Sample records for radiation flux measurements

  1. Radiative flux measurements in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to determine how the stratospheric tropospheric exchange of water vapor is affected by the interaction of solar (visible) and planetary (infrared) radiation with tropical cumulonimbus anvils. This research involves field measurements from the ER-2 aircraft as well as radiative transfer modelling to determine heating and cooling rates and profiles that directly affect the exchange between the troposphere and the stratosphere.

  2. Radiation measuring system using transistor flux sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, V.; Greenberg, E. L.

    1986-02-01

    An ionizing radiation intensity dosimeter apparatus and method is based on carrier recombination saturation times for irradiated PN junction semiconductor devices following termination of a radiation pulse. Normally-on quiescent condition, moderate radiation doses at relatively high dose rates, and a read-out arrangement employing gated burst counting are included.

  3. Design of a differential radiometer for atmospheric radiative flux measurements

    SciTech Connect

    LaDelfe, P.C.; Weber, P.G.; Rodriguez, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    The Hemispherical Optimized NEt Radiometer (HONER) is an instrument under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for deployment on an unmanned aerospace vehicle as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM/UAV) program. HONER is a differential radiometer which will measure the difference between the total upwelling and downwelling fluxes and is intended to provide a means of measuring the atmospheric radiative flux divergence. Unlike existing instruments which measure the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately, HONER will achieve an optical difference by chopping the two fluxes alternately onto a common pyroelectric detector. HONER will provide data resolved into two spectral bands; one covering the solar dominated region from less than 0.4 micrometer to approximately 4.5 micrometers and the other covering the region from approximately 4.5 micrometers to greater than 50 micrometers, dominated by thermal radiation. The means of separating the spectral regions guarantees seamless summation to calculate the total flux. The fields-of-view are near-hemispherical, upward and downward. The instrument can be converted, in flight, from the differential mode to absolute mode, measuring the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately and simultaneously. The instrument also features continuous calibration from on-board sources. We will describe the design and operation of the sensor head and the on-board reference sources as well as the means of deployment.

  4. Double-cavity radiometer for high-flux density solar radiation measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Parretta; A. Antonini; M. Armani; G. Nenna; G. Flaminio; M. Pellegrino

    2007-01-01

    A radiometric method has been developed, suitable for both total power and flux density profile measurement of concentrated solar radiation. The high-flux density radiation is collected by a first optical cavity, integrated, and driven to a second optical cavity, where, attenuated, it is measured by a conventional radiometer operating under a stationary irradiation regime. The attenuation factor is regulated by

  5. Radiative Flux Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    2008-05-14

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  6. Measuring and modeling near surface reflected and emitted radiation fluxes at the FIFE site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, Blaine L.; Norman, John M.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth; Starks, Patrick; Vining, Roel; Hays, Cynthia

    1988-01-01

    Research was conducted during the four Intensive Field Campaigns (IFC) of the FIFE project in 1987. The research was done on a tall grass prairie with specific measurement sites on and near the Konza Prairie in Kansas. Measurements were made to help meet the following objectives: determination of the variability in reflected and emitted radiation fluxes in selected spectral wavebands as a function of topography and vegetative community; development of techniques to account for slope and sun angle effects on the radiation fluxes; estimation of shortwave albedo and net radiation fluxes using the reflected and emitted spectral measurements described; estimation of leaf and canopy spectral properties from calculated normalized differences coupled with off-nadir measurements using inversion techniques; estimation of plant water status at several locations with indices utilizing plant temperature and other environmental parameters; and determination of relationships between estimated plant water status and measured soil water content. Results are discussed.

  7. Comparison of measured and modeled radiation, heat and water vapor fluxes: FIFE pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, Blaine L.; Verma, Shashi B.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Starks, Patrick; Hays, Cynthia; Norman, John M.; Waltershea, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    The primary objectives of the 1985 study were to test the feasibility of using radio frequency receivers to collect data from automated weather stations and to evaluate the use of the data collected by the automated weather stations for modeling the fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and radiation over wheat. The model Cupid was used to calculate these fluxes which were compared with fluxes of these entities measured using micrometeorological techniques. The primary objectives of the 1986 study were to measure and model reflected and emitted radiation streams at a few locations within the First International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) site and to compare modeled and measured latent heat and sensible heat fluxes from the prairie vegetation.

  8. Measurements of x-ray spectral flux and intensity distribution of APS/CHESS undulator radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ilinski, P.; Yun, W.; Lai, B.; Gluskin, E.; Cai, Z.

    1994-09-01

    Absolute radiation flux and polarization measurements of the APS undulators may have to be made under high thermal loading conditions. A method that may circumvent the high-heat-load problem was tested during a recent APS/CHESS undulator run. The technique makes use of a Si(Li) energy-dispersive detector to measure 5--35 keV x-rays scattered from a well-defined He gas volume at controlled pressure.

  9. Convective heat transfer in a disk-receiver of a solar concentrated radiative flux measuring system

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada, C.A.; Cervantes, J.G. [UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico). Solar Energy Research Lab.

    1995-12-31

    A parametric study to simulate the thermal performance under various conditions of a disk-type receiver of a concentrated radiative flux measuring system, is presented. The system is currently under construction at the Solar Energy Research Laboratory of the National University of Mexico. One of the proposed heat exchangers to be used in the receiver consists of two parallel, circular disks with an aspect ratio (diameter-to-separation) of 10. An incompressible viscous fluid (a thermal oil) enters at a center hole of one disk, moves radially between both plates, and is heated by means of concentrated solar energy impinging at the outer most plate. Temperature distributions, as a function of space coordinates, are presented for various flow conditions and radiation flux distributions. Plots of the average and maximum fluid temperatures as a function of mass flow rates for different solar concentrations, are also presented. These results, together with other alternatives, are being used for designing purposes of the receiver.

  10. Validation of AERONET estimates of atmospheric solar fluxes and aerosol radiative forcing by ground-based broadband measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. E. García; A. M. Díaz; F. J. Expósito; J. P. Díaz; O. Dubovik; P. Dubuisson; J.-C. Roger; T. F. Eck; A. Sinyuk; Y. Derimian; E. G. Dutton; J. S. Schafer; B. N. Holben; C. A. García

    2008-01-01

    The AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) estimates of instantaneous solar broadband fluxes (F) at surface have been validated through comparison with ground-based measurements of broadband fluxes at Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) and by the Baseline Surface Radiation (BSRN) and the Solar Radiation Networks (SolRad-Net) during the period 1999–2005 and 1999–2006, respectively. The uncertainties in the calculated aerosol radiative forcing (?F) and

  11. Detection and measurement of low-intensity fluxes of ionizing radiation using a detector with a compensation channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. N. Radaev

    1992-01-01

    In radiation safety surveillance, investigation of the true radiation situation in the environment of nuclear plants and in contaminated grounds, in piloted space vehicles, and in supervision of fissionable materials it is very important to detect and measure with specified accuracy and reliability low-intensity fluxes of particles of different particles from the componets of ionizing radiations on the background of

  12. Heat flux microsensor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, J. P.; Hager, J. M.; Onishi, S.; Diller, T. E.

