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1

Design of a differential radiometer for atmospheric radiative flux measurements  

SciTech Connect

The Hemispherical Optimized NEt Radiometer (HONER) is an instrument under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for deployment on an unmanned aerospace vehicle as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM/UAV) program. HONER is a differential radiometer which will measure the difference between the total upwelling and downwelling fluxes and is intended to provide a means of measuring the atmospheric radiative flux divergence. Unlike existing instruments which measure the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately, HONER will achieve an optical difference by chopping the two fluxes alternately onto a common pyroelectric detector. HONER will provide data resolved into two spectral bands; one covering the solar dominated region from less than 0.4 micrometer to approximately 4.5 micrometers and the other covering the region from approximately 4.5 micrometers to greater than 50 micrometers, dominated by thermal radiation. The means of separating the spectral regions guarantees seamless summation to calculate the total flux. The fields-of-view are near-hemispherical, upward and downward. The instrument can be converted, in flight, from the differential mode to absolute mode, measuring the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately and simultaneously. The instrument also features continuous calibration from on-board sources. We will describe the design and operation of the sensor head and the on-board reference sources as well as the means of deployment.

LaDelfe, P.C.; Weber, P.G.; Rodriguez, C.W.

1994-11-01

2

The radiation budget of stratocumulus clouds measured by tethered balloon instrumentation: Variability of flux measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of longwave and shortwave radiation were made using an instrument package on the NASA tethered balloon during the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus experiment. Radiation data from two pairs of pyranometers were used to obtain vertical profiles of the near-infrared and total solar fluxes through the boundary layer, while a pair of pyrgeometers supplied measurements of the longwave fluxes in the cloud layer. The radiation observations were analyzed to determine heating rates and to measure the radiative energy budget inside the stratocumulus clouds during several tethered balloon flights. The radiation fields in the cloud layer were also simulated by a two-stream radiative transfer model, which used cloud optical properties derived from microphysical measurements and Mie scattering theory.

Duda, David P.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Cox, Stephen K.

1990-01-01

3

Comparison of measured and modeled radiation, heat and water vapor fluxes: FIFE pilot study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using radio frequency receivers to collect data from automated weather stations to model fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and radiation using routine weather data collected by automated weather stations was tested and the estimated fluxes were compared with fluxes measured over wheat. The model Cupid was used to model the fluxes. Two or more automated weather stations, interrogated by radio frequency and other means, were utilized to examine some of the climatic variability of the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) site, to measure and model reflected and emitted radiation streams from various locations at the site and to compare modeled latent and sensible heat fluxes with measured values. Some bidirectional reflected and emitted radiation data were collected from 23 locations throughout the FIFE site. Analysis of these data along with analysis of the measured sensible and latent heat fluxes is just beginning.

Blad, Blaine L.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Verma, Shashi B.; Starks, Patrick; Norman, John M.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth

1987-01-01

4

Measuring Radiation Heat Fluxes from a Jet Fire Using a Lumped Capacitance Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental methodology for measuring the incident radiation heat flux distribution surrounding a\\u000a jet fire. The methodology uses a line of surface thermocouples attached to a steel bar. The thermocouples measure the temperature\\u000a time history of the steel bar in response to an imposed incident radiation heat flux. The theoretical basis of the methodology\\u000a is an energy

Peter S. Cumber

2011-01-01

5

Determination of solar proton fluxes and energies at high solar latitudes by UV radiation measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The latitudinal variation of the solar proton flux and energy causes a density increase at high solar latitudes of the neutral gas penetrating the heliosphere. Measurements of the neutral density by UV resonance radiation observations from interplanetary spacecraft thus permit deductions on the dependence of the solar proton flux on heliographic latitude. Using both the results of Mariner 10 measurements and of other off-ecliptic solar wind observations, the values of the solar proton fluxes and energies at polar heliographic latitudes are determined for several cases of interest. The Mariner 10 analysis, together with IPS results, indicate a significant decrease of the solar proton flux at polar latitudes.

Witt, N.; Blum, P. W.; Ajello, J. M.

1981-01-01

6

Comparison of measured and modeled radiation, heat and water vapor fluxes: FIFE pilot study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objectives of the 1985 study were to test the feasibility of using radio frequency receivers to collect data from automated weather stations and to evaluate the use of the data collected by the automated weather stations for modeling the fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and radiation over wheat. The model Cupid was used to calculate these fluxes which were compared with fluxes of these entities measured using micrometeorological techniques. The primary objectives of the 1986 study were to measure and model reflected and emitted radiation streams at a few locations within the First International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) site and to compare modeled and measured latent heat and sensible heat fluxes from the prairie vegetation.

Blad, Blaine L.; Verma, Shashi B.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Starks, Patrick; Hays, Cynthia; Norman, John M.; Waltershea, Elizabeth

1988-01-01

7

Measuring and modeling near-surface reflected and emitted radiation fluxes at the FIFE site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is presented pertaining to the measurement and estimation of reflected and emitted components of the radiation balance. Information is included about reflectance and transmittance of solar radiation from and through the leaves of some grass and forb prairie species, bidirectional reflectance from a prairie canopy is discussed and measured and estimated fluxes are described of incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation. Results of the study showed only very small differences in reflectances and transmittances for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of grass species in the visible and infrared wavebands, but some differences in the infrared wavebands were noted for the forbs. Reflectance from the prairie canopy changed as a function of solar and view zenith angles in the solar principal plane with definite asymmetry about nadir. The surface temperature of prairie canopies was found to vary by as much as 5 C depending on view zenith and azimuth position and on the solar azimuth. Aerodynamic temperature calculated from measured sensible heat fluxes ranged from 0 to 3 C higher than nadir-viewed temperatures. Models were developed to estimate incoming and reflected shortwave radiation from data collected with a Barnes Modular Multiband Radiometer. Several algorithms for estimating incoming longwave radiation were evaluated and compared to actual measures of that parameter. Net radiation was calculated using the estimated components of the shortwave radiation streams, determined from the algorithms developed, and from the longwave radiation streams provided by the Brunt, modified Deacon, and the Stefan-Boltzmann models. Estimates of net radiation were compared to measured values and found to be within the measurement error of the net radiometers used in the study.

Blad, Blaine L.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Starks, Patrick J.; Vining, Roel C.; Hays, Cynthia J.; Mesarch, Mark A.

1990-01-01

8

Measurements of x-ray spectral flux and intensity distribution of APS/CHESS undulator radiation  

SciTech Connect

Absolute radiation flux and polarization measurements of the APS undulators may have to be made under high thermal loading conditions. A method that may circumvent the high-heat-load problem was tested during a recent APS/CHESS undulator run. The technique makes use of a Si(Li) energy-dispersive detector to measure 5--35 keV x-rays scattered from a well-defined He gas volume at controlled pressure.

Ilinski, P.; Yun, W.; Lai, B.; Gluskin, E.; Cai, Z.

1994-09-01

9

Report of the Joint Scientific Commitee AD Hoc Working Group on Radiative Flux Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A strategy for studying radiation flux as part of the World Climate Research Program is outlined. Key elements are the Earth radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere; solar irradiance; and the surface radiation budget.

1987-01-01

10

Double-cavity radiometer for high-flux density solar radiation measurements.  

PubMed

A radiometric method has been developed, suitable for both total power and flux density profile measurement of concentrated solar radiation. The high-flux density radiation is collected by a first optical cavity, integrated, and driven to a second optical cavity, where, attenuated, it is measured by a conventional radiometer operating under a stationary irradiation regime. The attenuation factor is regulated by properly selecting the aperture areas in the two cavities. The radiometer has been calibrated by a pulsed solar simulator at concentration levels of hundreds of suns. An optical model and a ray-tracing study have also been developed and validated, by which the potentialities of the radiometer have been largely explored. PMID:17415384

Parretta, A; Antonini, A; Armani, M; Nenna, G; Flaminio, G; Pellegrino, M

2007-04-20

11

Surface Solar Radiation Flux and Cloud Radiative Forcing for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP): A Satellite, Surface Observations, and Radiative Transfer Model Study.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents surface solar radiation flux and cloud radiative forcing results obtained by using a combination of satellite and surface observations interpreted by means of a simple plane-parallel radiative transfer model called 2001. This model, a revised version of a model initially introduced by Gautier et al., relates calibrated radiance observations from space to incoming surface solar flux. After a description of the model, an evaluation is presented by comparison with a more complex model that the authors have developed, the Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer model (SBDART) based on the discrete ordinate model of Stamnes et al. This evaluation demonstrates this model's accuracy for instantaneous surface flux when used to retrieve daily (and monthly) surface solar flux. Limitations related to its lack of treatment of the bidirectional reflectance properties of clouds are also discussed and quantified by comparison with SBDART for instantaneous surface solar flux retrievals. The influence of satellite sensor calibration uncertainty is also examined in terms of surface solar flux.The model has been applied to hourly GOES data collected over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's central cloud and radiation testbed site in Oklahoma during a 14-month period to estimate hourly, daily, and monthly surface solar radiation flux. Comparisons of the model's results with surface measurements made from pyranometers located at the ARM site indicate good overall agreement. The best results are obtained for daily integrated clear skies with an rms error less than 10 W m2 (or about 3% of the mean value) and a 2.8 W m2 bias. These results indicate that the clear sky model is quite accurate and also that the threshold-based technique to detect cloudy conditions works well for the resolution of the satellite data used in this study. For partly cloudy conditions the comparisons show an rms error of about 20 W m2 (or less than 7% of the mean) and a 2.5 W m2 bias. The performance of the model degrades with cloud cover conditions with an rms error of 22 W m2 (or 13% of the mean) and a bias of 13.9 W m2 for overcast conditions. The results improve considerably for monthly average values with an rms error of about 11 W m2 (or 4% of the mean) and a bias of 2.6 W m2 for all conditions.The model has also been used to evaluate the cloud radiative forcing at the surface and results indicate large values of forcing for the spring and summer reaching daily values over 200 W m2 in May.

Gautier, Catherine; Landsfeld, Martin

1997-05-01

12

Concept of an Innovative Photoluminescent Sensor for Radiative Heat Flux Measurement During Super-Orbital Re-Entry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work is presented the idea, the physical principle, and a first layout of an innovative sensor capable to collect the VUV contribution to radiative heat flux both for onboard flight measurements and plasma wind tunnel tests.

Conte, L.; Trifoni, E.; De Filippis, F.; Marraffa, L.

2014-06-01

13

A new method to retrieve the aerosol layer absorption coefficient from airborne flux density and actinic radiation measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is presented to derive the mean value of the spectral absorption coefficient of an aerosol layer from combined airborne measurements of spectral net irradiance and actinic flux density. While the method is based on a theoretical relationship of radiative transfer theory, it is applied to atmospheric radiation measurements for the first time. The data have been collected

Eike Bierwirth; Manfred Wendisch; Evelyn Jäkel; André Ehrlich; K. Sebastian Schmidt; Harald Stark; Peter Pilewskie; Michael Esselborn; Gian Paolo Gobbi; Richard Ferrare; Thomas Müller; Antony Clarke

2010-01-01

14

Measuring Earth Radiation Imbalance from a Massive Constellation of Flux Radiometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most important climate variable that is not now measured from space with sufficient accuracy (not even one significant digit on any time scale) is Earth Radiation Imbalance (ERI), a subject of much discussion lately in relation to the "global warming hiatus". The greatest temporal challenges for ERI measurements are very long (decadal) and very short (diurnal) time scales. The decadal challenge is mainly one of calibration and continuity, whereas the diurnal challenge is mainly one of temporal coverage. ERI measurements must meet both challenges. We discuss here a massive constellation of flux radiometers in Low Earth Orbit that is capable of meeting both challenges. At least 30-40 satellites are required for diurnal coverage, an order of magnitude more than in any previous Earth science mission. This same diurnal coverage would make possible, for the first time, the use of ERI measurements in data assimilation, as well as providing a much more temporally resolved dataset for tuning and evaluating climate models. Although a large number of instruments on many satellites might seem to pose a gargantuan calibration challenge, actually, the more satellites, the better the intercalibration: satellites can not only follow each other closely in the same orbit plane, viewing exactly the same scene a few minutes apart, but they can engage in a spider web of crossovers in the polar regions, allowing many further such intercalibrations. Furthermore, keystone satellites can roll over to obtain an absolute calibration from the Sun and deep space, which can then be transferred to the other satellites. Simulations of ERI from such a constellation will be shown, along with the tradeoffs necessary to create an optimal configuration and to mitigate the problems experienced by previous generations of Earth radiation budget radiometers. A tentative instrument design will also be described.Constellation of flux radiometers for measuring Earth Radiation Imbalance

Wiscombe, W. J.; Chiu, J.; Ardanuy, P. E.; Barker, H.; Han, S.; Lorentz, S. R.; Schwartz, S. E.; Trenberth, K. E.

2012-12-01

15

Surface Measurements of Solar Spectral Radiative Flux in the Cloud-Free Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies (Charlock, et al.; Kato, et. al) have indicated a potential discrepancy between measured solar irradiance in the cloud-free atmosphere and model derived downwelling solar irradiance. These conclusions were based primarily on broadband integrated solar flux. Extinction (both absorption and scattering) phenomena, however, typically have spectral characteristics that would be present in moderate resolution (e.g., 10 nm) spectra, indicating the need for such measurements to thoroughly investigate the cause of any discrepancies. The 1996 Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Intensive Observation Period (IOP), held simultaneously with the NASA Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) Program, provided an opportunity for two simultaneous but independent measurements of moderate resolution solar spectral downwelling irradiance at the surface. The instruments were the NASA Ames Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer and the Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc., FieldSpecT-FR. Spectral and band integrated quantities from both sets of measurements will be presented, along with estimates of the downwelling solar irradiance from band model and line by line calculations, in an effort to determine the compatibility between measured and calculated solar irradiance in the cloud-free atmosphere.

Pilewskie, Peter; Goetz, A. F. H.; Bergstrom, R.; Beal, D.; Gore, Warren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

16

Galileo Probe Measurements of Thermal and Solar Radiation Fluxes in the Jovian Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo probe net flux radiometer (NFR) measured radiation fluxes in Jupiter's atmosphere from about 0.44 to 14 bars, using five spectral channels to separate solar and thermal components. Onboard calibration results confirm that the NFR responded to radiation approximately as expected. NFR channels also responded to a superimposed thermal perturbation, which can be approximately removed using blind channel measurements and physical constraints. Evidence for the expected NH3 cloud was seen in the spectral character of spin-induced modulations of the direct solar beam signals. These results are consistent with an overlying cloud of small NH3 ice particles (0.5-0.75 microns in radius) of optical depth 1.5-2 at 0.5 microns. Such a cloud would have so little effect on thermal fluxes that NFR thermal channels provide no additional constraints on its properties. However, evidence for heating near 0.45 bar in the NFR thermal channels would seem to require either an additional opacity source beyond this small-particle cloud, implying a heterogeneous cloud structure to avoid conflicts with solar modulation results, or a change in temperature lapse rate just above the probe measurements. The large thermal flux levels imply water vapor mixing ratios that are only 6% of solar at 10 bars, but possibly increasing with depth, and significantly subsaturated ammonia at pressures less than 3 bars. If deep NH3 mixing ratios at the probe entry site are 3-4 times ground-based inferences, as suggested by probe radio signal attenuation, then only half as much water is needed to match NFR observations. No evidence of a water cloud was seen near the 5-bar level. The 5-microns thermal channel detected the presumed NH4SH cloud base near 1.35 bars. Effects of this cloud were also seen in the solar channel upflux measurements but not in the solar net fluxes, implying that the cloud is a conservative scatterer of sunlight. The minor thermal signature of this cloud is compatible with particle radii near 3 gm, but it cannot rule out smaller particles. Deeper than about 3 bars, solar channels indicate unexpectedly large absorption of sunlight at wavelengths longer than 0.6 microns, which might be due to unaccounted-for absorption by NH3 between 0.65 and 1.5 microns.

Sromovsky, L. A.; Collard, A. D.; Fry, P. M.; Orton, G. S.; Lemmon, M. T.; Tomasko, M. G.; Freedman, R. S.

1998-01-01

17

Galileo Probe Measurements of Thermal and Solar Radiation Fluxes in the Jovian Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo probe net flux radiometer (NFR) measured radiation fluxes in Jupiter's atmosphere from about 0.44 to 14 bars, using five spectral channels to separate solar and thermal components. Onboard calibration results confirm that the NFR responded to radiation approximately as expected. NFR channels also responded to a superimposed thermal perturbation, which can be approximately removed using blind channel measurements and physical constraints. Evidence for the expected NH3 cloud was seen in the spectral character of spin-induced modulations of the direct solar beam signals. These results are consistent with an overlying cloud of small NH3 ice particles (0.5-0.75 microns in radius) of optical depth 1.5-2 at 0.5 microns. Such a cloud would have so little effect on thermal fluxes that NFR thermal channels provide no additional constraints on its properties. However, evidence for heating near 0.45 bar in the NFR thermal channels would seem to require either an additional opacity source beyond this small-particle cloud, implying a heterogeneous-cloud structure to avoid conflicts with solar modulation results, or a change in temperature lapse rate just above the probe measurements. The large thermal flux levels imply water vapor mixing ratios that are only 6% of solar at 10 bars, but possibly increasing with depth, and significantly subsaturated ammonia at pressures less than 3 bars. If deep NH3 mixing ratios at the probe entry site are 3-4 times ground-based inferences, as suggested by probe radio signal attenuation, then only half as much water is needed to match NFR observations. No evidence of a water cloud was seen near the 5-bar level. The 5 microns thermal channel detected the presumed NH4SH cloud base near 1.35 bars. Effects of this cloud were also seen in the solar channel upflux measurements but not in the solar net fluxes, implying that the cloud is a conservative scatterer of sunlight. The minor thermal signature of this cloud is compatible with particle radii near 3 microns, but it cannot rule out smaller particles. Deeper than about 3 bars, solar channels indicate unexpectedly large absorption of sunlight at wavelengths longer than 0.6 microns, which might be due to unaccounted-for absorption by NH3 between 0.65 and 1.5 microns.

Sromovsky, L. A.; Collard, A. D.; Fry, P. M.; Orton, G. S.; Lemmon, M. T.; Tomasko, M. G.; Freedman, R. S.

1998-01-01

18

An Investigation of the Compatibility of Radiation and Convection Heat Flux Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for determining time-resolved absorbed surface heat flux and surface temperature in radiation and convection environments is described. The method is useful for verification of aerodynamic, heat transfer and durability models. A practical heat flux gage fabrication procedure and a simple one-dimensional inverse heat conduction model and calculation procedure are incorporated in this method. The model provides an estimate of the temperature and heat flux gradient in the direction of heat transfer through the gage. This paper discusses several successful time-resolved tests of this method in hostile convective heating and cooling environments.

Liebert, Curt H.

1996-01-01

19

Measuring and Modeling Near-Surface Reflected and Emitted Radiation Fluxes at the Fife Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information is presented pertaining to the measurement and estimation of reflected and emitted components of the radiation balance. Information is included about reflectance and transmittance of solar radiation from and through the leaves of some grass an...

B. L. Blad E. A. Walter-shea P. J. Starks R. C. Vining C. J. Hays

1990-01-01

20

Satellite-borne measurement of the total flux of solar ultraviolet radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar ultraviolet radiometer based on the CaSO4 thermoluminescent phosphor has been developed to perform measurements of the total ultraviolet flux at wavelengths not greater than 1300 A. Performance tests carried out from November 1978 to February 1979 on a Prognoz satellite show that this radiometer is able to measure the total flux with an accuracy that makes it possible to record variations produced by changes of solar activity.

Avdiushin, S. I.; Bukusova, L. L.; Gutkevich, S. M.; Goniukh, D. A.; Davydov, V. E.; Dlikman, F. L.; Ivanov-Kholodnyi, G. S.; Kazachevskaia, T. V.; Kulagin, Iu. M.; Seredin, B. P.

1981-10-01

21

Pulse flux measuring device  

DOEpatents

A device for measuring particle flux comprises first and second photodiode detectors for receiving flux from a source and first and second outputs for producing first and second signals representing the flux incident to the detectors. The device is capable of reducing the first output signal by a portion of the second output signal, thereby enhancing the accuracy of the device. Devices in accordance with the invention may measure distinct components of flux from a single source or fluxes from several sources.

Riggan, William C. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

1985-01-01

22

The uncertainty of UTCI due to uncertainties in the determination of radiation fluxes derived from measured and observed meteorological data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, we investigate the determination accuracy of the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). We study especially the UTCI uncertainties due to uncertainties in radiation fluxes, whose impacts on UTCI are evaluated via the mean radiant temperature ( Tmrt). We assume "normal conditions", which means that usual meteorological information and data are available but no special additional measurements. First, the uncertainty arising only from the measurement uncertainties of the meteorological data is determined. Here, simulations show that uncertainties between 0.4 and 2 K due to the uncertainty of just one of the meteorological input parameters may be expected. We then analyse the determination accuracy when not all radiation data are available and modelling of the missing data is required. Since radiative transfer models require a lot of information that is usually not available, we concentrate only on the determination accuracy achievable with empirical models. The simulations show that uncertainties in the calculation of the diffuse irradiance may lead to Tmrt uncertainties of up to ±2.9 K. If long-wave radiation is missing, we may expect an uncertainty of ±2 K. If modelling of diffuse radiation and of longwave radiation is used for the calculation of Tmrt, we may then expect a determination uncertainty of ±3 K. If all radiative fluxes are modelled based on synoptic observation, the uncertainty in Tmrt is ±5.9 K. Because Tmrt is only one of the four input data required in the calculation of UTCI, the uncertainty in UTCI due to the uncertainty in radiation fluxes is less than ±2 K. The UTCI uncertainties due to uncertainties of the four meteorological input values are not larger than the 6 K reference intervals of the UTCI scale, which means that UTCI may only be wrong by one UTCI scale. This uncertainty may, however, be critical at the two temperature extremes, i.e. under extreme hot or extreme cold conditions.

Weihs, Philipp; Staiger, Henning; Tinz, Birger; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Rieder, Harald; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Maturilli, Marion; Jendritzky, Gerd

2012-05-01

23

Measuring surface fluxes in CAPE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two stations (site 1612 and site 2008) were operated by the University of Georgia group from 6 July 1991 to 18 August 1991. The following data were collected continuously: surface energy fluxes (i.e., net radiation, soil heat fluxes, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux), air temperature, vapor pressure, soil temperature (at 1 cm depth), and precipitation. Canopy reflectance and light interception data were taken three times at each site between 6 July and 18 August. Soil moisture content was measured twice at each site.

Kanemasu, E. T.; D-Shah, T.; Nie, Dalin

1992-01-01

24

Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

Miller, E. R.

1972-01-01

25

Heat flux measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new automated, computer controlled heat flux measurement facility is described. Continuous transient and steady-state surface heat flux values varying from about 0.3 to 6 MW/sq m over a temperature range of 100 to 1200 K can be obtained in the facility. An application of this facility is the development of heat flux gauges for continuous fast transient surface heat flux measurement on turbine blades operating in space shuttle main engine turbopumps. The facility is useful for durability testing at fast temperature transients.

Liebert, Curt H.; Weikle, Donald H.

1989-01-01

26

Fast Longwave and Shortwave Radiative Flux (FLASHFlux) Products from CERES and MODIS Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy Systems (CERES) project is currently producing world-class climatological data products derived from measurements taken aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts (Wielicki et al., 1996). While of exceptional fidelity, these data products require a considerable amount of processing to assure quality and verify accuracy and precision. Obtaining such high quality assurance, however, means that the CERES data is typically released more than six months after the acquisition of the initial measurements. For climate studies, such delays are of little consequence, especially considering the improved quality of the released data products. There are, however, many uses for the CERES data products on a near real-time basis. These include: CERES instrument calibration and subsystem quality checks, CLOUDSAT operations, seasonal predictions, agricultural and ocean assimilations, support of field campaigns, and outreach programs such as S'Cool. The FLASHflux project was envisioned as a conduit whereby CERES data could be provided to the community within a week of the initial measurements, with the trade-off that some degree of fidelity would be exacted to gain speed. In this paper, we will report on some very encouraging initial results from the FLASHflux project in which we compared the FLASHflux instantaneous surface fluxes to the CERES surface-only flux algorithm data products.

Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Kratz, David P.; McGarragh, Greg R.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Geier, Erika B.

2006-01-01

27

Measurement and modeling of vertically resolved aerosol optical properties and radiative fluxes over the ARM SGP site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to meet one of its goals - to relate observations of radiative fluxes and radiances to the atmospheric composition - the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has pursued measurements and modeling activities that attempt to determine how aerosols impact atmospheric radiative transfer, both directly and indirectly. However, significant discrepancies between aerosol properties measured in situ or remotely remain. One of the objectives of the Aerosol Intensive Operational Period (IOP) conducted by ARM in May 2003 at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in north central Oklahoma was to examine and hopefully reduce these differences. The IOP involved airborne measurements from two airplanes over the heavily instrumented SGP site. We give an overview of airborne results obtained aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft. The Twin Otter performed 16 research flights over the SGP site. The aircraft carried instrumentation to perform in-situ measurements of aerosol absorption, scattering, extinction and particle size. This included such novel techniques as the photoacoustic and cavity ring-down methods for in-situ absorption (675 nm) and extinction (675 and 1550 nm) and a new multiwavelength, filter-based absorption photometer (467, 530, 660 nm). A newly developed instrument measured cloud condensation nucleus concentration (CCN) concentrations at two supersaturation levels. Aerosol optical depth and extinction (354-2139 nm) were measured with the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking 14-channel sunphotometer. Furthermore, up- and downwelling solar (broadband and spectral) and infrared radiation were measured using seven individual radiometers. Three up-looking radiometers were mounted on a newly developed stabilized platform, keeping the instruments level up to aircraft pitch and roll angles of ˜10° . This resulted in unprecedented continuous vertical profiles of radiative fluxes, which we will compare to modeled fluxes using the aforementioned data as input. We will also present comparisons of the vertically resolved aerosol optical properties measured aboard the Twin Otter and from two ground-based lidar systems. Finally we use a trajectory model and a three-dimensional aerosol transport and microphysics model to explore the long-range transport and evolution of smoke aerosols from Siberian fires observed over SGP May 25-28, 2003.

Schmid, B.; Arnott, W.; Bucholtz, A.; Colarco, P.; Covert, D.; Eilers, J.; Elleman, R.; Ferrare, R.; Flagan, R.; Jonsson, H.; Pilewskie, P.; Pommier, J.; Redemann, J.; Ricci, K.; Rissman, T.; Seinfeld, J.; Strawa, A.; Vanreken, T.; Wang, J.; Welton, E.

2003-12-01

28

Energy exchanges in a Central Business District - Interpretation of Eddy Covariance and radiation flux measurements (London UK)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global urbanisation brings increasingly dense and complex urban structures. To manage cities sustainably and smartly, currently and into the future under changing climates, urban climate research needs to advance in areas such as Central Business Districts (CBD) where human interactions with the environment are particularly concentrated. Measurement and modelling approaches may be pushed to their limits in dense urban settings, but if urban climate research is to contribute to the challenges of real cities those limits have to be addressed. The climate of cities is strongly governed by surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy, moisture and momentum. Observations of the relevant fluxes provide important information for improvement and evaluation of modelling approaches. Due to the CBD's heterogeneity, a very careful analysis of observations is required to understand the relevant processes. Current approaches used to interpret observations and set them in a wider context may need to be adapted for use in these more complex areas. Here, we present long-term observations of the radiation balance components and turbulent fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat and momentum in the city centre of London. This is one of the first measurement studies in a CBD covering multiple years with analysis at temporal scales from days to seasons. Data gathered at two sites in close vicinity, but with different measurement heights, are analysed to investigate the influence of source area characteristics on long-term radiation and turbulent fluxes. Challenges of source area modelling and the critical aspect of siting in such a complex environment are considered. Outgoing long- and short-wave radiation are impacted by the anisotropic nature of the urban surface and the high reflectance materials increasingly being used as building materials. Results highlight the need to consider the source area of radiometers in terms of diffuse and direct irradiance. Sensible heat fluxes (QH) are positive all year round, even at night. QH systematically exceeds input from net all-wave radiation (Q*), probably sustained by a both storage and anthropogenic heat fluxes (QF). Model estimates suggest QF can exceed the Q* nearly all year round. The positive QH inhibits stable conditions, but the stability classification is determined predominantly by the pattern of friction velocity over the rough urban surface. Turbulent latent heat flux variations are controlled (beyond the available energy) by rainfall due to the small vegetation cover. The Bowen ratio is mostly larger than one. Analysis of the eddy covariance footprint surface controls for the different land cover types by flow patterns for measurements at the two heights suggests the spatial variations of the sensible heat flux observed are partly related to changes in surface roughness, even at the local scale. Where the source areas are most homogeneous, flow conditions are vertically consistent - even if initial morphometric parameters suggested the measurements may be below the blending height. Turbulence statistics and momentum flux patterns prove useful for the interpretation of turbulent heat exchanges observed.

Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

2013-12-01

29

Using Lowtran7 And Field Flux Measurements In An Atmospheric And Topographic Solar Radiation Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research I show how LOWl'RAN7 can be used with a twostream atmospheric radiative transfer algorithm to model the topographic distribution of solar radiation under various meteorological conditions. LOWTRAN7 is modified to give the spectral atmospheric optical properties required by the twostream equations: the single-scattering albedo, scattering asymmetry parameter, and optical depth. The twostream equations are then used l,o

R. Dubayah

1991-01-01

30

Adsorption calorimetry during metal vapor deposition on single crystal surfaces: Increased flux, reduced optical radiation, and real-time flux and reflectivity measurements  

SciTech Connect

Thin films of metals and other materials are often grown by physical vapor deposition. To understand such processes, it is desirable to measure the adsorption energy of the deposited species as the film grows, especially when grown on single crystal substrates where the structure of the adsorbed species, evolving interface, and thin film are more homogeneous and well-defined in structure. Our group previously described in this journal an adsorption calorimeter capable of such measurements on single-crystal surfaces under the clean conditions of ultrahigh vacuum [J. T. Stuckless, N. A. Frei, and C. T. Campbell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2427 (1998)]. Here we describe several improvements to that original design that allow for heat measurements with ?18-fold smaller standard deviation, greater absolute accuracy in energy calibration, and, most importantly, measurements of the adsorption of lower vapor-pressure materials which would have previously been impossible. These improvements are accomplished by: (1) using an electron beam evaporator instead of a Knudsen cell to generate the metal vapor at the source of the pulsed atomic beam, (2) changing the atomic beam design to decrease the relative amount of optical radiation that accompanies evaporation, (3) adding an off-axis quartz crystal microbalance for real-time measurement of the flux of the atomic beam during calorimetry experiments, and (4) adding capabilities for in situ relative diffuse optical reflectivity determinations (necessary for heat signal calibration). These improvements are not limited to adsorption calorimetry during metal deposition, but also could be applied to better study film growth of other elements and even molecular adsorbates.

Sellers, Jason R. V.; James, Trevor E.; Hemmingson, Stephanie L.; Farmer, Jason A.; Campbell, Charles T., E-mail: campbell@chem.washington.edu [Department of Chemistry, Box 351700, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 (United States)

2013-12-15

31

Development of a balloon-borne stabilized platform for measuring radiative flux profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer  

SciTech Connect

A stabilized platform has been developed to carry broadband short-wave and long-wave radiometric sensors on the tether line of a small tethered balloon that ascends through atmospheric depths of up to 1.5 km to obtain vertical profiles of radiative flux and flux divergence for evaluating atmospheric radiative transfer models. The Sky Platform was designed to keep the radiometers level despite unpredictable movements of the balloon and tether line occasioned by turbulence and wind shear. The automatic control loop drives motors, gears, and pulleys located on two of the vertices of the triangular frame to climb the harness lines to keep the platform level. Radiometric sensors, an electronic compass, and an on-board data acquisition system make up the remainder of the Sky Platform. Because knowledge of the dynamic response of the tether line-platform system is essential to properly close the automatic control loop on the Sky Platform, a Motion Sensing Platform (MSP) was developed to fly in place of the Sky Platform on the tether line to characterize the Sky Platform's operating environment. This unstabilized platform uses an array of nine solid-state linear accelerometers to measure the lateral and angular accelerations, velocities, and displacements that the Sky Platform will experience. This paper presents field performance tests of the Sky and Motion Sensing Platforms, as conducted at Richland, Washington, on February 17, 1993. The tests were performed primarily to characterize the stabilization system on the Sky Platform. Test flights were performed on this cold winter day from 1400 to 1800 Pacific Standard Time (PST). During this period, temperature profiles were near the dry adiabatic lapse rate. Flights were made through a jet wind speed profile having peak wind speeds of 7 m/s at a height of 100 m AGL. Wind directions were from the northwest. All flights were performed as continuous ascents, rather than ascending in discrete steps with halts at set altitudes.

Whiteman, C.D.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, G.A.; Shaw, W.J.

1993-03-01

32

Development of a balloon-borne stabilized platform for measuring radiative flux profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer  

SciTech Connect

A stabilized platform has been developed to carry broadband short-wave and long-wave radiometric sensors on the tether line of a small tethered balloon that ascends through atmospheric depths of up to 1.5 km to obtain vertical profiles of radiative flux and flux divergence for evaluating atmospheric radiative transfer models. The Sky Platform was designed to keep the radiometers level despite unpredictable movements of the balloon and tether line occasioned by turbulence and wind shear. The automatic control loop drives motors, gears, and pulleys located on two of the vertices of the triangular frame to climb the harness lines to keep the platform level. Radiometric sensors, an electronic compass, and an on-board data acquisition system make up the remainder of the Sky Platform. Because knowledge of the dynamic response of the tether line-platform system is essential to properly close the automatic control loop on the Sky Platform, a Motion Sensing Platform (MSP) was developed to fly in place of the Sky Platform on the tether line to characterize the Sky Platform`s operating environment. This unstabilized platform uses an array of nine solid-state linear accelerometers to measure the lateral and angular accelerations, velocities, and displacements that the Sky Platform will experience. This paper presents field performance tests of the Sky and Motion Sensing Platforms, as conducted at Richland, Washington, on February 17, 1993. The tests were performed primarily to characterize the stabilization system on the Sky Platform. Test flights were performed on this cold winter day from 1400 to 1800 Pacific Standard Time (PST). During this period, temperature profiles were near the dry adiabatic lapse rate. Flights were made through a jet wind speed profile having peak wind speeds of 7 m/s at a height of 100 m AGL. Wind directions were from the northwest. All flights were performed as continuous ascents, rather than ascending in discrete steps with halts at set altitudes.

Whiteman, C.D.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, G.A.; Shaw, W.J.

1993-03-01

33

Measuring Surface Fluxes in Cape.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two stations (site 1612 and site 2008) were operated by the University of Georgia group from 6 July 1991 to 18 August 1991. The following data were collected continuously: surface energy fluxes (i.e., net radiation, soil heat fluxes, sensible heat flux an...

E. T. Kanemasu T. D-shah D. Nie

1992-01-01

34

Development of a balloon-borne stabilized platform for measuring radiative flux profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A stabilized platform has been developed to carry broadband short-wave and long-wave radiometric sensors on the tether line of a small tethered balloon that ascends through atmospheric depths of up to 1.5 km to obtain vertical profiles of radiative flux a...

C. D. Whiteman J. M. Alzheimer G. A. Anderson W. J. Shaw

1993-01-01

35

Remote sounding of surface radiative fluxes in cirrus cloudy conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been long recognized that radiation and radiation perturbations play a critical role in the climate system. Surface radiative fluxes are useful parameters for monitoring global change, for understanding of the effects of clouds on the radiation field, and for improving parameterization of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. Monitoring of the radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere has been one of the prime satellite programs for the last 30 years. However, monitoring radiative fluxes at the surface over the globe from space cannot be performed in a direct way at the present time. In particular, since clouds are the prime regulators of the radiative fluxes, uncertainties in the retrieved cloud parameters, which are inputs to radiative transfer models, can introduce significant errors in the computed radiative fluxes. Thus, remote sounding of surface radiative fluxes in cloudy conditions requires the development of both satellite cloud retrieval scheme and radiation models. In this paper, we present results of computed surface radiative fluxes in cirrus cloudy conditions using a cirrus cloud retrieval scheme and a detailed radiative transfer program. Comparisons have been made between the computed surface radiative fluxes and the ground-based radiometer measurements obtained during FIRE-II-IFO, which was carried out near Coffeyville, Kansas, during November and December, 1991.

Ou, S. C.; Liou, K. N.

1995-01-01

36

Measured and calculated clear-sky solar radiative fluxes during the Subsonic Aircraft Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeled and measured surface insolations are compared with the purpose of evaluating the ability of a radiative transfer model to predict the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface under clear-sky conditions. Model uncertainties are estimated by performing sensitivity studies for variations in aerosol optical depth, aerosol optical properties, water vapor profiles, ozone content, solar irradiance at the top of

Francisco P. J. Valero; Brett C. Bush

1999-01-01

37

An information theory approach for evaluating earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements - Nonuniform sampling of diurnal longwave flux variations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite measurements are subject to a wide range of uncertainties due to their temporal, spatial, and directional sampling characteristics. An information-theory approach is suggested to examine the nonuniform temporal sampling of ERB measurements. The information (i.e., its entropy or uncertainty) before and after the measurements is determined, and information gain (IG) is defined as a reduction in the uncertainties involved. A stochastic model for the diurnal outgoing flux variations that affect the ERB is developed. Using Gaussian distributions for the a priori and measured radiant exitance fields, the IG is obtained by computing the a posteriori covariance. The IG for the monthly outgoing flux measurements is examined for different orbital parameters and orbital tracks, using the Earth Observing System orbital parameters as specific examples. Variations in IG due to changes in the orbit's inclination angle and the initial ascending node local time are investigated.

Halyo, Nesim; Direskeneli, Haldun; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

1991-01-01

38

Radiation fluxes at the FIFE site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objective of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) has been stated as 'the development of techniques that may be applied to satellite observations of the radiation reflected and emitted from the Earth to yield quantitative information concerning land surface climatological conditions'. The major field study, FIFE (the First ISLSCP Field Experiment), was conducted in 1987-89 to accomplish this objective. Four intensive field campaigns (IFC's) were carried out in 1987 and one in 1989. Factors contributing to observed reflected radiation from the FIFE site must be understood before the radiation observed by satellites can be used to quantify surface processes. Our last report (Walter-Shea et al., 1992b) focused on slope effects on incoming and outgoing shortwave radiation and net radiation from data collected in 1989. We report here on the final analysis of the slope data as well as results from thermal radiation studies conducted during the FIFE experiment. The specific areas reported are the following: (1) analysis of slope effects on measured reflectance values and estimates of surface albedo; (2) using remotely-measured surface temperatures as a means of estimating sensible heat flux from the Konza Prairie; (3) extracting canopy temperatures from remotely-measured composite surface temperatures; (4) modeling the measured composite temperature of partially vegetated surfaces; and (5) estimating gap distribution in partially vegetated surfaces from reflectance measurements.

Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Blad, Blaine L.; Zara, Pedro; Vining, Roel; Hays, Cynthia J.; Mesarch, Mark A.

1993-01-01

39

Pyrolytic graphite gauge for measuring heat flux  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gauge for measuring heat flux, especially heat flux encountered in a high temperature environment, is provided. The gauge includes at least one thermocouple and an anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body that covers at least part of, and optionally encases the thermocouple. Heat flux is incident on the anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body by arranging the gauge so that the gauge surface on which convective and radiative fluxes are incident is perpendicular to the basal planes of the pyrolytic graphite. The conductivity of the pyrolytic graphite permits energy, transferred into the pyrolytic graphite body in the form of heat flux on the incident (or facing) surface, to be quickly distributed through the entire pyrolytic graphite body, resulting in small substantially instantaneous temperature gradients. Temperature changes to the body can thereby be measured by the thermocouple, and reduced to quantify the heat flux incident to the body.

Bunker, Robert C. (Inventor); Ewing, Mark E. (Inventor); Shipley, John L. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

40

Cosmic Ray Neutron Flux Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic rays are high-energetic particles originating from outer space that bombard the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Almost 90% of cosmic ray particles consist of protons, electrons and heavy ions. When these particles hit the Earth's atmosphere, cascade of secondary particles are formed. The most abundant particles reach to the surface of the Earth are muons, electrons and neutrons. In recent years many research groups are looking into potential applications of the effects of cosmic ray radiation at the surface of the Earth [1, 2]. At Georgia State University we are working on a long-term measurement of cosmic ray flux distribution. This study includes the simultaneous measurement of cosmic ray muons, neutrons and gamma particles at the Earth surface in downtown Atlanta. The initial effort is focusing on the correlation studies of the cosmic ray particle flux distribution and the atmospheric weather conditions. In this presentation, I will talk about the development of a cosmic ray detector using liquid scintillator and the preliminary results. [4pt] [1] K.Borozdin, G.Hogan, C.Morris, W.Priedhorsky, A.Saunders, L.Shultz, M.Teasdale, ``Radiographic imaging with cosmic-ray muons'', Nature, Vol.422, p.277, Mar.2003[0pt] [2] Svensmark Henrik, Physical Review 81, 3, (1998)

Dayananda, Mathes

2009-11-01

41

Polar Radiation-Flux Symmetry Measurements in Z-Pinch-Driven Hohlraums with Symmetric Double-Pinch Drive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are currently exploring symmetry requirements of the z-pinch-driven hohlraum concept [1] for high-yield inertial confinement fusion. In experiments on the Z accelerator, the burnthrough of a low-density self-backlit foam ball has been used to diagnose the large time-dependent flux asymmetry of several single-sided-drive hohlraum geometries [2]. We are currently applying this technique to study polar radiation flux symmetry in a symmetric double z-pinch geometry. Wire arrays on opposite ends of the hohlraum, connected in series to a single current drive of 18 MA, implode and stagnate on axis, efficiently radiating about 100 TW of x rays which heat the secondary to 75 eV. Comparisons with 3-D radiosity and 2-D rad-hydro models of hohlraum symmetry performance will be presented. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. 1 J. H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2129 (1999). 2 D. L. Hanson et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 44, 40 (1999).

Hanson, D. L.; Vesey, R. A.; Cuneo Porter, M. E., Jr.; Chandler, G. A.; Ruggles, L. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Seamen, H.; Primm, P.; Torres, J.; McGurn, J.; Gilliland, T. L.; Reynolds, P.; Hebron, D. E.; Dropinski, S. C.; Schroen-Carey, D. G.; Hammer, J. H.; Landen, O.; Koch, J.

2000-10-01

42

Radiative heat flux control over spherical surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tremendous efforts have been and are being devoted to control the radiative heat flux over complex spherical surfaces such as solar energy collectors. Classical energy balance methods and network analysis have been used by previous investigators to evaluate the relevant exchange-factors of any spherical collector. The complex characteristics of the radiative flux in automatic control systems of such surfaces, the

Mansoor Karimifar; Sirus Aghanajafi; Ario B. Shabani

1997-01-01

43

Maximum power flux of auroral kilometric radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distant observations of intense auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) are discussed in light of the increased maximum AKR power flux registered by the 3D radio-mapping instrument on ISEE 3. Only AKR events that contain the highest frequency signals are selected, and during spacecraft rotation the spacecraft antenna gain is employed to increase the dynamic range of the instrument. The technique is found to result in the screening of false signals created by instrument overloading as well as the detection of genuine second-harmonic AKR signals while the spacecraft was 17 R(E) from earth. A very strong power flux of fundamental AKR is also reported, exceeding 3 x 10 to the -13th W/sq m/Hz at 360 kHz. The most intense source-region values detected by Isis I and Viking measurements are compared to the strong signal, and the signal is concluded to be the combined signal of a number of sources.

Benson, Robert F.; Fainberg, Joseph

1991-08-01

44

Measurement of unsteady heat flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors examine the influence of the volume nature of absorption of radiative flux on the operation of a heat converter with a thin-film resistive sensor. It is shown that allowing for volume absorption leads to a change in the form of the transfer function: it becomes rational (in contrast with the case of surface absorption, where the transfer function is irrational), because the converter heat-sensitive element 'integrates' the incident flux. The influence of the inertial properties of thin layers of black coating on the response time of the converter is examined.

Bautin, A. V.; Poliakov, Iu. A.

1980-07-01

45

Neutron Flux and Energy Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of neutron energy measurement is considered in the energy ranges, thermal ( 15 MeV), together with the general problem of neutron flux measurement. Sensitivities and resolutions obtainable are given for a variety of methods. It is concluded that for thermal and intermediate energy measurements in radiological applications it is best to use BF3 counters, fission chambers, moderated detectors,

J A Dennis

1966-01-01

46

Measuring Radiation  

MedlinePLUS

... or beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, or neutrons, a quantity of radioactive material is expressed in ... larger than the absorbed dose for alpha and neutron radiation, because these types of radiation are more ...

47

Simulation study of a geometric shape factor technique for estimating earth-emitted radiant flux densities from wide-field-of-view radiation measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geometric shape factors were computed and applied to satellite simulated irradiance measurements to estimate Earth emitted flux densities for global and zonal scales and for areas smaller than the detector field of view (FOV). Wide field of view flat plate detectors were emphasized, but spherical detectors were also studied. The radiation field was modeled after data from the Nimbus 2 and 3 satellites. At a satellite altitude of 600 km, zonal estimates were in error 1.0 to 1.2 percent and global estimates were in error less than 0.2 percent. Estimates with unrestricted field of view (UFOV) detectors were about the same for Lambertian and limb darkening radiation models. The opposite was found for restricted field of view detectors. The UFOV detectors are found to be poor estimators of flux density from the total FOV and are shown to be much better as estimators of flux density from a circle centered at the FOV with an area significantly smaller than that for the total FOV.

Weaver, W. L.; Green, R. N.

1980-01-01

48

New measurement of the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio up to 100 GeV in the cosmic radiation.  

PubMed

A new measurement of the cosmic-ray antiproton-to-proton flux ratio between 1 and 100 GeV is presented. The results were obtained with the PAMELA experiment, which was launched into low-Earth orbit on-board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on June 15th 2006. During 500 days of data collection a total of about 1000 antiprotons have been identified, including 100 above an energy of 20 GeV. The high-energy results are a tenfold improvement in statistics with respect to all previously published data. The data follow the trend expected from secondary production calculations and significantly constrain contributions from exotic sources, e.g., dark matter particle annihilations. PMID:19257498

Adriani, O; Barbarino, G C; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; De Pascale, M P; De Rosa, G; Fedele, D; Galper, A M; Grishantseva, L; Hofverberg, P; Leonov, A; Koldashov, S V; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Malvezzi, V; Marcelli, L; Menn, W; Mikhailov, V V; Minori, M; Mocchiutti, E; Nagni, M; Orsi, S; Osteria, G; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Y I; Taddei, E; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N; Zverev, V G

2009-02-01

49

New Measurement of the Antiproton-to-Proton Flux Ratio up to 100 GeV in the Cosmic Radiation  

SciTech Connect

A new measurement of the cosmic-ray antiproton-to-proton flux ratio between 1 and 100 GeV is presented. The results were obtained with the PAMELA experiment, which was launched into low-Earth orbit on-board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on June 15th 2006. During 500 days of data collection a total of about 1000 antiprotons have been identified, including 100 above an energy of 20 GeV. The high-energy results are a tenfold improvement in statistics with respect to all previously published data. The data follow the trend expected from secondary production calculations and significantly constrain contributions from exotic sources, e.g., dark matter particle annihilations.

