obvious cardiovascular-related hazards of acute or long-term exposures to ELF EMFs or RFR at levels below current exposure standards. PMID:9258703

Jauchem, J R

1997-01-01

21

47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...radiofrequency (RF) radiation as specified...Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation.â Note to...National Council on Radiation Protection and...Biological Effects and Exposure...Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields...with Respect to Human Exposure to...

2010-10-01

22

47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...radiofrequency (RF) radiation as specified...Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation.â Note to...National Council on Radiation Protection and...Biological Effects and Exposure...Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields...with Respect to Human Exposure to...

2009-10-01

23

A cell kinetic model of granulopoiesis under radiation exposure: extension from rodents to canines and humans.  

PubMed

As significant ionising radiation exposure will occur during prolonged space travel in future, it is essential to understand their adverse effects on the radiosensitive organ systems that are important for immediate survival of humans, e.g. the haematopoietic system. In this paper, a biomathematical model of granulopoiesis is used to analyse the granulocyte changes seen in the blood of mammalians under acute and continuous radiation exposure. This is one of a set of haematopoietic models that have been successfully utilised to simulate and interpret the experimental data of acute and chronic radiation on rodents. Extension to canine and human systems indicates that the results of the model are consistent with the cumulative experimental and empirical data from various sources, implying the potential to integrate them into one united model system to monitor the haematopoietic response of various species under irradiation. The suppression of granulocytes' level of a space traveller under chronic stress of low-dose irradiation as well as the granulopoietic response when encountering a historically large solar particle event is also discussed. PMID:21196459

Hu, Shaowen; Cucinotta, Francis A

2010-12-31

24

Nuclear Energy: Radiation Exposure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an overview of the sources and potential effects of radiation exposure. Topics include the history of the United States' domestic nuclear power program, the concept of ionizing radiation, and how radiation dosage is measured. There is also discussion of what constitutes a lethal dose of radiation and potential sources of exposure. The lesson includes an activity in which students measure their individual yearly exposures to radiation by making an inventory of lifestyle factors that affect their potential dosage and using an online calculator to sum up the contributions from the various sources.

Pratte, John

25

A review of the effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation on human body and exposure standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies and investigations revealed that the effect of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation on the human body may not be restricted to thermal effects only but it may help to explain some of the unsolved important biological activities to closely examine whether continuous or occupational exposure to electromagnetic radiation causes or aggravates any adverse health conditions, directly or indirectly. This paper

S. Mukhopadhyay; ASHIS SANYAL

1997-01-01

26

Human exposure to space radiation: role of primary and secondary particles.  

PubMed

Human exposure to space radiation implies two kinds of risk, both stochastic and deterministic. Shielding optimisation therefore represents a crucial goal for long-term missions, especially in deep space. In this context, the use of radiation transport codes coupled with anthropomorphic phantoms allows to simulate typical radiation exposures for astronauts behind different shielding, and to calculate doses to different organs. In this work, the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and two phantoms, a mathematical model and a voxel model, were used, taking the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) spectra from the model of Badhwar and O'Neill. The time integral spectral proton fluence of the August 1972 Solar Particle Event (SPE) was represented by an exponential function. For each aluminium shield thickness, besides total doses the contributions from primary and secondary particles for different organs and tissues were calculated separately. More specifically, organ-averaged absorbed doses, dose equivalents and a form of 'biological dose', defined on the basis of initial (clustered) DNA damage, were calculated. As expected, the SPE doses dramatically decreased with increasing shielding, and doses in internal organs were lower than in skin. The contribution of secondary particles to SPE doses was almost negligible; however it is of note that, at high shielding (10 g cm(-2)), most of the secondaries are neutrons. GCR organ doses remained roughly constant with increasing Al shielding. In contrast to SPE results, for the case of cosmic rays, secondary particles accounted for a significant fraction of the total dose. PMID:17151013

Trovati, S; Ballarini, F; Battistoni, G; Cerutti, F; Fassò, A; Ferrari, A; Gadioli, E; Garzelli, M V; Mairani, A; Ottolenghi, A; Paretzke, H G; Parini, V; Pelliccioni, M; Pinsky, L; Sala, P R; Scannicchio, D; Zankl, M

2006-12-06

27

Radiation Exposure Compensation Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the Justice Department's Radiation Exposure Compensation Program homepage. This site features information about the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, including claimant categories, claim forms, and the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act. This site also provides a table illustrating a summary of all claims received and compensation paid to date.

Program, U. S.

28

Americans' Average Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect

We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

NA

2000-08-11

29

Biological effects of alpha particle radiation exposure on human monocytic cells.  

PubMed

Radon ((222)Rn) gas produces decay progeny that emits high energy alpha (?)-particles. Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to (222)Rn is linked with elevated risk of developing lung cancer, however clear mechanisms leading to such effects have not been delineated. Cytokines play a critical role in inflammation and their dysregulated production often contributes to disease pathogenesis. In this study, Bio-plex multiplex technology was employed to investigate modulations of 27 pro-inflammatory cytokines following exposure of human monocytic cells to 1.5 Gy of ?-particle radiation. Concurrently, DNA damage was assessed by examining the formation of phosphorylated H2A histone family X (?-H2AX) sites. Of the 27 cytokines assessed, 4 cytokines were shown to be statistically downregulated by ?2 fold relative to the untreated controls and included the interleukin (IL) family of proteins (IL-2, IL-15 and IL-17) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta (MIP-1b). Interferon-inducible protein-12 (IP-12), vascular endothelial growth factor and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) were shown to be high expressors and upregulated. Cells irradiated with ?-particles ranging from 0.27 to 2.14 Gy showed statistically significant, dose-dependant increases in ?-H2AX formation. These data suggest that ?-particle radiation causes dysregulation in the production of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and results in significant DNA damage. PMID:22153871

Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew; Kutzner, Barbara; McNamee, James P; Bellier, Pascale V; Wilkins, Ruth C

2011-12-06

30

HAMLET Human Model MATROSHKA for Radiation Exposure Determination of Astronauts Current status and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploration of space as seen in specific projects from the European Space Agency (ESA) acts as groundwork for human long duration space missions. One of the main constraints for long duration human missions is radiation. The radiation load on astronauts and cosmonauts in space (as for the ISS) is a factor of 100 higher than the natural radiation on

Guenther Reitz; Thomas Berger; Pawel Bilski; Soenke Burmeister; Johannes Labrenz; Luke Hager; Jozsef K. Palfalvi; Michael Hajek; Monika Puchalska; Lembit Sihver

2010-01-01

31

47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits. 1.1310 Section...of 1969 § 1.1310 Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits. The criteria listed...human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation as specified in §...

2012-10-01

32

Modelling human exposure to space radiation with different shielding: the FLUKA code coupled with anthropomorphic phantoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronauts' exposure to the various components of the space radiation field is of great concern for long-term missions, especially for those in deep space such as a possible travel to Mars. Simulations based on radiation transport\\/interaction codes coupled with anthropomorphic model phantoms can be of great help in view of risk evaluation and shielding optimisation, which is therefore a crucial

F. Ballarini; D. Alloni; G. Battistoni; F. Cerutti; A. Ferrari; E. Gadioli; M. V. Garzelli; M. Liotta; A. Mairani; A. Ottolenghi; H. G. Paretzke; V. Parini; M. Pelliccioni; L. Pinsky; P. Sala; D. Scannicchio; S. Trovati; M. Zankl

2006-01-01

33

Impact of the Near-Earth Space Environment on Human Radiation Exposure at Commercial Airline Altitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. The FAA reports that pregnant crew members

C. J. Mertens; S. R. Blattnig; S. C. Solomon; M. J. Wiltberger; J. Kunches; B. T. Kress; J. J. Murray; J. W. Wilson

2005-01-01

34

Radiation transport modeling and assessment to better predict radiation exposure, dose, and toxicological effects to human organs on long duration space flights.  

PubMed

NASA is very interested in improving its ability to monitor and forecast the radiation levels that pose a health risk to space-walking astronauts as they construct the International Space Station and astronauts that will participate in long-term and deep-space missions. Human exploratory missions to the moon and Mars within the next quarter century, will expose crews to transient radiation from solar particle events which include high-energy galactic cosmic rays and high-energy protons. Because the radiation levels in space are high and solar activity is presently unpredictable, adequate shielding is needed to minimize the deleterious health effects of exposure to radiation. Today, numerous models have been developed and used to predict radiation exposure. Such a model is the Space Environment Information Systems (SPENVIS) modeling program, developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronautics. SPENVIS, which has been assessed to be an excellent tool in characterizing the radiation environment for microelectronics and investigating orbital debris, is being evaluated for its usefulness with determining the dose and dose-equivalent for human exposure. Thus far. the calculations for dose-depth relations under varying shielding conditions have been in agreement with calculations done using HZETRN and PDOSE, which are well-known and widely used models for characterizing the environments for human exploratory missions. There is disagreement when assessing the impact of secondary radiation particles since SPENVIS does a crude estimation of the secondary radiation particles when calculating LET versus Flux. SPENVIS was used to model dose-depth relations for the blood-forming organs. Radiation sickness and cancer are life-threatening consequences resulting from radiation exposure. In space. exposure to radiation generally includes all of the critical organs. Biological and toxicological impacts have been included for discussion along with alternative risk mitigation methods--shielding and anti-carcinogens. PMID:11669119

Denkins, P; Badhwar, G; Obot, V; Wilson, B; Jejelewo, O

35

Natural background radiation induces cytogenetic radioadaptive response more effectively than occupational exposure in human peripheral blood lymphocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ramsar, a city in the northern Iran, has the highest level of natural background radiation in the world. It has been clearly shown that low doses of ionising radiation can induce resistance to subsequent higher exposures. This phenomenon is termed radioadaptive response. We have compared induction of cytogenetic radioadaptive response by High Natural Background Radiation (HNBR) in Ramsar and X-ray occupational exposure as conditioning doses in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. 30 healthy control individuals, living in Ramsar but in normal background radiation areas, 15 healthy individuals from Talesh Mahalleh, a region with extraordinary high level of background radiation, and 7 X-ray radiographers working in Ramsar hospital located in normal natural background ionising radiation area were evaluated. Peripheral blood samples were prepared and exposed to challenge dose of 0 and 2 Gy. Lymphocytes were scored using analysis of metaphase, for the presence of chromosomal aberrations. An adaptive response was observed in HNBR and radiation workers groups in comparison with sham controls. A significant increase in adaptive response was observed in the HNBR group if compared with the occupationally exposed group. These findings indicate that both natural background radiation and occupational exposure could induce cytogenetic radioadaptive response and it is more significant regarding to natural background ionising radiation.

Monfared, A. Shabestani; Mozdarani, H.; Amiri, M.

2003-01-01

36

Calculation of the radiation doses occurring in the human body for inadvertent ingestion of soil and other soil exposure pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate the radiation doses in the human body, in the Gudalore region in India, following the inadvertent ingestion of soil and exposure to other soil pathways by measuring Th-232, U-238, and K-40. We estimate the equivalent dose in eleven different organs and the absorbed dose calculations for the whole body. The annual effective doses are calculated, the lowest is

F. Oner; N. T. Okumu?o?lu

2003-01-01

37

Mental process in humans and exposure to cell-phone radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on human exposure to cell-phone microwave fields may affect such mental processes (or cognitive functions) as attentional function, short-term memory tasks, information manipulation, or response-reaction times.

James C. Lin

2004-01-01

38

Assessment of the Technologies for Molecular Biodosimetry for Human Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Symposium  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to ionizing radiation produces few immediate outwardly-visible clinical signs, yet, depending on dose, can severely damage vital physiological functions within days to weeks and produce long-lasting health consequences among survivors. In the event of a radiological accident, the rapid evaluation of the individual absorbed dose is paramount to discriminate the worried but unharmed from those individuals who must receive medical attention. Physical, clinical and biological dosimetry are usually combined for the best dose assessment. However, because of the practical limits of physical and clinical dosimetry, many attempts have been made to develop a dosimetry system based on changes in biological parameters, including techniques for hematology, biochemistry, immunology, cytogenetics, etc. Lymphocyte counts and chromosome aberrations analyses are among the methods that have been routinely used for estimating radiation dose. However, these assays require several days to a week to be completed and therefore cannot be used to obtain a fast estimate of the dose during the first few days after exposure when the information would be most critical for identifying victims of radiation accidents who could benefit the most by medical intervention. The steadily increasing sophistication in our understanding of the early biochemical responses of irradiated cells and tissues provides the opportunity for developing mechanism-based biosignatures of exposure. Compelling breakthroughs have been made in the technologies for genome-scale analysis of cellular transcriptional and proteomic profiles. There have also been major strides in the mechanistic understanding of the early events in DNA damage and radiation damage products, as well as in the cellular pathways that lead to radiation injury. New research with genomic- and proteomic-wide tools is showing that within minutes to hours after exposure to ionizing radiation protein machines are modified and activated, and large-scale changes occur in the gene expression profile involving a broad variety of cell-process pathways after a wide range of both low (<10 cGy) and high dose (>10 cGy) exposures. Evaluation of these potential gene and protein biomarkers for early and late diagnostic information will be critical for determining the efficacy of the signatures to both low and high dose IR exposures. Also needed are approaches that enable rapid handling and processing for mass-casualty and population triage scenarios. Development of in vivo model system will be crucial for validating both the biological and the instrumentation for biodosimetry. Such studies will also help further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the biological effects of radiation and the differences of responses due to individual genetic variation.

Matthew A. Coleman Ph.D.; Narayani Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.; Sally A. Amundson; James D. Tucker, Ph.D.; Stephen D. Dertinger, Ph.D.; Natalia I. Ossetrova, Ph.D.; Tao Chen

2009-11-16

39

Uncertainty analysis of relative biological effectiveness of alpha-radiation for human lung exposure.  

PubMed

Assessment of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for a radiation in the cases of inhalation of radon progeny and incorporation of plutonium in lung is based on simulation of lung cancer radiation risk for alpha and external reference types of radiation. Specific radiation risk models developed on the results of direct epidemiological studies are used for simulation. These include published risk models for nuclear workers of the Mayak facilities in the former Soviet Union exposed to incorporated plutonium (Kreisheimer et al., 2003; Gilbert et al., 2004) and underground miners exposed to radon progenies (BEIR VI, 1999). Additionally, a lung cancer risk model is developed for a case of population indoor radon exposure. Lung cancer risk related to external exposure is estimated using the risk model developed for the analyses of Japanese atomic bomb survivors (Preston et al., 2003). Uncertainties of risk models parameters are considered and the uncertainties of RBE are estimated using the results of lifetime lung cancer risk simulation, which is done implementing a Monte Carlo approach. Estimated median value of RBE in case of indoor radon exposure is 1.5 with 90% range 0.4-7. In the case of the two models developed by BEIR VI for lung cancer risk due to radon exposure in underground miners, the median values of RBE are 2.1 and 4.4 with 90% ranges 0.3-17 and 0.7-45, respectively. The two different models for lung cancer risk related to plutonium exposure resulted in close estimates of RBE: median value of 12 and 13 with 90% range 4-104 and 4-136, respectively. PMID:16608832

Yarmoshenko, Ilia; Kirdin, Ivan; Zhukovsky, Michael

2006-04-01

40

SAR Distribution in Visible Human Head Exposure to the Field Radiated by CRT Computer Monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on finite difference time domain method, the specific absorption rate in the visible human head model exposed to the field radiated by cathode ray tube of computer monitor has been simulated numerically. Computer monitor made by Cathode ray tube (CRT) used for information display is usually in closer proximity, therefore, it is important to consider the possible health hazards

Han Yu-nan; Lu Ying-hua; Liu Ning; He Peng-fei

2007-01-01

41

Blood-based detection of radiation exposure in humans based on novel phospho-Smc1 ELISA.  

PubMed

The structural maintenance of chromosome 1 (Smc1) protein is a member of the highly conserved cohesin complex and is involved in sister chromatid cohesion. In response to ionizing radiation, Smc1 is phosphorylated at two sites, Ser-957 and Ser-966, and these phosphorylation events are dependent on the ATM protein kinase. In this study, we describe the generation of two novel ELISAs for quantifying phospho-Smc1(Ser-957) and phospho-Smc1(Ser-966). Using these novel assays, we quantify the kinetic and biodosimetric responses of human cells of hematological origin, including immortalized cells, as well as both quiescent and cycling primary human PBMC. Additionally, we demonstrate a robust in vivo response for phospho-Smc1(Ser-957) and phospho-Smc1(Ser-966) in lymphocytes of human patients after therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation, including total-body irradiation, partial-body irradiation, and internal exposure to (131)I. These assays are useful for quantifying the DNA damage response in experimental systems and potentially for the identification of individuals exposed to radiation after a radiological incident. PMID:21388270

Ivey, Richard G; Moore, Heather D; Voytovich, Uliana J; Thienes, Cortlandt P; Lorentzen, Travis D; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, Era L; Frayo, Shani; Izaguirre, Venissa K; Lundberg, Sally J; Hedin, Lacey; Badiozamani, Kas Ray; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Stirewalt, Derek L; Wang, Pei; Georges, George E; Gopal, Ajay K; Paulovich, Amanda G

2010-12-20

42

Blood-Based Detection of Radiation Exposure in Humans Based on Novel Phospho-Smc1 ELISA  

PubMed Central

The structural maintenance of chromosome 1 (Smc1) protein is a member of the highly conserved cohesin complex and is involved in sister chromatid cohesion. In response to ionizing radiation, Smc1 is phosphorylated at two sites, Ser-957 and Ser-966, and these phosphorylation events are dependent on the ATM protein kinase. In this study, we describe the generation of two novel ELISAs for quantifying phospho-Smc1Ser-957 and phospho-Smc1Ser-966. Using these novel assays, we quantify the kinetic and biodosimetric responses of human cells of hematological origin, including immortalized cells, as well as both quiescent and cycling primary human PBMC. Additionally, we demonstrate a robust in vivo response for phospho-Smc1Ser-957 and phospho-Smc1Ser-966 in lymphocytes of human patients after therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation, including total-body irradiation, partial-body irradiation, and internal exposure to 131I. These assays are useful for quantifying the DNA damage response in experimental systems and potentially for the identification of individuals exposed to radiation after a radiological incident.

Ivey, Richard G.; Moore, Heather D.; Voytovich, Uliana J.; Thienes, Cortlandt P.; Lorentzen, Travis D.; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, Era L.; Frayo, Shani; Izaguirre, Venissa K.; Lundberg, Sally J.; Hedin, Lacey; Badiozamani, Kas Ray; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Stirewalt, Derek L.; Wang, Pei; Georges, George E.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Paulovich, Amanda G.

2011-01-01

43

Dose-rate models for human survival after exposure to ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews new estimates of the L/sub 50/ in man by Mole and by Rotblat, the biological processes contributing to hematologic death, the collection of animal experiments dealing with hematologic death, and the use of regression analysis to make new estimates of human mortality based on all relevant animal studies. Regression analysis of animal mortality data has shown that mortality is dependent strongly on dose rate, species, body weight, and time interval over which the exposure is delivered. The model has predicted human LD/sub 50/s of 194, 250, 310, and 360 rad to marrow when the exposure time is a minute, an hour, a day, and a week, respectively.

Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Young, R.W.

1986-01-01

44

High content analysis of human fibroblast cell cultures after exposure to space radiation.  

PubMed

Space travel imposes risks to human health, in large part by the increased radiation levels compared to those on Earth. To understand the effects of space radiation on humans, it is important to determine the underlying cellular mechanisms. While general dosimetry describes average radiation levels accurately, it says little about the actual physiological impact and does not provide biological information about individual cellular events. In addition, there is no information about the nature and magnitude of a systemic response through extra- and intercellular communication. To assess the stress response in human fibroblasts that were sent into space with the Foton-M3 mission, we have developed a pluralistic setup to measure DNA damage and inflammation response by combining global and local dosimetry, image cytometry and multiplex array technology, thereby maximizing the scientific output. We were able to demonstrate a significant increase in DNA double-strand breaks, determined by a twofold increase of the gamma-H2AX signal at the level of the single cell and a threefold up-regulation of the soluble signal proteins CCL5, IL-6, IL-8, beta-2 microglobulin and EN-RAGE, which are key players in the process of inflammation, in the growth medium. PMID:19772463

Dieriks, Birger; De Vos, Winnok; Meesen, Geert; Van Oostveldt, Kaat; De Meyer, Tim; Ghardi, Myriam; Baatout, Sarah; Van Oostveldt, Patrick

2009-10-01

45

HUMAN EXPOSURE ACTIVITY PATTERNS  

EPA Science Inventory

Human activity/uptake rate data are necessary to estimate potential human exposure and intake dose to environmental pollutants and to refine human exposure models. Personal exposure monitoring studies have demonstrated the critical role that activities play in explaining and pre...

46

Medical effects of exposure of human beings to fallout radiation from a thermonuclear explosion.  

PubMed

On March 1, 1954, after detonation of a thermonuclear device on Bikini atoll, an unexpected wind shift resulted in the deposition of radioactive fallout on inhabited atolls. The fallout radiation caused fleeting systemic effects, dose-dependent depression of hematopoiesis and skin burns primarily due to the beta ray component of the fission radionuclides. Within a few weeks, hematopoietic recovery was substantial but slight depression of blood counts was maintained for several years. One case of fatal acute myeloblastic leukemia developed in a boy receiving 1.9 Gy as an infant. Cretinism developed in two boys exposed as infants with estimated thyroidal dose in excess of 50 Gy. Chemical hypothyroidism was detected in several persons. Thyroid adenomas and cancer commenced appearance ten years after exposure and became a major long-term medical problem. There have been no late effects attributable to the beta burns 40 years after exposure. Internal contamination from ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides is detectable. The doses are comparable to background levels in the U.S. There is no detectible decrease in longevity of the exposed Marshallese compared to an unexposed Marshallese population. PMID:7488968

Cronkite, E P; Bond, V P; Conard, R A

1995-05-01

47

Microarray analysis of differentially expressed genes after exposure of normal human fibroblasts to ionizing radiation from an external source and from DNA-incorporated iodine-125 radionuclide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation (IR) produces changes in the expression level of a large number of genes. However, less is known of gene-expression changes caused by local radiation exposure from radionuclides within cells. We studied changes in the genome-wide gene expression induced by decay of 125I incorporated into DNA as [125I]-iododeoxyuridine (125I-IUdR) in normal IMR-90 human lung fibroblasts

M. V. Sokolov; N. A. Smirnova; R. D. Camerini-Otero; R. D. Neumann; I. G. Panyutin

2006-01-01

48

DEMONSTRATION OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TOOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research on exposure measurements, human activity patterns, exposure and dose models, and cumulative exposures critical for the Agency to make scientificall...

49

Uncertainty Analysis of Relative Biological Effectiveness of Alpha-Radiation for Human Lung Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for ? radiation in the cases of inhalation of radon progeny and incorporation of plutonium in lung is based on simulation of lung cancer radiation risk for alpha and external reference types of radiation. Specific radiation risk models developed on the results of direct epidemiological studies are used for simulation. These include published risk

Ilia Yarmoshenko; Ivan Kirdin; Michael Zhukovsky

2006-01-01

50

Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures  

SciTech Connect

Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. 64 refs., 3 tabs.

Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

1996-05-01

51

Analysis of cellular response by exposure to acute or chronic radiation in human lymphoblastoid TK-6 cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To clarify the biological effects of low-dose rate radiation on human health for long-term stay in space, we analyzed the induction of apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression after irradiation with different dose-rate in human lymphoblastoid TK-6 cells harboring wild-type p53 gene. We irradiated TK-6 cells by X-ray at 1.5 Gy (1 Gy/min) and then sampled at 25 hr after culturing. We also irradiated by gamma-ray at 1.5 Gy (1 mGy/min) and then sampled immediately or 25 hr after irradiation. For DNA ladder analysis, we extracted DNA from these samples and electrophoresed with 2% agarose gel. In addition, we extracted mRNA from these samples for DNA-array analysis. mRNA from non-irradiated cells was used as a control. After labeling the cDNA against mRNA with [? -33P]-dCTP and hybridizing onto DNA array (Human Apoptosis Expression Array, R&D Systems), we scanned the profiles of the spots by a phosphorimager (BAS5000, FUJI FILM) and calculated using a NIH Image program. The data of each DNA-array were normalized with eight kinds of house keeping genes. We analyzed the expression level of apoptosis-related genes such as p53-related, Bcl-2 family, Caspase family and Fas-related genes. DNA ladders were obviously detected in the cells exposed to a high dose-rate radiation. We detected the induction of the gene expression of apoptosis-promotive genes. In contrast, almost no apoptosis was observed in the cells exposed to the chronic radiation at a low dose-rate. In addition, we detected the induction of the gene expression of apoptosis-suppressive genes as compared with apoptosis promotive-genes immediately after chronic irradiation. These results lead the importance of biological meaning of exposure to radiation at low dose-rate from an aspect of carcinogenesis. Finally, the effects of chronic irradiation become a highly important issue in space radiation biology for human health.

Ohnishi, T.; Yasumoto, J.; Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.

52

Cytogenetic responses to ionizing radiation exposure of human fibroblasts with knocked-down expressions of various DNA damage signaling genes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have demonstrated that genes with up-regulated expression induced by IR may play important roles in DNA damage sensing, cell cycle checkpoint and chromosomal repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR and its impact on cytogenetic responses to ionizing radiation has not been systematically studied. Here, the expression of 25 genes selected based on their transcriptional changes in response to IR or from their known DNA repair roles were individually knocked down by siRNA transfection in human fibroblast cells. Chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) formation were measured as the cytogenetic endpoints. Our results showed that the yields of MN and/or CA formation were significantly increased by suppressed expression of some of the selected genes in DSB and other DNA repair pathways. Knocked-down expression of other genes showed significant impact on cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Of these 11 genes that affected the cytogenetic response, 9 were up-regulated in the cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulating the biological consequences after IR. Failure to express these IR-responsive genes, such as by gene mutation, could seriously change the outcome of the post IR scenario and lead to carcinogenesis.

Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry; Wu, Honglu

53

Radiation Exposure and Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... such actions are warranted, according to the NIEHS. Television and computer screens Modern television and computer screens give off several kinds of ... waves) Radiofrequency radiation is emitted from radio and television broadcast transmitters, citizen band radios, and electric heaters. ...

54

The relationship of temperature rise to specific absorption rate and current in the human leg for exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the high frequency band  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the biological effects of human exposure to radiofrequency and microwave radiation, the best-established are those due to elevation of tissue temperature. To prevent harmful levels of heating, restrictions have been proposed on the specific absorption rate (SAR). However, the relationship between SAR and temperature rise is not an invariant, since not only the heat capacity but also the efficiency

P R Wainwright

2003-01-01

55

Radiation exposure in the moon environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a stay on the moon humans are exposed to elevated radiation levels due to the lack of substantial atmospheric and magnetic shielding compared to the Earth's surface. The absence of magnetic and atmospheric shielding allows cosmic rays of all energies to impinge on the lunar surface. Beside the continuous exposure to galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which increases the risk of cancer mortality, exposure through particles emitted in sudden nonpredictable solar particle events (SPE) may occur. SPEs show an enormous variability in particle flux and energy spectra and have the potential to expose space crew to life threatening doses. On Earth, the contribution to the annual terrestrial dose of natural ionizing radiation of 2.4 mSv by cosmic radiation is about 1/6, whereas the annual exposure caused by GCR on the lunar surface is roughly 380 mSv (solar minimum) and 110 mSv (solar maximum). The analysis of worst case scenarios has indicated that SPE may lead to an exposure of about 1 Sv. The only efficient measure to reduce radiation exposure is the provision of radiation shelters. Measurements on the lunar surface performed during the Apollo missions cover only a small energy band for thermal neutrons and are not sufficient to estimate the exposure. Very recently some data were added by the Radiation Dose Monitoring (RADOM) instrument operated during the Indian Chandrayaan Mission and the Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRaTER) instrument of the NASA LRO (Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter) mission. These measurements need to be complemented by surface measurements. Models and simulations that exist describe the approximate radiation exposure in space and on the lunar surface. The knowledge on the radiation exposure at the lunar surface is exclusively based on calculations applying radiation transport codes in combination with environmental models. Own calculations are presented using Monte-Carlo simulations to calculate the radiation environment on the moon and organ doses on the surface of the moon for an astronaut in an EVA suit and are compared with measurements. Since it is necessary to verify/validate such calculations with measurement on the lunar surface, a description is given of a radiation detector for future detailed surface measurements. This device is proposed for the ESA Lunar Lander Mission and is capable to characterize the radiation field concerning particle fluencies, dose rates and energy transfer spectra for ionizing particles and to measure the dose contribution of secondary neutrons.

Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Matthiae, Daniel

2012-12-01

56

[Radiation exposure and thyroid cancer].  

PubMed

Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system. The most frequent type of thyroid malignancy is papillary carcinoma. Thyroid cancer's incidence rates have increased over the last three decades throughout the world. Numerous studies have documented that radiation exposure is a well-established risk factor for the thyroid cancer. It has been reported that exposure to external medical radiation or to external and internal radiation from atomic bomb explosions, nuclear tests or nuclear accidents leads to an increased risk for thyroid cancer. The risk of thyroid cancer is maximal during the first years of life and decreases with increasing age at exposure due to morphologic and functional heterogeneity in the thyroid tissue of children and adults. Also it has been indicated that iodine deficiency increases the risk of the thyroid cancer related to radioactive iodines in case of exposure to radioactive iodines in childhood and the stable iodine supplementation reduces this risk. Ionizing radiation produces a range of mutations in irradiated cells of the thyroid. The prevalence of RET/PTC mutations is significantly higher in papillary carcinomas from childhood patients with the precedent history of radiation. PMID:23064295

Cannizzaro, Matteo Angelo; Veroux, Massimiliano; Costanzo, Mario; Buffone, Antonino; Okatyeva, Valeriya

57

Calculating radiation exposures during use of (14)C-labeled nutrients, food components, and biopharmaceuticals to quantify metabolic behavior in humans.  

PubMed

(14)C has long been used as a tracer for quantifying the in vivo human metabolism of food components, biopharmaceuticals, and nutrients. Minute amounts (< or =1 x 10 (-18) mol) of (14)C can be measured with high-throughput (14)C-accelerator mass spectrometry (HT (14)C-AMS) in isolated chemical extracts of biological, biomedical, and environmental samples. Availability of in vivo human data sets using a (14)C tracer would enable current concepts of the metabolic behavior of food components, biopharmaceuticals, or nutrients to be organized into models suitable for quantitative hypothesis testing and determination of metabolic parameters. In vivo models are important for specification of intake levels for food components, biopharmaceuticals, and nutrients. Accurate estimation of the radiation exposure from ingested (14)C is an essential component of the experimental design. Therefore, this paper illustrates the calculation involved in determining the radiation exposure from a minute dose of orally administered (14)C-beta-carotene, (14)C-alpha-tocopherol, (14)C-lutein, and (14)C-folic acid from four prior experiments. The administered doses ranged from 36 to 100 nCi, and radiation exposure ranged from 0.12 to 5.2 microSv to whole body and from 0.2 to 3.4 microSv to liver with consideration of tissue weighting factor and fractional nutrient. In comparison, radiation exposure experienced during a 4 h airline flight across the United States at 37000 ft was 20 microSv. PMID:20349979

Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kelly, Peter B; Clifford, Andrew J

2010-04-28

58

Sarcoma risk after radiation exposure.  

PubMed

Sarcomas were one of the first solid cancers to be linked to ionizing radiation exposure. We reviewed the current evidence on this relationship, focusing particularly on the studies that had individual estimates of radiation doses. There is clear evidence of an increased risk of both bone and soft tissue sarcomas after high-dose fractionated radiation exposure (10?+?Gy) in childhood, and the risk increases approximately linearly in dose, at least up to 40?Gy. There are few studies available of sarcoma after radiotherapy in adulthood for cancer, but data from cancer registries and studies of treatment for benign conditions confirm that the risk of sarcoma is also increased in this age-group after fractionated high-dose exposure. New findings from the long-term follow-up of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors suggest, for the first time, that sarcomas can be induced by acute lower-doses of radiation (<5?Gy) at any age, and the magnitude of the risk is similar to that observed for other solid cancers. While there is evidence that individuals with certain rare familial genetic syndromes predisposing to sarcoma, particularly Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome, are particularly sensitive to the effects of high dose radiation, it is unclear whether this is also true in very low-dose settings (<0.1?Gy). The effects of common low-penetrance alleles on radiosensitivity in the general population have not been well-characterized. Some evidence suggests that it may be possible to identify radiation-induced sarcomas by a distinct molecular signature, but this work needs to be replicated in several dose settings, and the potential role of chemotherapy and tumor heterogeneity needs to be examined in more detail. In summary, radiation exposure remains one of the few established risk factors for both bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Similar to many other cancers children have the highest risks of developing a radiation-related sarcoma. Efforts to limit unnecessary high-dose radiation exposure, particularly in children, therefore remain important given the high fatality rates associated with this disease. PMID:23036235

Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Kutsenko, Alina; Rajaraman, Preetha

2012-10-04

59

Human fibroblasts and 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation: evaluation of DNA damage after exposure and co-exposure to 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5h)-furanone (MX).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate DNA damage in human dermal fibroblasts from a healthy subject and from a subject affected by Turner's syndrome that were exposed for 24 h to radiofrequency (RF) radiation at 900 MHz. The RF-radiation exposure was carried out alone or in combination with 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), a well-known environmental mutagen and carcinogen produced during the chlorination of drinking water. Turner's syndrome fibroblasts were also exposed for a shorter time (1 h). A signal similar to that emitted by Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) mobile phones was used at a specific absorption rate of 1 W/kg under strictly controlled conditions of temperature and dosimetry. To evaluate DNA damage after RF-radiation exposure alone, the alkaline comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay were used. In the combined-exposure experiments, MX was given at a concentration of 25 microM for 1 h immediately after the RF-radiation exposure, and the effects were evaluated by the alkaline comet assay. The results revealed no genotoxic and cytotoxic effects from RF radiation alone in either cell line. As expected, MX treatment induced an increase in DNA migration in the comet assay, but no enhancement of the MX-induced DNA damage was observed in the cells exposed to RF radiation. PMID:19580481

Sannino, A; Di Costanzo, G; Brescia, F; Sarti, M; Zeni, O; Juutilainen, J; Scarfì, M R

2009-06-01

60

Radiation Exposure of Children During Cardiac Catheterisation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is well known that in adults, cardiac catheterisation involves the highest possible radiation exposure for a single examination. The paper now investigates the radiation exposure in pediatric cardiac catheterisations. Dosimeters attached to the childre...

W. Popp

1979-01-01

61

Human responses to the threat of or exposure to ionizing radiation at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania, and Goiania, Brazil.  

PubMed

The psychological stressors and their aftereffects associated with the Three Mile Island accident, the Goiania, Brazil, cesium-137 accident, and the Abadia, Brazil, storage location are summarized and compared. Cross-cultural comparisons of human responses to ionizing radiation are rare. A multidisciplinary methodological approach to examining the psychological responses to ionizing radiation is even more rare. The psychological, behavioral, neuroendocrine, and cardiovascular results are summarized for Three Mile Island, Goiania, and Abadia. PMID:11873499

Collins, Daniel L

2002-02-01

62

Cell type-dependent gene transcription profile in a three-dimensional human skin tissue model exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation: implications for medical exposures.  

PubMed

The concern over possible health risks from exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation has been driven largely by the increase in medical exposures, the routine implementation of X-ray backscatter devices for airport security screening, and, most recently, the nuclear incident in Japan. Because of a paucity of direct epidemiological data at very low doses, cancer risk must be estimated from high dose exposure scenarios. However, there is increasing evidence that low and high dose exposures result in different signaling events and may have different response mechanisms than higher doses. We have examined the radiation-induced temporal response after exposure to 10 cGy of an in vitro three dimensional (3D) human skin tissue model using microarray-based transcriptional profiling. Cell type-specific analysis showed significant changes in gene expression with the levels of >1,400 genes altered in the dermis and >400 genes regulated in the epidermis. The two cell layers rarely exhibited overlapping responses at the mRNA level. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) measurements validated the microarray data in both regulation direction and value. Key pathways identified relate to cell cycle regulation, immune responses, hypoxia, reactive oxygen signaling, and DNA damage repair. The proliferation status as well as the expression of PCNA was examined in histological samples. We discuss in particular the role of proliferation, emphasizing how the disregulation of cellular signaling in normal tissue may impact progression toward radiation-induced secondary diseases. PMID:22351304

von Neubeck, Claere; Shankaran, Harish; Karin, Norman J; Kauer, Paula M; Chrisler, William B; Wang, Xihai; Robinson, R Joe; Waters, Katrina M; Tilton, Susan C; Sowa, Marianne B

2012-02-20

63

Effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation induces some effects that are seen at birth and others that cannot be detected until later in life. Data from A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki show a diminished number of births after exposure under 4 wk of gestational age. Although a wide array of congenital malformations has been found in animal experimentation after such exposure to x rays, in humans only small head size (exposure at 4-17 wk) and mental retardation (exposure primarily at 8-15 wk) have been observed. In Hiroshima, small head size occurred after doses of 0.10-0.19 Gy or more, and an excess of mental retardation at 0.2-0.4 Gy or more. Intelligence test scores were reduced among A-bomb survivors exposed at 8-15 wk of gestational age by 21-29 IQ points per Gy. Other effects of in-utero exposure to atomic radiation include long-lasting complex chromosome abnormalities.

Miller, R.W. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-07-01

64

HELLE: Health Effects of Low Level Exposures/ Gezondheidseffecten van lage blootstellingniveaus [International workshop: Influence of low level exposures to chemicals and radiation on human and ecological health  

SciTech Connect

The Health Council is closely involved in establishing the scientific foundation of exposure limits for substances and radiation in order to protect public health. Through the years, the Council has contributed to the formulation of principles and procedures, both for carcinogenic and for noncarcinogenic agents. As a rule, the discussion with regard to the derivation of health-based recommended exposure limits centers around the appropriateness of extrapolation methods (What can be inferred from data on high exposure levels and on experimental animals?). Generally speaking, there is a lack of direct information on the health effects of low levels of exposure. Effects at these levels cannot usually be detected by means of traditional animal experiments or epidemiological research. The capacity of these analytical instruments to distinguish between ''signal'' and ''noise'' is inadequate in most cases. Annex B of this report contains a brief outline of the difficulties and the established methods for tackling this problem. In spite of this, the hope exists that the posited weak signals, if they are indeed present, can be detected by other means. The search will have to take place on a deeper level. In other words, effort must be made to discover what occurs at underlying levels of biological organization when organisms are exposed to low doses of radiation or substances. Molecular and cell biology provide various methods and techniques which give an insight into the processes within the cell. This results in an increase in the knowledge about the molecular and cellular effects of exposure to agents, or stated differently, the working mechanisms which form the basis of the health effects. Last year, the Health Council considered that the time was ripe to take stock of the state of knowledge in this field. To this end, an international working conference was held from 19 to 21 October 1997, entitled ''Health Effects of Low Level Exposures: Scientific Developments and Perspectives for Risk Assessment''. The central question was the extent to which the sometimes fast-growing knowledge about molecular and cellular effects offers the desired basis for extrapolation. Against this setting, a number of more specific questions which have been hotly debated for some time were also addressed. One of the primary questions concerned the traditional but increasingly questioned division between stochastic and non-stochastic working agents, and the corresponding division between exposure-effect relations without a threshold and with a threshold. Thoughts were also exchanged on what is often referred to as hormesis: the notion that low levels of exposure could actually improve health. For the purpose of illuminating the many aspects of these issues, experts from a number of areas were invited. In addition to this, three agents were selected to serve as points of crystallization for the general debate: ionizing radiation, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and dioxins. The present report calls attention to a selection of issues which emerged during the discussions on the above-mentioned central topic. Various more detailed questions and the wider context of the points considered are described at greater length in the enclosed conference report and in the background documents attached to the report. What follows is a series of considerations regarding the scientific basis for the derivation of recommended exposure levels, viewed in the light of current procedures and against the background of the work of the Health Council. In the preparation of the following comments and recommendations, various Dutch experts have been consulted.