    1992-12-01

    A thin-film heat flux sensor has been fabricated on a stainless steel substrate. The thermocouple elements of the heat flux sensor were nickel and nichrome, and the temperature resistance sensor was platinum. The completed heat flux microsensor was calibrated at the AEDC radiation facility. The gage output was linear with heat flux with no apparent temperature effect on sensitivity. The gage was used for heat flux measurements at the NASA Langley Vitiated Air Test Facility. Vitiated air was expanded to Mach 3.0 and hydrogen fuel was injected. Measurements were made on the wall of a diverging duct downstream of the injector during all stages of the hydrogen combustion tests. Because the wall and the gage were not actively cooled, the wall temperature reached over 1000 C (1900 F) during the most severe test.

  13. Heat flux microsensor measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, J. P.; Hager, J. M.; Onishi, S.; Diller, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    A thin-film heat flux sensor has been fabricated on a stainless steel substrate. The thermocouple elements of the heat flux sensor were nickel and nichrome, and the temperature resistance sensor was platinum. The completed heat flux microsensor was calibrated at the AEDC radiation facility. The gage output was linear with heat flux with no apparent temperature effect on sensitivity. The gage was used for heat flux measurements at the NASA Langley Vitiated Air Test Facility. Vitiated air was expanded to Mach 3.0 and hydrogen fuel was injected. Measurements were made on the wall of a diverging duct downstream of the injector during all stages of the hydrogen combustion tests. Because the wall and the gage were not actively cooled, the wall temperature reached over 1000 C (1900 F) during the most severe test.

  14. Measuring Earth Radiation Imbalance from a Massive Constellation of Flux Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiscombe, W. J.; Chiu, J.; Ardanuy, P. E.; Barker, H.; Han, S.; Lorentz, S. R.; Schwartz, S. E.; Trenberth, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    The most important climate variable that is not now measured from space with sufficient accuracy (not even one significant digit on any time scale) is Earth Radiation Imbalance (ERI), a subject of much discussion lately in relation to the "global warming hiatus". The greatest temporal challenges for ERI measurements are very long (decadal) and very short (diurnal) time scales. The decadal challenge is mainly one of calibration and continuity, whereas the diurnal challenge is mainly one of temporal coverage. ERI measurements must meet both challenges. We discuss here a massive constellation of flux radiometers in Low Earth Orbit that is capable of meeting both challenges. At least 30-40 satellites are required for diurnal coverage, an order of magnitude more than in any previous Earth science mission. This same diurnal coverage would make possible, for the first time, the use of ERI measurements in data assimilation, as well as providing a much more temporally resolved dataset for tuning and evaluating climate models. Although a large number of instruments on many satellites might seem to pose a gargantuan calibration challenge, actually, the more satellites, the better the intercalibration: satellites can not only follow each other closely in the same orbit plane, viewing exactly the same scene a few minutes apart, but they can engage in a spider web of crossovers in the polar regions, allowing many further such intercalibrations. Furthermore, keystone satellites can roll over to obtain an absolute calibration from the Sun and deep space, which can then be transferred to the other satellites. Simulations of ERI from such a constellation will be shown, along with the tradeoffs necessary to create an optimal configuration and to mitigate the problems experienced by previous generations of Earth radiation budget radiometers. A tentative instrument design will also be described.Constellation of flux radiometers for measuring Earth Radiation Imbalance

  15. Significance of multidimensional radiative transfer effects measured in surface fluxes at an Antarctic coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Dan; Ricchiazzi, Paul; Payton, Allison; Gautier, Catherine

    2002-10-01

    At a coastal high-latitude site, multiple reflection of photons between the high albedo surface and an overlying cloud can enhance the downwelling shortwave flux out over the adjacent open water to a distance of several kilometers. This coastal albedo effect has been predicted by theoretical radiative transfer studies and has also been measured under ideal conditions. In this study, three multispectral solar ultraviolet radiometers were deployed in the vicinity of Palmer Station, Antarctica (64° 46'S, 64° 04'W) to determine the prevalence of the coastal albedo effect under the region's natural variability in cloud cover. One radiometer was deployed near the base of a glacier, and the other two radiometers were deployed on Janus Island and Outcast Island, islets ˜2.8 km (1.5 nautical miles) and 5.6 km (3 nautical miles) distant from Palmer Station, respectively. The radiometers were operated simultaneously for 16 days during late December 1999 and January 2000. Under all cloudy sky conditions sampled by this experiment the coastal albedo effect is seen in the data 60% of the time, in the form of a decreasing gradient in surface flux from Palmer Station through Janus and Outcast Islands. During the other 40% of the cloudy sky measurements, local cloud inhomogeneity obscured the coastal albedo effect. The effect is more apparent under overcast layers that appear spatially uniform and occurs 86% of the time under the low overcast decks sampled. The presence of stratus fractus of bad weather, under higher overcast layers, obscures the coastal albedo effect such that it occurs only 43% of the time. A wavelength dependence is noted in the data under optically thin cloud cover: the ratio of a flux measured at an islet to that measured at the station increases with wavelength. This wavelength dependence can be explained by plane-parallel radiative transfer theory.