Adriani, O.; Bonechi, L.; Fedele, D.; Spillantini, P.; Taddei, E. [Physics Department of University of Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Barbarino, G. C. [Physics Department of University of Naples 'Federico II', I-80126 Naples (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Naples, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Stozhkov, Y. I. [Lebedev Physical Institute, RU-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bellotti, R.; Bruno, A. [Physics Department of University of Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Vacchi, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Bogomolov, E. A.; Krutkov, S. Y.; Vasilyev, G. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RU-194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)] (and others)

2009-02-06

50

Validation of General Circulation Model Radiative Fluxes Using Surface Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface radiative fluxes of the ECHAM3 General Circulation Model (GCM) with T2 1, T42, and T 106 resolutions have been validated using observations from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA, World Climate Program-Water Project A7). GEBA contains the most comprehensive dataset now available for worldwide instrumentally measured surface energy fluxes.The GCM incoming shortwave radiation at the surface has been

Martin Wild; Atsumu Ohmura; Hans Gilgen; Erich Roeckner

1995-01-01

51

Validation of general circulation model radiative fluxes using surface observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface radiative fluxes of the ECHAM3 General Circulation Model (GCM) with T21, T42, and T106 resolutions have been validated using observations from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA, World Climate Program-Water Project A7). GEBA contains the most comprehensive dataset now available for worldwide instrumentally measured surface energy fluxes. The GCM incoming shortwave radiation at the surface has been compared

M. Wild; A. Oshmura; H. Gilgen

1995-01-01

52

A modular radiation-belt electron flux model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a time-dependent model for the energetic electron flux in Earth's radiation belts developed from measurements by several spacecraft in the radiation belts (POLAR, SAMPEX, Akebono, HEO, and GOES) and the solar wind (ACE, WIND). The flux is a function of L shell (1-11), particle energy (0.8-6.4 MeV) and time. A different module is developed for each one of

D. Vassiliadis; D. N. Baker; S. F. Fung; S. G. Kanekal; E. J. Rigler; R. S. Selesnick; R. S. Weigel

2006-01-01

53

Impact of the monsoon on downwelling surface radiative fluxes across West Africa : an evaluation of ECMWF-IFS and satellite estimates with ground measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-atmosphere exchanges are key for both land and atmospheric processes, and are affected by various feedback loops between these processes. This study focusses on downwelling surface radiation fluxes (DSRF), which represent a major forcing for land surface models (LSM) as well as a challenge for atmospheric models. Besides seasonal insolation, DSRF depend on such characteristics as cloud coverage and type, air temperature and humidity, and atmospheric aerosols. Flux estimations are provided from model or remote-sensing (RS) estimates, at space resolutions of several kms to several tens of kms. Direct observation in the field can be made by networks of point measurements. In West Africa, very few ground data have so far been available, hence little validation of model or RS estimates has yet been undertaken. In this region, radiative fluxes are strongly impacted by the West African monsoon (WAM) processes and by dust events of considerable importance, which are still insufficiently understood and modelled. As part of the AMMA programme (African monsoon multidisciplinary analyses), a network of surface flux data, including radiation components, was installed along a latitudinal transect across West Africa, making possible the comparison of available DSRF estimates with this new in-situ data. Such evaluation is key both for ensuring adequate forcing of LSMs such as those involved in the AMMA LSM intercomparison project (ALMIP), and for validating of atmospheric models and RS retrieval algorithms. In the AMMA surface flux network, 3 stations in Benin (~9.8°N), 4 in Niger (~13.5°N), and 4 in Mali (between 15.3 and 17°N) provide DSRF data. In this communication, results are presented for 2006, the year of AMMA's special observation periods. Seasonal, latitudinal and intra-site variability is highlighted and discussed. If DSRF variations are generally consistent with the solar course during the first months in the year, this relationship degrades when the WAM sets in. Thus the WAM stands as a major actor in shaping the seasonal cycle of DSRF. It is found to affect shortwave and longwave downwelling fluxes in distinct ways across latitude, from the more cloudy Soudanian zone up to the margins of the Sahara in the northern Sahel. In-situ DSRF data are compared with estimated values from the ECMWF-IFS and from the ALMIP database (corresponding to LAND-SAF satellite estimates) at each site. The pre-monsoon period is especially investigated, as it is characterized by the occurrence of numerous dust events, squall lines, a rise in atmospheric humidity, and cloud coverage. These conditions favour errors in DSRF estimates.

Ramier, D.; Guichard, F.; Cappelaere, B.; Kergoat, L.; Galle, S.; Timouk, F.; Boulain, N.; Boucher, M.; Taylor, C.; Boone, A.

2009-04-01

54

Beta ray flux measuring device  

DOEpatents

A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

Impink, Jr., Albert J. (Murrysville, PA); Goldstein, Norman P. (Murrysville, PA) [Murrysville, PA

1990-01-01

55

Heat Flux-Based Emissivity Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a heat flux-based method for measuring emissivity of a surface. In this method the emissivity of a surface is calculated using direct measurement of the heat flux passing through the surface. Unlike storage-based calorimetric methods, this method does not require application of known amounts of heat to the surface or the temperature history of a known amount of thermal mass to calculate the surface emissivity. Application and operation of this method is much simpler than calorimetric methods as it does not require careful thermal insulation of the heat radiating body from the surroundings. The low thermal capacitance and scalability of the heat flux sensors can provide good temporal and spatial resolution of the heat flux and, therefore, the emissivity. This technique allows emissivity measurements of the newly developed variable emissivity surfaces with significantly lighter and energy efficient measurement equipment that can operator for long term space missions. In this study, a commercially available thermopile heat flux sensor was used to measure the emissivity of a black paint for a temperature range of -100 to 100 °C. This paper details the concept, experimental setup, and the experiment results.

Moghaddam, Saeed; Lawler, John; McCaffery, Collin; Kim, Jungho

2005-02-01

56

Comparison of Measured and Modeled Radiation, Heat and Water Vapor Fluxes: Fife Pilot Study. Status Report April 1, 1985-December 31, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of using radio frequency receivers to collect data from automated weather stations to model fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and radiation using routine weather data collected by automated weather stations was tested and the estimated...

B. L. Blad K. G. Hubbard S. B. Verma P. Starks J. M. Norman

1987-01-01

57

Parameterisation of surface radiation flux at an Antarctic site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Antarctic summer 1994/95 the values of downward and upward flux densities of both solar and terrestrial radiation were recorded at 1200 m for a period of 1 month on the Reeves Nevè Glacier (lat 74°39'S, long 161°35'E), near the Italian base of Terra Nova Bay. The relations proposed by Swinbank [Swinbank, W.C., 1963. Long-wave radiation from clear skies. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 339-348], Idso and Jackson [Idso, S.B., Jackson, R.D., 1969. Thermal radiation from the atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 74, 5397-5403] and Deacon [Deacon, E.L., 1970. The derivation of Swinbank's long-wave radiation formula. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 96, 313-319] associating the long-wave atmospheric radiation flux only to the air temperature at screen level were tested in extreme Antarctic climatological condition. A relation between the long-wave radiation flux and both screen air temperature and cloud cover fraction in accordance to the height of the cloud base was defined using the Kasten and Czeplak relationship that relates the solar radiation flux and the cloud cover index. The study of the incoming short-wave radiation flux from the clear sky and that reflected by the surrounding snow cover allowed for highlighting the role of surface geometry on the albedo measurements.

Orsini, A.; Calzolari, F.; Georgiadis, T.; Levizzani, V.; Nardino, M.; Pirazzini, R.; Rizzi, R.; Sozzi, R.; Tomasi, C.

58

Denoising surface renewal flux density measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When combined with net radiation and ground heat flux density measurements, surface renewal sensible heat flux density measurements can be used to obtain latent heat flux density, and therefore evapotranspiration, via the energy balance residual. Surface renewal is based on analyzing the energy and mass budget of air parcels that interact with plant canopies. The air parcels are manifested as ramp-like shapes in turbulent scalar time series data, and the amplitude and period of the ramps are used to calculate the flux densities. The root mean square error between calibrated surface renewal and eddy covariance is generally twice the root mean square error between two eddy covariance systems. In this presentation, we evaluate the efficacy of various methods for reducing the random error in surface renewal sensible heat flux density measurements. These methods include signal de-spiking, conventional low-pass filtering, wavelet-based filtering, ramp signal to noise thresholds, ramp period scaling, novel rearrangements of the Van Atta procedure (Arch Mech 29:161-171, 1977) for resolving the ramp amplitude and ramp period, sensor replication, and optimization of sensor placement.

Shapland, T.; Paw U, K.; Snyder, R. L.; McElrone, A.; Calderon Orellana, A.; Williams, L.

2012-12-01

59

A Comparison Between Modeled and Measured Clear-Sky Radiative Shortwave Fluxes in Arctic Environments, with Special Emphasis on Diffuse Radiation  

SciTech Connect

The ability of the SBDART radiative transfer model to predict clear-sky diffuse and direct normal broadband shortwave irradiances is investigated. Model calculations of these quantities are compared with data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. The model tends to consistently underestimate the direct normal irradiances at both sites by about 1%. In regards to clear-sky diffuse irradiance, the model overestimates this quantity at the SGP site in a manner similar to what has been observed in other studies (Halthore and Schwartz, 2000). The difference between the diffuse SBDART calculations and Halthore and Schwartz’s MODTRAN calculations is very small, thus demonstrating that SBDART performs similarly to MODTRAN. SBDART is then applied to the NSA site, and here it is found that the discrepancy between the model calculations and corrected diffuse measurements (corrected for daytime offsets, Dutton et al., 2001) is 0.4 W/m2 when averaged over the 12 cases considered here. Two cases of diffuse measurements from a shaded “black and white” pyranometer are also compared with the calculations and the discrepancy is again minimal. Thus, it appears as if the “diffuse discrepancy” that exists at the SGP site does not exist at the NSA sites. We cannot yet explain why the model predicts diffuse radiation well at one site but not at the other.

Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Donna M.

2002-10-08

60

Validation of general circulation model radiative fluxes using surface observations  

SciTech Connect

The surface radiative fluxes of the ECHAM3 General Circulation Model (GCM) with T21, T42, and T106 resolutions have been validated using observations from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA, World Climate Program-Water Project A7). GEBA contains the most comprehensive dataset now available for worldwide instrumentally measured surface energy fluxes. The GCM incoming shortwave radiation at the surface has been compared with more than 700 long-term monitoring stations. The ECHAM3 models show a clear tendency to overestimate the global annual-mean incoming shortwave radiation at the surface due to an underestimation of atmospheric absorption. The model-calculated global-mean surface shortwave absorption around 165 W M{sup -2} is estimated to be too high by 10-15 W m{sup -2}. A similar or higher overestimate is present in several other GCMs. Deficiencies in the clear-sky absorption of the ECHAM3 radiation scheme are proposed as a contributor to the flux discrepancies. A stand-alone validation of the radiation scheme under clear-sky conditions revealed overestimates of up to 50 W m{sup -2} for daily maximum values of incoming shortwave fluxes. Further, the lack of shortwave absorption by the model clouds is suggested to contribute to the overestimated surface shortwave radiation. There are indications that the incoming longwave radiation at the surface is underestimated in ECHAM3 and other GCMs. This largely offsets the overestimated shortwave flux in the global mean, so that the 102 W m{sup -2} calculated in ECHAM3 for the surface net radiation is considered to be a realistic value. A common feature of several GCMs is, therefore, a superficially correct simulation of global mean net radiation, as the overestimate in the shortwave balance is compensated by an underestimate in the longwave balance. 41 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

Wild, M.; Oshmura, A.; Gilgen, H. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)] [and others] [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); and others

1995-05-01

61

Impact of the monsoon on downwelling surface radiative fluxes across West Africa : an evaluation of ECMWF-IFS and satellite estimates with ground measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-atmosphere exchanges are key for both land and atmospheric processes, and are affected by various feedback loops between these processes. This study focusses on downwelling surface radiation fluxes (DSRF), which represent a major forcing for land surface models (LSM) as well as a challenge for atmospheric models. Besides seasonal insolation, DSRF depend on such characteristics as cloud coverage and type,

D. Ramier; F. Guichard; B. Cappelaere; L. Kergoat; S. Galle; F. Timouk; N. Boulain; M. Boucher; C. Taylor; A. Boone

2009-01-01

62

An Overview of the GEWEX Radiative Flux Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Radiative Flux Assessment (RFA) is an international effort to produce a community-wide evaluation of the currently available long-term radiative flux data sets derived from satellite based analysis in the context of global change detection and analysis. Its primary activity consists of assessing the uncertainties associated with these data sets by comparing TOA and surface radiative flux data products to each other and investigating the sources of differences. Surface measurements are also assessed and compared to the satellite based data sets. Data sets from global long-term reanalysis and global climate models are also compared against the satellite records. The assessment includes both upwelling and downwelling SW and LW fluxes, for all-sky and clear-sky conditions over all portions of the globe and at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Its goal is to characterize variations in the fluxes over time and to establish error estimates for each product over the various temporal and spatial scales, thus facilitating use of these products in future climate studies. This presentation will discuss the current status of the Flux Assessment, including a summary of results to date, weaknesses in the current satellite and surface observation systems, and recommendations for future improvements to these systems.

Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Hinkelman, L. M.; Wong, T.; Chambers, L. H.; Wielicki, B. A.

2009-04-01

63

Annual Cycles of Surface Shortwave Radiative Fluxes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The annual cycles of surface shortwave flux are investigated using the 8-yr dataset of the surface radiation budget (SRB) components for the period July 1983-June 1991. These components include the downward, upward, and net shortwave radiant fluxes at the earth's surface. The seasonal cycles are quantified in terms of principal components that describe the temporal variations and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) that describe the spatial patterns. The major part of the variation is simply due to the variation of the insolation at the top of the atmosphere, especially for the first term, which describes 92.4% of the variance for the downward shortwave flux. However, for the second term, which describes 4.1% of the variance, the effect of clouds is quite important and the effect of clouds dominates the third term, which describes 2.4% of the variance. To a large degree the second and third terms are due to the response of clouds to the annual cycle of solar forcing. For net shortwave flux at the surface, similar variances are described by each term. The regional values of the EOFs are related to climate classes, thereby defining the range of annual cycles of shortwave radiation for each climate class.

Wilber, Anne C.; Smith, G. Louis; Gupta, Shashi K.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

2006-01-01

64

Spectral estimates of net radiation and soil heat flux  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conventional methods of measuring surface energy balance are point measurements and represent only a small area. Remote sensing offers a potential means of measuring outgoing fluxes over large areas at the spatial resolution of the sensor. The objective of this study was to estimate net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G) using remotely sensed multispectral data acquired from an aircraft over large agricultural fields. Ground-based instruments measured Rn and G at nine locations along the flight lines. Incoming fluxes were also measured by ground-based instruments. Outgoing fluxes were estimated using remotely sensed data. Remote Rn, estimated as the algebraic sum of incoming and outgoing fluxes, slightly underestimated Rn measured by the ground-based net radiometers. The mean absolute errors for remote Rn minus measured Rn were less than 7%. Remote G, estimated as a function of a spectral vegetation index and remote Rn, slightly overestimated measured G; however, the mean absolute error for remote G was 13%. Some of the differences between measured and remote values of Rn and G are associated with differences in instrument designs and measurement techniques. The root mean square error for available energy (Rn - G) was 12%. Thus, methods using both ground-based and remotely sensed data can provide reliable estimates of the available energy which can be partitioned into sensible and latent heat under nonadvective conditions. ?? 1990.

Daughtry, C. S. T.; Kustas, W. P.; Moran, M. S.; Pinter, Jr. , P. J.; Jackson, R. D.; Brown, P. W.; Nichols, W. D.; Gay, L. W.

1990-01-01

65

Surface radiation fluxes in transient climate simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient CO2 experiments from five coupled climate models, in which the CO2 concentration increases at rates of 0.6–1.1% per annum for periods of 75–200 years, are used to document the responses of surface radiation fluxes, and associated atmospheric properties, to the CO2 increase. In all five models, the responses of global surface temperature and column water vapour are non-linear and

J. R. Garratt; D. M. O'Brien; M. R. Dix; J. M. Murphy; G. L. Stephens; M. Wild

1999-01-01

66

Radiation entropy flux and entropy production of the Earth system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the Earth's radiation entropy flux at the top of the atmosphere is reviewed with an emphasis on its estimation methods. Existing expressions for calculating radiation entropy flux scattered in different disciplines are surveyed, and their applicabilities are examined. It is found that the Earth's net radiation entropy flux estimated from these various expressions can differ substantially, more

Wei Wu; Yangang Liu

2010-01-01

67

Measurements of the Jovian radiation belts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of California at San Diego trapped radiation detector measured proton and electron fluxes, angular distributions, and energy spectra throughout the Pioneer 10 flyby of Jupiter last December. Here the instrumentation and calibrations are described, and good values for particle fluxes in the inner and outer regions are presented. The major features of the Jovian radiation belts are described,

R. W. Fillius; C. E. McIlwain

1974-01-01

68

Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems (CO2Flux) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) carbon dioxide flux (CO2 flux) measurement systems provide half-hour average fluxes of CO2, H2O (latent heat), and sensible heat. The fluxes are obtained by the eddy covariance technique, which computes the flux as the mean product of the vertical wind component with CO2 and H2O densities, or estimated virtual temperature. A three-dimensional sonic anemometer is used to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the virtual (sonic) temperature. An infrared gas analyzer is used to obtain the CO2 and H2O densities. A separate sub-system also collects half-hour average measures of meteorological and soil variables from separate 4-m towers.

Fischer, M

2005-01-01

69

Losses in magnetic flux compression generators. Part 2: Radiation losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of flux losses in explosive driven magnetic flux compression generators is given. Flux loss by radiation from the outer conductor walls is treated. Flux leakage rates through walls of finite thickness are first obtained by diffusion theory. It is shown, for normal wall thicknesses, that flux leakage is determined essentially by the wall conductance, defined as the product

C. M. Fowler

1988-01-01

70

Spatially averaged heat flux and convergence measurements at the ARM regional flux experiment  

SciTech Connect

Cloud formation and its relation to climate change is the greatest weakness in current numerical climate models. Surface heat flux in some cases causes clouds to form and in other to dissipate and the differences between these cases are subtle enough to make parameterization difficult in a numerical model. One of the goals of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is to make long term measurements at representative sites to improve radiation and cloud formation parameterization. This paper compares spatially averaged optical measurements of heat flux and convergence with a goal of determining how point measurements of heat fluxes scale up to the larger scale used for climate modeling. It was found that the various optical techniques used in this paper compared well with each other and with independent measurements. These results add confidence that spatially averaging optical techniques can be applied to transform point measurements to the larger scales needed for mesoscale and climate modeling. 10 refs., 6 figs. (MHB)

Porch, W.; Barnes, F.; Buchwald, M.; Clements, W.; Cooper, D.; Hoard, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Doran, C.; Hubbe, J.; Shaw, W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Coulter, R.; Martin, T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Kunkel, K. (Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

1991-01-01

71

Medically important solar ultraviolet A. Radiation measurements.  

PubMed

Results from a 6-year study of solar ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation measurements at the equatorial location of Penang (5 degrees N) are presented. On clear days, the diurnal flux reaches a very high dosage of about 3.0 x 10(-2) KWHM-2 around midday. The average daily total flux is in the range of 1.6 x 10(-1) KWHM-2 and does not change much seasonally. The high 83% cloud cover only reduces the incoming flux to about half. The radiation flux represents a lower limit of the incident UVA radiation applicable to much of the equatorial/tropical region. PMID:3391727

Ilyas, M; Abdul Aziz, D; Tajuddin, M R

1988-06-01

72

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part 1; Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) investigates the critical role that clouds and aerosols play in modulating the radiative energy flow within the Earth-atmosphere system. CERES builds upon the foundation laid by previous missions, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, to provide highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes together with coincident cloud and aerosol properties inferred from high-resolution imager measurements. This paper describes the method used to construct empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) for estimating shortwave, longwave, and window TOA radiative fluxes from CERES radiance measurements on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. To construct the ADMs, multiangle CERES measurements are combined with coincident high-resolution Visible Infrared Scanner measurements and meteorological parameters from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts data assimilation product. The ADMs are stratified by scene types defined by parameters that have a strong influence on the angular dependence of Earth's radiation field at the TOA. Examples of how the new CERES ADMs depend upon the imager-based parameters are provided together with comparisons with existing models.

Loeb, N. G.; Smith, N. M.; Kato, S.; Miller, W. F.; Gupta, S. K.; Minnis, P.; Wielicki, B. A.

2003-01-01

73

Decadal Changes in Surface Radiative Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent evidence suggests that radiative fluxes incident at the Earth surface are not stable over time but undergo significant changes on decadal timescales. This is not only found in the thermal spectral range, where an increase in the downwelling flux is expected with the increasing greenhouse effect, but also in the solar range. Observations suggest that surface solar radiation, after decades of decline ("global dimming"), reversed into a "brightening" since the mid-1980s at widespread locations. This presentation gives an update on recent investigations related to the decadal variations in these fluxes, based on both observational and modeling approaches. Updated observational data, archived at the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) at ETH Zurich, suggest a continuation of surface solar brightening beyond the year 2000 at numerous locations, yet less pronounced and coherent than during the 1990s, with more regions with no clear changes or declines. Current global climate models as used in the IPCC-AR4 report typically do not reproduce the observed decadal variations to their full extent. Modeling attempts to improve this situation are under way at ETH, based on a global climate model which includes a sophisticated interactive treatment of aerosol and cloud microphysics (ECHAM5-HAM). Further the impact of the decadal changes in surface radiative forcings on different aspects of the global climate system and climate change is discussed, such as 20th century day- and nighttime warming, evapotranspiration changes and the varying intensity of the hydrological cycle as well as the terrestrial carbon cycle. Selected related references: Wild, M., and Co-authors, 2005: From dimming to brightening: Decadal changes in solar radiation at the Earth's surface. Science, 308, 847-850 Wild, M., 2007: Decadal changes in surface radiative fluxes and their importance in the context of global climate change, in: Climate Variability and Extremes during the Past 100 years, Advances in Global Change Research, 140, Editors Stefan Brönnimann et al., p. 155-168. Wild, M., Ohmura A., Makowski, K., 2007: Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L04702, doi:10.1029/2006GL028031. Wild, M., Grieser, J. and Schär, C., 2008: Combined surface solar brightening and greenhouse effect support recent intensification of the global land-based hydrological cycle. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L17706, doi:10.1029/2008GL034842 Wild, M., 2009: How well do IPCC-AR4/CMIP3 climate models simulate global dimming/brightening and 20th century day- and night-time warming? To appear in J. Geophys. Res. Wild, M., Truessel, B., Ohmura, A., Long, C.N. König-Langlo G., Dutton, E.G., and Tsvetkov, A., 2009: Global Dimming and Brightening: an update beyond 2000. To appear in J. Geophys. Res. Wild, M., 2009: Global dimming and brightening: A review on decadal changes in surface solar radiation. To appear in J. Geophys. Res.

Wild, M.

2009-05-01

74

Neutron Flux Measurements in PUSPATI Triga Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Neutron flux measurement in the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (PTR) was initiated after its commissioning on 28 June 1982. Initial measured thermal neutron flux at the bottom of the rotary specimen rack (rotating) and in-core pneumatic terminus were 3.81E+11 n/cm...

Gui Ah Auu Mohamad Amin Sharifuldin Salleh Mohamad Ali Sufi

1983-01-01

75

Eddy covariance measurement of isoprene fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system has been developed to directly measure isoprene flux above a forest canopy by eddy covariance using the combination of a fast response, real-time isoprene sensor and sonic anemometer. This system is suitable for making nearly unattended, long-term, and continuous measurements of isoprene fluxes. Isoprene detection is based on chemiluminescence between isoprene and reactant ozone, which produces green light

Alex B. Guenther; Alan J. Hills

1998-01-01

76

Measurement of neutron flux in the AVR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The experiment to measure neutron flux distribution in the steam generator built above the reactor core of the AVR was carried out by using new type High Temperature In-core Fission Counter-chambers (HTICs) and Wide Range Neutron Flux Measuring Electronic...

H. Brixy H. Itoh H. Yamagishi K. Sakasai N. Wakayama

1991-01-01

77

Heat Flux-Based Emissivity Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a heat flux-based method for measuring emissivity of a surface. In this method the emissivity of a surface is calculated using direct measurement of the heat flux passing through the surface. Unlike storage-based calorimetric methods, this method does not require application of known amounts of heat to the surface or the temperature history of a known amount

Saeed Moghaddam; John Lawler; Collin McCaffery; Jungho Kim

2005-01-01

78

The Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes to Parameterized Cloud Microphysics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of modeled radiative fluxes to the specification of cloud microphysical parameterizations of effective radius and fallout are investigated using a single-column model and measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The single-column model was run with data for the 3-month period of June-August 2000 at the ARM Southern Great Plains site forced with operational numerical weather prediction data. Several different packages of cloud microphysical parameterizations were used in the single-column model. The temporal evolution of modeled cloud amount as well as surface radiative fluxes from a control run compare well with ARM measurements.Mean ice particle fall speeds varied significantly with respect to the assumed ice particle habit. As particle fall speeds increased, the overall cloud fraction, cloud height, and grid-averaged ice water path decreased. The outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) differs by up to 4 W m2 over the range of fall speeds examined, while shortwave fluxes varied little as most of the changes in cloud properties occurred at times of minimal solar radiation.Model results indicate that surface and top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes are sensitive to the scheme used to specify the ice particle effective radius. On the seasonal timescale this sensitivity is on the order of 4 W m2 and on the daily timescale can be as large as 32 W m2. A conclusive statement as to which microphysical scheme is performing best is not achievable until cloud microphysical measurements include an accurate representation of small ice particles. The modeled variance of the ice particle effective radius at any given height in the model is considerably smaller than that suggested by measurements. Model results indicate that this underestimation of the ice particle effective radius variance can alter the seasonal mean top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes by up to 5 W m2 and the mean longwave cooling rate by up to 0.2° K day1 near the location of maximum cloud amount.These seemingly modest flux sensitivities may have important implications for numerical climate simulations. These numerical experiments and observational comparisons have provided valuable physical insight into ice cloud-radiation physics and also into the mechanisms through which contemporary cloud microphysical parameterizations interact with climate model radiation schemes. In particular, the results demonstrate the importance of the smaller ice particles and emphasize the critical role played by not only the average particle size and shape but also the width of the ice particle effective radius distribution about its mean. In fact, the results show that this variability in particle size can sometimes play a greater role in cloud-radiation interactions than the more obvious variations in cloud amount due to changes in ice particle fall speed.

Iacobellis, Sam F.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Mitchell, David L.; Somerville, Richard C. J.

2003-09-01

79

Diamagnetic flux measurement in Aditya tokamak  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of diamagnetic flux in Aditya tokamak for different discharge conditions are reported for the first time. The measured diamagnetic flux in a typical discharge is less than 0.6 mWb and therefore it has required careful compensation for various kinds of pick-ups. The hardware and software compensations employed in this measurement are described. We introduce compensation of a pick-up due to plasma current of less than 20 kA in short duration discharges, in which plasma pressure gradient is supposed to be negligible. The flux measurement during radio frequency heating is also presented in order to validate compensation.

Kumar, Sameer; Jha, Ratneshwar; Lal, Praveen; Hansaliya, Chandresh; Gopalkrishna, M. V.; Kulkarni, Sanjay; Mishra, Kishore [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Near Indira Bridge, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

2010-12-15

80

Diamagnetic flux measurement in Aditya tokamak.  

PubMed

Measurements of diamagnetic flux in Aditya tokamak for different discharge conditions are reported for the first time. The measured diamagnetic flux in a typical discharge is less than 0.6 mWb and therefore it has required careful compensation for various kinds of pick-ups. The hardware and software compensations employed in this measurement are described. We introduce compensation of a pick-up due to plasma current of less than 20 kA in short duration discharges, in which plasma pressure gradient is supposed to be negligible. The flux measurement during radio frequency heating is also presented in order to validate compensation. PMID:21198021

Kumar, Sameer; Jha, Ratneshwar; Lal, Praveen; Hansaliya, Chandresh; Gopalkrishna, M V; Kulkarni, Sanjay; Mishra, Kishore

2010-12-01

81

Solar radiation measurement project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Xavier solar radiation measurement project and station are described. Measurements of the total solar radiation on a horizontal surface from an Eppley pyranometer were collected into computer data files. Total radiation in watt hours was converted from ten minute intervals to hourly intervals. Graphs of this total radiation data are included. A computer program in Fortran was written to calculate the total extraterrestrial radiation on a horizontal surface for each day of the month. Educational and social benefits of the project are cited.

Ioup, J. W.

1981-01-01

82

Modeling shortwave radiative fluxes from satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last two decades, significant progress has been made in assessing the Earth Radiation Balance from satellite observations. Yet, satellite based estimates differ from each other and from those provided by numerical models. Major issues are related to quality of satellite observations, such as the frequent changes in satellite observing systems, degradation of sensors, restricted spectral intervals and viewing geometry of sensors, and changes in the quality of atmospheric inputs that drive the inference schemes. To reduce differences among the satellite based estimates requires, among others, updates to inference schemes so that most recent auxiliary information can be fully utilized. This paper reports on improvements introduced to a methodology developed at the University of Maryland to estimate shortwave (SW) radiative fluxes within the atmosphere system from satellite observations, the implementation of the approach with newly available auxiliary information, evaluation of the downwelling SW flux against ground observations, and comparison with independent satellite methods and numerical models. Specifically, introduced are: new Narrow to Broadband (N/B) transformations and new Angular Distribution Models (ADM) for clear and cloudy sky that incorporate most recent land use classifications; improved aerosol treatment; separation of clouds by phase; improved sun-earth geometry; and implementation at 0.5° spatial resolution at 3-hourly intervals integrated to daily and monthly time scales. When compared to an earlier version of the model as implemented at 2.5° at global scale and against observations from the globally distributed Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) stations for a period of six years (at monthly time scale), the bias was reduced from 8.6 (4.6%) to -0.5 (0.3%) W/m2, the standard deviation from 16.6 (8.9%) to 14.5 (7.8%) W/m2while the correlation remained high at 0.98 in both cases. Evaluation was also done over oceanic sites as available from the Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) moorings and from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean/Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TAO/TRITON) moorings in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Overall, results over oceans were not as good as over land for all the satellite retrievals compared in this study.

Ma, Y.; Pinker, R. T.

2012-12-01

83

Tools for atmospheric radiative transfer: Streamer and FluxNet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two tools for the solution of radiative transfer problems are presented. Streamer is a flexible medium spectral resolution radiative transfer model based on the plane-parallel theory of radiative transfer. Capable of computing either fluxes or radiances, it is suitable for studying radiative processes at the surface or within the atmosphere and for the development of remote-sensing algorithms. FluxNet is a

Jeffrey R Key; Axel J Schweiger

1998-01-01

84

Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments: basics of the RayMan model.  

PubMed

Short- and long-wave radiation flux densities absorbed by people have a significant influence on their energy balance. The heat effect of the absorbed radiation flux densities is parameterised by the mean radiant temperature. This paper presents the physical basis of the RayMan model, which simulates the short- and long-wave radiation flux densities from the three-dimensional surroundings in simple and complex environments. RayMan has the character of a freely available radiation and human-bioclimate model. The aim of the RayMan model is to calculate radiation flux densities, sunshine duration, shadow spaces and thermo-physiologically relevant assessment indices using only a limited number of meteorological and other input data. A comparison between measured and simulated values for global radiation and mean radiant temperature shows that the simulated data closely resemble measured data. PMID:19756771

Matzarakis, Andreas; Rutz, Frank; Mayer, Helmut

2010-03-01

85

Earth Radiation Measurement Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is the final report for NASA Grant NAG1-1959, 'Earth Radiation Measurement Science'. The purpose of this grant was to perform research in this area for the needs of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project and for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which are bing conducted by the Radiation and Aerosols Branch of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of Langley Research Center. Earth Radiation Measurement Science investigates the processes by which measurements are converted into data products. Under this grant, research was to be conducted for five tasks: (1) Point Response Function Measurements; (2) Temporal Sampling of Outgoing Longwave Radiation; (3) Spatial Averaging of Radiation Budget Data; (4) CERES Data Validation and Applications; and (5) ScaRaB Data Validation and Application.

Smith, G. Louis

2000-01-01

86

Heat flux microsensor measurements and calibrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new thin-film heat flux gage has been fabricated specifically for severe high temperature operation using platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium for the thermocouple elements. Radiation calibrations of this gage were performed at the AEDC facility over the available heat flux range (approx. 1.0 - 1,000 W/cu cm). The gage output was linear with heat flux with a slight increase in sensitivity with increasing surface temperature. Survivability of gages was demonstrated in quench tests from 500 C into liquid nitrogen. Successful operation of gages to surface temperatures of 750 C has been achieved. No additional cooling of the gages is required because the gages are always at the same temperature as the substrate material. A video of oxyacetylene flame tests with real-time heat flux and temperature output is available.

Terrell, James P.; Hager, Jon M.; Onishi, Shinzo; Diller, Thomas E.

1992-01-01

87

Flux-limited diffusion models in radiation hydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss certain flux-limited diffusion theories which approximately describe radiative transfer in the presence of steep spatial gradients. A new formulation is presented which generalizes a flux-limited description currently in widespread use for large radiation hydrodynamic calculations. This new formation allows more than one Case discrete mode to be described by a flux-limited diffusion equation. Such behavior is not extant in existing formulations. Numerical results predicted by these flux-limited diffusion models are presented for radiation penetration into an initially cold halfspace. 37 refs., 5 figs.

Pomraning, G.C.; Szilard, R.H. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

1993-01-01

88

Measurement and Modeling of Surface Energy Fluxes of Rangeland Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intermingling of vegetation communities in mountainous rangeland and forest ecosystems creates a challenge for measuring or modeling the energy and mass fluxes in these complex environments, as adequate fetch requirements and complex topography make interpretation of eddy covariance results difficult. This study assesses surface energy balance measurements taken over sagebrush, aspen and the understory of grasses and forbs beneath the aspen canopy, and measurements were compared with simulations from a multi-layer canopy model. Energy balance closure for the sagebrush community was quite good and surface energy fluxes were simulated quite well by the model. Closure of the understory measurements was highly dependent on whether direct solar radiation was impinging on the net radiation sensor through gaps in the aspen canopy. Upward sensible heat flux within the aspen canopy was unexpectedly observed during snowmelt; model simulations suggested that this was due to the influence of tree trunks absorbing solar radiation and releasing sensible heat upward to the atmosphere and downward to the snowpack. Simulated turbulent fluxes above the aspen canopy were reasonable, but model modifications were necessary to capture the very stable conditions at the bottom of the aspen canopy, particularly during snowmelt. Results indicate that reliable surface energy balance measurements can be taken in these complex environments, but care must be used in the interpretation of the results.

Flerchinger, G. N.; Marks, D. G.; Reba, M. L.

2010-12-01

89

How Well are Recent Climate Variability Signals Resolved by Satellite Radiative Flux Estimates?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One notable aspect of Earth s climate is that although the planet appears to be very close to radiative balance at top-of-atmosphere (TOA), the atmosphere itself and underlying surface are not. Profound exchanges of energy between the atmosphere and oceans, land and cryosphere occur over a range of time scales. Recent evidence from broadband satellite measurements suggests that even these TOA fluxes contain some detectable variations. Our ability to measure and reconstruct radiative fluxes at the surface and at the top of atmosphere is improving rapidly. Understanding the character of radiative flux estimates and relating them to variations in other energy fluxes and climate state variables is key to improving our understanding of climate. In this work we will evaluate several recently released estimates of radiative fluxes, focusing primarily on surface estimates. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project FD radiative flux profiles are available from rnid-1983 to near present and have been constructed by driving the radiative transfer physics from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) global model with ISCCP clouds and HlRS operational soundings profiles. Full and clear sky SW and LW fluxes are produced. A similar product from the NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget Project using different radiative flux codes and thermodynamics from the NASA/Goddard Earth Observing System assimilation model makes a similar calculation of surface fluxes. However this data set currently extends only through 1995. Several estimates of downward LW flux at the surface inferred from microwave data are also examined. Since these products have been evaluated with Baseline Surface Radiation Network data over land we focus over ocean regions and use the DOE/NOAA/NASA Shipboard Ocean Atmospheric Radiation (SOAR) surface flux measurements to characterize performance of these data sets under both clear and cloudy conditions. Some aspects of performance are stratified according to SST and vertical motion regimes. Comparisons to the TRMM/CERES SRB data in 1998 are also interpreted. These radiative fluxes are then analyzed to determine how surface (and TOA) radiative exchanges respond to interannual signals of ENS0 warm and cold events. Our analysis includes regional changes as well as integrated signals over land, ocean and various latitude bands. Changes in water vapor and cloud forcing signatures are prominent on interannual time scales. Prominent signals are also found in the SW fluxes for the Pinatubo volcanic event. These systematic changes in fluxes are related to changes in large-scale circulations and energy transport in the atmosphere and ocean. Some estimates of signal-to-noise and reliability are discussed to place our results in context.

Robertson, Franklin R.; Lu, H.-L.

2004-01-01

90

Measuring Response Of Propellant To Oscillatory Heat Flux  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus for research in combustion of solid propellants measures oscillatory response of rate of burning to oscillating thermal radiation from modulated CO2 laser. Determines response to rate of burning to equivalent oscillation in pressure. Rod of propellant mounted in burner assembly including waveguide at one end and infrared window at other end. Microwave Doppler velocimeter measures motion of combustion front. Microwave, laser-current, and heat-flux signals processed into and recorded in forms useful in determining desired response of propellent.

Strand, Leon D.; Schwartz, Ken; Burns, Shawn P.

1990-01-01

91

Experimental flux measurements on a network scale  

SciTech Connect

Metabolic flux is a fundamental property of living organisms. In recent years, methods for measuring metabolic flux in plants on a network scale have evolved further. One major challenge in studying flux in plants is the complexity of the plant's metabolism. In particular, in the presence of parallel pathways in multiple cellular compartments, the core of plant central metabolism constitutes a complex network. Hence, a common problem with the reliability of the contemporary results of {sup 13}C-Metabolic Flux Analysis in plants is the substantial reduction in complexity that must be included in the simulated networks; this omission partly is due to limitations in computational simulations. Here, I discuss recent emerging strategies that will better address these shortcomings.

Schwender, J.

2011-10-11

92

Regional climate simulation with a high resolution GCM: surface radiative fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of a high resolution (T106) version of the ECHAM3 general circulation model to simulate regional scale surface radiative fluxes has been assessed using observations from a new compilation of worldwide instrumentally-measured surface fluxes (Global Energy Balance Archive, GEBA). The focus is on the European region where the highest density of observations is found, and their use for the

Martin Wild; Atsumu Ohmura; Hans Gilgen; Erich Roeckner

1995-01-01

93

Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor  

DOEpatents

Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination. 3 figs.

Mihalczo, J.T.; Simpson, M.L.; McElhaney, S.A.

1994-10-04

94

Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor  

DOEpatents

Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination.

Mihalczo, John T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN); McElhaney, Stephanie A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

95

Horizontal Radiative Fluxes in Clouds at Absorbing Wavelengths.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We discuss the effect of horizontal fluxes on the accuracy of a conventional plane-parallel radiative transfer calculation for a single pixel, known as the Independent Pixel Approximation (IPA) at absorbing wavelengths. Vertically integrated horizontal fl...

A. Marshak L. Oreopoulos A. B. Davis W. J. Wiscombe

1998-01-01

96

Electron Flux of Radiation Belts Animation  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation shows meridional (from north-south) plane projections of the REPT-A and REPT-B electron flux values. The animation first shows the expected two-belt Van Allen zone structure; from Se...

97

Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements  

DOEpatents

Invention comprises an instrument in which momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer--a capacitance-type pressure gauge. The transducer is protected from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering, and materials used in the target and pendulum are electrically insulating, rigid even at elevated temperatures, and have low thermal conductivity. The instrument enables measurement of small forces (10.sup.-5 to 10.sup.3 N) accompanied by high heat fluxes which are transmitted by energetic particles with 10's of eV of kinetic energy in a intense magnetic field and pulsed plasma environment.

Zonca, Fulvio (Rome, IT); Cohen, Samuel A. (Hopewell, NJ); Bennett, Timothy (Princeton, NJ); Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ)

1993-01-01

98

The Excess Flux in the Cosmic Submillimeter Background Radiation and the Primordial Deuterium Abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent measurements of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) show an enhanced flux in the submillimeter regime, compared to the spectrum of a 2.7 K blackbody. Thermal Comptonization of the relic radiation by a hot nonrelativistic plasma has long been known to produce distortions in the CBR spectrum, similar to what has now been observed. Heating of the primeval plasma to

C. D. Dermer; N. Guessoum

1989-01-01

99

The excess flux in the cosmic submillimeter background radiation and the primordial deuterium abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent measurements of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) show an enhanced flux in the submillimeter regime, compared to the spectrum of a 2.7 K blackbody. Thermal Comptonization of the relic radiation by a hot nonrelativistic plasma has long been known to produce distortions in the CBR spectrum, similar to what has now been observed. Heating of the primeval plasma to

Charles D. Dermer; N. Guessoum

1990-01-01

100

Source Calibration for Neutron Flux Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NPDGamma experiment is currently running at the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline (FNPB) at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of the experiment is to measure the parity-violating asymmetry between the incident neutron spin and emitted photon direction for the capture of neutrons on protons. The gamma-rays are detected in a CsI array. We need to know the neutron flux accurately to verify that we are running at counting statistics. We measure the neutron flux from the gamma signal produced by capturing all neutrons on a black boron target. The detectors were calibrated with a known gamma-ray source (Cesium-137) to high precision using a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. I will present the methodology and results of this calibration, and how it affects our measurement of the statistical precision of NPDGamma.

Craycraft, Kayla

2012-10-01

101

Analysis of Radiative Measurements During CLAMS Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) is located at the Chesapeake Lighthouse, 25km due east of Virginia Beach. Intensive measurements of apparent and inherent optical properties of both the atmosphere and ocean were made around COVE during the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for satellites (CLAMS) field campaign in the summer of 2001. In this presentation, we analyse the broadband and spectral fluxes measured from COVE and from aircraft. We then investigate the influence of atmospheric and oceanic properties on these radiation fluxes. A coupled atmosphere-ocean radiative transfer model simulates the irradiances and the ocean surface albedo by using the measured properties of the atmosphere and the ocean as inputs. Finally, we compare the modeled radiation with satellite observations corresponding to the field campaign.

Jin, Z.; Charlock, T.; Rutledge, K.; Smith Jr., W.; Cota, G.; Denn, F.; Madigan, J.

2002-05-01

102

Nonequilibrium radiative heat flux modeling for the Huygens entry probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electronic collisional-radiative model is proposed to predict the nonequilibrium populations and the radiation of the excited electronic states CN(A, B) and N2(A, B, C) during the entry of the Huygens probe into the atmosphere of Titan. The model is loosely coupled with flow solvers using a Lagrangian method. First, the model was tested against measurements obtained with the shock-tube of NASA Ames Research Center. Then, the model was applied to the simulation of Huygen's entry. Our simulations predict that the population of the CN(B) state is lower than the Boltzmann population by a factor 40 at trajectory time t = 165 s and by a factor 2 at t = 187 s and that the population of the CN(A) state remains close to the Boltzmann population for both trajectory points. The radiative heat fluxes, driven by the CN(A, B) states, are lower than predictions based on the Boltzmann populations by a factor 15 at t = 165 s and a factor 2 at t = 187 s.

Magin, T. E.; Caillault, L.; Bourdon, A.; Laux, C. O.

2006-07-01

103

Solar UVA and UV-B radiation fluxes at two Alpine stations at different altitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily totals of UV-A and UV-B radiation fluxes and global radiation were measured since 1981 at Jungfraujoch (3576 m) a.s.l.) and in Innsbruck (577 m a.s.l.) in their seasonal course. The altitude effect of annual totals yields 19%\\/1000 m (UV-B), 11%\\/1000 m (UV-A) and 9%\\/1000 m (global radiation) with reference to Innsbruck station. The ratio of the daily totals of

M. Blumthaler; W. Ambach; W. Rehwald

1992-01-01

104

Micrometeorological flux measurements at a coastal site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eddy covariance (EC) technique is the only direct measurement of the momentum, heat, and trace gas (e.g. water vapor, CO2 and ozone) fluxes. The measurements are expected to be most accurate over flat terrain where there is an extended homogenous surface upwind from the tower, and when the environmental conditions are steady. Additionally, the one dimensional approach assumes that vertical turbulent exchange is the dominant flux, whereas advective influences should be negligible. The application of EC method under non-ideal conditions, for example in complex terrain, has yet to be fully explored. To explore the possibilities and limitations of EC technique under non-ideal conditions, an EC system was set up at Selles beach, Crete, Greece (35.33°N, 25.71°E) in the beginning of July 2012. The dominant wind direction was west, parallel to the coast. The EC system consisted of a sonic anemometer (CSAT3 Campbell Scientific), an infrared open-path CO2/H2O gas analyzer (LI-7500, Li-COR Biosciences) and a fast chemiluminescence ozone analyzer (enviscope GmbH). All the signals of these fast response instruments were sampled at 10 Hz and the measurement height was 3 m. Besides, another gradient system was setup. Air temperature, relative humidity (HYGROMER MP 103 A), and wind speed (WMT700 Vaisala) were measured every 10 seconds at 3 heights (0.7, 1.45, 3 m). Air intakes were set up at 0.7m and 3m. A pump drew the air through a flow system and a telflon valve alternately switched between the two heights every 30 seconds. H2O, CO2 (LI-840A, Li-COR Biosciences) and ozone mixing ratio s (model 205, 2BTechnologies) were measured every 10 seconds. Momentum, heat, CO2 and ozone fluxes were evaluated by both EC and gradient technique. For the calculation of turbulent fluxes, TK3 algorithm (Department of Micrometeorology, University Bayreuth, Germany) was applied. We will present the measured fluxes of the two systems and assess the data quality under such non-ideal condition.