Schoten, Eert

1998-11-26

65

Human exposure to nickel.  

PubMed

In order of abundance in the earth's crust, nickel ranks as the 24th element and has been detected in different media in all parts of the biosphere. Thus, humans are constantly exposed to this ubiquitous element, though in variable amounts. The average natural nickel exposure from food in the past has probably been somewhat, but not much, below current levels. Nickel is a useful metal, particularly in various alloys, in batteries and in nickel-plating. Nickel compounds are used especially as catalysts and pigments. In nickel-producing or nickel-using industries, about 0.2% of the work force may be exposed to considerable amounts of airborne nickel. In addition, nickel release, e.g., into cutting oils, and skin contact with nickel-containing or nickel-plated tools and other items may add to an occupational nickel hazard. Occupational exposures may lead to the retention of 100 micrograms of nickel per day. Environmental nickel levels depend particularly on natural sources, pollution from nickel-manufacturing industries and airborne particles from combustion of fossil fuels. Absorption from atmospheric nickel pollution is of minor concern. Vegetables usually contain more nickel than do other food items; high levels have been found in legumes, spinach, lettuce and nuts. Certain products, such as baking powder and cocoa powder, have been found to contain excessive amounts of nickel, perhaps related to nickel leaching during the manufacturing process. Soft drinking-water and acid beverages may dissolve nickel from pipes and containers. Leaching or corrosion processes may contribute significantly to the oral nickel intake, occasionally up to 1 mg/day. Scattered studies indicate a highly variable dietary intake of nickel, but most averages are about 200-300 micrograms/day. In addition, skin contact to a multitude of metal objects may be of significance to the large number of individuals suffering from contact dermatitis and nickel allergy. Finally, nickel alloys are often used in nails and prostheses for orthopaedic surgery, and various sources may contaminate intravenous fluids. Thus, human nickel exposure originates from a variety of sources and is highly variable. Occupational nickel exposure is of major significance, and leaching of nickel may add to dietary intakes and to cutaneous exposures. Preventive efforts should mainly be directed towards adequate control of these exposure sources. PMID:6241927

Grandjean, P

1984-01-01

66

Lessons Learned about Human Stem Cell Responses to Ionizing Radiation Exposures: A Long Road Still Ahead of Us  

PubMed Central

Human stem cells (hSC) possess several distinct characteristics that set them apart from other cell types. First, hSC are self-renewing, capable of undergoing both asymmetric and symmetric cell divisions. Second, these cells can be coaxed to differentiate into various specialized cell types and, as such, hold great promise for regenerative medicine. Recent progresses in hSC biology fostered the characterization of the responses of hSC to genotoxic stresses, including ionizing radiation (IR). Here, we examine how different types of hSC respond to IR, with a special emphasis on their radiosensitivity, cell cycle, signaling networks, DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. We show that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) possess unique characteristics in how they react to IR that clearly distinguish these cells from all adult hSC studied thus far. On the other hand, a manifestation of radiation injuries/toxicity in human bodies may depend to a large extent on hSC populating corresponding tissues, such as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC), neural hSC, intestine hSC, etc. We discuss here that hSC responses to IR differ notably across many types of hSC which may represent the distinct roles these cells play in development, regeneration and/or maintenance of homeostasis.

Sokolov, Mykyta; Neumann, Ronald

2013-01-01

67

AIR TOXICS HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

This project aims to improve the scientific basis for the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) assessments of human exposures to air toxics by developing improved human exposure models. The research integrates the major components of the exposure paradigm, i.e., sources, tr...

68

Radiation Exposure - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Radiation Exposure - Multiple Languages Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) German (Deutsch) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Spanish (español) ... PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention French (français) Acute Radiation Syndrome English Syndrome d'irradiation aiguë - ...

69

Human exposure to cellular base station antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human exposure to RF power radiated by cellular base station antennas can be assessed by means of the incident power density averaged over the body. The convenience of adopting this quantity lies in its well-behaved decay away from the antenna. As a consequence, the average power density decay can be predicted using simple formulas, which remain valid even in

Quirino Balzano; Antonio Faraone

1999-01-01

70

HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT USING IMMUNOASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Exposure Research Laboratory-Las Vegas is developing analytical methods for human exposure assessment studies. Critical exposure studies generate a large number of samples which must be analyzed in a reliable, cost-effective and timely manner. TCP (3,5,6-trichlor...

71

[Thyroid cancer following exposure to ionising radiation].  

PubMed

Exposure to ionising radiations during childhood increases the risk of thyroid cancer. Similar risk factors have been found after external radiation exposure or internal contamination with radioactive iodine isotopes. In case of contamination with radioiodines, administration of potassium iodide can prevent thyroid irradiation. PMID:21723770

Schlumberger, M; Chevillard, S; Ory, K; Dupuy, C; Le Guen, B; de Vathaire, F

2011-07-01

72

Econometric model for age- and population-dependent radiation exposures  

SciTech Connect

The economic impact associated with ionizing radiation exposures in a given human population depends on numerous factors including the individual's mean economic status as a function age, the age distribution of the population, the future life expectancy at each age, and the latency period for the occurrence of radiation-induced health effects. A simple mathematical model has been developed that provides an analytical methodology for estimating the societal econometrics associated with radiation effects are to be assessed and compared for economic evaluation.

Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)); Rogers, V.C.

1991-01-01

73

Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles  

PubMed Central

Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

2011-01-01

74

Human exposure to styrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

An industrial hygiene study of 10 glassfiber reinforced polyester plants (including 90 workers) was undertaken to investigate the styrene exposure in this industry and to estimate biological limit values (BLV's) for the urinary metabolites of styrene: mandelic (MA) and phenylglyoxylic acids (PGA). Time weighted average (TWA) styrene exposures were found ranging from 2 to 200 ppm. The urinary elimination of

Michel P. Guillemin; Daniel Bauer; Brigitte Martin; Alfio Marazzi

1982-01-01

75

Radiation exposure limits for Japanese astronauts.  

PubMed

Starting in 2001, Japanese astronauts will live aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for 3 to 6 months a year. For astronauts, space radiation is primarily hazardous. Therefore, the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is developing a system for Space Radiation Safety Operations. This report describes our overall image of Space Radiation Safety Operations aboard the ISS, especially our proceedings in drafting the "Space Radiation Exposure Limits for Japanese ISS Astronauts." PMID:10631331

Abe, T; Komiyama, T; Suemitsu, T

1999-12-01

76

Solar radiation and human health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

Juzeniene, Asta; Brekke, Pål; Dahlback, Arne; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Reichrath, Jörg; Moan, Kristin; Holick, Michael F.; Grant, William B.; Moan, Johan

2011-06-01

77

The relationship of temperature rise to specific absorption rate and current in the human leg for exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the high frequency band  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of the biological effects of human exposure to radiofrequency and microwave radiation, the best-established are those due to elevation of tissue temperature. To prevent harmful levels of heating, restrictions have been proposed on the specific absorption rate (SAR). However, the relationship between SAR and temperature rise is not an invariant, since not only the heat capacity but also the efficiency of heat dissipation varies between different tissues and exposure scenarios. For small enough SAR, the relationship is linear and may be characterized by a 'heating factor' DgrT/SAR. Under whole-body irradiation the SAR may be particularly high in the ankles due to the concentration of current flowing through a relatively small cross-sectional area. In a previous paper, the author has presented calculations of the SAR distribution in a human leg in the high frequency (HF) band. In this paper, the heating factor for this situation is derived using a finite element approximation of the Pennes bio-heat equation. The sensitivity of the results to different blood perfusion rates is investigated, and a simple local thermoregulatory model is applied. Both time-dependent and steady-state solutions are considered. Results confirm the appropriateness of the ICNIRP reference level of 100 mA on current through the leg, but suggest that at higher currents significant thermoregulatory adjustments to muscle blood flow will occur.

Wainwright, P. R.

2003-10-01

78

Exposure of nondividing populations of primary human fibroblasts to UV (254 nm) radiation induces a transient enhancement in capacity to repair potentially lethal cellular damage  

SciTech Connect

Nondividing (arrested) populations of primary human fibroblasts from normal individuals exposed to an intial dose (1.5 or 3 Jm/sup -2/) of far-UV (254 nm) radiation and then incubated in medium containing low (0.5%) serum develop enhanced resistance to inactivation of cloning efficiency by a second (challenge) dose of UV. The resistance develops within 2-4 days, after which there is a decline. Resistance develops to a higher degree and more rapidly (1-2 days) in cells derived from patients with the variant form of xeroderma pigmentosum. Excision-deficient cells from xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A individuals also develop UV resistance after a lower (0.2 Jm/sup -2/) exposure to UV. Enhanced UV resistance does not develop in UV-irradiated cell populations incubated with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (5 ..mu..M). These observations are consistent with the interpretation that exposure of human fibroblasts to low doses of UV induces synthesis of a protein involved in a metabolic pathway that transiently enhances the capacity of cells to repair potentially lethal damage resulting from a subsequent dose of UV.

Tyrrell, R.M.

1984-02-01

79

Correlation of Chromosome Patterns in Human Leukemic Cells with Exposure to Chemicals and/or Radiation. Progress Report, January 1, 1981-December 31, 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall aim is to determine whether there is a relationship between exposure to radiation, environmental pollutants, and/or genetic background and the development of ANLL or other hematologic malignancies. I will try to define the factors that influen...

J. D. Rowley

1981-01-01

80

Potential Benefits of Reducing Occupation Radiation Exposure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study presents a theoretical framework for estimating plant operating costs that can be attributed to whole-body external radiation exposures incurred during nuclear power plant operation and maintenance and describes the development of a generic meth...

C. A. Pelletier P. G. Voilleque

1978-01-01

81

[Transgenerational effects of parental exposure to ionizing radiation].  

PubMed

The deleterious effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on human health have been known for many years. The main long term effect of this exposure is an increase in the risk for developing benign and malignant tumors in the exposed population. This review summarizes the existing data on the possible effects of ionizing radiation on the second generation, focusing on cancer risk. The two mechanisms through which parents' exposure to radiation could affect their children's health are intrauterine exposure of the fetus and preconception exposure of the gonads. Intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation has teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. Most case-control studies have shown a 40-50% increase in the risk of cancer following intrauterine exposure to medical diagnostic radiation at doses of 10-20mGy. Results of these studies have greatly contributed to the strict radiation protection guidelines at pregnancy existing today. Although animal studies have shown that gonadal exposure to high doses can cause heritable genetic changes, this effect has not been demonstrated unequivocally in epidemiological studies. A case-control study suggested an association between preconception irradiation and leukemia/non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in children of male workers at a nuclear plant in the UK (the Gardner hypothesis). This report generated substantial interest and research; however, subsequent occupational studies failed to confirm the association. Negative results were also reported in studies of the atomic bomb survivors and survivors of childhood cancer. In summary, epidemiological studies do not support the association between gonadal exposure to ionizing radiation and the development of cancer and other genetic diseases among offspring. PMID:16900743

Sadetzki, Siegal; Flint-Richter, Pazit

2006-07-01

82

Sources of ionizing radiation exposure  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, the radiations to which people were exposed were limited to those that exist naturally. But beginning about a century ago a number of advances in science and engineering altered our radiation environment. The use of X rays, radioactive substances, artificial illumination, and radio communication; the high voltage transmission of electric energy; and even the introduction of high-flying aircraft have all affected the kinds and amounts of radiation to which people are exposed. This article will discuss only the ionizing radiations, which are those produced by X-ray machines and radionuclides. 22 references

Eisenbud, M.

1984-12-01

83

Exposure from residual radiation after synchrotron shutdown  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personnel exposure from residual radiation present after an accelerator is shutdown for preventative or corrective maintenance is an important aspect that governs the manner in which a light ion facility can be used. This radiation is not only a safety issue for maintenance personnel but also can affect the patient throughput of the facility. Measurements were made with survey instruments

M. F. Moyers; D. A. Lesyna

2009-01-01

84

Thyroid Cancer Risk from Exposure to Ionizing Radiation: A Case Study in the Comparative Potency Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Considerable controversy exists about the relative risk of thyroid cancer following exposure to external radiation compared to the risk after exposure to internally deposited 131I. The human epidemiological data are equivocal, and studies are not directly...

N. M. Laird

1987-01-01

85

Sources of confusion in establishment of radiation exposure guidelines  

SciTech Connect

There are several factors that induce the many fallacies underlying current radiation protection guidelines, and there is little hope on the horizon that common sense will prevail to override these fallacies. Radiation is looked upon by influential committee members as an absolute hazard to human health. In other words, they believe that all radiation is harmful at any level of exposure! There is no evidence for such a statement. This paper is separated into several major topics, each showing the reasons this philosophy concerning all radiation to be harmful is so misguided.

Thomas, R.G. [Robert Thomas, Bigfork, MT (United States)

1996-12-31

86

Radiation exposure modeling and project schedule visualization  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses two applications using IGRIP (Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program) to assist environmental remediation efforts at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. In the first application, IGRIP is used to calculate the estimated radiation exposure to workers conducting tasks in radiation environments. In the second, IGRIP is used as a configuration management tool to detect interferences between equipment and personnel work areas for multiple projects occurring simultaneously in one area. Both of these applications have the capability to reduce environmental remediation costs by reducing personnel radiation exposure and by providing a method to effectively manage multiple projects in a single facility.

Jaquish, W.R.; Enderlin, V.R. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-10-01

87

Human Population Exposures to Mirex and Kepone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Human exposures to mirex and kepone are assessed in this study. Three major paths of exposure are examined: ingestion through the food chain, inhalation of atmospheric mirex and kepone, and exposure through drinking water. Exposure through the food chain ...

B. E. Suta

1978-01-01

88

Effect of serum depletion on centrosome overduplication and death of human pancreatic cancer cells after exposure to radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tumor microenvironment is one of the key factors affecting the cellular response to radiation; however, the influence of serum concentration on tumor radiosensitivity remains poorly understood. We recently discovered that ?-irradiation of tumor cells causes centrosome overduplication, which may lead to lethal nuclear fragmentation through the establishment of multipolar mitotic spindles. In the present study, we investigated the effect

Masaki Shono; Norihiro Sato; Kazuhiro Mizumoto; Yohji A. Minamishima; Masafumi Nakamura; Naoki Maehara; Taro Urashima; Michiyo Saimura; Liwu Qian; Shoko Nishio; Eishi Nagai; Masao Tanaka

2001-01-01

89

Intestinal microbiota as novel biomarkers of prior radiation exposure.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need for rapid, accurate, and sensitive diagnostic platforms to confirm exposure to radiation and estimate the dose absorbed by individuals subjected to acts of radiological terrorism, nuclear power plant accidents, or nuclear warfare. Clinical symptoms and physical dosimeters, even when available, do not provide adequate diagnostic information to triage and treat life-threatening radiation injuries. We hypothesized that intestinal microbiota act as novel biomarkers of prior radiation exposure. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 5/group) received single or multiple fraction total-body irradiation of 10.0 Gy and 18.0 Gy, respectively. Fresh fecal pellets were obtained from each rat prior to (day 0) and at days 4, 11, and 21 post-irradiation. Fecal microbiota composition was determined using microarray and quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) analyses. The radiation exposure biomarkers consisted of increased 16S rRNA levels of 12 members of the Bacteroidales, Lactobacillaceae, and Streptococcaceae after radiation exposure, unchanged levels of 98 Clostridiaceae and Peptostreptococcaceae, and decreased levels of 47 separate Clostridiaceae members; these biomarkers are present in human and rat feces. As a result of the ubiquity of these biomarkers, this biomarker technique is non-invasive; microbiota provide a sustained level of reporting signals that are increased several-fold following exposure to radiation, and intestinal microbiota that are unaffected by radiation serve as internal controls. We conclude that intestinal microbiota serve as novel biomarkers of prior radiation exposure, and may be able to complement conventional chromosome aberrational analysis to significantly enhance biological dose assessments. PMID:22439602

Lam, Vy; Moulder, John E; Salzman, Nita H; Dubinsky, Eric A; Andersen, Gary L; Baker, John E

2012-03-23

90

Radiation Worker Protection by Exposure Scheduling  

PubMed Central

The discovery of the protective adaptive response of cells to a low dose of radiation suggests applications to radiation worker/first responder protection. Its use in cancer radiotherapy has been discussed in a separate publication. This paper describes simple changes in scheduling that can make use of these beneficial adaptive effects for protection. No increase in total exposure is necessary, only a simple change in the timing of radiation exposure. A low dose of radiation at a sufficient dose rate will trigger the adaptive response. This in turn will offer a considerable protection against the damage from a subsequent high dose. A simple scenario is discussed as well as a brief review of the experimental basis of the adaptive response.

Blankenbecler, Richard

2011-01-01

91

DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

NONE

1996-12-31

92

Gamma radiation exposure of MCT diode arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of electrical properties of long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) mercury cadmium telluride arrays exposed to gamma-radiation have been performed. Resistance-area product characteristics of LWIR n+-p-photodiodes have been investigated using a microprobe technique at T ap 78 K before and after exposure to various doses of gamma-radiation (Co60 Gammas). The current transport mechanisms for those structures are described within the framework of

F. F. Sizov; I. O. Lysiuk; J. V. Gumenjuk-Sichevska; S. G. Bunchuk; V. V. Zabudsky

2006-01-01

93

Lead exposure and radiator repair work  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986, the ambient air for lead in radiator repair shops in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) action level in nine of 12 shops sampled by Minnesota OSHA. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence of lead exposure\\/toxicity in this industry. Thirty-five radiator shops were identified, 30 were visited, and 53 workers

D. H. Lussenhop; D. L. Parker; A. Barklind; C. McJilton

1989-01-01

94

Radiation metabolomics. 1. Identification of minimally invasive urine biomarkers for gamma-radiation exposure in mice.  

PubMed

Gamma-radiation exposure has both short- and long-term adverse health effects. The threat of modern terrorism places human populations at risk for radiological exposures, yet current medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are limited. Here we describe metabolomics for gamma-radiation biodosimetry in a mouse model. Mice were gamma-irradiated at doses of 0, 3 and 8 Gy (2.57 Gy/min), and urine samples collected over the first 24 h after exposure were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOFMS). Multivariate data were analyzed by orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS). Both 3- and 8-Gy exposures yielded distinct urine metabolomic phenotypes. The top 22 ions for 3 and 8 Gy were analyzed further, including tandem mass spectrometric comparison with authentic standards, revealing that N-hexanoylglycine and beta-thymidine are urinary biomarkers of exposure to 3 and 8 Gy, 3-hydroxy-2-methylbenzoic acid 3-O-sulfate is elevated in urine of mice exposed to 3 but not 8 Gy, and taurine is elevated after 8 but not 3 Gy. Gene Expression Dynamics Inspector (GEDI) self-organizing maps showed clear dose-response relationships for subsets of the urine metabolome. This approach is useful for identifying mice exposed to gamma radiation and for developing metabolomic strategies for noninvasive radiation biodosimetry in humans. PMID:18582157

Tyburski, John B; Patterson, Andrew D; Krausz, Kristopher W; Slavík, Josef; Fornace, Albert J; Gonzalez, Frank J; Idle, Jeffrey R

2008-07-01

95

Radiation Characteristics of Ingestible Wireless Devices in Human Intestine Following Radio Frequency Exposure at 430, 800, 1200, and 2400 MHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the compliance of ingested wireless device (IWD) with related international safety guidelines, the studies on the biological effects and the signal intensity of an IWD in two realistic human body models using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method are reported in this paper. Simulation studies are carried out in 21 scenarios where the IWD is placed at

Lisheng Xu; Max Q.-H. Meng; Hongliang Ren; Yawen Chan

2009-01-01

96

Possibilities and limitations of fluorescence in situ hybridization technique in retrospective detection of low dose radiation exposure in post-chernobyl human cohorts.  

PubMed

Cytogenetic analysis using the fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique was performed late time after the Chernobyl accident in groups of liquidators, evacuees from 30 km exclusive zone, residents of radioactively contaminated areas and control donors age-matched to exposed persons. Stable and unstable chromosome type exchanges were recorded using a hybrid conventional-PAINT nomenclature. The mean yield of stable chromosome exchanges in liquidators did not correlate with registered radiation doses but had a clear negative dependence on the duration of liquidators' staying in Chernobyl zone, that was in a good agreement with early data based on conventional dicentrics plus rings analysis. The overspontaneous excess for stable chromosome exchange level appeared to be higher in evacuees 16-40 years old than that of senior persons, whereas no age-dependent difference occurred for initially induced dicentrics plus rings yields in this cohort. The stable chromosome exchange yield, as well as combined yield of dicentrics plus rings and potentially unstable incomplete translocations in residents of radioactively contaminated areas showed a reasonable positive correlation with levels of 137Cs contamination. The observed yields of stable chromosome exchanges in all three exposed groups appeared to be somewhat lower than those of expected from unstable exchange-based doses which were referred to an in vitro dose response of stable exchanges outcome in human lymphocytes. Thus, FISH analysis can be successfully applied for qualitative cytogenetic indication of past and chronic radiation exposure to low doses but further refinement of FISH-based system for quantitative dose assessment is still required. Some practical approaches of solving this task are discussed. PMID:16396328

Maznyk, N A; Vinnikov, V A

97

Mobile phone radiation might alter protein expression in human skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Earlier we have shown that the mobile phone radiation (radiofrequency modulated electromagnetic fields; RF-EMF) alters protein expression in human endothelial cell line. This does not mean that similar response will take place in human body exposed to this radiation. Therefore, in this pilot human volunteer study, using proteomics approach, we have examined whether a local exposure of human skin

Anu Karinen; Sirpa Heinävaara; Reetta Nylund; Dariusz Leszczynski

2008-01-01

98

Toxicologic methods: controlled human exposures.  

PubMed Central

The assessment of risk from exposure to environmental air pollutants is complex, and involves the disciplines of epidemiology, animal toxicology, and human inhalation studies. Controlled, quantitative studies of exposed humans help determine health-related effects that result from breathing the atmosphere. The major unique feature of the clinical study is the ability to select, control, and quantify pollutant exposures of subjects of known clinical status, and determine their effects under ideal experimental conditions. The choice of outcomes to be assessed in human clinical studies can be guided by both scientific and practical considerations, but the diversity of human responses and responsiveness must be considered. Subjects considered to be among the most susceptible include those with asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and cardiovascular disease. New experimental approaches include exposures to concentrated ambient air particles, diesel engine exhaust, combustion products from smoking machines, and experimental model particles. Future investigations of the health effects of air pollution will benefit from collaborative efforts among the disciplines of epidemiology, animal toxicology, and human clinical studies.

Utell, M J; Frampton, M W

2000-01-01

99

Fluoroscopic Radiation Exposure during Percutaneous Kyphoplasty  

PubMed Central

Objective The author measured levels of fluoroscopic radiation exposure to the surgeon's body based on the different beam directions during kyphoplasty. Methods This is an observational study. A series of 84 patients (96 vertebral bodies) were treated with kyphoplasty over one year. The patients were divided into four groups based on the horizontal and vertical directions of the X-Ray beams. We measured radiation exposure with the seven dosimetry badges which were worn by the surgeon in each group (total of 28 badges). Twenty-four procedures were measured in each group. Cumulative dose and dose rates were compared between groups. Results Fluoroscopic radiation is received by the operator in real-time for approximately 50% (half) of the operation time. Thyroid protectors and lead aprons can block radiation almost completely. The largest dose was received in the chest irrespective of beam directions. The lowest level of radiation were received when X-ray tube was away from the surgeon and beneath the bed (dose rate of head, neck, chest, abdomen and knee : 0.2986, 0.2828, 0.9711, 0.8977, 0.8168 mSv, respectively). The radiation differences between each group were approximately 2.7-10 folds. Conclusion When fluoroscopic guided-KP is performed, the X-Ray tube should be positioned on the opposite side of the operator and below the table, otherwise the received radiation to the surgeon's body would be 2.7-10 times higher than such condition.

2011-01-01

100

Ionizing radiation exposure of the population of the United States. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

As accurate an assessment as possible was made of the overall exposure of the US population from all sources of ionizing radiation. These sources were categorized according to the origin of the exposure: natural radiation, occupational, the nuclear fuel cycle, consumer products, miscellaneous environmental sources connected with human activities, and medical diagnosis and therapy. This report provides a comprehensive account of the exposure of members of the US public to all sources of ionizing radiation. 77 refs., 1 fig., 21 tabs.

Not Available

1987-09-01

101

Uncertainty and relative risks of radiation exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to ionizing radiation in a nonmilitary emergency is likely to alarm those persons exposed and their families. Not only is the outcome uncertain, but the risks are difficult to convey. This communication discusses uncertainties in short-term outcome and long-term effects, as well as means of conveying the magnitude of risks to patients and their families. It emphasizes that the

S. J. Adelstein

1987-01-01

102

Population exposure to ionizing radiation in India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Estimates of exposure from various radiation sources to Indian population are given. The per capita dose from all the identifiable sources, both natural and man-made is estimated to be 2490 (mu)Sv per year to the present population of India. 97.9% of this...

K. K. Narayanan D. Krishnan M. C. Subba Ramu

1991-01-01

103

Human lung fibroblasts prematurely senescent after exposure to ionizing radiation enhance the growth of malignant lung epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Cellular senescence, being the result of serial subculturing or of exogenous stresses, is considered to be a potent anticancer mechanism. However, it has been proposed that senescent cells may enhance the growth of adjacent malignant epithelial cells. On the other hand, exposure of tumors to repeated low doses of ?-irradiation is a common treatment regime. Nevertheless, ?-irradiation also affects the neighboring stromal cells and the interaction of the latter with cancer cells. Accordingly, in this study, we have exposed confluent cultures of human lung fibroblasts to repeated subcytotoxic doses of 4 Gy of ?-irradiation. We found that a single dose immediately activates a DNA damage response, leading to an intense, but reversible, cell cycle arrest. After a series of doses (total dose approximately 50 Gy) cellular senescence was accelerated, as shown by permanent growth arrest and the upregulation of specific biochemical and morphological senescence-associated markers. This process was found to be p53-dependent. Next, we studied the effect of these prematurely senescent cells on the growth of human malignant lung cell lines (A549 and H1299) and found that the presence of irradiation-mediated senescent cells strongly enhances the growth of these cancer cells in vitro and in immunocompromised (SCID) mice in vivo. This effect seems not to be related to an induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation but, to a significant extent, to the increased expression of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), as a specific MMP inhibitor significantly restrains the growth of cancer in the presence of senescent fibroblasts. These findings indicate that lung fibroblasts that become senescent after ionizing radiation may contribute to lung cancer progression. PMID:21814715

Papadopoulou, Adamantia; Kletsas, Dimitris

2011-07-19

104

Low-dose radiation exposure and carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Absorption of energy from ionizing radiation by the genetic material in the cell leads to damage to DNA, which in turn leads to cell death, chromosome aberrations and gene mutations. While early or deterministic effects result from organ and tissue damage caused by cell killing, latter two are considered to be involved in the initial events that lead to the development of cancer. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the dose-response relationships for cancer induction and quantitative evaluations of cancer risk following exposure to moderate to high doses of low-linear energy transfer radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been applied to assessment of the risks resulting from exposure to moderate and high doses of ionizing radiation; however, a statistically significant increase has hardly been described for radiation doses below 100 mSv. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the physical and biological features of low-dose radiation and discusses the possibilities of induction of cancer by low-dose radiation. PMID:22641644

Suzuki, Keiji; Yamashita, Shunichi

2012-05-28

105

Medical exposure to radiation and thyroid cancer.  

PubMed

In 2008, the worldwide estimated age-standardised incidence rates for thyroid cancer incidence were 4.7 and 1.5 per 100,000 women and men, respectively. Thyroid cancer's overall contribution to the worldwide cancer burden is relatively small, but incidence rates have increased over the last three decades throughout the world. This trend has been hypothesised to reflect a combination of technological advances enabling increased detection, but also changes in environmental factors, including population exposure to ionising radiation from fallout, diagnostic tests and treatment for benign and malignant conditions. Studies of the atomic bomb survivors and populations treated with radiotherapy have established radiation as a risk factor for thyroid cancer, particularly from early life exposure. About 0.62 mSv (20%) of the global annual per caput effective radiation dose comes from diagnostic medical and dental radiation for the period of 1997-2007, increased from 0.4 mSv for the years 1991-1996. This international trend of increasing population exposure to medical diagnostic sources of radiation, attributed in large part to the growing use of computed tomography scans, but also interventional radiology procedures, has raised concerns about exposure to radiosensitive organs such as the thyroid. Worldwide, medical and dental X-rays constitute the most common type of diagnostic medical exposures, but their contribution to the cumulative effective dose is relatively low, whereas computed tomography scans account for 7.9% of diagnostic radiology examinations but 47% of the collective effective dose from diagnostic radiation procedures in parts of the world. Although the radiation exposure from computed tomography scans is substantially lower than that from radiotherapy, multiple computed tomography scans could result in non-trivial cumulative doses to the thyroid. Studies are currently underway to assess the incidence of cancer in large cohorts of children who received computed tomography scans. National and international efforts have been developed to raise awareness and to standardise procedures for use of computed tomography and interventional radiology procedures in paediatric and general populations. PMID:21296564

Schonfeld, S J; Lee, C; Berrington de González, A

2011-02-05

106

Exposure assessment of aluminum arc welding radiation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the non-ionizing radiation (NIR) exposure, especially optical radiation levels, and potential health hazard from aluminum arc welding processes based on the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) method. The irradiance from the optical radiation emissions can be calculated with various biological effective parameters [i.e., S(lambda), B(lambda), R(lambda)] for NIR hazard assessments. The aluminum arc welding processing scatters bright light with NIR emission including ultraviolet radiation (UVR), visible, and infrared spectra. The UVR effective irradiance (Eeff) has a mean value of 1,100 microW cm at 100 cm distance from the arc spot. The maximum allowance time (tmax) is 2.79 s according to the ACGIH guideline. Blue-light hazard effective irradiance (EBlue) has a mean value of 1840 microW cm (300-700 nm) at 100 cm with a tmax of 5.45 s exposure allowance. Retinal thermal hazard effective calculation shows mean values of 320 mW cm(-2) sr(-1) and 25.4 mW (cm-2) (380-875 nm) for LRetina (spectral radiance) and ERetina (spectral irradiance), respectively. From this study, the NIR measurement from welding optical radiation emissions has been established to evaluate separate types of hazards to the eye and skin simultaneously. The NIR exposure assessment can be applied to other optical emissions from industrial sources. The data from welding assessment strongly suggest employees involved in aluminum welding processing must be fitted with appropriate personal protection devices such as masks and gloves to prevent serious injuries of the skin and eyes upon intense optical exposure. PMID:17846526

Peng, Chiung-yu; Lan, Cheng-hang; Juang, Yow-jer; Tsao, Ta-ho; Dai, Yu-tung; Liu, Hung-hsin; Chen, Chiou-jong

2007-10-01

107

Annual occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation in central Queensland.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine annual occupational exposure to UV radiation by measurement and derive ambient exposure fractions for an entire year that could be applied in the human exposure model. Using polysulphone the daily occupational erythema effective solar ultraviolet radiation exposure at selected body sites of Australia Post mail delivery personnel and physical education teachers were measured over an 18-mo period on a daily basis in the Rockhampton (lat. 23.5 degrees S) region. The daily exposures were summed to estimate an annual exposure for these occupations in this region. For the Australia Post mail delivery personnel, who had very little change to the posture or route during delivery, the annual mean estimates of exposure to erythema effective solar irradiance for the chest, hands, and back were in the range of 192+/-27 kJ m(-2), 388+/-45 kJ m(-2), and 283+/-32 kJ m(-2), respectively. Physical education teachers had varied duties on a day-to-day basis and many changes in their posture and outdoor locations where the exposure occurred. Their annual mean exposure on the vertex (hat), chest, shoulder, thigh, and back were in the range 340+/-71 kJ m(-2), 140+/-28 kJ m(-2), 180+/-40 kJ m(-2), 129+/-24 kJ m(-2), and 212+/-42 kJ m(-2), respectively. The annual exposure range for erythema effective solar irradiance at different body sites during the experimental period was between 120 and 440 kJ m(-2) for the two occupational groups. These exposures greatly exceed the National Health and Medical Research Council occupational standard limit of 30 J m(-2) for daily exposure, which indicates the need for additional protective measures. The ambient exposure was also measured and used to compute ambient exposure fractions for the different body sites over an entire year, which are useful for model calculations on human exposure and assess increase in risk of n on melanoma skin cancer. PMID:11669207

Vishvakarman, D; Wong, J C; Boreham, B W

2001-11-01

108

Exposure to radio frequency radiation emitted by cell phone and mortality in chick embryos (Gallus domesticus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapidly increasing use of cell phones since late 1990s has caused a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radio frequency electro-magnetic radiation (EMR) emitted by them. While considering the bio- logical effects of EMR on the human body, its intensity, frequency of radiation and duration of exposure are important determinants. Many researchers have reported

I. V. Ingole; S. K. Ghosh

2006-01-01

109

Personnel radiation exposure in HTGR plants  

SciTech Connect

Occupational radiation exposures in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plants were assessed. The expected rate of dose accumulations for a large HTGR steam cycle (HTGR-SC) unit is 0.07 man-rem/MW(e)y, while the design basis is 0.17 man-rem/MW(e)y. The comparable figure for actual light water reactor (LWR) experience is 1.3 man-rem/MW(e)y. The favorable HTGR occupational exposure is supported by results from the Peach Bottom Unit No. 1 HTGR and Fort St. Vrain HTGR plants and by operating experience at British gas-cooled reactor (GCR) stations.

Su, S.; Engholm, B.A.

1980-01-01

110

Radiation exposure of fertile women in medical research studies  

SciTech Connect

Fertile women may be exposed to ionizing radiation as human subjects in medical research studies. If the woman is pregnant, such exposures may result in risk to an embryo/fetus. Fertile women may be screened for pregnancy before exposure to ionizing radiation by interview, general examination, or pregnancy test. Use of the sensitive serum pregnancy test has become common because it offers concrete evidence that the woman is not pregnant (more specifically, that an embryo is not implanted). Evidence suggests that risk to the embryo from radiation exposure before organogenesis is extremely low or nonexistent. Further, demonstrated effects on organogenesis are rare or inconclusive at fetal doses below 50 mSv (5 rem). Therefore, there may be some level of radiation exposure below which risk to the fetus may be considered essentially zero, and a serum pregnancy test is unnecessary. This paper reviews the fetal risks and suggests that consideration be given to establishing a limit to the fetus of 0.5 mSv (50 mrem), below which pregnancy screening need not include the use of a serum pregnancy test.

Vetter, R.J.

1988-08-01

111

[Interaction of genetic and radiation factors in the realization of effects of radiation in humans].  

PubMed

The results of the study of the interaction of genetic and radiation factors in the effects of radiation in humans exposed to external and (or) internal radiation are presented. In most cases, with relatively less radiation exposure genotypic differences in the effects of exposure were established to be absent. At high intensities of radiation exposure, however, these differences as a rule have reliable character. Interaction of genetic and radiation factors manifested in a wide range: from the mutual stimulation of primarily inactive factors to the higher than multiplicative one. PMID:23458004

Tel'nov, V I

112

47 CFR 2.1091 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices...Authorization Procedures Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure § 2.1091 Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile...

2012-10-01

113

Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation. Progress report, January 1, 1981-December 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The overall aim is to determine whether there is a relationship between exposure to radiation, environmental pollutants, and/or genetic background and the development of ANLL or other hematologic malignancies. I will try to define the factors that influence the development of ANLL as a second malignancy in patients who have been exposed to large doses of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapeutic agents. Two long-term goals are (1) to identify the genes that are located at the sites of consistent translocations, and then to determine the alterations in gene function that are associated with these translocations and (2) to establish the baseline frequency of various chromosome changes (mutations) in myeloid cells and then to analyze the influence of various types of environmental exposure or medical treatment on this baseline mutation rate. Ultimately, it may be possible to determine the extent of mutagenic exposure in various populations through an analysis of the leukemic cells of that populations.

Rowley, J.D.

1981-08-01

114

Radiation risk estimation in human populations: Lessons from the radiological accident in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of radiological and nuclear technologies and the deployment of nuclear weapons have made ionizing radiation one of the most studied human mutagens. Exposure to ionizing radiation produces DNA damage which can result in mutation and cancer, making the risk associated with human exposure a critical issue. In this paper we estimate the risk associated with radiation exposure for

Aparecido D da Cruz; John P Volpe; Vera Saddi; John Curry; M. Paula Curadoc; Barry W Glickman

1997-01-01

115

A single exposure of solar simulated radiation suppresses contact hypersensitivity responses both locally and systemically in humans: quantitative studies with high-frequency ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced suppression of cutaneous cell-mediated immunity plays an important role in the development of photocarcinogenesis in the mouse and a similar role is suspected in humans. Cell-mediated immunity is readily tested in vivo by measuring the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response to topically applied haptens. CHS in humans is usually determined clinically, with a subjective scoring system. However, these

Deirdre A. Kelly; Susan L. Walker; Jane M. McGregor; Antony R. Young

1998-01-01

116

Thyroid cancer risk from exposure to ionizing radiation: a case study in the comparative potency model  

SciTech Connect

Considerable controversy exists about the relative risk of thyroid cancer following exposure to external radiation compared to the risk after exposure to internally deposited /sup 131/I. The human epidemiological data are equivocal, and studies are not directly comparable owing to differing ages at exposure, dose ranges, and periods of follow-up. Limited experimental data at low dose ranges support the hypothesis of equal potency in animals. This report utilizes a relative potency model to reconcile data from different sources, and to provide an estimate of thyroid cancer risk following human exposure to /sup 131/I. We utilize data from epidemiological studies of external radiation and /sup 131/I exposure in humans and data from an experimental animal study. This analysis shows that the data provide no compelling evidence to suggest that the risks accompanying external radiation or /sup 131/I exposure are different.

Laird, N.M.

1987-09-01

117

HUMAN POPULATION EXPOSURES TO MIREX AND KEPONE  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposures to mirex and kepone are assessed in this study. Three major paths of exposure are examined: ingestion through the food chain, inhalation of atmospheric mirex and kepone, and exposure through drinking water. Exposure through the food chain appears to be the most pr...

118

Microwave radiation: biological effects and exposure standards  

SciTech Connect

The thermal effects of microwave radiation are well recognized and are discussed with particular reference to cataractogenesis; the possibility of an association cannot be questioned. Postulated nonthermal effects comprise an asthenic syndrome, and for the most part the disturbances lie within clinical norms and tolerances, and are reversible. World opinion on safe exposure levels for microwave radiation is varied, and this had led to national standards disparate by three to four orders of magnitude. The US and UK exposure standard of 10 mW/cm/sup 2/ was determined over two decades ago; the possibility of a change to a more restrictive level, in line with other countries, in the near future is examined. It is concluded that such a change, without scientific rationale, is not justified. Some biological implications of the microwave radiation from the solar power satellite are considered in terms of precautions to be taken by personnel working in the vicinity of the rectenna, effects on cardiac pacemakers, and any potential effects on birds. 14 references.

Lindsay, I.R.

1981-01-01

119

Cognitive, psychological and psychiatric effects of ionizing radiation exposure.  