  16. Galileo Probe Measurements of Thermal and Solar Radiation Fluxes in the Jovian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Collard, A. D.; Fry, P. M.; Orton, G. S.; Lemmon, M. T.; Tomasko, M. G.; Freedman, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    The Galileo probe net flux radiometer (NFR) measured radiation fluxes in Jupiter's atmosphere from about 0.44 to 14 bars, using five spectral channels to separate solar and thermal components. Onboard calibration results confirm that the NFR responded to radiation approximately as expected. NFR channels also responded to a superimposed thermal perturbation, which can be approximately removed using blind channel measurements and physical constraints. Evidence for the expected NH3 cloud was seen in the spectral character of spin-induced modulations of the direct solar beam signals. These results are consistent with an overlying cloud of small NH3 ice particles (0.5-0.75 microns in radius) of optical depth 1.5-2 at 0.5 microns. Such a cloud would have so little effect on thermal fluxes that NFR thermal channels provide no additional constraints on its properties. However, evidence for heating near 0.45 bar in the NFR thermal channels would seem to require either an additional opacity source beyond this small-particle cloud, implying a heterogeneous cloud structure to avoid conflicts with solar modulation results, or a change in temperature lapse rate just above the probe measurements. The large thermal flux levels imply water vapor mixing ratios that are only 6% of solar at 10 bars, but possibly increasing with depth, and significantly subsaturated ammonia at pressures less than 3 bars. If deep NH3 mixing ratios at the probe entry site are 3-4 times ground-based inferences, as suggested by probe radio signal attenuation, then only half as much water is needed to match NFR observations. No evidence of a water cloud was seen near the 5-bar level. The 5-microns thermal channel detected the presumed NH4SH cloud base near 1.35 bars. Effects of this cloud were also seen in the solar channel upflux measurements but not in the solar net fluxes, implying that the cloud is a conservative scatterer of sunlight. The minor thermal signature of this cloud is compatible with particle radii near 3 gm, but it cannot rule out smaller particles. Deeper than about 3 bars, solar channels indicate unexpectedly large absorption of sunlight at wavelengths longer than 0.6 microns, which might be due to unaccounted-for absorption by NH3 between 0.65 and 1.5 microns.

  17. Galileo Probe Measurements of Thermal and Solar Radiation Fluxes in the Jovian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Collard, A. D.; Fry, P. M.; Orton, G. S.; Lemmon, M. T.; Tomasko, M. G.; Freedman, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    The Galileo probe net flux radiometer (NFR) measured radiation fluxes in Jupiter's atmosphere from about 0.44 to 14 bars, using five spectral channels to separate solar and thermal components. Onboard calibration results confirm that the NFR responded to radiation approximately as expected. NFR channels also responded to a superimposed thermal perturbation, which can be approximately removed using blind channel measurements and physical constraints. Evidence for the expected NH3 cloud was seen in the spectral character of spin-induced modulations of the direct solar beam signals. These results are consistent with an overlying cloud of small NH3 ice particles (0.5-0.75 microns in radius) of optical depth 1.5-2 at 0.5 microns. Such a cloud would have so little effect on thermal fluxes that NFR thermal channels provide no additional constraints on its properties. However, evidence for heating near 0.45 bar in the NFR thermal channels would seem to require either an additional opacity source beyond this small-particle cloud, implying a heterogeneous-cloud structure to avoid conflicts with solar modulation results, or a change in temperature lapse rate just above the probe measurements. The large thermal flux levels imply water vapor mixing ratios that are only 6% of solar at 10 bars, but possibly increasing with depth, and significantly subsaturated ammonia at pressures less than 3 bars. If deep NH3 mixing ratios at the probe entry site are 3-4 times ground-based inferences, as suggested by probe radio signal attenuation, then only half as much water is needed to match NFR observations. No evidence of a water cloud was seen near the 5-bar level. The 5 microns thermal channel detected the presumed NH4SH cloud base near 1.35 bars. Effects of this cloud were also seen in the solar channel upflux measurements but not in the solar net fluxes, implying that the cloud is a conservative scatterer of sunlight. The minor thermal signature of this cloud is compatible with particle radii near 3 microns, but it cannot rule out smaller particles. Deeper than about 3 bars, solar channels indicate unexpectedly large absorption of sunlight at wavelengths longer than 0.6 microns, which might be due to unaccounted-for absorption by NH3 between 0.65 and 1.5 microns.

  18. An Investigation of the Compatibility of Radiation and Convection Heat Flux Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    1996-01-01

    A method for determining time-resolved absorbed surface heat flux and surface temperature in radiation and convection environments is described. The method is useful for verification of aerodynamic, heat transfer and durability models. A practical heat flux gage fabrication procedure and a simple one-dimensional inverse heat conduction model and calculation procedure are incorporated in this method. The model provides an estimate of the temperature and heat flux gradient in the direction of heat transfer through the gage. This paper discusses several successful time-resolved tests of this method in hostile convective heating and cooling environments.

  19. Pulse flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Riggan, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A device for measuring particle flux comprises first and second photodiode detectors for receiving flux from a source and first and second outputs for producing first and second signals representing the flux incident to the detectors. The device is capable of reducing the first output signal by a portion of the second output signal, thereby enhancing the accuracy of the device. Devices in accordance with the invention may measure distinct components of flux from a single source or fluxes from several sources.

  20. The uncertainty of UTCI due to uncertainties in the determination of radiation fluxes derived from measured and observed meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Philipp; Staiger, Henning; Tinz, Birger; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Rieder, Harald; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Maturilli, Marion; Jendritzky, Gerd

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, we investigate the determination accuracy of the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). We study especially the UTCI uncertainties due to uncertainties in radiation fluxes, whose impacts on UTCI are evaluated via the mean radiant temperature ( Tmrt). We assume "normal conditions", which means that usual meteorological information and data are available but no special additional measurements. First, the uncertainty arising only from the measurement uncertainties of the meteorological data is determined. Here, simulations show that uncertainties between 0.4 and 2 K due to the uncertainty of just one of the meteorological input parameters may be expected. We then analyse the determination accuracy when not all radiation data are available and modelling of the missing data is required. Since radiative transfer models require a lot of information that is usually not available, we concentrate only on the determination accuracy achievable with empirical models. The simulations show that uncertainties in the calculation of the diffuse irradiance may lead to Tmrt uncertainties of up to ±2.9 K. If long-wave radiation is missing, we may expect an uncertainty of ±2 K. If modelling of diffuse radiation and of longwave radiation is used for the calculation of Tmrt, we may then expect a determination uncertainty of ±3 K. If all radiative fluxes are modelled based on synoptic observation, the uncertainty in Tmrt is ±5.9 K. Because Tmrt is only one of the four input data required in the calculation of UTCI, the uncertainty in UTCI due to the uncertainty in radiation fluxes is less than ±2 K. The UTCI uncertainties due to uncertainties of the four meteorological input values are not larger than the 6 K reference intervals of the UTCI scale, which means that UTCI may only be wrong by one UTCI scale. This uncertainty may, however, be critical at the two temperature extremes, i.e. under extreme hot or extreme cold conditions.

  1. Fast pyrobolometers for measurements of plasma heat fluxes and radiation losses in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Fiksel, G.; Frank, J.; Holly, D.