Song, Guozheng; Meixner, Franz X.; Bruse, Michael; Mamtimin, Buhalqem

2014-05-01

105

A new one-dimensional radiative equilibrium model for investigating atmospheric radiation entropy flux  

PubMed Central

A new one-dimensional radiative equilibrium model is built to analytically evaluate the vertical profile of the Earth's atmospheric radiation entropy flux under the assumption that atmospheric longwave radiation emission behaves as a greybody and shortwave radiation as a diluted blackbody. Results show that both the atmospheric shortwave and net longwave radiation entropy fluxes increase with altitude, and the latter is about one order in magnitude greater than the former. The vertical profile of the atmospheric net radiation entropy flux follows approximately that of the atmospheric net longwave radiation entropy flux. Sensitivity study further reveals that a ‘darker’ atmosphere with a larger overall atmospheric longwave optical depth exhibits a smaller net radiation entropy flux at all altitudes, suggesting an intrinsic connection between the atmospheric net radiation entropy flux and the overall atmospheric longwave optical depth. These results indicate that the overall strength of the atmospheric irreversible processes at all altitudes as determined by the corresponding atmospheric net entropy flux is closely related to the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Wu, Wei; Liu, Yangang

2010-01-01

106

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part I: Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) investigates the critical role that clouds and aerosols play in modulating the radiative energy flow within the Earth-atmosphere system. CERES builds upon the foundation laid by previous missions, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, to provide highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes together with coincident cloud and aerosol properties inferred from

Norman G. Loeb; Natividad Manalo-Smith; Seiji Kato; Walter F. Miller; Shashi K. Gupta; Patrick Minnis; Bruce A. Wielicki

2003-01-01

107

ISS radiation environment anisotropies measured by ALTEA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detailed knowledge of the radiation environment inside the International Space Station is mandatory for an accurate radiation risk assessment. The uneven shielding of the Station induces a modulation of this environment which must be taken into account. We present here the first measurements of the Station radiation environment, discriminating particle trajectory and charge, made possible utilizing the 3D, Z-discriminated detection capability of the ALTEA-space detector. We bring evidences for an anisotropy in the radiation flux of heavy ions between the main Station axis and normal directions. This anisotropy reduces integrating over all detected particles, showing that secondary particles produced in the most shielded direction approximately maintain flux isotropy.

di Fino, Luca; Casolino, Marco; de Santis, Cristian; Larosa, Marianna; La Tessa, Chiara; Narici, Livio; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Zaconte, Veronica

108

Evaluation of arctic broadband surface radiation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

Matsui, N.; Long, C. N.; Augustine, J.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, T.; Longenecker, D.; Nievergall, O.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

2011-08-01

109

Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW) and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW), radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

Matsui, N.; Long, C. N.; Augustine, J.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, T.; Longenecker, D.; Niebergall, O.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

2012-02-01

110

RADIATION DOSIMETRY AT THE BNL HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR AND MEDICAL RESEARCH REACTOR.  

SciTech Connect

RADIATION DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS HAVE BEEN PERFORMED OVER A PERIOD OF MANY YEARS AT THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR (HFBR) AND THE MEDICAL RESEARCH REACTOR (BMRR) AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ON THE ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEUTRON FLUX, NEUTRON DOSE RATES, GAMMA-RAY FLUXES AND GAMMA-RAY DOSE RATES. THE MCNP PARTICLE TRANSPORT CODE PROVIDED MONTE CARLO RESULTS TO COMPARE WITH VARIOUS DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS PERFORMED AT THE EXPERIMENTAL PORTS, AT THE TREATMENT ROOMS AND IN THE THIMBLES AT BOTH HFBR AND BMRR.

HOLDEN,N.E.

1999-09-10

111

Indication of increasing solar ultraviolet-B radiation flux in alpine regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements at the Jungfraujoch High Mountain Station (Swiss Alps, 47°N, 3,576 meters above sea level) indicate that there has been a slight increase of about 1% per year in the flux of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (290 to 330 nanometers) since 1981. A Robertson-Berger detector was used to measure solar erythemal radiation. The increase can be related to a long-term ozone

M. Blumthaler; W. Ambach

1990-01-01

112

A mobile detector for measurements of the atmospheric muon flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the underground atmospheric muon flux are important in order to determine accurately the overburden in mwe (meter water equivalent) of an underground laboratory for appreciating which kind of experiments are feasible for that location. Slanic- Prohava is one of the 7 possible locations for the European large underground experiment LAGUNA (Large Apparatus studying Grand Unification and Neutrino Astrophysics). A mobile device consisting of 2 scintillator plates (?0.9 m2, each) one above the other and measuring in coincidence, was set-up for determining the muon flux. The detector it is installed on a van which facilitates measurements on different positions at the surface or in the underground and it is in operation since autumn 2009. The measurements of muon fluxes presented in this contribution have been performed in the underground salt mine Slanic-Prahova, Romania, where IFIN-HH has built a low radiation level laboratory, and at the surface on different sites of Romania, at different elevations from 0 m a.s.l up to 655 m a.s.l. Based on our measurements we can say that Slanic site is a feasible location for LAGUNA in Unirea salt mine at a water equivalent depth of 600 mwe. The results have been compared with Monte-Carlo simulations performed with the simulation codes CORSIKA and MUSIC.

Mitrica, B.; Brancus, I. M.; Margineanu, R.; Petcu, M.; Dima, M.; Sima, O.; Haungs, A.; Rebel, H.; Petre, M.; Toma, G.; Saftoiu, A.; Apostu, A.

2011-04-01

113

Radiation flux tables for ICRCCM using the GLA GCM radiation codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tabulated values of longwave and shortwave radiation fluxes and also cooling and heating rates in the atmosphere for standard atmospheric profiles are presented. The radiation codes used in the Goddard general circulation model were employed for the computations. These results were obtained for an international intercomparison projected called Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM).

HARSHVARDHAN

1986-01-01

114

Multi-spectra Cosmic Ray Flux Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's upper atmosphere is constantly bombarded by rain of charged particles known as primary cosmic rays. These primary cosmic rays will collide with the atmospheric molecules and create extensive secondary particles which shower downward to the surface of the Earth. In recent years, a few studies have been done regarding to the applications of the cosmic ray measurements and the correlations between the Earth's climate conditions and the cosmic ray fluxes [1,2,3]. Most of the particles, which reach to the surface of the Earth, are muons together with a small percentage of electrons, gammas, neutrons, etc. At Georgia State University, multiple cosmic ray particle detectors have been constructed to measure the fluxes and energy distributions of the secondary cosmic ray particles. In this presentation, we will briefly describe these prototype detectors and show the preliminary test results. Reference: [1] K.Borozdin, G.Hogan, C.Morris, W.Priedhorsky, A.Saunders, L.Shultz, M.Teasdale, Nature, Vol.422, 277 (2003). [2] L.V. Egorova, V. Ya Vovk, O.A. Troshichev, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics 62, 955-966 (2000). [3] Henrik Svensmark, Phy. Rev. Lett. 81, 5027 (1998). )

He, Xiaochun; Dayananda, Mathes

2010-02-01

115

Radiation detection and measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introductory material covers radiation sources, radiation interactions, general properties of radiation detectors, and counting statistics and error prediction. This is followed by detailed sections on gas-filled detectors, scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors, neutron detectors and spectroscopy, detector electronics and pulse processing, and miscellaneous radiation detectors and applications.

Glenn F. Knoll

1979-01-01

116

Horizontal Radiative Fluxes in Clouds at Absorbing Wavelengths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We discuss the effect of horizontal fluxes on the accuracy of a conventional plane-parallel radiative transfer calculation for a single pixel, known as the Independent Pixel Approximation (IPA) at absorbing wavelengths. Vertically integrated horizontal fluxes can be represented as a sum of three components; each component is the IPA accuracy on a pixel-by-pixel basis for reflectance, transmittance and absorptance, respectively. We show that IPA accuracy for reflectance always improves with more absorption, while the IPA accuracy for transmittance is less sensitive to the changes in absorption: with respect to the non-absorbing case, it may first deteriorate for weak absorption and then improve again for strongly absorbing wavelengths. EPA accuracy for absorptance always deteriorates with more absorption. As a result, vertically integrated horizontal fluxes, as a sum of IPA accuracies for reflectance, transmittance and absorptance, increase with more absorption. Finally, the question of correlations between horizontal fluxes, IPA uncertainties and radiative smoothing is addressed using wavenumber spectra of radiation fields reflected from or transmitted through fractal clouds.

Marshak, A.; Oreopoulos, L.; Davis, A. B.; Wiscombe, W. J.

1998-01-01

117

Interbasin Flux Measurements Using Simple Methods  

SciTech Connect

The Vertical Transport and Mixing (VTMX) campaign, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, took place in the Salt Lake Valley during October, 2000. The purpose of VTMX was to further understanding of meteorological processes that govern vertical transport and mixing in complex terrain, particularly during nocturnal stable periods and their morning and evening transition periods. These meteorological processes were the subject of numerous sponsored studies during VTMX. The Salt Lake (Salt Lake City) Basin and the Utah Basin to its south are separated by the Traverse Range. Near-surface airflow between the basins is channeled through the Jordan Narrows, also the channel for the Jordan River that flows from the Utah Basin into Salt Lake via the Salt Lake Basin. Jordan Narrows is thus a potentially significant corridor for pollutant transport between the two basins. This paper describes simple and direct pollutant (PM{sub 10}) measurements, with concurrent continuous meteorological monitoring, to characterize pollutant transport between the two basins via low-level stable nocturnal drainage flow, with an emphasis on its vertical variability when mixing is limited. The Jordan Narrows has similarities to other transport corridors where direct in-corridor monitoring of pollutant flux might enhance pollution forecasts during transport conditions. Thus their more general objective is to assess the usefulness of direct methods to characterize pollutant flux in similar environments.

John Watson; Daniel Freeman

2005-01-13

118

Comparison of the Radiative Two-Flux and Diffusion Approximations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximate solutions are sometimes used to determine the heat transfer and temperatures in a semitransparent material in which conduction and thermal radiation are acting. A comparison of the Milne-Eddington two-flux approximation and the diffusion approximation for combined conduction and radiation heat transfer in a ceramic material was preformed to determine the accuracy of the diffusion solution. A plane gray semitransparent layer without a substrate and a non-gray semitransparent plane layer on an opaque substrate were considered. For the plane gray layer the material is semitransparent for all wavelengths and the scattering and absorption coefficients do not vary with wavelength. For the non-gray plane layer the material is semitransparent with constant absorption and scattering coefficients up to a specified wavelength. At higher wavelengths the non-gray plane layer is assumed to be opaque. The layers are heated on one side and cooled on the other by diffuse radiation and convection. The scattering and absorption coefficients were varied. The error in the diffusion approximation compared to the Milne-Eddington two flux approximation was obtained as a function of scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The percent difference in interface temperatures and heat flux through the layer obtained using the Milne-Eddington two-flux and diffusion approximations are presented as a function of scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The largest errors occur for high scattering and low absorption except for the back surface temperature of the plane gray layer where the error is also larger at low scattering and low absorption. It is shown that the accuracy of the diffusion approximation can be improved for some scattering and absorption conditions if a reflectance obtained from a Kubelka-Munk type two flux theory is used instead of a reflection obtained from the Fresnel equation. The Kubelka-Munk reflectance accounts for surface reflection and radiation scattered back by internal scattering sites while the Fresnel reflection only accounts for surface reflections.

Spuckler, Charles M.

2006-01-01

119

Radiative MHD simulation of an Emerging Flux Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a radiation magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of the birth of an active region. The simulation models the rise of a magnetic flux bundle from the convection zone into the solar photosphere. Observational properties of the simulation are consistent with recent, high-cadence and high spatial resolution observations of emerging flux regions taken by Hinode/SOT. Observational properties common to both simulation and observation include the hierarchical formation of progressively larger photospheric magnetic structures, the formation and disappearance of light bridges, umbral dots as well as penumbral filaments.

Cheung, C.; Rempel, M.; Title, A. M.; Schuessler, M.

2009-12-01

120

Simple device measures solar radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple inexpensive thermometer, insolated from surroundings by transparent glass or plastic encasement, measures intensities of solar radiation, or radiation from other sources such as furnaces or ovens. Unit can be further modified to accomplish readings from remote locations.

Humphries, W. R.

1977-01-01

121

Measuring and Modeling Near Surface Reflected and Emitted Radiation Fluxes at the FIFE Site. Semiannual Status Report, April 15, 1987-February 29, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research was conducted during the four Intensive Field Campaigns (IFC) of the FIFE project in 1987. The research was done on a tall grass prairie with specific measurement sites on and near the Konza Prairie in Kansas. Measurements were made to help meet ...

B. L. Blad J. M. Norman E. Walter-Shea P. Starks R. Vining

1988-01-01

122

Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for measuring momentum flux from an intense plasma stream, comprising: refractory target means oriented normal to the flow of said plasma stream for bombardment by said plasma stream where said bombardment by said plasma stream applies a pressure to said target means, pendulum means for communicating a translational displacement of said target to a force transducer where said translational displacement of said target is transferred to said force transducer by an elongated member coupled to said target, where said member is suspended by a pendulum configuration means and where said force transducer is responsive to said translational displacement of said member, and force transducer means for outputting a signal representing pressure data corresponding to said displacement.

Zonca, F.; Cohen, S.A.; Bennett, T.; Timberlake, J.R.

1993-08-24

123

New technique of the local heat flux measurement in combustion chambers of steam boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for measurement of local heat flux to water-walls of steam boilers was developed. A flux meter tube was made from an eccentric tube of short length to which two longitudinal fins were attached. These two fins prevent the boiler setting from heating by a thermal radiation from the combustion chamber. The fins are not welded to the adjacent water-wall tubes, so that the temperature distribution in the heat flux meter is not influenced by neighbouring water-wall tubes. The thickness of the heat flux tube wall is larger on the fireside to obtain a greater distance between the thermocouples located inside the wall which increases the accuracy of heat flux determination. Based on the temperature measurements at selected points inside the heat flux meter, the heat flux absorbed by the water-wall, heat transfer coefficient on the inner tube surface and temperature of the water-steam mixture was determined.

Taler, Jan; Taler, Dawid; Sobota, Tomasz; Dzierwa, Piotr

2011-12-01

124

Large Area Lunar Dust Flux Measurement Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instrument under development is designed to characterize the flux and size distribution of the lunar micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta environment. When deployed on the lunar surface, the data collected will benefit fundamental lunar science as well as enabling more reliable impact risk assessments for human lunar exploration activities. To perform this task, the instrument requirements are demanding. It must have as large a surface area as possible to sample the very sparse population of the larger potentially damage-inducing micrometeorites. It must also have very high sensitivity to enable it to measure the flux of small (<10 micron) micrometeorite and secondary ejecta dust particles. To be delivered to the lunar surface, it must also be very low mass, rugged and stow compactly. The instrument designed to meet these requirements is called FOMIS. It is a large-area thin film under tension (i.e. a drum) with multiple fiber optic displacement (FOD) sensors to monitor displacements of the film. This sensor was chosen since it can measure displacements over a wide dynamic range: 1 cm to sub-Angstrom. A prototype system was successfully demonstrated using the hypervelocity impact test facility at the University of Kent (Canterbury, UK). Based on these results, the prototype system can detect hypervelocity (approx.5 km/s) impacts by particles as small as 2 microns diameter. Additional tests using slow speeds find that it can detect secondary ejecta particles (which do not penetrate the film) with momentums as small as 15 pico-gram 100m/s, or nominally 5 microns diameter at 100 m/s.

Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Burchell, M.; Stansbery, Eugene; Lagakos, N.

2009-01-01

125

Measurement of the Sky Photon Background Flux at Auger Observatory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sky photon background flux has been measured at the southern Auger site in Malargue, Argentina, using the observatory's fluorescence detectors (FD). The analysis is based on ADC variances of pixels not triggered by the First Level Trigger. Photon flux...

A. Insolia F. Salamida P. Privitera R. Caruso S. Peterera V. Verzi

2006-01-01

126

The effects of accurate central disc measurements on solar fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar fluxes for a range of wavelengths at fixed geometrical depths have been calculated from empirical models derived from limb darkening measurements. The use of an accurate energy distribution is shown to make significant changes in fluxes.

John, T. L.

1991-02-01

127

Measurement of local high-level, transient surface heat flux  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study is part of a continuing investigation to develop methods for measuring local transient surface heat flux. A method is presented for simultaneous measurements of dual heat fluxes at a surface location by considering the heat flux as a separate function of heat stored and heat conducted within a heat flux gage. Surface heat flux information is obtained from transient temperature measurements taken at points within the gage. Heat flux was determined over a range of 4 to 22 MW/sq m. It was concluded that the method is feasible. Possible applications are for heat flux measurements on the turbine blade surfaces of space shuttle main engine turbopumps and on the component surfaces of rocket and advanced gas turbine engines and for testing sensors in heat flux gage calibrators.

Liebert, Curt H.

1988-01-01

128

Flux divergence of thermal radiation within stratiform clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A longwave radiative transfer model based on the narrow-band transmission functions of Lowtran 6 has been developed to investigate the profile of radiative flux divergence at the tops of stratiform clouds. The model has a vertical resolution of 1 m and a spectral resolution of 20/cm. These features are shown to permit modeling of broadband radiative transfer in the presence of a cloud top inversion and finite liquid water gradient. Radiative cooling rates in excess of 40 K/hr are shown to be possible for extreme conditions, with values of 10 K/hr being representative of more typical conditions. The values obtained are shown to be strongly influenced by the magnitude of liquid water concentration, by the gradient of liquid water in the top 50 m, and by the strength of the temperature inversion.

Davies, Roger; Alves, Adil R.

1989-01-01

129

The Global Character of the Flux of Downward Longwave Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four different types of estimates of the surface downwelling longwave radiative flux (DLR) are reviewed. One group of estimates synthesizes global cloud, aerosol, and other information in a radiation model that is used to calculate fluxes. Because these synthesis fluxes have been assessed against observations, the global-mean values of these fluxes are deemed to be the most credible of the four different categories reviewed. The global, annual mean DLR lies between approximately 344 and 350 W/sq m with an error of approximately +/-10 W/sq m that arises mostly from the uncertainty in atmospheric state that governs the estimation of the clear-sky emission. The authors conclude that the DLR derived from global climate models are biased low by approximately 10 W/sq m and even larger differences are found with respect to reanalysis climate data. The DLR inferred from a surface energy balance closure is also substantially smaller that the range found from synthesis products suggesting that current depictions of surface energy balance also require revision. The effect of clouds on the DLR, largely facilitated by the new cloud base information from the CloudSat radar, is estimated to lie in the range from 24 to 34 W/sq m for the global cloud radiative effect (all-sky minus clear-sky DLR). This effect is strongly modulated by the underlying water vapor that gives rise to a maximum sensitivity of the DLR to cloud occurring in the colder drier regions of the planet. The bottom of atmosphere (BOA) cloud effect directly contrast the effect of clouds on the top of atmosphere (TOA) fluxes that is maximum in regions of deepest and coldest clouds in the moist tropics.

Stephens, Graeme L.; Wild, Martin; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Kato, Seiji; Henderson, David S.

2012-01-01

130

Eddy Correlation Measurements of Sea Spray Aerosol Fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluxes of primary marine aerosol in the sub-micron fraction were measured using a flux package consisting of a sonic anemometer,\\u000a a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and an optical particle counter (OPC) equipped with a heated inlet. Whereas the CPC\\u000a provides the total particle number flux of particles larger than 10 nm, the OPC measures size segregated fluxes for particles\\u000a between

Gerrit de Leeuw; Marcel Moerman; Christopher J. Zappa; Wade R. McGillis; Sarah Norris; Mike Smith

131

Annual Cycle of Radiation Fluxes over the Arctic Ocean: Sensitivity to Cloud Optical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between cloud optical properties and the radiative fluxes over the Arctic Ocean is explored by conducting a series of modeling experiments. The annual cycle of arctic cloud optical properties that are required to reproduce both the outgoing radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere as determined from satellite observations and the available determinations of surface radiative fluxes

Judith A. Curry; Elizabeth E. Ebert

1992-01-01

132

An inter-comparison of surface energy flux measurement systems used during FIFE, 1987  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the first International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Program Field Experiment (FIFE-87), surface energy fluxes were measured at 22 flux sites by nine groups of scientists using different measuring systems. A rover Bowen ratio station was taken to nearly all the flux stations to serve as a reference for estimating the instrument related differences. The rover system was installed within a few meters from the host instrument of a site. Net radiation, Bowen ratio, and latent heat fluxes were compared between the rover and the host for the stations visited. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between rover measurements and host measurements. These inter-comparisons are needed to examine the influence of instrumentation on measurement uncertainty. Highly significant effects of instrument type were detected from these comparisons. Instruments of the same type showed average differences of less than 5 percent for net radiation, 10 percent for Bowen ratio, and 6 percent for latent heat flux. The corresponding average differences for different types of instruments can be up to 10, 30, and 20 percent respectively. The Didcot net radiometer gave higher net radiation while the Swissteco type showed lower values, as compared to the corrected REBS model. The 4-way components methed and the Thornswaite type give similar values to the REBS. The SERBS type Bowen ratio systems exhibit slightly lower Bowen ratios and thus higher latent heat fluxes, compared to the AZET systems. Eddy correlation systems showed slightly lower latent heat flux in comparison to the Bowen ratio systems.

Nie, D.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Fritschen, L. J.; Weaver, H.; Smith, E. A.; Verma, S. B.; Field, R. T.; Kustas, W.; Stewart, J. B.

1990-01-01

133

New radiosonde techniques to measure radiation profiles through the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar and thermal radiation fluxes are usually measured at Earth's surface and at the top of the atmosphere. Here we show radiosonde techniques that allow measuring radiation flux profiles and the radiation budget from the Earth's surface to above 30 km in the stratosphere. During two-hour flights solar shortwave and thermal longwave irradiance, downward and upward, is measured with four individual sensors at one-second resolution, along with standard PTU radiosonde profiles. Daytime and nighttime shortwave and longwave radiation measurements, and 24 hours surface measurements, allow determining radiation budget- and total net radiation profiles through the atmosphere. We use a double balloon technique to prevent pendulum motion during the ascent and to keep the sonde as horizontal as possible. New techniques using auto controlled airplanes are now investigated to retrieve the sonde after release at a certain altitude and to land it if possible at the launch station.

Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf; Romanens, Gonzague; Levrat, Gilbert

2013-04-01

134

Eddy Current Measurement of Magnetic Flux Density.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of an effort to improve the reliability of magnetic particle inspection of large or irregular-shaped parts by assuring optimum magnetic flux densities in the areas of interest during inspection. An assessment of flux densit...

I. R. Kraska R. G. Prusinski

1972-01-01

135

Short-wave radiation flux divergence in arctic cirrus: a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation and particle measurements have been performed with an aircraft in deep cirrus cloud fields near the island of Svalbard. The data of 12 March 1993, when measurements at 10 different levels could be obtained, are used in a comparative study with radiative transfer calculations. In a first analysis, the cirrus cloud field was assumed to be horizontally homogeneous and invariable during the time of measurements (frozen properties). Calculations of the up and downward radiative flux densities showed root mean square differences of 9 Wm -2 from the measurements. To estimate the possible effect of changes of the optical properties of cirrus with time, the flux densities in the upper part (6000-8500 m) and the lower part (3000-5500 m) of the cirrus cloud were analyzed separately. In these simulations, the optical thickness in the lower (upper) part was increased (decreased) by 50%. By this treatment, most of all calculated flux densities were within one standard deviation of the natural variability in each leg. Finally, the effect of inhomogeneities in the cloud field on the solar flux density has been simulated using a Monte Carlo method, since the upper part of the cirrus field has indeed been very inhomogeneous. This paper is a result of a collaborative effort between the MRI in Tsukuba, Japan, and the GKSS in Geesthacht, Germany.

Masuda, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Raschke, E.; Albers, F.; Koch, W.; Maixner, U.

136

A comparison of new measurements of total monoterpene flux with improved measurements of speciated monoterpene flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many monoterpenes have been identified in forest emissions using gas chromatography (GC). Until now, it has been impossible to determine whether all monoterpenes are appropriately measured using GC techniques. We used a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) coupled with the eddy covariance (EC) technique to measure mixing ratios and fluxes of total monoterpenes above a ponderosa pine plantation. We compared PTR-MS-EC results with simultaneous measurements of eight speciated monoterpenes, ?-pinene, ?-pinene, 3-carene, d-limonene, ?-phellandrene, ?-terpinene, camphene, and terpinolene, made with an automated, in situ gas chromatograph with flame ionization detectors (GC-FID), coupled to a relaxed eddy accumulation system (REA). Monoterpene mixing ratios and fluxes measured by PTR-MS averaged 30±2.3% and 31±9.2% larger than by GC-FID, with larger mixing ratio discrepancies between the two techniques at night than during the day. Two unidentified peaks that correlated with ?-pinene were resolved in the chromatograms and completely accounted for the daytime difference and reduced the nighttime mixing ratio difference to 20±2.9%. Measurements of total monoterpenes by PTR-MS-EC indicated that GC-FID-REA measured the common, longer-lived monoterpenes well, but that additional terpenes were emitted from the ecosystem that represented an important contribution to the total mixing ratio above the forest at night.

Lee, A.; Schade, G. W.; Holzinger, R.; Goldstein, A. H.

2005-02-01

137

A comparison of new measurements of total monoterpene flux with improved measurements of speciated monoterpene flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many monoterpenes have been identified in forest emissions using gas chromatography (GC). Until now, it has been impossible to determine whether all monoterpenes are appropriately measured using GC techniques. We used a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) coupled with the eddy covariance (EC) technique to measure mixing ratios and fluxes of total monoterpenes above a ponderosa pine plantation. We compared PTR-MS-EC results with simultaneous measurements of eight speciated monoterpenes, ?-pinene, ?-pinene, 3-carene, d-limonene, ?-phellandrene, ?-terpinene, camphene, and terpinolene, made with an automated, in situ gas chromatograph with flame ionization detectors (GC-FID), coupled to a relaxed eddy accumulation system (REA). Monoterpene mixing ratios and fluxes measured by PTR-MS averaged 30±2.3% and 31±9.2% larger than by GC-FID, with larger differences at night than during the day. Four unidentified peaks that correlated with ?-pinene were resolved in the chromatograms and completely accounted for the daytime difference and reduced the nighttime difference to 19±3.4%. Measurements of total monoterpenes by PTR-MS-EC indicated that GC-FID-REA measured the common, longer-lived monoterpenes well, but that additional monoterpenes were emitted from the ecosystem that represented an important contribution to the total mixing ratio above the forest at night, and that must have been oxidized during the day before they escaped the forest canopy.

Lee, A.; Schade, G. W.; Holzinger, R.; Goldstein, A. H.

2004-12-01

138

Flux Measurements of Trace Gases, Aerosols and Energy from the Urban Core of Mexico City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 we deployed a flux system in a busy district of Mexico City surrounded by congested avenues. The flux system consisted of a tall tower instrumented with fast-response sensors coupled with eddy covariance (EC) techniques to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, aerosols and energy. The measured fluxes represent direct measurements of emissions that include all major and minor emission sources from a typical residential and commercial district. In a previous study we demonstrated that the EC techniques are valuable tools to evaluate emissions inventories in urban areas, and understand better the atmospheric chemistry and the role that megacities play in global change. We measured fluxes of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS) and the EC technique, fluxes of aromatic and oxygenated VOCs by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectroscopy (PTR-MS) and the disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) technique, fluxes of CO2 and H2O with an open path Infrared Gas Analyzer (IRGA) and the EC technique, fluxes of CO using a modified gradient method and a commercial CO instrument, and fluxes of aerosols (organics, nitrates and sulfates) using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and the EC technique. In addition we used a disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA) system to extend the number of VOCs. This system collected whole air samples as function of the direction of the vertical wind component, and the samples were analyzed on site using gas chromatography / flame ionization detection (GC-FID). We also measured fluxes of sensible and latent heat by EC and the radiation components with a net radiometer. Overall, these flux measurements confirm the results of our previous flux measurements in Mexico City in terms of the magnitude, composition, and distribution. We found that the urban surface is a net source of CO2 and VOCs. The diurnal patterns show clear anthropogenic signatures, with important contributions from vehicular traffic. The DEA results for individual hydrocarbons show that the alkane fluxes are considerably higher than alkene fluxes, which is consistent with ambient concentration measurements and with the emission inventory for Mexico City. CO fluxes, estimated from a modified gradient technique, were more than 10% of the measured CO2 fluxes (on a molar basis) which is much higher than is generally expected for combustion efficiencies in mobile and other sources. Investigation of this result is underway. The energy balance distribution and radiative parameters observed are similar to distributions and parameters reported for other urban sites.

Velasco, E.; Molina, L.; Lamb, B.; Pressley, S.; Grivicke, R.; Westberg, H.; Jobson, T.; Allwine, E.; Coons, T.; Jimenez, J.; Nemitz, E.; Alexander, L. M.; Worsnop, D.; Ramos, R.

2007-05-01

139

Overview of observations from the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger. Part 2: Radiative fluxes and divergences  

SciTech Connect

Broadband shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes observed both at the surface and from space during the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger in 2006 are presented. The surface fluxes were measured by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Mobile Facility (AMF) at Niamey airport, while the fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) are from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument on the Meteosat-8 satellite. The data are analyzed as daily averages, in order to minimise sampling differences between the surface and top of atmosphere instruments, while retaining the synoptic and seasonal changes that are the main focus of this study. A cloud mask is used to identify days with cloud from those with predominantly clear skies. The influence of temperature, water vapor, aerosols and clouds is investigated. Aerosols are ubiquitous throughout the year and have a significant impact on both the shortwave and longwave fluxes. The large and systematic seasonal changes in temperature and column integrated water vapor (CWV) through the dry and wet seasons are found to exert strong influences on the longwave fluxes. These influences are often in opposition to each other, because the highest temperatures occur at the end of the dry season when the CWV is lowest, while in the wet season the lowest temperatures are associated with the highest values of CWV. Apart from aerosols, the shortwave fluxes are also affected by clouds and by the seasonal changes in CWV. The fluxes are combined to provide estimates of the divergence of radiation across the atmosphere throughout 2006. The longwave divergence is remarkably constant through the year, because of a compensation between the seasonal variations in the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and surface net longwave radiation. A simple model of the greenhouse effect is used to interpret this result in terms of the dependence of the normalized greenhouse effect at the TOA and of the effective emissivity of the atmosphere at the surface on the CWV. It is shown that, as the CWV increases, the atmosphere loses longwave energy to the surface with about the same increasing efficiency with which it traps the OLR, thus keeping the atmospheric longwave divergence roughly constant. The shortwave divergence is mainly determined by the CWV and aerosol loadings and the effect of clouds is much smaller than on the component fluxes.

Slingo, A.; White, H. E.; Bharmal, N.; Robinson, G. J.

2009-02-25

140

Determination of longwave heat flux at the air-sea interface using measurements from buoy platforms  

SciTech Connect

A theory for pyrgeometer operation is utilized for determining downwelling longwave radiation. Errors in downwelling longwave radiation measurements are due to differences in pyrgeometer body and dome temperatures compared to that of the atmosphere. Additionally, incident shortwave radiation fluxes may be important. Using the present theory along with laboratory and field observations, it appears that downwelling longwave heat fluxes can be measured with errors less than 6 W/sq m. Longwave heat flux observations from surface buoys deployed in four different oceanic regions suggest that (1) incoming longwave measurements from buoys are repeatable, (2) uncertainties in radiometer calibration are significant and systematic, and (3) pyrgeometers are affected by direct and indirect solar heating. A hybrid measurement method for the determination of net longwave heat flux at the air-sea interface is described. The authors recommend improvement in calibration procedures as well as development of a radiometer to be used as a transfer standard to compare with in situ measurements. Uncertainties in sea surface skin temperature and emissivity are contributors to the error in the net longwave heat flux. However, a targeted error limit goal of +/- 10 W/sq m for the monthly mean net longwave heat flux appears to be achievable.

Dickey, T.D.; Manov, D.V.; Weller, R.A.; Siegel, D.A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States); [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

1994-08-01

141

Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of a Superconducting Flux Qubit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements allow us to measure an observable of a quantum system without introducing a back-action on this observable due to the measurement itself. Here we propose a method for the QND measurement of a superconducting flux qubit by extending the spin QND measurement. Under an adequate condition, qubit and interaction Hamiltonian satisfy QND conditions and then QND measurement of a superconducting flux qubit is possible.

Takashima, Kohji; Nishida, Munehiro; Matsuo, Shigemasa; Hatakenaka, Noriyuki

2006-09-01

142

AmeriFlux Measurement Network: Science Team Research  

SciTech Connect

Research involves analysis and field direction of AmeriFlux operations, and the PI provides scientific leadership of the AmeriFlux network. Activities include the coordination and quality assurance of measurements across AmeriFlux network sites, synthesis of results across the network, organizing and supporting the annual Science Team Meeting, and communicating AmeriFlux results to the scientific community and other users. Objectives of measurement research include (i) coordination of flux and biometric measurement protocols (ii) timely data delivery to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC); and (iii) assurance of data quality of flux and ecosystem measurements contributed by AmeriFlux sites. Objectives of integration and synthesis activities include (i) integration of site data into network-wide synthesis products; and (ii) participation in the analysis, modeling and interpretation of network data products. Communications objectives include (i) organizing an annual meeting of AmeriFlux investigators for reporting annual flux measurements and exchanging scientific information on ecosystem carbon budgets; (ii) developing focused topics for analysis and publication; and (iii) developing data reporting protocols in support of AmeriFlux network goals.

Law, B E

2012-12-12

143

Comparison of surface fluxes and boundary-layer measurements at Arctic terrestrial sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational evidence suggests that atmospheric energy fluxes are a major contributor to the decrease of the Arctic pack ice, seasonal land snow cover and the warming of the surrounding land areas and permafrost layers. To better understand the atmosphere-surface exchange mechanisms, improve models, and to diagnose climate variability in the Arctic, accurate measurements are required of all components of the net surface energy budget and the carbon dioxide cycle over representative areas and over multiple years. This study analyzes and discusses variability of surface fluxes and basic meteorological parameters based on measurements made at several long-term research observatories near the coast of the Arctic Ocean located in USA (Barrow), Canada (Eureka), and Russia (Tiksi). Tower-based eddy covariance and solar radiation measurements provide a long-term near continuous temporal record of hourly average mass and energy fluxes respectively. The turbulent fluxes of the momentum, sensible heat, water vapor, and carbon dioxide are supported by additional atmospheric and surface/snow/permafrost measurements (mean wind speed, air temperature and humidity, upwelling and downwelling short-wave and long-wave atmospheric and surface radiation, snow depth, surface albedo, soil heat flux, active layer temperature profiles etc.) In this study we compare annual cycles of surface fluxes including solar radiation and other ancillary data to describe four seasons in the Arctic including spring onset of melt and fall onset of snow accumulation. Particular interest is a transition through freezing point, i.e. during transition from winter to spring and from summer to fall, when the carbon dioxide and/or water vapor turbulent fluxes change their direction. According to our data, in a summer period observed temporal variability of the carbon dioxide flux was generally in anti-phase with water vapor flux (downward CO2 flux and upward H2O flux). On average the turbulent flux of carbon dioxide was mostly negative (uptake by the surface) in summer indicating that the Arctic terrestrial sites are generally net sinks for atmospheric CO2 during the growing season when surface is extensively covered with vegetation. This study also shows that the sensible heat flux, water vapor, and carbon dioxide fluxes as well as air temperature exhibit clear diurnal cycles during the Arctic summer. During the Polar winter and cold seasons, the sensible heat flux, water vapor and carbon dioxide fluxes were small and mostly irregular when the ground is covered with snow and air temperatures are sufficiently below freezing. The work is supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) with award ARC 11-07428 and by the U.S. Civilian Research & Development Foundation (CRDF) with award RUG1-2976-ST-10.

Grachev, Andrey; Uttal, Taneil; Persson, Ola; Stone, Robert; Crepinsek, Sara; Albee, Robert; Makshtas, Alexander; Kustov, Vasily; Repina, Irina; Artamonov, Arseniy

2014-05-01

144

Heat flux measurements on ceramics with thin film thermocouples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods were devised to measure heat flux through a thick ceramic using thin film thermocouples. The thermocouples were deposited on the front and back face of a flat ceramic substrate. The heat flux was applied to the front surface of the ceramic using an arc lamp Heat Flux Calibration Facility. Silicon nitride and mullite ceramics were used; two thicknesses of each material was tested, with ceramic temperatures to 1500 C. Heat flux ranged from 0.05-2.5 MW/m2(sup 2). One method for heat flux determination used an approximation technique to calculate instantaneous values of heat flux vs time; the other method used an extrapolation technique to determine the steady state heat flux from a record of transient data. Neither method measures heat flux in real time but the techniques may easily be adapted for quasi-real time measurement. In cases where a significant portion of the transient heat flux data is available, the calculated transient heat flux is seen to approach the extrapolated steady state heat flux value as expected.

Holanda, Raymond; Anderson, Robert C.; Liebert, Curt H.

1993-01-01

145

Balloon-borne measurement of energetic electron fluxes inside thunderclouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-energy radiation is routinely produced by thunderclouds and lightning. This radiation is in the form of x-rays and gamma-rays with timescales ranging from sub-microsecond (x-rays associated with lightning leaders), to sub-millisecond (Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes), to minute long glows (Gamma-ray Glows from thunderclouds seen on the ground and in or near the cloud by aircrafts and balloons). It is generally accepted that these emissions originate from bremsstrahlung interactions of relativistic runaway electrons with air, which can be accelerated in the thundercloud/lightning electric fields and gain up to multi-MeV energies. However, the exact physical details of the mechanism that produces these runaway electrons are still unknown. In order to better understand the source of energetic radiation inside thunderclouds, we have begun a campaign of balloon-borne instruments to directly measure the flux of energetic electrons inside thunderclouds. In the current configuration, each balloon carries Geiger counters to record the energetic particles. Geiger counters are well suited for directly measuring energetic electrons and positrons and have the advantage of being lightweight and dependable. We transmit data at 900MHz, ISM band, with 115.2 kb/s transmission rate. This would provide us a high resolution radiation profile over a relatively large distance. Due to the nature of the thunderstorm environment, the campaign has many design, communication, and safety challenges. In this presentation we will report on the status of the campaign and some of the physical insights gained from the data collected by our instruments. This work was supported in part by the NASA grant NNX12A002H and by DARPA grant HR0011-1-10-1-0061.

Arabshahi, Shahab; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Dwyer, Joseph; Rassoul, Hamid

2014-05-01

146

Remote Heat Flux Measurement Using a Self Calibration Multiwavelength Pyrometer and a Transparent Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self calibrating multiwavelength pyrometer was used to conduct remote heat flux measurements using a transparent sapphire disk by determining the sapphire disk's front and back surface temperatures. Front surface temperature (Tfs) was obtained from detection of surface emitted radiation at long wavelengths (lambda > 6 micrometers). Back surface temperature (Tbs) was obtained from short wavelength (1 to 5 micrometers) radiation transmitted through the sapphire disk. The thermal conductivity k of the sapphire disk and the heat transfer coefficients h(sub 1) and h(sub 2) of its surfaces are determined experimentally. An analysis of the heat flux measurement is presented.

Ng, Daniel

1998-01-01

147

Heat flux measurement in SSME turbine blade tester  

SciTech Connect

Surface heat flux values were measured in the turbine blade thermal cycling tester located at NASA-Marshall. This is the first time heat flux has been measured in a space shuttle main engine turbopump environment. Plots of transient and quasi-steady state heat flux data over a range of about 0 to 15 MW/sq m are presented. Data were obtained with a miniature heat flux gage device developed at NASA-Lewis. The results from these tests are being incorporated into turbine design models. Also, these gages are being considered for airfoil surface heat flux measurement on turbine vanes mounted in SSME turbopump test bed engine nozzles at Marshall. Heat flux effects that might be observed on degraded vanes are discussed.

Liebert, C.H.

1990-11-01

148

Direct measurement of turbulent fluxes on a cruising ship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The result of an attempt at the direct measurement of turbulent fluxes on the top of the mast of a cruising ship is presented. The three-dimensional components of wind relative to the ship measured by a sonic anemometer are corrected for ship motion; from these the fluxes of momentum, sensible heat and water vapor are computed using the outputs of

Y. Mitsuta; T. Fujitani

1974-01-01

149

Axial flux data for fuel measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of the PITA-18 nonpoisonous spline program was conducted in conjunction with a study to determine the best method of eliminating the variability of axial flux on the fuel performance parameter, q. The results of this survey and the conclusions re...

R. P. Popovich

1964-01-01

150

Mars 2001 Cruise Phase Radiation Measurments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mars 2001 presents an exciting opportunity for advances in radiation risk management of a future human mission to Mars. The mission timing is particularly fortuitous, coming just after solar maxinuun, when there will be a high probability to observe significant solar particle events (SPEs). A major objective of this mission is to characterize the Martian radiation environment to support future human missions to Mars. In addition, the MARIE instruments on the Lander and Orbiter, designed to measure the energetic particle flux at Mars, can be used during the cruise phase to provide multipoint observations of SPEs in the critical region of the heliosphere (1 to 1.5 AU) needed to reduce the in-flight radiation risk to a future Mars-bound crew.

Turner, R. E.; Badhwar, G. D.

1999-01-01

151

A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models.

Moran, J.M.

1992-02-01

152

Measurements for the JASPER Program Flux Monitor Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Flux Monitor Experiment was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) during the months of May and June 1992, as part of the continuing series of eight experiments planned for the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER) program that was started in 1986. This series of experiments was designed to examine shielding concerns and radiation transport effects pertaining to in-vessel flux monitoring systems (FMS) in current reactor shield designs proposed for both the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design and the Japanese loop-type design. The program is a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) and the Japanese Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). The Tower Shielding Reactor H (TSR-II) neutron source was altered by the spectrum modifier (SM) used previously in the Axial Shield Experiment, and part of the Japanese Removable Radial Shield (RRS) before reaching the axial shield. In the axial shield were placed six homogeneous boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) hexagons around a center hexagon of aluminum used to represent sodium. Shield designs to be studied were placed beyond the axial shield, each design forming a void directly behind the axial shield. Measurements were made in the void and behind each slab as successive slabs were added.

Muckenthaler, F.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Hunter, H.T.; Hull, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Shono, A. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

1993-02-01

153

Best Estimate Radiation Flux Value-Added Procedure: Algorithm Operational Details and Explanations  

SciTech Connect

This document describes some specifics of the algorithm for best estimate evaluation of radiation fluxes at Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF). It uses the data available from the three co-located surface radiometer platforms at the SGP CF to automatically determine the best estimate of the irradiance measurements available. The Best Estimate Flux (BEFlux) value-added procedure (VAP) was previously named Best Estimate ShortWave (BESW) VAP, which included all of the broadband and spectral shortwave (SW) measurements for the SGP CF. In BESW, multiple measurements of the same quantities were handled simply by designating one as the primary measurement and using all others to merely fill in any gaps. Thus, this “BESW” is better termed “most continuous,” since no additional quality assessment was applied. We modified the algorithm in BESW to use the average of the closest two measurements as the best estimate when possible, if these measurements pass all quality assessment criteria. Furthermore, we included longwave (LW) fields in the best estimate evaluation to include all major components of the surface radiative energy budget, and renamed the VAP to Best Estimate Flux (BEFLUX1LONG).

Shi, Y; Long, CN

2002-10-01

154

Aerosol, surface, and cloud optical parameters derived from airborne spectral actinic flux: measurement comparison with other methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical parameters of aerosols, surfaces, and clouds are essential for an accurate description of Earth’s radiative balance. We will present values for such parameters derived from spectral actinic flux measured on board the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) study in April 2008. We will compare these measurements to results obtained from other instruments on board the same aircraft, such as the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) for irradiance measurements and aerosol extinction and absorption measurements by cavity ring-down and Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). Actinic flux is sensitive to these parameters and can be used to measure them directly in the atmosphere without in-situ sampling methods required. We will describe the specifics of the actinic flux measurements, show advantages and disadvantages of this measurement technique, and compare results with other techniques. Furthermore, we will compare our measurements with model calculations from radiative transfer models such as the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible (TUV) radiation model, the widely used library of radiative transfer (libradtran) model, and a Monte-Carlo radiation model (GRIMALDI). Also, we will investigate satellite measurements to constrain the radiation measurements to general radiation conditions in the arctic and to compare the results to aerosol optical depth retrievals. In particular, we will show results for surface albedo of the Arctic Ocean ice surface, extinction and absorption of Arctic haze layers, and optical thickness and albedo measurements of clouds.

Stark, H.; Bierwirth, E.; Schmidt, S.; Kindel, B. C.; Pilewskie, P.; Lack, D. A.; Madronich, S.; Parrish, D. D.

2009-12-01

155

Sensitivity of shortwave radiative flux density, forcing, and heating rates to the aerosol vertical profile  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the aerosol vertical distribution on the solar radiation profiles, for idealized and measured profiles of optical properties (extinction and single-scattering albedo (SSA)) during the May 2003 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerosol Intensive Observation Period (AIOP), has been investigated using the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model Shortwave (RRTM_SW) code. Calculated profiles of down-welling and up-welling solar fluxes during the AIOP have been compared with the data measured by up- and down-looking solar broadband radiometers aboard a profiling research aircraft. The measured profiles of aerosol extinction, SSA, and water vapor obtained from the same aircraft that carried the radiometers served as the inputs for the model calculations. It is noteworthy that for this study, the uplooking radiometers were mounted on a stabilized platform that kept the radiometers parallel with respect to the earth’s horizontal plane. The results indicate that the shape of the aerosol extinction profiles has very little impact on direct radiative forcings at the top of atmosphere and surface in a cloud-free sky. However, as long as the aerosol is not purely scattering, the shape of the extinction profiles is important for forcing profiles. Identical extinction profiles with different absorption profiles drastically influence the forcing and heating rate profiles. Using aircraft data from 19 AIOP profiles over the Southern Great Plains (SGP), we are able to achieve broadband down-welling solar flux closure within 0.8% (bias difference) or 1.8% (rms difference), well within the expected measurement uncertainty of 1 to 3%. The poorer agreement in up-welling flux (bias -3.7%, rms 10%) is attributed to the use of inaccurate surface albedo data. The sensitivity tests reveal the important role accurate, vertically resolved aerosol extinction data plays in tightening flux closure. This study also suggests that in the presence of a strongly absorbing substance, aircraft flux measurements from a stabilized platform have the potential to determine heating rate profiles. These measurement-based heating rate profiles provide useful data for heating rate closure studies and indirect estimates of single scattering albedo assumed in radiative transfer calculations.