PubMed

Radiation exposure leads to an increased risk for cancer and, possibly, additional ill-defined non-cancer risk, including atherosclerotic, cardiovascular, cerebro-vascular and neurodegenerative effects. Studies of brain irradiation in animals and humans provide evidence of apoptosis, neuro-inflammation, loss of oligo-dendrocytes precursors and myelin sheaths, and irreversible damage to the neural stem compartment with long-term impairment of adult neurogenesis. With the present paper we aim to present a comprehensive review on brain effects of radiation exposure, with a special focus on its impact on cognitive processes and psychological functions, as well as on their possible role in the pathophysiology of different psychiatric disorders. PMID:22376039

Marazziti, D; Baroni, S; Catena-Dell'Osso, M; Schiavi, E; Ceresoli, D; Conversano, C; Dell'Osso, L; Picano, E

2012-01-01

120

Free radical release and HSP70 expression in two human immune-relevant cell lines after exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to investigate whether radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic-field (EMF) exposure at 1800 MHz causes production of free radicals and/or expression of heat-shock proteins (HSP70) in human immune-relevant cell systems. Human Mono Mac 6 and K562 cells were used to examine free radical release after exposure to incubator control, sham, RF EMFs, PMA, LPS, heat (40 degrees C) or co-exposure conditions. Several signals were used: continuous-wave, several typical modulations of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM): GSM-non DTX (speaking only), GSM-DTX (hearing only), GSM-Talk (34% speaking and 66% hearing) at specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 W/kg. Heat and PMA treatment induced a significant increase in superoxide radical anions and in ROS production in the Mono Mac 6 cells when compared to sham and/or incubator conditions. No significant differences in free radical production were detected after RF EMF exposure or in the respective controls, and no additional effects on superoxide radical anion production were detected after co-exposure to RF EMFs+PMA or RF EMFs+LPS. The GSM-DTX signal at 2 W/kg produced a significant difference in free radical production when the data were compared to sham because of the decreasing sham value. This difference disappeared when data were compared to the incubator controls. To determine the involvement of heat-shock proteins as a possible inhibitor of free radical production, we investigated the HSP70 expression level after different RF EMF exposures; no significant effects were detected. PMID:16392966

Lantow, M; Schuderer, J; Hartwig, C; Simkó, M

2006-01-01

121

Members of the ad-hoc Advisory Group each briefly presented a survey of different aspects of human exposures to selected physical agents, the published evidence for an associated risk of cancer, and the current state of research on the subject. These surveys included, for ionizing radiation: exposure assessment; background radiation and cosmic radiation; medical uses of radiation; nuclear power; and testing and use of nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

For non-ionizing radiation, these surveys included: how various exposures are defined; the nature of both occupational and environmental exposures; electromagnetic fields in static, extremely low frequency (ELF) and radiofrequency (RF) energy ranges; radar; and biological effects of various exposures. The Advisory Group also heard presentations on the IARC Monographs Programme, and discussed how inclusion of additional physical agents in the

M. Blettner; E. Cardis; J. Hall-Posner; M. Martuzzi; D. McGregor; J. Rice; J. Wilbourn; J. Mitchell; S. Reynaud

122

Techniques for Predicting Fallout Radiation Exposures from Exposure and Exposure Rate Measurements.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques have been derived for predicting future exposures to fallout radiations from exposure rate measurements obtained soon after the cessation of fallout due to one or more nuclear detonations. Computerized and manual techniques have been derived for predicting exposures within about 20% - 40% error, depending on the time interval of the exposure and the time of prediction. Both systematic and random sources of error have been considered. The computer technique proposed is based on an iterative, weighted least squares fit to early exposure rate measurements. The manual technique proposed is based on the average half-life of the fallout mixture at the time of prediction, as characterized by two single exposure rate measurements. Rules of thumb are proposed to determine when after fallout cessation special exposure prediction techniques would no longer be needed. The proposed techniques are based on exposure rate measurements one would obtain in either unsheltered or protected locations. No information is required on the number or timing of detonations contributing fallout at the location. The only reference times needed are the start of exposure accumulation and the time of the last major exposure rate peak, both which could be determined from exposure rate measurements. The many variables that affect the accuracy and validity of exposure prediction techniques are researched and discussed in this study, including fractionation of fallout due to selective condensation of fallout elements, the type of fissile and fissionable material employed in the weapon, neutron activation of materials in or near the weapon, weathering of fallout particles, shielding of fallout gamma radiation, the mixture of different aged fallout from multiple, non-simultaneous detonations, and other characteristics of weapon design and deployment, such as the energy fluence of neutrons emitted during the detonation.

French, Clayton Sumner, Jr.

123

Biological effects of radiation accidents on humans. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the impact of radiation accidents on humans. Citations discuss exposure assessment, malfunction and misuse of radiation sources, dosimetry, radiation epidemiology, radiation-induced neoplasms, and nuclear facility licensing. Environmental and occupational exposures, case studies, nuclear fallout, and radiation effects on food chains are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-06-01

124

Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation  

SciTech Connect

Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

Miller, R.W.

1988-08-01

125

Lead exposure and radiator repair work.  

PubMed Central

In 1986, the ambient air for lead in radiator repair shops in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) action level in nine of 12 shops sampled by Minnesota OSHA. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence of lead exposure/toxicity in this industry. Thirty-five radiator shops were identified, 30 were visited, and 53 workers were studied. The mean blood lead level was 1.53 (range 0.24-2.80). Seventeen individuals had blood lead levels greater than or equal to 1.93 mumol/L (40 micrograms/dl). The mean zinc protoporphyrin level (ZPP) was 0.55 mumol/L (range 0.16-1.43). No single worksite or personal characteristic was a strong determinant of either blood lead or ZPP level.

Lussenhop, D H; Parker, D L; Barklind, A; McJilton, C

1989-01-01

126

Scatter radiation exposure during knee arthrography  

SciTech Connect

Knee arthrography, as performed at the authors' institution, was simulated and scattered radiation exposure to a radiologist's gonads, thyroid, and eye lens was measured with a sensitive ionization chamber. Results show that radiologists who regularly conduct knee arthrography examinations can incur doses to the gonads that are less than 6% of the U.S. limits, and to the thyroid and eye that are approximately 10% of the U.S. limits. Since the scatter radiation from overhead imaging of stress views constituted most (greater than or equal to 60%) of the dose to the lens of the eye and the thyroid, spot imaging was evaluated as a substitute for overhead imaging in the assessment of the anterior cruciate ligament. This substitution resulted in no loss of clinical information and has now completely replaced overhead imaging of stress views at this institution.

Light, M.C.; Molloi, S.Y.; Yandow, D.R.; Ranallo, F.N.

1987-09-01

127

Lead exposure and radiator repair work  

SciTech Connect

In 1986, the ambient air for lead in radiator repair shops in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) action level in nine of 12 shops sampled by Minnesota OSHA. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence of lead exposure/toxicity in this industry. Thirty-five radiator shops were identified, 30 were visited, and 53 workers were studied. The mean blood lead level was 1.53 (range 0.24-2.80). Seventeen individuals had blood lead levels greater than or equal to 1.93 mumol/L (40 micrograms/dl). The mean zinc protoporphyrin level (ZPP) was 0.55 mumol/L (range 0.16-1.43). No single worksite or personal characteristic was a strong determinant of either blood lead or ZPP level.

Lussenhop, D.H.; Parker, D.L.; Barklind, A.; McJilton, C. (Minnesota Department of Health, Minneapolis (USA))

1989-11-01

128

DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009  

SciTech Connect

A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

2009-10-01

129

Initial human response to nuclear radiation. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the results of the first phase of an investigation into the nuclear effects on military troop performance. Both signs and symptoms associated with radiation sickness were examined to develop models of human response to radiation as a function of dose, time and symptom severity. Data on the early symptomatic effects of radiation exposure were gathered from some

G. H. Anno; H. L. Brode; R. Washton-Brown

1982-01-01

130

OUTDOOR VS. HUMAN EXPOSURE: NERL PM EXPOSURE PANEL STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An association has been demonstrated between ambient particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10) concentrations and human morbidity/mortality. However, little is known regarding the most important sources of PM exposure, interpersonal and intrapersonal variability in exposure, and the...

131

Radiation exposure and air travel: should we worry?  

PubMed

With the federal government introducing new advanced imaging scanners at airports, the traveling public has become concerned about the radiation exposure they may receive when passing through scanners as well as during flight. This article offers a primer on radiation and the extent to which exposure from various sources can affect health. It also provides advice for physicians whose patients may have concerns about radiation exposure during air travel. PMID:21736206

Hansen, Ronnell; Hansen, Elisa

2011-06-01

132

Use of the fluorescent micronucleus assay to detect the genotoxic effects of radiation and arsenic exposure in exfoliated human epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

The exfoliated cell micronucleus (MN) assay using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a centromeric probe is a rapid method for determining the mechanism of MN formation in epithelial tissues exposed to carcinogenic agents. Here, we describe the use of this assay to detect the presence or absence of centromeric DNA in MN induced in vivo by radiation therapy and chronic arsenic (As) ingestion. We examined the buccal cells of an individual receiving 6,500 rads of photon radiation to the head and neck. Exfoliated cells were collected before, during, and after treatment. After radiation exposure a 16.6-fold increase in buccal cell MN frequency was seen. All induced MN were centromere negative (MN-) resulting from chromosome breakage. This finding is consistent with the clastogenic action of radiation and confirmed the reliability of the method. Three weeks post-therapy, MN frequencies returned to baseline. The assay was used on 18 people chronically exposed to high levels of inorganic arsenic (In-As) in drinking water (average level, 1,312 {mu}g As/L) and 18 matched controls (average level, 16 {mu}g As/L). The combined increase in MN frequency was 1.8-fold (P = 0.001, Fisher`s exact test). Frequencies of micronuclei containing acentric fragments (MN-) and those containing whole chromosomes (MN+) both increased, suggesting that arsenic may have both clastogenic and weak aneuploidogenic properties in vivo. After stratification on sex, the effect was stronger in male than in female bladder cells. In males the MN-frequency increased 2.06-fold (P =0.07) while the frequency of MN+ increased 1.86-fold (P = 0.08). In addition, the frequencies of MN and MN+ were positively associated with urinary arsenic and its metabolites. The association was stronger for micronuclei containing acentric fragments. By using FISH with centromeric probes, the mechanism of chemically induced genotoxicity can not be determined in epithelial tissues. 35 refs., 4 tabs.

Moore, L.E.; Warner, M.L.; Smith, A.H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

133

Cytokine and chemokine responses after exposure to ionizing radiation: Implications for the astronauts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For individuals traveling in space, exposure to space radiation is unavoidable. Since adequate shielding against radiation exposure is not practical, other strategies for protecting the astronauts must be developed. Radiation is also an important therapeutic and diagnostic tool, and evidence from the clinical and experimental settings now shows a firm connection between radiation exposure and changes in cytokine and chemokine levels. These small proteins can be pro- or anti-inflammatory in nature and the balance between those two effects can be altered easily because of exogenous stresses such as radiation. The challenge to identify a common perpetrator, however, lies in the fact that the cytokines that are produced vary based on radiation dose, type of radiation, and the cell types that are exposed. Based on current knowledge, special treatments have successfully been designed by implementing administration of proteins, antibodies, and drugs that counteract some of the harmful effects of radiation. Although these treatments show promising results in animal studies, it has been difficult to transfer those practices to the human situation. Further understanding of the mechanisms by which cytokines are triggered through radiation exposure and how those proteins interact with one another may permit the generation of novel strategies for radiation protection from the damaging effects of radiation. Here, we review evidence for the connection between cytokines and the radiation response and speculate on strategies by which modulating cytokine responses may protect astronauts against the detrimental effects of ionizing radiations.

Laiakis, Evagelia C.; Baulch, Janet E.; Morgan, William F.

134

Exposure to radiofrequency radiation (900 MHz, GSM signal) does not affect micronucleus frequency and cell proliferation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes: an interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate whether 24 h exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields similar to those emitted by mobile phones induces genotoxic effects and/or effects on cell cycle kinetics in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The effect of 900 MHz exposure (GSM signal) was evaluated at four specific absorption rates (SARs, 0, 1, 5 and 10 W/kg peak values). The exposures were carried out in wire patch cells under strictly controlled conditions of both temperature and dosimetry, and the induction of genotoxic effects was evaluated in lymphocyte cultures from 10 healthy donors by applying the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Positive controls were provided by using mitomycin C. Two research groups were involved in the study, one at ENEA, Rome, and the other at CNR-IREA, Naples. Each laboratory tested five donors, and the resulting slides were scored by both laboratories. Following this experimental scheme, it was also possible to compare the results obtained by cross-scoring of slides. The results obtained provided no evidence for the existence of genotoxic or cytotoxic effects in the range of SARs investigated. These findings were confirmed in the two groups of five donors examined in the two laboratories and when the same slides were scored by two operators. PMID:16802865

Scarfì, Maria Rosaria; Fresegna, Anna Maria; Villani, Paola; Pinto, Rosanna; Marino, Carmela; Sarti, Maurizio; Altavista, Pierluigi; Sannino, Anna; Lovisolo, Giorgio A

2006-06-01

135

THYROID CANCER RISK FROM EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION: A CASE STUDY IN THE COMPARATIVE POTENCY MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Considerable controversy exists about the relative risk of thyroid cancer following exposure to external radiation compared to the risk after exposure to internally deposited 131I. he human epidemiological data are equivocal, and studies are not directly comparable owing to diffe...

136

SCALING THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO RADIOFREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION: CONSEQUENCES OF BODY SIZE  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have demonstrated that a comparative analysis of the physiological effects of exposure of laboratory mammals to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFR) may be useful in predicting exposure thresholds for humans if the effect is assumed to be due only to heating...

137

Scaling the physiological effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation: consequences of body size  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have demonstrated that a comparative analysis of the physiological effects of exposure of laboratory mammals to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RFR) may be useful in predicting exposure thresholds for humans if the effect is assumed to be due only to heating of tissue. The threshold specific absorption rate (SAR) necessary to affect a thermoregulatory parameter shows an inverse and

Christopher J. Gordon; J. Homer Ferguson

1984-01-01

138

Real and Perceived Risks of Medical Radiation Exposure  

PubMed Central

There is almost no subject that elicits greater concern and less objective understanding than that of exposure of patients to radiation accompanying diagnostic radiologic procedures. One or more of the health effects (cancer, developmental abnormalties and genetic changes) attributed to low-level exposure to radiation are frequently misinterpreted as likely consequences rather than statistical risks following radiation exposure. Even less well understood is the small magnitude of the risks accompanying radiation exposure compared with those related to activities encountered during the daily routine. For this reason, the perception of risk associated with exposure to low-level radiation is inconsistent with the reality of the risk as estimated by even the most conservative models of radiation injury.

Hendee, William R.

1983-01-01

139

A RADIATION EXPOSURE INDEX FOR CT.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to define an Exposure Index for CT (EICT) and to estimate the magnitude of the EICT for common clinical CT examinations. For a single-axial rotation of a CT X-ray tube that includes only rays that pass through the patient, the CT Exposure Index (EICT) is defined as the average Air Kerma that would be incident on an extended 360° detector array completely surrounding the patient. For an axial scan of a uniform cylindrical phantom, EICT can be approximated as T × [(CTDIair)/4] × [?°/360°] where T is the fractional transmission through the cylinder, CTDIair is the CT Dosimetry Index-determined 'free in air' at isocentre, and ?/2 is the fan beam angle that will completely irradiate a cylindrical phantom at isocentre. The value of CTDIair can be estimated from the weighted CTDI (CTDIw) for a given CT examination, and the angle ? depends on the irradiation geometry that can be obtained from the cylinder diameter (r) and the focus to isocentre distance (R). At a voltage of 120 kV, transmission through an adult head was ?2.6%, through an adult abdomen?0.4% and through a 5-y-old paediatric abdomen ?3%. Average ratios of CTDIair/CTDIw were 1.42±0.12 in 16-cm dosimetry phantom and 2.82±0.37 in 32-cm phantom. Values of ? ranged from 30.1° (R = 61 cm and r=8 cm) to 85.3° (R = 55 cm and r=20 cm). For an adult head CT examination, EICT was estimated to be?70 µGy at a CTDIvol of 75 mGy (16 cm), and for an adult abdominal CT examination, EICT was estimated to be?11 µGy at a CTDIvol of 25 mGy (32 cm). For an abdomen CT examination in a 5-y-old child, EICT was estimated to be ?21 µGy at a CTDIvol of 20 mGy (16 cm). The EICT is introduced that provides a quantitative measure of the amount of the radiation used to generate images in any CT examination and is analogous to the average image receptor Exposure Index recently proposed for use in projection imaging. The EICT metric provides operators with an objective index of the amount of the radiation used to create CT images and can be used to control quantum mottle in CT. PMID:23690648

Huda, Walter

2013-05-19

140

Female germ cell loss from radiation and chemical exposures  

SciTech Connect

Female germ cells in some mammals are extremely sensitive to killing by ionizing radiation, especially during development. Primordial oocytes in juvenile mice have an LD50 of only 6-7 rad, and the germ cell pool in squirrel monkeys is destroyed by prenatal exposure of 0.7 rad/day. Sensitivity varies greatly with species and germ cell stage. Unusually high sensitivity has not been found in macaques and may not occur in man, but this has not been established for all developmental stages. The exquisite oocyte radiosensitivity in mice apparently reflects vulnerability of the plasma membrane, not DNA, which may have implications for estimating human genetic risks. Germ cells can be killed also by chemicals. Such oocyte loss, with similarities to radiation effects, is under increasing study, including chemotherapy observations in women. More than 75 compounds have been tested in mice, with in vivo toxicity quantified by oocyte loss; certain chemicals apparently act on the membrane.

Dobson, R.L.; Felton, J.S.

1983-01-01

141

Human health effects of methylmercury exposure.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg), and the organometallic compounds formed from it, are among the most toxic of substances to the global environment. Mercury is environmentally ubiquitous, and both wildlife and humans are exposed to the toxic effects of its environmental residues, primarily elemental mercury (Hg0), divalent mercury (Hg2+) and methylmercury (MeHg). Humans are exposed to different forms of Hg, and potential health risks have been reported from such exposures; examples of Hg exposure include mercury vapor from dental amalgams, occupational exposures and exposures during artisan and small-scale gold mining operations. Despite the significance of those foregoing Hg exposures, of particular concern is human and wildlife exposure to MeHg, a potent neurotoxicant. Once incorporated into the body, MeHg easily penetrates the blood-brain barrier and causes damage to the central nervous system, particularly in fetuses. It bioaacumulates and biomagnifies in the aquatic food chain; consequently, fish and seafood consumption is the major pathway by which humans are exposed to MeHg. MeHg is the focus of this review. It adversely affects humans and is currently the subject of intense public health interest and worldwide concern. In this review, I summarize the sources and cycling of global mercury in the environment, pathways of exposure, toxicity and exposure evaluation, toxicokinetics, the common biomarkers to evaluate exposure and effects in populations, and finally review the nutritional risks and benefits from fish consumption. PMID:19253038

Díez, Sergi

2009-01-01

142

Relevance of radiation compensation litigation to compensation for toxic exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent court decisions add to the growing body of law concerning the responsibility of Government in radiation matters and the quantum of proof needed to show causation between radiation exposures and certain types of cancer and leukemia. The courts have also been addressing a wide range of compensation claims for exposures to toxic chemicals with demonstration of causation being

Glenn E. Schweitzer

1987-01-01

143

Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number

Sinead M Kinsella; Joe P Coyle; Eva B Long; Sebastian R McWilliams; Michael M Maher; Michael R Clarkson; Joseph A Eustace

2010-01-01

144

HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS - CHILDREN'S FOCUS  

EPA Science Inventory

In support of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996, research under this task is designed to identify those pesticides, pathways, and activities that represent the highest potential exposures to children and to determine the factors that influence these exposures. The research...

145

[Registration and monitoring of radiation exposure from radiological imaging].  

PubMed

Strategies for reducing radiation exposure are an important part of optimizing medical imaging and therefore a relevant quality factor in radiology. Regarding the medical radiation exposure, computed tomography has a special relevance. The use of the integrating the healthcare enterprise (IHE) radiation exposure monitoring (REM) profile is the upcoming standard for organizing and collecting exposure data in radiology. Currently most installed base devices do not support this profile generating the required digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) dose structured reporting (SR). For this reason different solutions had been developed to register dose exposure measurements without having the dose SR object.Registration and analysis of dose-related parameters is required for constantly optimizing examination protocols, especially computed tomography (CT) examinations based on the latest research results in order to minimize the individual radiation dose exposure from medical imaging according to the principle as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). PMID:23519445

Jungmann, F; Pinto dos Santos, D; Hempel, J; Düber, C; Mildenberger, P

2013-06-01

146

Radiation exposure of nurses in a coronary care unit  

SciTech Connect

In response to increasing awareness of radiation as a possible occupational hazard, nursing personnel staffing a hospital CCU were monitored over a 3-year period to determine occupational exposure. Portable x-ray machines, fluoroscopic units, and patients injected with radiopharmaceuticals were all potential radiation sources on such a unit. Whole-body TLD badges, exchanged monthly, indicated no cumulative exposures over 80 mR during the entire study period. The minimal exposures reported do not justify regular use of dosimeters. Adherence to standard protective measures precludes most exposure to machine-produced radiation. Close, prolonged contact with a patient after an RVG study that utilizes /sup 99m/Tc may account for some exposure. The data indicate that radiation is not a significant occupational hazard for CCU nurses at this hospital; similar minimal exposures would be expected of other nonoccupationally exposed nursing personnel in like environments.

Jankowski, C.B.

1984-01-01

147

DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

NONE

1997-05-01

148

Taste aversions conditioned with partial body radiation exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation-induced taste aversion was compared in rats which received partial body exposure to the head or abdomen with rats receiving whole body irradiation. Exposure levels ranged from 25 to 300 roentgens (R). In additional groups, saccharin aversion to partial body gamma ray exposures of the abdomen were conditioned in animals which had prior experience with the saccharin solution. Aversion was

J. C. Smith; G. R. Hollander; A. C. Spector

1981-01-01

149

Nuclear Fragmentation Processes Relevant for Human Space Radiation Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for human space explorations such as a moon base or a trip to Mars. Models have been developed in order to predict the radiation exposure to astronauts and to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials, and a key ingredient in these models is the physics of nuclear

Zi-Wei Lin

2007-01-01

150

Changes in nitric oxide and superoxide levels in human endotheliocytes and carcinoma cells after exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

The exposure of HeLa G63 and ECV-304 cells to ?-rays of (137)Cs as well as ?-particles of (3)H(2)O and (3)H-thymidine induced changes in redox status of not only irradiated cells, but also their progeny. Increased intracellular levels of nitric oxide (NO) were observed only in HeLa G63 cells and persisted over three cell generations; ?-particles from (3)H(2)O were most efficient. Intracellular superoxide (O(2)(-)) level had similar dynamics in both cell lines. Intracellular O(2)(-) level decreased immediately after irradiation, but then increased and significantly surpassed the control level. These changes in the intracellular level of O(2)(-) were accompanied by decondensation of nuclear chromatin. Increased level of free radicals in the progeny of irradiated cells and changes in chromatin conformation and the absence of correlation between radiation-induced structural damage to chromosomes and intracellular level of free radicals suggest participation of epigenetic mechanisms of inheritance. PMID:22977854

Giliano, N Ya; Konevega, L V; Noskin, L A

2012-08-01

151

Occupational Exposure to Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation in Ireland  

SciTech Connect

The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) has recently completed a detailed evaluation of all radiation exposure pathways from sources of both natural and artificial radiation in the Irish environment. This paper presents a compilation of the occupational doses received by Irish workers exposed to natural sources of ionising radiation.

Organo, Catherine; Colgan, Tony; Fenton, David; Synnott, Hugh; Currivan, Lorraine [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

2008-08-07

152

Models for human exposure to air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four models for human exposure to air pollution are discussed and compared. Simple microenvironment monitoring measures pollutant concentrations at fixed locations, regarded as proxies for similar locations or microenvironments. This model does not require pollutant measurements on the individual level, therefore is easy to implement. However, the model can be used only to estimate the average exposure in a population

N. Duan

1982-01-01

153

Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

154

75 FR 8375 - Device Improvements to Reduce Unnecessary Radiation Exposure From Medical Imaging; Public Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Device Improvements to Reduce Unnecessary Radiation Exposure From Medical Imaging; Public...Device Improvements to Reduce Unnecessary Radiation Exposure From Medical Imaging.'' The...unnecessary patient exposure to ionizing radiation during CT and fluoroscopic...

2010-02-24

155

75 FR 79033 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records (Pertains...extension of the information collection for Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records, 30 CFR...recordkeeping, and reporting provisions for radiation sampling and exposure records....

2010-12-17

156

75 FR 80072 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records AGENCY...extension of the information collection for Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records, 30 CFR...recordkeeping, and reporting provisions for radiation sampling and exposure records....

2010-12-21

157

Fear of the unknown: ionizing radiation exposure during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation during pregnancy can negatively impact a fetus. In light of the Fukushima nuclear plant disaster in Japan, we discuss existing knowledge on the health effects of radiation and preventive measures for pregnant women. Overall, the risk of exposure to radiation is limited but severe defects can result from fetal radiation exposure >100 mGy equivalent to 10 rad (>1000 chest x-rays). While such high-level exposure rarely occurs during single medical diagnostic procedures, caution should be exercised for pregnant women. As a protective public health measure in light of a disaster, evacuation, shielding, and elimination of ingested radioactive isotopes should all be considered. Detailed radiation reports with health effects and precautionary measures should be available for a population exposed to more than background radiation. PMID:22244469

Groen, Reinou S; Bae, Jin Y; Lim, Kyoung J

2011-12-11

158

Human exposure to dioxin from combustion sources  

SciTech Connect

Because of their extreme toxicity, much concern and debate has arisen about the nature and extent of human exposure to dioxin. Since municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators are known to emit polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polycholorinated dibenzofurnas (PCDFs) many people who live near MSW incinerators fear that they will be exposed to high levels of dioxin and subsequently develop cancer. What is often overlooked in this debate, however, is the fact that the general population is continuously being exposed to trace amounts of dioxin as exemplified by the fact that virtually all human adipose tissue samples contain dioxin at levels of 3 parts per trillion (ppt) or greater. This paper provides a perspective on MSW incineration as a source of human exposure to dioxin by comparing this exposure source with exposure to background environmental contamination and evaluates some of the potential key sources of PCDD/PCDF input into the enviroment. 32 refs., 3 tabs.

Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Travis, C.C.

1988-01-01

159

Dosimetry for human exposures and radiological impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Health Physics Division annual progress report for period ending July ; 31, 1573. Topics include the Japanese dosimetry program, in utero exposure of A-; bomb survivors, thermal neutron fluence distributions, dose and fluence in ; isotropic and nonwiform fields of radiation, ICRU neutron dosimetry ; intercomparison, and improvements in nitrocellulose film. (WHK);

G. D. Kerr; T. D. Jones; J. S. Cheka; H. W. Dickson; W. F. Fox; S. B. Lupica; D. G. Willhoit; J. J. Shonka; S. L. Chu

1973-01-01

160

Radiation Metabolomics. 5. Identification of Urinary Biomarkers of Ionizing Radiation Exposure in Nonhuman Primates by Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics  

PubMed Central

Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has previously demonstrated utility for identifying biomarkers of ionizing radiation exposure in cellular, mouse and rat in vivo radiation models. To provide a valuable link from small laboratory rodents to humans, ?-radiation-induced urinary biomarkers were investigated using a nonhuman primate total-body-irradiation model. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approaches were applied to determine whether biomarkers could be identified, as well as the previously discovered rodent biomarkers of ? radiation. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis was carried out on a time course of clean-catch urine samples collected from nonhuman primates (n = 6 per cohort) exposed to sham, 1.0, 3.5, 6.5 or 8.5 Gy doses of 60Co ? ray (~0.55 Gy/min) ionizing radiation. By multivariate data analysis, 13 biomarkers of radiation were discovered: N-acetyltaurine, isethionic acid, taurine, xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, creatine, creatinine, tyrosol sulfate, 3-hydroxytyrosol sulfate, tyramine sulfate, N-acetylserotonin sulfate, and adipic acid. N-Acetyltaurine, isethionic acid, and taurine had previously been identified in rats, and taurine and xanthine in mice after ionizing radiation exposure. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has thus successfully revealed and verified urinary biomarkers of ionizing radiation exposure in the nonhuman primate for the first time, which indicates possible mechanisms for ionizing radiation injury.

Johnson, Caroline H.; Patterson, Andrew D.; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Kalinich, John F.; Tyburski, John B.; Kang, Dong Wook; Luecke, Hans; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Blakely, William F.; Idle, Jeffrey R.

2012-01-01

161

Influence of Ultraviolet B Exposure on Immune Responses Following Hepatitis B Vaccination in Human Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to ultraviolet radiation can modulate immune responses in animal and humans. Remarkably, the ultraviolet-induced immunosuppression is not restricted to the exposed skin but is also found at other body sites, i.e., systemic immunosuppression. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on infections cannot be determined by experimentation on humans, but the effects of ultraviolet on vaccination may serve as a model. Moreover,

Annemarie Sleijffers; Johan Garssen; Frank R. de Gruijl; Greet J. Boland; Jan van Hattum; Willem A. van Vloten; Henk van Loveren

2001-01-01

162

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...occupational radiation exposure records...of individual occupational radiation exposure records...safety, and health into work planning...223-72, Radiation protection and...of Individual Occupational Radiation...

2010-10-01

163

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...occupational radiation exposure records...of individual occupational radiation exposure records...safety, and health into work planning...223-72, Radiation protection and...of Individual Occupational Radiation...

2009-10-01

164

Human exposure to large solar particle events in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whenever energetic solar protons produced by solar particle events traverse bulk matter, they undergo various nuclear and atomic collision processes which significantly alter the physical characteristics and biologically important properties of their transported radiation fields. These physical interactions and their effect on the resulting radiation field within matter are described within the context of a recently developed deterministic, coupled neutron-proton space radiation transport computer code (BRYNTRN). Using this computer code, estimates of human exposure in interplanetary space, behind nominal (2 g/cm2) and storm shelter (20 g/cm2) thicknesses of aluminum shielding, are made for the large solar proton event of August 1972. Included in these calculations are estimates of cumulative exposures to the skin, ocular lens, and bone marrow as a function of time during the event. Risk assessment in terms of absorbed dose and dose equivalent is discussed for these organs. Also presented are estimates of organ exposures for hypothetical, worst-case flare scenarios. The rate of dose equivalent accumulation places this situation in an interesting region of dose rate between the very low values of usual concern in terrestrial radiation environments and the high dose rate values prevalent in radiation therapy.

Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Curtis, S. B.

165

Human exposure to large solar particle events in space.  

PubMed

Whenever energetic solar protons produced by solar particle events traverse bulk matter, they undergo various nuclear and atomic collision processes which significantly alter the physical characteristics and biologically important properties of their transported radiation fields. These physical interactions and their effect on the resulting radiation field within matter are described within the context of a recently developed deterministic, coupled neutron-proton space radiation transport computer code (BRYNTRN). Using this computer code, estimates of human exposure in interplanetary space, behind nominal (2 g/cm2) and storm shelter (20 g/cm2) thicknesses of aluminum shielding, are made for the large solar proton event of August 1972. Included in these calculations are estimates of cumulative exposures to the skin, ocular lens, and bone marrow as a function of time during the event. Risk assessment in terms of absorbed dose and dose equivalent is discussed for these organs. Also presented are estimates of organ exposures for hypothetical, worst-case flare scenarios. The rate of dose equivalent accumulation places this situation in an interesting region of dose rate between the very low values of usual concern in terrestrial radiation environments and the high dose rate values prevalent in radiation therapy. PMID:11537027

Townsend, L W; Wilson, J W; Shinn, J L; Curtis, S B

1992-01-01

166

Exposure safety standards for nonionizing radiation (NIR) from collision-avoidance radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-vehicle technology for collision avoidance using millimeter wave radar is currently under development and is expected to be in vehicles in coming years. Recently approved radar bands for collision avoidance applications include 47.5 - 47.8 GHz and 76 - 77 GHz. Widespread use of active radiation sources in the public domain would contribute to raised levels of human exposure to high frequency electromagnetic radiation, with potential for adverse health effects. In order to design collision avoidance systems that will pose an acceptably low radiation hazard, it is necessary to determine what levels of electromagnetic radiation at millimeter wave frequencies will be acceptable in the environment. This paper will summarize recent research on NIR (non-ionizing radiation) exposure safety standards for high frequency electromagnetic radiation. We have investigated both governmental and non- governmental professional organizations worldwide.

Palmer-Fortune, Joyce; Brecher, Aviva; Spencer, Paul; Huguenin, Richard; Woods, Ken

1997-02-01

167

Assessment of Lead Exposures in Three Radiator Repair Shops.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an attempt to determine worker exposure to lead (7439921) in radiator repair shops, area and personal sampling was performed at three locations in Cincinnati, Ohio. Altogether, 129 air samples and 126 wipe samples were collected. The highest air concen...

G. M. Piacitelli

1992-01-01

168

Radiation exposure from fluoroscopy during orthopedic surgical procedures  

SciTech Connect

The use of fluoroscopy has enabled orthopedic surgeons to become technically more proficient. In addition, these surgical procedures tend to have less associated patient morbidity by decreasing operative time and minimizing the area of the operative field. The trade-off, however, may be an increased risk of radiation exposure to the surgeon on an annual or lifetime basis. The current study was designed to determine the amount of radiation received by the primary surgeon and the first assistant during selected surgical procedures involving the use of fluoroscopy. Five body sites exposed to radiation were monitored for dosage. The results of this study indicate that with appropriate usage, (1) radiation exposure from fluoroscopy is relatively low; (2) the surgeon's dominant hand receives the most exposure per case; and (3) proper maintenance and calibration of fluoroscopic machines are important factors in reducing exposure risks. Therefore, with proper precautions, the use of fluoroscopy in orthopedic procedures can remain a safe practice.

Riley, S.A. (St. Luke's Hospital, Cleveland, OH (USA))

1989-11-01

169

Radiation Doses from Hypothetical Exposures to Rulison Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Production testing of the Rulison well, the second natural gas well developed by use of nuclear explosives, was completed in April 1971. The hypothetical radiation exposure situation was examined that would have resulted if the gas originally present in t...

C. J. Barton R. E. Moore S. R. Hanna

1973-01-01

170

Maternal occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and birth defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, only a few studies investigated occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in pregnancy to cause birth defects (BDs).\\u000a No association between BDs and ionizing radiation, although described for high-dose exposure, could ever be confirmed for\\u000a employees, or specific job titles. Here, an explorative analysis of a prospective population-based birth cohort used to quantify\\u000a the prevalence of BDs in infants

Awi Wiesel; Claudia Spix; Andreas Mergenthaler; Annette Queißer-Luft

2011-01-01

171

Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affects his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries with potential ionizing radiation exposure. Bone cancer and Wilms' tumor occurred more frequently among children of fathers in all industries with moderate potential ionizing radiation exposure. Children with cancer more often had fathers who were aircraft mechanics (odds ratio (OR) = infinity, one-sided 95% lower limit = 1.5; P = 0.04). Although four of these six were military aircraft mechanics, only children whose fathers had military jobs with potential ionizing radiation exposure had an increased cancer risk (OR = 2.73; P = 0.01). Four cancer types occurred more often among children of fathers in specific radiation-related occupations: rhabdomyosarcoma among children whose fathers were petroleum industry foremen; retinoblastoma among children whose fathers were radio and television repairmen; central nervous system cancers and other lymphatic cancers among children of Air Force fathers. Because numbers of case fathers are small and confidence limits are broad, the associations identified by this study need to be confirmed in other studies. Better identification and gradation of occupational exposure to radiation would increase the sensitivity to detect associations. PMID:6321012

Hicks, N; Zack, M; Caldwell, G G; Fernbach, D J; Falletta, J M

1984-04-15

172

Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents  

SciTech Connect

To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affeOR). its his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries with potential ionizing radiation exposure. Bone cancer and Wilms' tumor occurred more frequently among children of fathers in all industries with moderate potential ionizing radiation exposure. Children with cancer more often had fathers who were aircraft mechanics (odds ratio (OR)) . infinity, one-sided 95% lower limit . 1.5; P . 0.04). Although four of these six were military aircraft mechanics, only children whose fathers had military jobs with potential ionizing radiation exposure had an increased cancer risk (OR . 2.73; P . 0.01). Four cancer types occurred more often among children of fathers in specific radiation-related occupations: rhabdomyosarcoma among children whose fathers were petroleum industry foremen; retinoblastoma among children whose fathers were radio and television repairmen; central nervous system cancers and other lymphatic cancers among children of Air Force fathers. Because numbers of case fathers are small and confidence limits are broad, the associations identified by this study need to be confirmed in other studies. Better identification and gradation of occupational exposure to radiation would increase the sensitivity to detect associations.

Hicks, N.; Zack, M.; Caldwell, G.G.; Fernbach, D.J.; Falletta, J.M.

1984-04-15

173

Are the conformational dynamics and the ligand binding properties of myoglobin affected by exposure to microwave radiation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global uptake of mobile communication emphasizes the question about possible adverse consequences of the exposure to low-level radiofrequency radiation from mobile phones on human health as result of so-called \\

Ettore Bismuto; Fabrizio Mancinelli; Guglielmo d'Ambrosio; Rita Massa

2003-01-01

174

Fluorescence Depolarization Studies of Red Cell Membrane Fluidity. The Effect of Exposure to 1.0-GHZ Microwave Radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The internal viscosity of human red blood cell membranes was investigated during exposure to continuous wave 1.0-GHz microwave radiation using fluorescence measurements of a lipid seeking molecular probe, diphenylhexatriene. Samples were exposed in a Crow...

J. W. Allis B. L. Sinha

1981-01-01

175

Preconception exposure to mutagens: medical and other exposures to radiation and chemicals.  

PubMed

Contrary to intuition, no environmental exposure has been proved to cause human germ line mutations that manifest as heritable disease in the offspring, not among the children born to survivors of the American atomic bombs in Japan nor in survivors of cancer in childhood, adolescence, or young adulthood who receive intensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both. Even the smallest of recent case series had sufficient statistical power to exclude, with the usual assumptions, an increase as small as 20 % over baseline rates. One positive epidemiologic study of a localized epidemic of Down syndrome in Hungary found an association with periconceptual exposure to a pesticide used in fish farming, trichlorfon. Current population and occupational guidelines to protect against genetic effects of ionizing radiation should continue, with the understanding they are based on extrapolations from mouse experiments and mostly on males. Presently, pre-conceptual counseling for possible germ cell mutation due to the environment can be very reassuring, at least based on, in a sense, the worst-case exposures of cancer survivors. Prudence demands further study. Future work will address the issue with total genomic sequencing and epigenomic analysis. PMID:22752838

Mulvihill, John J

2012-07-03

176

ELF exposure facility for human testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory facility specifically designed for controlled human exposure to 60-Hz electric (0 to 16 kV\\/m) and magnetic (0 to 32 A\\/m, B = 0 to 40 microT) fields has been constructed. The facility presents uniform fields under controlled temperature and humidity. Special control systems allow collection of physiological data during, as well as before and after, exposure to electric

Harvey D. Cohen; Charles Graham; Mary R. Cook; James W. Phelps

1992-01-01

177

Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affeOR). its his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries

Nancy Hicks; Matthew Zack; Glyn G. Caldwell; Donald J. Fernbach; John M. Falletta

1984-01-01

178

Models for human exposure to air pollution  

SciTech Connect

Four models for human exposure to air pollution are discussed and compared. Simple microenvironment monitoring measures pollutant concentrations at fixed locations, regarded as proxies for similar locations or microenvironments. This model does not require pollutant measurements on the individual level, therefore is easy to implement. However, the model can be used only to estimate the average exposure in a population and does not provide any estimate of the variability and distribution of individual exposures. Replicated microenvironment monitoring provides some estimates of the variability and distribution. However, because of the possible discrepancy between the microenvironment concentration distribution and the individual concentration distribution, some adjustment might be necessary. Integrated personal monitoring allows direct estimation of the average exposure as well as the variability and distribution of individual exposures. Coupled with the appropriate time budget data, a regression analysis can be applied to estimate the contribution from each microenvironment type.