    1993-01-07

    Two types of fast bolometers are described for the plasma energy transport study in the Madison Symmetric Torus plasma confinement device. Both types use pyrocrystals of LiTaO[sub 3] or LiNbO[sub 3] as the sensors. One type is used for measurements of the radiated heat losses and is situated at the vacuum shell inner surface. Another type is insertable in the plasma and measures the plasma particle heat flux. The frequency response of the bolometers is measured to be in the 150--200 kHz range. The range of the measured power fluxes is 0.1 W/cm[sup 2] 10 kW/cm[sup 2] and can be adjusted by changing the size of the entrance aperture. The lower limit is determined by the amplifier noise and the frequency bandwidth, the higher limit by destruction of the bolometer sensor.

  2. Fast pyrobolometers for measurements of plasma heat fluxes and radiation losses in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Fiksel, G.; Frank, J.; Holly, D.

    1993-01-07

    Two types of fast bolometers are described for the plasma energy transport study in the Madison Symmetric Torus plasma confinement device. Both types use pyrocrystals of LiTaO{sub 3} or LiNbO{sub 3} as the sensors. One type is used for measurements of the radiated heat losses and is situated at the vacuum shell inner surface. Another type is insertable in the plasma and measures the plasma particle heat flux. The frequency response of the bolometers is measured to be in the 150--200 kHz range. The range of the measured power fluxes is 0.1 W/cm{sup 2} 10 kW/cm{sup 2} and can be adjusted by changing the size of the entrance aperture. The lower limit is determined by the amplifier noise and the frequency bandwidth, the higher limit by destruction of the bolometer sensor.

  3. Measuring surface fluxes in CAPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.; D-Shah, T.; Nie, Dalin

    1992-01-01

    Two stations (site 1612 and site 2008) were operated by the University of Georgia group from 6 July 1991 to 18 August 1991. The following data were collected continuously: surface energy fluxes (i.e., net radiation, soil heat fluxes, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux), air temperature, vapor pressure, soil temperature (at 1 cm depth), and precipitation. Canopy reflectance and light interception data were taken three times at each site between 6 July and 18 August. Soil moisture content was measured twice at each site.

  4. Heat flux measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Weikle, Donald H.

    1989-01-01

    A new automated, computer controlled heat flux measurement facility is described. Continuous transient and steady-state surface heat flux values varying from about 0.3 to 6 MW/sq m over a temperature range of 100 to 1200 K can be obtained in the facility. An application of this facility is the development of heat flux gauges for continuous fast transient surface heat flux measurement on turbine blades operating in space shuttle main engine turbopumps. The facility is useful for durability testing at fast temperature transients.

  5. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  6. Energy exchanges in a Central Business District - Interpretation of Eddy Covariance and radiation flux measurements (London UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

    2013-12-01

    Global urbanisation brings increasingly dense and complex urban structures. To manage cities sustainably and smartly, currently and into the future under changing climates, urban climate research needs to advance in areas such as Central Business Districts (CBD) where human interactions with the environment are particularly concentrated. Measurement and modelling approaches may be pushed to their limits in dense urban settings, but if urban climate research is to contribute to the challenges of real cities those limits have to be addressed. The climate of cities is strongly governed by surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy, moisture and momentum. Observations of the relevant fluxes provide important information for improvement and evaluation of modelling approaches. Due to the CBD's heterogeneity, a very careful analysis of observations is required to understand the relevant processes. Current approaches used to interpret observations and set them in a wider context may need to be adapted for use in these more complex areas. Here, we present long-term observations of the radiation balance components and turbulent fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat and momentum in the city centre of London. This is one of the first measurement studies in a CBD covering multiple years with analysis at temporal scales from days to seasons. Data gathered at two sites in close vicinity, but with different measurement heights, are analysed to investigate the influence of source area characteristics on long-term radiation and turbulent fluxes. Challenges of source area modelling and the critical aspect of siting in such a complex environment are considered. Outgoing long- and short-wave radiation are impacted by the anisotropic nature of the urban surface and the high reflectance materials increasingly being used as building materials. Results highlight the need to consider the source area of radiometers in terms of diffuse and direct irradiance. Sensible heat fluxes (QH) are positive all year round, even at night. QH systematically exceeds input from net all-wave radiation (Q*), probably sustained by a both storage and anthropogenic heat fluxes (QF). Model estimates suggest QF can exceed the Q* nearly all year round. The positive QH inhibits stable conditions, but the stability classification is determined predominantly by the pattern of friction velocity over the rough urban surface. Turbulent latent heat flux variations are controlled (beyond the available energy) by rainfall due to the small vegetation cover. The Bowen ratio is mostly larger than one. Analysis of the eddy covariance footprint surface controls for the different land cover types by flow patterns for measurements at the two heights suggests the spatial variations of the sensible heat flux observed are partly related to changes in surface roughness, even at the local scale. Where the source areas are most homogeneous, flow conditions are vertically consistent - even if initial morphometric parameters suggested the measurements may be below the blending height. Turbulence statistics and momentum flux patterns prove useful for the interpretation of turbulent heat exchanges observed.

  7. Measured and calculated clear-sky solar radiative fluxes during the Subsonic Aircraft Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS)

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, Francisco P. J. [Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Center for Atmospheric Sciences, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, California (United States)] [Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Center for Atmospheric Sciences, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Bush, Brett C. [Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Center for Atmospheric Sciences, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, California (United States)] [Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Center for Atmospheric Sciences, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, California (United States)

    1999-11-27

    Modeled and measured surface insolations are compared with the purpose of evaluating the ability of a radiative transfer model to predict the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface under clear-sky conditions. Model uncertainties are estimated by performing sensitivity studies for variations in aerosol optical depth, aerosol optical properties, water vapor profiles, ozone content, solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere, and surface albedo. In this fashion, a range of possible calculated values is determined and compared to observations. Experimental errors are evaluated by comparison with independent, simultaneous measurements performed using two World Radiation Reference instrument arrays that were operational for a limited period during SUCCESS. Assuming a mineral aerosol, it is found that there is agreement between calculated and measured fluxes, with differences approximately equal to and within one standard deviation. Such agreement improves further if a layer containing a small amount of carbonaceous aerosol is added. The presence of carbonaceous aerosols is likely because occasional biomass burning activities took place during SUCCESS in the area around the experimental site (the clouds and radiation test bed operated by the Department of Energy in Oklahoma). (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union.