Guan, Hong; Schmid, Beat; Bucholtz, Anthony; Bergstrom, Robert

2010-03-31

156

Radiation fluxes at the FIFE site. Final report, 1 January 1991-31 July 1992  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) has been stated as 'the development of techniques that may be applied to satellite observations of the radiation reflected and emitted from the Earth to yield quantitative information concerning land surface climatological conditions'. The major field study, FIFE (the First ISLSCP Field Experiment), was conducted in 1987-89 to accomplish this objective. Four intensive field campaigns (IFC's) were carried out in 1987 and one in 1989. Factors contributing to observed reflected radiation from the FIFE site must be understood before the radiation observed by satellites can be used to quantify surface processes. Our last report (Walter-Shea et al.) focused on slope effects on incoming and outgoing shortwave radiation and net radiation from data collected in 1989. We report here on the final analysis of the slope data as well as results from thermal radiation studies conducted during the FIFE experiment. The specific areas reported are the following: (1) analysis of slope effects on measured reflectance values and estimates of surface albedo; (2) using remotely-measured surface temperatures as a means of estimating sensible heat flux from the Konza Prairie; (3) extracting canopy temperatures from remotely-measured composite surface temperatures; (4) modeling the measured composite temperature of partially vegetated surfaces; and (5) estimating gap distribution in partially vegetated surfaces from reflectance measurements.

Walter-Shea, E.A.; Blad, B.L.; Zara, P.; Vining, R.; Hays, C.J.; Mesarch, M.A.

1993-01-01

157

Quantitative Comparison of Measured Plasma Sheet Electron Energy Flux and Remotely Sensed Auroral Electron Energy Flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ plasma sheet observations and auroral images give us two views of magnetospheric dynamics. With in situ observations, we get a detailed point measurement; auroral images give us a global view. Previous studies have shown an excellent correlation between dynamic plasma behavior in the plasma sheet and auroral activity. Here we extend the previous work with quantitative comparisons between the two regions. We directly compare the electron energy flux measured in the plasma sheet with the electron energy flux into the ionosphere inferred from auroral images. We find that during quiet times, the plasma sheet is able to supply the aurora with nearly all of the observed energy flux. During intervals of intense auroral emission, the electron spectrum in the conjugate region of the plasma sheet changes, increasing the amount of energy flux incident on the ionosphere. However, the increases in the plasma sheet energy flux is not enough to account for the inferred energy flux into the ionosphere from the images by nearly an order of magnitude. This implies that additional energy flux must be entering the loss cone through pitch angle diffusion or through the presence of parallel electric fields between the plasma sheet and the ionosphere during intervals of intense auroral emission. A likely source of this additional energy flux is the low altitude auroral acceleration region. >http://www.ess.washington.edu/People/Students/matt/AGU2001/

Fillingim, M. O.; Parks, G. K.; Chua, D.; Germany, G. A.; Lin, R. P.; McCarthy, M.

2001-12-01

158

Evaluation of multi-dimensional flux models for radiative transfer in cylindrical combustion chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four flux-type models for radiative heat transfer in cylindrical configurations were applied to the prediction of radiative flux density and source term of a cylindrical enclosure problem based on data reported previously on a pilot-scale experimental combustor with steep temperature gradients. The models, which are Schuster-Hamaker type four-flux model derived by Lockwood and Spalding, two Schuster-Schwarzschild type four-flux models derived

Nevin Selcuk

1993-01-01

159

Quantifying the "chamber effect" in CO2 flux measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The significance of aquatic CO2 emissions has received attention in recent years. For example annual aquatic emissions in the Amazon basin have been estimated as 500 Mt of carbon1. Methods for determining the flux rates include eddy covariance flux tower measurements, flux estimates calculated from partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in water and the use floating flux chambers connected to an infra-red gas analyser. The flux chamber method is often used because it is portable, cheaper and allows smaller scale measurements. It is also a direct method and hence avoids problems related to the estimation of the gas transfer coefficient that is required when fluxes are calculated from pCO2. However, the use of a floating chamber may influence the flux measurements obtained. The chamber shields the water underneath from effects of wind which could lead to lower flux estimates. Wind increases the flux rate by i) causing waves which increase the surface area for efflux, and ii) removing CO2 build up above the water surface, hence maintaining a higher concentration gradient. Many floating chambers have an underwater extension of the chamber below the float to ensure better seal to water surface and to prevent any ingress of atmospheric air when waves rock the chamber. This extension may cause additional turbulence in flowing water and hence lead to overestimation of flux rates. Some groups have also used a small fan in the chamber headspace to ensure thorough mixing of air in the chamber. This may create turbulence inside the chamber which could increase the flux rate. Here we present results on the effects of different chamber designs on the detected flux rates. 1Richey et al. 2002. Outgassing from Amazonian rivers and wetlands as a large tropical source of atmospheric CO2. Nature 416: 617-620.

Vihermaa, Leena; Childs, Amy; Long, Hazel; Waldron, Susan

2014-05-01

160

First eddy covariance flux measurements by PTR-TOF  

PubMed Central

The recently developed PTR-TOF instrument was evaluated to measure methanol fluxes emitted from grass land using the eddy covariance method. The high time resolution of the PTR-TOF allowed storing full mass spectra up to m/z 315 with a frequency of 10 Hz. Three isobaric ions were found at a nominal mass of m/z 33 due to the high mass resolving power of the PTR-TOF. Only one of the three peaks contributed to eddy covariance fluxes. The exact mass of this peak agrees well with the exact mass of protonated methanol (m/z 33.0335). The eddy covariance methanol fluxes measured with PTR-TOF were compared to virtual disjunct eddy covariance methanol fluxes simultaneously measured with a conventional PTR-MS. The methanol fluxes from both instruments show excellent agreement.

Muller, M.; Graus, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Bamberger, I.; Kaser, L.; Titzmann, T.; Hortnagl, L.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Karl, T.; Hansel, A.

2014-01-01

161

A statistical approach to determining energetic outer radiation belt electron precipitation fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

radio wave data from an Antarctic-Arctic Radiation-Belt (Dynamic) Deposition VLF Atmospheric Research Konsortia (AARDDVARK) receiver located in Churchill, Canada, is analyzed to determine the characteristics of electron precipitation into the atmosphere over the range 3 < L < 7. The study advances previous work by combining signals from two U.S. transmitters from 20 July to 20 August 2010, allowing error estimates of derived electron precipitation fluxes to be calculated, including the application of time-varying electron energy spectral gradients. Electron precipitation observations from the NOAA POES satellites and a ground-based riometer provide intercomparison and context for the AARDDVARK measurements. AARDDVARK radiowave propagation data showed responses suggesting energetic electron precipitation from the outer radiation belt starting 27 July 2010 and lasting ~20 days. The uncertainty in >30 keV precipitation flux determined by the AARDDVARK technique was found to be ±10%. Peak >30 keV precipitation fluxes of AARDDVARK-derived precipitation flux during the main and recovery phase of the largest geomagnetic storm, which started on 4 August 2010, were >105 el cm-2 s-1 sr-1. The largest fluxes observed by AARDDVARK occurred on the dayside and were delayed by several days from the start of the geomagnetic disturbance. During the main phase of the disturbances, nightside fluxes were dominant. Significant differences in flux estimates between POES, AARDDVARK, and the riometer were found after the main phase of the largest disturbance, with evidence provided to suggest that >700 keV electron precipitation was occurring. Currently the presence of such relativistic electron precipitation introduces some uncertainty in the analysis of AARDDVARK data, given the assumption of a power law electron precipitation spectrum.

Simon Wedlund, Mea; Clilverd, Mark A.; Rodger, Craig J.; Cresswell-Moorcock, Kathy; Cobbett, Neil; Breen, Paul; Danskin, Donald; Spanswick, Emma; Rodriguez, Juan V.

2014-05-01

162

Heat Flux Measurements on Ceramics with Thin Film Thermocouples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two methods were devised to measure heat flux through a thick ceramic using thin film thermocouples. The thermocouples were deposited on the front and back face of a flat ceramic substrate. The heat flux was applied to the front surface of the ceramic usi...

R. Holanda R. C. Anderson C. H. Liebert

1993-01-01

163

Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

Nakos, James Thomas

2005-12-01

164

The Measurement of Sound Power Flux in Flow Ducts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of robust procedures yielding reliable estimates of the nett sound power flux associated with one-dimensional wave motion under strongly reactive conditions in flow ducts. In such reverberant situations, the measurements must be sufficiently precise to clearly identify the small fraction of the total fluctuating wave energy that is being propagated through the system [1-4]. An expansion chamber, together with its inlet and outlet pipes radiating into a semi-anechoic space, was chosen as a simple but sufficiently representative example of such systems. Various practical problems, such as those arising from low signal-to-noise ratios, or any inadequacies of microphone calibration were investigated in detail, along with various strategies for minimizing their influence on the realism and reliability of the associated measurements. The most effective procedures were identified by performing a sequence of comparisons between the resulting measurements and checking them against data generated with an existing and well-verified prediction code.

HOLLAND, K. R.; DAVIES, P. O. A. L.

2000-03-01

165

Losses in Magnetic Flux Compression Generators: Part 2, Radiation Losses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the second monograph devoted to the analysis of flux losses in explosive driven magnetic flux compression generators. In the first monograph, flux losses from magnetic field penetration into conductor walls was studied by conventional diffusion th...

C. M. Fowler

1988-01-01

166

The Radiation-Measuring Complex of the ?????-VI System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation-measuring complex of the ?????-VI system is designed to determine the absorbed dose and values of heavy-nuclei fluxes under a program for investigating isolated failures in microcircuits. The complex is composed of active and passive elements. It is used to measure the total absorbed dose and the radiation doses received by exposed microelectronic elements behind shields of 1 g\\/cm2

Yu. A. Akatov; A. I. Akulin; E. O. Asoskova; A. A. Belyaev; Yu. F. Gagarin; Yu. P. Gordeev; E. A. Grachev; O. R. Grigoryan; K. Kudela; A. G. Myasnikov; L. Just

2004-01-01

167

Evaluation of multi-dimensional flux models for radiative transfer in cylindrical combustion chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four flux-type models for radiative heat transfer in cylindrical configurations were applied to the prediction of radiative flux density and source term of a cylindrical enclosure problem based on data reported previously on a pilot-scale experimental combustor with steep temperature gradients. The models, which are Schuster-Hamaker type four-flux model derived by Lockwood and Spalding, two Schuster-Schwarzschild type four-flux models derived by Siddall and Selcuk and Richter and Quack and spherical harmonics approximation, were evaluated from the viewpoint of predictive accuracy by comparing their predictions with exact solutions produced previously. The comparisons showed that spherical harmonics approximation produces more accurate results than the other models with respect to the radiative energy source term and that the four-flux models of Lockwood and Spalding and Siddall and Selcuk for isotropic radiation field are more accurate with respect to the prediction of radiative flux density to the side wall.

Selcuk, Nevin

1993-02-01

168

A Preliminary Study of CO2 Flux Measurements by Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mechanistic understanding of the global carbon cycle requires quantification of terrestrial ecosystem CO2 fluxes at regional scales. In this paper, we analyze the potential of a Doppler DIAL system to make flux measurements of atmospheric CO2 using the eddy-covariance and boundary layer budget methods and present results from a ground based experiment. The goal of this study is to put CO2 flux point measurements in a mesoscale context. In June 2007, a field experiment combining a 2-m Doppler Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar (HDIAL) and in-situ sensors of a 447-m tall tower (WLEF) took place in Wisconsin. The HDIAL measures simultaneously: 1) CO2 mixing ratio, 2) atmosphere structure via aerosol backscatter and 3) radial velocity. We demonstrate how to synthesize these data into regional flux estimates. Lidar-inferred fluxes are compared with eddy-covariance fluxes obtained in-situ at 396m AGL from the tower. In cases where the lidar was not yet able to measure the fluxes with acceptable precision, we discuss possible modifications to improve system performance.

Gibert, Fabien; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, T.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

2008-01-01

169

Comparison of general circulation models to Earth Radiation Budget Experiment data: Computation of clear-sky fluxes  

SciTech Connect

The recent availability of top-of-the-atmosphere radiometric measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment provides important opportunities for testing and improving numerical climate models. What is unique about these satellite data is that they provide monthly mean clear-sky measurements. There is, however, considerable confusion as to evaluating clear-sky radiative fluxes in climate models in a manner that is consistent with the satellite data processing system. This study provides a clear-sky flux computation method that serves as an analog to the data processing procedure and so provides a model diagnostic that is consistent with the processed satellite data. 11 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Cess, R.D. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (United States)); Potter, G.L.; Gates, W.L.; Corsetti, L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Morcrette, J.J. (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berkshire (United Kingdom))

1992-12-20

170

Heat flux measurement from vertical temperature profile and thermal infrared imagery in low-flux fumarolic zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal systems are associated to most of the dormant volcanoes. Heat is transported by steam from the hot magma body in the connected porosity and the fissures of the rock to the surface. If the flux is low enough (<500 W/m²), the steam mainly condensates in the soil close to surface, and a significant proportion of the heat is transported to the surface by conduction, producing a gradient of temperature and a thermal anomaly detectable at the surface. Detecting and monitoring these fluxes is crucial for hazard management, since it reflects the state of the magma body in depth. In order to quantify this flux two methods are considered. First, a vertical profile of temperature is measured by a series of thermocouples, and the conducted flux is estimated thanks to the Fourier law. Secondly, a more recent method uses the thermal infrared imagery to monitor the surface temperature anomaly (STA) between the studied zone and an equivalent zone not affected by the geothermal flux. The heat flux from the soil to the atmosphere is computed as the sum of (1) the radiative flux, (2) the sensible flux and (3) the residual steam flux. These two methods are complementary and have an equivalent uncertainty of approximately 20%, which would allow to track the major changes in the hydrothermal system. However, the surface and sub-surface temperatures are strongly influenced by the climate. For instance, it has been widely demonstrated that the surface temperature dramatically decreases after a rainfall. In order to estimate the reliability of the measurements, a numerical model simulating the evolution of the subsurface temperature in low flux fumarolic zone has been built. In depth, the heat can be transported either by conduction, or by the rising steam, or by condensed water. In surface, both the radiative flux and the sensible flux (convection of the atmosphere) are taken into account. This model allows to estimate the changes of temperature due to a variation of solar illumination, wind, or rainfalls. It has been successfully tested during 5 months with a permanent station built on the Ty fault on La Soufrière volcano (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles). Results show that the diurnal cycle has a significant influence on the temperature up to ca. 30 cm depth, hindering the use of the thermal gradient in this zone, while the STA has a negligible variation. Rain has a more dramatic influence: the surface temperature and the STA are significantly affected, even for small rains. The model shows that the drop of temperature and the affected thickness are mainly controlled by the amount of rain, while the relaxation time is primarily a function of the heat flux. These results have strong implications in the interpretation and the reliability of the temperature surveys, and could be used to correct them from the climate fluctuations.

Gaudin, Damien; Finizola, Anthony; Beauducel, François; Brothelande, Elodie; Allemand, Pascal; Delacourt, Christophe; Delcher, Eric; Peltier, Aline

2014-05-01

171

Measuring turbulent heat fluxes over leads using kites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the MaudNESS project in the austral winter of 2005, radiosondes attached to a kite indirectly measured surface turbulent heat fluxes from leads in the Eastern Weddell Sea near Maud Rise. Kite flights over two different leads with similar widths and upwind ice conditions are discussed. Lead mean surface fluxes were estimated by measuring the excess temperature and humidity downwind of the leads, estimating the wind speed profiles and performing a heat and moisture budget quantification. The measured sensible (latent) heat fluxes were 318 Wm-2 (158 Wm-2) and 258 Wm-2 (85 Wm-2) for the two flights; the values were lower in the second flight due to lower wind speeds. The average neutral sensible heat transfer coefficients for the two flights was (1.48 ± 0.13) × 10-3, and the average neutral latent heat flux coefficient was (1.47 ± 0.09) × 10-3. As expected, these values are enhanced from what would be expected in a typical open ocean situation with the same air-sea temperature and humidity differences. Kite radiosonde profile measurements are an economically viable method for measuring lead heat fluxes that avoid many of the logistical problems associated with other methods for measuring fluxes over leads.

Guest, Peter S.

2007-05-01

172

Ground-based estimates of outer radiation belt energetic electron precipitation fluxes into the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variations of subionospheric VLF amplitudes observed at ground-based receivers can be used to determine the flux of electrons precipitating into the ionosphere along the path between the transmitter and receiver. A network of VLF receivers has been established to observe the upper atmosphere (~40-85 km), and tools are being developed to extract electron precipitation fluxes from the observations of this network, which is termed AARDDVARK (Antarctic-Arctic Radiation-belt (Dynamic) Deposition - VLF Atmospheric Research Konsortium). AARDDVARK data from a radiowave receiver in Sodankylä, Finland have been used to monitor transmissions across the auroral oval and just into the polar cap from the very low frequency communications transmitter, call sign NAA, (24.0 kHz, 44°N, 67°W, L=2.9) in Maine, USA, since 2004. The propagating signals are influenced by outer radiation belt (L=3-7) energetic electron precipitation. In this study we show that the observed amplitude variations can be used to routinely determine the flux of energetic electrons entering the upper atmosphere along the entire path, and between 30-90 km in altitude. Our analysis of the NAA observations shows that electron precipitation fluxes can vary by three orders of magnitude during geomagnetic storms. Typically when averaging over L=3-7 we find that the >100 keV POES ‘trapped’ fluxes peak at about 106 el.cm-2s-1sr-1 during geomagnetic storms, with the DEMETER >100 keV drift loss cone showing peak fluxes of 105 el.cm-2s-1sr-1, and both the POES >100 keV ‘loss’ fluxes and the NAA ground-based >100 keV precipitation fluxes showing peaks of ~104 el.cm-2s-1sr-1. During a geomagnetic storm in July 2005 there were systematic MLT variations in the fluxes observed: electron precipitation flux in the midnight sector (22-06 MLT) exceeded the fluxes from the morning side (0330-1130 MLT) and also from the afternoon sector (1130-1930 MLT). The analysis of NAA amplitude variability has the potential of providing a detailed, near real-time picture of energetic electron precipitation fluxes from the outer radiation belts, and we plan to produce a web-based product of precipitation fluxes in the near future. In this presentation we will take the newly developed AARDDVARK measurements of >100 keV electron precipitation fluxes and contrast them with variations in solar wind speed. Our previous case studies [e.g., Clilverd et al. (doi:10.1029/2009JA015204, 2010)] indicate that solar wind drivers play important roles in driving recurrent electron precipitation, and the new observations will allow this to be explored further.

Rodger, C. J.; Clilverd, M.; Gamble, R. J.; Ulich, T.; Raita, T.; Seppälä, A. M.; Green, J. C.; Thomson, N. R.; Sauvaud, J.; Parrot, M.

2010-12-01

173

Reconciling main belt asteroid spectral flux density measurements with a self-consistent thermophysical model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermophysical models consistent with Earth's Moon and infrared and submillimeter measurements obtained during the Rosetta fly-by of Asteroid (21) Lutetia have been applied to computations of thermal fluxes from Asteroids (4) Vesta, (1) Ceres, (2) Pallas, and (10) Hygiea. Comparisons are made with Earth- and space-based flux measurements that cover the infrared-to-centimeter wavelength spectrum. The models account for diurnal and seasonal effects as well as viewing geometry at the epochs of the observational data. Model fluxes at submillimeter and longer wavelengths are computed from a radiative transfer integral that takes into account temperature gradients in the subsurface and a plausible range of lunar-like electrical properties. A surface roughness model in the form of hemispherical mini-craters is included in the evaluation of the infrared flux comparisons.

Keihm, Stephen; Kamp, Lucas; Gulkis, Samuel; Hofstadter, Mark; Lee, Seungwon; Janssen, Michael; Choukroun, Mathieu

2013-09-01

174

Isotopomer measurement techniques in metabolic flux analysis II: mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Mass spectrometry (MS) offers a sensitive, reliable, and highly accurate method for measurement of isotopic labeling, which is required for generating comprehensive flux maps using metabolic flux analysis (MFA). We present protocols for assessing isotope labeling in a wide range of biochemical species, including proteinogenic amino acids, free organic and amino acids, sugar phosphates, lipids, starch-glucose, and RNA-ribose. We describe the steps of sample preparation, MS analysis, and data handling required to obtain high-quality isotope labeling measurements that are applicable to MFA. By selecting target analytes that maximize identifiability of the key fluxes of interest, MS measurements of isotope labeling can provide a powerful platform for assessing metabolic fluxes in complex biochemical networks. PMID:24218212

Young, Jamey D; Allen, Douglas K; Morgan, John A

2014-01-01

175

Unmanned aerial vehicle measurements of volcanic carbon dioxide fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first measurements of volcanic gases with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The data were collected at La Fossa crater, Vulcano, Italy, during April 2007, with a helicopter UAV of 3 kg payload, carrying an ultraviolet spectrometer for remotely sensing the SO2 flux (8.5 Mg d-1), and an infrared spectrometer, and electrochemical sensor assembly for measuring the plume CO2/SO2 ratio; by multiplying these data we compute a CO2 flux of 170 Mg d-1. Given the deeper exsolution of carbon dioxide from magma, and its lower solubility in hydrothermal systems, relative to SO2, the ability to remotely measure CO2 fluxes is significant, with promise to provide more profound geochemical insights, and earlier eruption forecasts, than possible with SO2 fluxes alone: the most ubiquitous current source of remotely sensed volcanic gas data.

McGonigle, A. J. S.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Tamburello, G.; Hodson, A. J.; Gurrieri, S.

2008-03-01

176

Error Evaluation of Methyl Bromide Aerodynamic Flux Measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methyl bromide volatilization fluxes were calculated for a tarped and a nontarped field using 2 and 4 hour sampling periods. These field measurements were averaged in 8, 12, and 24 hour increments to simulate longer sampling periods. The daily flux profiles were progressively smoothed and the cumulative volatility losses increased by 20 to 30% with each longer sampling period. Error associated with the original flux measurements was determined from linear regressions of measured wind speed and air concentration as a function of height, and averaged approximately 50%. The high errors resulted from long application times, which resulted in a nonuniform source strength; and variable tarp permeability, which is influenced by temperature, moisture, and thickness. The increase in cumulative volatilization losses that resulted from longer sampling periods were within the experimental error of the flux determination method.

Majewski, M. S.

1997-01-01

177

Techniques and Methods used to determine the Best Estimate of Radiation Fluxes at SGP Central Facility  

SciTech Connect

The DOE ARM Program operates three independent surface radiation measurement systems co-located within a few meters at the Southern Great Plains Central Facility (SGP CF) site. This redundancy affords a unique opportunity for producing a high quality estimate of the actual continuous irradiance record. The Best Estimate Radiation Flux Value Added Product (VAP) currently being developed for ARM (beflux1long VAP) is attempting to determine the best estimate value for each radiation field from these multiple measurements as an operational product. In the development of this VAP, it is necessary to assess the nominal long-term unattended operational accuracy (as opposed to accuracy assessments based on calibrations or short term attended operation) to screen the data for quality assessment. We will present statistical results of this assessment, including our estimates of nominal operational accuracies, and the amount of data that pass the resultant data quality testing. Central to data quality assessment is the notion that having three pieces of information allows one not only to detect measurement problems, but to identify which of the three similar measurements is likely to be in error. We will discuss the techniques we have developed to use similar, but often differing, measurement data as comparison tools for operationally detecting measurement errors. We will also present statistical analyses of the resultant best estimate radiation climatology for the SGP CF.

Shi, Yan; Long, Charles N.

2002-07-30

178

Arctic ocean radiative fluxes and cloud forcing estimated from the ISCCP C2 cloud dataset, 1983-1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiative fluxes and cloud forcings for the ocean areas of the Arctic are computed from the monthly cloud product of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for 1983-90. Spatially averaged short-wave fluxes are compared well with climatological values, while downwelling longwave fluxes are significantly lower. This is probably due to the fact that the ISCCP cloud amounts are underestimates. Top-of-the-atmosphere radiative fluxes are in excellent agreement with measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Computed cloud forcings indicate that clouds have a warming effect at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere during winter and a cooling effect during summer. The net radiative effect of clouds is larger at the surface during winter but greater at the top of the atmosphere during summer. Overall the net radiative effect of clouds at the top of the atmosphere is one of cooling. This is in contrast to a previous result from ERBE data showing arctic cloud forcings have a net warming effect. Sensitivities to errors in input parameters are generally greater during winter with cloud amount being the most important paarameter. During summer the surface radiation balance is most sensitive to errors in the measurements of surface reflectance. The results are encouraging, but the estimated error of 20 W/sq m in surface net radiative fluxes is too large, given that estimates of the net radiative warming effect due to a doubling of CO2 are on the order of 4 W/sq m. Because it is difficult to determine the accuracy of results with existing in situ observations, it is recommended that the development of improved algorithms for the retrieval of surface radiative properties be accompanied by the simultaneous assembly of validation datasets.

Schweiger, Axel J.; Key, Jeffrey R.

1994-01-01

179

Flux and brightness calculations for various synchrotron radiation sources  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron radiation (SR) storage rings are powerful scientific and technological tools. The first generation of storage rings in the US., e.g., SURF (Washington, D.C.), Tantalus (Wisconsin), SSRL (Stanford), and CHESS (Cornell), revolutionized VUV, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray science. The second (present) generation of storage rings, e.g. the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings and Aladdin (Wisconsin), have sustained the revolution by providing higher stored currents and up to a factor of ten smaller electron beam sizes than the first generation sources. This has made possible a large number of experiments that could not performed using first generation sources. In addition, the NSLS XRAY ring design optimizes the performance of wigglers (high field periodic magnetic insertion devices). The third generation storage rings, e.g. ALS (Berkeley) and APS (Argonne), are being designed to optimize the performance of undulators (low field periodic magnetic insertion devices). These extremely high brightness sources will further revolutionize x-ray science by providing diffraction-limited x-ray beams. The output of undulators and wigglers is distinct from that of bending magnets in magnitude, spectral shape, and in spatial and angular size. Using published equations, we have developed computer programs to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness output bending magnets and selected wigglers and undulators of the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings, the Advanced Light Source (ALS), and the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Following is a summary of the equations used, the graphs and data produced, and the computer codes written. These codes, written in the C programming language, can be used to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness curves for bending magnets and insertion devices on any storage ring.

Weber, J.M.; Hulbert, S.L.

1991-11-01

180

Forestation of boreal peatlands: Impacts of changing albedo and greenhouse gas fluxes on radiative forcing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated the magnitude of the radiative forcing (RF) due to changes in albedo following the forestation of peatlands, and calculated the net RF by taking into account the changes in both the albedo and the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes during one forest rotation. Data on radiation, tree biomass, and soil GHG fluxes were combined with models for canopy cover,

Annalea Lohila; Kari Minkkinen; Jukka Laine; Ilkka Savolainen; Juha-Pekka Tuovinen; Lauri Korhonen; Tuomas Laurila; Hanna Tietäväinen; Ari Laaksonen

2010-01-01

181

Studies of the net surface radiative flux from satellite radiances during FIFE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the net surface radiative flux from satellite radiances during First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) are presented. Topics covered include: radiative transfer model validation; calibration of VISSR and AVHRR solar channels; development and refinement of algorithms to estimate downward solar and terrestrial irradiances at the surface, including photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) and surface albedo; verification of these algorithms using in situ measurements; production of maps of shortwave irradiance, surface albedo, and related products; analysis of the temporal variability of shortwave irradiance over the FIFE site; development of a spectroscopy technique to estimate atmospheric total water vapor amount; and study of optimum linear combinations of visible and near-infrared reflectances for estimating the fraction of PAR absorbed by plants.

Frouin, Robert

1993-01-01

182

Two-Flux Method for Transient Radiative Transfer in a Semitransparent Layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two-flux method was used to obtain transient solutions for a plane layer including internal reflections and scattering. The layer was initially at uniform temperature, and was heated or cooled by external radiation and convection. The two-flux equations were examined as a means for evaluating the radiative flux gradient in the transient energy equation. Comparisons of transient temperature distributions using the two-flux method were made with results where the radiative flux gradient was evaluated from the exact radiative transfer equations. Good agreement was obtained for optical thicknesses from 0.5 to 5 and for refractive indices of 1 and 2. Illustrative results obtained with the two-flux method demonstrate the effect of isotropic scattering coupled with changing the refractive index. For small absorption with large scattering the maximum layer temperature is increased when the refractive index is increased. For larger absorption the effect is opposite, and the maximum temperature decreases with increased refractive index .

Siegel, Robert

1996-01-01

183

Eddy flux measurements over Lake Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind, temperature and humidity fluctuations have been recorded using a sonic anemometer-thermometer, a thrust anemometer, and a La humidiometer. The two anemometers agree in wind speed and stress. Exchange coefficients for momentum, heat and moisture are found to agree with values measured over other bodies of water.

S. D. Smith

1974-01-01

184

Plume velocity determination for volcanic SO2 flux measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground based volcanic SO2 fluxes provide important insights into the behaviour of volcanoes, and their impacts upon the atmosphere. In order to compute a flux, the plume transport speed, and direction, must be known. In practice these are typically assumed to equal, respectively: (A) a ground based anemometer reading, and (B) the bearing of the vector between the volcanic gas source and the position on the downwind plume cross-section where the gas concentration is highest. However, use of these proxies is open to question, and they can introduce large errors (possibly > 100%), thereby significantly reducing the utility of the derived fluxes. Here we present direct spectroscopic measurements of volcanic plume velocity; the data were obtained using three ultraviolet spectrometers, at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, during January 2004. We estimate that flux measurements with overall error budgets < 10% are readily achievable with this approach.

McGonigle, A. J. S.; Hilton, D. R.; Fischer, T. P.; Oppenheimer, C.

2005-06-01

185

A method for obtaining distributed surface flux measurements in complex terrain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sonic anemometers and gas analyzers can be used to measure fluxes of momentum, heat, and moisture over flat terrain, and with the proper corrections, over sloping terrain as well. While this method of obtaining fluxes is currently the most accurate available, the instruments themselves are costly, making installation of many stations impossible for most campaign budgets. Small, commercial automatic weather stations (Sensorscope) are available at a fraction of the cost of sonic anemometers or gas analyzers. Sensorscope stations use slow-response instruments to measure standard meteorological variables, including wind speed and direction, air temperature, humidity, surface skin temperature, and incoming solar radiation. The method presented here makes use of one sonic anemometer and one gas analyzer along with a dozen Sensorscope stations installed throughout the Val Ferret catchment in southern Switzerland in the summers of 2009, 2010 and 2011. Daytime fluxes are calculated using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory in conjunction with the surface energy balance at each Sensorscope station as well as at the location of the sonic anemometer and gas analyzer, where a suite of additional slow-response instruments were co-located. Corrections related to slope angle were made for wind speeds and incoming shortwave radiation measured by the horizontally-mounted cup anemometers and incoming solar radiation sensors respectively. A temperature correction was also applied to account for daytime heating inside the radiation shield on the slow-response temperature/humidity sensors. With these corrections, we find a correlation coefficient of 0.77 between u* derived using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory and that of the sonic anemometer. Calculated versus measured heat fluxes also compare well and local patterns of latent heat flux and measured surface soil moisture are correlated.

Daniels, M. H.; Pardyjak, E.; Nadeau, D. F.; Barrenetxea, G.; Brutsaert, W. H.; Parlange, M. B.

2011-12-01

186

Seasonal Characteristics of Surface Meteorological and Radiative Fluxes on the East Rongbuk Glacier in Mt. Qomolangma (the Mt. Everest) Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-based measurements are essential for understanding alpine glacier dynamics, especially in remote regions where in-situ measurements are extremely limited. The meteorological and radiative fluxes were measured over the accumulation area on the East Rongbuk Glacier, Mt. Qomolangma (the Mt. Everest) at elevation of 6,560 m a.s.l. Measurements were conducted using an automatic weather station (AWS) from May 1 through July

X. Yang; T. Zhang; D. Qin; S. Kang; X. Qin; H. Liu

2008-01-01

187

The Airborne Measurements of Methane Fluxes (AIRMETH) Arctic Campaign (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most pressing questions with regard to climate feedback processes in a warming Arctic is the regional-scale methane release from Arctic permafrost areas. The Airborne Measurements of Methane Fluxes (AIRMETH) campaign is designed to quantitatively and spatially explicitly address this question. Ground-based eddy covariance (EC) measurements provide continuous in-situ observations of the surface-atmosphere exchange of methane. However, these observations are rare in the Arctic permafrost zone and site selection is bound by logistical constraints among others. Consequently, these observations cover only small areas that are not necessarily representative of the region of interest. Airborne measurements can overcome this limitation by covering distances of hundreds of kilometers over time periods of a few hours. Here, we present the potential of environmental response functions (ERFs) for quantitatively linking methane flux observations in the atmospheric surface layer to meteorological and biophysical drivers in the flux footprints. For this purpose thousands of kilometers of AIRMETH data across the Alaskan North Slope are utilized, with the aim to extrapolate the airborne EC methane flux observations to the entire North Slope. The data were collected aboard the research aircraft POLAR 5, using its turbulence nose boom and fast response methane and meteorological sensors. After thorough data pre-processing, Reynolds averaging is used to derive spatially integrated fluxes. To increase spatial resolution and to derive ERFs, we then use wavelet transforms of the original high-frequency data. This enables much improved spatial discretization of the flux observations, and the quantification of continuous and biophysically relevant land cover properties in the flux footprint of each observation. A machine learning technique is then employed to extract and quantify the functional relationships between the methane flux observations and the meteorological and biophysical drivers in the flux footprints. Lastly, the resulting ERFs are used to extrapolate the methane release over spatio-temporally explicit grids of the Alaskan North Slope. Metzger et al. (2013) have demonstrated the efficacy of this technique for regionalizing airborne EC heat flux observations to within an accuracy of ?18% and a precision of ?5%. Here, we show for the first time results from applying the ERF procedure to airborne methane EC measurements, and report its potential for spatio-temporally explicit inventories of the regional-scale methane exchange. References: Metzger, S., Junkermann, W., Mauder, M., Butterbach-Bahl, K., Trancón y Widemann, B., Neidl, F., Schäfer, K., Wieneke, S., Zheng, X. H., Schmid, H. P., and Foken, T.: Spatially explicit regionalization of airborne flux measurements using environmental response functions, Biogeosciences, 10, 2193-2217, doi:10.5194/bg-10-2193-2013, 2013.

Serafimovich, A.; Metzger, S.; Hartmann, J.; Kohnert, K.; Sachs, T.

2013-12-01

188

Interannual variability of surface radiative fluxes and rainfall in the semi-arid Sahel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Sahel, interannual variability of rainfall is known to be strong, from meso- to continental spatial scales. This is associated with changes in surface radiative fluxes. The actual role played by surface fluxes on the interannual variability of rainfall has been much debated, especially within the context of the major regional scale, multi-decadal West African drought which started at the end of the 1960's (e.g. changes in surface albedo, Charney et al. Science 1975). The significance of conclusions that have been drawn, essentially from modelling approaches, is however limited because of weaknesses in models (e.g. parametrizations of rainfall and clouds, vegetation and aerosols) coupled to a lack of data for assessing the relevance of theories or hypotheses put forward on such bases. The present study aims to quantify and to analyse the interannual variability of surface radiative fluxes and rainfall measured with ground-based automatic weather stations (AWS) for seven years. The AWS are located in the Malian Gourma, from the semi-arid Central Sahel (15°N, 1.5°W) to Northern Sahel (17°N, 1°W), on the border of the Sahara, over the dominant Sahelian surface type (sandy soil). The variability displayed by satellite estimates SRB over this area is also presented and discussed. This study is linked to another one presented in the session AS1.14, African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) by Guichard et al. "Couplings between the seasonal cycles of surface thermodynamics and radiative fluxes in the semi-arid Sahel" (see also Guichard et al. J. Hydrology 2009, AMMA-Catch special issue, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.09.007) The large interannual variability of annual rainfall sampled by AWS (less than 200 mm to more than 400 mm) is associated with an equally significant variability of surface net radiation Rnet. It is the more pronounced during the core of the monsoon season. More rainy monsoon seasons are characterized by higher Rnet; the difference can reach up to 30 W.m-2 on average over the month of August. This difference in Rnet is not related to an enhancement of the incoming longwave flux, LWin actually fluctuates by less than 5 W.m-2. More rain in August is associated with less incoming shortwave radiation, with a difference of about 10W.m-2. At this monthly time scale, variations of Rnet are more largely explained by changes in surface properties. This involves the vegetation dynamics, which accounts for large interannual fluctuations of albedo (Samain et al., J. Geophys. Res. 2008, http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2008/2007JD009174.shtml). However, the processes accounting for the interannual variability of the upwelling longwave flux, LWup, are found to be at least as important as albedo effects when accounting for changes in Rnet. LWup decreases sharply in response to the succession of rainfall events in this region where soil temperature reaches very high values in Spring. At larger time scale (June to September average), LWup and rainfall are also found to be strongly and consistently related. As the interannual variability of shortwave incoming and upwelling flux partly balance each other, the upwelling longwave flux LWup appears as a major driver of the interannual variability of Rnet. These results emphasize the strong couplings taking place in the Sahelian climate between surface radiation, energy fluxes and the water cycle. They point to the significance of a variety of processes, among which aerosols and vegetation-related processes cannot be neglected. Finally, they provide valuable guidance for models over an area where interactions among processes are complex and climate projections currently very uncertain.

Guichard, F.; Grippa, M.; Kergoat, L.; Hiernaux, P.; Mougin, E.; Timouk, F.; Delbart, N.

2009-04-01

189

Measurements of x-ray spectral flux of high brightness undulators by gas scattering  

SciTech Connect

Absolute radiation flux and polarization measurements of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) undulators may have to be made under high thermal loading conditions. A method that may circumvent the high-heat-load problem was tested during a recent APS/CHESS undulator run. The technique makes use of a Si(Li) energy-dispersive detector to measure 5--35 keV x rays scattered from a well-defined He gas volume at controlled pressure.

Ilinski, P.; Yun, W.; Lai, B.; Gluskin, E.; Cai, Z. (Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States))

1995-02-01

190

Flux measurement and modeling in a typical mediterranean vineyard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vineyard ecosystems are typical in the Mediterranean area, since wine is one of the most important economic sectors. Nevertheless, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate the interactions between this kind of vegetation and the atmosphere. These information are important both to understand the behaviour of such ecosystems in different environmental conditions, and are crucial to parameterize crop and flux simulation models. Combining direct measurements and modelling can obtain reliable estimates of surface fluxes and crop evapotranspiration. This study would contribute both to (1) directly measure energy fluxes and evapotranspiration in a typical Mediterranean vineyard, located in the South of Sardinia (Italy), through the application of the Eddy Covariance micrometeorological technique and to (2) evaluate the land surface model ACASA (Advanced-Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) in simulating energy fluxes and evapotranspiration over vineyard. Independent datasets of direct measurements were used to calibrate and validate model results during the growing period. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate model performance and accuracy in predicting surface fluxes. Results will be showed as well as the model capability to be used for future studies to predict energy fluxes and crop water requirements under actual and future climate.

Marras, Serena; Bellucco, Veronica; Pyles, David R.; Falk, Matthias; Sirca, Costantino; Duce, Pierpaolo; Snyder, Richard L.; Tha Paw U, Kyaw; Spano, Donatella

2014-05-01

191

Flux measurements from a SWATH ship in SWADE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Surface Wave Dynamics Experiment (SWADE) took place east of the U.S. Coast in the winter of 1990-1991. A major objective of the research program is to refine our understanding of the relationship between fluxes to the sea surface and the sea state as determined from directional wave spectra. Simultaneous measurements of turbulent fluxes of mass, momentum and energy between sea and air, with the directional wave spectra, were required to meet this objective. In this short article we describe the process of obtaining turbulent flux measurements from a small water-plane-area twin hull (SWATH) ship. We measured turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat and water vapor from a tall mast at the bow of the SWATH ship Frederick G. Creed by the eddy correlation method, while the ship was moving into the wind. Directional wave spectra were obtained from a wave staff array ahead of the bow of the ship. The motion of the ship was recorded and a coordinate rotation was performed for each data sample. After all instrument response and motion corrections have been accounted for, we compare our calculated turbulent fluxes with values computed from another standard method, viz. the inertial dissipation method. This approach is not susceptible to platform motion but relies on assumptions that are not always valid. However, the two methods agree on average within 12%, 20% and 31% for momentum, water vapor and heat fluxes, respectively.

Katsaros, Kristina B.; Donelan, Mark A.; Drennan, William M.

1993-08-01

192

Radiation dosimetry at the BNL High Flux Beam Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The HFBR is a heavy water, D{sub 2}O, cooled and moderated reactor with twenty-eight fuel elements containing a maximum of 9.8 kilograms of {sup 235}U. The core is 53 cm high and 48 cm in diameter and has an active volume of 97 liters. The HFBR, which was designed to operate at forty mega-watts, 40 NW, was upgraded to operate at 60 NW. Since 1991, it has operated at 30 MW. In a normal 30 MW operating cycle the HFBR operates 24 hours a day for thirty days, with a six to fourteen day shutdown period for refueling and maintenance work. While most reactors attempts to minimize the escape of neutrons from the core, the HFBR`s D{sub 2}O design allows the thermal neutron flux to peak in the reflector region and maximizes the number of thermal neutrons available to nine horizontal external beams, H-1 to H-9. The HFBR neutron dosimetry effort described here compares measured and calculated energy dependent neutron and gamma ray flux densities and/or dose rates at horizontal beam lines and vertical irradiation thimbles.

Holden, N.E.; Hu, J.P.; Reciniello, R.N.

1998-02-01

193

Radiation measurement on the International Space Station.  

PubMed

The results of an investigation of radiation environment on board the ISS with apogee/perigee of 420/380 km and inclination 51.6 degrees are presented. For measurement of important characteristics of cosmic rays (particles fluxes, LET spectrum, equivalent doses and heavy ions with Z > or = 2) a nuclear photographic emulsion as a controllable threshold detector was used. The use of this detector permits a registration of the LET spectrum of charged particles within wide range of dE/dx and during the last years it has already been successfully used on board the MIR station, Space Shuttles and "Kosmos" spacecrafts. An integral LET spectrum was measured in the range 0.5-2.2 x 10(3) keV/micrometers and the value of equivalent dose 360 microSv/day was estimated. The flux of biologically dangerous heavy particles with Z > or = 2 was measured (3.85 x 10(3) particles/cm2). PMID:15856556

Akopova, A B; Manaseryan, M M; Melkonyan, A A; Tatikyan, S Sh; Potapov, Yu

2005-02-01

194

Comparison of Different Global Information Sources Used in Surface Radiative Flux Calculation: Radiative Properties of the Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct estimates of surface radiative fluxes that resolve regional and weather-scale variabilty over the whole globe with reasonable accuracy have only become possible with the advent of extensive global, mostly satellite, datasets within the past couple of decades. The accuracy of these fluxes, estimated to be about 10-15 W per square meter is largely limited by the accuracy of the input datasets. The leading uncertainties in the surface fluxes are no longer predominantly induced by clouds but are now as much associated with uncertainties in the surface and near-surface atmospheric properties. This study presents a fuller, more quantitative evaluation of the uncertainties for the surface albedo and emissivity and surface skin temperatures by comparing the main available global datasets from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer product, the NASA Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Surface Radiation Budget project, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, NOAA/NASA Pathfinder Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer project, NOAA Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Image project. The datasets are, in practice, treated as an ensemble of realizations of the actual climate such that their differences represent an estimate of the uncertainty in their measurements because we do not possess global truth datasets for these quantities. The results are globally representative and may be taken as a generalization of our previous ISCCP-based uncertainty estimates for the input datasets. Surface properties have the primary role in determining the surface upward shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) flux. From this study, the following conclusions are obtained. Although land surface albedos in the near near-infrared remain poorly constrained (highly uncertain), they do not cause too much error in total surface SW fluxes; the more subtle regional and seasonal variations associated with vegetation and snow are still on doubt. The uncertainty of the broadband black-sky SW albedo for land surface from this study is about 7%, which can easily induce 5-10 W per square meter uncertainty in (upwelling) surface SW flux estimates. Even though available surface (broadband) LW emissivity datasets differ significantly (3%-5% uncertainty), this disagreement is confined to wavelengths greater than 20 micrometers so that there is little practical effect (1-3 W per square meters) on the surface upwelling LW fluxes. The surface skin temperature is one of two leading factors that cause problems with surface LW fluxes. Even though the differences among the various datasets are generally only 2-4 K, this can easily cause 10-15 W per square meter uncertainty in calculated surface (upwelling) LW fluxes. Significant improvements could be obtained for surface LW flux calculations by improving the retrievals of (in order of decreasing importance): (1) surface skin temperature, (2) surface air and near-surface-layer temperature, (3) column precipitable water amount and (4) broadband emissivity. And for surface SW fluxes, improvements could be obtained (excluding improved cloud treatment) by improving the retrievals of (1) aerosols (from our sensitivity studies but not discussed in this work), and (2) surface (black-sky) albedo, of which, NIR part of the spectrum has much larger uncertainty.

Zhang, Yuanchong; Rossow, William B.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

2007-01-01

195

Albedo effect on radiative errors in air temperature measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air temperature measurements are necessary for numerous purposes and applications in environmental and climate research such as time series analyses, model forcing or validation, and the computation of dependent quantities, for instance, the sensible heat flux. Often the considered physical processes, parameterizations, or the scaling involving air temperature are non-linear in nature. The presence of solar radiation and the lack

Hendrik Huwald; C. W. Higgins; M. O. Boldi; Elie Bou-Zeid; Michael Lehning; M. B. Parlange

2009-01-01

196

Radiation budget measurement/model interface research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NIMBUS 6 data were analyzed to form an up to date climatology of the Earth radiation budget as a basis for numerical model definition studies. Global maps depicting infrared emitted flux, net flux and albedo from processed NIMBUS 6 data for July, 1977, are presented. Zonal averages of net radiation flux for April, May, and June and zonal mean emitted flux and net flux for the December to January period are also presented. The development of two models is reported. The first is a statistical dynamical model with vertical and horizontal resolution. The second model is a two level global linear balance model. The results of time integration of the model up to 120 days, to simulate the January circulation, are discussed. Average zonal wind, meridonal wind component, vertical velocity, and moisture budget are among the parameters addressed.

Vonderhaar, T. H.

1981-01-01

197

Measurement and Modeling of Surface Energy Fluxes of Rangeland Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermingling of vegetation communities in mountainous rangeland and forest ecosystems creates a challenge for measuring or modeling the energy and mass fluxes in these complex environments, as adequate fetch requirements and complex topography make interpretation of eddy covariance results difficult. This study assesses surface energy balance measurements taken over sagebrush, aspen and the understory of grasses and forbs beneath the

G. N. Flerchinger; D. G. Marks; M. L. Reba

2010-01-01

198

Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall objectives of the Symposium were to afford (1) an opportunity for workers in the field to describe the equipment and procedures currently in use for measuring thermal radiation properties of solids, (2) an opportunity for constructive criticism of the material presented, and (3) an open forum for discussion of mutual problems. It was also the hope of the sponsors that the published proceedings of the Symposium would serve as a valuable reference on measurement techniques for evaluating thermal radiation properties of solids, partic.ularly for those with limited experience in the field. Because of the strong dependence of emitted flux upon temperature, the program committee thought it advisable to devote the first session to a discussion of the problems of temperature measurement. All of the papers in Session I were presented at the request of and upon topics suggested by the Committee. Because of time and space limitations, it, was impossible to consider all temperature measurement problems that might arise--the objective was rather to call to the attention of the reader some of the problems that might be encountered, and to provide references that might provide solutions.