Duan, N.

1982-07-01

179

Estimates of Carrington-class solar particle event radiation exposures on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation exposure estimates for crew members on the surface of Mars are made for solar particle event proton radiation environments comparable to the Carrington event of 1859. We assume that the proton energy distributions for these Carrington-type events are similar to those measured for other, more recent large events. The fluence levels of these hypothetical events are normalized to the value for the Carrington event, as reported from measurements in ice core data. In this work, we use the BRYNTRN radiation transport code, originally developed at NASA Langley Research Center, and the Computerized Anatomical Male and Female human geometry models to estimate exposures for aluminum shield areal densities similar to those provided by a spacesuit, a surface lander, and a permanent habitat located at various altitudes in the Mars atmosphere. Comparisons of the predicted organ exposures with current NASA Permissible Exposure Limits are made.

Townsend, L. W.; Pourarsalan, M.; Hall, M. I.; Anderson, J. A.; Bhatt, S.; Delauder, N.; Adamczyk, A. M.

2011-09-01

180

Variation of space radiation exposure inside spherical and hemispherical geometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate the space radiation exposure to blood-forming organs everywhere inside a hemispherical dome that represents a lunar habitat. We derive the analytical pathlength distribution from any point inside a hemispherical or a spherical shell. Because the average pathlength increases with the distance from the center, the center of the hemispherical dome on the lunar surface has the largest radiation

Z. W. Lin; Y. Baalla; L. W. Townsend

2009-01-01

181

Occupational Radiation Exposure in the GDR in 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1977, radiation workers were monitored for external and internal radiation exposure on the basis of film badges (37,348 persons), measurements with a whole-body counter (198 persons) and analyses of biosamples (174 persons). According to the film badge...

K. F. Poulheim W. Rothe R. Scheler

1980-01-01

182

Occupational Radiation Exposure in the GDR in 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1978, radiation workers were monitored for external and internal radiation exposure on the basis of film badges (37,980 persons), measurements with a whole-body counter (186 persons) and analyses of biosamples (144 persons). According to the film badge...

K. F. Poulheim W. Rothe R. Scheler

1980-01-01

183

Issues in the control of low?level radiation exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carcinogenic risks of exposure to low level ionizing radiation used by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) have been challenged as being, at the same time, both too high and too low. This paper explains that the epidemiological evidence will always be limited at low doses, so that understanding the cellular mechanisms of carcinogenesis is increasingly important to

Roger H Clarke

2000-01-01

184

[The remote effects of chronic exposure to ionizing radiation and electromagnetic fields with respect to hygienic standardization].  

PubMed

A variety and rate of non-cancer diseases occurred in humans as a result of chronic exposure to ionizing radiation or to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of high and superhigh frequency have been compared. The intensity of EMR was slightly higher than a sanitary standard for population. A risk of health impairments in workers having occupational exposure to EMR was assessed on the basis of Selie's concept of development of non-specific reaction of the body to chronic stress factors (general adaptation syndrome), models of changes in the body compensatory reserves and calculations of radiation risk after severe and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. PMID:14658292

Grigor'ev, Iu G; Shafirkin, A V; Nikitina, V N; Vasin, A L

185

The procrustean approach: setting exposure standards for telecommunications frequency electromagnetic radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1950s there has been an ongoing controversy regarding the possibility of health hazards from exposure to non-ionizing radiation emissions from radiofrequency and microwave (RF\\/MW) technology: from military radar to telecommunications. In response to these concerns, and with support from the World Health Organization’s International EMF Project (IEMFP) human exposure limits have been developed by the Institute of Electrical

Donald Raymond Maisch

2009-01-01

186

DUAL ION EXPOSURE VS. SPLIT-DOSE EXPOSURES IN HUMAN CELL NEOPLASTIC TRANSFORMATION.  

SciTech Connect

Since radiation fields of space contain many-fold more protons than high atomic number, high energy (HZE) particles, cells in astronaut crews will experience on average several proton hits before an HZE hit. Thus radiation regimes of proton exposure before HZE particle exposure simulate space radiation exposure, and measurement of the frequency of neoplastic transformation of human primary cells to anchorage-independent growth simulates in initial step in cancer induction. Previously our group found that exposure to 20 cGy 1 GeV/n protons followed within about 1 hr by a HZE ion (20 cGy 1 GeV/n Fe or Ti ions) hit gave about a 3-fold increase in transformation frequency ([1]). To provide insight into the H-HZE induced increased transformation frequencies, we asked if split doses of the same ion gave similar increased transformation frequencies. However, the data show that the split dose of 20 cGy plus 20 cGy of either H or HZE ions gave about the same effect as the 40 cGy uninterrupted dose, quite different from the effect of the mixed ion H + HZE irradiation. We also asked if lower proton doses than 20 cGy followed 15 minutes later by 20 cGy of HZE ions gave greater than additive transformation frequencies. Substantial increases in transformation levels were observed for all proton doses tested, including 1 cGy. These results point to the signal importance of protons in affecting the effect of space radiation on human cells.

BENNETT, P.V.; CUTTER, N.C.; SUTHERLAND, B.M.

2006-06-05

187

Radiation exposure and radiation protection of the physician in iodine-131 Lipiodol therapy of liver tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intra-arterial iodine-131 labelled Lipiodol therapy for liver cancer has been investigated for safety and efficacy over a number of years, but data on radiation exposure of personnel have remained unavailable to date. The aim of this study was to assess the radiation exposure of the physician during intra-arterial 131I-Lipiodol therapy for liver malignancies and to develop appropriate radiation protection measures

Jörn H. Risse; Carsten Ponath; Holger Palmedo; Christian Menzel; Frank Grünwald; Hans-J. Biersack

2001-01-01

188

Exposure safety standards for nonionizing radiation (NIR) from collision-avoidance radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-vehicle technology for collision avoidance using millimeter wave radar is currently under development and is expected to be in vehicles in coming years. Recently approved radar bands for collision avoidance applications include 47.5 - 47.8 GHz and 76 - 77 GHz. Widespread use of active radiation sources in the public domain would contribute to raised levels of human exposure to

Joyce Palmer-Fortune; Aviva Brecher; Paul Spencer; Richard Huguenin; Ken Woods

1997-01-01

189

ELF exposure facility for human testing  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory facility specifically designed for controlled human exposure to 60-Hz electric (0 to 16 kV/m) and magnetic (0 to 32 A/m, B = 0 to 40 microT) fields has been constructed. The facility presents uniform fields under controlled temperature and humidity. Special control systems allow collection of physiological data during, as well as before and after, exposure to electric fields at strengths to 16 kV/m under verified double-blind control. Exposure to continuous or intermittent fields is possible in the facility. The capability of obtaining physiological data during actual exposure to constant or intermittent, 60-Hz fields, and of doing so without either the subject or the experimenter being aware of actual field conditions, is a critical factor in valid experimentation.

Cohen, H.D.; Graham, C.; Cook, M.R.; Phelps, J.W. (Midwest Research Institute, Kansas City, MO (United States))

1992-01-01

190

The Exposure of Humans to Nitrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although nitrate is more abundant than nitrite in food and the environment in general, it requires reduction by, for instance, bacterial or plant enzymes before it is involved in the nitrosation of amines or amides. Part of the exposure of humans to nitrite arises from its use as a food additive where it performs a very useful function in protecting

C. L. Walters

1980-01-01

191

Human developmental exposure to endocrine active compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantification of exposure to environmental contaminants such as endocrine active chemicals (EACs) during critical periods of development, particularly in utero, remains largely unexplored. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that EACs can be detected and quantified in second trimester human amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid was obtained from women (n=175) undergoing routine amniocentesis between 14 and 21 weeks gestation. Samples were assayed

Warren G Foster; Claude L Hughes; Siu Chan; Lawrence Platt

2002-01-01

192

Radiation exposure risk to the surgeon during operative angiography  

SciTech Connect

Intraoperative angiography has become an essential adjunct to reconstructive vascular surgery. Therefore, radiation exposure and its potential risks to the performing surgeon need to be known. To study this, we designed experimental and clinical tests quantifying the radiation exposure to the surgeon during different intraoperative angiograms. Radiation exposure to various parts of the surgeon's body was quantified by thermoluminescence dosimetry. During each exposure a surgeon standing one foot from the x-ray tube received an absorbed dose equivalent to 0.24 to 1.4 millirems, which is about half that of an intraoperative cholangiogram. With 5000 millirems considered the maximum permissible dose, this would imply that an upper limit of about 3500 intraoperative angiograms each year (68 each week) could be performed safely. Comparatively, abdominal angiography carried the most significant risk (p = 0.01) and peripheral angiography was the least hazardous. Fluoroscopy increased radiation exposure more than four times that of nonfluoroscopic procedures (p = 0.05). The surgeon's extremities received the greatest dose, followed by the eyes and neck, suggesting the need for individual monitoring devices for those parts to be worn by surgeons who perform operative angiograms more frequently than average. Our study indicates that the radiation dose received by the surgeon during operative angiography, especially that of peripheral vessels, is minimal. Operative arteriography is not only a simple and readily available diagnostic tool, but it is quite a safe procedure if applied correctly.

Ramalanjaona, G.R.; Pearce, W.H.; Ritenour, E.R.

1986-09-01

193

Radiation exposure and adverse health effects of interventional cardiology staff.  

PubMed

To the best of our knowledge, this chapter constitutes the first systematic review of radiation exposure to eyes, thyroid, and hands for Interventional Cardiology (IC) staff. We have concluded from our review that these anatomical locations are likely to be exposed to radiation as a result of the limited use of personal protective equipment (PPE) among IC staff as shown in Fig. 8. Our review also reveals that, with the exception of three eye exposure cases, the annual radiation dose to eyes, thyroid, and hands among IC staff was within recommended levels and limits. The As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) limit was not achieved in three cases for fingers/hands and four cases for eyes. However, an increased incidence of cataracts were reported for IC staff, and this gives rise to the concern that low-dose or unnoticed exposures may increase the risk of developing cataracts among cardiology staff. Clearly, the formation of cataracts among IC staff may be an issue and should be studied in more depth. Our review also disclosed that the two groups who receive excessive radiation doses (i.e., exceed the recommended limit) are physicians-in-training and junior staff physicians who work in cardiac catheterization laboratories. In particular, more attention should be given to assessing the effects of radiation exposure among IC staff who work in the Asia Pacific countries, because our review indicates that the number of IC procedures performed by IC staff in these countries is higher than for other continents. There is a huge demand for procedures conducted by IC staff in the Asia-Pacific area, for both treating patients and consulting with specialists. Our review also disclosed that recommended limits for per-procedure radiation doses are needed for IC staff. We recommend that such limits be established by the appropriate national and international agencies that are responsible for occupational radiation exposure. Although our review indicates that the current precautions against LDR exposure for IC staff are adequate in most cases, we are concerned about the relatively high incidence of cataracts reported to exist among IC staff. Therefore, we believe that there is a need for a strict implementation of radiation safety practices in cardiology laboratories and associated workplaces that utilize radiation. The action that is most important for protecting staff in the workplace against radiation exposure is the regular use of personal protective equipment or shielding. Working at a safe distance from instruments and assuring that such instruments are in the proper position are other techniques that can reduce the radiation dose received by IC staff. PMID:22990945

Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Haamann, Frank; Nienhaus, Albert

2013-01-01

194

Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation. Progress report, July 1992--August 1993  

SciTech Connect

Progress in identification of chromosomal transformations associated with leukemogenesis is described. In particular progress in DNA cloning of chromosomal break points in human cancer patients is described.

Rowley, J.D.

1993-09-01

195

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed...planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

2011-10-01

196

41 CFR 50-204.21 - Exposure of individuals to radiation in restricted areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Exposure of individuals to radiation in restricted areas. 50-204.21...STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.21 Exposure of individuals to radiation in restricted areas. (a)...

2013-07-01

197

48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75...Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed...planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

2012-10-01

198

Radiation Exposure and High-Altitude Flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current commercial aircraft fly at altitudes between some 9000 to 12 000 m although Concorde reaches 18 000 m. In this document the NCRP is looking ahead to the possibility of regular flights at altitudes of 15 000 to 24 000 m. The radiation field to which aircrew and passengers are exposed during high altitude flight is complex. Data on

K B Shaw

1996-01-01

199

Human mutagens: evidence from paternal exposure  

SciTech Connect

The importance of inherited mutations as a cause of human disease has been established clearly through examples of well-defined genetic anomalies, such as Down syndrome and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, it is suspected that environmental contaminants induce mutations resulting in increased risk for such defects in subsequent generations of persons exposed. The present lack of direct evidence for induced inherited genetic disorders in human beings hampers the development of risk estimation techniques for extrapolation from animal models. The most extensive prospective epidemiologic studies of inherited genetic effects have involved survivors of atomic bomb detonations and patients treated with cancer chemotherapy. In neither case has a significant elevation in inherited genetic effects or cancer been detected in the offspring of exposed individuals. Epidemiologic studies of subjects receiving chronic exposure may be confounded by the effect of maternal exposure during pregnancy. Consideration of only paternal exposure can minimize the confounding influence of teratogenicity, enhancing the resolving power of studies for inherited effects. Using this approach, retrospective (case-control) studies of childhood cancer patients have provided limited but suggestive evidence for inheritance of induced effects. Endpoints, such as congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion following paternal exposure, can also be considered as indicators of heritable mutagenic effects. For example, there is limited evidence suggesting that paternal exposure to anaesthetic gases may cause miscarriage and congenital abnormalities as a result of induced male germ cell mutations. 104 references.

Narod, S.A.; Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Blakey, D.H.

1988-01-01

200

Glioma proliferation modulated in vitro by isothermal radiofrequency radiation exposure  

SciTech Connect

Isothermal (37 +/- 0.2 degrees C) exposure of glioma cells (LN71) for 2 h to 27 or 2450 MHz continuous-wave radiofrequency (RF) radiation in vitro modulated the rates of DNA and RNA synthesis 1, 3, and 5 days after exposure. The alterations indicate effects on cell proliferation and were not caused by RF-induced cell heating. The dose response for either frequency of the radiation was biphasic. Exposure to specific absorption rates (SARs) of 50 W/kg or less stimulated incorporation rates of tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR) and tritiated uridine (3H-UdR), whereas higher SARs suppressed DNA and RNA synthesis. Statistically significant time-dependent alterations were detected for up to 5 days postexposure, suggesting a kinetic cellular response to RF radiation and the possibility of cumulative effects on cell proliferation. General mechanisms of effects are discussed.

Cleary, S.F.; Liu, L.M.; Merchant, R.E. (Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (USA))

1990-01-01

201

Chromosome aberrations in normal human fibroblasts analyzed in G0/G1 and G2/M phases after exposure in G0 to radiation with different linear energy transfer (LET).  

PubMed

We have studied the induction of chromosome aberrations in human fibroblasts exposed in G0/G1 to X-rays or heavy ions to study the influence of G1 cell cycle arrest. Confluent normal fibroblasts were exposed to X-rays or accelerated particles with different LET values and chromosome aberrations were investigated in the first G0/G1 and G2//M phase. The particles used here were 490MeV/nucleon Si, 500MeV/nucleon Fe, and 200MeV/nucleon Fe ions. Cells were subcultured 24h after exposure and premature chromosome condensation (PCC) was performed by fusion-induced method for analysis of G0/G1 cells, and chemically-induced method for analysis of G2 and metaphase cells. Chromosome damage was assessed in chromosomes 1 and 3 using whole chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry at different incubation times following subculture. After irradiation with 2Gy of high-LET particles, the yields of chromosome aberrations and fragments were significantly higher in G0/G1 phase than in G2/M phase, whereas similar yields of damage were measured in both phases after exposure to X-rays. In contrast, the yield of misrepair, assessed by the number of color junctions, was similar in the G0/G1 and G2/M phases after exposure to either X-rays or high-LET particles. The yields of chromosome aberrations, fragments, and color junctions in both the G0/G1 and the G2/M phases, increased with LET up to 200keV/?m, then decreased for 440keV/?m Fe particles. A good correlation was found between chromosome aberrations in both G0/G1 and G2/M cells and survival fractions after 2Gy of different LET radiations, although the slopes were steeper for the G0/G1 cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that high-LET particles induce more non cycling G0/G1 cells within 48h of subculture than X-rays, suggesting that chromosome aberrations scored at the G2/M phase may not accurately describe the true radiation effect. PMID:23688614

Liu, Cuihua; Kawata, Tetsuya; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Zhou, Guangming; Inoue, Kohei; Fukada, Junichi; Kota, Ryuichi; George, Kerry; Cucinotta, Francis; Okayasu, Ryuichi

2013-05-17

202

Cumulative effects from repeated exposures to suberythemal doses of UVB and UVA in human skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The skin is repeatedly exposed to solar UV radiation. Long-term photodamage is a consequence of cumulative UV radiation injury. Hence an examination of the repetitive effects of UV exposure is more likely to yield clues to the early alterations that lead to photoaged skin than a single exposure.Objective: We examined the effects of repetitive low-dose UV irradiation on human

Robert M Lavker; G. Frank Gerberick; Denise Veres; Chris J Irwin; Kays H Kaidbey

1995-01-01

203

Experimental wood smoke exposure in humans.  

PubMed

Experimental studies are used to evaluate effects of human exposure to diesel exhaust and concentrated ambient particles. This article describes a system for studying exposure of humans to wood smoke. Wood smoke was generated using a wood stove placed outside an exposure chamber that can hold at least 10 subjects. A partial flow of the generated wood smoke from the stove was mixed with filtered indoor air. Personal and stationary measurements were performed of PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations and various volatile organic compounds (VOCs): 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and aldehydes. In addition, particulate matter (PM) mass, number concentrations, and size distributions of particles (0.007-6.7 microm), as well as nitrous oxides, CO2, and CO, were measured online. Filters were analyzed for trace elements and black smoke. Polycyclic aromatic compounds, toluene, and xylenes were determined in stationary samples. Results of the first experiment showed no differences between personal and stationary measurements for particles or VOCs. Consequently, stationary measurements can be used to predict personal exposure. All PM mass (about 250 microg/m3) was in the PM1 fraction. Subjective symptoms were generally weak, while clear objective signs were found, for example, in biomarkers of inflammation. With careful control of the combustion process, relatively constant mass and number concentrations were obtained over each exposure session. By varying the combustion and dilution of the wood smoke, different exposure scenarios can be achieved and thus, knowledge about which of the properties of particles and gaseous compounds are crucial for the effects. PMID:16864403

Sällsten, Gerd; Gustafson, Pernilla; Johansson, Linda; Johannesson, Sandra; Molnár, Peter; Strandberg, Bo; Tullin, Claes; Barregard, Lars

2006-10-01

204

Simulation of the received daily visible and UV radiation exposure as a function of weather, environment and activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of the exposure of UV- and light received by people as a function of their activities and their environment, for present and future conditions, is the aim of the presented study. In this paper we present first preliminary results and simula-tions. A software was developed to determine the total daily radiation exposure re-ceived by the human body as

K. Huber; P. Weihs; W. Laube; G. Schauberger; A. Schmalwieser; F. Holawe

2003-01-01

205

Correlation of Chromosome Patterns in Human Leukemic Cells with Exposure to Chemicals and/or Radiation: Progress Report for the Period January 1, 1987 Through August 15, 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of in situ hybridization and pulse field gel electrophoreses and its various modifications provides us with very powerful tools to understand the nature of the deletion of 5q in human acute leukemia. The availability of cells from these patients, ...

J. D. Rowley

1987-01-01

206

ANALYSIS OF THE DISTRIBUTION AND DOSE RESPONSE OF CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS IN HUMAN LYMPHOCYTES AFTER IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO (137) CESIUM GAMMA RADIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The chromosome aberration yield for human lymphocytes exposed in vitro to various doses of (137) Cesium has been studied. Dicentric, total acentric, and excess acentric data were seen to follow a Poisson distribution. Calculated total hits demonstrated over-dispersion which could...

207

Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Pesticides  

EPA Science Inventory

SHEDS-Pesticides (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Pesticides) is a physically-based stochastic model developed to quantify exposure and dose of humans to multimedia, multipathway pollutants. Probabilistic inputs are combined in physical/mechanistic algorit...

208

Human biomonitoring issues related to lead exposure.  

PubMed

Lead as a toxic environmental metal has been an issue of concern for 30-40 years. Even though the exposures experienced by the general public have been significantly reduced, so have the acceptable blood lead concentrations assessed to safeguard health (specifically of children). The impact of these concurrent changes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the following: blood lead as the primary biomarker of exposure; pertinent toxicokinetic issues including modelling; legacy and newer sources of this toxic metal; improvements in lead quantification techniques and its characterization (chemical forms) in exposure media; and in vivo markers of lead sources. It is concluded that the progress in the quantification of lead and its characterization in exposure media have supported the efforts to identify statistical associations of lead in blood and tissues with adverse health outcomes, and have guided strategies to reduce human exposure (especially for children). To clarify the role of lead as a causative factor in disease, greater research efforts in biomarkers of effect and susceptibility seem timely. PMID:23970117

Nieboer, Evert; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Liberda, Eric N

2013-09-25

209

Calculating human exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides via agricultural and non-agricultural exposure routes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) are of increasing concern because of their potential impacts on the environment, wildlife and human health. Pesticides and some pesticide metabolites are an important group of EDC, and exposure to them is a poorly quantified source of human and environmental exposure to such chemicals generally. Models for estimating human exposure to Endocrine Disrupting (ED) pesticides are

R. McKinlay; J. A. Plant; J. N. B. Bell; N. Voulvoulis

2008-01-01

210

Pesticide exposure: human cancers on the horizon.  

PubMed

Dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane, a halogenated hydrocarbon, was introduced as an insecticide in the 1940s. In her book "Silent Spring", Rachel Carson expressed her concern for the environment, plants, animals, and human health about the potential harmful effects of such chemicals. In 1972, the Environmental Protection Agency banned the chemical in the USA. DDT and its metabolite DDE are lipid soluble compounds that persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in the body in adipose tissue at levels far higher than those in blood and breast milk. This paper evaluates the possibility of cancer occurring in humans from DDT exposure. Some risk of lymphoma, leukemia, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer was found in humans exposed to DDT. Animal studies showed a significant association between DDT administration and lymphoma, respiratory cancer, liver cancer, and estrogenic effects on mammary tissue. On the basis of on epidemiological principles, human studies were deficient in adequate sample sizes and were not exempt from such confounding factors as multiple chemical exposure, lifestyle factors, genetic, and other environmental influences. Extrapolation of data on DDT toxicity from animals to humans has limitations. With the persistence of DDT and DDE in the environment, the potential risk to the health of man, animals, and the environment remains. PMID:10372419

Jaga, K; Brosius, D

211

Environmental radiation exposure: Regulation, monitoring, and assessment  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear facilities constitute a public health concern. Protecting the public from such releases can be achieved through the establishment and enforcement of regulatory standards. In the United States, numerous standards have been promulgated to regulate release control at nuclear facilities. Most recent standards are more restrictive than those in the past and require that radioactivity levels be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental monitoring programs and radiological dose assessment are means of ensuring compliance with regulations. Environmental monitoring programs provide empirical information on releases, such as the concentrations of released radioactivity in environmental media, while radiological dose assessment provides the analytical means of quantifying dose exposures for demonstrating compliance.

Chen, S.Y.; Yu, C.; Hong, K.J.

1991-01-01

212

38 CFR 3.311 - Claims based on exposure to ionizing radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Claims based on exposure to ionizing radiation. 3.311 Section 3.311 Pensions... Claims based on exposure to ionizing radiation. (a) Determinations of exposure...disease is a result of exposure to ionizing radiation in service, an assessment will be...

2013-07-01

213

Consideration of measurements and calculations involved in assessment of the effects of human exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation and other mutagens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical considerations previously presented are reviewed demonstrating that current methodologies designed to measure environmental mutagenesis contributing to human disease measure only a small fraction of such insults. In the absence of an adequate theoretical approach, a new experimental method has been developed which in the case of X-irradiation demonstrates approximately 100-fold more mutations than are detected by other approaches. There is reason to expect major contributions to preventive medicine from these developments.

Puck, Theodore T.

1985-06-01

214

THE CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF RADIATION EXPOSURE DUE TO ATOMIC EXPLOSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recommended treatment for radiation exposure to atomic explosions is ; principally symptomatic and fundamentally based on the presenting picture. The ; therapeutic program should include: complete physical and mental rest with mild ; sedation, a bland, low-residue, high-protein diet, and general nursing measures, ; including skin care and oral hygiene to avoid ulcerations. Early shocklike ; syndromes with prostration,

1961-01-01

215

Variation of Space Radiation Exposure inside Spherical and Hemispherical Geometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate the space radiation exposure to blood-forming organs everywhere inside a hemispherical dome that represents a lunar habitat. We derive the analytical path length distribution from any point inside a hemispherical or a spherical shell. Because the average path length increases with the distance from the center, the center of the hemispherical dome on the lunar surface has the

Zi-Wei Lin; Younes Baalla; Lawrence Townsend

2008-01-01

216

Health Effects of Exposure to Low-Level Ionizing Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book comprises chapters contributed, with one exception, by American scientists and physicians and inevitably it is very much biased towards the American scene. Even so, the rest of us can draw parallel with our own societies. The book is aimed towards a medical audience and those in the radiation protection business, whose professional lives revolve around low level exposures,

David Lloyd

1997-01-01

217

Long duration human exposure to microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Looking toward the era of long duration manned spaceflight, questions remain regarding human adaptation to the weightless environment. In particular, bone calcium loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, and effects of radiation require further study. NASA has undertaken a series of experiments to increase the knowledge base of human adaptation to spaceflight. To date, results in the area of cardiovascular deconditioning countermeasures are the furthest advanced. The results from the upcoming SLS-1 mission will enhance knowledge in all areas. With continued research, there is every confidence that astronauts will be able to be kept healthy for long periods of time.

Huntoon, C. L.

218

Characterisation of bubble detectors for aircrew and space radiation exposure.  

PubMed

The Earth's atmosphere acts as a natural radiation shield which protects terrestrial dwellers from the radiation environment encountered in space. In general, the intensity of this radiation field increases with distance from the ground owing to a decrease in the amount of atmospheric shielding. Neutrons form an important component of the radiation field to which the aircrew and spacecrew are exposed. In light of this, the neutron-sensitive bubble detector may be ideal as a portable personal dosemeter at jet altitudes and in space. This paper describes the ground-based characterisation of the bubble detector and the application of the bubble detector for the measurement of aircrew and spacecrew radiation exposure. PMID:16987919

Green, A R; Bennett, L G I; Lewis, B J; Tume, P; Andrews, H R; Noulty, R A; Ing, H

2006-01-01

219

Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation. Comprehensive progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1982  

SciTech Connect

The observations that two particular translocations are consistently associated with specific differentiation stages of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia were confirmed. These are the translocation between chromosomes 8 and 21 in acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation and the translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17 in acute promyelocytic leukemia. The observation of others that structural rearrangements involving the long arm of No. 11 are frequently seen in acute monoblastic leukemia was also confirmed. The chromosome aberrations that are observed in the great majority of patients with acute leukemia secondary to cytotoxic therapy were defined. Thus of 47 patients with secondary acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, an aneuploid clone was seen in 44, and 39 of the 44 had a loss of part or all of No. 5 and/or No. 7. I have been able to localize the region of chromosome No. 7, loss of which is important for the development of leukemia was localized. Patients with ANLL de novo whose occupational histories suggest exposure to potentially mutagenic agents have a higher frequency of aberrations involving Nos. 5 and/or 7, than do patients not so exposed. Thus 50% of exposed versus 10% of nonexposed patients had aberrations of Nos. 5 or 7.

Rowley, J.D.

1982-06-01

220

Overview of low-level radiation exposure assessment: biodosimetry.  

PubMed

The capability to make diagnostic assessments of radiation exposure is needed to support triage of radiation casualties and medical treatment decisions in military operations. At the International Conference on Low-Level Radiation Injury and Medical Countermeasures session on biodosimetry in the military, participants reviewed the field of biomarkers, covering a wide range of biological endpoints. Participants evaluated early changes associated with exposure to ionizing radiation, including chromosomal and DNA damage, gene expression and associated proteins, and DNA mutations. The use and development of advanced monitoring and diagnostic technologies compatible with military operations was emphasized. Conventional radiation bioassays require a substantial amount of time between when the sample is taken and when the data can be provided for decision making. These "reach back" bioassays are evaluated in laboratories that are not in the field; these laboratories routinely measure exposures of 25 cGy (photon equivalent levels). Detection thresholds can be reduced approximately fivefold by the addition of significant and tiresome scoring efforts. Alternative real-time biomarkers that can be measured in field laboratories or with handheld detection devices show promise as screening and clinical diagnostic tools, but they require further development and validation studies. PMID:11873504

Blakely, William F; Brooks, Antone L; Lofts, Richard S; van der Schans, Govert P; Voisin, Philippe

2002-02-01

221

Radiation exposure to the surgeon during closed interlocking intramedullary nailing  

SciTech Connect

During interlocking intramedullary nailing of twenty-five femoral and five tibial fractures, the primary surgeon wore both a universal film badge on the collar of the lead apron and a thermoluminescent dosimeter ring on the dominant hand to quantify the radiation that he or she received. When distal interlocking was performed, the first ring was removed and a second ring was used so that a separate recording could be made for this portion of the procedure. At the conclusion of the study, all of the recorded doses of radiation were averaged. The average amount of radiation to the head and neck during the entire procedure was 7.0 millirems of deep exposure and 8.0 millirems of shallow exposure. The average dose of radiation to the dominant hand during insertion of the intramedullary nail and the proximal interlocking screw was 13.0 millirems, while the average amount during insertion of the distal interlocking nail was 12.0 millirems. Both of these averages are well within the government guidelines for allowable exposure to radiation during one-quarter (three months) of a year. Precautions that are to be observed during this procedure are recommended.

Levin, P.E.; Schoen, R.W. Jr.; Browner, B.D.

1987-06-01

222

Reducing waste generation and radiation exposure by analytical method modification  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of an analytical support laboratory has traditionally been to provide accurate data in a timely and cost effective fashion. Added to this goal is now the need to provide the same high quality data while generating as little waste as possible. At the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), we have modified and reengineered several methods to decrease generated waste and hence reduce radiation exposure. These method changes involved improving detection limits (which decreased the amount of sample required for analysis), decreasing reaction and analysis time, decreasing the size of experimental set-ups, recycling spent solvent and reagents, and replacing some methods. These changes had the additional benefits of reducing employee radiation exposure and exposure to hazardous chemicals. In all cases, the precision, accuracy, and detection limits were equal to or better than the replaced method. Most of the changes required little or no expenditure of funds. This paper describes these changes and discusses some of their applications.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1996-10-01

223

Experiments to validate a technique for reducing the human RF exposure from mobile terminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of human exposure to electromagnetic radiation generated by mobile phones terminals is a major concern both for equipment manufacturers and users. Reduced fares and technological development (antenna integration, energy consumption decrease, etc) led to an unprecedented increase of phone call duration with yet unknown consequences on human beings and especially on children. The authors identified a method intended to

A. Marinescu; I. Dumbrava; Violeta Voicu; G. Mihai; C. Vargatu

2011-01-01

224

Estimating the radiation absorbed by a human  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexities of the interactions between long- and short-wave radiation fluxes and the human body make it inherently difficult\\u000a to estimate precisely the total radiation absorbed (R) by a human in an outdoor environment. The purpose of this project was to assess and compare three methods to estimate the\\u000a radiation absorbed by a human in an outdoor environment, and to

Natasha A. Kenny; Jon S. Warland; Robert D. Brown; Terry G. Gillespie

2008-01-01

225

Temperature-Specific Inhibition of Human Red Cell Na(1+)/K(1+) ATPase by 2450-MHz Microwave Radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ATPase activity in human red blood cell membranes was investigated in vitro as a function of temperature and exposure to 2450 MHz (CW) microwave radiation. Assays were conducted spectrophotometrically during microwave exposure with a custom-made spect...

J. W. Allis B. L. Sinha-Robinson

1987-01-01

226

Exposure assessment of mobile phone base station radiation in an outdoor environment using sequential surrogate modeling.  

PubMed

Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04?km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900?MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling. PMID:23315952

Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Martens, Luc; Dhaene, Tom

2013-01-11

227

Styrene production, use, and human exposure.  

PubMed

Styrene is an extremely important commodity chemical used extensively in the manufacture of numerous polymers and copolymers, including polystyrene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN), styrene-butadiene latex, and styrene-butadiene rubber. Styrene is a component of cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust, and it may occur naturally at low levels in various types of foods. The highest potential human exposures to styrene occur in occupational settings, particularly those involving the production of large glass-reinforced polyester products such as boats, which require manual lay-up and spray-up operations. Substantially lower occupational exposures occur in styrene monomer and polymer production facilities. The general public is exposed to very low concentrations of styrene in ambient air, indoor air, food, and drinking water. PMID:7818766

Miller, R R; Newhook, R; Poole, A

1994-01-01

228

Human Genetic Marker for Resistance to Radiation and Chemicals  

SciTech Connect

TO characterize the human HRDAD9 gene and evaluate its potential as a biomarker to predict susceptibility to the deleterious health effects potentially caused by exposure to radiations or chemicals present at DOE hazardous waste cleanup sites. HRAD9 is a human gene that is highly conserved throughout evolution. Related genes have been isolated from yeasts and mice, underscoring its biological significance. Most of our previous work involved characterization of the yeast gene cognate, wherein it was determined that the corresponding protein plays a significant role in promoting resistance of cells to radiations and chemicals, and in particular, controlling cell growth in response to DNA damage.

DR. Howard B. Lieberman

2001-05-11

229

Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation: Comprehensive progress report, January 1986--June 1988  

SciTech Connect

I purchased one of the few available prototypes of the pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) apparatus. We used PFGE and its various modifications to map the human Abelson protooncogene (ABL) and to show that the two alternative first exons (Ia and Ib) are separated by at least 200 kilobases (kb). This has provided the first evidence that alternative splicing from exon Ib to the common splice acceptor site (exon II) could occur over such very large distances. We are actively using vertical field gel electrophoresis, a modification of PFGE, for mapping various DNA probes on chromosome 5. Another major advance has been the development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We are currently using this to define the breakpoints in the BCR gene in the 9; 22 translocation in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and in Ph/sup 1/-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). I had expected to be able to describe major progress in cloning the chromosome translocation breakpoints in ANLL, and this has not occurred. Our laboratory knows how to solve the problem. We successfully cloned a new translocation breakpoint in B cell chronic lymphatic leukemia involving Nos. 14 and 19. 22 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Rowley, J.D.

1988-06-01

230

Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes ``paints`` to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with {sup 144}Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to {sup 60}Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness.

Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

1992-10-01

231

Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes paints'' to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with [sup 144]Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to [sup 60]Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness.

Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

1992-10-01

232

Real and perceived risks of medical radiation exposure  

SciTech Connect

After considering all the evidence related to the health effects of exposure to low levels of radiation, it is apparent that the risk is immeasurably small to any single person in a population exposed to small amounts of radiation. However, multiplying this immeasurably small estimate of risk by very large populations yields numbers that seem to imply that significant health effects (cancer, malformations, genetic effects) occur following exposure to small quantities of radiation. Although many advisory groups have cautioned against this procedure and conclusion, both continue to be used by some scientists and political action groups. In a public opinion poll conducted by Decision Research, Inc. of Eugene, Oregon, three groups were asked to rank the relative risks of various societal activities. Two of the three groups ranked nuclear power as the most hazardous of all societal activities, with a risk factor greater than that for smoking, automobiles, handguns and alcohol. Actually, nuclear power is the least hazardous of all 30 of the activities included in the poll. It is a conservative posture and probably a wise course of action to assume that exposure to any amount of radiation carries with it some element of risk. For example, requests for x-ray studies and nuclear medicine procedures should always be accompanied by an appreciation of the possibility of risk to the patient and to radiological personnel. At the same time, this element of risk should be placed in a realistic perspective by comparing it with other risks we assume every day. (JMT)

Hendee, W.R.

1983-03-01

233

Human radiation experiments: Looking beyond the headlines  

SciTech Connect

There has been a great deal of publicity recently about experiments supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and its predecessors, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the Energy Research and Development Administration, in which human subjects were exposed to radiation. Media stories give the impression that these experiments were done in secret, without informing the subjects, and that these subjects suffered horrible consequences. As a prelude to understanding the situation, it is useful to review the bases for judgement in deciding on this type of experiment. When it was first recognized that radiation can be harmful, national and international groups promulgated the concept of {open_quotes}maximum permissible dose{close_quotes} (MPD) on the basis that with a comfortable factor of safety (e.g., a factor of 10), there was no evidence of harm at that level. This had always been the principal method of providing safety, applied to everything from chemicals to bridges. In the 1940s, the MPD was 100 mrem per day, and it was assumed that there would be no harmful health impacts at that level. Current regulations require that experiments involving radiation exposure to human subjects be approved by a review board at the institution where they are carried out. National guidelines for these review boards require that whole-body doses to subjects be kept below 2 rem except in extraordinary circumstances. As an example of how these regulations are currently implemented, consider positron emission tomography (PET), a very active medical research topic for the past few years. In one major medical center, this involves exposing about 300 subjects per year, normally recruited through newspaper advertisements, with an average dose of about 400 mrem to each. There are about 50 comparable medical centers throughout the United States.

Cohen, B.L. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-03-01

234

Radiation exposure and protection for moon and Mars missions  

SciTech Connect

A deep space radiation environment of galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles from solar flares imposes stringent requirements for radiation shielding for both personnel and electronic equipment at a moon base or on a Mars expedition. Current Los Alamos capabilities for calculating the effect of such shielding are described, and extensions and validation needed before actual manned deep space missions are launched are outlined. The biological effects of exposure to cosmic-ray ions and to low doses of radiation at low dose rates are poorly understood. Recent Los Alamos work on mutation effects in cells, DNA repair processes, and the analysis of chromosomal aberrations promises to increase our understanding of the basic processes, to provide methods to screen for radiation sensitivity, and to provide advanced dosimetry equipment for space missions.

MacFarlane, R.E.; Prael, R.E.; Strottman, D.D.; Strniste, G.F.; Feldman, W.C.

1991-04-01

235

Stem cell responses after radiation exposure: A key to the evaluation and prediction of its effects  

SciTech Connect

A biomathematical model of granulocytopoiesis is described and used to analyze the blood granulocyte changes seen in the blood of dogs and humans after continuous and after acute external radiation exposure. This allows to relate the cell change pattern seen to the extent of stem cell damage in the hematopoietic bone marrow distributed as semiautonomous units throughout the skeletal bones. The model is described briefly and consists of 8 cellular and 2 regulatory compartments and is described by 37 differential equations. With the help of this model, it can be shown that the chronic radiation exposure of dogs at a rate of between 0.003 and 0.12 Gy per day results in a system failure with subsequent death of the animal, if the stem cell pool decreases below 2.5% of its normal content. In human beings exposed to a single radiation exposure (as seen in radiation accidents) the simulation of the granulocyte pattern results in the finding that a reduction of the stem pool to 5-10% of normal is compatible with the assumption of its {open_quotes}reversible{close_quotes} damage (to be treated by conventional replacement therapy including cytokines), whereas the reduction of blood granulocytes to levels of less than 200-300 per mm{sup 3} on day 5-6 after exposure indicates that no stem cells remain from which a spontaneous regeneration could occur and hence would require a substitution therapy by stem cell transplantation. The same model was used to correlate the changing granulocyte pattern seen after autologous blood stem cell transfusion in patients treated with supralethal radiochemo conditioning regimen. The results indicate a proportionality of progenitor cells in the transfusate with the calculated stem cell number of the modeling exercise. It is proposed to use the pattern of granulocyte changes in the blood as a principal indicator to predict the outcome of a radiation exposure and to select appropriate therapeutic strategies. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Fliedner, T.M.; Paul, W.; Tibken, B.; Hofer, E.P. [Univ. of Ulm (Germany)

1996-06-01

236

Effect of simultaneous exposure to toluene and xylene on their respective biological exposure indices in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Studies that specifically address the influence of controlled human exposure to a combination of solvents on the biological monitoring of exposure are limited in number. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether simultaneous exposure of human volunteers to toluene and xylene could modify the respective metabolic disposition of these solvents. Five adult Caucasian men were exposed for 7

R. Tardif; S. Laparé; G. L. Plaa; J. Brodeur

1991-01-01

237

Proposed Alternatives for a DOE-Wide Occupational Radiation Exposure Information System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) was initiated by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1968. While the system has provided a general overview of radiation exposures associated with AEC/ERDA/DOE operations and has satisfied the ...