  8. Development of a small radiation flux monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Leysen, W. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Boeretang 200, BE-2400, Mol (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a miniaturized radiation flux monitor by means of Cherenkov light. The idea is to use the intensity of Cherenkov light as a measurement for the radiation flux. An initial test is performed with an extrinsic dielectric object which is coupled with an optical fibre. These test show that the Cherenkov radiation in the fibre itself was too high compared with the captured extrinsic light. Further test to use intrinsic Cherenkov fibre optic sensors are planned in the near future and the envisaged measurement set up is explained. (authors)

  9. Simulation study of geometric shape factor approach to estimating earth emitted flux densities from wide field-of-view radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.; Green, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    A study was performed on the use of geometric shape factors to estimate earth-emitted flux densities from radiation measurements with wide field-of-view flat-plate radiometers on satellites. Sets of simulated irradiance measurements were computed for unrestricted and restricted field-of-view detectors. In these simulations, the earth radiation field was modeled using data from Nimbus 2 and 3. Geometric shape factors were derived and applied to these data to estimate flux densities on global and zonal scales. For measurements at a satellite altitude of 600 km, estimates of zonal flux density were in error 1.0 to 1.2%, and global flux density errors were less than 0.2%. Estimates with unrestricted field-of-view detectors were about the same for Lambertian and non-Lambertian radiation models, but were affected by satellite altitude. The opposite was found for the restricted field-of-view detectors.

  10. Adsorption calorimetry during metal vapor deposition on single crystal surfaces: increased flux, reduced optical radiation, and real-time flux and reflectivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Jason R V; James, Trevor E; Hemmingson, Stephanie L; Farmer, Jason A; Campbell, Charles T

    2013-12-01

    Thin films of metals and other materials are often grown by physical vapor deposition. To understand such processes, it is desirable to measure the adsorption energy of the deposited species as the film grows, especially when grown on single crystal substrates where the structure of the adsorbed species, evolving interface, and thin film are more homogeneous and well-defined in structure. Our group previously described in this journal an adsorption calorimeter capable of such measurements on single-crystal surfaces under the clean conditions of ultrahigh vacuum [J. T. Stuckless, N. A. Frei, and C. T. Campbell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2427 (1998)]. Here we describe several improvements to that original design that allow for heat measurements with ~18-fold smaller standard deviation, greater absolute accuracy in energy calibration, and, most importantly, measurements of the adsorption of lower vapor-pressure materials which would have previously been impossible. These improvements are accomplished by: (1) using an electron beam evaporator instead of a Knudsen cell to generate the metal vapor at the source of the pulsed atomic beam, (2) changing the atomic beam design to decrease the relative amount of optical radiation that accompanies evaporation, (3) adding an off-axis quartz crystal microbalance for real-time measurement of the flux of the atomic beam during calorimetry experiments, and (4) adding capabilities for in situ relative diffuse optical reflectivity determinations (necessary for heat signal calibration). These improvements are not limited to adsorption calorimetry during metal deposition, but also could be applied to better study film growth of other elements and even molecular adsorbates. PMID:24387440

  11. Polar RadiationFlux Symmetry Measurements in Z-Pinch-Driven Hohlraums with Symmetric Double-Pinch Drive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Hanson; R. A. Vesey; M. E. Cuneo Porter Jr.; G. A. Chandler; L. E. Ruggles; W. W. Simpson; H. Seamen; P. Primm; J. Torres; J. McGurn; T. L. Gilliland; P. Reynolds; D. E. Hebron; S. C. Dropinski; D. G. Schroen-Carey; J. H. Hammer; O. Landen; J. Koch

    2000-01-01

    We are currently exploring symmetry requirements of the z-pinch-driven hohlraum concept [1] for high-yield inertial confinement fusion. In experiments on the Z accelerator, the burnthrough of a low-density self-backlit foam ball has been used to diagnose the large time-dependent flux asymmetry of several single-sided-drive hohlraum geometries [2]. We are currently applying this technique to study polar radiation flux symmetry in

  12. Development of a balloon-borne stabilized platform for measuring radiative flux profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, G.A.; Shaw, W.J.

    1993-03-01

    A stabilized platform has been developed to carry broadband short-wave and long-wave radiometric sensors on the tether line of a small tethered balloon that ascends through atmospheric depths of up to 1.5 km to obtain vertical profiles of radiative flux and flux divergence for evaluating atmospheric radiative transfer models. The Sky Platform was designed to keep the radiometers level despite unpredictable movements of the balloon and tether line occasioned by turbulence and wind shear. The automatic control loop drives motors, gears, and pulleys located on two of the vertices of the triangular frame to climb the harness lines to keep the platform level. Radiometric sensors, an electronic compass, and an on-board data acquisition system make up the remainder of the Sky Platform. Because knowledge of the dynamic response of the tether line-platform system is essential to properly close the automatic control loop on the Sky Platform, a Motion Sensing Platform (MSP) was developed to fly in place of the Sky Platform on the tether line to characterize the Sky Platform's operating environment. This unstabilized platform uses an array of nine solid-state linear accelerometers to measure the lateral and angular accelerations, velocities, and displacements that the Sky Platform will experience. This paper presents field performance tests of the Sky and Motion Sensing Platforms, as conducted at Richland, Washington, on February 17, 1993. The tests were performed primarily to characterize the stabilization system on the Sky Platform. Test flights were performed on this cold winter day from 1400 to 1800 Pacific Standard Time (PST). During this period, temperature profiles were near the dry adiabatic lapse rate. Flights were made through a jet wind speed profile having peak wind speeds of 7 m/s at a height of 100 m AGL. Wind directions were from the northwest. All flights were performed as continuous ascents, rather than ascending in discrete steps with halts at set altitudes.

  13. Development of a balloon-borne stabilized platform for measuring radiative flux profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, G.A.; Shaw, W.J.

    1993-03-01

    A stabilized platform has been developed to carry broadband short-wave and long-wave radiometric sensors on the tether line of a small tethered balloon that ascends through atmospheric depths of up to 1.5 km to obtain vertical profiles of radiative flux and flux divergence for evaluating atmospheric radiative transfer models. The Sky Platform was designed to keep the radiometers level despite unpredictable movements of the balloon and tether line occasioned by turbulence and wind shear. The automatic control loop drives motors, gears, and pulleys located on two of the vertices of the triangular frame to climb the harness lines to keep the platform level. Radiometric sensors, an electronic compass, and an on-board data acquisition system make up the remainder of the Sky Platform. Because knowledge of the dynamic response of the tether line-platform system is essential to properly close the automatic control loop on the Sky Platform, a Motion Sensing Platform (MSP) was developed to fly in place of the Sky Platform on the tether line to characterize the Sky Platform`s operating environment. This unstabilized platform uses an array of nine solid-state linear accelerometers to measure the lateral and angular accelerations, velocities, and displacements that the Sky Platform will experience. This paper presents field performance tests of the Sky and Motion Sensing Platforms, as conducted at Richland, Washington, on February 17, 1993. The tests were performed primarily to characterize the stabilization system on the Sky Platform. Test flights were performed on this cold winter day from 1400 to 1800 Pacific Standard Time (PST). During this period, temperature profiles were near the dry adiabatic lapse rate. Flights were made through a jet wind speed profile having peak wind speeds of 7 m/s at a height of 100 m AGL. Wind directions were from the northwest. All flights were performed as continuous ascents, rather than ascending in discrete steps with halts at set altitudes.