Richmond, J. C. (Editor)

1963-01-01

199

Preliminary Evaluation of Sensible Heat Flux Measurements From a Large Aperture Scintillometer Using Lysimetric Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The path integrating capabilities of scintillometers over several kilometers make it a potential tool that can bridge the gap between primary point based observations (lysimeters, Bowen ratio, or eddy covariance) and the demand for large-scale spatially averaged surface fluxes. Further, the spatial scale of sensible heat flux data collected from a scintillometer is comparable to the spatial resolution of satellite images. Therefore, scintillometer data may be useful for validating evapotranspiration maps based on satellite data. Numerous studies have evaluated the measurement accuracy of scintillometers using eddy covariance systems; however, the latter has energy balance closure problems up to 30%. The main objective of this study is to test the Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) using lysimetric data. The LAS monitors the sensible heat flux (H) and water vapor flux (LE) is calculated as a residual of the surface energy balance equation by monitoring net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G) (LE=Rn+G-H). A Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) was deployed across two lysimeter fields planted with grain sorghum under dryland management conditions. The orientation of LAS was selected to have the path of the LAS perpendicular to the predominant wind direction and to avoid direct sun light on the lenses. The refractive index of air was monitored during the 2007 cropping season at 15-min. intervals, synchronized with weather station and lysimeter measurements. In addition, a net radiometer and three soil heat flux plates were installed near both the receiver and transmitter of the scintillometer as well as on two large monolithic lysimeters. Predicted water vapor fluxes from the scintillometer-net radiometer-heat flux plate setup were compared with lysimeter data. Preliminary results (three months of data) indicate that the LAS is a promising tool for deriving water vapor fluxes. However, further evaluation is needed under a variety of crop/weather conditions to fully assess its capability to accurately estimate spatially distributed water vapor fluxes.

Gowda, P. H.; Howell, T. A.; Scanlon, B. R.; Copeland, K. S.; Bush, K.

2007-12-01

200

The influence of contaminated mirror on the flux distributions of stray radiation of infrared telescope systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of contaminated mirror in infrared telescope system not only reduces the contrast between objects and background, but also leads to the nonuniformity of the flux distribution of stray radiation on detector, resulting in great difficulty in obtaining and analyzing the target signal. In this paper, taking Cassegrain telescope as a typical example and using the optical analysis software, i.e., ASAP, the three-dimensional simulation model has also been built up. The self-generated thermal radiation flux and the flux distributions of stray radiation on the image plane have been simulated when the primary mirror under two cases, i.e., clean and local area contaminated. The influence of the size and position of the contaminated area on the uniformity of the flux distributions of stray radiation has been focused on discussion. The radiation flux and the flux distributions of stray radiation have been employed to evaluate the stray radiation performance of the system. The results indicate that the local area contamination on mirrors could change the uniformity of the flux distributions on the image plane and also degrade the stray radiation performance of the system, resulting in the influence on the detection and identification of the target. Consequently, it is of critical importance to keep the surface of optical elements clean, especially to avoid local area contamination on optics.

He, Pan; Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Bin; Yao, Xiuwen

2010-05-01

201

Long-term radiation effects on fibre Bragg grating temperature sensors in a low flux nuclear reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibre Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors have already shown short-term radiation tolerance in nuclear environments. However, the effect of long-term irradiation needed to be investigated. We therefore characterized multiplexed FBG temperature sensors inserted early 2000 in an irradiation channel of a low flux nuclear reactor. After 50 months, we show that the sensors still operate satisfactorily and that the measured

A. Fernandez Fernandez; A. Gusarov; B. Brichard; M. Decréton; F. Berghmans; P. Mégret; A. Delchambre

2004-01-01

202

Sampling Errors of Monthly-mean Radiative Fluxes from the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Radiation Experiment (ERBE) consisted of scanning and non-scanning radiometers on the dedicated Earth Radiation Budget Satellite ERBS) and also on the NOAA-9 and -10 operational spacecraft. The non-scanning radiometers included a pair of wide field-of-view (WFOV) radiometers for measuring outgoing longwave radiation and reflected solar radiation (Luther et al., 1986). The ERBS was placed into an orbit with 57 deg. inclination and 620 km altitude on 16 October 1984. The instruments began collecting data in November 1984 and the non-scanning radiometers provided data until June 2002, providing a 17-year data set.

Bess, T. Dale; Wong, Takmeng; Smith, G. Louis

2002-01-01

203

Intercomparison of gas analyzers for methane flux measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four gas analyzers, capable of measuring methane concentration at a response time necessary for eddy covariance flux measurements, were operated in parallel for about six months between March and August 2010. Their reliability, need of maintenance, user friendliness, data coverage, and data quality were evaluated. The primary aim of this campaign was to provide an instrumentation suggestion for the European Research Infrastructure ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System). The instruments used were TGA100A (Campbell Scientific Inc.), RMT-200 (Los Gatos Research Inc.) , G1301-f (Picarro Inc.), and LI-7700 (Li-Cor Inc.). The last one, LI-7700, was a prototype of a later commercialized open path analyzer. The other instruments were closed path analyzers. The measurement site is an oligotrophic open fen Siikaneva, located in southern Finland. The site provides spatially quite uniform methane flux within the footprint. The methane flux rises in the spring, peaks in early August and falls down during the autumn. This provides excellent opportunity to study the performance of the analyzers at different CH4 flux levels from near zero up to about 5 mg m-2 h-1. The preliminary results show great similarity among the instruments in both concentrations and fluxes. Detailed numbers of the measurement characteristics will be provided later. The reliability and need of maintenance are difficult to evaluate quantitatively during that short period.

Haapanala, S.; Rinne, J.; Vesala, T.

2010-12-01

204

Experimental measurement of Au M-band flux in indirectly-driven double-shell implosions  

SciTech Connect

Indirectly-driven double-shell implosions are being investigated as a possible noncryogenic path to ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In recent double-shell implosions, the inner shell trajectory was shown to exhibit a strong sensitivity to the temporal history of the M-band (2-5 keV) radiation emitted from the Au hohlraum wall. A large time-dependent discrepancy was observed between measurement and simulation of the x-ray flux in this range. In order to better characterize the radiation environment seen in these implosions, an experimental campaign was conducted on the Omega Laser. A number of diagnostics were used to measure both the temporal and spectral nature of the M-band flux. Results were obtained from an absolutely calibrated 12 channel filtered x-ray diode array (Dante) as well as two streaked crystal spectrometers and an absolutely calibrated time-integrated spectrometer (Henway). X-ray backlighting was also used to directly measure the effect of M-band radiation on the trajectory of the inner shell. The data from all diagnostics are shown to be in excellent agreement and provide a consistent picture of the M-band flux. These results are being used to improve the simulation of hohlraum-generated M-band radiation that will be necessary for the design of future double-shell implosions employing higher Z inner shells.

Robey, H F; Perry, T S; Park, H S; Amendt, P; Sorce, C M; Compton, S M; Campbell, K M; Knauer, J P

2004-09-17

205

Experimental measurement of Au M-band flux in indirectly-driven double-shell implosions  

SciTech Connect

Indirectly-driven double-shell implosions are being investigated as a possible noncryogenic path to ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In recent double-shell experiments, the inner shell trajectory was shown to exhibit a strong sensitivity to the temporal history of the M-band (2-5 keV) radiation emitted from the Au hohlraum wall. A large time-dependent discrepancy was observed between measurement and simulation of the x-ray flux in this range. In order to better characterize the radiation environment seen in these implosions, an experimental campaign was conducted on the Omega Laser. A number of diagnostics were used to measure both the temporal and spectral nature of the M-band flux. Results were obtained from an absolutely calibrated 12 channel filtered x-ray diode array (Dante) as well as two streaked crystal spectrometers and an absolutely calibrated time-integrated spectrometer (Henway). X-ray backlighting was also used to directly measure the effect of M-band radiation on the trajectory of the inner shell. The data from all diagnostics are shown to be in excellent agreement and provide a consistent picture of the M-band flux. These results are being used to constrain and improve the simulation of hohlraum-generated M-band radiation that will be necessary for the design of future double-shell implosions employing higher-Z inner shells.

Robey, H F; Perry, T S; Park, H S; Amendt, P; Sorce, C M; Compton, S M; Campbell, K M; Knauer, J P

2005-03-24

206

Simulation of surface and top of atmosphere thermal fluxes and radiances from the radiative atmospheric divergence using the ARM Mobile Facility, GERB data, and AMMA Stations experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous observations of thermal radiative fluxes and radiances from the surface (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility, Niamey) and top of atmosphere (Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument) during the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile Facility, GERB data, and AMMA Stations experiment are compared with results from a radiative transfer model (Edwards-Slingo). Emphasis is placed on diagnosing the accuracy of the cloud-free radiation measurements using multiple instruments at the surface. The surface forcing from aerosol is found to regularly exceed 20 Wm-2, and reached ˜100 Wm-2 during the March 2006 dust storm. Equivalent comparisons are made with top of atmosphere (TOA) measurements but here radiance closure is not achieved. A disagreement is found between the angular anisotropy derived from GERB products and that from radiative transfer (RT) calculations. A hybrid TOA radiative flux time series is created using RT-calculated TOA anisotropy and GERB-observed TOA radiance. At 1100 UT (local noon), this hybrid flux differs from the Edition 1 GERB product by a positive difference in the range ˜0-10 Wm-2. Three collections of fluxes exist to calculate column-integrated atmospheric heating (divergence) from surface and TOA fluxes. The first two are fluxes from observations only or from RT calculations only. The third is a combination of RT calculation and observed fluxes that includes the hybrid flux. The resulting divergences are binned by sonde launch times and averaged over the year. The range of divergence during a day depends on the flux collection used (-200 to -111 Wm-2, -212 to -116 Wm-2, or -205 to -112 Wm-2) for observations only, for RT calculations only, or for observation-calculation fluxes. All estimates agree as to the interday variation being larger than that of intraday variability.

Bharmal, N. A.; Slingo, A.; Robinson, G. J.; Settle, J. J.

2009-07-01

207

Calorimeter probes for measuring high thermal flux. [in arc jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expendable, slug-type calorimeter probes were developed for measuring high heat-flux levels of 10-30 kW/sq cm in electric-arc jet facilities. The probes were constructed with thin tungsten caps mounted on Teflon bodies. The temperature of the back surface of the tungsten cap is measured, and its time rate of change gives the steady-state absorbed heat flux as the calorimeter probe heats to destruction when inserted into the arc jet. Design, construction, test, and performance data are presented.

Russell, L. D.

1979-01-01

208

Measurement of neutron flux from a tokamak plasma device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system has been developed for neutron flux measurements at the ORMAK tohamak device. This system allows measurement of the time-dependence of the neutron flux during a single shot of the device as well as the energy spectrum of the neutrons. Pulse shape discrimination techniques are used with a liquid scintillation counter (NE 213) to eliminate events in the detector due to gamma rays and X-rays generated in the plasma. Results are presented for the mode in which neutral deuterium is injected into a deuterium plasma.

Morgan, G. L.; England, A. C.

1975-11-01

209

Densitometric tomography using the measurement of muon flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge of the subsurface properties is essentially obtained by geophysical methods, e.g. seismic imaging, electric prospection or gravimetry. The present work develops a recent method to investigate the in situ density of rocks using atmospheric the muon flux measurement , its attenuation depending on the rock density and thickness. This new geophysical technique have been mainly applied in volcanology (Lesparre N., 2011) using scintillator detectors. The present project (T2DM2) aims to realize underground muons flux measurements in order to characterizing the rock massif density variations above the LSBB underground research facility in Rustrel (France). The muon flux will be measure with a new Muon telescope instrumentation using Micromegas detectors in Time Projection Chambers (TPC) configuration. The first step of the work presented considers the muon flux simulation using the Gaisser model, for the interactions between muons and atmospheric particles, and the MUSIC code (Kudryavtsev V. A., 2008) for the muons/rock interactions. The results show that the muon flux attenuation caused by density variations are enough significant to be observed until around 500 m depth and for period of time in the order of one month. Such a duration scale and depth of investigation is compatible with the duration of the water transfer processes involved within the Karst unsaturated zone where LSBB is located. Our work now concentrates on the optimization of the spatial distribution of detectors that will be deployed in future.

Hivert, F.; Busto, J.; Brunner, J.; Salin, P.; Gaffet, S.

2013-12-01

210

Absolute flux measurement at HIGS using Compton backscattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Intensity ?-ray Source (HI?S) at FELL/TUNL is developing a program to study many aspects of nuclear physics presently using 2-to-50 MeV ?-rays. In many cases these experiments require absolute ?-flux monitoring and determination. This project presents a technique to indirectly measure the absolute ?-ray flux by placing a thin scattering foil in the ?-beam and then detecting the Compton-scattered ?-rays at a particular scattering angle using a HPGe detector. The fluxes of these Compton-scattered ?-rays are low (i.e., 10^3 ?/s) in comparison to the direct flux of the beam ( ˜10^6 ?/s). In addition the Compton-scattered energies are in the energy range of 2 to 5 MeV for ?-ray beam energies below 10 MeV, which are relatively easy to measure with a HPGe detector with very high energy resolution. Recent experimental results from the flux measurements at HI?S will be presented.

Fallin, B.; Ahmed, M. W.; Perdue, B.; Sabourov, A.; Sheard, T.; Tornow, W.; Tonchev, A. P.; Weller, H. R.; Li, J.; Pinaev, I. V.; Wu, Y.; Prior, R. M.; Spraker, M.; Chen, J.; Feldman, G.

2003-10-01

211

A mobile detector for measurements of the atmospheric muon flux in underground sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muons comprise an important contribution of the natural radiation dose in air (approx. 30 nSv/h of a total dose rate of 65-130 nSv/h), as well as in underground sites even when the flux and relative contribution are significantly reduced. The flux of muons observed underground can be used as an estimator for the depth in mwe (meter water equivalent) of the underground site. The water equivalent depth is important information to devise physics experiments feasible for a specific site. A mobile detector for performing measurements of the muon flux was developed in IFIN-HH, Bucharest. Consisting of two scintillator plates (approx. 0.9 m2) which measure in coincidence, the detector is installed on a van which facilitates measurements at different locations at the surface or underground. The detector was used to determine muon fluxes at different sites in Romania. In particular, data were taken and the values of meter water equivalents were assessed for several locations at the salt mine in Slanic-Prahova, Romania. The measurements have been performed in two different galleries of the Slanic mine at different depths. In order to test the stability of the method, also measurements of the muon flux at the surface at different elevations were performed. The results were compared with predictions of Monte-Carlo simulations using the CORSIKA and MUSIC codes.

Mitrica, Bogdan; Margineanu, Romul; Stoica, Sabin; Petcu, Mirel; Brancus, Iliana; Jipa, Alexandru; Lazanu, Ionel; Sima, Octavian; Haungs, Andreas; Rebel, Heinigerd; Petre, Marian; Toma, Gabriel; Saftoiu, Alexandra; Stanca, Denis; Apostu, Ana; Gomoiu, Claudia

2011-10-01

212

The properties of gamma-radiation and high-energy neutron fluxes in "MIR" station orbit.  

PubMed

The study of radiation background components in the near-Earth space is very important for different branches of space research, in particular for space dosimetry and for the planning of gamma-astronomy experiments. Detailed information on the neutral components (gamma-quanta, neutrons) of background radiation was obtained during the Grif-1 experiment onboard Mir orbital station (OS). The measurements of fluxes of 0.05-50 MeV gamma-quanta and >30 MeV neutrons with a large area instrument (approximately 250 cm2 for gamma-quanta, approximately 30 cm2 for neutrons) as well as corresponding charged particle measurements (0.4-1.5 MeV electrons, 1-200 MeV protons) were made during this experiment. The background components induced by the station's own radiation as well as the albedo gamma-rays from the Earth's atmosphere were revealed as the result of data analysis for about 600 h of observation. A mathematical model describing the latitude and energy dependences of atmospheric albedo gamma-rays as well as of those of gamma-quanta produced in the material of the station due to cosmic ray interactions was developed. An analytical approximation of the spectrum of induced gamma-rays from radioactive isotopes stored in the station and instrument's materials is presented. The dynamics of gamma-quantum background fluxes during the geomagnetic disturbances of January 10-11, 1997 are discussed. An analytical representation of the latitude dependence of the integral flux of neutrons with >30 MeV is given. PMID:12442742

Bogomolov, A V; Bogomolov, V V; Denisov, Yu I; Logachev, Yu I; Svertilov, S I; Kudryavtsev, M I; Lyagushin, V I; Ershova, T V

2002-10-01

213

Thermal neutron flux measurements in the STAR experimental hall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report measurements of thermal neutron fluxes at different locations in the STAR experimental hall during RHIC Run 13 with proton-proton collisions at ?{s}=510 GeV. We compare these measurements to calculations based on PYTHIA as a minimum bias event generator, detailed GEANT3 simulation of the STAR detector and experimental hall, and with GCALOR as the neutron transport code. A fairly good agreement was found between simulation and measurements.

Fisyak, Yuri; Tsai, Oleg; Videbæk, Flemming; Xu, Zhangbu

2014-08-01

214

An iterative procedure for estimating areally averaged heat flux using planetary boundary layer mixed layer height and locally measured heat flux  

SciTech Connect

Measurements at the central facility of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) are intended to verify, improve, and develop parameterizations in radiative flux models that are subsequently used in General Circulation Models (GCMs). The reliability of this approach depends upon the representativeness of the local measurements at the central facility for the site as a whole or on how these measurements can be interpreted so as to accurately represent increasingly large scales. The variation of surface energy budget terms over the SGP CART site is extremely large. Surface layer measurements of the sensible heat flux (H) often vary by a factor of 2 or more at the CART site (Coulter et al. 1996). The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) effectively integrates the local inputs across large scales; because the mixed layer height (h) is principally driven by H, it can, in principal, be used for estimates of surface heat flux over scales on the order of tens of kilometers. By combining measurements of h from radiosondes or radar wind profiles with a one-dimensional model of mixed layer height, they are investigating the ability of diagnosing large-scale heat fluxes. The authors have developed a procedure using the model described by Boers et al. (1984) to investigate the effect of changes in surface sensible heat flux on the mixed layer height. The objective of the study is to invert the sense of the model.

Coulter, R. L.; Gao, W.; Lesht, B. M.

2000-04-04

215

Spectral and Broadband Longwave Downwelling Radiative Fluxes, Cloud Radiative Forcing, and Fractional Cloud Cover over the South Pole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual cycles of downwelling broadband infrared radiative flux and spectral downwelling infrared flux were determined using data collected at the South Pole during 2001. Clear-sky conditions are identified by comparing radiance ratios of observed and simulated spectra. Clear-sky fluxes are in the range of 110-125 Wm 2 during summer (December-January) and 60-80 W m2 during winter (April-September). The variability is

Michael S. Town; Von P. Walden; Stephen G. Warren

2005-01-01

216

Measuring the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing through the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of a large body of existing measurements of incoming shortwave solar radiation and outgoing longwave terrestrial radiation at the Earth's surface and at the top of the atmosphere, there are few observations documenting how radiation profiles change through the atmosphere - information that is necessary to fully quantify the greenhouse effect of the Earth's atmosphere. Using weather balloons and specific radiometer equipped radiosondes, we continuously measured shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes from the surface of the Earth up to altitudes of 35 kilometers in the upper stratosphere. Comparing radiation profiles from night measurements with different amounts of water vapor, we show evidence of large greenhouse forcing. We show, that under cloud free conditions, water vapor increases with Clausius-Clapeyron ( 7% / K), and longwave downward radiation at the surface increases by 8 Watts per square meter per Kelvin. The longwave net radiation however, shows a positive increase (downward) of 2.4 Watts per square meter and Kelvin at the surface, which decreases with height and shows a similar but negative increase (upward) at the tropopause. Hence, increased tropospheric water vapor increases longwave net radiation towards the ground and towards space, and produces a heating of 0.42 Kelvin per Watt per square meter at the surface. References: Philipona et al., 2012: Solar and thermal radiation profiles and radiative forcing measured through the atmosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L13806, doi: 10.1029/2012GL052087.

Philipona, Rolf; Kräuchi, Andreas; Brocard, Emmanuel

2013-04-01

217

Urban greenhouse gas mole fraction in-situ measurements: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) was designed to develop and evaluate methods for the measurement and modeling of greenhouse gas fluxes from urban environments. Determination of greenhouse gas fluxes and uncertainty bounds is essential for the evaluation of the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. The current INFLUX observation network includes twelve in-situ tower-based, continuous measurements of CO2, CO, and CH4, flask sampling of 14CO2 and other trace gases, and periodic aircraft sampling of greenhouse gases and meteorological conditions. Eddy covariance and radiative flux are measured at four of the tower sites, and a scanning Doppler lidar was installed in April 2013; both are used to quantify key boundary layer meteorological properties and evaluate model performance. Additionally, a total carbon column observing network (TCCON) column remote sensing station was deployed August - December 2012. The data from the towers, TCCON, and aircraft measurements are being used in an inverse-modeling approach to yield estimates of the urban area flux at 1 km2 resolution. Very high space/time resolution estimates of fossil fuel carbon emissions (Hestia project) offer state-of-the-art "bottom up" emissions estimates for the city and its surroundings. Here we present an overview of the progress from INFLUX, with a focus on tower-based results. With this high density of urban tower-based greenhouse gas measurements, we will quantify horizontal and vertical spatial patterns in atmospheric mole fractions of CO2, CO, and CH4 in Indianapolis. The consistency of the observed horizontal gradients with that expected based on differences in land-cover contributions according to footprint analysis will be evaluated. The ability to correctly model transport and mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer, responsible for carrying greenhouse gases from their source to the point of measurement, is essential. Thus we investigate differences between the modeled and observed sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, air temperature, and wind speed.

Miles, Natasha; Lauvaux, Thomas; Davis, Kenneth; Richardson, Scott; Sarmiento, Daniel; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Hardesty, Robert Michael; Turnbull, Jocelyn; Iraci, Laura; Gurney, Kevin; Razlivanov, Igor; Obiminda Cambaliza, Maria; Shepson, Paul; Whetstone, James

2014-05-01

218

Shortwave Flux from Satellite-Measured Radiance: A Theoretical Study over Marine Boundary Layer Clouds.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth radiation budget measurements, important to climate monitoring and to validating climate models, require that radiances measured by satellite instruments be converted to hemispherical flux. This paper examines that problem theoretically, using inhomogeneous cloud models constructed from Landsat scenes of marine boundary layer clouds. The spherical harmonics discrete ordinates method (SHDOM) code is applied to the model scenes to compute full two-dimensional radiation fields, which then simulate measured radiances. Inversion to flux is performed by several different methods, including plane-parallel table lookup and empirical angular distribution models with three different ways of determining scene identification, to examine error sources and relative magnitudes. Using a simple plane-parallel table lookup results in unacceptably large flux bias errors of 11%-60%, depending on the orbital viewing geometry. This bias can be substantially reduced, to no more than 6%, by using empirical angular distribution models. Further improvement, to no more than 2% flux bias error, is obtained if known biases in optical-depth retrievals are taken into account when building the angular models. Last, the bias can be further reduced to a fraction of a percent using scene identification based on multiple views of the same area. There are limits, however, to the reduction in the instantaneous error with this approach. Trends in the flux error are also identified, in particular an equator-to-pole trend in the flux bias. Given the importance of satellite measurements for determining heat transport from equator to pole, this consistent bias should be kept in mind, and efforts should be made to reduce it in the future.

Chambers, L. H.; Wielicki, B. A.; Loeb, N. G.

2001-12-01

219

Investigation of direct flux measurements in switched reluctance motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the use embedded magnetic field sensors in estimating the torque produced by a switched reluctance motor. Recent advances in nanomaterials have enabled the development of very compact magnetic field sensors based on the giant magneto resistive (GMR) effect. This provides a direct measurement of internal magnetic flux levels of an electric machine during operation. With this capability,

Roy McCann; W. Traore

2008-01-01

220

Tools for quality assessment of surface-based flux measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navier-Stokes equations, after application of the Reynolds' averaging procedures, are the basis of direct surface-based measurements of turbulent fluxes via the eddy correlation method. Under restrictive conditions in the atmospheric surface layer, these equations are valid in a simplified form. These conditions are the stationarity of the data, the homogeneity of the underlying surface, a fully developed turbulence, and

Th. Foken; B. Wichura

1996-01-01

221

Mass Flux Measurements at Field Scale: Principles and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater risk assessment is generally performed on the basis of contaminant concentration point measurements either from soil (elution tests) or form groundwater samples. Recent protocols however (LfU, 1996; EPA OSWER Directive, 1999) propose to use the total contaminant mass flux rather than the contaminant concentration for evaluating the impact downstream of a source zone. Mass flux measurements can be used for source strength characterisation, quantification of natural attenuation rates and to a limited extent also for the delineation of source zones. The paper presents and discusses various concepts on how to determine contaminant mass fluxes at field scale, starting from the so called groundwater fence approach (multi-level measurement points densely spaced downstream of a source) to the so called integral approach (groundwater is pumped to obtain spatially averaged concentration data). Examples on how to interpret contaminant mass flux measurements will be presented for some first full-scale field applications, including a comparative study recently conducted at the Borden site.

Teutsch, G.

2001-12-01

222

A PROBLEM WITH FLUX CHAMBER MEASUREMENTS OF BIOGENIC SULFUR EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Problems associated with identifying and quantifying factors that influence liquid-phase controlled evolution of hydrogen sulfide and organic sulfides through the air-water interface are briefly reviewed. It was found that at present flux chamber measurements of the release of th...

223

Control of flux in magnetic circuits for Barkhausen noise measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consistency of magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) measurements under applied sinusoidal magnetic field control and sinusoidal magnetic circuit flux control was investigated under variable circuit permeability conditions. A U-core electromagnet was used to provide the alternating magnetic excitation. The magnetic circuit permeability was changed by varying excitation magnet lift-off and by using samples with known magnetic anisotropy. By controlling the

Steven White; Thomas Krause; Lynann Clapham

2007-01-01

224

Heat flux measurement from thermal infrared imagery in low-flux fumarolic zones: Example of the Ty fault (La Soufrière de Guadeloupe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the geothermal flux of a dormant volcano is necessary both for hazard assessment and for studying hydrothermal systems. Heat from a magma body located at depth is transported by steam to the surface, where it is expelled in fumaroles if the heat flow exceeds 500 W/m2. If the heat flow is lower than 500 W/m2, steam mainly condensates in the soil close to surface and produces a thermal anomaly detectable at the surface. In this study, we propose a method to quantify low heat fluxes from temperature anomalies measured at the surface by a thermal infrared camera. Once corrected from the atmospheric and surface effects, thermal infrared images are used to compute (1) the excess of radiative flux, (2) the excess of sensible flux and (3) the steam flux from the soil to the atmosphere. These calculations require measurements of atmospheric parameters (temperature, wind velocity and humidity) and estimations of surface parameters (roughness and emissivity). This method has been tested on a low-flux fumarolic zone of the Soufrière volcano (Guadeloupe Island — Lesser Antilles), and compared to a flux estimation realized from the thermal gradient measurements into the soil. The two methods show a good agreement and a similar precision (267 ± 46 W/m2 for the thermal infrared method, and 275 ± 50 W/m2 for the vertical temperature gradient method), if surface roughness is well calibrated.

Gaudin, Damien; Beauducel, François; Allemand, Pascal; Delacourt, Christophe; Finizola, Anthony

2013-11-01

225

Experimental measurement of Au M-band flux in indirectly-driven double-shell implosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indirectly-driven double-shell implosions are being investigated as a possible non-cryogenic path to ignition on the NIF. In recent double-shell implosions, the inner shell trajectory was shown to exhibit a strong sensitivity to the temporal history of the M-band (2-5 keV) radiation emitted from the Au hohlraum wall. A large time-dependent discrepancy was observed between measurement and simulation of the flux

H. F. Robey; T. S. Perry; H.-S. Park; P. A. Amendt; S. M. Compton; C. M. Sorce; J. P. Knauer

2004-01-01

226

Surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility deployment in Niamey, Niger  

SciTech Connect

This study presents ground-based remote sensing measurements of aerosol optical properties and corresponding shortwave surface radiative effect calculations for the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger during 2006. Aerosol optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (AP) were derived from multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) measurements during the two dry seasons (Jan-Apr and Oct-Dec) at Niamey. The vertical distribution of aerosol extinction was derived from the collocated micropulse lidar (MPL). The aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution of extinction varied significantly throughout the year, with higher AOD, lower SSA, and deeper aerosol layers during the Jan-Apr time period, when biomass burning aerosol layers were more frequent. Using the retrieved aerosol properties and vertical extinction profiles, broadband shortwave surface fluxes and atmospheric heating rate profiles were calculated. Corresponding calculations with no aerosol were used to estimate the aerosol direct radiative effect at the surface. Comparison of the calculated surface fluxes to observed fluxes for non-cloudy periods indicated that the remote sensing retrievals provided a reasonable estimation of the optical properties, with mean differences between calculated and observed fluxes of less than 5 W/m2 and RMS differences less than 25 W/m2. Sensitivity tests for a particular case study showed that the observed fluxes could be matched with variations of < 10% in the inputs to the radiative transfer model. We estimated the daily-averaged aerosol radiative effect at the surface by subtracting the clear calculations from the aerosol calculations. The average daily SW aerosol radiative effect over the study period was -27 W/m2, which is comparable to values estimated from satellite data and from climate models with sophisticated dust parameterizations.

McFarlane, Sally A.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

2009-03-18

227

MEASUREMENT OF THE RADON SURFACE FLUX FROM UNDISTURBED SOIL USING ELECTRET ION CHAMBERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for measuring the radon surface flux without disturbing either the soil or the flux are of interest in geologic studies and in monitoring the radon flux from uranium mine tailings piles. Such flux measurements may also be of use in assessing the radon risk at potential building sites. The flow-through surface flux method does not perturb either the radon

Lorin R. Stieff; Paul Kotrappa; J. E. Rechcigl; Curtis Nobel

228

Spectral neutron flux oscillations of cosmic radiation on the Earth's surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSS) were used - one at the Schneefernerhaus, Germany (altitude: 2650 m; geomagnetic cut-off: 4.1 GV), the other at the Koldewey station on Spitsbergen (sea level; geomagnetic: cut-off 0 GV) - to measure continuously the spectral flux distribution of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation. At the Schneefernerhaus, the flux of thermal neutrons was about 75% higher in summer than in winter, that of epithermal neutrons about 80%, that of neutrons between 0.125 and 17.8 MeV about 32%, and that of neutrons above 17.8 MeV about 4%, respectively. The period of the observed oscillations was very close to one year. Similar oscillations were observed at the Koldewey station, with somewhat smaller amplitudes (40%, 45%, 22%, and 2%, respectively). At both stations, the flux of the neutrons above 17.8 MeV increased with time similar to the count rates measured by nearby neutron monitors. While this increase reflects changes in the Sun's activity, the observed oscillations are due to changes in ground albedo neutrons and their absorption due to snow. Consequently, the monthly averaged neutron ambient dose equivalent rates, H*(10), oscillated by about ±7% at the UFS and about ±4% at the Koldewey Station. The results demonstrate that BSS measurements could be used to monitor secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation above about 20 MeV. Below detailed neutron transport calculations are necessary to correct for changes in ground albedo neutrons and snow cover. The data presented here can be used as an experimental basis to perform such simulations.

Rühm, W.; Ackermann, U.; Pioch, C.; Mares, V.

2012-08-01

229

Infrared Camera Diagnostic for Heat Flux Measurements on NSTX  

SciTech Connect

An infrared imaging system has been installed on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to measure the surface temperatures on the lower divertor and center stack. The imaging system is based on an Indigo Alpha 160 x 128 microbolometer camera with 12 bits/pixel operating in the 7-13 {micro}m range with a 30 Hz frame rate and a dynamic temperature range of 0-700 degrees C. From these data and knowledge of graphite thermal properties, the heat flux is derived with a classic one-dimensional conduction model. Preliminary results of heat flux scaling are reported.

D. Mastrovito; R. Maingi; H.W. Kugel; A.L. Roquemore

2003-03-25

230

A Novel Detector for High Neutron Flux Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Measuring alpha particles from a neutron induced break-up reaction with a mass spectrometer can be an excellent tool for detecting neutrons in a high neutron flux environment. Break-up reactions of {sup 6}Li and {sup 12}C can be used in the detection of slow and fast neutrons, respectively. A high neutron flux detection system that integrates the neutron energy sensitive material and helium mass spectrometer has been developed. The description of the detector configuration is given and it is soon to be tested at iThemba LABS, South Africa.

Singo, T. D.; Wyngaardt, S. M. [Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Papka, P. [Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Nuclear Physics group, iThemba labs, P. O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Dobson, R. T. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

2010-01-05

231

Research concerning the net flux of radiation in the atmosphere of Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plan of the NFR (Net Flux of Radiation) team is for the data from the two solar channels (B and E) of NFR to be reduced with the goal of determining the solar heating rate. In order to determine the solar heating rate from the NFR measurements, effects due to the instrument's spatial and spectral response functions, to the temperature variation of the instrument (and associated drift of calibration), to the setting sun, and to the rotation of the probe (initially at a rate comparable to the NFR sampling frequency), all must be well modelled. In the past year, a forward modeling routine was created to simulate NFR data return in the B and E channels. The effects of varying parameters describing the atmospheric model (such as cloud location and thickness) and the descent profile (such as rotation rate) were investigated and an inversion routine was developed. For the forward modeling, existing radiative transfer codes were used to determine intensity fields within the Jovian atmosphere. A routine was developed to determine instantaneous instrument response by integrating the intensity field over the instrument response functions. A second routine was developed to determine the actual output of the NFR by integrating along an arbitrary descent trajectory. Near the top of the atmosphere, the upflux data alone are used to constrain the cloud structure of he atmosphere. To accomplish this, models are used to describe the variation in up flux between consecutive measurements in terms of variations of cloud opacity and variations in known parameters such as the solar zenith angle. This allows us to develop a zero-order model of cloud structure. Lower in the atmosphere, at levels where there is little or no azimuthal structure to the net flux measurements, both the up flux and net flux are used to derive layer transmission and reflection functions, which then determine layer opacity and single scattering albedo. A preliminary analysis of the data began in December 1995. In these data we could see the rapid oscillations expected at the beginning of the data due to probe rotation and the sun passing through the edge of the field of view. In addition, the time when this oscillation stopped was clearly visible. This sets the rough optical depth above the probe at this time.

Tomasko, M. G.

1996-01-01

232

Surface Flux Measurements at King Sejong Station in West Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Antarctic Peninsula is important in terms of global warming research due to pronounced increase of air temperature over the last century. The first eddy covariance system was established and turbulent fluxes of heat, water vapor, CO2 and momentum have been measured at King Sejong Station (62 \\deg 13øØS, 58 \\deg 47øØW) located in the northern edge of the Antarctic Peninsula since December in 2002. Our objectives are to better understand the interactions between the Antarctic land surface and the atmosphere and to test the feasibility of the long-term operation of eddy covariance system under extreme weather conditions. Various lichens cover the study area and the dominant species is Usnea fasciata-Himantormia. Based on the analyses on turbulent statistics such as integral turbulence characteristics of vertical velocity (w) and heat (T), stationarity test and investigation of correlation coefficient, they follow the Monin-Obukhov similarity and eddy covariance flux data were reliable. About 50 % of total retrieved sensible heat flux data could be used for further analysis. We will report on seasonal variations of energy and mass fluxes and environmental variables. In addition, factors controlling these fluxes will be presented. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by ¡rEnvironmental Monitoring on Human Impacts at the King Sejong Station, Antarctica¡_ (Project PP04102 of Korea Polar Research Institute) and ¡rEco-technopia 21 project¡_ (Ministry of Environment of Korea).

Choi, T.; Lee, B.; Lee, H.; Shim, J.

2004-12-01

233

Measurements of solar flux density distribution on a plane receiver due to a flat heliostat  

SciTech Connect

An experimental facility is designed and manufactured to measure the solar flux density distribution on a central flat receiver due to a single flat heliostat. The tracking mechanism of the heliostat is controlled by two stepping motors, one for tilt angle control and the other for azimuth angle control. A x-y traversing mechanism is also designed and mounted on a vertical central receiver plane, where the solar flux density is to be measured. A miniature solar sensor is mounted on the platform of the traversing mechanism, where it is used to measure the solar flux density distribution on the receiver surface. The sensor is connected to a data acquisition card in a host computer. The two stepping motors of the heliostat tracking mechanism and the two stepping motors of the traversing mechanism are all connected to a controller card in the same host computer. A software `TOWER` is prepared to let the heliostat track the sun, move the platform of the traversing mechanism to the points of a preselected grid, and to measure the solar flux density distribution on the receiver plane. Measurements are carried out using rectangular flat mirrors of different dimensions at several distances from the central receiver. Two types of images were identified on the receiver plane - namely, apparent (or visible) and mirror-reflected radiation images. Comparison between measurements and a mathematical model validates the mathematical model. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Elsayed, M.M.; Fathalah, K.A.; Al-Rabghi, O.M. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)] [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

1995-06-01

234

Solar cycle variation of trapped proton fluxes measured by LEO satellites.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Now days there are few models of the Earth radiation belts proton fluxes that are used for prediction of the fluxes at the different orbits of the spacecrafts. Discrepancies in their predictions are wellknown. The AP8 model of trapped proton fluxes is based on the satellite data that were measured 1960th and 1970th during the anomalous weak 20th (in comparison with the 21st and 22d ) solar cycle and solar cycle variation is taken into account only by specifying two different models for solar maximum and solar minimum. The TPM-1 model calculates the proton fluxes for any year of solar activity and contains sub-models for quiet and active states of magnetosphere. Solar cycle variation of trapped protons measured during the 23rd solar cycle on board low orbital polar satellites Coronas-F (500 km altitude) and NPOES-15, -17 (800 km altitude) in 2001 - 2007 is considered in this report. The experimental proton fluxes measured for the drift sells L=1.14-1.2 were compared with the predictions of AP8 model for solar maximum and minimum as well as with the prediction of TPM-1 model.

Nikolaeva, Natalia; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Panasyuk, Michail

235

Interannual variability of surface radiative fluxes and rainfall in the semi-arid Sahel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Sahel, interannual variability of rainfall is known to be strong, from meso- to continental spatial scales. This is associated with changes in surface radiative fluxes. The actual role played by surface fluxes on the interannual variability of rainfall has been much debated, especially within the context of the major regional scale, multi-decadal West African drought which started at

F. Guichard; M. Grippa; L. Kergoat; P. Hiernaux; E. Mougin; F. Timouk; N. Delbart

2009-01-01

236

A Multi-Satellite Approach to Estimate Radiative Fluxes over the Oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiative fluxes drive the surface hydrologic and energy budgets on time scales from diurnal to interannual, they are needed for the evaluation of land surface parameterizations, and for estimation of net primary productivity. Most efforts that attempt to derive such fluxes from satellite observations have been designed with a particular satellite in mind. Recently, satellites with multi-spectral instruments have been

H. Wang; T. Y. Nakajima; A. Higurashi; R. T. Pinker; I. Laszlo

2002-01-01

237

Effects of high altitude clouds on the earth's infrared radiation flux  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given to the results of a study of cirrus cloud properties which employed the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences' general circulation model and concentrated on the effects of the nonblackness of high clouds on the IR radiation flux. Although the thermal radiation flux is very sensitive to the treatment of cirrus optical properties in the IR, a more realistic assessment will depend on better parameterizations for cirrus cloud formation, persistence, and dissipation.

Wang, W.-C.; Kaplan, L. D.

1983-01-01

238

ESTIMATING THE IMPACT OF AEROSOL ON RADIATIVE FLUXES OBTAINED FROM THE GEOSTATIONARY EARTH RADIATION BUDGET (GERB) INSTRUMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instruments flying on the Meteosat Second Generation series of satellites provide a unique tool with which to monitor the diurnally resolved evolution of the top of atmosphere broad-band radiation fields. Edition 1 GERB climate quality products have recently been released to the scientific community, and, in addition to the observed radiances and inferred fluxes,

Helen E. Brindley; Jacqueline E. Russell

239

CERES-derived Surface radiative flux consistent with A-train observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes derived from CERES instruments on Aqua and Terra provide observations to understand earth radiation budget and its variability. Using cloud and aerosol properties derived from MODIS combined with atmospheric thermodynamical properties from reanalysis, surface radiative fluxes are also estimated in the CERES project. Observations from the A-train constellation, such as CALIPSO, CloudSat, and AIRS, are helping to improve the estimate of surface radiative fluxes. For example, the ability of CALIPSO and CloudSat to detect clouds and cloud base height better than MODIS contributes to improve the surface downward longwave flux. The global annual mean cloud fraction derived from CALIPSO and CloudSat is larger them the cloud fraction derived from MODIS by 0.11 (0.04 excluding clouds with optical thickness less than 0.3). The global annual mean cloud base height derived from CALIPSO and CloudSat is lower than that derived from MODIS by an empirical relationship by 1.6 km. As a consequence, the global annual mean surface downward longwave flux increases by 3.4 Wm-2 compared to the value computed with MODIS only. The regional difference is even larger. The increase of the surface downward longwave irradiance in the Arctic exceeds 10 Wm-2 (~4%) in winter because during polar night CALIPSO and CloudSat detect more clouds compared to the cloud amount derived by the CERES cloud algorithm. With these better cloud properties derived from CALIPSO and CloudSat, and temperature and humidity profiles derived from AIRS, the systematic error and uncertainty of inputs used in surface radiative flux computations in CERES processes can be quantified. The systematic error and uncertainty estimates combined with the CERES TOA EBAF product are used to derive improved surface radiative fluxes that are consistent with A-train observations. In this presentation, we will explain how the improved gridded monthly mean surface radiative fluxes (CERES surface EBAF product) are obtained. We will also present an analysis using improved surface radiative fluxes, such as how surface net radiative flux spatially and temporally correlates with TOA net flux and how surface net and atmospheric shortwave and longwave fluxes changes with the ENSO index.

Kato, S.; Loeb, N. G.; Rose, F. G.; Doelling, D.; Rutan, D. A.

2011-12-01

240

Time and Space Resolved Heat Flux Measurements During Nucleate Boiling with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lack of temporally and spatially resolved measurements under nucleate bubbles has complicated efforts to fully explain pool-boiling phenomena. The objective of this current work was to acquire time and space resolved temperature distributions under nucleating bubbles on a constant heat flux surface using a microheater array with 100x 100 square microns resolution, then numerically determine the wall to liquid heat flux. This data was then correlated with high speed (greater than l000Hz) visual recordings of The bubble growth and departure from the heater surface acquired from below and from the side of the heater. The data indicate that microlayer evaporation and contact line heat transfer are not major heat transfer mechanisms for bubble growth. The dominant heat transfer mechanism appears to be transient conduction into the liquid as the liquid rewets the wall during the bubble departure process.

Yerramilli, Vamsee K.; Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Kim, Jungho

2005-01-01

241

Development of Aerosol Models for Radiative Flux Calculations at ARM Sites  

SciTech Connect

The direct radiative forcing (DRF) of aerosols, the change in net radiative flux due to aerosols in non-cloudy conditions, is an essential quantity for understanding the human impact on climate change. Our work has addressed several key issues that determine the accuracy, and identify the uncertainty, with which aerosol DRF can be modeled. These issues include the accuracy of several radiative transfer models when compared to measurements and to each other in a highly controlled closure study using data from the ARM 2003 Aerosol IOP. The primary focus of our work has been to determine an accurate approach to assigning aerosol properties appropriate for modeling over averaged periods of time and space that represent the observed regional variability of these properties. We have also undertaken a comprehensive analysis of the aerosol properties that contribute most to uncertainty in modeling aerosol DRF, and under what conditions they contribute the most uncertainty. Quantification of these issues enables the community to better state accuracies of radiative forcing calculations and to concentrate efforts in areas that will decrease uncertainties in these calculations in the future.

Ogren, John A.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; McComiskey, Allison C.

2006-09-30

242

Measurement of a surface heat flux and temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Heat Flux Microsensor is a new sensor which was recently patented by Virginia Tech and is just starting to be marketed by Vatell Corp. The sensor is made using the thin-film microfabrication techniques directly on the material that is to be measured. It consists of several thin-film layers forming a differential thermopile across a thermal resistance layer. The measured heat flux q is proportional to the temperature difference across the resistance layer q= k(sub g)/delta(sub g) x (t(sub 1) - T(sub 2)), where k(sub g) is the thermal conductivity and delta (sub g) is the thickness of the thermal resistance layer. Because the gages are sputter coated directly onto the surface, their total thickness is less than 2 micrometers, which is two orders of magnitude thinner than previous gages. The resulting temperature difference across the thermal resistance layer (delta is less than 1 micrometer) is very small even at high heat fluxes. To generate a measurable signal many thermocouple pairs are put in series to form a differential thermopile. The combination of series thermocouple junctions and thin-film design creates a gage with very attractive characteristics. It is not only physically non-intrusive to the flow, but also causes minimal disruption of the surface temperature. Because it is so thin, the response time is less than 20 microsec. Consequently, the frequency response is flat from 0 to over 50 kHz. Moreover, the signal of the Heat Flux Microsensor is directly proportional to the heat flux. Therefore, it can easily be used in both steady and transient flows, and it measures both the steady and unsteady components of the surface heat flux. A version of the Heat Flux Microsensor has been developed to meet the harsh demands of combustion environments. These gages use platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium as the thermoelectric materials. The thermal resistance layer is silicon monoxide and a protective coating of Al2O3 is deposited on top of the sensor. The superimposed thin-film pattern of all six layers is presented. The large pads are for connection with pins used to bring the signal out the back of the ceramic. In addition to the heat flux measurement, the surface temperature is measured with a platinum resistance layer (RTS). The resistance of this layer increases with increasing temperature. Therefore, these gages simultaneously measure the surface temperature and heat flux. The demonstrated applications include rocket nozzles, SCRAM jet engines, gas turbine engines, boiling heat transfer, flame experiments, basic fluid heat transfer, hypersonic flight, and shock tube testing. The laboratory involves using one of these sensors in a small combustion flame. The sensor is made on a 2.5 cm diameter piece of aluminum nitride ceramic.

Davis, R. M.; Antoine, G. J.; Diller, T. E.; Wicks, A. L.