B. L. Murphy D. W. Murphy J. J. Fix J. M. Selby E. J. Vallario

1984-01-01

238

47 CFR 2.1091 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices. 2.1091 Section 2.1091...radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices. (a) Requirements of...computer, are considered to be mobile devices if they meet the 20...

2010-10-01

239

47 CFR 2.1091 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices. 2.1091 Section 2.1091...radiation exposure evaluation: mobile devices. (a) Requirements of...computer, are considered to be mobile devices if they meet the 20...

2009-10-01

240

Management of cosmic radiation exposure for aircraft crew in Japan.  

PubMed

The International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that cosmic radiation exposure of crew in commercial jet aircraft be considered as occupational exposure. In Japan, the Radiation Council of the government has established a guideline that requests domestic airlines to voluntarily keep the effective dose of cosmic radiation for aircraft crew below 5 mSv y(-1). The guideline also gives some advice and policies regarding the method of cosmic radiation dosimetry, the necessity of explanation and education about this issue, a way to view and record dose data, and the necessity of medical examination for crew. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences helps the airlines to follow the guideline, particularly for the determination of aviation route doses by numerical simulation. The calculation is performed using an original, easy-to-use program package called 'JISCARD EX' coupled with a PHITS-based analytical model and a GEANT4-based particle tracing code. The new radiation weighting factors recommended in 2007 are employed for effective dose determination. The annual individual doses of aircraft crew were estimated using this program. PMID:21613269

Yasuda, Hiroshi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Yonehara, Hidenori; Kosako, Toshiso; Fujitaka, Kazunobu; Sasaki, Yasuhito

2011-05-24

241

The effect of headset and earphone on reducing electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone toward human head  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies show that exposure to the electromagnetic wave for a certain period of time will leads to health problem such as headaches, or even worse, brain cancer. Scientist have known that this radiation might cause human biological damage through heating effects since human body is made up of approximately 65-70% water, electrolytes and ions. Radio frequency radiation emitted from mobile

D. A. A. Mat; F. Kho; A. Joseph; K. Kipli; S. Sahrani; K. Lias; A. S. W. Marzuki

2010-01-01

242

Nuclear-weapon-effect research at PSR (Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation) - 1983. Volume 10. Symptomatology of acute radiation effects in humans after exposure to doses of 75 to 4500 rads (cGy) free-in-air. Final technical report, 27 October 1982-30 November 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report distills from available data descriptions of typical human symptoms in reaction to prompt ionizing radiation in the dose range 75 to 4500 rads (cGy) free-in-air. The descriptions correlate symptoms with dose and time over the acute post-exposure period of six weeks. Their purpose is to provide an empirical base for estimating combat troop performance after a nuclear weapon

S. J. Baum; R. W. Young; G. H. Anno; H. R. Withers

1984-01-01

243

A case–control study of ultraviolet radiation exposure, vitamin D, and lymphoma risk in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research suggests that ultraviolet radiation exposure (UVRE), our major source of vitamin D, is associated with reduced\\u000a lymphoma risk. Animal and human studies support an association between vitamin D (vitD) insufficiency and increased risk of\\u000a some malignancies. We conducted a clinic-based case–control study (140 lymphoma cases, 139 controls; 2002–2005, Rochester,\\u000a NY) to evaluate UVRE and vitD insufficiency in relation

Jennifer L. KellyJonathan; Jonathan W. Friedberg; Laura M. Calvi; Edwin van Wijngaarden; Susan G. Fisher

2010-01-01

244

Human exposure to pollutants in Poland  

SciTech Connect

Serious environmental problems caused by decades of mismanagement of Poland's natural resources have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media--air, water, food, and soil--have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Some environmental problems are so severe that the sources of pollution and the mitigation techniques needed are obvious, requiring no further research, but rather common sense, monies, and determination to implement the necessary controls and mitigation procedures. This paper will not address these obvious cases. Rather it will address that spectrum of environmental problems which requires a better understanding of public health risk in order to develop effective risk management strategies. Because these problems are numerous and monies limited, policy makers will need to set priorities both for research projects and control options. Using environmental concentration data presently available from Poland (especially for air), the paper will estimate human exposures, will point out research and monitoring needs, and hopefully, will lend credence to the concept that environmental policies and risk reduction strategies will be most effective if the Total Human Exposure Concept is used as the guiding scientific principle in risk assessment and management programs.

Wesolowski, J.J.; Jedrychowski, W.; Flak, E. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (United States))

1992-07-01

245

28 CFR Appendix C to Part 79 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset Worksheet-On Site Participants  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radiation Exposure Compensation Act Offset...CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Pt. 79, App. C Appendix C to Part 79âRadiation Exposure Compensation Act...

2013-07-01

246

Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

2012-07-07

247

28 CFR 79.44 - Proof of working level month exposure to radiation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Proof of working level month exposure to radiation. 79.44 Section 79.44 Judicial...JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility...Proof of working level month exposure to radiation. (a) If one or more of the...

2013-07-01

248

38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure. 1.17 Section 1.17...studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure. (a) From time to time...health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in the âNoticesâ section of the...

2013-07-01

249

Atomic veterans and their families: Responses to radiation exposure  

SciTech Connect

In-depth interviews with seven atomic veterans and their families indicated powerful psychological effects on all family members from exposure to low-level ionizing radiation. Four themes emerged: the invalidation of their experiences by government and other authority figures; family concerns about genetic effects on future generations; family members' desire to protect each other from fears of physical consequences; and desire to leave a record of their experiences to help prevent future suffering.

Murphy, B.C.; Ellis, P.; Greenberg, S. (Wheaton College, Norton, MA (USA))

1990-07-01

250

Radiation Exposure During Fluoroarthroscopically Assisted Anterior Cruciate Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prospectively evaluated the radiation exposure dur ing 50 consecutive fluoroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Three different meth ods of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were performed using either rolled fascia lata allograft or bone-tendon-bone autograft. For the 50 procedures, to tal time using the fluoroscope was 119.61 minutes, or 2.38 minutes per procedure. The 16 primary fascia lata allograft

Brad J. Larson; Julie Egbert; E. Marlowe Goble

1995-01-01

251

Positron states in KCL crystals before and after radiation exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The features of positron annihilation in KCl crystals before and after radiation exposure is investigated. A significant increase in the efficiency of the “ortho-vapor” process of positronium state conversion is detected. A model is proposed for taking part in the “ortho-vapor” conversion of conduction electrons drawn into the conduction band by a positron field that affords a qualitative interpretation of the results obtained and permits values of the electron concentration in a spur to be obtained.

Aref'ev, K. P.; Boev, O. V.; Bondarenko, A. L.

1988-07-01

252

Current Methods of Monitoring Radiation Exposure From CT.  

PubMed

Increased public and regulatory scrutiny of imaging-related radiation exposure requires familiarity with current dose-monitoring techniques and best practices. CT-related ionizing radiation exposure has been cited as the largest and fastest growing source of population-wide iatrogenic ionizing radiation exposure. Upcoming federal regulations require imaging centers to familiarize themselves with available dose-monitoring techniques and implement comprehensive strategies to track patient dose, with particular emphasis on CT. Because of institution-specific and vendor-specific technologies, there are significant barriers to adoption and implementation. In this article, the authors outline the core components of a universal dose-monitoring strategy and detail a few of the many available commercial platforms. In addition, the authors introduce a cloud-based hybrid model dose-tracking system with the goal of rapid implementation, multicenter scalability, real-time dose feedback for technologists, cumulative dose monitoring, and optional dose communication to patients and into the record; doing so results in improved patient loyalty, referring physician satisfaction, and opportunity for repeat business. PMID:23714720

Talati, Ronak K; Dunkin, Jared; Parikh, Shrujal; Moore, William H

2013-05-25

253

National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (3rd).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an ongoing assessment of the exposure of the U.S. population to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. The Second National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (Second Report) was released in 2003 and presented bi...

2005-01-01

254

HUMAN EXPOSURE ESTIMATION FOR 2,3,7,8-TCDD  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure assessment procedures have been developed using relevant and likely scenarios through which humans could be exposed to dioxin-contaminated soil. Five exposure pathways were chosen for analysis: dust inhalation; fish ingestion; dermal absorption; soil ingestion; and, beef...

255

An Introduction to Efficacy in Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Justification of Medical Radiation Exposure)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the radiation expert, many medical practitioners appear casual to the point of recklessness regarding radiation exposure to their own person. However, diagnostic radiologists are in a position to make a significant contribution to radiation protection of the population by discouraging unnecessary medical radiation exposure, by applying the time honoured medical dictum `if a test will not benefit the individual

D McVicar

1996-01-01

256

Relationship of cigarette smoking and radiation exposure to cancer mortality in Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

SciTech Connect

Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure level. Relative risk (RR) models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic (ANH) cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period for this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplicative RR models would suggest for ANH cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer. Surprisingly, the RR function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for some of these cancer site categories but also may be subadditive. The lung cancer RR function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of ANH cancer mortality: RR functions appeared to be consistent between males and females, though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. The submultiplicative nature of the RR function mentioned above was particularly pronounced among persons who were relatively young (less than or equal to 30 yr of age) at the time of radiation exposure. The RR function for these younger subjects depends strongly on both radiation and cigarette smoke exposure levels. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to human carcinogenesis models. As a byproduct, cancer mortality of several sites is significantly related to radiation exposure in this population, after accommodation for the possible confounding effects of cigarette smoking.

Prentice, R.L.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Mason, M.W.

1983-04-01

257

Radiation protection concepts and quantities for the occupational exposure to cosmic radiation.  

PubMed

For the purposes of dose limitation and dose control, the harm, or detriment, of exposure to radiation is assessed by the quantity effective dose. Effective dose is evaluated by the application of factors to the averaged absorbed dose in the organs and tissues of the body. Radiation monitoring instruments are generally calibrated in terms of the quantity ambient dose equivalent which is defined in a simple spherical phantom. The relationship of these quantities is described. Requirements for the radiation protection of aircraft crew are given in the European Union Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM. There are requirements to assess the exposure of aircraft crew, to inform them of health risks, to reduce higher doses, and to control the dose to the fetus. There are no explicit dose limits, other than a dose objective to be applied to the exposure of the fetus, and no requirements for designation of areas or classification of workers. There are significant differences between the exposure condition of aircraft crew and workers in most other industries where there is occupational exposure to radiation. There are greater ranges of radiation types and energy, and there are different dose distributions and characteristics of the working populations. However, the field intensity is predictable and, with the exception of rare solar events, there is no risk of significant unexpected exposures. Dose assessment is anticipated to be by folding staff roster information with estimates of route doses, since there is little variability of dose rate within an aircraft. Route doses, which may be either an agreed average value for a given airport pairing and aircraft type, or be flight specific, will be closely linked to measured values. Requirements as to the accuracy of dose assessment should be applied which are broadly similar to those used in individual monitoring generally. PMID:11543395

Bartlett, D T

1999-01-01

258

Calculating human exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides via agricultural and non-agricultural exposure routes.  

PubMed

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) are of increasing concern because of their potential impacts on the environment, wildlife and human health. Pesticides and some pesticide metabolites are an important group of EDC, and exposure to them is a poorly quantified source of human and environmental exposure to such chemicals generally. Models for estimating human exposure to Endocrine Disrupting (ED) pesticides are an important risk management tool. Probabilistic models are now being used in addition to deterministic ones in all areas of risk assessment. These can provide more realistic exposure estimates, because they are better able to deal with variation and uncertainty more effectively and better inform risk management decisions. Deterministic models are still used and are of great value where exposure data are scarce. Models or groups of models that provide holistic human ED pesticide exposure estimates are required if the risk posed to humans by ED pesticides is to be better assessed. Much more research is needed to quantify different exposure routes such as exposure from agricultural spray drift and the medical use of pesticides to develop such models. Most available probabilistic models of human exposure were developed in the USA and require modification for use elsewhere. In particular, datasets equivalent to those used to create and apply the American models are required. This paper examines the known routes of human pesticide exposure with particular reference to ED pesticides and their quantification as unlike pesticides generally, many ED pesticides are harmful at very low doses, especially if exposure occurs during sensitive stages of development, producing effects that may not manifest for many years or that affect descendants via epigenetic changes. It also summarises available deterministic and probabilistic models commonly used to calculate human exposure. The main requirement if such models are to be used in the UK is more quantitative data on the sources and pathways of human ED pesticide exposure. PMID:18417188

McKinlay, R; Plant, J A; Bell, J N B; Voulvoulis, N

2008-04-16

259

Statistical issues in assessing human population exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relating an exposure level to a particular outcome in occupational and environmental epidemiology studies may be challenging. In these studies, researchers are interested in the health effects from exposure. Two factors that complicate this process are the measurement error that is usually present in exposure assessment and the complex nature of the exposure–dose relationship. Statistical aspects of the measurement error

Edie A Weller; Louise M Ryan; Donna Spiegelman; Thomas Smith

1997-01-01

260

Nine-year evaluation of emergency department personnel exposure to ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Emergency department personnel experience potential occupational hazards from exposure to ionizing radiation (x-rays). To assess this risk, ionizing radiation exposure was analyzed during a nine-year period for 128 ED personnel. The group consisted of 21 physicians, 92 nurses, and 15 ancillary personnel. Exposure was measured for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiation using standard film dosimeter badges. Film badge use compliance was 66.7% for physicians, 86.2% for nurses, and 86.7% for ancillary personnel. Penetrating radiation exposure averaged 0.12 mrem/month for physicians, 0.70 mrem/month for nurses, and 0 mrem/month for ancillary personnel, all less than the average natural background exposure. We concluded that if standard radiation precautions are taken, the occupational risk from ionizing radiation exposure to personnel in the ED is minimal, and that routine monitoring of radiation exposure of ED personnel is unnecessary.

Grazer, R.E.; Meislin, H.W.; Westerman, B.R.; Criss, E.A.

1987-03-01

261

Radiation exposure during gastroenterologic fluoroscopy: risk assessment for pregnant workers.  

PubMed

With more females in childbearing years participating in fluoroscopic examinations, safety guidelines need to be evaluated. Present recommendations suggest limiting fetal irradiation to less than 500 mrem (0.5 rad) during gestation, and to avoid doses above 100 mrem (0.1 rad) from 8 to 15 wk postconception. The average radiation dose delivered per case was monitored during 10 therapeutic biliary procedures with lithium fluoride dosimeters worn at the endoscopist's collar, over the suprapubic region outside a knee-length 0.5-mm leaded equivalent apron, and inside the apron over the mid-pelvis. A short survey of 15 female technicians and physicians was conducted to gather their opinions about working in fluoroscopy during pregnancy. We found that radiation doses beneath the leaded apron were comparable to environmental exposure. The dose measured at the endoscopist's collar was 0.083 mrem/min. The dose over the pelvis was 0.044 mrem/min. The survey revealed that 13 of those interviewed would not feel safe working near fluoroscopy, and 12 wished to be excluded from fluoroscopy if they became pregnant. We conclude that a high level of anxiety regarding fetal safety exists among females participating in fluoroscopic procedures. In this study, with proper use of standard safety equipment, radiation exposure does not exceed those levels currently recommended to avoid during pregnancy. PMID:1553929

Krueger, K J; Hoffman, B J

1992-04-01

262

Cognitive deficits induced by 56Fe radiation exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposing rats to particles of high energy and charge (e.g., 56Fe) disrupts neuronal systems and the behaviors mediated by them; these adverse behavioral and neuronal effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. Because cognition declines with age, and our previous study showed that radiation disrupted Morris water maze spatial learning and memory performance, the present study used an 8-arm radial maze (RAM) to further test the cognitive behavioral consequences of radiation exposure. Control rats or rats exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1.0 Gy of 1 GeV/n high-energy 56Fe particles (delivered at the alternating gradient synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory) were tested nine months following exposure. Radiation adversely affected RAM performance, and the changes seen parallel those of aging. Irradiated animals entered baited arms during the first 4 choices significantly less than did controls, produced their first error sooner, and also tended to make more errors as measured by re-entries into non-baited arms. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere.

Shukitt-Hale, B.; Casadesus, G.; Cantuti-Castelvetri, I.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

263

Thyroid Carcinoma Secondary to Radiation Cloud Exposure from the Chernobyl Incident of 1986: A Case Study.  

PubMed

The Chernobyl accident of 1986 exposed most if not all of Europe to a blanket of radiation, creating a melting pot of human exposure sequelae that is still showing up in our medical clinics today. In our particular clinic, a young woman of 29 years presented with most of her extended family in attendance. The young woman was born and raised in northern Italy until the age of seven when she left and immigrated to the United States leaving most of her family behind. Shortly after the Chernobyl accident, 5 members of her family, all woman including her own mother, were diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Twenty-two years later, this same young woman came into the clinic with papillary thyroid carcinoma, making her the sixth member of her family. This case report illustrates the patient's history with her radiation exposure while talking in depth about the source, Chernobyl. PMID:20740164

Atkinson, Andrew L; Rosenthal, Andrew

2010-04-08

264

ICRP, 123. Assessment of radiation exposure of astronauts in space. ICRP Publication 123.  

PubMed

During their occupational activities in space, astronauts are exposed to ionising radiation from natural radiation sources present in this environment. They are, however, not usually classified as being occupationally exposed in the sense of the general ICRP system for radiation protection of workers applied on Earth. The exposure assessment and risk-related approach described in this report is clearly restricted to the special situation in space, and should not be applied to any other exposure situation on Earth. The report describes the terms and methods used to assess the radiation exposure of astronauts, and provides data for the assessment of organ doses. Chapter 1 describes the specific situation of astronauts in space, and the differences in the radiation fields compared with those on Earth. In Chapter 2, the radiation fields in space are described in detail, including galactic cosmic radiation, radiation from the Sun and its special solar particle events, and the radiation belts surrounding the Earth. Chapter 3 deals with the quantities used in radiological protection, describing the Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) system of dose quantities, and subsequently presenting the special approach for applications in space; due to the strong contribution of heavy ions in the radiation field, radiation weighting is based on the radiation quality factor, Q, instead of the radiation weighting factor, wR. In Chapter 4, the methods of fluence and dose measurement in space are described, including instrumentation for fluence measurements, radiation spectrometry, and area and individual monitoring. The use of biomarkers for the assessment of mission doses is also described. The methods of determining quantities describing the radiation fields within a spacecraft are given in Chapter 5. Radiation transport calculations are the most important tool. Some physical data used in radiation transport codes are presented, and the various codes used for calculations in high-energy radiation fields in space are described. Results of calculations and measurements of radiation fields in spacecraft are given. Some data for shielding possibilities are also presented. Chapter 6 addresses methods of determining mean absorbed doses and dose equivalents in organs and tissues of the human body. Calculated conversion coefficients of fluence to mean absorbed dose in an organ or tissue are given for heavy ions up to Z=28 for energies from 10 MeV/u to 100 GeV/u. For the same set of ions and ion energies, mean quality factors in organs and tissues are presented using, on the one hand, the Q(L) function defined in Publication 60 (ICRP, 1991), and, on the other hand, a Q function proposed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Doses in the body obtained by measurements are compared with results from calculations, and biodosimetric measurements for the assessment of mission doses are also presented. In Chapter 7, operational measures are considered for assessment of the exposure of astronauts during space missions. This includes preflight mission design, area and individual monitoring during flights in space, and dose recording. The importance of the magnitude of uncertainties in dose assessment is considered. Annex A shows conversion coefficients and mean quality factors for protons, charged pions, neutrons, alpha particles, and heavy ions(2 < Z ?2 8), and particle energies up to 100 GeV/u. PMID:23958389

Dietze, G; Bartlett, D T; Cool, D A; Cucinotta, F A; Jia, X; McAulay, I R; Pelliccioni, M; Petrov, V; Reitz, G; Sato, T

2013-08-01

265

A different approach to evaluating health effects from radiation exposure  

SciTech Connect

Absorbed dose D is shown to be a composite variable, the product of the fraction of cells hit (I/sub H/) and the mean /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ (hit size) /ovr z/ to those cells. D is suitable for use with high level (HLE) to radiation and its resulting acute organ effects because, since I/sub H/ = 1.0, D approximates closely enough the mean energy density in the cell as well as in the organ. However, with low-level exposure (LLE) to radiation and its consequent probability of cancer induction from a single cell, stochastic delivery of energy to cells results in a wide distribution of hit sizes z, and the expected mean value, /ovr z/, is constant with exposure. Thus, with LLE, only I/sub H/ varies with D so that the apparent proportionality between /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ and the fraction of cells transformed is misleading. This proportionality therefore does not mean that any (cell) dose, no matter how small, can be lethal. Rather, it means that, in the exposure of a population of individual organisms consisting of the constituent relevant cells, there is a small probabililty of particle-cell interactions which transfer energy. The probability of a cell transforming and initiating a cancer can only be greater than zero if the hit size (/open quotes/dose of energy/close quotes/) to the cell is large enough. Otherwise stated, if the /open quotes/dose/close quotes/ is defined at the proper level of biological organization, namely, the cell and not the organ, only a large dose z to that cell is effective. The above precepts are utilized to develop a drastically different approach to evaluation oif risk from LLE, that holds promise of obviating any requirement for the components of the present system: absorbed organ dose, LET, a standard radiation, REB(Q), dose equivalent and rem. 12 refs., 11 figs.

Bond, V.P.; Sondhaus, C.A.; Feinendegen, L.E.

1988-01-01

266

Infrared Radiation and Human Thermal Comfort.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This chapter highlights some biophysical and physiological variables important to our understanding of human responses to infrared radiation. Yet, there are many other aspects of the field which are fundamentally important but could not be adequately cove...

R. R. Gonzalez

1981-01-01

267

Medical radiation exposure and risk of retinoblastoma resulting from new germline RB1 mutation  

PubMed Central

Although ionizing radiation induces germline mutations in animals, human studies of radiation-exposed populations have not detected an effect. We conducted a case-control study of sporadic bilateral retinoblastoma, which results from a new germline RB1 mutation, to investigate gonadal radiation exposure of parents from medical sources before their child's conception. Parents of 206 cases from 9 North American institutions and 269 controls participated; fathers of 184 cases and 223 friend and relative controls and mothers of 204 cases and 260 controls provided information in telephone interviews on their medical radiation exposure. Cases provided DNA for RB1 mutation testing. Of common procedures, lower GI series conferred the highest estimated dose to testes and ovaries. Paternal history of lower GI series was associated with increased risk of retinoblastoma in the child (matched odds ratio (OR)=3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2, 11.2, 2-sided P=0.02), as was estimated total testicular dose from all procedures combined (OR for highest dose=3.9, 95% CI 1.2, 14.4, P =0.02). Maternal history of lower GI series was also associated with increased risk (OR=7.6, 95% CI 2.8, 20.7, P <0.001) as was estimated total dose (OR for highest dose=3.0, 95% CI 1.4, 7.0, P =0.005). The RB1 mutation spectrum in cases of exposed parents did not differ from that of other cases. Some animal and human data support our findings of an association of gonadal radiation exposure in men and women with new germline RB1 mutation detectable in their children, although bias, confounding, and/or chance may also explain the results.

Bunin, Greta R; Felice, Marc A.; Davidson, William; Friedman, Debra L; Shields, Carol L; Maidment, Andrew; O'Shea, Michael; Nichols, Kim E; Leahey, Ann; Dunkel, Ira J; Jubran, Rima; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Schmidt, Mary Lou; Weinstein, Joanna L; Goldman, Stewart; Abramson, David H; Wilson, Matthew W; Gallie, Brenda L; Chan, Helen S L; Shapiro, Michael; Cnaan, Avital; Ganguly, Arupa; Meadows, Anna T

2011-01-01

268

Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter  

EPA Science Inventory

The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) Version 2.0 is a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter developed by the US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). EPA SHEDS-PM 2.0 uses a probabilistic approach t...

269

Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: Methods, results and assessment of environmental exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human exposure to bisphenol A is controversially discussed. This review critically assesses methods for biomonitoring of bisphenol A exposures and reported concentrations of bisphenol A in blood and urine of non-occupationally (“environmentally”) exposed humans. From the many methods published to assess bisphenol A concentrations in biological media, mass spectrometry-based methods are considered most appropriate due to high sensitivity, selectivity and

Wolfgang Dekant; Wolfgang Voelkel

2008-01-01

270

Measurements of human body microwave radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major problems of registering microwave radiation of human body have been considered. It is pointed out that they are caused by at least three factors which may considerably influence the experimental results and their interpretation, namely: (1) properties of the radiation (their low intensity primarily); (2) features of measurements that implement waveguide techniques; (3) peculiar features of the emission medium

G. V. Ponezha; S. G. Ponezha; A. I. Nizhelskaya

2003-01-01

271

Radiation risk and human space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation protection is essential to enable humans to live and work safely in space. Predictions about the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Prudent use of worst-case scenarios may impose unacceptable constraints on shielding mass for spacecraft or habitats, tours of duty of crews on Space Station, and on the

W. Schimmerling; F. A. Cucinotta; J. W. Wilson

2003-01-01

272

Arsenic occurrence in Brazil and human exposure.  

PubMed

Environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in terms of public health is receiving increasing attention worldwide following cases of mass contamination in different parts of the world. However, there is a scarcity of data available on As geochemistry in Brazilian territory, despite the known occurrence of As in some of the more severely polluted areas of Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to discuss existing data on As distribution in Brazil based on recent investigations in three contaminated areas as well as results from the literature. To date, integrated studies on environmental and anthropogenic sources of As contamination have been carried out only in three areas in Brazil: (1) the Southeastern region, known as the Iron Quadrangle, where As was released into the drainage systems, soils and atmosphere as a result of gold mining; (2) the Ribeira Valley, where As occurs in Pb-Zn mine wastes and naturally in As-rich rocks and soils; (3) the Amazon region, including the Santana area, where As is associated with manganese ores mined over the last 50 years. Toxicological studies revealed that the populations were not exposed to elevated levels of As, with the As concentrations in surface water in these areas rarely exceeding 10 microg/L. Deep weathering of bedrocks along with formation of Fe/Al-enriched soils and sediments function as a chemical barrier that prevents the release of As into the water. In addition, the tropical climate results in high rates of precipitation in the northern and southeastern regions and, hence, the As contents of drinking water is diluted. Severe cases of human As exposure related to non-point pollution sources have not been reported in Brazil. However, increasing awareness of the adverse health effects of As will eventually lead to a more complete picture of the distribution of As in Brazil. PMID:17351814

de Figueiredo, Bernardino Ribeiro; Borba, Ricardo Perobelli; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

2007-04-01

273

Medical Diagnostic Radiation Exposures and Risk of Gliomas  

PubMed Central

High-dose ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for glioma, but it remains unknown whether moderate- and low-dose radiation increase glioma risk. In this analysis, we assessed the evidence that self-reported exposures to diagnostic ionizing radiation, including computerized tomography (CT) scans, is associated with increased risk of adult glioma. While no independent association was observed for CT scans alone (3+ scans compared to none P = 0.08 and 1–2 scans compared to none P = 0.68), our findings suggest an increased risk of adult gliomas with cumulative exposure to three or more CT scans to the head and neck region (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 0.92–4.23) limited to those who reported a family history of cancer: the P value for the interaction between having three or more CT scans and family history of cancer was 0.08. The stratum-specific adjusted OR for those with family history of cancer was more than three times that for the sub-group without family history of cancer. While there is some potential for symptom-related bias, one might expect this to be present for all diagnostic procedures rather than specific to one procedure. The interaction between CT scans and glioma with family history of cancer supports the biological plausibility of our findings, because similar results have been found for breast cancer and radiation. This observational data will increase awareness about potential risks associated with CT scans and the need to minimize the use of unnecessary examinations.

Davis, Faith; Il'yasova, Dora; Rankin, Kristin; McCarthy, Bridget; Bigner, Darell D.

2011-01-01

274

Exposure to galactic cosmic radiation and solar energetic particles.  

PubMed

Several investigations of the radiation field at aircraft altitudes have been undertaken during solar cycle 23 which occurred in the period 1993-2003. The radiation field is produced by the passage of galactic cosmic rays and their nuclear reaction products as well as solar energetic particles through the Earth's atmosphere. Galactic cosmic rays reach a maximum intensity when the sun is least active and are at minimum intensity during solar maximum period. During solar maximum an increased number of coronal mass ejections and solar flares produce high energy solar particles which can also penetrate down to aircraft altitudes. It is found that the very complicated field resulting from these processes varies with altitude, latitude and stage of solar cycle. By employing several active and passive detectors, the whole range of radiation types and energies were encompassed. In-flight data was obtained with the co-operation of many airlines and NASA. The EURADOS Aircraft Crew in-flight data base was used for comparison with the predictions of various computer codes. A brief outline of some recent studies of exposure to radiation in Earth orbit will conclude this contribution. PMID:17846031

O'Sullivan, D

2007-09-09

275

Is Exposure to Low Radiation Levels Good For You?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the biological effects of very low levels of ionizing radiation. We propose an experiment to compare cell response to such low radiation levels, using fast replicating yeast cells. Saccharomyces Cerevisae (SC), a type of yeast, is an eukariotic unicellular microorganism with a mean cell generation time of 90 min. Its genetic organization is similar to that of superior organisms, but at the same time is very easy to handle, with special reference to its genetic analysis. Certain CS strains are widely employed for mutagenesis studies. We propose to expose simultaneously three indentical CS cultures for a period of up to a few weeks (100s of cell generations): to natural backgroung (NB) ionizing radiation (at a ground level lab), to sub-NB level (underground) and to supra-NB level (at a high altitude). At the end of the exposure we will chemically challenge the cultured cells with methyl-methane-sulphonate (MMS), a standard chemical mutagen. Mitotic recombination frequency in the MMS exposed cultures is an index of early DNA damage induction at high survival levels (ie at very low radiation levels). This experiment can be handsomely and inexpensively accomodated in one of the existing underground laboratories.

Dimitroyannis, Dimitri

1996-05-01

276

Non-malignant thyroid diseases after a wide range of radiation exposures.  

PubMed

The thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive human organs. While it is well known that radiation exposure increases the risk of thyroid cancer, less is known about its effects in relation to non-malignant thyroid diseases. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effects of high- and low-dose radiation on benign structural and functional diseases of the thyroid. We examined the results of major studies from cancer patients treated with high-dose radiotherapy or thyrotoxicosis patients treated with high doses of iodine-131, patients treated with moderate- to high-dose radiotherapy for benign diseases, persons exposed to low doses from environmental radiation, and survivors of the atomic bombings who were exposed to a range of doses. We evaluated radiation effects on structural (tumors, nodules), functional (hyper- and hypothyroidism), and autoimmune thyroid diseases. After a wide range of doses of ionizing radiation, an increased risk of thyroid adenomas and nodules was observed in a variety of populations and settings. The dose response appeared to be linear at low to moderate doses, but in one study there was some suggestion of a reduction in risk above 5 Gy. The elevated risk for benign tumors continues for decades after exposure. Considerably less consistent findings are available regarding functional thyroid diseases including autoimmune diseases. In general, associations for these outcomes were fairly weak, and significant radiation effects were most often observed after high doses, particularly for hypothyroidism. A significant radiation dose-response relationship was demonstrated for benign nodules and follicular adenomas. The effects of radiation on functional thyroid diseases are less clear, partly due to the greater difficulties encountered in studying these diseases. PMID:21128812

Ron, Elaine; Brenner, Alina

2010-09-07

277

Assessing exposure to granite countertops--Part 1: Radiation.  

PubMed

Humans are continuously exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Known sources include radon, soil, cosmic rays, medical treatment, food, and building products such as gypsum board and concrete. Little information exists about radiation emissions and associated doses from natural stone finish materials such as granite countertops in homes. To address this knowledge gap, gross radioactivity, gamma ray activity, and dose rate were determined for slabs of granite marketed for use as countertops. Annual effective radiation doses were estimated from measured dose rates and human activity patterns while accounting for the geometry of granite countertops in a model kitchen. Gross radioactivity, gamma activity, and dose rate varied significantly among and within slabs of granite with ranges for median levels at the slab surface of ND to 3000 cpm, ND to 98,000 cpm, and ND to 1.5E-4 mSv/h, respectively. The maximum activity concentrations of the (40)K, (232)Th, and (226)Ra series were 2715, 231, and 450 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated annual radiation dose from spending 4 h/day in a hypothetical kitchen ranged from 0.005 to 0.18 mSv/a depending on the type of granite. In summary, our results show that the types of granite characterized in this study contain varying levels of radioactive isotopes and that their observed emissions are consistent with those reported in the scientific literature. We also conclude from our analyses that these emissions are likely to be a minor source of external radiation dose when used as countertop material within the home and present a negligible risk to human health. PMID:19707248

Myatt, Theodore A; Allen, Joseph G; Minegishi, Taeko; McCarthy, William B; Stewart, James H; Macintosh, David L; McCarthy, John F

2009-08-26

278

Human exposure to mercury may decrease as acidic deposition increases  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been hypothesized that human mercury (Hg) exposure via fish consumption will increase with increasing acidic deposition. Specifically, acidic deposition leads to reduced lake pH and alkalinity, and increased sulphate ion concentration ([SO42-]), which in turn should cause increased Hg levels in fish, ultimately resulting in increased human Hg exposure via fish consumption. Our empirical test of this hypothesis

M. Richardson; M. Egyed; D. J. Currie

1995-01-01

279

Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in susceptible subjects, including the elderly and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Controlled human exposure studies have been used to confirm the causal relationship between

Yuh-Chin T Huang; Andrew J Ghio

2009-01-01

280

The assessment of radiation exposures in native American communities from nuclear weapons testing in Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native Americans residing in a broad region downwind from the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s received significant radiation exposures from nuclear weapons testing. Because of differences in diet, activities, and housing, their radiation exposures are only very imperfectly represented in the Department of Energy dose reconstructions. There are important missing pathways, including exposures to radioactive iodine from

Eric Frohmberg; Robert Goble; Virginia Sanchez; Dianne Quigley

2000-01-01

281

Variations with time and age in the relative risks of solid cancer incidence after radiation exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese atomic bomb survivor cancer incidence dataset and data on five groups exposed to radiation for medical reasons in childhood are analysed and evidence found for a reduction in the radiation-induced relative risk of cancers other than leukaemia with increasing time since exposure and age at exposure. The rate of the reductions in relative risk with time since exposure

M. P. Little; F. de Vathaire; M. W. Charles; M. M. Hawkins; C. R. Muirhead

1997-01-01

282

EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MICROWAVE RADIATION EXPOSURE EMITTED FROM CELLULAR PHONE BASE STATION ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of wireless telecommunication devices is increasing rapidly. It has led to public concern about the possible adverse health effects of microwave radiation exposure on the biological systems of humans and animals. The changes in protein fractions, liver enzymes activities, transferrin and iron status were detected in blood of two groups of young and old male rats, the animals

Nahed Mohamed El-Abiad; Ebtisam Abd; El-Mageed Marzook

283

Space Radiation Hazards on Human Missions to the Moon and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most significant health risks for humans exploring Earth's moon and Mars is exposure to the harsh space radiation environment. Crews on these exploration missions will be exposed to a complex mixture of very energetic particles. Chronic exposures to the ever-present background galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spectrum consisting of various fluxes of all naturally - occurring chemical elements

L. Townsend

2004-01-01

284

Determination of important nuclear fragmentation processes for human space radiation protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a semianalytical method to determine which partial cross sections of nuclear fragmentations most affect the shielded dose equivalent due to exposure to galactic cosmic rays. The cross sections thus determined will require more theoretical and/or experimental studies for us to better predict, reduce, and mitigate the radiation exposure in human space explorations.

Lin, Zi-Wei

2007-03-01

285

Determination of important nuclear fragmentation processes for human space radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

We present a semianalytical method to determine which partial cross sections of nuclear fragmentations most affect the shielded dose equivalent due to exposure to galactic cosmic rays. The cross sections thus determined will require more theoretical and/or experimental studies for us to better predict, reduce, and mitigate the radiation exposure in human space explorations.

Lin Ziwei [Mail Stop VP62, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, Alabama 35805 (United States)

2007-03-15

286

1.8 GHz Radio Frequency signal radiation effects on human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio Frequency (RF) radiation effects are strictly relying on few critical factors, ie frequency, period of exposure and distance. Certain frequency ranges are absorbed in body tissue more than the other frequency range. The second factor is the duration of exposure. Where, over the period of time, the body will absorb more RF frequencies which hence will worsened the human

Azizah Ahmad; Rusnani Ariffin; Norhayati Mohd Noor; Meor Adzmey Sagiruddin

2011-01-01

287

38 CFR 3.715 - Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, as amended.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, as...Benefits and Elections § 3.715 Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, as amended. (a) Compensation. (1) A radiation-exposed veteran, as defined in...

2013-07-01

288

10 CFR 35.70 - Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.70 Section 35...Requirements § 35.70 Surveys of ambient radiation exposure rate. (a) In addition...chapter, a licensee shall survey with a radiation detection survey instrument at...

2013-01-01

289

Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) grant; NSBRI is funded through NASA NCC 9-58. Recent Publications: [1]Cengel K. A. et al. (2010) Radiat Environ Biophys 49(4): 715-21. [2] Ware J. H. et al. (2010) Radiation Res 174: 325-330. [3] Davis J. G. et al. (2010) Radiation Res 173(3):353-61. [4] Sanzari J.K. et al. (2011) Radiation Res 175(5):650-6. [5] Ni H. et al. (2011) Radiation Res 175(4): 485-92. [6] Mao X. W. et al. (2011) Radiation Res 176: 187-197. [7] Maks C. J. et al. (2011) Radiation Res 176: 170-6. [8] Kennedy A. R. et al. (2011) Radiation Res 176: 62-70. [9] Sanzari J. K. et al. (2011) Int J Radiat Biol 87: 1033-8. [10] Wilson J. M. et al. (2011) Radiation Res 176(5):649-59. [11] Kennedy A. R. and Wan X. S. (2011) Advances in Space Res 48: 1460-1479. [12] Gridley D. S. et al. (2011) Int J Radiat Biol 2011 87(12): 1173-81, [13] York J. M., et al. (2012) Brain Behav Immun 26(2): 218-27,[14] Wilson J. M. et al. (2012) Advances in Space Res 49: 237-248. [15] Krigsfeld, G.S. et al. Int J Radiat Biol 2012 Feb 6 [Epub ahead of print

Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith

2012-07-01

290

Impacts of RF radiation on the human body in a passive wireless healthcare environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we identify the most significant problems involving the impacts of radio frequency (RF) radiation on the human body. The coming pervasive healthcare environment will rely heavily upon wirelessly communicating devices to provide the information visibility and communication capabilities required to achieve these ambitious systems. The impact of significant and continuous RF radiation exposure must be understood to

Darmindra D. Arumugam; A. Gautham; G. Narayanaswamy; D. W. Engels

2008-01-01

291

Radiation Cataract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These studies provide an opportunity to study the effects of low-dose radiation exposure and the influence(s) of genetic radiosensitivity in a rodent model that has great relevance and similarity to human response to radiation exposure and determination of appropriate human exposure guidelines. Futhermore, any extension of the presumed radiation cataract threshold in this animal model to lower doses is likely to be important to the development of appropriate guidelines for national space radiation risk policy.