  14. Ionization chamber for measuring the exposure dose rate of intense pulsed fluxes of X rays and ?-radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. D. Villeval'de; N. N. Morozov; A. V. Oborin; B. M. Stepanov; V. I. Fominykh

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the exposure dose rate of powerful pulsed sources of bremsstrahlung xrays and y-radiation are very difficult because a standard of pulsed radiation is not available. The presently employed measuring means are based on scintillation, semiconductor, and pyroelectric devices [1-3] and are characterized by adequate resolution on the time scale and a satisfactory dynamic range, but cannot be successfully

  15. An information theory approach for evaluating earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements - Nonuniform sampling of diurnal longwave flux variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim; Direskeneli, Haldun; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    1991-01-01

    Satellite measurements are subject to a wide range of uncertainties due to their temporal, spatial, and directional sampling characteristics. An information-theory approach is suggested to examine the nonuniform temporal sampling of ERB measurements. The information (i.e., its entropy or uncertainty) before and after the measurements is determined, and information gain (IG) is defined as a reduction in the uncertainties involved. A stochastic model for the diurnal outgoing flux variations that affect the ERB is developed. Using Gaussian distributions for the a priori and measured radiant exitance fields, the IG is obtained by computing the a posteriori covariance. The IG for the monthly outgoing flux measurements is examined for different orbital parameters and orbital tracks, using the Earth Observing System orbital parameters as specific examples. Variations in IG due to changes in the orbit's inclination angle and the initial ascending node local time are investigated.

  16. Pyrolytic graphite gauge for measuring heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, Robert C. (Inventor); Ewing, Mark E. (Inventor); Shipley, John L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A gauge for measuring heat flux, especially heat flux encountered in a high temperature environment, is provided. The gauge includes at least one thermocouple and an anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body that covers at least part of, and optionally encases the thermocouple. Heat flux is incident on the anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body by arranging the gauge so that the gauge surface on which convective and radiative fluxes are incident is perpendicular to the basal planes of the pyrolytic graphite. The conductivity of the pyrolytic graphite permits energy, transferred into the pyrolytic graphite body in the form of heat flux on the incident (or facing) surface, to be quickly distributed through the entire pyrolytic graphite body, resulting in small substantially instantaneous temperature gradients. Temperature changes to the body can thereby be measured by the thermocouple, and reduced to quantify the heat flux incident to the body.

  17. Cosmic Ray Neutron Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayananda, Mathes

    2009-11-01

    Cosmic rays are high-energetic particles originating from outer space that bombard the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Almost 90% of cosmic ray particles consist of protons, electrons and heavy ions. When these particles hit the Earth's atmosphere, cascade of secondary particles are formed. The most abundant particles reach to the surface of the Earth are muons, electrons and neutrons. In recent years many research groups are looking into potential applications of the effects of cosmic ray radiation at the surface of the Earth [1, 2]. At Georgia State University we are working on a long-term measurement of cosmic ray flux distribution. This study includes the simultaneous measurement of cosmic ray muons, neutrons and gamma particles at the Earth surface in downtown Atlanta. The initial effort is focusing on the correlation studies of the cosmic ray particle flux distribution and the atmospheric weather conditions. In this presentation, I will talk about the development of a cosmic ray detector using liquid scintillator and the preliminary results. [4pt] [1] K.Borozdin, G.Hogan, C.Morris, W.Priedhorsky, A.Saunders, L.Shultz, M.Teasdale, ``Radiographic imaging with cosmic-ray muons'', Nature, Vol.422, p.277, Mar.2003[0pt] [2] Svensmark Henrik, Physical Review 81, 3, (1998)

  18. A Novel Detector for Measuring Gamma-Ray Fluxes in a Mixed Pulsed Neutron-Gamma Radiation Fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoping Ouyang; Zhongbing Zhang; Qunshu Wang

    2007-01-01

    An ICI (insulator-conductor-insulator) gamma-ray detector designed for measurement of fast rising, high intensity pulsed gamma-ray fluxes has been developed. Like vacuum Compton diode (VCD) and dielectric Compton diode (DCD) devices, the ICI detector operates by utilization of the Compton effect. It has a very fast time response (rise time is less than 1 ns), a large linearity and a wide

  19. Decadal Changes in Surface Radiative Fluxes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wild

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that radiative fluxes incident at the Earth surface are not stable over time but undergo significant changes on decadal timescales. This is not only found in the thermal spectral range, where an increase in the downwelling flux is expected with the increasing greenhouse effect, but also in the solar range. Observations suggest that surface solar radiation, after

  20. Simulation study of a geometric shape factor technique for estimating earth-emitted radiant flux densities from wide-field-of-view radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.; Green, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    Geometric shape factors were computed and applied to satellite simulated irradiance measurements to estimate Earth emitted flux densities for global and zonal scales and for areas smaller than the detector field of view (FOV). Wide field of view flat plate detectors were emphasized, but spherical detectors were also studied. The radiation field was modeled after data from the Nimbus 2 and 3 satellites. At a satellite altitude of 600 km, zonal estimates were in error 1.0 to 1.2 percent and global estimates were in error less than 0.2 percent. Estimates with unrestricted field of view (UFOV) detectors were about the same for Lambertian and limb darkening radiation models. The opposite was found for restricted field of view detectors. The UFOV detectors are found to be poor estimators of flux density from the total FOV and are shown to be much better as estimators of flux density from a circle centered at the FOV with an area significantly smaller than that for the total FOV.