1994-01-01

243

The excess flux in the cosmic submillimeter background radiation and the primordial deuterium abundance  

SciTech Connect

Recent measurements of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) show an enhanced flux in the submillimeter regime, compared to the spectrum of a 2.7 K blackbody. Thermal Comptonization of the relic radiation by a hot nonrelativistic plasma has long been known to produce distortions in the CBR spectrum, similar to what has now been observed. Heating of the primeval plasma to temperatures T {approximately} 10{sup 6} {minus} 10{sup 8} K could result from the injection of subcosmic ray protons at epoch z {approximately} 10--100. The intensity of the subcosmic ray flux that provide conditions needed to explain the submillimeter excess by thermal Comptonization also leads to the production of cosmologically significant amounts of deuterium in collisions between subcosmic ray protons and primordial protons and {alpha}-particles. However, the amount of lithium produced through {alpha}-{alpha} reactions is in conflict with the observed Li abundance. If lithium is depleted, for example, by processing through Population II stars, arguments for the baryon content of the universe based on primordial deuterium and He abundances are weakened. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Dermer, C.D.; Guessoum, N. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (USA). Lab. for High Energy Astrophysics)

1989-10-27

244

A relaxed eddy accumulation system for measuring vertical fluxes of nitrous acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system combined with a nitrous acid (HONO) analyzer was developed to measure atmosperhic HONO vertical fluxes. The system consists of three major components: (1) a fast-response sonic anemometer measuring vertical wind velocity and air temperature, (2) a fast-response controlling unit separating air motions into updraft and downdraft samplers by the sign of vertical wind velocity, and (3) a highly sensitive HONO analyzer based on aqueous long path absorption photometry measuring HONO concentations in these updrafts and downdrafts. A dynamic velocity threshold (±0.5?w, where ?w is a standard deviation of the vertical wind velocity) was used for valve switching determined by the running means and standard deviations of the vertical wind velocity. Using measured temperature as a tracer and the average values from two field deployments, the flux proportionality coefficient, ?, was determined to be 0.42 ± 0.02, in good agreement with the theoretical estimation. The REA system was deployed in two ground-based field studies. In the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) study in Bakersfield, California in summer 2010, measured HONO fluxes appeared to be upward during the day and were close to zero at night. The upward HONO flux was highly correlated to the product of NO2 and solar radiation. During the Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX 2009) at Blodgett Forest, California in July 2009, the overall HONO fluxes were small in magnitude and were close to zero. Causes for the differences in HONO fluxes in the two different environments are briefly discussed.

Ren, X.; Sanders, J. E.; Rajendran, A.; Weber, R. J.; Goldstein, A. H.; Pusede, S. E.; Browne, E. C.; Min, K.-E.; Cohen, R. C.

2011-06-01

245

A relaxed eddy accumulation system for measuring vertical fluxes of nitrous acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system combined with a nitrous acid (HONO) analyzer was developed to measure atmospheric HONO vertical fluxes. The system consists of three major components: (1) a fast-response sonic anemometer measuring both vertical wind velocity and air temperature, (2) a fast-response controlling unit separating air motions into updraft and downdraft samplers by the sign of vertical wind velocity, and (3) a highly sensitive HONO analyzer based on aqueous long path absorption photometry that measures HONO concentrations in the updrafts and downdrafts. A dynamic velocity threshold (±0.5?w, where ?w is a standard deviation of the vertical wind velocity) was used for valve switching determined by the running means and standard deviations of the vertical wind velocity. Using measured temperature as a tracer and the average values from two field deployments, the flux proportionality coefficient, ?, was determined to be 0.42 ± 0.02, in good agreement with the theoretical estimation. The REA system was deployed in two ground-based field studies. In the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) study in Bakersfield, California in summer 2010, measured HONO fluxes appeared to be upward during the day and were close to zero at night. The upward HONO flux was highly correlated to the product of NO2 and solar radiation. During the Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX 2009) at Blodgett Forest, California in July 2009, the overall HONO fluxes were small in magnitude and were close to zero. Causes for the different HONO fluxes in the two different environments are briefly discussed.

Ren, X.; Sanders, J. E.; Rajendran, A.; Weber, R. J.; Goldstein, A. H.; Pusede, S. E.; Browne, E. C.; Min, K.-E.; Cohen, R. C.

2011-10-01

246

Measurements of the thermal neutrons flux near the EAS core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of the thermal neutrons flux have been measured near the EAS core at the "Carpet-2" EAS array. The thermal neutron detectors were placed on the floor of the tunnel of the Muon Detector (MD) and showers with a core near the MD were selected. Thermal neutrons multiplicity spectrum has been obtained for these showers. Measurements of the lateral distribution function of thermal neutrons at distances of 1-16 m from the shower axis have been performed. The mean number of the recorded thermal neutrons as a function of the number of hadrons crossing the MD has been measured.

Dzhappuev, D. D.; Volchenko, V. I.; Kudzhaev, A. U.; Mikhailova, O. I.; Petkov, V. B.; Stenkin, Yu V.; Tsyabuk, A. L.

2013-02-01

247

Benthic oxygen fluxes on the Washington shelf and slope: A comparison of in situ microelectrode and chamber flux measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic oxygen fluxes calculated from in situ microelectrode profiles arc compared with benthic flux chamber O2 uptake measurements on a transect of eight stations across the continental shelf and three stations on the slope of Washington State. Station depths ranged from 40 to 630 m and bottom-water oxygen concentrations were 127-38 FM. The fluxes measured by the two methods were

DAVID ARCHER; ALLAN DEVOL

1992-01-01

248

Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements.  

PubMed

Uranium and thorium within the Earth produce a major portion of terrestrial heat along with a measurable flux of electron antineutrinos. These elements are key components in geophysical and geochemical models. Their quantity and distribution drive the dynamics, define the thermal history, and are a consequence of the differentiation of the Earth. Knowledge of uranium and thorium concentrations in geological reservoirs relies largely on geochemical model calculations. This article describes the methods and criteria to experimentally determine average concentrations of uranium and thorium in the continental crust and in the mantle by using site-specific measurements of the terrestrial antineutrino flux. Optimal, model-independent determinations involve significant exposures of antineutrino detectors remote from nuclear reactors at both a midcontinental and a midoceanic site. This would require major, new antineutrino detection projects. The results of such projects could yield a greatly improved understanding of the deep interior of the Earth. PMID:18172211

Dye, Stephen T; Guillian, Eugene H

2008-01-01

249

A method to measure cardiac autophagic flux in vivo.  

PubMed

Autophagy, a highly conserved cellular mechanism wherein various cellular components are broken down and recycled through lysosomes, has been implicated in the development of heart failure. However, tools to measure autophagic flux in vivo have been limited. Here, we tested whether monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and the lysosomotropic drug chloroquine could be used to measure autophagic flux in both in vitro and in vivo model systems. Using HL-1 cardiac-derived myocytes transfected with GFP-tagged LC3 to track changes in autophagosome formation, autophagy was stimulated by mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Administration of chloroquine to inhibit lysosomal activity enhanced the rapamycin-induced increase in the number of cells with numerous GFP-LC3-positive autophagosomes. The chloroquine-induced increase of autophagosomes occurred in a dose-dependent manner between 1 microM and 8 microM, and reached a maximum 2 hour after treatment. Chloroquine also enhanced the accumulation of autophagosomes in cells stimulated with hydrogen peroxide, while it attenuated that induced by Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of V-ATPase that interferes with fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. The accumulation of autophagosomes was inhibited by 3-methyladenine, which is known to inhibit the early phase of the autophagic process. Using transgenic mice expressing 3 mCherry-LC3 exposed to rapamycin for 4 hr, we observed an increase in mCherry-LC3-labeled autophagosomes in myocardium, which was further increased by concurrent administration of chloroquine, thus allowing determination of flux as a more precise measure of autophagic activity in vivo. MDC injected 1 hr before sacrifice colocalized with mCherry-LC3 puncta, validating its use as a marker of autophagosomes. This study describes a method to measure autophagic flux in vivo even in non-transgenic animals, using MDC and chloroquine. PMID:18216495

Iwai-Kanai, Eri; Yuan, Hua; Huang, Chengqun; Sayen, M Richard; Perry-Garza, Cynthia N; Kim, Lucy; Gottlieb, Roberta A

2008-04-01

250

Corrections of Heat Flux Measurements on Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge of aerothermally induced convective heat transfer is important in the design of thermal protection systems for launch vehicles. Aerothermal models are typically calibrated via the data from circular, in-flight, flush-mounted surface heat flux gauges exposed to the thermal and velocity boundary layers of the external flow. Typically, copper or aluminum Schmidt- Boelter gauges, which take advantage of the one-dimensional Fourier's law of heat conduction, are used to measure the incident heat flux. This instrumentation, when surrounded by low-conductivity insulation, has a wall temperature significantly lower than the insulation. As a result of this substantial disturbance to the thermal boundary layer, the heat flux incident on the gauge tends to be considerably higher than it would have been on the insulation had the calorimeter not been there. In addition, radial conductive heat transfer from the hotter insulation can cause the calorimeter to indicate heat fluxes higher than actual. An overview of an effort to develop and calibrate gauge correction techniques for both of these effects will be presented.

Reinarts, Thomas R.; Matson, Monique L.; Walls, Laurie K.

2002-01-01

251

DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

2007-12-19

252

An EOF Iteration Approach for Obtaining Homogeneous Radiative Fluxes from Satellites Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventional observations of climate parameters are sparse in space and/or in time and the representativeness of such information needs to be optimized. Observations from satellites provide improved spatial coverage than point observations however they pose new challenges for obtaining homogeneous coverage. Surface radiative fluxes, the forcing functions of the hydrologic cycle and biogeophysical processes, are now becoming available from global scale satellite observations. They are derived from independent satellite platforms and sensors that differ in temporal and spatial resolution and in the size of the footprint from which information is derived. Data gaps, degraded spatial resolution near boundaries of geostationary satellites, and different viewing geometries in areas of satellite overlap, could result in biased estimates of radiative fluxes. In this study, discussed will be issues related to the sources of inhomogeneity in surface radiative fluxes as derived from satellites; development of an approach to obtain homogeneous data sets; and application of the methodology to the widely used International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data that currently serve as a source of information for deriving estimates of surface and top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes. Introduced is an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) iteration scheme for homogenizing the fluxes. The scheme is evaluated in several ways including comparison of the inferred radiative fluxes against ground observations, both before and after the EOF approach is applied. On the average, the latter reduces the rms error by about 2-3 W/m2.

Zhang, Banglin; Pinker, Rachel T.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

2007-01-01

253

Multiyear measurements of ebullitive methane flux from three subarctic lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ebullition (bubbling) from small lakes and ponds at high latitudes is an important yet unconstrained source of atmospheric methane (CH4). Small water bodies are most abundant in permanently frozen peatlands, and it is speculated that their emissions will increase as the permafrost thaws. We made 6806 measurements of CH4 ebullition during four consecutive summers using a total of 40 bubble traps that were systematically distributed across the depth zones of three lakes in a sporadic permafrost landscape in northernmost Sweden. We identified significant spatial and temporal variations in ebullition and observed a large spread in the bubbles' CH4 concentration, ranging from 0.04% to 98.6%. Ebullition followed lake temperatures, and releases were significantly larger during periods with decreasing atmospheric pressure. Although shallow zone ebullition dominated the seasonal bubble CH4 flux, we found a shift in the depth dependency towards higher fluxes from intermediate and deep zones in early fall. The average daily flux of 13.4 mg CH4 m-2 was lower than those measured in most other high-latitude lakes. Locally, however, our study lakes are a substantial CH4 source; we estimate that 350 kg of CH4 is released via ebullition during summer (June-September), which is approximately 40% of total whole year emissions from the nearby peatland. In order to capture the large variability and to accurately scale lake CH4 ebullition temporally and spatially, frequent measurements over long time periods are critical.

Wik, Martin; Crill, Patrick M.; Varner, Ruth K.; Bastviken, David

2013-07-01

254

First TOA fluxes from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument was launched last summer together with the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on board of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. This broadband radiometer aims to deliver near real-time estimates of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes in the shortwave (0.3 - 4 mum) and the longwave (4 -

A. Ipe; C. Bertrand; N. Clerbaux; S. Dewitte; L. Gonzalez

2003-01-01

255

Radiation Measurements on Magnesium Flames.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radiation of a diffusely radiating Mg0 flame is characterized by four parameters, which are initially unknown: temperature, optical thickness, and dispersion (wavelength dependence) of the absorption and scattering coefficients. The black body tempera...

F. Roessler

1968-01-01

256

A Push-Pull Test to Measure Volatilization Fluxes of Organic Pollutants without Flux Chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatilization of organic contaminants is a potentially significant removal mechanism from wetlands, but field measurements are scarce and the physiochemical controls on volatilization from wetland soils remain poorly understood. It has been established that volatilization rates of certain pollutants are enhanced by vegetation and are strongly correlated with evapotranspiration (ET). These observations rely on flux chambers measurements, which are characterized by significant uncertainty due the chamber's effects on the meteorological variables around the plant and consequent impact on the biophysical processes governing ET and plant uptake of soil contaminants. Here we present data from a mesocosm study using a modified single-well push-pull test to measure in-situ volatilization rates from inundated soils vegetated with the wetland macrophytes Scirpus acutus and Typha latifolia, as well as from unplanted soil. This new method uses a test solution containing the volatile tracers sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), helium (He), and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) to estimate first-order volatilization rates and examine the relationship between physiochemical properties and volatilization rates. The test also yields an estimate for the volume of subsurface gas bubbles, which is used to derive a retardation factor for the effect of interphase partitioning on the estimation of kinetic parameters. We evaluate models to partition observed fluxes into different pathways for plant-mediated volatilization: transpirational uptake and consequent volatilization, and gas-phase diffusion through porous root aerenchyma. Those models are then used to scale tracer-derived volatilization fluxes to priority organic pollutants including benzene, trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. We also discuss the implementation of this method at field scales to estimate volatilization as a component of phytoremediation applications.

Reid, M. C.; Jaffe, P. R.

2011-12-01

257

Surface flux estimation using radiometric temperature: A dual-temperature-difference method to minimize measurement errors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface temperature serves as a key boundary condition that defines the partitioning of surface radiation into sensible and latent heat fluxes. Surface brightness temperature measurements from satellites offer the unique possibility of mapping surface heat fluxes at regional scales. Because uncertainties in satellite measurements of surface radiometric temperature arise from atmospheric corrections, surface emissivity, and instrument calibrations, a number of studies have found significant discrepancies between modeled and measured heat fluxes when using radiometric temperature. Recent research efforts have overcome these uncertainties and in addition have accounted for the difference between radiometric and aerodynamic temperature by considering soil and vegetative-canopy aerodynamic resistances. The major remaining obstacle to using satellite data for regional heat flux estimation is inadequate density of near-surface air temperature observations. In this paper we describe a simple, operational, double-difference approach for relating surface sensible heat flux to remote observations of surface brightness temperature, vegetative cover and type, and measurements of near-surface wind speed and air temperature from the synoptic weather network. A double difference of the time rate of change in radiometric and air temperature observations is related to heat flux. This double-difference approach reduces both the errors associated with deriving a radiometric temperature and with defining meteorological quantities at large scales. The scheme is simpler than other recent approaches because it requires minimal ground-based data and does not require modeling boundary layer development. The utility of this scheme is tested with ground-based radiometric temperature observations from several arid and subhumid climates with a wide range of vegetative cover and meteorological conditions.

Norman, J. M.; Kustas, W. P.; Prueger, J. H.; Diak, G. R.

2000-08-01

258

Martian Radiation Environment: Model Calculations and Recent Measurements with "MARIE"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galactic Cosmic Ray spectra in Mars orbit were generated with the recently expanded HZETRN (High Z and Energy Transport) and QMSFRG (Quantum Multiple-Scattering theory of nuclear Fragmentation) model calculations. These model calculations are compared with the first eighteen months of measured data from the MARIE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft that is currently in Martian orbit. The dose rates observed by the MARIE instrument are within 10% of the model calculated predictions. Model calculations are compared with the MARIE measurements of dose, dose-equivalent values, along with the available particle flux distribution. Model calculated particle flux includes GCR elemental composition of atomic number, Z = 1-28 and mass number, A = 1-58. Particle flux calculations specific for the current MARIE mapping period are reviewed and presented.

Saganti, P. B.; Cucinotta, F. A.; zeitlin, C. J.; Cleghorn, T. F.

2004-01-01

259

MY NASA DATA Lesson Plan: Earth's Energy Budget-Seasonal Cycles in Net Radiative Flux  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan uses Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiation data to understand seasonal variations in the pattern of net energy input to the Earth system. The net amount of energy received by different parts of the Earth at different times of year determines the type of weather and climate they will experience. The net radiative flux shows the combined effect of the Sun's location and the conditions in the Earth system. The two primary components of the Earth system that affect the net radiative flux are: 1) the type of surface and 2) clouds. This lesson will allow students to explore these variations.

2006-01-01

260

Multi-element silicon detector for x-ray flux measurements  

SciTech Connect

A 30-element Si(Li) detector has been fabricated to measure the one-dimensional flux profile of 33 KeV x-rays from a synchrotron radiation beam. The device, which is fabricated from a single 39 mm x 15 mm silicon wafer, is a linear array of 0.9 mm x 7 mm elements with a 1 mm center-to-center spacing. It is 5 mm thick and when operated at room temperature has an average leakage current of 10 nA/element. The x-ray flux in each element is determined by measuring the current with a high quality operational amplifier followed by a current digitizer. This detector is being used to study the use of synchrotron radiation for non-invasive imaging of coronary arteries. The experiment uses the difference in the transmitted flux of a monochromatized x-ray beam above and below the iodine K-edge. Measurements have been made on plastic phantoms and on excised animal hearts with iodinated arteries. The images obtained indicate that a 256-element device with similar properties, but with 0.6 mm element spacing, will make a very effective detector for high-speed medical imaging.

Thompson, A.C.; Goulding, F.S.; Sommer, H.A.; Walton, J.T.; Hughes, E.B.; Rolfe, J.; Zeman, H.D.

1981-10-01

261

Momentum Flux Measuring Instrument for Neutral and Charged Particle Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrument to measure the momentum flux (total pressure) of plasma and neutral particle jets onto a surface has been developed. While this instrument was developed for magnetized plasmas, the concept works for non-magnetized plasmas as well. We have measured forces as small as 10(exp -4) Newtons on a surface immersed in the plasma where small forces are due to ionic and neutral particles with kinetic energies on the order of a few eV impacting the surface. This instrument, a force sensor, uses a target plate (surface) that is immersed in the plasma and connected to one end of an alumina rod while the opposite end of the alumina rod is mechanically connected to a titanium beam on which four strain gauges are mounted. The force on the target generates torque causing strain in the beam. The resulting strain measurements can be correlated to a force on the target plate. The alumina rod electrically and thermally isolates the target plate from the strain gauge beam and allows the strain gauges to be located out of the plasma flow while also serving as a moment arm of several inches to increase the strain in the beam at the strain gauge location. These force measurements correspond directly to momentum flux and may be used with known plasma conditions to place boundaries on the kinetic energies of the plasma and neutral particles. The force measurements may also be used to infer thrust produced by a plasma propulsive device. Stainless steel, titanium, molybdenum, and aluminum flat target plates have been used. Momentum flux measurements of H2, D2, He, and Ar plasmas produced in a magnetized plasma device have been performed.

Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schafer, Charles F. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

262

Eddy covariance measurements in screenhouses: turbulence characteristics and flux gradients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shading banana and other orchard crops with screens is popular in arid and semi-arid regions for decreasing water use and increasing fruit quality. However, crop water use within this unique environment is much less studied than for canopies in the open. Previous studies of our research group have established the use of the Eddy Covariance (EC) technique for reliable evapotranspiration and sensible heat flux measurements within screenhouses. These studies focused on operating conditions of the system. The present paper is a comprehensive study which examined the performance of the EC system in different types of screenhouses (shading and insect-proof), different crops (banana and pepper) at different development stages (small and large plants) and different climatic regions in Israel. The main goal was to establish guidelines for optimal application of the EC technique in screenhouses. The research consisted of 6 field campaigns: in 3 campaigns two EC systems were simultaneously deployed either vertically or horizontally, and in 3 other campaigns a single EC system was deployed at one measurement height. EC systems were deployed at different normalized system heights, Zs, which define the relative measurement heights within the air gap between the canopy top and the horizontal screened roof. System performance was examined using quality tests like energy balance closure, flux variance similarity, friction velocity, footprint modeling, energy spectrum, turbulence intensity and vertical and horizontal flux gradient analyses. Resulting energy balance closure slopes averaged 0.81±0.08 and 0.91±0.08 for the smaller and larger plants, respectively. Turbulent flows were found to be marginally developed within the air gap between the top of the plants and the horizontal screened roof. Turbulence intensity, flux variance similarity test, energy spectrum decay rate and friction velocity were essentially independent of the measurement height and were within the common range for flows in the open. Insect proof screenhouses were found to inhibit turbulence development. Considering common dimensions of commercial screenhouses, a footprint model, originally derived for canopies in the open, suggested that the normalized EC system height for which 90% of the measurements are within the available fetch is within the range 0.04 < Zs < 0.29. Vertical gradients of water vapor, sensible heat and CO2 fluxes were within the range of expected deviations (up to 26% difference between two vertically deployed EC systems) and were not correlated with advection effects. Hence, it is suggested that these gradients originated either due to non perfect energy balance closure or limitations of raw data corrections. We conclude that there is a constant flux layer in the screenhouse environment. The horizontal gradient of the vertical latent heat flux, measured in one campaign, was very small, suggesting that measurements were done in a position where the surface layer was already in equilibrium with the vegetation below.

Dicken, U.; Cohen, S.; Tanny, J.

2012-04-01

263

Relating aggregated surface water flux with Aquarius salinity measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the original objectives of Aquarius is to use surface salinity measurement as a rain gauge to characterize the hydrologic balance. Rain affects Aquarius salinity measurements by changing the roughness and the brightness temperature, and the accumulated rain forms a fresh-water lens that dilutes the surface salinity. We have examined high frequency rainfall provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH), co-incident with about one year of Aquarius salinity measurements. The relation of rainfall accumulated over various periods and the Aquarius salinity measurement has been examined over various regions of the tropical oceans. Using surface ocean currents provided by the Ocean Surface Currents Analyses - Realtime (OSCAR) and fresh water flux from TRMM, combined with Aquarius salinity, oceanic salinity budget was examined and the role of precipitation and ocean dynamics were evaluated over various regions.

Xie, X.; Liu, W.

2012-12-01

264

Experimental Measurement of Au M-Band Flux in Indirectly Drive Double-Shell Implosions  

SciTech Connect

Indirectly driven double-shell implosions are being investigated as a possible noncryogenic path to ignition on the National Ignition Facility [ J. A. Paisner, J. D. Boyes, S. A. Kumpan, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. S. Sorem, Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994) ]. In recent double-shell experiments, the inner shell trajectory was shown to exhibit a strong sensitivity to the temporal history of the M-band (2-5 keV) radiation emitted from the Au hohlraum wall. A large time-dependent discrepancy was observed between measurement and simulation of the x-ray flux in this range. In order to better characterize the radiation environment seen in these implosions, an experimental campaign was conducted on the Omega laser. A number of diagnostics were used to measure both the temporal and spectral nature of the M-band flux. Results were obtained from an absolutely calibrated 12-channel filtered x-ray diode array (Dante) as well as two streaked crystal spectrometers and an absolutely calibrated time-integrated spectrometer (Henway). X-ray backlighting was also used to directly measure the effect of M-band radiation on the trajectory of the inner shell. The data from all diagnostics are shown to be in excellent agreement and provide a consistent picture of the M-band flux. These results are being used to constrain and improve the simulation of hohlraum-generated M-band radiation that will be necessary for the design of future double-shell implosions employing higher-Z inner shells.

Robey,H.; Perry, T.; Park, H.; et al; .

2005-01-01

265

Experimental measurement of Au M-band flux in indirectly driven double-shell implosions  

SciTech Connect

Indirectly driven double-shell implosions are being investigated as a possible noncryogenic path to ignition on the National Ignition Facility [J. A. Paisner, J. D. Boyes, S. A. Kumpan, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. S. Sorem, Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)]. In recent double-shell experiments, the inner shell trajectory was shown to exhibit a strong sensitivity to the temporal history of the M-band (2-5 keV) radiation emitted from the Au hohlraum wall. A large time-dependent discrepancy was observed between measurement and simulation of the x-ray flux in this range. In order to better characterize the radiation environment seen in these implosions, an experimental campaign was conducted on the Omega laser. A number of diagnostics were used to measure both the temporal and spectral nature of the M-band flux. Results were obtained from an absolutely calibrated 12-channel filtered x-ray diode array (Dante) as well as two streaked crystal spectrometers and an absolutely calibrated time-integrated spectrometer (Henway). X-ray backlighting was also used to directly measure the effect of M-band radiation on the trajectory of the inner shell. The data from all diagnostics are shown to be in excellent agreement and provide a consistent picture of the M-band flux. These results are being used to constrain and improve the simulation of hohlraum-generated M-band radiation that will be necessary for the design of future double-shell implosions employing higher-Z inner shells.

Robey, H.F.; Perry, T.S.; Park, H.-S.; Amendt, P.; Sorce, C.M.; Compton, S.M.; Campbell, K.M.; Knauer, J.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

2005-07-15

266

A measurement of the antiproton flux in the cosmic rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A balloon-borne instrument has been used to detect cosmic-ray antiprotons. These are identified topologically by the appearance of annihilation prongs in a thick lead-plate spark chamber. The initial recording of the data is enriched in potential antimatter events by a selective trigger. After a small subtraction for background, 14 identified antiprotons yield a flux of 1.7 plus or minus 0.00005 antiproton/(sq m ster sec MeV) between 130 and 320 MeV at the top of the atmosphere. When combined with higher energy antiproton flux measurements, this result indicates that the antiprotons have a spectrum whose shape is the same as that of the protons, but with a magnitude reduced by a factor of 1/3000.

Buffington, A.; Schindler, S. M.

1981-01-01

267

Combining Eddy Covariance, Leaf Level Measurements and Modelling to Investigate Ecosystem Fluxes in Tropical Grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our project determined seasonal and spatial variations in ecosystem fluxes of tropical grassland ecosystems by investigating three prominent grassland types along a hydrological gradient in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.To identify the environmental factors that control CO2 and H2O exchange in tropical grassland ecosystems, we successfully combined eddy covariance measurements, leaf level measurements and remotely sensed data.Grassland ecosystems growing under the same climate showed profound differences in ecosystem fluxes as well as what regulated those fluxes on an ecosystem level. The analysis of the eddy covariance measurements revealed a pronounced seasonal and spatial variation with maximum net ecosystem exchange (NE) varying between -25? mol -2 s-1 and -1? mol -2 s-1 across sites and seasons. Without water limitation the main factor for the differences in NE between ecosystems was nutrient content per vegetation unit. This importance of nutrient content was also confirmed by our leaf level measurements. Seasonal differences in NE varied between sites and were driven by phenology or temperature and light limitation.Eddy covariance measurements for this project were predominantly campaign measurements. To determine annual course and sum of NE, we adapted the ecosystem model BETHY (Biosphere-Energy Transfer Hydrology Scheme) by parameter inversion in combination with remotely sensed fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation for each site.

Wohland, P.; Mantlana, B.; Kattge, J.

2007-12-01

268

Comparison of model predicted cloud parameters and surface radiative fluxes with observations on the 100?km scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   Cloud parameters and surface radiative fluxes predicted by regional atmospheric models are directly compared with observations\\u000a for a 10-day period in late summer 1995 characterized by predominantly large-scale synoptic conditions. Observations of total\\u000a cloud cover and vertical cloud structure are inferred from measurements with a ground-based network of Lidar ceilometers and\\u000a IR-radiometers and from satellite observations on a 100

E. van Meijgaard; U. Andræ; B. Rockel

2001-01-01

269

An Ensemble Forecast for Geosynchronous Radiation Belt Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steven Nelson1, 2, Shawn Young1, Kara Perry1, 3, Alan Ling1, 4, Xinlin Li5 1. Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Division 2. University of New Mexico 3. Institute of Scientific Research, Boston College 4. Atmosphere and Environmental Research Inc. 5. University of Colorado An ensemble model composed of three functional forecasting models has been developed to forecast >2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous (GEO) orbit. The REFM model is based on a statistical link between electron flux and solar wind speed using empirically derived linear filter coefficients, the Li model solves a radial diffusion equation with a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the solar wind velocity and interplanetary magnetic field, and the fluxpred model is a multi-layer feed-forward neural network with electron flux and Kp as input. A multivariate regression is done on these three independent forecasting methods to produce significantly better predictive results than any of the individual models alone. We will discuss our regression technique, our efforts to optimize it, and we will discuss our calculation of forecast probability.

Nelson, S. G.; Young, S. L.; Ling, A.; Perry, K. L.; Li, X.

2010-12-01

270

MY NASA DATA: Earth's Energy Budget - Seasonal Cycles in Net Radiative Flux  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Net Radiative Flux (NRF) is used to determine the flow of solar energy in and out of the Earth system. NRF is influenced by seasonal variations related to the tilt of the Earth's axis and degree of cloud cover as well as Earthâs surface features. Using measurements taken by the CERES instrument, students will observe and analyze NRF patterns. Analysis will focus on seasonal shifts and the impact of both surface features and clouds. This lesson uses student- and citizen science-friendly microsets of authentic NASA Earth system science data from the MY NASA DATA project. It also includes related links, extensions, an online glossary and a list of related AP Environmental Science topics.

271

Measurement of trapped flux distribution in a high-Tc superconductor using a flux-gate magnetometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of the trapped flux was measured using a miniaturized flux-gate magnetometer with resolution as high as 0.46 mG at 77 K for a BiSrCaCuO high-Tc superconductor cooled down to 77 K in the presence of ac magnetic field (0.5–50 Hz) of 0.6 G in peak-to-peak and in-plane thermal gradient. The amplitude of the trapped flux decreased with increasing

I. Sasada; Y. Oonaka; K. Harada

1993-01-01

272

SIERRA-Flux: Measuring Regional Surface Fluxes of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Water Vapor from an Unmanned Aircraft System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Eddy-Covariance Method for quantifying surface-atmosphere fluxes is a foundational technique for measuring net ecosystem exchange and validating regional-to-global carbon cycle models. While towers or ships are the most frequent platform for measuring surface-atmosphere exchange, experiments using aircraft for flux measurements have yielded contributions to several large-scale studies including BOREAS, SMACEX, RECAB by providing local-to-regional coverage beyond towers. The low-altitude flight requirements make airborne flux measurements particularly dangerous and well suited for unmanned aircraft.

Fladeland; Yates, Emma Louise; Bui, Thaopaul Van; Dean-Day, Jonathan; Kolyer, Richard

2011-01-01

273

Progress on a Rayleigh Scattering Mass Flux Measurement Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Rayleigh scattering diagnostic has been developed to provide mass flux measurements in wind tunnel flows. Spectroscopic molecular Rayleigh scattering is an established flow diagnostic tool that has the ability to provide simultaneous density and velocity measurements in gaseous flows. Rayleigh scattered light from a focused 10 Watt continuous-wave laser beam is collected and fiber-optically transmitted to a solid Fabry-Perot etalon for spectral analysis. The circular interference pattern that contains the spectral information that is needed to determine the flow properties is imaged onto a CCD detector. Baseline measurements of density and velocity in the test section of the 15 cm x 15 cm Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center are presented as well as velocity measurements within a supersonic combustion ramjet engine isolator model installed in the tunnel test section.

Mielke-Fagan, Amy F.; Clem, Michelle M.; Elam, Kristie A.; Hirt, Stefanie M.

2010-01-01

274

Earth's Energy Budget: Seasonal Cycles in Net Radiative Flux  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine CERES radiation data to understand how the Earth's tilt causes seasonal differences in incoming solar energy, and to explore how clouds, deserts and ice modulate the reflection of energy from the Sun. The investigation is conducted using the My NASA Data Live Access Server. This resource is part of the poster, Earth's Energy Budget, which describes the role of incoming solar radiation and the gases in the atmosphere and clouds in maintaining the Earth's temperature. The role of atmospheric becomes CO² in climate change and the environments of nearby planets are compared. along with career profiles of energy budget "detectives." A student crossword and matching game test vocabulary understanding.

275

The AmeriFlux Network of Long-Term CO{sub 2} Flux Measurement Stations: Methodology and Intercomparability  

SciTech Connect

A portable flux measurement system has been used within the AmeriFlux network of CO{sub 2} flux measurement stations to enhance the comparability of data collected across the network. No systematic biases were observed in a comparison between portable system and site H, LE, or CO{sub 2} flux values although there were biases observed between the portable system and site measurement of air temperature and PPFD. Analysis suggests that if values from two stations differ by greater than 26% for H, 35% for LE, and 32% for CO{sub 2} flux they are likely to be significant. Methods for improving the intercomparability of the network are also discussed.

Hollinger, D. Y.; Evans, R. S.

2003-05-20

276

System having unmodulated flux locked loop for measuring magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

A system (10) for measuring magnetic fields, wherein the system (10) comprises an unmodulated or direct-feedback flux locked loop (12) connected by first and second unbalanced RF coaxial transmission lines (16a, 16b) to a superconducting quantum interference device (14). The FLL (12) operates for the most part in a room-temperature or non-cryogenic environment, while the SQUID (14) operates in a cryogenic environment, with the first and second lines (16a, 16b) extending between these two operating environments.

Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Blue Springs, MO)

2006-08-15

277

On the Measurement of Neutron Flux: A Fission Track Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study has been made of the use of dosimeter glasses for fission track dating experiments. SRM612, SRM912 and Fleischer's dosimeter glasses Were used for thermal neutron flux measurement and calibrated against activation foils. Mean values of the calibration constants for each dosimeter glass are SRM612 ~ 6.60 X 109, SRM912 ~ 6.51 X 109 and Fleischer's glass ~ 2.28 X 1011. Dosimeter glasses described in this paper have been tested extensively on some mineral standards in conjunction with different reactor facilities, namely CIRUS (India), RISØ (Denmark) and HIFAR (Australia). The advantages of the above mentioned dosimeters are discussed

Koul, Sohan L.

1985-11-01

278

First-wall heat-flux measurements during ELMing H-mode plasma  

SciTech Connect

In this report we present measurements of the diverter heat flux in DIII-D for ELMing H-mode and radiative diverter conditions. In previous work we have examined heat flux profiles in lower single-null diverted plasmas and measured the scaling of the peak heat flux with plasma current and beam power. One problem with those results was our lack of good power accounting. This situation has been improved to better than 80--90% accountability with the installation of new bolometer arrays, and the operation of the entire complement of 5 Infrared (IR) TV cameras using the DAPS (Digitizing Automated Processing System) video processing system for rapid inter-shot data analysis. We also have expanded the scope of our measurements to include a wider variety of plasma shapes (e.g., double-null diverters (DND), long and short single-null diverters (SND), and inside-limited plasmas), as well as more diverse discharge conditions. Double-null discharges are of particular interest because that shape has proven to yield the highest confinement (VH-mode) and beta of all DIII-D plasmas, so any future diverter modifications for DIII-D will have to support DND operation. In addition, the proposed TPX tokamak is being designed for double-null operation, and information on the magnitude and distribution of diverter heat flux is needed to support the engineering effort on that project. So far, we have measured the DND power sharing at the target plates and made preliminary tests of heat flux reduction by gas injection.

Lasnier, C.J.; Allen, S.L.; Hill, D.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Leonard, A.W.; Petrie, T.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

1994-01-28

279

Development of a Heat Flux Meter and Measurement of the Heat Flux to the Divertor in DIVA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In evaluating the quantity of heat flowing to the divertor, the heat flux has so far been measured with a thermocouple probe of resolving time 5 ms. To examine time variation of the heat flux to the divertor, a Ni-evapolated thin film sensor of resolving ...

N. Ueda M. Seki K. Anno H. Kawamura H. Maeda

1976-01-01

280

Errors Found in Expressions Given by Schaeffer and by Selph for Radiation Flux in Rectangular Straight Duct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assuming the entrance of a rectangular straight duct to be uniformly covered with a film of radiation source, and the radiations to be emitted into the duct at Intensities proportional to cos? (?: Angle of radiation incidence), the unscattered component of radiations along the duct axis is shown to be expressed bywhere ?0 is the total flux from the radiation

Hisao YAMAKOSHI; Yasuyoshi ITOH

1987-01-01

281

Measurement of autophagy flux in the nervous system in vivo  

PubMed Central

Accurate methods to measure autophagic activity in vivo in neurons are not available, and most of the studies are based on correlative and static measurements of autophagy markers, leading to conflicting interpretations. Autophagy is an essential homeostatic process involved in the degradation of diverse cellular components including organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy impairment is emerging as a relevant factor driving neurodegeneration in many diseases. Moreover, strategies to modulate autophagy have been shown to provide protection against neurodegeneration. Here we describe a novel and simple strategy to express an autophagy flux reporter in the nervous system of adult animals by the intraventricular delivery of adeno-associated viruses (AAV) into newborn mice. Using this approach we efficiently expressed a monomeric tandem mCherry-GFP-LC3 construct in neurons of the peripheral and central nervous system, allowing the measurement of autophagy activity in pharmacological and disease settings.

Castillo, K; Valenzuela, V; Matus, S; Nassif, M; Onate, M; Fuentealba, Y; Encina, G; Irrazabal, T; Parsons, G; Court, F A; Schneider, B L; Armentano, D; Hetz, C

2013-01-01

282

Validation of the IPCC AR4 Monthly Mean Surface Downward Shortwave and Longwave Radiative Fluxes against the BSRN Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has played a significant role in evaluation and assessment of the global climate system. In addition to observed data, IPCC has also used model data for the purpose. An important part of the model data is the shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes at TOA and the Earth's surface. The quality of these data sets directly influence the reliability of IPCC's assessment of the climate. The NASA Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Radiative Flux Assessment (RFA) project aims to produce reliable radiation datasets through intercomparisons of different datasets as well as comparisons with the ground-based measurements. The Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) has so far produced about 4800 site-months of surface radiation data from 43 surface stations over the time span from 1992 up to the present, and these datasets have been considered the best-quality available ground-based measurements. The BSRN radiation data are made at 1-, 2-, 3-, or 5-minute intervals and practically make a continuous record of the radiative processes. Sophisticated quality-control procedure is first applied to filter out any data points suspected to be bad. Then proper algorithm and criteria are designed to process the data to produce 3-hourly, daily and monthly means. In this presentation, we focus on the IPCC AR4 surface downward shortwave and longwave monthly mean fluxes from January 1992 to December 1999 and compare them with their BSRN counterparts. The time span is based on the coincidental temporal coverage of the IPCC AR4 data and the BSRN data. The comparisons found that for the shortwave surface downward monthly mean fluxes on the basis of 642 site-months, the bias and RMS for the "average" version are -16.38 and 25.25 watts per square meter, respectively, and for the "median" version are 0.30 and 19.46 watts per square meter, respectively; for the longwave surface downward monthly mean fluxes on the basis of 1397 site-months, the bias and RMS for the "average" version are -41.49 and 44.46 watts per square meter, respectively, and -9.49 and 17.07 watts per square meter, respectively.

Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Gupta, S. K.; Cox, S. J.; Mikovitz, J. C.

2009-12-01

283

Radiation dose measurements in coronary CT angiography  

PubMed Central

Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is associated with high radiation dose and this has raised serious concerns in the literature. Awareness of various parameters for dose estimates and measurements of coronary CT angiography plays an important role in increasing our understanding of the radiation exposure to patients, thus, contributing to the implementation of dose-saving strategies. This article provides an overview of the radiation dose quantity and its measurement during coronary CT angiography procedures.

Sabarudin, Akmal; Sun, Zhonghua

2013-01-01

284

Evaluation of multi-dimensional flux models for radiative transfer in combustion chambers: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, flux methods have been widely employed as alternative, albeit intrinsically less accurate, procedures to the zone or Monte Carlo methods in complete prediction procedures. Flux models of radiation fields take the form of partial differential equations, which can conveniently and economically be solved simultaneously with the equations representing flow and reaction. The flux models are usually tested and evaluated from the point of view of predictive accuracy by comparing their predictions with "exact' values produced using the zone or Monte Carlo models. Evaluations of various multi-dimensional flux-type models, such as De Marco and Lockwood, Discrete-Ordinate, Schuster-Schwarzschild and moment, are reviewed from the points of view of both accuracy and computational economy. Six-flux model of Schuster-Schwarzschild type with angular subdivisions related to the enclosure geometry is recommended for incorporation into existing procedures for complete mathematical modelling of rectangular combustion chambers.

Selcuk, N.

1984-01-01

285

Photodegradation effects in materials exposed to high flux solar and solar simulated radiation  

SciTech Connect

This report contains study results about photodegradation effects in materials exposed to high flux solar and solar simulated radiation. The studies show that high flux photoirradiation of materials can result in significant changes in the stability of materials. Photodesorption and photo-enhanced oxidation were determined to be the major mechanisms. These mechanisms were shown to affect, in extremely adverse ways, the expected thermal stability of solar relevant materials, especially stainless steels, (It is expected that related high temperature alloy steels will be similarly affected.) An analytical expression was generated to predict the flux behavior of the steels using {number_sign}304 as a prototypical stainless steel system.

Ignatiev, A. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)

1992-04-01

286

Photodegradation effects in materials exposed to high flux solar and solar simulated radiation  

SciTech Connect

This report contains study results about photodegradation effects in materials exposed to high flux solar and solar simulated radiation. The studies show that high flux photoirradiation of materials can result in significant changes in the stability of materials. Photodesorption and photo-enhanced oxidation were determined to be the major mechanisms. These mechanisms were shown to affect, in extremely adverse ways, the expected thermal stability of solar relevant materials, especially stainless steels, (It is expected that related high temperature alloy steels will be similarly affected.) An analytical expression was generated to predict the flux behavior of the steels using {number sign}304 as a prototypical stainless steel system.

Ignatiev, A [Houston Univ., TX (United States)

1992-04-01

287

Quality Assurance for Measurements of Ionizng Radiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes results of the first year of a program that will enable the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to improve, demonstrate, and document traceability of its measurements to the national physical measurement standards for ionizing radiation. T...

E. H. Eisenhower M. Ehrlich T. P. Loftus J. M. R. Hutchinson

1982-01-01

288

Ground-based estimates of outer radiation belt energetic electron precipitation fluxes into the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AARDDVARK data from a radio wave receiver in Sodankylä, Finland have been used to monitor transmissions across the auroral oval and just into the polar cap from the very low frequency communications transmitter, call sign NAA (24.0 kHz, 44°N, 67°W, L = 2.9), in Maine, USA, since 2004. The transmissions are influenced by outer radiation belt (L = 3-7) energetic electron precipitation. In this study, we have been able to show that the observed transmission amplitude variations can be used to determine routinely the flux of energetic electrons entering the upper atmosphere along the total path and between 30 and 90 km. Our analysis of the NAA observations shows that electron precipitation fluxes can vary by 3 orders of magnitude during geomagnetic storms. Typically when averaging over L = 3-7 we find that the >100 keV POES "trapped" fluxes peak at about 106 el. cm-2 s-1 sr-1 during geomagnetic storms, with the DEMETER >100 keV drift loss cone showing peak fluxes of 105 el. cm-2 s-1 sr-1, and both the POES >100 keV "loss" fluxes and the NAA ground-based >100 keV precipitation fluxes showing peaks of ˜104 el. cm-2 s-1 sr-1. During a geomagnetic storm in July 2005, there were systematic MLT variations in the fluxes observed: electron precipitation flux in the midnight sector (22-06 MLT) exceeded the fluxes from the morning side (0330-1130 MLT) and also from the afternoon sector (1130-1930 MLT). The analysis of NAA amplitude variability has the potential of providing a detailed, near real-time, picture of energetic electron precipitation fluxes from the outer radiation belts.

Clilverd, Mark A.; Rodger, Craig J.; Gamble, Rory J.; Ulich, Thomas; Raita, Tero; SeppäLä, Annika; Green, Janet C.; Thomson, Neil R.; Sauvaud, Jean-André; Parrot, Michel

2010-12-01

289

Heat flux measurements for use in physiological and clothing research.  

PubMed

Scientists use passive heat flow meters to measure body heat exchanges with the environment. In recent years, several such sensors have been developed and concerns about their proper calibration have been addressed. However, calibration methods have differed in the geometry of the heated device as well as in the heat transfer mechanism. Therefore, a comparison of calibration methods is needed in order to understand the obtained differences in calibration lines. We chose three commercially available heat flux sensors and placed them on four different heated devices: a hot plate, double hot plate, nude cylinder and a cylinder covered with a spacer material. We found differences between the calibration line of the manufacturer and our own measurements, especially when forced convection was involved as the main heat transfer mechanism. The results showed clearly that the calibration method should be chosen according to the intended purpose of use. In addition, we recommend use a thin, light heat flux sensor with good thermal conduction in human subject studies. PMID:23824222

Niedermann, R; Psikuta, A; Rossi, R M

2014-08-01

290

Footprint estimation for scalar flux measurements in the atmospheric surface layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flux footprint is the contribution, per unit emission, of each element of a surface area source to the vertical scalar flux measured at height zm; it is equal to the vertical flux from a unit surface point source. The dependence of the flux footprint on crosswind location is shown to be identical to the crosswind concentration distribution for a

T. W. Horst; J. C. Weil

1992-01-01

291

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

LR Roeder

2008-12-01

292

Radiation transport measurements by X-ray scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted x-ray scattering measurements on a radiatively-heated low density (0.2 g/cc) carbon foam. The foam is heated by a radiation cavity (hohlraum), which is driven by 6 to 9 kJ of laser energy at the Omega laser facility (University of Rochester). Using as a probe the 4.75 keV He-alpha line radiation produced by irradiating a Ti foil, we have recorded time-resolved spectrally dispersed 80 deg. scattered spectra with a high efficiency graphite Bragg crystal coupled to a framing camera. By fitting the measured Doppler-broadened and Compton red-shifted scattered spectra at various times after the end of the driving laser beams, we temporally resolve the electron temperature and ionization state progression as the radiation wave passes through the foam. In order to compare our results with radiation hydrodynamics simulations, we have also obtained flux-integrated measurements of the hohlraum emission (DANTE) for an estimate of the radiation temperature inside the cavity. Our results show peak foam electron temperatures Te ˜170 eV, with an average ionization state Zf ˜5.2, in agreement with LASNEX predictions. These EOS results are also of interest for understanding coupling of x-rays to capsule blow-off in indirect drive ICF.

Gregori, Gianluca; Hammer, J.; Dewald, E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Landen, O. L.

2004-11-01

293

An information theory approach for evaluating earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements - Nonuniform sampling of reflected shortwave radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An information theory approach to examine the temporal nonuniform sampling characteristics of shortwave (SW) flux for earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements is suggested. The information gain is computed by computing the information content before and after the measurements. A stochastic diurnal model for the SW flux is developed, and measurements for different orbital parameters are examined. The methodology is applied to specific NASA Polar platform and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) orbital parameters. The information theory approach, coupled with the developed SW diurnal model, is found to be promising for measurements involving nonuniform orbital sampling characteristics.

Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Direskeneli, Haldun; Halyo, Nesim

1992-01-01

294

Greenhouse effect and altitude gradients over the Alps – by surface longwave radiation measurements and model calculated LOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The greenhouse effect has been investigated predominantly with satellite measurements, but more than 90% of the greenhouse radiative flux affecting Earth’s surface temperature and humidity originates from a 1000 meter layer above the surface. Here we show that substantial improvements on surface longwave radiation measurements and very good agreement with radiative transfer model calculations allow the clear-sky greenhouse effect

R. Philipona; B. Dürr; C. Marty

2004-01-01

295

Local Heat Flux Measurements with Single Element Coaxial Injectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To support the mission for the NASA Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a program in 2005 to improve the capability to predict local thermal compatibility and heat transfer in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. The ultimate objective was to predict and hence reduce the local peak heat flux due to injector design, resulting in a significant improvement in overall engine reliability and durability. Such analyses are applicable to combustion devices in booster, upper stage, and in-space engines, as well as for small thrusters with few elements in the injector. In this program, single element and three-element injectors were hot-fire tested with liquid oxygen and ambient temperature gaseous hydrogen propellants at The Pennsylvania State University Cryogenic Combustor Laboratory from May to August 2005. Local heat fluxes were measured in a 1-inch internal diameter heat sink combustion chamber using Medtherm coaxial thermocouples and Gardon heat flux gauges. Injectors were tested with shear coaxial and swirl coaxial elements, including recessed, flush and scarfed oxidizer post configurations, and concentric and non-concentric fuel annuli. This paper includes general descriptions of the experimental hardware, instrumentation, and results of the hot-fire testing for three of the single element injectors - recessed-post shear coaxial with concentric fuel, flush-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel, and scarfed-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel. Detailed geometry and test results will be published elsewhere to provide well-defined data sets for injector development and model validatation.

Jones, Gregg; Protz, Christopher; Bullard, Brad; Hulka, James

2006-01-01

296

Radiation: Physical Characterization and Environmental Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this session, Session WP4, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Production of Neutrons from Interactions of GCR-Like Particles; Solar Particle Event Dose Distributions, Parameterization of Dose-Time Profiles; Assessment of Nuclear Events in the Body Produced by Neutrons and High-Energy Charged Particles; Ground-Based Simulations of Cosmic Ray Heavy Ion Interactions in Spacecraft and Planetary Habitat Shielding Materials; Radiation Measurements in Space Missions; Radiation Measurements in Civil Aircraft; Analysis of the Pre-Flight and Post-Flight Calibration Procedures Performed on the Liulin Space Radiation Dosimeter; and Radiation Environment Monitoring for Astronauts.

1997-01-01

297

A comparison of discrete-ordinates and flux-limited-diffusion methods for modeling radiation transport in radiative shock tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) seeks to improve the predictive capability for models of Omega laser experiments of radiative shock waves. The laser is used to shock, ionize, and accelerate a beryllium plate into a xenon-filled shock tube. These shocks, when driven above a threshold velocity of about 60 km/s, become strongly radiative and convert most of the incoming energy flux into radiation. Radiative shocks have properties that are significantly different from purely hydrodynamic shocks and, in modeling this phenomenon numerically, it is important to compute radiative effects accurately. In this presentation, we examine approaches to modeling radiation transport by comparing two methods: (i) a computationally efficient approximation (multigroup flux-limited diffusion), currently in use in the CRASH code, with (ii) a more accurate discrete-ordinates treatment that is offered by the code PDT. We present a selection of results from a suite of comparison tests, showing both idealized problems and those that are representative of conditions found in the CRASH experiment.

Myra, Eric S.; Hawkins, Wm. Daryl

2011-11-01

298

Observational constraints on Arctic Ocean clouds and radiative fluxes during the early 21st century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic Ocean observations are combined to create a cloud and radiation climatology for the early 21st century (March 2000 to February 2011). Data sources include: active (CloudSat, CALIPSO) and passive (MODIS) satellite cloud observations, observed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes (CERES-EBAF), observationally constrained radiative flux calculations (2B-FLXHR-LIDAR), and observationally constrained cloud forcing calculations (CERES-EBAF, 2B-FLXHR-LIDAR). Uncertainty in flux calculations is dominated by cloud uncertainty, not surface albedo uncertainty. The climatology exposes large geographic, seasonal, and interannual variability cloud forcing, but on average, Arctic Ocean clouds warm the surface (+10 W m-2, in 2B-FLXHR-LIDAR) and cool the TOA (-12 W m-2, in CERES-EBAF and 2B-FLXHR-LIDAR). Shortwave TOA cloud cooling and longwave TOA cloud warming are stronger in 2B-FLXHR-LIDAR than in CERES-EBAF, but these two differences compensate each other, yielding similar net TOA values. During the early 21st century, summer TOA albedo decreases are consistent with sea ice loss but are unrelated to summer cloud trends that are statistically insignificant. In contrast, both sea ice variability and cloud variability contribute to interannual variability in summer shortwave radiative fluxes. Summer 2007 had the largest persistent cloud, radiation, and sea ice anomalies in the climatology. During that summer, positive net shortwave radiation anomalies exceeded 20 W m-2 over much of the Arctic Ocean. This enhanced shortwave absorption resulted primarily from cloud reductions during early summer and sea ice loss during late summer. In summary, the observations show that while cloud variability influences absorbed shortwave radiation variability, there is no summer cloud trend affecting summer absorbed shortwave radiation.

Kay, Jennifer E.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan

2013-07-01

299

Ship based cloud and radiation measurements on the Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds remain one of the biggest obstacles in our understanding of the coupled ocean-atmosphere climate system. Because of the strong inhomogeneity of cloud pattern on those scales that are relevant for the radiative transfer processes it is clear that subgrid-scale processes must be accounted for in radiative transfer parameterizations. Combined observations of cloud physical and radiative properties are a key to adjust or to validate such parameterizations. In spring and in fall 2007 the cruises ANT-XXIII-10 and ANT-XXIV-1 of the German research vessel Polarstern from South Africa to Germany and back have been utilized to perform continuous measurements of the radiation budget at the sea surface and the corresponding cloud properties under tropical, subtropical and mid-latitude climate conditions. For the first time, a multichannel microwave radiometer has been operated under open ocean conditions to obtain profiles of humidity, temperature, as well as liquid water path and water vapor path with 1 Hz temporal resolution. Cloud cover, cloud type and cloud bottom height have been obtained from continuous sky imaging and ceilometer measurements. Satellite based surface radiation budget estimates from Meteosat-7 SEVIRI measurements provided by the Climate Monitoring - Satellite Application Facilities CM-SAF have been compared to ship based measurements. Differences between the two will be discussed in terms of climatological and meteorological conditions. The high resolution ship based observations of cloud and radiation properties have been applied to improve exisiting surface radiation parameterizations with special considerations of rapid fluctuations due to the dynamics of clouds. Both campaigns in 2007 are test phases for the German national project OCEANET where temporarilly high resolved measurements of the chemical and biological composition of the upper ocean are combined with energy- and CO2-flux measurements at the ocean surface to improve our understanding of ocean-atmosphere interactions. To this end intensive measurements during six Atlantic transects of RV Polarstern between 2008 and 2010 will be performed.

Macke, A.; Kalisch, J.; Hollmann, R.; Sinitsyn, A.; Wassmann, A.

2007-12-01

300

Critical radiation fluxes and luminosities of black holes and relativistic stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The critial luminosity at which the outward force of radiation balances the inward force of gravity plays an important role in many astrophysical systems. We present expressions for the radiation force on particles with arbitrary cross sections and analyze the radiation field produced by radiating matter, such as a disk, ring, boundary layer, or stellar surface, that rotates slowly around a slowly rotating gravitating mass. We then use these results to investigate the critical radiation flux and, where possible, the critical luminosity of such a system in genral relativity. We demonstrate that if the radiation source is axisymmetric and emission is back-front symmetric with repect to the local direction of motion of the radiating matter, as seen in the comoving frame, then the radial component of the radiation flux and the diagonal components of the radiation stress-energy tensor outside the source are the same, to first order in the rotation rates, as they would be if the radiation source and gravitating mass were not rotating. We argue that the critical radiation flux for matter at rest in the locally nonrotating frame is often satisfactory as an astrophysical benchmark flux and show that if this benchmark is adopted, many of the complications potentially introduced by rotation of the radiation source and the gravitating mass are avoided. We show that if the radiation field in the absence of rotation would be spherically symmetric and the opacity is independent of frequency and direction, one can define a critical luminosity for the system that is independent of frequency and direction, one can define a critical luminosity for the system that is independent of the spectrum and angular size of the radiation source and is unaffected by rotation of the source and mass and orbital motion of the matter, to first order. Finally, we analyze the conditions under which the maximum possible luminosity of a star or black hole powered by steady spherically symmetric radial accretion is the same in general relativity as in the Newtonian limit.

Lamb, Frederick K.; Miller, M. Coleman

1995-01-01

301

Spatial variability of shortwave radiative fluxes in the context of snowmelt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow-covered mountain ranges are a major source of water supply for run-off and groundwater recharge. Snowmelt supplies as much as 75% of surface water in basins of the western United States. Factors that affect the rate of snow melt include incoming shortwave and longwave radiation, surface albedo, snow emissivity, snow surface temperature, sensible and latent heat fluxes, ground heat flux, and energy transferred to the snowpack from deposited snow or rain. The net radiation generally makes up about 80% of the energy balance and is dominated by the shortwave radiation. Complex terrain poses a great challenge for obtaining the needed information on radiative fluxes from satellites due to elevation issues, spatially-variable cloud cover, rapidly changing surface conditions during snow fall and snow melt, lack of high quality ground truth for evaluation of the satellite based estimates, as well as scale issues between the ground observations and the satellite footprint. In this study we utilize observations of high spatial resolution (5-km) as available from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) to derive surface shortwave radiative fluxes in complex terrain, with attention to the impact of slopes on the amount of radiation received. The methodology developed has been applied to several water years (January to July during 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2009) over the western part of the United States, and the available information was used to derive metrics on spatial and temporal variability in the shortwave fluxes. It is planned to apply the findings from this study for testing improvements in Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) estimates.

Pinker, Rachel T.; Ma, Yingtao; Hinkelman, Laura; Lundquist, Jessica

2014-05-01

302

Measurement of the Atmospheric ?e Flux in IceCube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first measurement of the atmospheric electron neutrino flux in the energy range between approximately 80 GeV and 6 TeV, using data recorded during the first year of operation of IceCube’s DeepCore low-energy extension. Techniques to identify neutrinos interacting within the DeepCore volume and veto muons originating outside the detector are demonstrated. A sample of 1029 events is observed in 281 days of data, of which 496±66(stat)±88(syst) are estimated to be cascade events, including both electron neutrino and neutral current events. The rest of the sample includes residual backgrounds due to atmospheric muons and charged current interactions of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The flux of the atmospheric electron neutrinos is consistent with models of atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range. This constitutes the first observation of electron neutrinos and neutral current interactions in a very large volume neutrino telescope optimized for the TeV energy range.

Aartsen, M. G.; Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bell, M.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohaichuk, S.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Brown, A. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Groß, A.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Heereman, D.; Heimann, P.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krasberg, M.; Kroll, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leute, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pirk, N.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rädel, L.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Salameh, T.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheel, M.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönherr, L.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Sheremata, C.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soiron, M.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Usner, M.; van der Drift, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Wasserman, R.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zilles, A.; Zoll, M.

2013-04-01

303

Determination of Top-of-Atmosphere Longwave Radiative Fluxes: A Comparison Between Two Approaches Using ScaRaB Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two conceptually different approaches (broadband-based ERBE and narrowband-based ISCCP approaches), used to derive the TOA longwave radiative fluxes, are compared using the ScaRaB simultaneous narrowband and broadband measurements. This study directly shows that the ERBE MLE-derived cloud covers implicitly contain some information on the cloud optical properties. A spurious view-zenith-angle dependence of the MLE scene identification scheme is confirmed by this study. Except for very thin cirrus clouds, differences between the ERBE and ISCCP approaches are in general < 10 W/sq m for the TOA LW radiative fluxes. For clear pixels, the model calculated (ISCCP approach) TOA LW radiances are systematically smaller than the observations. Though the bias is found to be correlated on the column precipitable water amount, the exact source of this discrepancy remains undetermined and merits further study. Compared with the radiative transfer model used in this study, the ERBE LW ADMs are too weakly limb-darkened for optically thin clouds, but too strongly limb-darkened for optically thick clouds, indicating that more accurate instantaneous TOA LW flux estimations from the ERBE approach would require additional cloud classes based on cloud height and optical thickness.

Chen, Ting; Rossow, William B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

304

Flux-Flow Norse Measurements on Type II Superconductors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flux-flow noise in Type 2 superconductors is investigated experimentally. The observed noise turns out to be shot noise as expected from the assumption that the flux-flow voltage is generated by independently drifting flux bundles. Bundle sizes as large a...

S. W. Shen A. van der Ziel

1972-01-01

305

Applicability of transmissive diffractive optics to high flux FEL radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EUV- and X-ray sources with laser like properties, e.g. free electron lasers, offer possibilities for many new experiments. In order to successfully plan and perform experiments at these high flux sources, it is necessary to know which kind of optics, exposed to the full beam, can be used. Due to the high intensities, it is not clear, whether transmissive diffractive optics are applicable, because these optics are usually fabricated on thin membranes, thus introducing additional absorption in the desired energy range. Since diffractive optics, especially zone plates, offer the possibility to achieve small spots when used as a focussing element and can also achieve good image quality in microscopic setups, their usage would facilitate many experiments, especially for their easy handling. As a proof of concept, we set up a zone plate based scanning transmission microscope at the unfocussed beamline BL3 at FLASH (DESY/Hamburg). The operating wavelength was 32 nm and 13.8 nm, respectively. While the first attempt, utilizing a zone plate composed of PMMA on silicon substrate failed due to ablation of the PMMA, a second zone plate (chromium on silicon nitride) was successfully used to focus the beam onto different samples (e.g. nickel-mesh and a silicon nitride structured sample). The resulting focal spot size was estimated from the acquired images to be in the range of 1 ?m - 3?m in diameter. After several hours of exposure, no damage was visible to the optics. Beside the optics, different filters (Silicon/Zirconium, Zirconium and Aluminum) have been placed in the beam to evaluate possibilities to further reduce intensity which may be necessary if sensitive detectors are involved. All of the filters withstood the irradiation during the whole experiment.

Nisius, Thomas; Früke, Rolf; Schäfer, David; Wieland, Marek; Wilhein, Thomas

2009-05-01

306

Measurements of the total ion flux from vacuum arc cathodespots  

SciTech Connect

The ion flux from vacuum arc cathode spots was measured in two vacuum arc systems. The first was a vacuum arc ion source which was modified allowing us to collect ions from arc plasma streaming through an anode mesh. The second discharge system essentially consisted of a cathode placed near the center of a spherically shaped mesh anode. In both systems, the ion current streaming through the mesh was measured by a biased collector. The mesh anodes had geometric transmittances of 60 percent and 72 percent, respectively, which were taken into account as correction factors. The ion current from different cathode materials was measured for 50-500 A of arc current. The ion current normalized by the arc current was found to depend on the cathode material, with values in the range from 5 percent to 19 percent. The normalized ion current is generally greater for elements of low cohesive energy. The ion erosion rates were determined from values of ion current and ion charge states, which were previously measured in the same ion source. The absolute ion erosion rates range from 16-173 mu g/C.

Anders, Andre; Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu; Savkin,Konstantin P.; Brown, Ian G.; Nikolaev, Alexey G.

2005-05-25

307

Retrieval of latent heat flux and longwave irradiance at the sea surface from SSM\\/I and AVHRR measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of passive microwave measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave\\/Imager (SSM\\/I) with infrared imagery from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is used to derive flux densities of latent heat and longwave radiation at the sea surface. While the AVHRR measurements are used to derive the surface skin temperature of the ocean the SSM\\/I observations are analysed for

P. Schlüssel; L. Schanz; G. Englisch

1995-01-01

308

Methods of in vivo radiation measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of and apparatus for in vivo radiation measurements relay on a MOSFET dosimeter of high radiation sensitivity with operates in both the passive mode to provide an integrated dose detector and active mode to provide an irradiation rate detector. A compensating circuit with a matched unirradiated MOSFET is provided to operate at a current designed to eliminate temperature dependence

D. D. Huffman; R. C. Hughes; C. A. Kelsey; A. J. Ricco; J. B. Snelling; T. E. Zipperian

1990-01-01

309

Soil, Leaf, and Canopy Chamber and Micrometeorological Measurements of CO2 Fluxes in Croplands and Grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Net ecosystem CO2 fluxes are measured using methods that encompass a variety of time scales (seconds to hours) and spatial scales (square centimeters to hectares). Comparison of fluxes measured using different methods involves uncertainties associated with measurement accuracy and spatial and temporal extrapolation. This paper will present a synthesis of nearly a decade of ecosystem CO2 flux measurements made simultaneously using a variety of methods. Daytime, half-hour Bowen ratio/energy balance (BREB) and soil chamber CO2 flux measurements over a bare soil averaged 0.042 and 0.039 mg m-2 s-1 over four days, while the root mean square difference of fluxes was 0.017 mg m-2 s-1. The spatial variability of soil chamber measurements was 20 times that of the BREB measurements. Daytime leaf chamber measurements, after scaling up using leaf area and accounting for soil CO2 fluxes, were similar to, but slightly less than, half-hour net ecosystem BREB CO2 flux measurements for bermudagrass, tallgrass prairie, and sorghum. Canopy chamber measurements in the same ecosystems were similar to scaled leaf chamber fluxes. The scatter of leaf chamber fluxes, versus BREB fluxes, was greater than canopy chamber fluxes. Finally, daylight scaled CO2 fluxes from leaf and soil chamber measurements were within 17% of net ecosystem BREB fluxes in burn and control pastures in a mesquite grassland over two years, except for the burn treatment in one year when both sets of fluxes and leaf areas were near zero due to drought. In all of these studies, leaf, soil, and canopy chamber fluxes were scaled up to a temporal scale and a spatial scale comparable to that of the BREB measurements. The uncertainties associated with this scaling will be addressed.

Dugas, W. A.; Mielnick, P. C.

2001-05-01

310

Visualization of Radiation Environment on Mars: Assessment with MARIE Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For a given GCR (Galactic Cosmic Ray) environment at Mars, particle flux of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions, are also needed on the surface of Mars for future human exploration missions. For the past twelve months, the MARJE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument onboard the 200J Mars Odyssey has been providing the radiation measurements from the Martian orbit. These measurements are well correlated with the HZETRN (High Z and Energy Transport) and QMSFRG (Quantum Multiple-Scattering theory of nuclear Fragmentation) model calculations. These model calculations during these specific GCR environment conditions are now extended and transported through the CO2 atmosphere onto the Martian surface. These calculated pa11icle flux distributions are presented as a function of the Martian topography making use of the MOLA (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter) data from the MGS (Mars Global Surveyor). Also, particle flux calculations are presented with visualization in the human body from skin depth to the internal organs including the blood-forming organs.

Saganti, P.; Cucinotta, F.; Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T.; Flanders, J.; Riman, F.; Hu, X.; Pinsky, L.; Lee, K.; Anderson, V.; Atwell, W.; Turner, R.

2003-01-01

311

Water flux measurement and prediction in young cashew trees using sap flow data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of sap flow, meteorological parameters, soil water content and tension were made for 4 months in a young cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) plantation during the 2002 rainy season in Ejura, Ghana. This experiment was part of a sustainable water management project in West Africa. The Granier system was used to measure half-hourly whole-tree sap flow. Weather variables were observed with an automatic weather station, whereas soil moisture and tension were measured with a Delta-T profile probe and tensiometers respectively. Clearness index (CI), a measure of the sky condition, was significantly correlated with tree transpiration (r2 = 0.73) and potential evaporation (r2 = 0.86). Both diurnal and daily stomata conductance were poorly correlated with the climatic variables. Estimated daily canopy conductance gc ranged from 4.0 to 21.2 mm s-1, with a mean value of 8.0 +/- 3.3 mm s-1. Water flux variation was related to a range of environmental variables: soil water content, air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity and vapour pressure deficit. Linear and non-linear regression models, as well as a modified Priestley-Taylor formula, were fitted with transpiration, and the well-correlated variables, using half-hourly measurements. Measured and predicted transpiration using these regression models were in good agreement, with r2 ranging from 0.71 to 0.84. The computed measure of accuracy indicated that a non-linear model is better than its corresponding linear one. Furthermore, solar radiation, CI, clouds and rain were found to influence tree water flux.

Oguntunde, Philip G.; van de Giesen, Nick

2005-10-01

312

Passive flux sampler for measurement of formaldehyde emission rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new passive flux sampler (PFS) was developed to measure emission rates of formaldehyde and to determine emission sources in indoor environments. The sampler consisted of a glass Petri dish containing a 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH)-impregnated sheet. At the start of sampling, the PFS was placed with the open face of the dish on each of the indoor materials under investigation, such as flooring, walls, doors, closets, desks, beds, etc. Formaldehyde emitted from a source material diffused through the inside of the PFS and was adsorbed onto the DNPH sheet. The formaldehyde emission rates could be determined from the quantities adsorbed. The lower determination limits were 9.2 and 2.3 ?g m -2 h -1 for 2- and 8-h sampling periods. The recovery rate and the precision of the PFS were 82.9% and 8.26%, respectively. The emission rates measured by PFS were in good agreement with the emission rates measured by the chamber method ( R2=0.963). This shows that it is possible to take measurements of the formaldehyde emission rates from sources in a room and to compare them. In addition, the sampler can be used to elucidate the emission characteristics of a source by carrying out emission measurements with different air-layer thicknesses inside the PFS and at different temperatures. The dependency of the emission rate on the thickness of the air layer inside the PFS indicated whether the internal mass transfer inside the source material or the diffusion in the gas-phase boundary layer controlled the formaldehyde emission rate from a material. In addition, as a pilot study, the formaldehyde emission rates were measured, and the largest emission source of formaldehyde could be identified from among several suspected materials in a model house by using the PFS.

Shinohara, Naohide; Fujii, Minoru; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Yukio

313

Two-Flux Green's Function Analysis for Transient Spectral Radiation in a Composite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is developed for obtaining transient temperatures in a two-layer semitransparent composite with spectrally dependent properties. Each external boundary of the composite is subjected to radiation and convection. The two-flux radiative transfer equations are solved by deriving a Green's function. This yields the local radiative heat source needed to numerically solve the transient energy equation. An advantage of the two-flux method is that isotropic scattering is included without added complexity. The layer refractive indices are larger than one. This produces internal reflections at the boundaries and the internal interface; the reflections are assumed diffuse. Spectral results using the Green's function method are verified by comparing with numerical solutions using the exact radiative transfer equations. Transient temperature distributions are given to illustrate the effect of radiative heating on one side of a composite with external convective cooling. The protection of a material from incident radiation is illustrated by adding scattering to the layer adjacent to the radiative source.

Siegel, Robert

1996-01-01

314

Discrete-Ordinates and Flux-Limited-Diffusion Methods for Radiation Transport: A Comparison Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) seeks to improve the predictive capability for models of Omega laser experiments of radiative shock waves. The laser is used to shock, ionize, and accelerate a beryllium plate into a xenon-filled shock tube. These shocks, when driven above a threshold velocity of about 60 km/s, become strongly radiative and convert most of the incoming energy flux into radiation. Radiative shocks have properties that are significantly different from purely hydrodynamic shocks and, in modeling this phenomenon numerically, it is important to compute radiative effects accurately. In this presentation, we examine approaches to modeling radiation transport by comparing two methods: (i) a computationally efficient approximation (multigroup flux-limited diffusion), currently in use in the CRASH code, with (ii) a more accurate discrete-ordinates treatment that is offered by the code PDT. We present a selection of updated results from a suite of comparison tests, showing both idealized problems and those that are representative of conditions found in the CRASH experiment. This research was supported by the DOE NNSA/ASC under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program by grant number DEFC52-08NA28616.

Myra, Eric S.; Hawkins, W. D.

2012-05-01

315

Entropy Flux and Entropy Production of Stationary Black-Body Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than a century after Max Planck's 1906 book Theorie der Wärmestrahlung, alternative expressions for the entropy flux as related to thermal black-body radiation under non-equilibrium conditions are still controversially discussed in the scientific literature. In this paper, we consider the radiative heat exchange between two planar black bodies of different temperatures. Solely by exploiting the Second Law, it is shown that the mathematical formula for the related non-equilibrium entropy flux can uniquely be inferred from the Stefan-Boltzmann law, without taking advantage of the statistical Planck distribution. Expressions for the entropy production at the emitting surfaces are derived and an effective temperature associated with the radiation between the two bodies is suggested.

Feistel, Rainer

2011-06-01

316

The Design of a Calorimeter to Measure Concentrated Solar Flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A water-cooled, cavity calorimeter was designed to accurately measure concentrated solar thermal power produced by the University of Minnesota's solar simulator. The cavity is comprised of copper tubing bent into spiral and helical coils for the base and cylindrical walls, respectively. Insulation surrounds the cavity to reduce heat transfer to the ambient, and a water- cooled aperture cover is positioned at the open end of the cavity. The calorimeter measures the heat gain of water flowing through the system as radiant energy is passed through the aperture. Chilled water flows through the tubing, and the energy incident on the cavity surface is conducted through the wall and convected to the flowing water. The energy increase in the water can be observed by an increase in fluid temperature. A Monte Carlo ray tracing method is used to predict the incident flux distribution and corresponding power on the surfaces of the cavity. These values are used to estimate the thermal losses of the system, and it is found that they account for less that 1% of the total power passed through the aperture. The overall uncertainty of the calorimeter is found by summing the measured uncertainty and the estimated heat loss and is found to be +/-2.5% for 9.2 kW of power output and +/-3.4% for 3 kW.

Sefkow, Elizabeth Anne Bennett

317

Effect of Spectrally Varying Albedo of Vegetation Surfaces on Shortwave Radiation Fluxes and Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study develops an algorithm for representing detailed spectral features of vegetation albedo based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observations at 7 discrete channels, referred to as the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Albedo (MEVA) algorithm. The MEVA algorithm empirically fills spectral gaps around the vegetation red edge near 0.7 micrometers and vegetation water absorption features at 1.48 and 1.92 micrometers which cannot be adequately captured by the MODIS 7 channels. We then assess the effects of applying MEVA in comparison to four other traditional approaches to calculate solar fluxes and aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) based on the MODIS discrete reflectance bands. By comparing the DRF results obtained through the MEVA method with the results obtained through the other four traditional approaches, we show that filling the spectral gap of the MODIS measurements around 0.7 micrometers based on the general spectral behavior of healthy green vegetation leads to significant improvement in the instantaneous aerosol DRF at TOA (up to 3.02Wm(exp -2) difference or 48% fraction of the aerosol DRF, .6.28Wm(exp -2), calculated for high spectral resolution surface reflectance from 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers for deciduous vegetation surface). The corrections of the spectral gaps in the vegetation spectrum in the near infrared, again missed by the MODIS reflectances, also contributes to improving TOA DRF calculations but to a much lower extent (less than 0.27Wm(exp -2), or about 4% of the instantaneous DRF). Compared to traditional approaches, MEVA also improves the accuracy of the outgoing solar flux between 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers at TOA by over 60Wm(exp -2) (for aspen 3 surface) and aerosol DRF by over 10Wm(exp -2) (for dry grass). Specifically, for Amazon vegetation types, MEVA can improve the accuracy of daily averaged aerosol radiative forcing in the spectral range of 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers at equator at the equinox by 3.7Wm(exp -2). These improvements indicate that MEVA can contribute to regional climate studies over vegetated areas and can help to improve remote sensing-based studies of climate processes and climate change.

Zhu, L.; Martins, J. V.; Yu, H.

2012-01-01

318

Radiation Dosimetry of the Pressure Vessel Internals of the High Flux Beam Reactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In preparation for the eventual decommissioning of the High Flux Beam Reactor after the permanent removal of its fuel elements from the Brookhaven National Laboratory, both measurements and calculations of the decay gamma-ray dose rate have been performed...

N. E. Holden R. N. Reciniello J. P. Hu D. C. Rorer

2002-01-01

319

Nonequilibrium and equilibrium shock front radiation measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intensities of the radiation emitted behind a normal shock wave in N were measured in an electric-arc driven shock tube at a shock velocity of 6.2 km/sec. Both a time-resolved broad-band radiation intensity measurement and a time-frozen spectral measurement were conducted. The rotational and vibrational temperatures are determined in both the equilibrium and the nonequilibrium regions. The results are compared with the similar data obtained by Allen et al. (1961). The measured rotational temperature seems to be in nonequilibrium, contradicting the two-temperature assumption of Park (1988), but the measured vibrational temperature agrees with Park's model.

Sharma, Surendra P.; Gillespie, Walter

1990-01-01

320

Spatially explicit surface energy budget and partitioning with remote sensing and flux measurements in a boreal region of Interior Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extrapolating energy fluxes between the ground surface and the atmospheric boundary layer from point-based measurements to spatially explicit landscape estimation is critical to understand and quantify the energy balance components and exchanges in the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. This information is difficult to quantify and are often lacking. Using a Landsat image (acquired on 5 August 2004), the flux measurements from three eddy covariance flux towers (a 1987 burn, a 1999 burn, and an unburned control site) and a customized satellite-based surface energy balance model of Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), we estimated net radiation, sensible heat flux ( H), latent heat flux (LE), and soil heat flux ( G) for the boreal Yukon River Basin of Interior Alaska. The model requires user selection of two extreme conditions present within the image area to calibrate and anchor the sensible flux output. One is the "hot" condition which refers to a bare soil condition with specified residual evaporation rates. Another one is the "cold" condition which refers to a fully transpiring vegetation such as full-cover agricultural crops. We selected one bare field as the "hot" condition while we explored three different scenarios for the "cold" pixel because of the absence of larger expanses of agricultural fields within the image area. For this application over boreal forest, selecting agricultural fields whose evapotranspiration was assumed to be 1.05 times the alfalfa-based reference evapotranspiration as the "cold" pixel could result in large errors. Selecting an unburned flux tower site as the "cold" pixel could achieve acceptable results, but uncertainties remain about the energy balance closure of the flux towers. We found that METRIC performs reasonably well in partitioning energy fluxes in a boreal landscape.

Huang, Shengli; Dahal, Devendra; Singh, Ramesh; Liu, Heping; Young, Claudia; Liu, Shuguang

2013-08-01

321

Trace element measurements using white synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron radiation, when used for x-ray fluorescence (XRF) has several advantages over conventional x-ray sources. Our group at Brookhaven National Laboratory is developing the equipment and expertise to make XRF measurements with synchrotron radiation. The apparatus is briefly described, along with the alignment techniques. Some minimum detectable limits for trace elements in thin biological standards measured with white light irradiations are presented.

Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Pounds, J.G.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.

1986-11-10

322

Observed Arctic Ocean clouds, sea ice, and radiative fluxes during the early 21st century (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic Ocean satellite observations (A-train, CERES-EBAF) are combined to create a cloud and radiation climatology for the early 21st century. The climatology exposes large geographic, seasonal, and interannual variability in cloud forcing but on average, Arctic Ocean clouds warm the surface by 10 W/m2 and reduce incoming top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation by 12 W/m2. During the early 21st century, summer Arctic TOA albedo decreases can be explained by sea ice loss but are unrelated to summer cloud trends that are statistically insignificant. In contrast, both sea ice variability and cloud variability contribute to interannual variability in summer shortwave radiative fluxes. In summary, the observations show that while cloud variability influences absorbed shortwave radiation variability, there is no summer cloud trend affecting summer absorbed shortwave radiation (Kay and L'Ecuyer 2013 JGR). Implications of these findings for Arctic shortwave climate feedbacks and model evaluation are discussed.

Kay, J. E.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Gettelman, A.

2013-12-01

323

Measuring neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes with CCD cameras  

SciTech Connect

The capability to measure bursts of neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes directly with charge coupled device (CCD) cameras while being able to distinguish between the video signals produced by these two types of radiation, even when they occur simultaneously, has been demonstrated. Volume and area measurements of transient radiation-induced pixel charge in English Electric Valve (EEV) Frame Transfer (FT) charge coupled devices (CCDs) from irradiation with pulsed neutrons (14 MeV) and Bremsstrahlung photons (4--12 MeV endpoint) are utilized to calibrate the devices as radiometric imaging sensors capable of distinguishing between the two types of ionizing radiation. Measurements indicate {approx}.05 V/rad responsivity with {ge}1 rad required for saturation from photon irradiation. Neutron-generated localized charge centers or peaks'' binned by area and amplitude as functions of fluence in the 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2} range indicate smearing over {approx}1 to 10% of CCD array with charge per pixel ranging between noise and saturation levels.

Yates, G.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Smith, G.W. (Ministry of Defense, Aldermaston (United Kingdom). Atomic Weapons Establishment); Zagarino, P.; Thomas, M.C. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations)

1991-01-01

324

Measuring neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes with CCD cameras  

SciTech Connect

The capability to measure bursts of neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes directly with charge coupled device (CCD) cameras while being able to distinguish between the video signals produced by these two types of radiation, even when they occur simultaneously, has been demonstrated. Volume and area measurements of transient radiation-induced pixel charge in English Electric Valve (EEV) Frame Transfer (FT) charge coupled devices (CCDs) from irradiation with pulsed neutrons (14 MeV) and Bremsstrahlung photons (4--12 MeV endpoint) are utilized to calibrate the devices as radiometric imaging sensors capable of distinguishing between the two types of ionizing radiation. Measurements indicate {approx}.05 V/rad responsivity with {ge}1 rad required for saturation from photon irradiation. Neutron-generated localized charge centers or ``peaks`` binned by area and amplitude as functions of fluence in the 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2} range indicate smearing over {approx}1 to 10% of CCD array with charge per pixel ranging between noise and saturation levels.

Yates, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, G.W. [Ministry of Defense, Aldermaston (United Kingdom). Atomic Weapons Establishment; Zagarino, P.; Thomas, M.C. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations

1991-12-01

325

Measuring Temporal Photon Bunching in Blackbody Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light from thermal blackbody radiators such as stars exhibits photon bunching behavior at sufficiently short timescales. However, with available detector bandwidths, this bunching signal is difficult to observe directly. We present an experimental technique to increase the photon bunching signal in blackbody radiation via spectral filtering of the light source. Our measurements reveal strong temporal photon bunching from blackbody radiation, including the Sun. This technique allows for an absolute measurement of the photon bunching signature g (2)(0), and thereby a direct statement on the statistical nature of a light source. Such filtering techniques may help revive the interest in intensity interferometry as a tool in astronomy.

Tan, P. K.; Yeo, G. H.; Poh, H. S.; Chan, A. H.; Kurtsiefer, C.

2014-07-01

326

Measurement of Flux Density of Cas A at Low Frequencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cas A is used as a flux calibrator throughout the radio spectrum. Therefore it is important to know the spectral and secular variations in its flux density. Earlier observations by Scott et. al. (1969) and Baars et. al. (1972) suggested a secular decrease in flux density of Cas A at a rate of about 1% per year at all frequencies. However later observations by Erickson & Perley (1975) and Read (1977) indicated anomalously high flux from Cas A at 38 MHz. Also, these observations suggested that the original idea of faster decay of the flux density rate at low frequencies may be in error or that something more complex than simple decay is affecting the flux density at low frequencies. The source changes at 38 MHz still remains a mystery. We intend to present the results of follow up observations made from 1995 to 1998 with a three element interferometer in Green Bank operating in frequency range 30 to 120 MHz. We will discuss the problems at such low frequencies due to large beamwidth and unstable ionosphere. We will also discuss the strategies we have used so far to to find the flux density of Cas A by calculating the ratio of flux density of Cas A to that of Cyg A, assuming flux density of Cyg A to be constant. Above mentioned work was performed in summer student program sponsored by National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

Patil, Ajinkya; Fisher, R.

2012-01-01

327

Three-dimensional non-LTE radiative transfer effects in Fe I lines. I. Flux sheet and flux tube geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In network and active region plages, the magnetic field is concentrated into structures often described as flux tubes (FTs) and sheets (FSs). Three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer is important for energy transport in these concentrations. It is also expected to be important for diagnostic purposes but has rarely been applied for that purpose. Using true 3D, non-local thermodynamic-equilibrium (non-LTE or NLTE) radiative transfer (RT) in FT and FS models, we compute iron line profiles commonly used to diagnose the Sun's magnetic field by using and comparing the results with those obtained from LTE or one-dimensional (1D) NLTE calculations. Employing a multilevel iron atom, we study the influence of several basic parameters such as either FS or FT Wilson depression, wall thickness, radius/width, thermal stratification or magnetic field strength on Stokes I and the polarized Stokes parameters in the thin-tube approximation. The use of different levels of approximations of RT (3D NLTE, 1D NLTE, LTE) may lead to considerable differences in profile shapes, intensity contrasts, equivalent widths, and the determination of magnetic field strengths. In particular, LTE, which often provides a good approach in planar 1D atmospheres, is a poor approximation in our flux sheet model for some of the most important diagnostic Fe i lines (524.7 nm, 525.0 nm, 630.1 nm, and 630.2 nm). The observed effects depend on parameters such as the height of line formation, field strength, and internal temperature stratification. Differences between the profile shapes may lead to errors in the determination of magnetic fields on the order of 10% to 20%, while errors in the determined temperature can reach 300-400 K. The empirical FT models NET and PLA turn out to minimize the effects of 3D RT, so that results obtained with these models by applying LTE may also remain valid for 3D NLTE calculations. Finally, horizontal RT is found to only insignificantly smear out structures such as the optically thick walls of flux tubes and sheets, allowing features as narrow as 10 km to remain visible. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Holzreuter, R.; Solanki, S. K.

2012-11-01

328

Role of plant-generated water vapor and VOC fluxes in shoot chamber measurements of O3 and NOx  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the processes underlying the atmospheric balance of O3 and NOx is their interaction with vegetation. Both are removed, absorbed, and NOx potentially also emitted by foliage. Uncertainties remain on relevant factors controlling O3 and NOx interactions with foliage as well as on including them in large-scale models. One reason for the uncertainty is that chamber measurements of O3 and NOx fluxes are complicated. These reactive gases are adsorbed and desorbed on the chamber walls, depending on the conditions (i.e. humidity). These artefact gas fluxes (chamber blank) must also be quantified and taken into account in the data analysis. Their importance increases when measuring in clean air, where the fluxes are generally small. At near-zero concentrations, the fluxes may not pass the detection limit of the instrumentation, which usually means it is not possible to separate the plant-related fluxes from the chamber blank. The long-term field measurements at the SMEAR II station in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland, have provided valuable insights into O3 and NOx exchange (i.e. Raivonen & al. 2009, Altimir & al. 2006). This project builds up on the expertise and conclusions from these works. The aim of this study was to improve the reliability of the measuring system by checking the role of potential measuring artefact(s). A live shoot, enclosed in a chamber, creates a water vapor in the chamber flux by transpiring. There are also biogenic VOC emissions from the shoot. In principle, these may affect the reactions of O3 and possibly NOx in the chamber. The potential interference of these fluxes created naturally during chamber closure is a main concern. Their effect on the O3 and NOx flux measurements has been tested with field calibrations in 2010-2011. In these calibrations, a controlled water vapor /VOC flux was fed into an empty shoot measurement chamber, and the H2O, CO2, O3 and NOx fluxes created in the chamber were measured. The created water vapor flux pattern was modified to either simulate shoot transpiration or to break the close connection of natural daily variation in transpiration, radiation and temperature. We will present results of this experiment. The project is funded by the Maj and Tor Nessling Foundation and the Ella and Georg Ehnrooth Foundation.

Joensuu, J.; Altimir, N.; Raivonen, M.; Kolari, P.; Keronen, P.; Vesala, T.; Bäck, J.; Hari, P.; Järvinen, E.; Nikinmaa, E.

2012-04-01

329

A highly portable, rapidly deployable system for eddy covariance measurements of CO2 fluxes  

SciTech Connect

To facilitate the study of flux heterogeneity within a region, the authors have designed, built, and field-tested a highly portable, rapidly deployable, eddy covariance CO{sub 2} flux measurement system. The system is built from off-the-shelf parts and was assembled at a minimal cost. The unique combination of features of this system allow for a very rapid deployment with a minimal number of field personnel. The system is capable of making high precision, unattended measurements of turbulent CO{sub 2} fluxes, latent heat (LE) fluxes, sensible heat fluxes (H), and momentum transfer fluxes. In addition, many of the meteorological and ecosystem variables necessary for quality control of the fluxes and for running ecosystem models are measured. A side-by-side field comparison of the system at a pair of established AmeriFlux sites has verified that, for single measurements, the system is capable of CO{sub 2} flux accuracy of about {+-} 1.2 {micro}mole/m{sup 2}/sec, LE flux accuracy of about {+-} 15 Watts/m{sup 2}, H flux accuracy of about {+-} 7 Watts/m{sup 2}, and momentum transfer flux accuracy of about {+-} 11 gm-m/sec/sec. System deployment time is between 2 and 4 hours by a single person. The system was measured to draw between 30 and 35 Watts of power and may be run from available line power, storage batteries, or solar panels.

Billesbach, David P.; Fischer, Marc L.; Torn, Margaret S.; Berry, Joe A.

2001-09-19

330

Recommended Procedures for Measuring Radon Fluxes from Disposal Sites of Residual Radioactive Materials  

SciTech Connect

This report recornmenrls instrumentation and methods suitable for measuring radon fluxes emanating from covered disposal sites of residual radioactive materials such as uranium mill tailings. Problems of spatial and temporal variations in radon flux are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of several instruments are examined. A year-long measurement program and a two rnonth measurement rnethodology are then presented based on the inherent difficulties of measuring average radon flux over a cover using the recommended instrumentation.

Young,, J. A.; Thomas, V. W.; Jackson, P. 0.

1983-03-01

331

Surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility deployment in Niamey, Niger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed to Niamey, Niger, during 2006. Niamey, which is located in sub-Saharan Africa, is affected by both dust and biomass burning emissions. Column aerosol optical properties were derived from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, measurements and the vertical distribution of aerosol extinction was derived from a micropulse lidar during the two observed dry seasons (January-April and October-December). Mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) at 500 nm during January-April were 0.53 ± 0.4 and 0.94 ± 0.05, while during October-December mean AOD and SSA were 0.33 ± 0.25 and 0.99 ± 0.01. Aerosol extinction profiles peaked near 500 m during the January-April period and near 100 m during the October-December period. Broadband shortwave surface fluxes and heating rate profiles were calculated using retrieved aerosol properties. Comparisons for noncloudy periods indicated that the remote sensing retrievals provided a reasonable estimation of the aerosol optical properties, with mean differences between calculated and observed fluxes of less than 5 W m-2 and RMS differences less than 25 W m-2. Sensitivity tests showed that the observed fluxes could be matched with variations of <10% in the inputs to the radiative transfer model. The calculated 24-h averaged SW instantaneous surface aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) was -21.1 ± 14.3 W m-2 and was estimated to account for 80% of the total radiative forcing at the surface. The ARF was larger during January-April (-28.5 ± 13.5 W m-2) than October-December (-11.9 ± 8.9 W m-2).

McFarlane, S. A.; Kassianov, E. I.; Barnard, J.; Flynn, C.; Ackerman, T. P.

2009-07-01

332

Radiation measurement on a stratospheric balloon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth is permanently exposed to energetic particle radiation from cosmic rays. This cosmic particle radiation yields, together with its secondary particles produced in the Earth's atmosphere, a natural radiation field inside the atmosphere. This complex radiation field is composed of charged and neutral particles. The charged particles are mainly protons, alpha-particles, electrons, muons, and some heavy nuclei. The neutral components are neutrons and gamma-rays.The radiation exposure is dependent on altitude and geomagnetic latitude because the radiation field is modulated by Earth's magnetic field. The scientific goal is to investigate the dose rate dependence on the altitude at near solar minimum conditions in high latitudes. For this investigation a particle telescope consisting of four segmented silicon semiconductor detectors was developed. Due to the arrangement of the detectors, it is possible to separate neutral and charged particles and the calculated dose rates. The Flight Radiation Environment Detector (FRED) will make measurements onboard a stratospheric balloon in altitudes up to 35 km as part of the BEXUS programme. In particular we will be able to measure below, in and above the Pfotzer maximum. First results of the measurements will be presented.

Möller, T.; Burmeister, S.; Ehresmann, B.; Heber, B.; Labrenz, J.; Panitzsch, L.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

2011-12-01

333

MEASURED AND PREDICTED FLUXES OF BIOGENIC SILICA IN LAKE MICHIGAN  

EPA Science Inventory

Diatom production in the offshore waters of Lake Michigan is limited by silica supplies in late summer and can be predicted from the seasonal disappearance of silica from the trophogenic zone. Biogenic silica fluxes obtained from sediment trap collections were compared with fluxe...

334

Measurements of Urban Area-Wide CO2 and CH4 Fluxes as part of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) was created in order to develop and evaluate methods for the measurement of greenhouse gas emission fluxes from urban environments. Such methods are important for a variety of reasons, including that more than half the global population now resides in cities, and because it is likely that many CO2 emissions reductions strategies will be implemented on local, largely urban, scales. INFLUX is using Indianapolis as a test case for measurements of urban scale greenhouse gas fluxes, because it is a fairly isolated urban environment with tractable meteorology, and a well-developed emission inventory (Vulcan/Hestia). INFLUX aims to quantify and reduce the uncertainty limits for such flux determinations, and to define the uncertainties for individual and combined approaches. The project currently combines a network of towers (currently 10 with 12 possible by the end of 2012) at which CO, CO2 and CH4 are measured, along with periodic flask sampling for 14CO2 and ~50 other trace gases and isotopes. Aircraft-based measurements of CO2, CH4 and H2O, along with flask samples for a variety of gases including 14CO2 are conducted from a light twin aircraft that enables flux measurements using the on-board turbulence/wind measurements via mass balance or eddy covariance methods. As of August of 2012 INFLUX has a Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) Fourier Transform Spectrometer at a downwind site, measuring column total CO2, CH4, H2O (and other greenhouse gases). The data from these tower, TCCON and aircraft measurements are then used in an inverse-modeling approach, using the Weather Research and Forecast model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LDPM) to yield estimates of the urban area flux at 1 km2 resolution. When aggregated these fluxes can be compared to estimates derived from aircraft mass-balance estimates, and the 14CO2 and CO data are used to extract the fossil fuel component of the CO2 flux. Measurement data using the range of approaches are then compared to the Hestia emissions model estimates, as well as to improve the Vulcan approaches. In the near future, we will add eddy covariance fluxes from several towers, and some limited eddy covariance flux measurements from the aircraft. Doppler lidar will be added at one site, to better constrain the boundary layer height, critically important to all flux measurement approaches. Here we discuss how the suite of measurement approaches are used to minimize and define the emissions uncertainties. We also will discuss our work on apportionment of fluxes of both CO2 and CH4 to individual point sources, and, where possible, compare to reported emission rates. Finally, we will discuss lessons learned, and how the INFLUX approaches might be best applied to megacities.