Kleiman, Norman; Hall, Eric; Brenner, David; Lieberman, Howard; Smilenov, Lubomir

292

Radiation Metabolomics. 2. Dose- and Time-Dependent Urinary Excretion of Deaminated Purines and Pyrimidines after Sublethal Gamma-Radiation Exposure in Mice  

PubMed Central

Gamma-radiation exposure of humans is a major public health concern as the threat of terrorism and potential hostile use of radiological devices increases worldwide. We report here the effects of sublethal ?-radiation exposure on the mouse urinary metabolome determined using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-coupled time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Five urinary biomarkers of sublethal radiation exposure that were statistically significantly elevated during the first 24 h after exposure to doses ranging from 1 to 3 Gy were unequivocally identified by tandem mass spectrometry. These are deaminated purine and pyrimidine derivatives, namely, thymidine, 2?-deoxyuridine, 2?-deoxyxanthosine, xanthine and xanthosine. Furthermore, the aminopyrimidine 2?-deoxycytidine appeared to display reduced urinary excretion at 2 and 3 Gy. The elevated biomarkers displayed a time-dependent excretion, peaking in urine at 8–12 h but returning to baseline by 36 h after exposure. It is proposed that 2?-deoxyuridine and 2?-deoxyxanthosine arise as a result of ? irradiation by nitrosative deamination of 2?-deoxycytidine and 2?-deoxyguanosine, respectively, and that this further leads to increased synthesis of thymidine, xanthine and xanthosine. The urinary excretion of deaminated purines and pyrimidines, at the expense of aminopurines and aminopyrimidines, appears to form the core of the urinary radiation metabolomic signature of mice exposed to sublethal doses of ionizing radiation.

Tyburski, John B.; Patterson, Andrew D.; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Slavik, Josef; Fornace, Albert J.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Idle, Jeffrey R.

2009-01-01

293

Uncertainties in estimating health risks associated with exposure to ionising radiation.  

PubMed

The information for the present discussion on the uncertainties associated with estimation of radiation risks and probability of disease causation was assembled for the recently published NCRP Report No. 171 on this topic. This memorandum provides a timely overview of the topic, given that quantitative uncertainty analysis is the state of the art in health risk assessment and given its potential importance to developments in radiation protection. Over the past decade the increasing volume of epidemiology data and the supporting radiobiology findings have aided in the reduction of uncertainty in the risk estimates derived. However, it is equally apparent that there remain significant uncertainties related to dose assessment, low dose and low dose-rate extrapolation approaches (e.g. the selection of an appropriate dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor), the biological effectiveness where considerations of the health effects of high-LET and lower-energy low-LET radiations are required and the transfer of risks from a population for which health effects data are available to one for which such data are not available. The impact of radiation on human health has focused in recent years on cancer, although there has been a decided increase in the data for noncancer effects together with more reliable estimates of the risk following radiation exposure, even at relatively low doses (notably for cataracts and cardiovascular disease). New approaches for the estimation of hereditary risk have been developed with the use of human data whenever feasible, although the current estimates of heritable radiation effects still are based on mouse data because of an absence of effects in human studies. Uncertainties associated with estimation of these different types of health effects are discussed in a qualitative and semi-quantitative manner as appropriate. The way forward would seem to require additional epidemiological studies, especially studies of low dose and low dose-rate occupational and perhaps environmental exposures and for exposures to x rays and high-LET radiations used in medicine. The development of models for more reliably combining the epidemiology data with experimental laboratory animal and cellular data can enhance the overall risk assessment approach by providing biologically refined data to strengthen the estimation of effects at low doses as opposed to the sole use of mathematical models of epidemiological data that are primarily driven by medium/high doses. NASA's approach to radiation protection for astronauts, although a unique occupational group, indicates the possible applicability of estimates of risk and their uncertainty in a broader context for developing recommendations on: (1) dose limits for occupational exposure and exposure of members of the public; (2) criteria to limit exposures of workers and members of the public to radon and its short-lived decay products; and (3) the dosimetric quantity (effective dose) used in radiation protection. PMID:23803503

Preston, R Julian; Boice, John D; Brill, A Bertrand; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Conolly, Rory; Hoffman, F Owen; Hornung, Richard W; Kocher, David C; Land, Charles E; Shore, Roy E; Woloschak, Gayle E

2013-06-27

294

Radiobiologic effect of intermittent radiation exposure in murine tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In stereotactic irradiation using a linear accelerator, the effect of radiation may be reduced during intermittent exposures owing to recovery from sublethal damage in tumor cells. After our previous in vitro study suggesting this phenomenon, we investigated the issue in murine tumors. Methods and Materials: We used EMT6 and SCCVII tumors approximately 1 cm in diameter growing in the hind legs of syngeneic mice. Three schedules of intermittent radiation were investigated. First, 2 fractions of 10 Gy were given at an interval of 15-360 min to investigate the pattern of recovery from sublethal damage. Second, 5 fractions of 4 Gy were given with interfraction intervals of 2.5-15 min each. Third, 10 fractions of 2 Gy were given with interfraction intervals of 1-7 min each. Doses of 15-20 Gy were also given without interruption to estimate the dose-modifying factors. Tumors were excised 20 h later, and tumor cell survival was determined by an in vivo-in vitro assay. Results: In the 2-fraction experiment, the increase in cell survival with elongation of the interval was much less than that observed in our previous in vitro study. In the 5- and 10-fraction experiments, no significant increase in cell survival was observed after the intermittent exposures. Moreover, cell survival decreased at most points of the 5-fraction experiments by interruption of radiation in both EMT6 and SCCVII tumors. In the 10-fraction experiment, cell survival also decreased when the interruption was 3 or 7 min in EMT6 tumors. Conclusion: The results of the present in vivo studies were different from those of our in vitro studies in which cell survival increased significantly when a few minutes or longer intervals were posed between fractions. This suggests that recovery from sublethal damage in vivo may be counterbalanced by other phenomena such as reoxygenation that sensitizes tumor cells to subsequent irradiation.

Sugie, Chikao [Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan)]. E-mail: chikao@bg8.so-net.ne.jp; Shibamoto, Yuta [Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Ito, Masato [Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Ogino, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Miyamoto, Akihiko [Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Fukaya, Nobuyuki [Department of Radiology, Kariya General Hospital, Kariya, Aichi (Japan); Niimi, Hiroshige [Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Hashizume, Takuya [Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan)

2006-02-01

295

Male reproductive health under threat: Short term exposure to radiofrequency radiations emitted by common mobile jammers  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Modern life prompted man to increasingly generate, transmit and use electricity that leads to exposure to different levels of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to common sources of EMF such as mobile phones, laptops or wireless internet-connected laptops decreases human semen quality. In some countries, mobile jammers are occasionally used in offices, shrines, conference rooms and cinemas to block the signal. AIMS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of short term exposure of human sperm samples to radiofrequency (RF) radiations emitted by common mobile jammers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fresh semen samples were collected by masturbation from 30 healthy donors who had referred to Infertility Treatment Center at the Mother and Child Hospital with their wives. Female problem was diagnosed as the reason for infertility in these couples. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: T-test and analysis of variance were used to show statistical significance. RESULTS: The motility of sperm samples exposed to jammer RF radiation for 2 or 4 h were significantly lower than those of sham-exposed samples. These findings lead us to the conclusion that mobile jammers may significantly decrease sperm motility and the couples’ chances of conception. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, it can be suggested that in countries that have not banned mobile jammer use, legislations should be urgently passed to restrict the use of these signal blocking devices in public or private places.

Mortazavi, SMJ; Parsanezhad, ME; Kazempour, M; Ghahramani, P; Mortazavi, AR; Davari, M

2013-01-01

296

Radiation dose assessment of exposure to depleted uranium.  

PubMed

Depleted uranium (DU) is claimed to contribute to human health problems, known as the Gulf War Syndrome and the Balkan Syndrome. Quantitative radiation dose is required to estimate the health risk of DU materials. The influences of the solubility parameters in the human alimentary tract and the respiratory tract systems and the aerosol particles size on the radiation dose of DU materials were evaluated. The dose conversion factor of daily urinary excretion of DU is provided. The retention and excretion of DU in the human body after a contamination at a wound site were predicted. Dose coefficients of DU after ingestion and inhalation were calculated using the solubility parameters of the DU corrosion products in simulated gastric and simulated lung fluid, which were determined in the Helmholtz Zentrum München. (238)U is the main radiation dose contributor per 1 Bq of DU materials. The dose coefficients of DU materials were estimated to be 3.5 x 10(-8) and 2.1 x 10(-6) Sv Bq(-1) after ingestion and inhalation for members of the public. The ingestion dose coefficient of DU materials is about 75% of the natural uranium value. The inhalation dose coefficient of DU material is in between those for Type M and Type S according to the category for inhaled materials defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Radiation dose possibly received from DU materials can directly be estimated by using the dose conversion factor provided in this study, if daily urinary excretion of DU is measured. PMID:18596688

Li, Wei Bo; Gerstmann, Udo C; Höllriegl, Vera; Szymczak, Wilfried; Roth, Paul; Hoeschen, Christoph; Oeh, Uwe

2008-07-02

297

Radiation exposure and breast cancer: lessons from Chernobyl.  

PubMed

The lessons learned from the Chernobyl disaster have become increasingly important after the second anniversary of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear accident. Historically, data from the Chernobyl reactor accident 27 years ago demonstrated a strong correlation with thyroid cancer, but data on the radiation effects of Chernobyl on breast cancer incidence have remained inconclusive. We reviewed the published literature on the effects of the Chernobyl disaster on breast cancer incidence, using Medline and Scopus from the time of the accident to December of 2010. Our findings indicate limited data and statistical flaws. Other confounding factors, such as discrepancies in data collection, make interpretation of the results from the published literature difficult. Re-analyzing the data reveals that the incidence of breast cancer in Chernobyl-disaster-exposed women could be higher than previously thought. We have learned little of the consequences of radiation exposure at Chernobyl except for its effects on thyroid cancer incidence. Marking the 27th year after the Chernobyl event, this report sheds light on a specific, crucial and understudied aspect of the results of radiation from a gruesome nuclear power plant disaster. PMID:23691737

Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Hudon, Tyler W; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

2013-04-01

298

Mitigation of Lung Injury after Accidental Exposure to Radiation  

PubMed Central

There is a serious need to develop effective mitigators against accidental radiation exposures. In radiation accidents, many people may receive nonuniform whole-body or partial-body irradiation. The lung is one of the more radiosensitive organs, demonstrating pneumonitis and fibrosis that are believed to develop at least partially because of radiation-induced chronic inflammation. Here we addressed the crucial questions of how damage to the lung can be mitigated and whether the response is affected by irradiation to the rest of the body. We examined the widely used dietary supplement genistein given at two dietary levels (750 or 3750 mg/kg) to Fischer rats irradiated with 12 Gy to the lung or 8 Gy to the lung + 4 Gy to the whole body excluding the head and tail (whole torso). We found that genistein had promising mitigating effects on oxidative damage, pneumonitis and fibrosis even at late times (36 weeks) when drug treatment was initiated 1 week after irradiation and stopped at 28 weeks postirradiation. The higher dose of genistein showed no greater beneficial effect. Combined lung and whole-torso irradiation caused more lung-related severe morbidity resulting in euthanasia of the animals than lung irradiation alone.

Mahmood, J.; Jelveh, S.; Calveley, V.; Zaidi, A.; Doctrow, S. R.; Hill, R. P.

2011-01-01

299

10 CFR Appendix A to Part 835 - Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for Controlling Radiation Exposure to Workers at DOE Facilities  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Concentrations (DAC) for Controlling Radiation Exposure to Workers at DOE Facilities...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGYOCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Pt. 835, App. AAppendix...Concentrations (DAC) for Controlling Radiation Exposure to Workers at DOE...

2013-01-01

300

10 CFR 20.2203 - Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations of radioactive material exceeding the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations of radioactive...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Reports § 20.2203 Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations of...

2013-01-01

301

Assessing exposure to phthalates - the human biomonitoring approach.  

PubMed

Some phthalates are developmental and reproductive toxicants in animals. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Based on a comprehensive literature research, we present an overview of the sources of human phthalate exposure and results of exposure assessments with special focus on human biomonitoring data. Among the general population, there is widespread exposure to a number of phthalates. Foodstuff is the major source of phthalate exposure, particularly for the long-chain phthalates such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. For short-chain phthalates such as di-n-butyl-phthalate, additional pathways are of relevance. In general, children are exposed to higher phthalate doses than adults. Especially, high exposures can occur through some medications or medical devices. By comparing exposure data with existing limit values, one can also assess the risks associated with exposure to phthalates. Within the general population, some individuals exceed tolerable daily intake values for one or more phthalates. In high exposure groups, (intensive medical care, medications) tolerable daily intake transgressions can be substantial. Recent findings from animal studies suggest that a cumulative risk assessment for phthalates is warranted, and a cumulative exposure assessment to phthalates via human biomonitoring is a major step into this direction. PMID:20564479

Wittassek, Matthias; Koch, Holger Martin; Angerer, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

2011-01-01

302

Personalized Exposure Assessment: Promising Approaches for Human Environmental Health Research  

PubMed Central

New technologies and methods for assessing human exposure to chemicals, dietary and lifestyle factors, infectious agents, and other stressors provide an opportunity to extend the range of human health investigations and advance our understanding of the relationship between environmental exposure and disease. An ad hoc Committee on Environmental Exposure Technology Development was convened to identify new technologies and methods for deriving personalized exposure measurements for application to environmental health studies. The committee identified a “toolbox” of methods for measuring external (environmental) and internal (biologic) exposure and assessing human behaviors that influence the likelihood of exposure to environmental agents. The methods use environmental sensors, geographic information systems, biologic sensors, toxicogenomics, and body burden (biologic) measurements. We discuss each of the methods in relation to current use in human health research; specific gaps in the development, validation, and application of the methods are highlighted. We also present a conceptual framework for moving these technologies into use and acceptance by the scientific community. The framework focuses on understanding complex human diseases using an integrated approach to exposure assessment to define particular exposure–disease relationships and the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in disease occurrence. Improved methods for exposure assessment will result in better means of monitoring and targeting intervention and prevention programs.

Weis, Brenda K.; Balshaw, David; Barr, John R.; Brown, David; Ellisman, Mark; Lioy, Paul; Omenn, Gilbert; Potter, John D.; Smith, Martyn T.; Sohn, Lydia; Suk, William A.; Sumner, Susan; Swenberg, James; Walt, David R.; Watkins, Simon; Thompson, Claudia; Wilson, Samuel H.

2005-01-01

303

Therapeutic and space radiation exposure of mouse brain causes impaired DNA repair response and premature senescence by chronic oxidant production.  

PubMed

Despite recent epidemiological evidences linking radiation exposure and a number of human ailments including cancer, mechanistic understanding of how radiation inflicts long-term changes in cerebral cortex, which regulates important neuronal functions, remains obscure. The current study dissects molecular events relevant to pathology in cerebral cortex of 6 to 8 weeks old female C57BL/6J mice two and twelve months after exposure to a ? radiation dose (2 Gy) commonly employed in fractionated radiotherapy. For a comparative study, effects of 1.6 Gy heavy ion 56Fe radiation on cerebral cortex were also investigated, which has implications for space exploration. Radiation exposure was associated with increased chronic oxidative stress, oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis. These results when considered with decreased cortical thickness, activation of cell-cycle arrest pathway, and inhibition of DNA double strand break repair factors led us to conclude to our knowledge for the first time that radiation caused aging-like pathology in cerebral cortical cells and changes after heavy ion radiation were more pronounced than ? radiation. PMID:23928451

Suman, Shubhankar; Rodriguez, Olga C; Winters, Thomas A; Fornace, Albert J; Albanese, Chris; Datta, Kamal

2013-08-01

304

Therapeutic and space radiation exposure of mouse brain causes impaired DNA repair response and premature senescence by chronic oxidant production  

PubMed Central

Despite recent epidemiological evidences linking radiation exposure and a number of human ailments including cancer, mechanistic understanding of how radiation inflicts long-term changes in cerebral cortex, which regulates important neuronal functions, remains obscure. The current study dissects molecular events relevant to pathology in cerebral cortex of 6 to 8 weeks old female C57BL/6J mice two and twelve months after exposure to a ? radiation dose (2 Gy) commonly employed in fractionated radiotherapy. For a comparative study, effects of 1.6 Gy heavy ion56Fe radiation on cerebral cortex were also investigated, which has implications for space exploration. Radiation exposure was associated with increased chronic oxidative stress, oxidative DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis. These results when considered with decreased cortical thickness, activation of cell-cycle arrest pathway, and inhibition of DNA double strand break repair factors led us to conclude to our knowledge for the first time that radiation caused aging-like pathology in cerebral cortical cells and changes after heavy ion radiation were more pronounced than ? radiation.

Suman, Shubhankar; Rodriguez, Olga C.; Winters, Thomas A.; Fornace, Albert J.; Albanese, Chris; Datta, Kamal

2013-01-01

305

Cigarette Smoking and Radiation Exposure in Relation to Cancer Mortality, Hiroshima and Nagasaki.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure. Relative risk models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures (smoking...

R. L. Prentice Y. Yoshimoto M. W. Mason

1983-01-01

306

Exposure Assessment of Acrylates/Methacrylates in Radiation-Cured Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Occupational exposures to radiation cured acrylates/methacrylates during their processing and use in coatings, inks, and adhesives were evaluated in 12 walk through surveys at formulator and applicator sites. Inhalation and dermal exposure routes were stu...

1987-01-01

307

A novel method to calculate solar UV exposure relevant to vitamin D production in humans.  

PubMed

We present a novel method to calculate vitamin D3 -weighted exposure by integrating the incident solar spectral radiance over all relevant parts of the human body. Earlier investigations are based on the irradiance on surfaces, whereas our calculated exposure of a voxel model of a human takes into account the complex geometry of the radiation field. Assuming that sufficient vitamin D3 (1000 international units) can be produced within the human body in one minute for a completely uncovered body in vertical posture in summer at midlatitudes (e.g. Rome, June 21, noon, UV index of 10), we calculate the exposure times needed in other situations or seasons to gain enough vitamin D3 . Our calculations show that the UV index is not a good indicator for the exposure which depends on the orientation of the body (e.g. vertical (standing) or horizontal (lying down) posture). Without clothing the exposure is dominated by diffuse sky radiation and it is nearly irrelevant how the body in vertical posture is oriented toward the sun. At the winter solstice (December 21, noon, cloudy) at least in central Europe sufficient vitamin D3 cannot be obtained with realistic clothing, even if the exposure were extended to all daylight hours. PMID:23517086

Seckmeyer, Gunther; Schrempf, Michael; Wieczorek, Anna; Riechelmann, Stefan; Graw, Kathrin; Seckmeyer, Stefan; Zankl, Maria

2013-05-27

308

Fetal Radiation Exposure Induces Testicular Cancer in Genetically Susceptible Mice  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), a common solid tissue malignancy in young men, has been annually increasing at an alarming rate of 3%. Since the majority of testicular cancers are derived from germ cells at the stage of transformation of primordial germ cell (PGC) into gonocytes, the increase has been attributed to maternal/fetal exposures to environmental factors. We examined the effects of an estrogen (diethylstilbestrol, DES), an antiandrogen (flutamide), or radiation on the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in genetically predisposed 129.MOLF-L1 (L1) congenic mice by exposing them to these agents on days 10.5 and 11.5 of pregnancy. Neither flutamide nor DES produced noticeable increases in testis cancer incidence at 4 weeks of age. In contrast, two doses of 0.8-Gy radiation increased the incidence of TGCT from 45% to 100% in the offspring. The percentage of mice with bilateral tumors, weights of testes with TGCT, and the percentage of tumors that were clearly teratomas were higher in the irradiated mice than in controls, indicating that irradiation induced more aggressive tumors and/or more foci of initiation sites in each testis. This radiation dose did not disrupt spermatogenesis, which was qualitatively normal in tumor-free testes although they were reduced in size. This is the first proof of induction of testicular cancer by an environmental agent and suggests that the male fetus of women exposed to radiation at about 5–6 weeks of pregnancy might have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer. Furthermore, it provides a novel tool for studying the molecular and cellular events of testicular cancer pathogenesis.

Shetty, Gunapala; Comish, Paul B.; Weng, Connie C. Y.; Matin, Angabin; Meistrich, Marvin L.

2012-01-01

309

Issues in the control of low-level radiation exposure.  

PubMed

The carcinogenic risks of exposure to low level ionizing radiation used by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) have been challenged as being, at the same time, both too high and too low. This paper explains that the epidemiological evidence will always be limited at low doses, so that understanding the cellular mechanisms of carcinogenesis is increasingly important to assess the biological risks. An analysis is then given of the reasons why the challenges to ICRP, especially about the linear non-threshold response model, have arisen. As a result of considering the issues, the Main Commission of ICRP is now consulting on a revised, simpler, approach based on an individual oriented philosophy. This represents a potential shift by the Commission from the past emphasis on societal-oriented criteria. These proposals have been promulgated through the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) and an open literature publication was published in the Journal of Radiological Protection' in June 1999. On the basis of comments received and the observations presented at the IRPA 10 Conference, the Commission will begin to develop the outline of the next Recommendations. It is now more than ten years since ICRP distributed, for comment, a draft of what was to become the publication of the 1990 Recommendations. The Commission plans to develop its new Recommendations on a time scale of the next four or five years. In this paper, many of the issues that will need to be addressed in the development of the recommendations will be identified. These issues will cover biological effects, dosimetric quantities and the establishment of those levels of dose at which different protection requirements will be put into place. Concepts of exclusion and exemption will need to be clarified as well as the meaning of how to achieve what the proposal identifies as 'As Low as Reasonably Practicable' (ALARP). Finally, the Commission has decided to develop an environmental radiation protection philosophy that will need to be developed as part of the new Recommendations. PMID:11130633

Clarke, R H

310

Fetal radiation exposure induces testicular cancer in genetically susceptible mice.  

PubMed

The prevalence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), a common solid tissue malignancy in young men, has been annually increasing at an alarming rate of 3%. Since the majority of testicular cancers are derived from germ cells at the stage of transformation of primordial germ cell (PGC) into gonocytes, the increase has been attributed to maternal/fetal exposures to environmental factors. We examined the effects of an estrogen (diethylstilbestrol, DES), an antiandrogen (flutamide), or radiation on the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in genetically predisposed 129.MOLF-L1 (L1) congenic mice by exposing them to these agents on days 10.5 and 11.5 of pregnancy. Neither flutamide nor DES produced noticeable increases in testis cancer incidence at 4 weeks of age. In contrast, two doses of 0.8-Gy radiation increased the incidence of TGCT from 45% to 100% in the offspring. The percentage of mice with bilateral tumors, weights of testes with TGCT, and the percentage of tumors that were clearly teratomas were higher in the irradiated mice than in controls, indicating that irradiation induced more aggressive tumors and/or more foci of initiation sites in each testis. This radiation dose did not disrupt spermatogenesis, which was qualitatively normal in tumor-free testes although they were reduced in size. This is the first proof of induction of testicular cancer by an environmental agent and suggests that the male fetus of women exposed to radiation at about 5-6 weeks of pregnancy might have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer. Furthermore, it provides a novel tool for studying the molecular and cellular events of testicular cancer pathogenesis. PMID:22348147

Shetty, Gunapala; Comish, Paul B; Weng, Connie C Y; Matin, Angabin; Meistrich, Marvin L

2012-02-13

311

Cytogenetic effects in human exposure to arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytogenetic effects of arsenic exposure were studied among rural populations that live in the same geographical area and have similar socioeconomic status, but different degree of exposure to inorganic arsenic (As) via drinking water. A group of inhabitants of Santa Ana (408.17 ?g\\/l of As in drinking water) were considered the exposed individuals and a group of inhabitants of

M. E. Gonsebatt; L. Vega; A. M. Salazar; R. Montero; P. Guzmán; J. Blas; L. M. Del Razo; G. García-Vargas; A. Albores; M. E. Cebrián; M. Kelsh; P. Ostrosky-Wegman

1997-01-01

312

Biomarkers of organophosphorus (OP) exposures in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are ongoing events where aircraft engine lubricant containing tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) contaminates aircraft cabins. Some individuals have experienced tremors or other neurological symptoms that may last for many months following exposures. Mass spectrometric (MS) protocols are being developed to determine the percentage of “biomarker proteins” that are modified by such exposures, specifically on active site serines. Both plasma butyrylcholinesterase

Judit Marsillach; Rebecca J. Richter; Jerry H. Kim; Richard C. Stevens; Michael J. MacCoss; Daniela Tomazela; Stephanie M. Suzuki; Lawrence M. Schopfer; Oksana Lockridge; Clement E. Furlong

313

A Demonstration of Radiation-Pressure Effects by Double-Exposure Holographic Interferometry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an experiment which utilizes the technique of double-exposure holographic interferometry to demonstrate electromagnetic wave radiation-pressure effects on an illuminated object. (Author/GA)|

Lee, Steven W.; Sachse, Wolfgang

1978-01-01

314

RADIATION AND THE HUMAN BODY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential dangers and harmful effects of radiation are illustrated, ; and the importance of collaboration between industry, the medical profession, ; biologists, and physicists is stressed. Emphasis is on the importance of ; objective decisions, regardless of political or economic considerations, when ; health problems concerning nuclear energy are under examination. (N.W.R.);

1961-01-01

315

Radiation exposures during space flight and their measurement.  

PubMed

The paper reviews radiation exposures recorded during space flights of the US and USSR. Most of the data are from manned missions and include discussion of absorbed dose and dose rates as a function of parameters such as altitude, inclination, spacecraft type and shielding. Preliminary data exist on the neutron and HZE-particle component, as well as the LET spectra. For low Earth-orbit missions, the dose encountered is strongly altitude-dependent, with a weaker dependence upon inclination. The doses range from about 6 millirad per day for the Space Transportation System No. 3 flight to about 90 mrad per day for Skylab. The effective quality factor (QF) for the near-Earth orbits and free space has been estimated to be about 1.5 and about 5.5 respectively. Complete shielding from the galactic cosmic rays does not appear practical because of spacecraft weight limitations. PMID:11542745

Benton, E V; Henke, R P

1983-01-01

316

Radiation carcinogenesis in man: influence of dose-response models and risk projection models in the estimation of risk coefficients following exposure to low-level radiation  

SciTech Connect

The somatic effects of concern in human populations exposed to low doses and low dose rates of ionizing radiations are those that may be induced by mutation in individual cells, singly or in small numbers. The most important of these is considered to be cancer induction. Current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man has been reviewed in two recent reports: the 1977 UNSCEAR Report; and the 1980 BEIR-III Report. Both reports emphasize that cancers of the breast, thyroid, hematopoietic tissues, lung, and bone can be induced by radiation. Other cancers, including the stomach, pancreas, pharynx, lymphatic, and perhaps all tissues of the body, may also be induced by radiation. Both reports calculate risk estimates in absolute and relative terms for low-dose, low-LET whole-body exposure, and for leukemia, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, lung cancer, and other cancers. These estimates derive from exposure and cancer incidence data at high doses and at high dose rates. There are no compelling scientific reasons to apply these values of risk to the very low doses and low dose rates of concern in human radiation protection. In the absence of reliable human data for calculating risk estimates, dose-response models have been constructed from extrapolations of animal data and high-dose-rate human data for projection of estimated risks at low doses and low dose rates. (ERB)

Fabrikant, J.I.

1982-02-01

317

Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters  

SciTech Connect

Of the important health effects of ionizing radiation, three important late effects - carcinogenesis, teratogenesis and mutagenesis are of greatest concern. This is because any exposure, even at low levels, carries some risk of such deleterious effects. As the dose of radiation increases above very low levels, the risk of health effects increases. Cancer-induction is the most important late somatic effect of low-dose ionizing radiation. Solid cancers, rather than leukemia, are principal late effects in exposed individuals. Tissues vary greatly in their susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis. The most frequently occurring radiation-induced cancers in man include, in decreasing order of susceptibility: the female breast, the thyroid gland, the blood-forming tissues, the lung, certain organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and the bones. A number of biological and physical factors affect the cancer risk, such as age, sex, life-style, LET, and RBE. Despite uncertainty about low-level radiation risks, regulatory and advisory bodies must set standards for exposure, and individuals need information to be able to make informed judgments for themselves. From the point of view of the policy maker, the overriding concern is the fact that small doses of radiation can cause people to have more cancers than would otherwise be expected. While concern for all radiation effects exists, our human experience is limited to cancer-induction in exposed populations. This discussion is limited to cancer risk estimation and decision-making in relation to the health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Here, low-level radiation will refer to yearly whole-body doses up to 5 rems or 0.05 Sv, or to cumulative doses up to 50 rems or 0.5 Sv from low-LET radiation and from high-LET radiation. (ERB)

Fabrikant, J.I.

1982-04-01

318

Solar UV radiation reduces the barrier function of human skin  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitous presence of solar UV radiation in human life is essential for vitamin D production but also leads to skin photoaging, damage, and malignancies. Photoaging and skin cancer have been extensively studied, but the effects of UV on the critical mechanical barrier function of the outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), are not understood. The SC is the first line of defense against environmental exposures like solar UV radiation, and its effects on UV targets within the SC and subsequent alterations in the mechanical properties and related barrier function are unclear. Alteration of the SC’s mechanical properties can lead to severe macroscopic skin damage such as chapping and cracking and associated inflammation, infection, scarring, and abnormal desquamation. Here, we show that UV exposure has dramatic effects on cell cohesion and mechanical integrity that are related to its effects on the SC’s intercellular components, including intercellular lipids and corneodesmosomes. We found that, although the keratin-controlled stiffness remained surprisingly constant with UV exposure, the intercellular strength, strain, and cohesion decreased markedly. We further show that solar UV radiation poses a double threat to skin by both increasing the biomechanical driving force for damage while simultaneously decreasing the skin’s natural ability to resist, compromising the critical barrier function of the skin.

Biniek, Krysta; Levi, Kemal; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

2012-01-01

319

Effect of Deep Space Radiation on Human Hematopoietic Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronaut flight crews on long-term missions in deep space will be exposed to a unique radiation environment as a result of exposure to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). This environment consists predominantly of high energy protons, helium and high charge, high energy (HZE) atomic nuclei from iron predominantly, but all other elements as well. The effect of such particles, alone, or in combination, on human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) has not been well studied but is clearly of interest since blood forming cells are known to be sensitive to radiation, and irreversible damage to these cells could quickly compromise a mission due to loss of marrow function. To better understand the effects of GCR and SPE on human stem/progenitor cell function, we have exposed partially purified CD34+ normal human marrow cells to protons, radioactive Fe, and Ti, alone, and in combination at varying doses up to 70cGy, and down to 1, 2, and 4 particle hits per nucleus. We then examined the effects of these radiations on HSPC function, as assessed by the ability to form CFU-GEMM, and LTCIC colonies in semi-solid culture medium. At the highest doses (50 and 70cGy), all radiation types tested significantly diminished the ability of CD34+ cells to form such colonies. The number of CFU-GEMM in irradiated samples was 70-90

Kalota, Anna; Bennett, Paula; Swider, Cezary R.; Sutherland, Betsy M.; Gewirtz, Alan M.

320

The UF family of hybrid phantoms of the developing human fetus for computational radiation dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, the development of computational phantoms for radiation dosimetry has primarily been directed at capturing and representing adult and pediatric anatomy, with less emphasis devoted to models of the human fetus. As concern grows over possible radiation-induced cancers from medical and non-medical exposures of the pregnant female, the need to better quantify fetal radiation doses, particularly at the organ-level, also

Matthew R. Maynard; John W. Geyer; John P. Aris; Roger Y. Shifrin; Wesley Bolch

2011-01-01

321

Cosmic radiation exposure on Canadian-based commercial airline routes.  

PubMed

As a result of the recent recommendations of ICRP 60 and in anticipation of possible regulation on occupational exposure of commercial aircrew, a two-part investigation was carried out over a one-year period to determine the total dose equivalent on representative Canadian-based flight routes. As part of the study, a dedicated scientific measurement flight (using both a conventional suite of powered detectors and passive dosimetry) was used to characterise the complex mixed radiation field and to intercompare the various instrumentation. In the other part of the study, volunteer aircrew carried (passive) neutron bubble detectors during their routine flight duties. From these measurements, the total dose equivalent was derived for a given route with a knowledge of the neutron fraction as determined from the scientific flight and computer code (CARI-LF) calculations. This investigation has yielded an extensive database of over 3100 measurements providing the total dose equivalent for 385 different routes. By folding in flight frequency information and the accumulated flight hours, the annual occupational exposures of 26 flight crew have also been determined. This study has indicated that most Canadian-based domestic and international aircrew will exceed the proposed annual ICRP 60 public limit of 1 mSv.y-1, but will he well below the occupational limit of 20 mSv.y-1. PMID:11542925

Lewis, B J; Tume, P; Bennett, L G; Pierre, M; Green, A R; Cousins, T; Hoffarth, B E; Jones, T A; Brisson, J R

1999-01-01

322

HEALTH RISKS OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of this research was to determine the health effects, if any, associated with occupational exposure to biological agents present in municipal wastewater. An additional objective was to determine the sensitivity of the methodology for detecting potential heal...

323

Aircrew exposure from cosmic radiation on commercial airline routes.  

PubMed

As a result of the recent recommendations of the ICRP 60, and in anticipation of possible regulation on occupational exposure of Canadian-based aircrew, an extensive study was carried out by the Royal Military College of Canada over a one-year period to measure the cosmic radiation at commercial jet altitudes. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter was used to measure the ambient total dose equivalent rate on 62 flight routes, resulting in over 20,000 data points at one-minute intervals at various altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes (i.e. which span the full cut-off rigidity of the Earth's magnetic field). These data were then compared to similar experimental work at the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, using a different suite of equipment, to measure separately the low and high linear energy transfer components of the mixed radiation field, and to predictions with the LUIN transport code. All experimental and theoretical results were in excellent agreement. From these data, a semiempirical model was developed to allow for the interpolation of the dose rate for any global position, altitude and date (i.e. heliocentric potential). Through integration of the dose rate function over a great circle flight path, a computer code was developed to provide an estimate of the total dose equivalent on any route worldwide at any period in the solar cycle. PMID:11548357

Lewis, B J; McCall, M J; Green, A R; Bennett, L G; Pierre, M; Schrewe, U J; O'Brien, K; Felsberger, E

2001-01-01

324

[Exposure to ionizing radiation: radiobiological effects and pathogenesis. 1].  

PubMed

The present paper describes the radiobiological effects induced by an exposure to ionizing radiation and their pathogenesis. The different skin reactions are described in detail because of their importance and frequency. Thus the acute skin lesions after high doses and the late effects resulting, either from high doses, or from accumulation of chronic irradiation, are studied. The main early syndromes are then characterized: neurological, gastro-intestinal, bone-marrow and prodromic. As far as the complex problem of radiocarcinogenesis is concerned, the main results derived from studies by international organizations such as the ICRP and the UNSCEAR are reported: risk coefficient of 5% per gray, for lethal radio-induced cancer, after total body irradiation, at low dose of low-LET radiation. The effects of irradiation in utero are then considered: risk of malformation after irradiation during the two first months of pregnancy and risk of mental retardation after irradiation during the third and the fourth months. Finally, the genetic risk is presented as being equal to one fourth of the risk of carcinogenesis at low-doses. The effects of irradiation on the gonads are also described. PMID:8720971

Wambersie, A; Smeesters, P; Frühling, J

1996-02-01

325

[Exposure to ionizing radiation: radiobiological and pathogenic effects (2)].  

PubMed

The present paper describes the radiobiological effects induced by an exposure to ionizing radiation and their pathogenesis. The different skin reactions are described in detail because of their importance and frequency. Thus the acute skin lesions after high doses and the late effects resulting, either from high doses, or from accumulation of chronic irradiation, are studied. The main early syndromes are then characterized: neurological, gastro-intestinal, bone-marrow and prodromic. As far as the complex problem of radiocarcinogenesis is concerned, the main results derived from studies by international organizations such as the ICRP and the UNSCEAR are reported: risk coefficient of 5% per gray, for lethal radioinduced cancer, after total body irradiation, at low dose of low-LET radiation. The effects of irradiation in utero are then considered: risk of malformation after irradiation during the two first months of pregnancy and risk of mental retardation after irradiation during the third and the fourth months. Finally, the genetic risk is presented as being equal to one fourth of the risk of carcinogenesis at low doses. The effects of irradiation on the gonads are also described. PMID:8685552

Wambersie, A; Smeesters, P; Frühling, J

1996-04-01

326

Scientifically insecure criteria for DD&ER radiation exposure guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Contractors having the responsibility for the decontamination, decommissioning, and environmental restoration (DD&ER) at a nuclear facility, formerly used or active, must be prepared to administer their operation under radiation exposure guidelines established by the U.S. regulatory agencies. These organizations, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), are very closely tied to each other in this arena. Current guideline levels, based on the premise that all radiation is harmful to health, are unfounded scientifically. Leonard Sagan, chairman of an international panel on low-level health effects at the winter 1994 American Nuclear Society (ANS) meeting, stated that the linear nonthreshold model is based on {open_quotes}politics and social concerns, not science.{close_quotes} In society`s desire to live with no risk, this perhaps is the most simplistic approach. Unfortunately, the cost and burden of carrying out these safety guidelines can hinder progress and may lead to greater health risk.

Thomas, R.G. [R. Thomas Consult, Bigfork, MT (United States)

1995-12-31

327

Radiation exposure benefit of a lead cap in invasive cardiology  

PubMed Central

Background: Occupational head exposure to radiation in cardiologists may cause radiation induced cataracts and an increased risk of brain cancer. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of 0.5 mm lead equivalent caps, not previously used in invasive cardiology, in comparison with a 1.0 mm lead equivalent ceiling mounted lead glass screen. Design: An anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom was used to represent the patient. Scatter entrance skin air kerma to the operator position (S-ESAK-O) was measured during fluoroscopy for all standard angulations and the S-ESAK-O per dose–area product (DAP) calculated, as applied to the phantom. Results: Measured mean (SD) left/right anterior oblique angulation ratios of S-ESAK-O without lead devices were 23.1 (10.1), and varied as a function of tube angulation, body height, and angle of incidence. S-ESAK-O/DAP decreased with incremental operator body height by 10 (3)% per 10 cm. A 1.0 mm lead glass shield reduced mean S-ESAK-O/DAP originating from coronary angiography from 1089 (764) to 54 (29) nSv/Gy × cm2. A 0.5 mm lead cap was effective in lowering measured levels to 1.8 (1.1) nSv/Gy × cm2. Both devices together enabled attenuation to 0.5 (0.1) nSv/Gy × cm2. The most advantageous line of vision for protection of the operator’s eyes was ? 60° rightward. Conclusions: Use of 0.5 mm lead caps proved highly effective, attenuating S-ESAK-O to 2.7 (2.0) × 10?3 of baseline, and to 1.2 (1.4) × 10?3 of baseline where there was an additional 1.0 mm lead glass shield. These results could vary according to the x ray systems used, catheterisation protocols, and correct use of radiation protection devices.