  1. New measurement of the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio up to 100 GeV in the cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Adriani, O; Barbarino, G C; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; De Pascale, M P; De Rosa, G; Fedele, D; Galper, A M; Grishantseva, L; Hofverberg, P; Leonov, A; Koldashov, S V; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Malvezzi, V; Marcelli, L; Menn, W; Mikhailov, V V; Minori, M; Mocchiutti, E; Nagni, M; Orsi, S; Osteria, G; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Y I; Taddei, E; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N; Zverev, V G

    2009-02-01

    A new measurement of the cosmic-ray antiproton-to-proton flux ratio between 1 and 100 GeV is presented. The results were obtained with the PAMELA experiment, which was launched into low-Earth orbit on-board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on June 15th 2006. During 500 days of data collection a total of about 1000 antiprotons have been identified, including 100 above an energy of 20 GeV. The high-energy results are a tenfold improvement in statistics with respect to all previously published data. The data follow the trend expected from secondary production calculations and significantly constrain contributions from exotic sources, e.g., dark matter particle annihilations. PMID:19257498

  2. Aerosol-Induced Radiative Flux Changes Off the United States Mid-Atlantic Coast: Comparison of Values Calculated from Sunphotometer and In Situ Data with Those Measured by Airborne Pyranometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Hignett, P.; Kinne, S.; Wong, J.; Chien, A.; Bergstrom, R.; Durkee, P.; Hobbs, P. V.

    2000-01-01

    The Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) measured a variety of aerosol radiative effects (including flux changes) while simultaneously measuring the chemical, physical, and optical properties of the responsible aerosol particles. Here we use TARFOX-determined aerosol and surface properties to compute shortwave radiative flux changes for a variety of aerosol situations, with midvisible optical depths ranging from 0.06 to 0.55. We calculate flux changes by several techniques with varying degrees of sophistication, in part to investigate the sensitivity of results to computational approach. We then compare computed flux changes to those determined from aircraft measurements. Calculations using several approaches yield downward and upward flux changes that agree with measurements. The agreement demonstrates closure (i.e. consistency) among the TARFOX-derived aerosol properties, modeling techniques, and radiative flux measurements. Agreement between calculated and measured downward flux changes is best when the aerosols are modeled as moderately absorbing (midvisible single-scattering albedos between about 0.89 and 0.93), in accord with independent measurements of the TARPOX aerosol. The calculated values for instantaneous daytime upwelling flux changes are in the range +14 to +48 W/sq m for midvisible optical depths between 0.2 and 0.55. These values are about 30 to 100 times the global-average direct forcing expected for the global-average sulfate aerosol optical depth of 0.04. The reasons for the larger flux changes in TARFOX include the relatively large optical depths and the focus on cloud-free, daytime conditions over the dark ocean surface. These are the conditions that produce major aerosol radiative forcing events and contribute to any global-average climate effect.

  3. Beta ray flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Impink, Jr., Albert J. (Murrysville, PA); Goldstein, Norman P. (Murrysville, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

  4. Latent heat in soil heat flux measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Heitman; R. Horton; T. J. Sauer; T. S. Ren; X. Xiao

    2010-01-01

    The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, there remains uncertainty about what comprises soil heat flux and how surface and subsurface heat fluxes

  5. Experimental evaluation of self-calibrating cavity radiometers for use in earth flux radiation balance measurements from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, J. R.; Karoli, A. R.; Alton, B. M.

    1982-01-01

    A method for evaluating out-of-field response of wide-field, earth-viewing satellite radiometers is described. The equipment which simulates the earth and space consists of a central blackbody surrounded by a cooled ring. The radiometric and orbital considerations are discussed. Some test results for prototype ERBE cavity sensors are included. This presentation is restricted to longwave radiative transfer

  6. Measurements of the Jovian radiation belts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Fillius; C. E. McIlwain

    1974-01-01

    The University of California at San Diego trapped radiation detector measured proton and electron fluxes, angular distributions, and energy spectra throughout the Pioneer 10 flyby of Jupiter last December. Here the instrumentation and calibrations are described, and good values for particle fluxes in the inner and outer regions are presented. The major features of the Jovian radiation belts are described,

  7. Surface radiation fluxes in transient climate simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Garratt; D. M. O'Brien; M. R. Dix; J. M. Murphy; G. L. Stephens; M. Wild

    1999-01-01

    Transient CO2 experiments from five coupled climate models, in which the CO2 concentration increases at rates of 0.6–1.1% per annum for periods of 75–200 years, are used to document the responses of surface radiation fluxes, and associated atmospheric properties, to the CO2 increase. In all five models, the responses of global surface temperature and column water vapour are non-linear and

  8. Skyglow effects in UV and visible spectra: radiative fluxes.

    PubMed

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Solano Lamphar, H A

    2013-09-30

    Several studies have tried to understand the mechanisms and effects of radiative transfer under different night-sky conditions. However, most of these studies are limited to the various effects of visible spectra. Nevertheless, the invisible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum can pose a more profound threat to nature. One visible threat is from what is popularly termed skyglow. Such skyglow is caused by injudiciously situated or designed artificial night lighting systems which degrade desired sky viewing. Therefore, since lamp emissions are not limited to visible electromagnetic spectra, it is necessary to consider the complete spectrum of such lamps in order to understand the physical behaviour of diffuse radiation at terrain level. In this paper, the downward diffuse radiative flux is computed in a two-stream approximation and obtained ultraviolet spectral radiative fluxes are inter-related with luminous fluxes. Such a method then permits an estimate of ultraviolet radiation if the traditionally measured illuminance on a horizontal plane is available. The utility of such a comparison of two spectral bands is shown, using the different lamp types employed in street lighting. The data demonstrate that it is insufficient to specify lamp type and its visible flux production independently of each other. Also the UV emissions have to be treated by modellers and environmental scientists because some light sources can be fairly important pollutants in the near ultraviolet. Such light sources can affect both the living organisms and ambient environment. PMID:23792881

  9. Skyglow effects in UV and visible spectra: Radiative fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Solano Lamphar, Hector Antonio

    2013-09-01

    Several studies have tried to understand the mechanisms and effects of radiative transfer under different night-sky conditions. However, most of these studies are limited to the various effects of visible spectra. Nevertheless, the invisible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum can pose a more profound threat to nature. One visible threat is from what is popularly termed skyglow. Such skyglow is caused by injudiciously situated or designed artificial night lighting systems which degrade desired sky viewing. Therefore, since lamp emissions are not limited to visible electromagnetic spectra, it is necessary to consider the complete spectrum of such lamps in order to understand the physical behaviour of diffuse radiation at terrain level. In this paper, the downward diffuse radiative flux is computed in a two-stream approximation and obtained ultraviolet spectral radiative fluxes are inter-related with luminous fluxes. Such a method then permits an estimate of ultraviolet radiation if the traditionally measured illuminance on a horizontal plane is available. The utility of such a comparison of two spectral bands is shown, using the different lamp types employed in street lighting. The data demonstrate that it is insufficient to specify lamp type and its visible flux production independently of each other. Also the UV emissions have to be treated by modellers and environmental scientists because some light sources can be fairly important pollutants in the near ultraviolet. Such light sources can affect both the living organisms and ambient environment.