Shepson, P.; Callahan, B.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Davis, K. J.; Hardesty, R.; Iraci, L. T.; Gurney, K. R.; Karion, A.; Lauvaux, T.; McGowan, L. E.; Miles, N. L.; Moser, B.; Newberger, T.; Possolo, A.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Richardson, S.; Samarov, D. V.; Sarmiento, D.; Stirm, B.; Sweeney, C.; Turnbull, J. C.; Whetstone, J. R.

2012-12-01

335

Measurement of angular distribution of neutron flux for the 6MeV race-track microtron based pulsed neutron source.  

PubMed

The 6MeV race track microtron based pulsed neutron source has been designed specifically for the elemental analysis of short lived activation products, where the low neutron flux requirement is desirable. Electrons impinges on a e-gamma target to generate bremsstrahlung radiations, which further produces neutrons by photonuclear reaction in gamma-n target. The optimisation of these targets along with their spectra were estimated using FLUKA code. The measurement of neutron flux was carried out by activation of vanadium at different scattering angles. Angular distribution of neutron flux indicates that the flux decreases with increase in the angle and are in good agreement with the FLUKA simulation. PMID:20447829

Patil, B J; Chavan, S T; Pethe, S N; Krishnan, R; Dhole, S D

2010-09-01

336

Wide Range Neutron Flux Measuring Channel for Aerospace Application  

SciTech Connect

The use of classical techniques for neutron flux measurements in nuclear reactors involves the switching between several detection chains as the power grows up to 10 decades. In space applications where mass and size constraints are of key significance, such volume of hardware represents a clear disadvantage. Instead of requiring different instruments for each reactor operating range (start-up, ramping-up, and nominal power), a single instrument chain should be desirable. A Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) system, combining a classic pulse Counting Channel with a Campbell's theorem based Fluctuation Channel can be implemented for the monitoring and control of a space nuclear reactor. Such an instrument will allow for a reduction in the complexity of space-based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. In this presentation we will discuss the criteria and tradeoffs involved in the development of such a system. We will focus particularly on the characteristics of the System On Chip (SOC) and the DSP board used to implement this instrument.

Cibils, R. M.; Busto, A.; Gonella, J. L.; Martinez, R.; Chielens, A. J.; Otero, J. M.; Nunez, M. [INVAP S.E., Moreno 1089, 8400 Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Tropea, S. E. [INTI, Av. Gral. Paz 5445, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2008-01-21

337

Fast Flux Test Facility reactor initial criticality predictions and measurements  

SciTech Connect

The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was designed to test fast-reactor fuels and other nonfuel materials. In its 37 reactor cycles of operations, the FFTF reactor has performed very well and successfully completed all the irradiation testings with an operating efficiency factor as high as 98%. Since FFTF is an experimental reactor, its core loading changed from cycle to cycle. Depending on the number of test assemblies in the core and their location, the core loading can change significantly from an essentially homogeneous core loading to a relatively nonhomogeneous or even highly localized heterogeneous loading. Consequently, the core reload design and initial criticality analyses were required for each operating cycle. The zero power initial critical control rod bank height was predicted before each reactor startup. The initial critical prediction depends on the reactivity conditions at the end of the previous cycle, the temperature feedback reactivities, the individual and total control rod bank worths for the current cycle, the differential rod worth profile, and the refueling reactivity for the current cycle core loading. The predicted and the measured initial critical control rod bank heights for the recent cycles are summarized.

Tang, E.L.; Knutson, B.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-01-01

338

Combined Sensor Package COMARS+ for Measuring Aerothermal and Radiation Loads on the Exomars EDM Capsule Back Cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the former flight instrumentation experience combined aerothermal sensor package COMARS+ has been developed to perform radiative and convective heat flux measurements on the EDM back cover TPS of ExoMars EDM flight in 2016.

Guelhan, A.; Siebe, F.; Thiele, T.

2014-06-01

339

Radiation budget measurement/model interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report includes research results from the period February, 1981 through November, 1982. Two new results combine to form the final portion of this work. They are the work by Hanna (1982) and Stevens to successfully test and demonstrate a low-order spectral climate model and the work by Ciesielski et al. (1983) to combine and test the new radiation budget results from NIMBUS-7 with earlier satellite measurements. Together, the two related activities set the stage for future research on radiation budget measurement/model interfacing. Such combination of results will lead to new applications of satellite data to climate problems. The objectives of this research under the present contract are therefore satisfied. Additional research reported herein includes the compilation and documentation of the radiation budget data set a Colorado State University and the definition of climate-related experiments suggested after lengthy analysis of the satellite radiation budget experiments.

Vonderhaar, T. H.; Ciesielski, P.; Randel, D.; Stevens, D.

1983-01-01

340

Simple Measurement of Integrated Solar Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fading of colour acetate films impregnated with several azo-dyes was applied to measure conveniently the global solar radiation. The dye-remaining percentage was measured at ?max of the films after fading on different exposure. In the case of the film impregnated with Oil Red O, the logarithm value of the percentage of each film presents a linear relationship to the amounts

T. Yoshimura; T. Ishikawa; K. Komiyama

1990-01-01

341

Assessment of radiative feedback in climate models using satellite observations of annual flux variation.  

PubMed

In the climate system, two types of radiative feedback are in operation. The feedback of the first kind involves the radiative damping of the vertically uniform temperature perturbation of the troposphere and Earth's surface that approximately follows the Stefan-Boltzmann law of blackbody radiation. The second kind involves the change in the vertical lapse rate of temperature, water vapor, and clouds in the troposphere and albedo of the Earth's surface. Using satellite observations of the annual variation of the outgoing flux of longwave radiation and that of reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, this study estimates the so-called "gain factor," which characterizes the strength of radiative feedback of the second kind that operates on the annually varying, global-scale perturbation of temperature at the Earth's surface. The gain factor is computed not only for all sky but also for clear sky. The gain factor of so-called "cloud radiative forcing" is then computed as the difference between the two. The gain factors thus obtained are compared with those obtained from 35 models that were used for the fourth and fifth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment. Here, we show that the gain factors obtained from satellite observations of cloud radiative forcing are effective for identifying systematic biases of the feedback processes that control the sensitivity of simulated climate, providing useful information for validating and improving a climate model. PMID:23613585

Tsushima, Yoko; Manabe, Syukuro

2013-05-01

342

Measurement of Emission from a Radiative Shock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiative shocks are shock waves whose structure has been altered by radiation transport from the shock-heated matter. Such shocks are present in numerous astrophysical systems, including supernova remnants, supernovae, and accretion disks. Recent experiments have used the Omega laser to study radiative shock systems that are optically thin upstream and optically thick downstream. In these systems, a radiative precursor and high density cooling layer are formed in response to radiation lost in the upstream region. A thin slab of low-Z material is driven into a 1.1 atm. cylinder of high-Z gas at speeds > 100 km/s, producing strong radiative effects.. Measurements of radiative emission from the shocked region and the precursor region have been made using a streaked optical pyrometer. From these measurements, the temperature of the system can be inferred. Details of the experiment and results will be discussed. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, by the National Laser User Facility Program in NNSA-DS and by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC. The corresponding grant numbers are DE-FG52-09NA29548, DE-FG52-09NA29034, and DE-FC52-08NA28616.

Visco, A.; Drake, R. P.; Grosskopf, M. J.

2010-11-01

343

Methods of in vivo radiation measurement  

SciTech Connect

Methods of and apparatus for in vivo radiation measurements relay on a MOSFET dosimeter of high radiation sensitivity with operates in both the passive mode to provide an integrated dose detector and active mode to provide an irradiation rate detector. A compensating circuit with a matched unirradiated MOSFET is provided to operate at a current designed to eliminate temperature dependence of the device. Preferably, the MOSFET is rigidly mounted in the end of a miniature catheter and the catheter is implanted in the patient proximate the radiation source. 13 figs.

Huffman, D.D.; Hughes, R.C.; Kelsey, C.A.; Lane, R.; Ricco, A.J.; Snelling, J.B.; Zipperian, T.E.

1990-12-11

344

Methods of in vivo radiation measurement  

DOEpatents

Methods of and apparatus for in vivo radiation measurements relay on a MOSFET dosimeter of high radiation sensitivity with operates in both the passive mode to provide an integrated dose detector and active mode to provide an irradiation rate detector. A compensating circuit with a matched unirradiated MOSFET is provided to operate at a current designed to eliminate temperature dependence of the device. Preferably, the MOSFET is rigidly mounted in the end of a miniature catheter and the catheter is implanted in the patient proximate the radiation source.

Huffman, Dennis D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kelsey, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM); Lane, Richard (Galveston, TX); Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Snelling, Jay B. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

345

Radiation Transfer Analysis on Heating Mechanism of Magnetohydrodynamic Emerging Magnetic Flux Tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of the large number of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of emerging flux tubes in the solar atmosphere, radiation properties of the phenomenon remain poorly understood. This is because heating at the footpoints of the emerging magnetic field lines is significant and the effects associated with heat conduction and evaporation have largely been neglected. In this study, we have performed three-dimensional (3-D) multi-wavelength radiation transfer calculations on a MHD model of an emerging flux tube in order to examine the MHD model and also to identify a possible heating mechanism for explaining the properties of observed X-ray coronal loops. It is found that the current dissipation model is difficult for reproducing the structure of X-ray loops observed by Hinode XRT and Yohkoh SXT. This suggests that alternative models of the heating process should be incorporated into our MHD models. We left unresolved issues of the heating process as future work.

Kato, Y.; Magara, T.; Shimizu, T.

2009-12-01

346

Seeing the Invisible: Measuring Infrared Radiation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the existance of infrared radiation. Learners will measure and compare temperature changes due to radiation in the visible and infrared parts of the spectrum using a strong light source. This activity is part of "Ways of Seeing," an interactive, educational CD-ROM from NASA's Cassini Program. The Cassini spacecraft is the first to explore the Saturn system of rings and moons from orbit.

347

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)/CART site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) goals are as follows: (1) to provide an experimental test bed for improving the treatment of radiative transfer in global climate models (GCM's) under all kinds of cloud cover; and (2) to improve the parameterization and modeling of cloud formation, maintenance, dissipation, and related processes in GCM's. The scientific requirements which are most critical to the objectives of ARM are discussed.

Pennell, Bill

1993-01-01

348

Fluxes of Submicron Organic Aerosol above London Measured by Eddy Covariance using the Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban centres are large sources of sub-micron particles. The myriad of emission sources combined with the complex interaction between regional aerosol and the particulate and gaseous photochemistry make for a complex system. It is evident that particulate emissions from cities will affect the regional atmosphere as well as the environment within the urban area. Aerosol particles have been associated with respiratory and cardio-vascular disease and are also linked with the climate through scattering of radiation and indirect effects such as cloud formation. The Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) provides a powerful tool to elucidate the sources and processing of organic aerosol in the urban atmosphere. Normally this is done through concentration measurements, by statistical analysis of the organic mass spectra, e.g. using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Recently the quadrupole based AMS (Q-AMS) has been used for the micrometeorological measurement of organic aerosol fluxes above several cities, based on high frequency measurements of individual masses (m/z) representative of different organic mass fractions. While providing a major step forward towards quantification of urban organic aerosol emissions and processing, the interpretation of Q-AMS flux data requires assumptions to scale up signals on individual m/z to total organic mass fluxes. In this paper we present chemically-speciated and size-segregated number aerosol fluxes measured using the next generation eddy covariance flux system based on the Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS, now capable of recording fast-response eddy-covariance time-series of all m/z simultaneously. This allows organic mass fluxes to be calculated more quantitatively and provides 'flux mass spectra' in addition to concentration mass spectra, which produces novel information on the local emission and processing of organic aerosols in the urban environment, while concentration analysis includes the regional background. The measurements were made from the 190 m tall BT Tower in central London, UK, during the REPARTEE-2/CityFlux experiment in autumn 2007 and are interpreted in conjunction with simultaneous measurements of fluxes of CO and CO2 as well as size-segregated particle number fluxes between 60 and 1000 nm using an ultra-high sensitivity aerosol spectrometer, UHSAS (Particle Measurement Systems, now Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, US).

Phillips, G. J.; di Marco, C. F.; Farmer, D.; Kimmel, J. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Nemitz, E.

2009-12-01

349

Fast and Accurate Shortwave Radiative Flux Calculations for Climate Models Using Principal Component Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiative transfer (RT) computations are an essential component of climate models, being used for calculating the Earth's energy budget. In particular, RT models are required for the generation of top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes in the longwave and shortwave spectral regions, especially for aerosol-laden scenarios (Randles et al. [2013]). However, full treatment of RT processes is computationally expensive, prompting usage of 2-stream approximations in operational climate models. Natraj et al. [2005, 2010] and Spurr and Natraj [2013] demonstrated the ability of a technique using principal component analysis (PCA) to speed up RT simulations. In the PCA method for RT performance enhancement, empirical orthogonal functions are developed for binned sets of inherent optical properties that possess some redundancy; costly multiple-scattering RT calculations are only done for those (few) optical states corresponding to the most important principal components, and correction factors are applied to approximate radiation fields. Here, we extend the PCA method to a broadband spectral region covering the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared, including gaseous absorbing regions and intermediate continua. Top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes are calculated for several scenarios with varying aerosol type, optical depth, extinction profile and solar zenith angle and comparisons made between our model and 2-stream methods (such as those used in climate models). We show that very accurate radiative forcing estimates can be obtained, accounting for multiple scattering by aerosol, at speeds comparable to 2-stream models.

Kopparla, P.; Natraj, V.; Spurr, R. J.; Shia, R.; Yung, Y. L.

2013-12-01

350

Bayesian calibration of reactor neutron flux spectrum using activation detectors measurements: Application to CALIBAN reactor  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present calibration methods in order to estimate reactor neutron flux spectrum and its uncertainties by using integral activation measurements. These techniques are performed using Bayesian and MCMC framework. These methods are applied to integral activation experiments in the cavity of the CALIBAN reactor. We estimate the neutron flux and its related uncertainties. The originality of this work is that these uncertainties take into account measurements uncertainties, cross-sections uncertainties and model error. In particular, our results give a very good approximation of the total flux and indicate that neutron flux from MCNP simulation for energies above about 5 MeV seems to overestimate the 'real flux'. (authors)

Cartier, J. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)] [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Casoli, P. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, Valduc, F-21120 Is sur Tille (France)] [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, Valduc, F-21120 Is sur Tille (France); Chappert, F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)] [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

2013-07-01

351

Measurement of radiation symmetry in Z-pinch-driven hohlraums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Z-pinch-driven hohlraum (ZPDH) [J. H. Hammer et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2129 (1999)] is a promising approach to high yield inertial confinement fusion currently being characterized in experiments on the Sandia Z accelerator [M. E. Cuneo et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2257 (2001)]. Simulations show that capsule radiation symmetry, a critical issue in ZPDH design, is governed primarily by hohlraum geometry, dual-pinch power balance, and pinch timing. In initial symmetry studies on Z without the benefit of a laser backlighter, highly-asymmetric pole-hot and equator-hot single Z-pinch hohlraum geometries were diagnosed using solid low density foam burnthrough spheres. These experiments demonstrated effective geometric control and prediction of polar flux symmetry at the level where details of the Z-pinch implosion and other higher order effects are not critical. Radiation flux symmetry achieved in Z double-pinch hohlraum configurations exceeds the measurement sensitivity of this self-backlit foam ball symmetry diagnostic. To diagnose radiation symmetry at the 2%-5% level attainable with present ZPDH designs, high-energy x rays produced by the recently-completed Z-Beamlet laser backlighter are being used for point-projection imaging of thin-wall implosion and symmetry capsules.

Hanson, D. L.; Vesey, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Porter, J. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Ruggles, L. E.; Simpson, W. W.; Torres, J.; McGurn, J.; Hebron, D.; Dropinski, S. C.; Hammer, J. H.; Bennett, G. R.; Seaman, H.; Gilliland, T. L.; Schroen, D. G.

2002-05-01

352

Results and interpretation of measurements of the light flux in the near-surface layer of the Venusian atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of the field of radiation in the near surface layer of the atmosphere and on the surface of Venus are reported. Optical measurements made during the landing of the descent vehicles are described. The relief of the surface and the amount of dust on it are examined. The spectral relationship of the albedo of the soil and the light flux incident on the surface is discussed.

Golovin, Y. M.; Moshkin, B. Y.; Ekonomov, A. P. E.

1979-01-01

353

High Flux-Fluence Measurements in Fast Reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Characterization of irradiation environments for fuels and materials tests in fast reactors requires determination of the neutron flux integrated over times as long as several years. An accurate integration requires, therefore, passive dosimetry monitors ...

E. P. Lippincott J. A. Ulseth

1977-01-01

354

A Problem with Flux Chamber Measurements of Biogenic Sulfur Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Problems associated with identifying and quantifying factors that influence liquid-phase controlled evolution of hydrogen sulfide and organic sulfides through the air-water interface are briefly reviewed. It was found that at present flux chamber measurem...

D. R. Hitchcock

1979-01-01

355

Mass Flux Measurements of Arsenic in Groundwater (Battelle Conference)  

EPA Science Inventory

Concentration trends of arsenic are typically used to evaluate the performance of remediation efforts designed to mitigate arsenic contamination in groundwater. A complementary approach would be to track changes in mass flux of the contaminant through the subsurface, for exampl...

356

Simultaneous measurements of oxygen and carbon dioxide fluxes to assess productivity in phytoplankton cultures.  

PubMed

We validate a method that simultaneously measures O(2) and CO(2) fluxes by sampling headspace air in phytoplankton cultures. Fluxes were strongly correlated to traditional productivity measures, except for a taxon with unique C metabolism. The method provides accurate, real-time, non-destructive measurements and is recommended for laboratory studies of phytoplankton physiology. PMID:23022444

Corcoran, Alina A; Van Voorhies, Wayne A

2012-12-01

357

Radiation detectors for occupational safety measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective radiant exposures for artificial and natural UV-sources are determined by temporal integration over an 8 h working day. Therefore the spectrally weighted integration of the spectral irradiance from the radiation source in the plane of the exposure is to measure. Such measaurements are made with two different detector systems: measurements of UV radiation according to the integral method should be possible according to a quasi partial filtering method using different individually filtered photodiodes. A spectroradiometer for UV radiation analysis was tested due to its application in field measurements for meteorology, medicin, and occupational safety. The optical part of this compact instrument consists of a cosentrance optic, a monochromator and detector system. A comparison with commercial instruments is described.

Kaase, Heinrich; Chen, Mai; Grothmann, Knut

1995-09-01

358

Measurements and modelling of the Jovian and Saturnian radiation belts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation belts regimes of the outer planets are the harshest environments in our solar system. In extremely strong internal closed magnetic field configurations energetic particles up to several hundred MeV energies are trapped and bounce back and forth along the magnetic field lines emitting waves in a whole variety of frequencies. Unlike Earth, Jupiter's and Saturn's magnetospheres are rotation dominated. Charged particle drift paths close around the whole planet to substantial planetary distances, unlike in the case of Earth (Chen et al, 1970). The combination of a strong internal magnet and quasi-stable trapping allows the fluxes of energetic ions and electrons to become very large. In this study we will review the in-situ measurements obtained onboard various spacecraft that flew by or orbited Jupiter or Saturn and compare them with existing models of the radiation belts.

Krupp, Norbert; Roussos, Elias; Paranicas, Chris; Sicard, Angelica; Hospodarsky, George; Shprits, Yuri

2014-05-01

359

Study of correlations between waves and particle fluxes measured on board the DEMETER satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topic of relativistic electron dynamics in the outer radiation belt has received considerable attention for many years. Nevertheless, the problem of understanding the physical phenomenon involved is far from being resolved. In this paper, we use DEMETER observations to examine the variations of the energetic electron fluxes and ELF/VLF wave intensities in the inner magnetosphere during the intense 8 November 2004 magnetic storm. Electron flux spectra and associated wave intensity spectra are analysed throughout the magnetic storm and common characteristics or differences to other storm events are retained. The overall objective of this study is to identify and derive parameters that are relevant for particle flux modelling; the time constant characterizing the persistent decay after particle enhancement was found to be one of these important model parameters. The analysis of the 8 November 2004 event reveals that for L-shell parameter higher than ˜4, an electron flux dropout is observed during the storm's main phase for electrons in the energy range 0.1-1 MeV, as has been reported from other measurements. Characteristic wave spectra accompanying this phase are analysed. They show a typical enhancement in the frequency range 0.3-10 kHz at onset for all L-shell values under consideration (2 < L < 5). During the first stage of the recovery phase, the electron fluxes are increased to a level higher than the pre-storm level, whereas the level of wave intensity in the frequency range observed below 300 Hz is at its highest. In the second stage, the particle flux decrease goes hand in hand with a global wave activity decline, the relaxation time of the latter being smaller than the former's one. In some other cases, long-lasting electron enhancement associated with constant wave activity has been observed during this latter stage. For the above mentioned storm, while at low L values the decay time constants are higher for low energy electrons than for high energy electrons, this order is reversed at high L values. At about L = 3.6 the time constant is independent of electron energy.

Benck, S.; Cyamukungu, M.; Cabrera, J.

2008-11-01

360

Measurement of photon flux with a miniature gas ionization chamber in a Material Testing Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTR) are crucial for the design of the experimental devices and the prediction of the temperature of the hosted samples. Nuclear heating in MTR materials (except fuel) is mainly due to the energy deposition by the photon flux. Therefore, the photon flux is a key input parameter for the computer codes which simulate nuclear heating and temperature reached by samples/devices under irradiation. In the Jules Horowitz MTR under construction at the CEA Cadarache, the maximal expected nuclear heating levels will be about 15 to 18 W g-1 and it will be necessary to assess this parameter with the best accuracy. An experiment was performed at the OSIRIS reactor to combine neutron flux, photon flux and nuclear heating measurements to improve the knowledge of the nuclear heating in MTR. There are few appropriate sensors for selective measurement of the photon flux in MTR even if studies and developments are ongoing. An experiment, called CARMEN-1, was conducted at the OSIRIS MTR and we used in particular a gas ionization chamber based on miniature fission chamber design to measure the photon flux. In this paper, we detail Monte-Carlo simulations to analyze the photon fluxes with ionization chamber measurements and we compare the photon flux calculations to the nuclear heating measurements. These results show a good accordance between photon flux measurements and nuclear heating measurement and allow improving the knowledge of these parameters.

Fourmentel, D.; Filliatre, P.; Villard, J. F.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Carcreff, H.

2013-10-01

361

First direct measurements of formaldehyde flux via eddy covariance: implications for missing in-canopy formaldehyde sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first observations of formaldehyde (HCHO) flux measured via eddy covariance, as well as HCHO concentrations and gradients, as observed by the Madison Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument during the BEACHON-ROCS 2010 campaign in a rural, Ponderosa Pine forest northwest of Colorado Springs, CO. A median noon upward flux of ~80 ?g m-2 h-1 (~24 pptv m s-1) was observed with a noon range of 37 to 131?g m-2 h-1. Enclosure experiments were performed to determine the HCHO branch (3.5?g m-2 h-1) and soil (7.3 ?g m-2 h-1) direct emission rates in the canopy. A zero-dimensional canopy box model, used to determine the apportionment of HCHO source and sink contributions to the flux, underpredicts the observed HCHO flux by a factor of 6. Simulated increases in concentrations of species similar to monoterpenes resulted in poor agreement with measurements, while simulated increases in direct HCHO emissions and/or concentrations of species similar to 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol best improve model/measurement agreement. Given the typical diurnal variability of these BVOC emissions and direct HCHO emissions, this suggests that the source of the missing flux is a process with both a strong temperature and radiation dependence.

Digangi, J. P.; Boyle, E. S.; Karl, T.; Harley, P.; Turnipseed, A.; Kim, S.; Cantrell, C.; Maudlin, R. L., III; Zheng, W.; Flocke, F.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Nakashima, Y.; Paul, J. B.; Wolfe, G. M.; Desai, A. R.; Kajii, Y.; Guenther, A.; Keutsch, F. N.

2011-06-01

362

First direct measurements of formaldehyde flux via eddy covariance: implications for missing in-canopy formaldehyde sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first observations of formaldehyde (HCHO) flux measured via eddy covariance, as well as HCHO concentrations and gradients, as observed by the Madison Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument during the BEACHON-ROCS 2010 campaign in a rural, Ponderosa Pine forest northwest of Colorado Springs, CO. A median noon upward flux of ~80 ?g m-2 h-1 (~24 pptv m s-1) was observed with a noon range of 37 to 131 ?g m-2 h-1. Enclosure experiments were performed to determine the HCHO branch (3.5 ?g m-2 h-1) and soil (7.3 ?g m-2 h-1) direct emission rates in the canopy. A zero-dimensional canopy box model, used to determine the apportionment of HCHO source and sink contributions to the flux, underpredicted the observed HCHO flux by a factor of 6. Simulated increases in concentrations of species similar to monoterpenes resulted in poor agreement with measurements, while simulated increases in direct HCHO emissions and/or concentrations of species similar to 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol best improved model/measurement agreement. Given the typical diurnal variability of these BVOC emissions and direct HCHO emissions, this suggests that the source of the missing flux is a process with both a strong temperature and radiation dependence.

Digangi, J. P.; Boyle, E. S.; Karl, T.; Harley, P.; Turnipseed, A.; Kim, S.; Cantrell, C.; Maudlin, R. L., III; Zheng, W.; Flocke, F.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Nakashima, Y.; Paul, J. B.; Wolfe, G. M.; Desai, A. R.; Kajii, Y.; Guenther, A.; Keutsch, F. N.

2011-10-01

363

Real time radiation measurements in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation composed of energetic electrons, protons, photons, and galactic cosmic rays will be experienced by all space missions and may have effects on radiation sensitive electronic components and biological specimens. Radiation issues of interest to microgravity and biological experiments are discussed and the design of a new direct reading electronic radiation monitoring system is described. The proposed system consists of a radiation sensitive metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) specially designed to respond to ionizing radiation. On exposure to radiation, a permanent charge is stored in the MOSFET's insulating oxide, altering the device's electrical characteristics in a manner directly proportional to the dose exposed. A simple circuit reads the MOSFET's cumulative dose, making it possible to obtain real-time measurements and store the data or transfer the data to an earth station. Tests have shown that the MOSFET dosimeter shows a linear response up to at least 30,000 centiGray at a resolution of 0.1 centiGray. The MOSFET dosimetry system will be installed on the European Space Agency's ARTEP satellite scheduled for launch in November 1991.

Thomson, I.; Mackay, G.

364

Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, Earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

1988-01-01

365

Sources of uncertainty in eddy covariance ozone flux measurements made by dry chemiluminescence fast response analysers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a systematic intercomparison study of eddy covariance ozone flux measurements made using two fast response dry chemiluminescence analysers. Ozone deposition was measured over a well characterised managed grassland near Edinburgh, Scotland, during August 2007. A data quality control procedure specific to these analysers is introduced. Absolute ozone fluxes were calculated based on the relative signals of the dry chemiluminescence analysers using three different methods and the results are compared for both analysers. It is shown that the error in the fitted analyser calibration parameters required for the flux calculations provides a substantial source of uncertainty in the fluxes. The choice of the calculation method itself can also constitute an uncertainty in the flux as the calculated fluxes by the three methods do not agree within error at all times. This finding highlights the need for a consistent and rigorous approach for comparable datasets, such as e.g. in flux networks. Ozone fluxes calculated by one of the methods were then used to compare the two analysers in more detail. This systematic analyser comparison reveals half-hourly flux values differing by up to a factor of two at times with the difference in mean hourly flux ranging from 0 to 23% with an error in the mean daily flux of ± 12%. The comparison of analysers shows that the agreement in fluxes is excellent for some days but that there is an underlying uncertainty as a result of variable analyser performance and/or non-linear sensitivity.

Muller, J. B. A.; Percival, C. J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Fowler, D.; Coyle, M.; Nemitz, E.

2010-02-01

366

System design and radiation field characteristics of the High Flux Neutron Radiography Facility (HFNRF) at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Neutron Radiography Facility (HFNRF) has been fabricated, tested and used successfully. This paper describes the final design features and presents the results of the radiation measurements made during the characterization tests. A complete neutron spectrum (from 10{sup {minus}8} to 15 MeV) has been measured with the aid of activation foils. Gold foils were used to determine a thermal neutron flux of 9.4 {times} 10{sup 7} n{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} at the image plane in the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) operating at 1.0 MW. The reactor can be operated at 20 MW for 10-second periods with the radiography tube in the central cavity. In pulse mode with peak power of 24,000 MW and a 7.6 ms FWHM {approximately}1.9 {times} 10{sup 10} n{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}2} will be generated with a peak flux of 2.3 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}.

Kelly, J.G.; McCrory, F.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cooper, P.J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-06-01

367

System design and radiation field characteristics of the High Flux Neutron Radiography Facility (HFNRF) at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Neutron Radiography Facility (HFNRF) has been fabricated, tested and used successfully. This paper describes the final design features and presents the results of the radiation measurements made during the characterization tests. A complete neutron spectrum (from 10{sup {minus}8} to 15 MeV) has been measured with the aid of activation foils. Gold foils were used to determine a thermal neutron flux of 9.4 {times} 10{sup 7} n{center dot}cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} at the image plane in the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) operating at 1.0 MW. The reactor can be operated at 20 MW for 10-second periods with the radiography tube in the central cavity. In pulse mode with peak power of 24,000 MW and a 7.6 ms FWHM {approximately}1.9 {times} 10{sup 10} n{center dot}cm{sup {minus}2} will be generated with a peak flux of 2.3 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center dot}cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}.

Kelly, J.G.; McCrory, F.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Cooper, P.J. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-01-01

368

Radiation measurements from polar and geosynchronous satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 1960's, radiation budget measurements from satellites have allowed quantitative study of the global energetics of our atmosphere-ocean system. A continuing program is planned, including independent measurement of the solar constant. Thus far, the measurements returned from two basically different types of satellite experiments are in agreement on the long term global scales where they are most comparable. This fact, together with independent estimates of the accuracy of measurement from each system, shows that the energy exchange between earth and space is now measured better than it can be calculated. Examples of application of the radiation budget data were shown. They can be related to the age-old problem of climate change, to the basic question of the thermal forcing of our circulation systems, and to the contemporary problems of local area energetics and computer modeling of the atmosphere.

Vonderhaar, T. H.

1973-01-01

369

Estimating Total Heliospheric Magnetic Flux from Single-Point in Situ Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fraction of the total photospheric magnetic flux opens to the heliosphere to form the interplanetary magnetic field carried by the solar wind. While this open flux is critical to our understanding of the generation and evolution of the solar magnetic field, direct measurements are generally limited to single-point measurements taken in situ by heliospheric spacecraft. An observed latitude invariance in the radial component of the magnetic field suggests that extrapolation from such single-point measurements to total heliospheric magnetic flux is possible. In this study we test this assumption using estimates of total heliospheric flux from well-separated heliospheric spacecraft and conclude that single-point measurements are indeed adequate proxies for the total heliospheric magnetic flux, though care must be taken when comparing flux estimates from data collected at different heliocentric distances.

Owens, M. J.; Arge, C. N.; Crooker, N. U.; Schwardron, N. A.; Horbury, T. S.

2008-01-01

370

Airborne eddy correlation gas flux measurements - Design criteria for optical techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although several methods exist for the determination of the flux of an atmospheric species, the airborne eddy correlation method has the advantage of providing direct flux measurements that are representative of regional spatial domains. The design criteria pertinent to the construction of chemical instrumentation suitable for use in airborne eddy correlation flux measurements are discussed. A brief overview of the advantages and limitations of the current instrumentation used to obtain flux measurements for CO, CH4, O3, CO2, and water vapor are given. The intended height of the measurement within the convective boundary layer is also shown to be an important design criteria. The sensitivity, or resolution, which is required in the measurement of a scalar species to obtain an adequate species flux measurement is discussed. The relationship between the species flux resolution and the more commonly stated instrumental resolution is developed and it is shown that the standard error of the flux estimate is a complicated function of the atmospheric variability and the averaging time that is used. The use of the recently proposed intermittent sampling method to determine the species flux is examined. The application of this technique may provide an opportunity to expand the suite of trace gases for which direct flux measurements are possible.

Ritter, John A.; Sachse, Glen W.; Anderson, Bruce E.

1993-01-01

371

RATES OF PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FLUX CANCELLATION MEASURED WITH HINODE  

SciTech Connect

Photospheric magnetic flux cancellation on the Sun is generally believed to be caused by magnetic reconnection occurring in the low solar atmosphere. Individual canceling magnetic features are observationally characterized by the rate of flux cancellation. The specific cancellation rate, defined as the rate of flux cancellation divided by the interface length, gives an accurate estimate of the electric field in the reconnecting current sheet. We have determined the specific cancellation rate using the magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard the Hinode satellite. The specific rates determined with SOT turned out to be systematically higher than those based on the data taken by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. The median value of the specific cancellation rate was found to be 8 x 10{sup 6} G cm s{sup -1}-a value four times that obtained from the MDI data. This big difference is mainly due to a higher angular resolution and better sensitivity of the SOT, resulting in magnetic fluxes up to five times larger than those obtained from the MDI. The higher rates of flux cancellation correspond to either faster inflows or stronger magnetic fields of the reconnection inflow region, which may have important consequences for the physics of photospheric magnetic reconnection.

Park, Soyoung; Chae, Jongchul [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Litvinenko, Yuri E. [Department of Mathematics, University of Waikato, P.O. Box 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)

2009-10-10

372

Measurement of Global Radiation using Photovoltaic Panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vito Unit - Environmental and Spatial Aspects (RMA) - for many of its models makes use of global solar radiation. From this viewpoint and also from the notion that this variable is seldom measured or available at the local scale and at high multi-temporal frequencies, it can be stated that many models are fed with low quality estimates of global solar radiation at the local to regional scales. A project was initiated called SUNSPIDER with the following objective. To make use of photovoltaic solar panels to measure solar radiation at the highest spatio-temporal resolution, from the local to the regional scales and from minutes to years. To integrate the measured solar fields in different application fields like, plant systems and agriculture, agro-meteorology and hydrology and last but not least solar energy applications. In Belgium about 250.000 PV installations have been built leading to about 6% electric power supply from photovoltaics on a yearly basis. Last year in June, the supply reached a peak of more than 20% of the total power input on the Belgian grid. A database of Belgian residential solar panel sites will be compiled. The database will serve as an input to an inverted PV model to be able to perform radiation calculations specifically for each of the validated panel sites based on minutely logged power data. Data acquisition for these sites will start each time a site is validated and hence imported in the database. Keywords: Photovoltaic Panels; PV modelling; Global Radiation.

Veroustraete, Frank; Bronders, Jan; Lefevre, Filip; Mensink, Clemens

2014-05-01

373

Remote Measurement of Heat Flux from Power Plant Cooling Lakes  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments have demonstrated a correlation between the rate of heat loss q? from an experimental fluid to the air above and the standard deviation ? of the thermal variability in images of the fluid surface. These experimental results imply that q? can be derived directly from thermal imagery by computing ?. This paper analyses thermal imagery collected over two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the same relationship exists. Turbulent boundary layer theory predicts a linear relationship between q? and ? when both forced (wind driven) and free (buoyancy driven) convection are present. Datasets derived from ground- and helicopter-based imagery collections had correlation coefficients between ? and q? of 0.45 and 0.76, respectively. Values of q? computed from a function of ? and friction velocity u* derived from turbulent boundary layer theory had higher correlations with measured values of q? (0.84 and 0.89). This research may be applicable to the problem of calculating losses of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere during high-latitude cold-air outbreaks because it does not require the information typically needed to compute sensible, evaporative, and thermal radiation energy losses to the atmosphere.

Garrett, A.; Kurzeja, R.; Villa-Aleman, E.; Bollinger, J.

2013-01-01

374

Predicting radiation belt electron flux with adaptive multi-input linear filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The broad goal of the research and results described in this thesis is to improve our ability to make short-term space weather forecasts, and in particular, to predict relativistic electron flux variations over a broad range of altitudes based on measured solar wind inputs. Previous efforts using single-input time-stationary finite impulse response (FIR) linear prediction filters have enjoyed limited success, but generally fail to account for various non-stationary (statistically speaking), and ultimately non-linear dynamical behavior. Two different methods designed to account for the non-stationary radiation belt behavior are studied. The first assumes poor predictions result from failing to account for all relevant system inputs. Designing linear filters that operate on multiple simultaneous inputs eliminates much bias caused by single-input filters due to simple time-correlations of unmodeled solar wind inputs. FIR profiles (as functions of geomagnetic equatorial altitude, or L -shell) subsequently transition from somewhat smeared functions of space and time-lag, to a set of more specific and impulsive responses that can distinguish between different types of input events. An added benefit is the improvement in prediction efficiencies (PEs) over single-input filters at all altitudes. The second method for accounting for non-stationary radiation belt behavior involves the adaptive identification of the linear prediction filter coefficients. The well-known Kalman Filter is used to recursively update filter coefficients and minimize prediction error on the fly. This gives a simple linear filter the flexibility to track considerably NON-linear dynamics with time. Not surprisingly, prediction efficiencies improve dramatically at nearly all altitudes for both single-input and multi-input filters. This improvement is not uniform across all L -shells, but rather tends to scale with regions of the radiation belts that exhibit increasingly persistent behavior. This is expected since persistence allows the Kalman Filter more time to adjust the FIR coefficients to match the current conditions. One drawback is that the Kalman Filter adapts at different rates for different inputs based on their magnitude and dynamic variability. V sw response functions are therefore able to adapt more quickly to changing conditions, and generally experience more improved PEs than either of the other inputs, when used in a single-input configuration. When adaptive multi-input filter coefficients are calculated, the fact that V sw filter coefficients adapt more quickly causes it to account for an undue share of the electron flux variability. Very good predictions are still provided across a broad range L - shells, but definitive statements regarding the physical cause of the various responses are ill-advised. Modifications to the standard Kalman Filter identification algorithm are suggested in the thesis that address this problem, but they have not been implemented for the studies discussed in this thesis.

Rigler, E. Joshua

2004-06-01

375

Observations of Saharan Aerosols: Results of ECLATS Field Experiment. Part II: Broadband Radiative Characteristics of the Aerosols and Vertical Radiative Flux Divergence.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results presented in this paper are a part of those obtained during the ECLATS experiment The broadband radiative characteristics of the Sahelian aerosol layer and the vertical radiative flux divergence within the dust layer were determined both from in situ measurements and Mie calculations.In situ measurements of the aerosol layer's reflectances and transmittances of solar radiation led to aerosol single-scattering albedos close to A0.95. Measurements of the 8-14 m radiances led to an optied depth by unit of volume of dust in a vertical column CA0.34 m1. Mie calculations assuming the aerosol refractive index published by Carlson and Benjamin for solar radiation and that measured by Volz for the atmospheric window, showed good agreement with observations. The ratio of infrared to visible optical thickness was A(8-14 m)/A (0.55 m)0.1, instead of 0.3 as calculated by Carlson and Benjamin. This discrepancy is attributable to differences in size distributions assumed.The radiative budget of the Sahelian aerosol layer was determined for clear and dusty conditions. The additional aerosol shortwave heating was as much as 5 K day1 for A(0.55 m) = 1.5 and with the sun overhead, whereas the additional cooling was close to 1 K day1. As a consequence of the large temperature discontinuity at the surface, important infrared heating at the surface layer was observed.The rather large differences between the aerosol optical properties reported here and those previously reported in the literature are due to different aerosol size distributions; therefore the present paper stresses the importance of careful determination of the size distributions.

Fouquart, Y.; Bonnel, B.; Brogniez, G.; Buriez, J. C.; Smith, L.; Morcrette, J. J.; Cerf, A.

1987-01-01

376

SUMER - Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The instrument SUMER - Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation is designed to investigate structures and associated dynamical processes occurring in the solar atmosphere, from the chromosphere through the transition region to the inner corona, over a temperature range from 104 to 2 × 106K and above. These observations will permit detailed spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma densities and temperatures in

K. Wilhelm; W. Curdt; E. Marsch; U. Schühle; P. Lemaire; A. Gabriel; J.-C. Vial; M. Grewing; M. C. E. Huber; S. D. Jordan; A. I. Poland; R. J. Thomas; M. Kühne; J. G. Timothy; D. M. Hassler; O. H. W. Siegmund

1995-01-01

377

Future Radiation Measurements in Low Earth Orbit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission has demonstrated the value of the LDEF concept for deep surveys of the space radiation environment. This paper will survey the types of measurements that could be done on a second LDEF mission. One ...

J. H. Adams

1992-01-01

378

Precision measurements of kaon radiative decays  

SciTech Connect

We report the recent results of the NA48/2 experiment on charged kaon radiative decays. Using data collected during 2003 and 2004, precise measurements of the K{sup {+-}{yields}{pi}{+-}{pi}0{gamma}} and K{sup {+-}{yields}{pi}{+-}{gamma}{gamma}} decays properties have been obtained.

Madigozhin, D. T. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia, 141980 Moscow region, Dubna, Joliot-Curie 6, JINR (Russian Federation)

2011-05-23

379

Comparison of measurements from satellite radiation budget instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successive radiometers have been flown on spacecraft for measurement of the radiation budget of the Earth and to date have provided data sets which overlap in time over a 25-year period. Together these data sets cover two cycles of any decadal oscillation and are useful for climate research. However, before multiple data sets can be used, it is necessary first to establish precisions and relative biases of the data sets. Although these instruments were all calibrated with great care, inevitably there are differences between the instruments. Also, instruments change while in orbit due to degradation of optical elements and changes of the detectors. A number of studies have compared measurements between pairs of radiometers in order to establish these differences. In this paper we compile these results and by use of a bar chart demonstrate the traceability of calibration of satellite radiation budget instruments over these two decades. Using this compilation the differences are computed for any two instruments listed. The instruments considered here include the ERBE scanning and nonscanning radiometers, ScaRaB I and II, and the CERES instruments aboard the TRMM, Terra, and Aqua spacecraft. These results are a prerequisite to use of multiple data sets for long-term studies of climate process. The largest biases are between the ERBS scanning and non-scanning radiometers, which at the "top of the atmosphere" differ by 5.4 W m-2 for shortwave fluxes and by 5.8 W m-2 for daytime longwave fluxes. The standard deviations of the biases, which define how well the data sets can be connected, are less than 1 W m-2 for longwave and between 1 and 2 W m-2 for shortwave fluxes.

Smith, G. Louis; Szewczyk, Z. Peter; Rutan, David A.; Lee, Robert B.

2006-02-01

380

Neutron Flux Measurements in the Full Power Leu Core of PARR-1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of thermal and epithermal flux distributions were made in and around the first low enriched uranium (LEU) full power core of Pakistan Research Reactor-1(PARR-1). Neutron Flux measurements were made with the help of activation foils and the se...

L. Ali S. A. Ansari Q. D. Shami M. Iqbal

1994-01-01

381

Measurement of Local Soil Water Flux during Field Solute Transport Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

port properties of the soil can be inversely determined by fitting a model to the measured breakthrough curves. calculated directly from the local solute mass flux. The methods as- Outflow concentration from a soil column is flux con- sume that water flow and solute transport are one-dimensional and centration and solute concentration measured by soil that TDR estimates of bulk

Bing Cheng Si; R. Gary Kachanoski

2003-01-01

382

Planning optimal measurements of isotopomer distributions for estimation of metabolic fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Flux estimation using isotopomer information of meta- bolites is currently the most reliable method to obtain quantitative estimates of the activity of metabolic pathways. However, the develop- ment of isotopomer measurement techniques for intermediate meta- bolites is a demanding task. Careful planning of isotopomer measure- ments is thus needed to maximize the available flux information while minimizing the experimental

Ari Rantanen; Taneli Mielikäinen; Juho Rousu; Hannu Maaheimo; Esko Ukkonen

2006-01-01

383

REMANENT FLUX MEASUREMENT AND OPTIMAL ENERGIZATION INSTANT DERTERMINATION OF POWER TRANSFORMER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inrush currents generated during a energization of power transformer can reach very high values and may cause many problems in power system. In this paper method for controlled energization of power transformer based on measuring of remanet flux of magnetic core is presented. The remanet flux is measured and memorized at the last de-energization of transformer and then applied

Stanko Milun

2003-01-01

384

Using LabVIEW to measure transformer residual flux for inrush current reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power transformers can experience large inrush currents upon energization, the severity of which depends on the source strength, the angle of the applied voltage at energization, and the residual flux of the transformer. A novel inrush current reduction strategy has been investigated which involves setting the transformer's residual flux. Testing of this strategy required a measurement system capable of measuring

Douglas I. Taylor; Normann Fischer; Joseph D. Law; Brian K. Johnson

2009-01-01

385

Measurements of Neutron Flux from an Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A neutron-detection system was built for the purpose of measuring the neutron flux from an Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement Device located at Brigham Young University. A BF sub 3 proportional counter was used for absolute flux measurements and a pair of...

G. A. Westenskow

1975-01-01

386

Comparing Helicopter-based Eddy Flux Measurements with Highly Resolved Bottom-up Land Surface Model Predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June 2007, a regional campaign took place in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) to estimate land-atmosphere exchanges of CO2, water, and energy at 1 to 100 km scales. The primary goals of this campaign were to evaluate top-down and bottom-up estimates of regional fluxes and to characterize the influence of moisture gradients, surface heterogeneity, and atmospheric transport patterns on these fluxes. The work was integrated with the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC), centered on the US DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program SGP region. Eddy flux towers were deployed in the four major land cover types, distributed over the region’s SE to NW precipitation gradient. In addition, CO2, water, and energy fluxes were observed with the Duke Helicopter Observation Platform (HOP) at various heights in the boundary layer, including in the surface layer. One aircraft carried precise and continuous CO2 measurement systems, 14C flasks, and NOAA 12-flask (carbon cycle gases and isotopes) packages. Continuous CO2, CO, and radon concentrations, NOAA 2-flask package, and isotope diel flasks (14C, 13C, and 18O) were also collected from a centrally located 60 m tower. Here we compare forward modeling predictions using a finely-resolved land-surface model of CO2 and energy fluxes to the helicopter measurements. Differences between the predictions and measurements resulted from (1) errors in the bottom-up model; (2) atmospheric mixing and uncertainty in the helicopter eddy flux footprint; and (3) uncertainties in the helicopter measurements. We analyze these differences and indicate how these types of observations can be used to constrain the bottom-up modeling approach.

Biraud, S. C.; Riley, W. J.; Torn, M. S.; Avissar, R.; Bolch, M. A.

2010-12-01