Kuon, E; Birkel, J; Schmitt, M; Dahm, J B

2003-01-01

328

Radiation Exposure in Nonvascular Fluoroscopy-Guided Interventional Procedures  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the radiation exposure in non-vascular fluoroscopy guided interventions and to search strategies for dose reduction. Materials and Methods: Dose area product (DAP) of 638 consecutive non-vascular interventional procedures of one year were analyzed with respect to different types of interventions; gastrointestinal tract, biliary interventions, embolizations of tumors and hemorrhage. Data was analyzed with special focus on the fluoroscopy doses and frame doses. The third quartiles (Q3) of fluoroscopy dose values were defined in order to set a reference value for our in-hospital practice. Results: Mean fluoroscopy times of gastrostomy, jejunostomy, right and left sided percutaneous biliary drainage, chemoembolization of the liver and embolization due to various hemorrhages were 5.9, 8.6, 13.5, 16.6, 17.4 and 25.2 min, respectively. The respective Q3 total DAP were 52.9, 73.3, 155.1, 308.4, 428.6 and 529.3 Gy*cm{sup 2}. Overall, around 66% of the total DAP originated from the radiographic frames with only 34% of the total DAP applied by fluoroscopy (P < 0.001). The investigators experience had no significant impact on the total DAP applied, most likely since there was no stratification to intervention-complexity. Conclusion: To establish Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs), there is a need to establish a registry of radiation dose data for the most commonly performed procedures. Documentation of interventional procedures by fluoroscopy 'grabbing' has the potential to considerably reduce radiation dose applied and should be used instead of radiographic frames whenever possible.

Kloeckner, Roman, E-mail: kloeckner@radiologie.klinik.uni-mainz.de [Johannes Gutenberg-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Bersch, Anton [Kreuznacher Diakonie, Department of Trauma Surgery and Orthopedics (Germany); Santos, Daniel Pinto dos; Schneider, Jens; Dueber, Christoph; Pitton, Michael Bernhard [Johannes Gutenberg-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

2012-06-15

329

TRANSIENT GENOME-WIDE TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSE TO LOW-DOSE IONIZING RADIATION IN VIVO IN HUMANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The in vivo effects of low-dose low linear energy transfer ionizing radiation on healthy human skin are largelyunknown.Usingapatient-basedtissueacquisitionprotocol,wehaveperformedaseriesofgenomicanalyses on the temporal dynamics over a 24-hour period to determine the radiation response after a single exposure of 10 cGy. Methods and Materials: RNA from each patient tissue sample was hybridized to an Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 array. Data

SUSANNE R. BERGLUND; DAVID M. ROCKE; JIAN DAI; CHAD W. SCHWIETERT; ALISON SANTANA; ROBIN L. STERN; JOERG LEHMANN; CHRISTINE L. HARTMANN SIANTAR; ZELANNA GOLDBERG

2008-01-01

330

Indirect human exposure to pharmaceuticals via drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are numerous observations of pharmaceuticals (or their metabolites) as contaminants in wastewater, surface water and groundwater. This implies a potential for indirect human exposure to pharmaceuticals via drinking water supplies. Various effect benchmarks may be employed in an evaluation of the significance of such indirect exposure. In this study a comparison was made between reported concentrations of pharmaceuticals in

Simon Webb; Thomas Ternes; Michel Gibert; Klaus Olejniczak

2003-01-01

331

Case definitions for human poisonings postulated to palytoxins exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of case reports and anecdotal references describe the adverse effects on human health ascribed to the marine toxin palytoxin (PLTX) after different exposure routes. They include poisonings after oral intake of contaminated seafood, but also inhalation and cutaneous\\/systemic exposures after direct contact with aerosolized seawater during Ostreopsis blooms and\\/or through maintaining aquaria containing cnidarian zoanthids. The symptoms commonly

A. Tubaro; P. Durando; G. Del Favero; F. Ansaldi; G. Icardi; J. R. Deeds; S. Sosa

2011-01-01

332

Human Exposures to PAHs: an Eastern United States Pilot Study  

EPA Science Inventory

Personal exposure monitoring for select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed as part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Pilot Study in Baltimore, MD and in four surrounding counties (NHEXAS-Maryland). An objective of this effort was to esta...

333

Human exposure to volatile halogenated hydrocarbons from the general environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The objective of this study was to assess individual human exposure to volatile halogenated hydrocarbons (VHH) under normal environmental conditions by means of biological monitoring, i.e. by the measurement of these compounds or their metabolites in body fluids, such as blood, serum, and urine. Blood samples of 39 normal subjects without known occupational exposure to these agents were examined

H. Hajimiragha; U. Ewers; R. Jansen-Rosseck; A. Brockhaus

1986-01-01

334

Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Wood Preservatives  

EPA Science Inventory

SHEDS-Wood (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Wood Preservatives) is a physically-based stochastic model that was developed to quantify exposure and dose of children to wood preservatives on treated playsets and residential decks. Probabilistic inputs are co...

335

Mapping of the solar ultraviolet exposures to the human face  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three dimensional facial model that utilises an x-y-z wireframe to represent measured dosimeter exposures under low cloud conditions and various solar zenith angles has been developed from laser scans of a human manikin headform. The technique used to plot frontal ultraviolet facial exposures improves upon a previously employed technique which utilised a two dimensional photograph and linear interpolation across

N. J. Downs; A. V. Parisi

336

EVALUATION OF A PERSONAL NEPHELOMETER FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

Current particulate matter (PM) exposure studies are using continuous personal nephelometers (pDR-1000, MIE, Inc.) to measure human exposure to PM. The personal nephelometer is a passive sampler which uses light scattering technology to measure particles ranging in size from 0....

337

Markers of Exposure to Carcinogens: Methods for Human Biomonitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods have been developed for the detection of exposure to carcinogens and other DNA-damaging agents in experimental animals and humans, through the detection of carcinogens or metabolic derivatives of them in body fluids or adducts bound covalently to DNA or hemoglobin. These methods are being applied in studies of exposure to environmental carcinogens, the results of which demonstrate their adequacy

Gerald N. Wogan

1989-01-01

338

INTEGRATED HUMAN EXPOSURE SOURCE-TO-DOSE MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

The NERL human exposure research program is designed to provide a sound, scientifically-based approach to understanding how people are actually exposed to pollutants and the factors and pathways influencing exposure and dose. This research project serves to integrate and incorpo...

339

Expression of P53 protein after exposure to ionizing radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important tumor suppressor genes is p53 gene, which is involved in apoptotic cell death, cell differentiation and cell cycle arrest. The expression of p53 gene can be evaluated by determining the presence of P53 protein in cells using Western Blot assay with a chemiluminescent method. This technique has shown variabilities that are due to biological factors. Film developing process can influence the quality of the p53 bands obtained. We irradiated tumor cell lines and human peripheral lymphocytes with 137Cs and 60Co gamma rays to standardize irradiation conditions, to compare ionizing radiation with actinomycin D and to reduce the observed variability of P53 protein induction levels. We found that increasing radiation doses increase P53 protein induction while it decreases viability. We also conclude that ionizing radiation could serve as a positive control for Western Blot analysis of protein P53. In addition, our results show that the developing process may play an important role in the quality of P53 protein bands and data interpretation. .

Salazar, A. M.; Salvador, C.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Ostrosky, P.; Brandan, M. E.

2001-10-01

340

Municipal waste combustor emissions: Human exposure to mercury and dioxin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper evaluates anthropogenic sources of mercury and dioxin, surveys background concentrations, and estimates the extent and pathways of human exposure to these chemicals in the United States for the purpose of determining the greatest sources of mer...

C. C. Travis B. P. Blaylock

1993-01-01

341

Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenetics  

PubMed Central

Every year more than 13 million deaths worldwide are due to environmental pollutants, and approximately 24% of diseases are caused by environmental exposures that might be averted through preventive measures. Rapidly growing evidence has linked environmental pollutants with epigenetic variations, including changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Environ mental chemicals and epigenetic changes All of these mechanisms are likely to play important roles in disease aetiology, and their modifications due to environmental pollutants might provide further understanding of disease aetiology, as well as biomarkers reflecting exposures to environmental pollutants and/or predicting the risk of future disease. We summarize the findings on epigenetic alterations related to environmental chemical exposures, and propose mechanisms of action by means of which the exposures may cause such epigenetic changes. We discuss opportunities, challenges and future directions for future epidemiology research in environmental epigenomics. Future investigations are needed to solve methodological and practical challenges, including uncertainties about stability over time of epigenomic changes induced by the environment, tissue specificity of epigenetic alterations, validation of laboratory methods, and adaptation of bioinformatic and biostatistical methods to high-throughput epigenomics. In addition, there are numerous reports of epigenetic modifications arising following exposure to environmental toxicants, but most have not been directly linked to disease endpoints. To complete our discussion, we also briefly summarize the diseases that have been linked to environmental chemicals-related epigenetic changes.

Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dong; Baccarelli, Andrea

2012-01-01

342

Investigation of frequency radiations of the human body  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study discusses an investigation of frequency relationship of the human body radiation based on twenty-three points of radiation in the human body. The endogenous electromagnetic field of the human body is studied experimentally from 33 healthy human subjects. Different parts of the body radiation frequency are investigated separately into four groups of top, torso, arm and bottom. Statistical properties

S. Z. A. Jalil; M. N. Taib; H. Abdullah

2010-01-01

343

Radiation Exposure, the ATM Gene, and Contralateral Breast Cancer in the Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study  

PubMed Central

Background Ionizing radiation is a known mutagen and an established breast carcinogen. The ATM gene is a key regulator of cellular responses to the DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation. We investigated whether genetic variants in ATM play a clinically significant role in radiation-induced contralateral breast cancer in women. Methods The Women's Environmental, Cancer, and Radiation Epidemiology Study is an international population-based case–control study nested within a cohort of 52?536 survivors of unilateral breast cancer diagnosed between 1985 and 2000. The 708 case subjects were women with contralateral breast cancer, and the 1397 control subjects were women with unilateral breast cancer matched to the case subjects on age, follow-up time, registry reporting region, and race and/or ethnicity. All women were interviewed and underwent full mutation screening of the entire ATM gene. Complete medical treatment history information was collected, and for all women who received radiotherapy, the radiation dose to the contralateral breast was reconstructed using radiotherapy records and radiation measurements. Rate ratios (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by using multivariable conditional logistic regression. All P values are two-sided. Results Among women who carried a rare ATM missense variant (ie, one carried by <1% of the study participants) that was predicted to be deleterious, those who were exposed to radiation (mean radiation exposure = 1.2 Gy, SD = 0.7) had a statistically significantly higher risk of contralateral breast cancer compared with unexposed women who carried the wild-type genotype (0.01–0.99 Gy: RR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.2 to 6.5; ?1.0 Gy: RR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.4 to 8.0) or compared with unexposed women who carried the same predicted deleterious missense variant (0.01–0.99 Gy: RR = 5.3, 95% CI = 1.6 to 17.3; ?1.0 Gy: RR = 5.8, 95% CI = 1.8 to 19.0; Ptrend = .044). Conclusions Women who carry rare deleterious ATM missense variants and who are treated with radiation may have an elevated risk of developing contralateral breast cancer. However, the rarity of these deleterious missense variants in human populations implies that ATM mutations could account for only a small portion of second primary breast cancers.

Haile, Robert W.; Stovall, Marilyn; Boice, John D.; Shore, Roy E.; Langholz, Bryan; Thomas, Duncan C.; Lynch, Charles F.; Olsen, Jorgen H.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Rosenstein, Barry S.; Teraoka, Sharon N.; Diep, Anh T.; Smith, Susan A.; Capanu, Marinela; Reiner, Anne S.; Liang, Xiaolin; Gatti, Richard A.; Concannon, Patrick

2010-01-01

344

Biomarkers of organophosphorus (OP) exposures in humans.  

PubMed

There are ongoing events where aircraft engine lubricant containing tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) contaminates aircraft cabins. Some individuals have experienced tremors or other neurological symptoms that may last for many months following exposures. Mass spectrometric (MS) protocols are being developed to determine the percentage of "biomarker proteins" that are modified by such exposures, specifically on active site serines. Both plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and red cell acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) are readily inhibited by 2-(ortho-cresyl)-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphoran-2-one (CBDP) or phenyl saligenin cyclic phosphate (PSP) and have the potential to provide information about the level of exposure of an individual. We have developed immunomagnetic bead-based single-step purification protocols for both BChE and APH and have characterized the active site serine adducts of BChE by MS. PMID:21767566

Marsillach, Judit; Richter, Rebecca J; Kim, Jerry H; Stevens, Richard C; MacCoss, Michael J; Tomazela, Daniela; Suzuki, Stephanie M; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Lockridge, Oksana; Furlong, Clement E

2011-07-08

345

The Measurement of Exposure Dose for High Energy Radiation with Cavity Ionization Chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventions adopted for measuring the exposure dose of high energy radiation with cavity ionization chambers are reviewed and related problems are discussed. Theoretical and experimental evidence is presented to suggest that the exposure dose is measured at the geometric centre of the air volume and that corrections are necessary for absorption of the radiation in the entire thickness of

T E Burlin

1959-01-01

346

47 CFR 2.1093 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: portable devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2.1093 Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: portable...Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz...by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements...Criteria for Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields,â NCRP...

2009-10-01

347

47 CFR 2.1093 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: portable devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2.1093 Radiofrequency radiation exposure evaluation: portable...Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz...by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements...Criteria for Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields,â NCRP...

2010-10-01

348

10 CFR 35.2070 - Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. 35.2070 Section 35.2070 Energy...MATERIAL Records § 35.2070 Records of surveys for ambient radiation exposure rate. A licensee shall retain a record of...

2013-01-01

349

Light scattering apparatus and method for determining radiation exposure to plastic detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved system and method of analyzing cumulative radiation exposure registered as pits on track etch foils of radiation dosimeters. The light scattering apparatus and method of the present invention increases the speed of analysis while it also provides the ability to analyze exposure levels beyond that which may be properly measured with conventional techniques. Dosimeters often contain small plastic

Hermes; Robert E

2002-01-01

350

Infrared-A Radiation-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 Expression is Mediated Through Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase 1\\/2 Activation in Human Dermal Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to ultraviolet radiation, human skin is exposed to infrared radiation from natural sunlight as well as artificial ultraviolet and infrared irradiation devices used for therapeutic or cosmetic purposes. The molecular consequences resulting from infrared exposure are virtually unknown. In this study we have investigated whether infrared has the capacity to affect gene expression in human skin cells. Exposure

Stefan M Schieke; Helger Stege; Viola Kürten; Susanne Grether-Beck; Helmut Sies; Jean Krutmann

2002-01-01

351

Radiation exposure during air travel: guidance provided by the Federal Aviation Administration for air carrier crews.  

PubMed

Air carrier crews are occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation, principally from galactic cosmic radiation. To promote radiation safety in aviation the Federal Aviation Administration has: issued educational material on the nature of the radiation received during air travel; recommended radiation exposure limits for pregnant and nonpregnant aircrew members; developed computer programs that estimate for a given flight profile the amount of galactic radiation received on a current flight or on one flown at any time back to January 1958; published tables that enable aircrew members to estimate possible health risks associated with their occupational exposure to radiation; and conducted research on effects of radiation during pregnancy. References for this material are given in the article. In addition, graphic and tabular data in the article show how galactic radiation levels and the composition of the galactic radiation has changed between 1958 and 1999. Also given are estimates of effective doses received by air travelers on a wide variety of air carrier flights. PMID:11045535

Friedberg, W; Copeland, K; Duke, F E; O'Brien, K; Darden, E B

2000-11-01

352

Radiation exposure differentially affects songbird 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine plasma profiles: ionizing radiation damage response in songbirds.  

PubMed

The importance of understanding the effects of radiation exposure on wildlife is a critical responsibility of our stewardship of nuclear energy production. We tested the hypothesis that songbirds respond to exogenous radiation exposure with changes in plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). We exposed two species of songbirds, house sparrows (Passer domesticus; n = 12) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia; n = 12), to one of four acute whole-body radiation treatments: 75, 150, 300, or 600 mGy. We measured DNA damage by proxy as 8-OH-dG levels in the plasma at 0 hr (baseline), 36 hr, and 7 days post radiation. For both species, at all radiation treatments, 8-OH-dG levels increased significantly 36 hr following radiation exposure. However, songbird species differed significantly in response to treatment across time and between treatment groups. Song sparrows showed no significant changes in 8-OH-dG levels between 36 hr and Day 7. In contrast, house sparrows exposed to 300 and 600 mGy had significantly increased 8-OH-dG levels at Day 7 compared with 36 hr. This study demonstrates that in a controlled experiment, in isolation from other sources of genotoxicity, radiation exposure significantly affects songbirds. Our results suggest future research examining the effects of radiation on songbirds must consider using multiple species to assess the biological effects of radiation, as different species can show strikingly different responses to radiation dosage across time. PMID:21809389

Luloff, Thomas W; Wishart, Andrea E; Addison, Sean M F; Macdougall-Shackleton, Scott A; Hill, Kathleen A

2011-08-01

353

Teaching Electromagnetic Radiation effects on Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We teach electromagnetics as part of a general education course in physics (for non science majors) in which we relate physics to societal issues. The course covers the effects of electromagnetic radiation on human beings. This discussion is limited to at most one class room period (about 50 minutes) usually less. There are several important conceptual issues that must be

David A. Larrabee

2006-01-01

354

Human radiation experiments: Looking beyond the headlines  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a great deal of publicity recently about experiments supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and its predecessors, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the Energy Research and Development Administration, in which human subjects were exposed to radiation. Media stories give the impression that these experiments were done in secret, without informing the subjects, and that these

1994-01-01

355

Radiation risk and human space exploration.  

PubMed

Radiation protection is essential to enable humans to live and work safely in space. Predictions about the nature and magnitude of the risks posed by space radiation are subject to very large uncertainties. Prudent use of worst-case scenarios may impose unacceptable constraints on shielding mass for spacecraft or habitats, tours of duty of crews on Space Station, and on the radius and duration of sorties on planetary surfaces. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program has been devised to develop the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk. The knowledge will be acquired by means of a peer-reviewed, largely ground-based and investigator-initiated, basic science research program. The NASA Strategic Plan to accomplish these objectives in a manner consistent with the high priority assigned to the protection and health maintenance of crews will be presented. PMID:12577903

Schimmerling, W; Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W

2003-01-01

356

EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

357

Human disease associated with exposure to light  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is given of the hazards associated with ultraviolet wave-lengths between 290 and 320 nm--the erythemogenic or UVB portion. These hazards include direct injury to proteins within enzymes and membranes (sunburn), and to nucleotides (skin cancer, plant mutations), as well as indirect damage when ultraviolet rays combine with exogenous chemicals or intrinsic disease states. The dangers of exposure to

J. H. Jr. Herndon; R. G. Freeman

1976-01-01

358

Effects of exposure to different types of radiation on behaviors mediated by peripheral or central systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on behavior may result from effects on peripheral or on central systems. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by peripheral systems (e.g., radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion or vomiting), the behavioral effects of exposure to heavy particles (^56Fe, 600 MeV/n) are qualitatively similar to the effects of exposure to gamma radiation (^60Co) and to fission spectrum neutrons. For these endpoints, the only differences between the different types of radiation are in terms of relative behavioral effectiveness. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by central systems (e.g., amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning), the effects of exposure to ^56Fe particles are not seen following exposure to lower LET gamma rays or fission spectrum neutrons. These results indicate that the effects of exposure to heavy particles on behavioral endpoints cannot necessarily be extrapolated from studies using gamma rays, but require the use of heavy particles.

Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Erat, S.

359

Dosimetry associated with exposure to non-ionizing radiation: very low frequency to microwaves.  

PubMed

The interpretation of the effects in biological systems exposed to electromagnetic (EM) fields requires knowledge of the internal fields and absorbed energy. The quantification of the specific absorption rate (SAR) is called dosimetry. The SAR given in units of watts per kilogram is a complex function of the source configuration, shape and size of the exposed subjects, orientation of the subject with respect to the source, and the frequency. The average and maximum SAR in the exposed subject may vary over many orders of magnitude for a given exposure level. In order to relate observed biological effects in exposed laboratory animals to safe exposure levels for man, both the fields within the environment and SAR within the exposed tissues must be determined. The environmental fields and the SAR can often be determined from EM theory, but in most cases one must rely on instrumentation such as field survey meters for quantifying the exposure fields and electric field probes, thermocouples, thermistors, fiber optic probes, thermography, and calorimetry for quantifying the SAR in the tissues or equivalent models. A combination of techniques, each valid for a particular model over a particular frequency range, have been used to determine average and peak SARs in humans and animals exposed to plane wave radiation. Though it has been considerably more difficult to quantify these quantities for near field and partial-body exposure conditions, progress is continually being made in this area. PMID:3679822

Guy, A W

1987-12-01

360

Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation  

SciTech Connect

Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. 27 refs., 2 figs.

Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)] [and others

1996-05-01

361

Geant4-based radiation hazard assessment for human exploration missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the radiation effects assessment methods on human crews are constrained to the Low Earth Orbit environment However the forthcoming Solar System exploration missions will encounter a totally different radiation environment as there is no shielding provided by the geomagnetic field In this work we present the first results on the simulation of geomagnetically unshielded Solar Energetic Particles SEP events and Galactic Cosmic Rays GCR impinging on a very simple spacecraft geometry We have used MULASSIS Multi-Layered Shielding Simulation Software a Monte Carlo code based on Geant4 developed for the European Space Agency Geant4 is a high energy physics toolkit originally developed at CERN to simulate particle interactions in high energy accelerators recently applied to space radiation protection studies Our setup consists of two semi-infinite parallel slabs the spacecraft shield and a 30 cm water phantom representing a human body Simulations have been carried out for different shielding materials and thicknesses assessing the dose and dose equivalent received by the phantom for different radiation sources SEP events have been simulated using an evolution of the JPL-91 model for worst-case conditions in solar maximum and some selected extreme events Our results show that a 20 g cm -2 shield of polyethylene is enough for having a dose below 10 mSv though the risk of exposure depends on the number of extreme events taking place throughout the duration of the mission GCR simulations are based on CREME96 fluences for

Bernabeu, J.; Casanova, I.

362

Polonium in cigarette smoke and radiation exposure of lungs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polonium (210Po), the most volatile of naturally-occurring radionuclides in plants, was analysed in three common brands of cigarettes produced in Portugal. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in cigarettes, on the ashes and butts of smoked cigarettes and on the mainstream smoke. 210Po in tobacco displays concentrations ranging from 3 to 37 mBq g-1, depending upon the cigarette brand. The 210Po activity remaining in the solid residue of a smoked cigarette varied from 0.3 to 4.9 mBq per cigarette, and the 210Po in the inhaled smoke varied from 2.6 to 28.9 mBq. In all brands of cigarettes tested, a large fraction of the 210Po content is not inhaled by the smoker and it is released into the atmosphere. Part of it may be inhaled by passive smokers. Depending upon the commercial brand and upon the presence or absence of a filter in the cigarette, 5 to 37 % of the 210Po in the cigarette can be inhaled by the smoker. Taking into account the average 210Po in surface air, the smoker of one pack of twenty cigarettes per day may inhale 50 times 210Po than a non smoker. Cigarette smoke contributes with 1.5 % to the daily rate of 210Po absorption into the blood, 0.39 Bq d-1, and, after systemic circulation it gives rise to a whole body radiation dose in the same proportion. However, in the smoker the deposition of 210Po in the lungs is much more elevated than normal and may originate an enhanced radiation exposure. Estimated dose to the lungs is presented and radiobiological effects of cigarette smoke are discussed.

Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, João M.

2006-01-01

363

TEMPERATURE REGULATION IN THE UNRESTRAINED RABBIT DURING EXPOSURE TO 600 MHZ RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Six male New Zealand white rabbits were individually exposed to 600 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation for 90 min in a waveguide exposure system at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 20 or 30 C. Immediately after exposure, the rabbit was removed from the exposure chamber and its colon...

364

The Effectiveness of a Shield in Reducing Operator Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation from a Dielectric Heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to design and install a shield on a radiofrequency (RF) dielectric heater used in the water bed industry and to determine its effectiveness in reducing worker exposures. In work sites where industrial dielectric heating is utilized, occupational RF radiation exposures frequently exceed occupational exposure limits. A water bed manufacturer that used dielectric heaters in

William E. Murray; David L. Conover; Richard M. Edwards; Dwight M. Werren; Clinton Cox; James M. Smith

1992-01-01

365

LEAD EXPOSURES IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Humans consume lead by inhaling air, drinking beverages, eating food and ingesting dust. The natural source of this lead is primarily soil. Anthropogenic sources are lead in gasoline, fossil fuels and industrial products and processes. Lead is ubiquitous in the human environment,...

366

A meta-analysis of leukaemia risk from protracted exposure to low-dose gamma radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ContextMore than 400 000 workers annually receive a measurable radiation dose and may be at increased risk of radiation-induced leukaemia. It is unclear whether leukaemia risk is elevated with protracted, low-dose exposure.ObjectiveWe conducted a meta-analysis examining the relationship between protracted low-dose ionising radiation exposure and leukaemia.Data sourcesReviews by the National Academies and United Nations provided a summary of informative studies

R D Daniels; M K Schubauer-Berigan

2010-01-01

367

Radiation exposure from work-related medical X-rays at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Previous analyses suggest that worker radiation dose may be significantly increased by routine occupational X-ray examinations. Medical exposures are investigated for 570 civilian workers employed at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNS) at Kittery, Maine. The research objective was to determine the radiation exposure contri- bution of work-related chest X-rays (WRX) relative to conventional workplace radiation sources. Methods Methods were

Robert D. Daniels; Travis L. Kubale; Henry B. Spitz

2005-01-01

368

Human exposure to radio base-station antennas in urban environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the human exposure to the electromagnetic field radiated by a radio base-station antenna operating around 900 MHz in an urban environment has been analyzed. A hybrid ray-tracing\\/finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has been used to evaluate the incident field and the power absorbed in an exposed subject in the presence of reflecting walls. The base-station antenna has been

Paolo Bernardi; Marta Cavagnaro; Stefano Pisa; Emanuele Piuzzi

2000-01-01

369

A NUMERICAL APPROACH FOR EFFICIENT CALCULATION OF HUMAN EXPOSURE IN FRONT OF BASE STATION ANTENNAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the computation of the exposure of workers to radiated fields of base station antennas a procedure which combines the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method and the Hybrid(2)-method has been developed. The Hybrid(2)- Method is used for the calculation of the antenna currents and fields and the FDTD-method for the calculation of the fields and SAR inside a human body model.

V. Hansen; A. Bitz; J. Streckert; A. El Ouardi

370

TOTAL HUMAN EXPOSURE MODEL (THEM) FOR RESPIRABLE SUSPENDED PARTICLES (RSP)  

EPA Science Inventory

A Total Human Exposure Model (THEM) has been developed that calculates 24-hour profiles using real human activity patterns and indoor air models derived from actual measurements of pollutants. HEM was designed for implementation on personal computers. urrently, the model uses the...

371

THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S CONSOLIDATED HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has combined data from 12 U.S. studies related to human activities into one comprehensive data system that can be accessed via the Internet. The data system is called the Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD), and it is ...

372

THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S COMPREHENSIVE HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has combined data from nine U.S. studies related to human activities into one comprehensive data system that can be accessed via the world-wide web. The data system is called CHAD-Consolidated Human Activity Database-and it is ...

373

ANALYSIS AND PRODUCTS FROM NHEXAS -- NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) was developed as a federal interagency research effort to examine the full range of environmental pollutants and chemicals (volatile organic chemicals, metals, and pesticides) that humans are exposed to in daily life. The pu...

374

BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN HUMANS UPON EXPOSURE TO OZONE AND EXERCISE  

EPA Science Inventory

A total of 44 human subjects were exposed to 784 micrograms/cu.m.(0.4 ppm) ozone and 30 human subjects were exposed to air as controls. A four hour exposure was given on each of five consecutive days. Half of each group received a higher level of treadmill exercise than the other...

375

Human perception inspired exposure correction using total variation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the framework for the exposure correction and back-light compensation using the bilateral logarithm total variation model based on human perception called HPEC. The method aims to emulate the way in which the human visual system discriminates original color in dim light or shadow region with rod, cone and light adaptation. The proposed method is effective for appropriate illumination

Heechul Han; Kwanghoon Sohn

2009-01-01

376

Human exposure to traffic pollution. Experience from Danish studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution may have severe long-term as well as short-term health effects. The determination of possible links between pollution levels and impact on human health is, how- ever, not a straightforward task. A key problem is the assessment of human exposure to ambi- ent pollution levels. In later years, the possible role of particulate pollution as a health haz- ard

Ole Hertel; Steen Solvang Jensen; Helle Vibeke Andersen; Finn Palmgren; Peter Wåhlin; Henrik Skov; Ivan Vejsgaard Nielsen; Mette Sørensen; Steffen Loft; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen

2001-01-01

377

Radiation exposure predictions for short-duration stay Mars missions.  

PubMed

The human radiation environment for several short-duration stay manned Mars missions is predicted using the Mission Radiation Calculation (MIRACAL) program, which was developed at NASA Langley Research Center. This program provides dose estimates for galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and large and ordinary solar proton flare events for various amounts of effective spacecraft shielding (both operational and storm shelter thicknesses) and a given time history of the spacecraft's heliocentric position. The results of this study show that most of the missions can survive the most recent large flares (if they were to occur at the missions' perihelion) if a 25 g/cm2 storm shelter is assumed. The dose predictions show that missions during solar minima (when solar flare activity is the lowest) are not necessarily the minimum dose cases, due to increased GCR contribution during this time period. The direct transfer mission studied has slightly lower doses than the outbound Venus swingby mission [on the order of 10-20 centi-Sieverts (cSv) lower], with the greatest dose differences for the assumed worst case scenario (when the large flares occur at perihelion). The GCR dose for a mission can be reduced by having the crew spend some fraction of its day nominally in the storm shelter (other than during flare events). PMID:11538210

Striepe, S A; Nealy, J E; Simonsen, L C

378

Identification of Gene Markers for Formaldehyde Exposure in Humans  

PubMed Central

Background Formaldehyde (FA) is classified as a human carcinogen and has been linked to increased leukemia rates in some epidemiologic studies. Inhalation of FA induces sensory irritation at relatively low concentrations. However, little is known concerning the cellular alterations observed after FA exposure in humans. Objectives Our aim was to profile global gene expression in Hs 680.Tr human tracheal fibroblasts exposed to FA and to develop biomarkers for the evaluation of FA exposure in humans. Methods and Results We used gene expression analysis, and identified 54 genes designated as FA responsive. On the basis of these data, we conducted an exploratory analysis of the expression of these genes in human subjects exposed to high or low levels of FA. We monitored FA exposure by measuring the urinary concentration of thiazolidine-4-carboxylate (TZCA), a stable and quantitative cysteinyl adduct of FA. Nine genes were selected for real-time PCR analysis; of these, BHLHB2, CCNL1, SE20-4, C8FW, PLK2, and SGK showed elevated expression in subjects with high concentrations of TZCA. Conclusion The identification of gene marker candidates in vitro using microarray analysis and their validation using human samples obtained from exposed subjects is a good tool for discovering genes of potential mechanistic interest and biomarkers of exposure. Thus, these genes are differentially expressed in response to FA and are potential effect biomarkers of FA exposure.

Li, Guang-Yong; Lee, Hye-Young; Shin, Ho-Sang; Kim, Hyeon-Young; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Lee, Byung-Hoon

2007-01-01

379

Human performance during experimental formaldehyde exposure  

SciTech Connect

Sixty-one subjects were exposed in a climate chamber for 5.5 hours to a controlled atmospheric environment. Formaldehyde vapors were added in concentrations of 0, 0.15, 0.40, or 1.20 mg/m{sup 3}. The exposures were arranged in a 4 x 4, balanced latin square design, involving four days in each of four weeks. The subjects were all males. Of these 32 had occupational exposure to formaldehyde in industrial productions of than five years. Twenty-nine were randomly selected, matched controls from the normal population. The hypothesis tested was that significant, but different dose-response relations exist in a number of performance tests for these two groups of subjects. The results indicate such differences in reactions to tests of short term memory and ability to concentrate (digit span tests, digit symbol test, graphic continuous performance test) and an addition test. Whether these results indicate chronic or acute CNS effects or they are caused by distractive sensory irritation due to formaldehyde exposure is discussed.

Bach, B.; Pedersen, O.F.; Moelhave, L. (Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark))

1990-01-01

380

Gene Expression Signatures of Radiation Response Are Specific, Durable and Accurate in Mice and Humans  

PubMed Central

Background Previous work has demonstrated the potential for peripheral blood (PB) gene expression profiling for the detection of disease or environmental exposures. Methods and Findings We have sought to determine the impact of several variables on the PB gene expression profile of an environmental exposure, ionizing radiation, and to determine the specificity of the PB signature of radiation versus other genotoxic stresses. Neither genotype differences nor the time of PB sampling caused any lessening of the accuracy of PB signatures to predict radiation exposure, but sex difference did influence the accuracy of the prediction of radiation exposure at the lowest level (50 cGy). A PB signature of sepsis was also generated and both the PB signature of radiation and the PB signature of sepsis were found to be 100% specific at distinguishing irradiated from septic animals. We also identified human PB signatures of radiation exposure and chemotherapy treatment which distinguished irradiated patients and chemotherapy-treated individuals within a heterogeneous population with accuracies of 90% and 81%, respectively. Conclusions We conclude that PB gene expression profiles can be identified in mice and humans that are accurate in predicting medical conditions, are specific to each condition and remain highly accurate over time.

Muramoto, Garrett G.; Himburg, Heather; Salter, Alice; Wei, ZhengZheng; Ginsburg, Geoff; Chao, Nelson J.; Nevins, Joseph R.; Chute, John P.

2008-01-01

381

Radiation exposure in body computed tomography examinations of trauma patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-slice CT provides an efficient imaging modality for trauma imaging. The purpose of this study was to provide absorbed and effective dose data from CT taking into account the patient size and compare such doses with the standard CT dose quantities based on standard geometry. The CT examination data from abdominal and thoracic scan series were collected from 36 trauma patients. The CTDIvol, DLPw and effective dose were determined, and the influence of patient size was applied as a correction factor to calculated doses. The patient size was estimated from the patient weight as the effective radius based on the analysis from the axial images of abdominal and thoracic regions. The calculated mean CTDIvol, DLPw and effective dose were 15.2 mGy, 431 mGy cm and 6.5 mSv for the thorax scan, and 18.5 mGy, 893 mGy cm and 14.8 mSv for the abdomen scan, respectively. The doses in the thorax and abdomen scans taking the patient size into account were 34% and 9% larger than the standard dose quantities, respectively. The use of patient size in dose estimation is recommended in order to provide realistic data for evaluation of the radiation exposure in CT, especially for paediatric patients and smaller adults.

Kortesniemi, M.; Kiljunen, T.; Kangasmäki, A.

2006-06-01

382

Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: methods, results and assessment of environmental exposures.  

PubMed

Human exposure to bisphenol A is controversially discussed. This review critically assesses methods for biomonitoring of bisphenol A exposures and reported concentrations of bisphenol A in blood and urine of non-occupationally ("environmentally") exposed humans. From the many methods published to assess bisphenol A concentrations in biological media, mass spectrometry-based methods are considered most appropriate due to high sensitivity, selectivity and precision. In human blood, based on the known toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in humans, the expected very low concentrations of bisphenol A due to rapid biotransformation and the very rapid excretion result in severe limitations in the use of reported blood levels of bisphenol A for exposure assessment. Due to the rapid and complete excretion of orally administered bisphenol A, urine samples are considered as the appropriate body fluid for bisphenol A exposure assessment. In urine samples from several cohorts, bisphenol A (as glucuronide) was present in average concentrations in the range of 1-3 microg/L suggesting that daily human exposure to bisphenol A is below 6 microg per person (<0.1 microg/kg bw/day) for the majority of the population. PMID:18207480

Dekant, Wolfgang; Völkel, Wolfgang

2007-12-14

383

HUMAN HEALTH IMPACTS OF EXPOSURE TO POPS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was adopted in 2001 to protect human health and the environment from chemicals that are highly toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative and undergo long range transport. These POPs include 9 pesticides, polychlorinated d...

384

Human exposures to bisphenol A: mismatches between data and assumptions.  

PubMed

Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic estrogen found in numerous consumer products, is widespread. However, scientific knowledge about the sources and routes of exposure remains incomplete. Although human biomonitoring studies report small amounts of bioactive BPA in the blood of most subjects, toxicokinetic models suggest that circulating levels should be undetectable. The conflict between reported data and toxicokinetic models has spurred considerable debate, with some suggesting that data from analyses of human blood should be dismissed in their entirety. This review addresses the assumptions used by previous risk assessment panels regarding the sources and routes of exposure to BPA (specifically, that BPA exposures occur solely via a few dietary sources) and how these assumptions have affected the interpretation of BPA studies. Given new experimental evidence that route of exposure influences BPA pharmacokinetics, we consider the implications of basing regulatory decisions on limited data that have provided incomplete information about the products that contain this chemical and how it enters the body. We also address evidence that challenges the assumption that humans metabolize BPA rapidly enough to result in undetectable levels in blood and therefore determine that there is a possibility of harm from current exposure levels. Our conclusions are consistent with the large number of hazards and adverse effects identified in laboratory animals exposed to low doses of BPA. PMID:23612528

Vandenberg, Laura N; Hunt, Patricia A; Myers, John Peterson; Vom Saal, Frederick S

2013-01-01

385

Heavy Ion Radiation Exposure Triggered Higher Intestinal Tumor Frequency and Greater ?-Catenin Activation than ? Radiation in APCMin/+ Mice  

PubMed Central

Risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) after exposure to low linear energy transfer (low-LET) radiation such as ?-ray is highlighted by the studies in atom bomb survivors. On the contrary, CRC risk prediction after exposure to high-LET cosmic heavy ion radiation exposure is hindered due to scarcity of in vivo data. Therefore, intestinal tumor frequency, size, cluster, and grade were studied in APCMin/+ mice (n?=?20 per group; 6 to 8 wks old; female) 100 to 110 days after exposure to 1.6 or 4 Gy of heavy ion 56Fe radiation (energy: 1000 MeV/nucleon) and results were compared to ? radiation doses of 2 or 5 Gy, which are equitoxic to 1.6 and 4 Gy 56Fe respectively. Due to relevance of lower doses to radiotherapy treatment fractions and space exploration, we followed 2 Gy ? and equitoxic 1.6 Gy 56Fe for comparative analysis of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation, differentiation, and ?-catenin signaling pathway alterations between the two radiation types using immunoblot, and immunohistochemistry. Relative to controls and ?-ray, intestinal tumor frequency and grade was significantly higher after 56Fe radiation. Additionally, tumor incidence per unit of radiation (per cGy) was also higher after 56Fe radiation relative to ? radiation. Staining for phospho-histone H3, indicative of IEC proliferation, was more and alcian blue staining, indicative of IEC differentiation, was less in 56Fe than ? irradiated samples. Activation of ?-catenin was more in 56Fe-irradiated tumor-free and tumor-bearing areas of the intestinal tissues. When considered along with higher levels of cyclin D1, we infer that relative to ? radiation exposure to 56Fe radiation induced markedly reduced differentiation, and increased proliferative index in IEC resulting in increased intestinal tumors of larger size and grade due to preferentially greater activation of ?-catenin and its downstream effectors.

Datta, Kamal; Suman, Shubhankar; Kallakury, Bhaskar V. S.; Fornace, Albert J.

2013-01-01

386

Long-term exposure to microwave radiation provokes cancer growth: evidences from radars and mobile communication systems.  

PubMed

In this review we discuss alarming epidemiological and experimental data on possible carcinogenic effects of long term exposure to low intensity microwave (MW) radiation. Recently, a number of reports revealed that under certain conditions the irradiation by low intensity MW can substantially induce cancer progression in humans and in animal models. The carcinogenic effect of MW irradiation is typically manifested after long term (up to 10 years and more) exposure. Nevertheless, even a year of operation of a powerful base transmitting station for mobile communication reportedly resulted in a dramatic increase of cancer incidence among population living nearby. In addition, model studies in rodents unveiled a significant increase in carcinogenesis after 17-24 months of MW exposure both in tumor-prone and intact animals. To that, such metabolic changes, as overproduction of reactive oxygen species, 8-hydroxi-2-deoxyguanosine formation, or ornithine decarboxylase activation under exposure to low intensity MW confirm a stress impact of this factor on living cells. We also address the issue of standards for assessment of biological effects of irradiation. It is now becoming increasingly evident that assessment of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation based on physical (thermal) approach used in recommendations of current regulatory bodies, including the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Guidelines, requires urgent reevaluation. We conclude that recent data strongly point to the need for re-elaboration of the current safety limits for non-ionizing radiation using recently obtained knowledge. We also emphasize that the everyday exposure of both occupational and general public to MW radiation should be regulated based on a precautionary principles which imply maximum restriction of excessive exposure. PMID:21716201

Yakymenko, I; Sidorik, E; Kyrylenko, S; Chekhun, V

2011-06-01

387

Assessment of aircrew radiation exposure by further measurements and model development.  

PubMed

A methodology is presented for collecting and analysing exposure measurements from galactic cosmic radiation using a portable equipment suite and encapsulating these data into a semi-empirical model/Predictive Code for Aircrew Radiation Exposure (PCAIRE) for the assessment of aircrew radiation exposure on any flight over the solar cycle. The PCAIRE code has been validated against integral route dose measurements at commercial aircraft altitudes during experimental flights made by various research groups over the past 5 y with code predictions typically within +/-20% of the measured data. An empirical correlation, based on ground-level neutron monitoring data, is detailed further for estimation of aircrew exposure from solar particle events. The semi-empirical models have been applied to predict the annual and career exposure of a flight crew member using actual flight roster data, accounting for contributions from galactic radiation and several solar energetic-particle events over the period 1973-2002. PMID:15266068

Lewis, B J; Desormeaux, M; Green, A R; Bennett, L G I; Butler, A; McCall, M; Vergara, J C Saez

2004-07-20

388

Proposed alternatives for a DOE-wide occupational radiation exposure information system  

SciTech Connect

The Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) was initiated by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1968. While the system has provided a general overview of radiation exposures associated with AEC/ERDA/DOE operations and has satisfied the original intent for a central information system, the need for more detailed information has become evident. The alternatives addressed for a radiation exposure information system were no change in current system, clarification of DOE Order for current system, increased summary information from sites, centralized annual individual dose (exposure) system, and annual dose summary and locator files. A majority of the DOE Ad Hoc Committee has concurred to recommend the annual dose summary and locator files (ADSLF). The acceptance of the ADSLF alternative as the DOE-wide radiation exposure system would give DOE added capability and flexibility in responding to requests for information and would reduce the impact on the sites of special survey requests.

Murphy, B.L.; Murphy, D.W.; Fix, J.J.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

1984-02-01

389

Monte Carlo mixture model of lifetime cancer incidence risk from radiation exposure on shuttle and international space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimating uncertainty in lifetime cancer risk for human exposure to space radiation is a unique challenge. Conventional risk assessment with low-linear-energy-transfer (LET)-based risk from Japanese atomic bomb survivor studies may be inappropriate for relativistic protons and nuclei in space due to track structure effects. This paper develops a Monte Carlo mixture model (MCMM) for transferring additive, National Institutes of Health

Leif E Peterson; Francis A Cucinotta

1999-01-01

390

Testicular cancer risk associated with occupational radiation exposure: a systematic literature review.  

PubMed

Testicular cancer is a rare disease, affecting mainly young men aged 15-49. There have been some recent reports that it might be associated with radiation exposure. We have systematically reviewed this topic. English-language articles published between 1990 and 2008 studying the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and testicular cancer were included. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the EPHPP checklist. For ionising radiation we subdivided study populations into occupational groups. No pooled analysis was performed due to the heterogeneity of studies. Seven case-control and 30 cohort studies were included in the review. For radiation workers, one incidence study showed a significant increase and four showed no effect. Eight mortality studies did not indicate an effect while four showed a non-significant increase. Incidence among persons with military exposure was not increased in two studies and non-significantly increased in another two. Among aircrew studies, one showed no effect against five with slight increases. Medical exposure studies showed no increases. For EMF exposure, three studies showed no effect, two reported a significant and four a non-significant increase in incidence. Overall, there was very limited evidence for associations between occupational ionising radiation and testicular cancer, while there were some positive associations for EMF. Testicular cancer mortality is generally low and was not associated with radiation. New incidence studies are recommended to investigate the association between radiation exposure and testicular cancer where exposure is better specified and individually estimated. PMID:20798474

Yousif, Lamya; Blettner, Maria; Hammer, Gaël P; Zeeb, Hajo

2010-08-27

391

[Radiation exposure of the respiratory tract to radionuclides in the environment].  

PubMed

Epidemiological investigations concerning lung cancer mortality of miners in radioactive underground climate have clearly resulted that the alpha-radiation of radon daughters emerging from the geological formations represent the causative factor for the accumulation of these lung cancers. The same radionuclides are also important as components of the natural radiation exposure, above all in houses built with radium containing material. Estimations of the risk referring to this form of natural radiation exposure allow rough calculation of its role for lung cancer incidence in GDR. Accordingly about 10%, in men 5% and 50% in females, of the cases of lung cancer may be caused by the natural inhalative radiation exposure. Natural radioactivity by coal and coal ashes as well by tobacco smoke are shortly outlined in their additional significance. The measures of radiation protection legal in GDR to limit inhalative exposure, above all in buildings, by supervision and selection of building material are described. PMID:6322462

Schüttmann, W

1983-01-01

392

Nuclear-weapon-effect research at PSR (Pacific-Sierra Research Corporation) - 1983. Volume 10. Symptomatology of acute radiation effects in humans after exposure to doses of 75 to 4500 rads (cGy) free-in-air. Final technical report, 27 October 1982-30 November 1983  

SciTech Connect

This report distills from available data descriptions of typical human symptoms in reaction to prompt ionizing radiation in the dose range 75 to 4500 rads (cGy) free-in-air. The descriptions correlate symptoms with dose and time over the acute post-exposure period of six weeks. Their purpose is to provide an empirical base for estimating combat troop performance after a nuclear weapon attack. The dose range of interest is subdivided into eight subranges associated with important pathophysiological events. For each subrange, the signs and symptoms manifested by an exposed population are estimated--symptom onset, severity, duration, and incidence. The early or prodromal phase of radiation sickness begins about 2 to 4 hrs after doses of 300 to 530 rads (cGy). Onset time diminishes with dose, occurring within minutes of exposure to 4500 rads (cGy). Characteristic prodromal symptoms are nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and diarrhea. The prodromal phase lasts from several days to a matter of hours, depending on dose. Symptoms of the hemopoietic syndrome are bleeding, fever, infection, and ulceration. Symptoms of the gastrointestinal syndrome are fluid loss, electrolyte imbalance, severe diarrhea, and septicemia.

Baum, S.J.; Young, R.W.; Anno, G.H.; Withers, H.R.

1984-08-31

393

Conceptual basis for evaluating risk from low-level radiation exposure  

SciTech Connect

Serious or lethal injuries that may result from the exposure of animals or human beings to ionizing radiations can be divided into two distinctly different categories, on the basis of whether the injury results only from failure of an entire vital organ, or stems from impairment of the function of a single cell. These two categories of injury are termed here organ effects, normally induced by non-stochastic processes, and single cell effects, normally induced by stochastic processes. This presentation is limited to low-level radiation exposure (LLR) since: (1) only with single hit kinetics does the average number of cell doses per cell in the exposed population essentially equal the number of cells dosed; (2) in excluding multihit all-or-none effects, the functions developed are essentially independent of the time rate at which the (instantaneously deposited) cell doses are laid down, and of considerations of repair of sub-effect injury; and (3) it makes little or no difference with LLR if the incidence of single cell effects is expressed in terms of exposed or surviving cells.

Bond, V.P.

1981-01-01

394

Lead: Human Exposure and Health Risk Assessments for Selected Case Studies. Volume 1: Human Exposure and Health Risk Assessments - Full-Scale.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is the first volume of the report Lead: Human Exposure and Health Risk Assessments for Selected Areas. This volume describes the quantitative human exposure and health risk assessments conducted to inform the U.S. Environmental Protection Ag...

2007-01-01

395

Simulation of the received daily visible and UV radiation exposure as a function of weather, environment and activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of the exposure of UV- and light received by people as a function of their activities and their environment, for present and future conditions, is the aim of the presented study. In this paper we present first preliminary results and simula-tions. A software was developed to determine the total daily radiation exposure re-ceived by the human body as a function of day and occupation. This program is based on usual well known equations. The model is able to calculate the incident irradiance on inclined planes, taking also account of the surroundings (obstruction of the hori-zon, reflections of the surroundings). In order to validate this software, measurements of the total daily UV and light exposure received by horizontal and vertical parts of the human body were performed on three chosen days in the region of Vienna, Aus-tria. The measurements were performed in the UV and in the visible spectral range using ultraviolet selective sensors and sensors adapted to human eye sensitivity. Data acquisition was performed by using dataloggers. In this way it was also possible to determine the radiation intensity and dose as a function of time and location. The ra-diation intensity was determined for typical outdoor and indoor activities such as walking in a street, in a forest or in flat unobstructed areas.

Huber, K.; Weihs, P.; Laube, W.; Schauberger, G.; Schmalwieser, A.; Holawe, F.

2003-04-01

396

Human mutagens: evidence from paternal exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of inherited mutations as a cause of human disease has been established clearly through examples of well-defined genetic anomalies, such as Down syndrome and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, it is suspected that environmental contaminants induce mutations resulting in increased risk for such defects in subsequent generations of persons exposed. The present lack of direct evidence for induced inherited genetic disorders

Steven A. Narod; George R. Douglas; Earle R. Nestmann; David H. Blakey

1988-01-01

397

HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING FOR CUMULATIVE RISK  

EPA Science Inventory

US EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) has identified cumulative risk assessment as a priority research area. This is because humans and other organisms are exposed to a multitude of chemicals, physical agents, and other stressors through multiple pathways, routes, an...

398

Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plastic monomer and plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the highest volume chemicals produced worldwide. BPA is used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins used in many consumer products. Here, we have outlined studies that address the levels of BPA in human tissues and fluids. We have reviewed the few epidemiological studies available that explore

Laura N. Vandenberg; Russ Hauser; Michele Marcus; Nicolas Olea; Wade V. Welshons

2007-01-01

399

Exposure to electromagnetic fields (non-ionizing radiation) and its relationship with childhood leukemia: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood exposure to physical contamination, including non-ionizing radiation, has been implicated in numerous diseases, raising concerns about the widespread and increasing sources of exposure to this type of radiation. The primary objective of this review was to analyze the current state of knowledge on the association between environmental exposure to non-ionizing radiation and the risk of childhood leukemia. Scientific publications

I. Calvente; M. F. Fernandez; J. Villalba; N. Olea; M. I. Nuñez

2010-01-01

400

Dose-Response Relationships in Human Experimental Exposure to Solvents  

PubMed Central

Previous studies carried out in the field of experimental toxicology have shown evidence of biphasic dose-response relationships for different experimental models, endpoints and chemicals tested. As these studies excluded humans as the experimental model, we have examined the literature of the last three decades in order to verify data concerning human experimental exposure with the aim of highlighting possible biphasic dose-response relationships. The substances used for experimental exposures included hydrocarbons, esters, alcohols, ketones, ethers, glycoethers, halogenated hydrocarbons, and carbon sulphide; the absorption route was inhalation. We did not detect any biphasic dose-response relationship and, in the studies reviewed, our examination revealed major methodological limitations that prevented us making a more detailed examination of experimental data. We concluded that the experimental data available did not allow us to support evidence of biphasic dose-response relationships in human experimental exposure to the above-mentioned chemical substances.

Iavicoli, Ivo; Carelli, Giovanni; Marinaccio, Alessandro

2006-01-01

401

[Radiation exposure and risk of radon in the room air of Swiss houses].  

PubMed

The radioactive noble gas radon, a member of the natural decay chains of uranium and thorium, enters the indoor environment in regionally highly diverging amounts. Subsoil of dwellings, building materials and drinking water are the main sources. In Switzerland and in many other countries, exposure of the lung tissue to the short lived radon decay products is the most important component of the radiation dose of the general public. Annual doses in areas with crystalline rock of high uranium content may reach the limits set up for occupational exposure. However, a clear link between cumulative exposure to radon daughters and elevation of the lung cancer incidence exists only for underground miners. The majority of human epidemiological studies point to a linear dose effect relationship. The indoor radon levels are determined by geology, building materials and techniques, climate and behaviour of the occupants. Experiences from Scandinavia and the Northern parts of America clearly indicate the possibility of cost-efficient remedial measures to reduce indoor radon levels. PMID:3008463

Burkart, W

1986-01-01

402

Radiation exposure at chest CT: a statement of the Fleischner Society.  

PubMed

The introduction of helical single-detector row computed tomography (CT) and, more recently, multi-detector row CT has greatly increased the clinical indications for CT. Correspondingly, CT examinations now account for greater than one-half of the radiation dose due to medical procedures in the population of North America. The level of CT radiation dose, especially in the pediatric population, is of concern to radiologists, medical physicists, government regulators, and the media. This review addresses this problem with particular reference to radiation dose in chest CT. Specifically it outlines the topics of measurement units used to quantify radiation exposure, factors affecting CT scanner dose efficiency, scanner settings that determine the administered radiation dose, and radiation dose reduction in chest CT. A table of reference dose values is provided. Given the wide variation documented in chest CT radiation exposure, the authors suggest that reference standards be promoted to minimize excessive CT radiation exposure. In addition, further research into the complex relationship between radiation exposure, image quality, and diagnostic accuracy should be encouraged in order to establish the minimum radiation dose necessary to provide adequate diagnostic information for standard clinical questions. PMID:12832569

Mayo, John R; Aldrich, John; Muller, Nestor L

2003-07-01

403

Sequence and concentration-dependent effects of acute and long-term exposure to the bisphosphonate ibandronate in combination with single and multiple fractions of ionising radiation doses in human breast cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both bisphosphonates and radiotherapy are highly effective for the management of bone metastases. Our in vitro study examined the cytotoxic effects resulting from combinations of ibandronate and ionising radiations (RX) in various sequences on breast cancer cells. Single radiation doses were given before, at halftime of, or after acute ibandronate incubation (48 h). Single or fractionated radiation doses were applied at

Fabrice Journé; Nicolas Magné; Carole Chaboteaux; Eric Kinnaert; Frieder Bauss; Jean-Jacques Body

2006-01-01

404

A dermatotoxicokinetic model of human exposures to jet fuel.  

PubMed

Workers, both in the military and the commercial airline industry, are exposed to jet fuel by inhalation and dermal contact. We present a dermatotoxicokinetic (DTK) model that quantifies the absorption, distribution, and elimination of aromatic and aliphatic components of jet fuel following dermal exposures in humans. Kinetic data were obtained from 10 healthy volunteers following a single dose of JP-8 to the forearm over a surface area of 20 cm2. Blood samples were taken before exposure (t = 0 h), after exposure (t = 0.5 h), and every 0.5 h for up to 3.5 h postexposure. The DTK model that best fit the data included five compartments: (1) surface, (2) stratum corneum (SC), (3) viable epidermis, (4) blood, and (5) storage. The DTK model was used to predict blood concentrations of the components of JP-8 based on dermal-exposure measurements made in occupational-exposure settings in order to better understand the toxicokinetic behavior of these compounds. Monte Carlo simulations of dermal exposure and cumulative internal dose demonstrated no overlap among the low-, medium-, and high-exposure groups. The DTK model provides a quantitative understanding of the relationship between the mass of JP-8 components in the SC and the concentrations of each component in the systemic circulation. The model may be used for the development of a toxicokinetic modeling strategy for multiroute exposure to jet fuel. PMID:16801332

Kim, David; Andersen, Melvin E; Nylander-French, Leena A

2006-06-26

405

Numerical modeling of heat and mass transfer in the human eye under millimeter wave exposure.  

PubMed

Human exposure to millimeter wave (MMW) radiation is expected to increase in the next several years. In this work, we present a thermal model of the human eye under MMW illumination. The model takes into account the fluid dynamics of the aqueous humor and predicts a frequency-dependent reversal of its flow that also depends on the incident power density. The calculated maximum fluid velocity in the anterior chamber and the temperature rise at the corneal apex are reported for frequencies from 40 to 100?GHz and different values of incident power density. PMID:23315965

Karampatzakis, Andreas; Samaras, Theodoros

2013-01-11

406

Radiation exposure reduction by use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal nursery  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to determine whether the use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal intensive care nursery would reduce radiation exposure to patients. The radiation dose to the neonates was measured by using thermoluminescent dosimeters. In addition, the attenuation of the Kevlar cassettes and the sensitivity of the film-screen combination were compared with the previously used system. The greatest radiation reduction using a mobile X-ray unit was 27%; based on sensitivity measurements, the theoretical reduction averaged 38%. The reduction in radiation exposure resulted from reduced attenuation by the Kevlar cassette.

Herman, M.W.; Mak, H.K.; Lachman, R.S.

1987-05-01

407

Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in susceptible subjects, including the elderly and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Controlled human exposure studies have been used to confirm the causal relationship between pollution particle exposure and adverse health effects. Earlier studies enrolled mostly young healthy subjects and have largely confirmed the capability of particles to cause adverse health effects shown in epidemiological studies. In the last few years, more studies involving susceptible populations have been published. These recent studies in susceptible populations, however, have shown that the adverse responses to particles appear diminished in these susceptible subjects compared to those in healthy subjects. The present paper reviewed and compared control human exposure studies to particles and sought to explain the "unexpected" response to particle exposure in these susceptible populations and make recommendations for future studies. We found that the causes for the discrepant results are likely multifactorial. Factors such as medications, the disease itself, genetic susceptibility, subject selection bias that is intrinsic to many controlled exposure studies and nonspecificity of study endpoints may explain part of the results. Future controlled exposure studies should select endpoints that are more closely related to the pathogenesis of the disease and reflect the severity of particle-induced health effects in the specific populations under investigation. Future studies should also attempt to control for medications and genetic susceptibility. Using a different study design, such as exposing subjects to filtered air and ambient levels of particles, and assessing the improvement in biological endpoints during filtered air exposure, may allow the inclusion of higher risk patients who are likely the main contributors to the increased particle-induced health effects in epidemiological studies.

2009-01-01

408

Monitoring human exposure to urban air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

A multidisciplinary study on a general population exposed to vehicle exhaust was undertaken in Pisa in 1991. Environmental factors such as air pollution and those associated with lifestyle were studied. Meanwhile, biological and medical indicators of health condition were investigated. Chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronuclei in lymphocytes were included for the assessment of the genotoxic risk. Because of the large number (3800) of subjects being investigated, standardization of protocols was compulsory. The results on data reproducibility are reported. To assess the reliability of the protocol on a large scale, the population of Porto Tolle, a village located in northeast Italy, was studied and compared to a subset of the Pisa population. Preliminary results showed that probable differences between the two populations and individuals were present in terms of SCE frequencies. The study was potentially able to detect the effects of several factors such as age, smoking, genetics, and environment. The in vitro treatment of lymphocytes with diepoxybutane confirmed the presence of more responsive individuals and permitted us to investigate the genetic predisposition to genetic damage. The possible influence of environmental factors was studied by correlation analyses with external exposure to air pollutants as well as with several lifestyle factors. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Barale, R.; Barrai, I.; Marrazzini, A. [Universita de Ferrara (Italy)] [and others

1993-10-01

409

Human exposure assessment: a graduate level course  

SciTech Connect

The course has been offered three times. The content and the approach to each lecture has evolved after each time it was given. This is not unexpected since the field has been undergoing major transformations, and new approaches to measurement and modeling are being applied to current problems. The most recent student evaluation, 1990, indicates a difficulty rating of just right' (70%) to difficult' (30%). Most felt the course stimulated their interest in the topic (72%) and the examinations were learning experiences as well as a grading exercise. The major need for the discipline is an adequate text book. The GRAPE program has excellent potential as an educational tool, but it needs to make more interactions and allow introduction of activities and data. The major strengths of the course are the problems provided to the students for homework. These give the student quantitative perspective on the concepts, range in values, variables, and uncertainties necessary to complete an assessment. In addition, the development of the mathematical and conceptional continuum for placing exposure assessment in the context of toxicology, environmental science, epidemiology, and clinical intervention provides a basic framework for the discipline.

Lioy, P.J. (Exposure Measurement and Assessment Division, UMDNJ-R.W. Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States))

1991-07-01

410

Quercetin ameliorates gamma radiation-induced DNA damage and biochemical changes in human peripheral blood lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the radioprotective efficacy of quercetin (QN), a naturally occurring flavonoid against gamma radiation-induced damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and plasmid DNA. In plasmid study, QN at different concentrations (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48?M) were pre-incubated with plasmid DNA for 1h followed by exposure of 6Gy radiation. Among all concentrations of QN used, 24?M showed optimum radioprotective

Nagarajan Devipriya; Adluri Ram Sudheer; Marimuthu Srinivasan; Venugopal P. Menon

2008-01-01

411

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects in Cultured Human Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Background The radiation-induced “bystander effect” (RIBE) was shown to occur in a number of experimental systems both in vitro and in vivo as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). RIBE manifests itself by intercellular communication from irradiated cells to non-irradiated cells which may cause DNA damage and eventual death in these bystander cells. It is known that human stem cells (hSC) are ultimately involved in numerous crucial biological processes such as embryologic development; maintenance of normal homeostasis; aging; and aging-related pathologies such as cancerogenesis and other diseases. However, very little is known about radiation-induced bystander effect in hSC. To mechanistically interrogate RIBE responses and to gain novel insights into RIBE specifically in hSC compartment, both medium transfer and cell co-culture bystander protocols were employed. Methodology/Principal Findings Human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and embryonic stem cells (hESC) were irradiated with doses 0.2 Gy, 2 Gy and 10 Gy of X-rays, allowed to recover either for 1 hr or 24 hr. Then conditioned medium was collected and transferred to non-irradiated hSC for time course studies. In addition, irradiated hMSC were labeled with a vital CMRA dye and co-cultured with non-irradiated bystander hMSC. The medium transfer data showed no evidence for RIBE either in hMSC and hESC by the criteria of induction of DNA damage and for apoptotic cell death compared to non-irradiated cells (p>0.05). A lack of robust RIBE was also demonstrated in hMSC co-cultured with irradiated cells (p>0.05). Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that hSC might not be susceptible to damaging effects of RIBE signaling compared to differentiated adult human somatic cells as shown previously. This finding could have profound implications in a field of radiation biology/oncology, in evaluating radiation risk of IR exposures, and for the safety and efficacy of hSC regenerative-based therapies.

Sokolov, Mykyta V.; Neumann, Ronald D.

2010-01-01

412

Sulfuric acid aerosol exposure in humans assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that exposure to acidic aerosols may affect human health. Brief exposures to acidic aerosols alter mucociliary clearance and increase airway responsiveness, but effects on host defense mechanisms at the alveolar level have not been studied in humans. Twelve healthy, nonsmoking volunteers between 20 and 39 yr of age were exposed for 2 h to aerosols of approximately 1,000 micrograms/m3 sulfuric acid (H2SO4) or sodium chloride (NaCl (control)), with intermittent exercise, in a randomized, double-blind fashion. Each subject received both exposures, separated by at least 2 wk. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 18 h after exposure in order to detect evidence of an inflammatory response, changes in alveolar cell subpopulations, or changes in alveolar macrophage (AM) function, which is important in host defense. When compared with NaCl, exposure to H2SO4 did not increase polymorphonuclear leukocytes in BAL fluid. The percentage of T lymphocytes decreased in association with H2SO4 exposure, but the difference was not statistically significant (14.9% after NaCl, 11.5% after H2SO4; p = 0.14). Antibody-mediated cytotoxicity of AM increased in association with H2SO4 exposure (percent lysis 19.1 after NaCl, 23.6 after H2SO4; p = 0.16). No significant change was seen in release of superoxide anion or inactivation of influenza virus in vitro. Brief exposures to H2SO4 aerosol at 1,000 micrograms/m3 do not cause an influx of inflammatory cells into the alveolar space, and no evidence was found for alteration in antimicrobial defense 18 h after exposure.

Frampton, M.W.; Voter, K.Z.; Morrow, P.E.; Roberts, N.J. Jr.; Culp, D.J.; Cox, C.; Utell, M.J. (Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY (United States))

1992-09-01

413

Exposure to 56Fe-particle radiation accelerates electrophysiological alterations in the hippocampus of APP23 transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Abstract An unavoidable complication of space travel is exposure to high-charge, high-energy (HZE) particles. In animal studies, exposure of the CNS to HZE-particle radiation leads to neurological alterations similar to those seen in aging or Alzheimer's disease. In this study we examined whether HZE-particle radiation accelerated the age-related neuronal dysfunction that was previously described in transgenic mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP). These APP23 transgenic mice exhibit age-related behavioral abnormalities and deficits in synaptic transmission. We exposed 7-week-old APP23 transgenic males to brain-only (56)Fe-particle radiation (600 MeV/nucleon; 1, 2, 4 Gy) and recorded synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices at 2, 6, 9, 14 and 18-24 months. We stimulated Schaeffer collaterals and recorded field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) and population spikes (PS) in CA1 neurons. Radiation accelerated the onset of age-related fEPSP decrements recorded at the PS threshold from 14 months of age to 9 months and reduced synaptic efficacy. At 9 months, radiation also reduced PS amplitudes. At 6 months, we observed a temporary deficit in paired-pulse inhibition of the PS at 2 Gy. Radiation did not significantly affect survival of APP23 transgenic mice. We conclude that irradiation of the brain with HZE particles accelerates Alzheimer's disease-related neurological deficits. PMID:20199219

Vlkolinsky, R; Titova, E; Krucker, T; Chi, B B; Staufenbiel, M; Nelson, G A; Obenaus, A

2010-03-01

414

Hazards of the Deep: Killing the Dragons - Neurobiological Consequences of Space Radiation Exposures (401st Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect

Since astronauts hope to spend more time n space, they will receive more exposure to ionizing radiation, a stream of particles that, when pass through a body, has enough energy to damage the components of living cells and tissues. Ionizing radiation may cause changes in cells' ability to carry out repair, reproduction, and cross-talk with other cells. This may lead to mutations, which, in turn, may result in tumors, cancer, genetic defects in offspring, neurodegeneration. A 34 million dollar facility at BNL's NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), built in a cooperative effort by NASA and DOE is one of the few places in the world that can simulate the harsh space radiation environment. At this facility, scientists from some several institutions in the U.S. and abroad will learn about the possible risks to human beings exposed to space radiation. Although the spacecraft itself somewhat reduces radiation exposure, it does not completely shield astronauts from galactic cosmic rays, which are highly energetic heavy ions, or from solar particles, which are primarily energetic protons. Within the NSRL target room, Lab researchers and other NASA-sponsored scientists irradiate a variety of biological specimens, tissues, and cells to study the effects that ion beams have on cells and animals.

Vasquez, Marcelo [NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven Lab

2005-02-15

415

Hazards of the Deep: Killing the Dragons - Neurobiological Consequences of Space Radiation Exposures (401st Brookhaven Lecture)  

ScienceCinema

Since astronauts hope to spend more time n space, they will receive more exposure to ionizing radiation, a stream of particles that, when pass through a body, has enough energy to damage the components of living cells and tissues. Ionizing radiation may cause changes in cells' ability to carry out repair, reproduction, and cross-talk with other cells. This may lead to mutations, which, in turn, may result in tumors, cancer, genetic defects in offspring, neurodegeneration. A 34 million dollar facility at BNL's NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), built in a cooperative effort by NASA and DOE is one of the few places in the world that can simulate the harsh space radiation environment. At this facility, scientists from some several institutions in the U.S. and abroad will learn about the possible risks to human beings exposed to space radiation. Although the spacecraft itself somewhat reduces radiation exposure, it does not completely shield astronauts from galactic cosmic rays, which are highly energetic heavy ions, or from solar particles, which are primarily energetic protons. Within the NSRL target room, Lab researchers and other NASA-sponsored scientists irradiate a variety of biological specimens, tissues, and cells to study the effects that ion beams have on cells and animals.

416

Climate change, ozone depletion and the impact on ultraviolet exposure of human skin.  

PubMed

For 30 years there has been concern that anthropogenic damage to the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer will lead to an increase of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface, with a consequent adverse impact on human health, especially to the skin. More recently, there has been an increased awareness of the interactions between ozone depletion and climate change (global warming), which could also impact on human exposure to terrestrial UV. The most serious effect of changing UV exposure of human skin is the potential rise in incidence of skin cancers. Risk estimates of this disease associated with ozone depletion suggest that an additional peak incidence of 5000 cases of skin cancer per year in the UK would occur around the mid-part of this century. Climate change, which is predicted to lead to an increased frequency of extreme temperature events and high summer temperatures, will become more frequent in the UK. This could impact on human UV exposure by encouraging people to spend more time in the sun. Whilst future social trends remain uncertain, it is likely that over this century behaviour associated with climate change, rather than ozone depletion, will be the largest determinant of sun exposure, and consequent impact on skin cancer, of the UK population. PMID:14971768

Diffey, Brian

2004-01-01

417

NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS): ANALYSIS OF EXPOSURE PATHWAYS AND ROUTES FOR ARSENIC AND LEAD IN EPA REGION 5  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Phase I field study conducted in EPA Region 5 (Great Lakes Area) provides extensive exposure data on a representative sample of approximately 250 residents of the region. Associated environmental media and biomarker (blood...

418

Search for chromosomal biomarkers specific to a prior exposure to densely ionizing radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently there has been considerable interest in identifying biomarkers of radiation exposure that allow both to estimate the dose to which an individual has been exposed and to determine whether the initial exposure was to low or high LET radiation However published data are controversial probably due to large inter-laboratory differences in aberration scoring To contribute to this issue we reanalysed 35 data sets generated at GSI Darmstadt for human lymphocytes and fibroblasts as well as for Chinese hamster cells V79 CHO-K1 xrs5 In the experiments cells were exposed in G1-phase to heavy ions C O Ne Ar Kr Fe and Au ions covering an LET range of 13 to 4000 keV mu m For comparison X-ray experiments were performed More than 80000 first generation metaphases were analysed identified by BrdU incorporation and subsequent fluorescence-plus-Giemsa staining To account for drastic cell cycle transition delays after high LET exposure metaphases were collected at several post-irradiation sampling times Then for the analysis of data the aberration yields were averaged over dose and time For all cell types tested the aberration spectrum did not change up to LET value of about 200 keV mu m Thereafter LET-dependent changes occurred For example the fraction of dicentrics among all aberration-types detectable by Giemsa-staining declined while the fraction of excess acentrics increased Furthermore an unexpected high number of chromatid-type aberrations was found although cells have been exposed in G1-phase This observation

Ritter, S.; Sommer, S.; Yamada, S.

419

Antigen-Presenting OKM5+ Melanophages Appear in Human Epidermis After Ultraviolet Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet radiation of murine skin in vivo or epidermal cells (EC) in vitro dramatically inhibits the antigen-presenting capacity of EC in vitro and results in the inhibition of immune responses to antigen challenge. In humans, UV exposure in vivo markedly inhibits alloantigen presentation by EC in the EC-lymphocyte reaction (ELR) when EC arc harvested immediately after the administration of 4

Kevin D. Cooper; Gabrielle R. Neises; Stephen I. Katz

1986-01-01

420

IONIZING RADIATION EXPOSURE OF THE POPULATION OF THE U.S.  

EPA Science Inventory

This report updates information published by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in 1987. NCRP reports are considered the authoritative reference for the sources and magnitude of average background exposure to the U.S. population....

421

Occupational Exposure of Police Officers to Microwave Radiation from Traffic Radar Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A feasibility assessment was conducted to determine whether an epidemiologic study of the incidence of testicular cancer in police officers using traffic radar was possible. Extensive assessments of exposure to microwave radiation emitted from traffic rad...

W. G. Lotz R. A. Rinsky R. D. Edwards

1995-01-01

422

63 FR 50993 - Claims Based on Exposure to Ionizing Radiation (Prostate Cancer and Any Other Cancer)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Based on Exposure to Ionizing Radiation (Prostate Cancer and Any Other Cancer) AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION...all evidence currently available to him, prostate cancer and any other cancers may be induced by...

1998-09-24

423

Principles and Practices for Keeping Occupational Radiation Exposures at Medical Institutions as Low as Reasonably Achievable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a companion document to Regulatory Guide 8.18, 'Information Relevant to Ensuring that Occupational Radiation Exposures at Medical Institutions Will Be As Low As Reasonably Achievable.' Both documents have now been revised to incorporate man...

A. Brodsky

1982-01-01

424

Controlling Employee Exposure to Alpha Radiation in Underground Uranium Mines. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A general discussion is presented of the radon-daughter hazard associated with underground uranium mining and the control measures which are effective in eliminating this danger. The problem of employee exposure to radiation in underground uranium mines i...

D. K. Walker R. L. Rock

1970-01-01

425

Integrating population dynamics into mapping human exposure to seismic hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disaster risk is not fully characterized without taking into account vulnerability and population exposure. Assessment of earthquake risk in urban areas would benefit from considering the variation of population distribution at more detailed spatial and temporal scales, and from a more explicit integration of this improved demographic data with existing seismic hazard maps. In the present work, "intelligent" dasymetric mapping is used to model population dynamics at high spatial resolution in order to benefit the analysis of spatio-temporal exposure to earthquake hazard in a metropolitan area. These night- and daytime-specific population densities are then classified and combined with seismic intensity levels to derive new spatially-explicit four-class-composite maps of human exposure. The presented approach enables a more thorough assessment of population exposure to earthquake hazard. Results show that there are significantly more people potentially at risk in the daytime period, demonstrating the shifting nature of population exposure in the daily cycle and the need to move beyond conventional residence-based demographic data sources to improve risk analyses. The proposed fine-scale maps of human exposure to seismic intensity are mainly aimed at benefiting visualization and communication of earthquake risk, but can be valuable in all phases of the disaster management process where knowledge of population densities is relevant for decision-making.

Freire, S.; Aubrecht, C.

2012-11-01

426

Domoic acid and human exposure risks: a review.  

PubMed

Domoic acid is a potent neurotoxin that is naturally produced by several diatom species of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. The toxin acts as a glutamate agonist and is excitotoxic in the vertebrate central nervous system and other glutamate receptor-rich organs. Human exposure to domoic acid occurs via the consumption of contaminated shellfish that have accumulated the toxin while filter feeding on toxigenic phytoplankton during blooms. The first reported human domoic acid poisoning event occurred in Canada in 1987 during which clinical signs of acute toxicity such as gastrointestinal distress, confusion, disorientation, memory loss, coma and death were observed. The illness was named amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) and due to effective seafood monitoring programs there have been no documented ASP cases since 1987. However, domoic acid poisoning has a significant effect on marine wildlife and multiple poisoning events have occurred in marine birds and mammals over the last few decades. Currently, domoic acid producing diatom blooms are thought to be increasing in frequency world wide, posing an increasing threat to wildlife and human health. Of particular concern are the potential impacts of long-term low-level exposure in "at risk" human populations. The impacts of repetitive low-level domoic acid exposure are currently unknown. This review provides a basic description of the mechanism of action of domoic acid as well as a synthesis of information pertaining to domoic acid exposure routes, toxin susceptibility, and the importance of effective monitoring programs. The importance of investigating the potential human health impacts of long-term low-level domoic acid exposure in "at risk" human populations is also discussed. PMID:19505488

Lefebvre, Kathi A; Robertson, Alison

2009-06-06

427

Hyperactivity and disruption of operant behavior in rats after multiple exposures to microwave radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multimode microwave (MW) exposure chamber was employed to investigate the effects of lowintensity CW radiation on one innate and two learned behaviors of female Sprague-Dawley rats. Relative to sham-irradiated controls, exposure to 2.45-GHz radiation at an averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2.3 mW\\/g was associated with: (a) statistically significant increases in locomotor activity, (b) statistically reliable evidence of

Daniel S. Mitchell; Edwin L. Bronaugh

1975-01-01

428

ASSESSING CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO PESTICIDES: AN IMPORTANT APPLICATION OF THE STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION MODEL (SHEDS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurately quantifying human exposures and doses of various populations to environmental pollutants is critical for the Agency to assess and manage human health risks. For example, the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA) requires EPA to consider aggregate human exposure ...

429

The Risk of Radiation Exposure to the Eyes of the Interventional Pain Physician  

PubMed Central

It is widely accepted that the use of medical imaging continues to grow across the globe as does the concern for radiation safety. The danger of lens opacities and cataract formation related to radiation exposure is well documented in the medical literature. However, there continues to be controversy regarding actual dose thresholds of radiation exposure and whether these thresholds are still relevant to cataract formation. Eye safety and the risk involved for the interventional pain physician is not entirely clear. Given the available literature on measured radiation exposure to the interventionist, and the controversy regarding dose thresholds, it is our current recommendation that the interventional pain physician use shielded eyewear. As the breadth of interventional procedures continues to grow, so does the radiation risk to the interventional pain physician. In this paper, we attempt to outline the risk of cataract formation in the scope of practice of an interventional pain physician and describe techniques that may help reduce them.

Fish, David E.; Kim, Andrew; Ornelas, Christopher; Song, Sungchan; Pangarkar, Sanjog

2011-01-01

430

Human health risk assessment related to cyanotoxins exposure.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the risk assessment associated with human exposure to cyanotoxins, secondary metabolites of an ubiquitous group of photosynthetic procariota. Cyanobacteria occur especially in eutrophic inland and coastal surface waters, where under favorable conditions they attain high densities and may form blooms and scums. Cyanotoxins can be grouped according to their biological effects into hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, and toxins with irritating potential, also acting on the gastrointestinal system. The chemical and toxicological properties of the main cyanotoxins, relevant for the evaluation of possible risks for human health, are presented. Humans may be exposed to cyanotoxins via several routes, with the oral one being by far the most important, occurring by ingesting contaminated drinking water, food, some dietary supplements, or water during recreational activities. Acute and short-term toxic effects have been associated in humans with exposure to high levels of cyanotoxins in drinking and bathing waters. However, the chronic exposure to low cyanotoxin levels remains a critical issue. This article identifies the actual risky exposure scenarios, provides toxicologically derived reference values, and discusses open issues and research needs. PMID:18259982

Funari, Enzo; Testai, Emanuela

2008-01-01

431

DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE. TL Leavens1, MW Case1, RA Pegram1, BC Blount2, DM DeMarini1, MC Madden1, and JL Valentine3. 1NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3RTI, RTP, NC, USA. The disinfection byproduct ...

432

Assessment of human exposure to chemical contaminants in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important factors in assessing risk to human health from potentially harmful chemicals in foods is the availability of good data on the exposure of the public to such substances. The means of acquiring these data generally involves monitoring programmes using appropriate sampling procedures and reliable analytical methods for measuring the compounds of concern in a variety

H. B. S. Conacher; J. Mes

1993-01-01

433

Dietary mercury intake and human exposure in an Adriatic population  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to examine human exposure to mercury through dietary mercury intake in a population living in an industrially non-polluted area of the Adriatic Sea. The results have shown that ? 20% of the subjects had a weekly dietary mercury intake above the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), primarily those consuming fish and other seafood > 6 times\\/week.

R. Buzina; P. Stegnar; K. Buzina-Suboticanec; M. Horvat; I. Petric; T. M. M. Farley

1995-01-01

434

DETERMINING THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF IMPROVED HUMAN EXPOSURE DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA develops and revises environmental regulations and policies to protect the environment and human health. One of the key components of the regulatory process is establishing the proposed action level, which requires high quality exposure data. In many cases, expos...