  10. RADIATION ENTROPY FLUX AND ENTROPY PRODUCTION OF THE EARTH SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Click Here for Full Article RADIATION ENTROPY FLUX AND ENTROPY PRODUCTION OF THE EARTH SYSTEM Wei; published 14 May 2010. [1] The study of the Earth's radiation entropy flux at the top of the atmosphere. It is found that the Earth's net radiation entropy flux estimated from these vari- ous expressions can differ

  11. Spatially averaged heat flux and convergence measurements at the ARM regional flux experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Porch, W.; Barnes, F.; Buchwald, M.; Clements, W.; Cooper, D.; Hoard, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Doran, C.; Hubbe, J.; Shaw, W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Coulter, R.; Martin, T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Kunkel, K. (Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Cloud formation and its relation to climate change is the greatest weakness in current numerical climate models. Surface heat flux in some cases causes clouds to form and in other to dissipate and the differences between these cases are subtle enough to make parameterization difficult in a numerical model. One of the goals of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is to make long term measurements at representative sites to improve radiation and cloud formation parameterization. This paper compares spatially averaged optical measurements of heat flux and convergence with a goal of determining how point measurements of heat fluxes scale up to the larger scale used for climate modeling. It was found that the various optical techniques used in this paper compared well with each other and with independent measurements. These results add confidence that spatially averaging optical techniques can be applied to transform point measurements to the larger scales needed for mesoscale and climate modeling. 10 refs., 6 figs. (MHB)

  12. NEUTRON FLUX MEASUREMENT AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gray

    1960-01-01

    The problems of neutron flux measurements in hightemperature, low-flux ; (zero-energy) reactors are discussed. Because of the low flux, the detectors ; must operate closer to the core than in power reactors and hence must withstand ; higher temperatures for long periods of time. Gas ionization detectors are ; chosen as being the only type practicable under the acove conditions,

  13. Earth Radiation Measurement Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis

    2000-01-01

    This document is the final report for NASA Grant NAG1-1959, 'Earth Radiation Measurement Science'. The purpose of this grant was to perform research in this area for the needs of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project and for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which are bing conducted by the Radiation and Aerosols Branch of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of Langley Research Center. Earth Radiation Measurement Science investigates the processes by which measurements are converted into data products. Under this grant, research was to be conducted for five tasks: (1) Point Response Function Measurements; (2) Temporal Sampling of Outgoing Longwave Radiation; (3) Spatial Averaging of Radiation Budget Data; (4) CERES Data Validation and Applications; and (5) ScaRaB Data Validation and Application.

  14. Effect of the radiative background flux in convection

    E-print Network

    A. Brandenburg; K. L. Chan; A. Nordlund; R. F. Stein

    2005-08-18

    Numerical simulations of turbulent stratified convection are used to study models with approximately the same convective flux, but different radiative fluxes. As the radiative flux is decreased, for constant convective flux: the entropy jump at the top of the convection zone becomes steeper, the temperature fluctuations increase and the velocity fluctuations decrease in magnitude, and the distance that low entropy fluid from the surface can penetrate increases. Velocity and temperature fluctuations follow mixing length scaling laws.

  15. The Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes to Parameterized Cloud Microphysics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacobellis, Sam F.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Mitchell, David L.; Somerville, Richard C. J.

    2003-09-01

    The sensitivity of modeled radiative fluxes to the specification of cloud microphysical parameterizations of effective radius and fallout are investigated using a single-column model and measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The single-column model was run with data for the 3-month period of June-August 2000 at the ARM Southern Great Plains site forced with operational numerical weather prediction data. Several different packages of cloud microphysical parameterizations were used in the single-column model. The temporal evolution of modeled cloud amount as well as surface radiative fluxes from a control run compare well with ARM measurements.Mean ice particle fall speeds varied significantly with respect to the assumed ice particle habit. As particle fall speeds increased, the overall cloud fraction, cloud height, and grid-averaged ice water path decreased. The outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) differs by up to 4 W m2 over the range of fall speeds examined, while shortwave fluxes varied little as most of the changes in cloud properties occurred at times of minimal solar radiation.Model results indicate that surface and top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes are sensitive to the scheme used to specify the ice particle effective radius. On the seasonal timescale this sensitivity is on the order of 4 W m2 and on the daily timescale can be as large as 32 W m2. A conclusive statement as to which microphysical scheme is performing best is not achievable until cloud microphysical measurements include an accurate representation of small ice particles. The modeled variance of the ice particle effective radius at any given height in the model is considerably smaller than that suggested by measurements. Model results indicate that this underestimation of the ice particle effective radius variance can alter the seasonal mean top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes by up to 5 W m2 and the mean longwave cooling rate by up to 0.2° K day1 near the location of maximum cloud amount.These seemingly modest flux sensitivities may have important implications for numerical climate simulations. These numerical experiments and observational comparisons have provided valuable physical insight into ice cloud-radiation physics and also into the mechanisms through which contemporary cloud microphysical parameterizations interact with climate model radiation schemes. In particular, the results demonstrate the importance of the smaller ice particles and emphasize the critical role played by not only the average particle size and shape but also the width of the ice particle effective radius distribution about its mean. In fact, the results show that this variability in particle size can sometimes play a greater role in cloud-radiation interactions than the more obvious variations in cloud amount due to changes in ice particle fall speed.

  16. Radiation measurements aboard Spacelab 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Almasi, J.; Cassou, R.; Frank, A.; Henke, R. P.; Rowe, V.; Parnell, T. A.; Schopper, E.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation environment inside Spacelab 1 was measured by a set of passive radiation detectors distributed throughout the volume inside the module, in the access tunnel, and outside on the pallet. Measurements of the low linear energy transfer (LET) component obtained from the thermoluminescence detectors ranged from 102 to 190 millirads, yielding an average low LET dose rate of 11.2 millirads/day inside the module, about twice the low LET dose rate measured on previous flights of the Space Shuttle. Because of the higher inclination of the orbit (57 versus 28.5 deg for previous Shuttle flights), substantial fluxes of highly ionizing high charge and energy galactic cosmic ray particles were observed, yielding an overall average mission dose-equivalent of about 150 millirems, more than three times higher than that measured on previous Shuttle missions.

  17. Regional carbon dioxide fluxes from aircraft measurements in southwest France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellinga, O. S.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Elbers, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    In 2007, the CarboEurope-IP Regional Component organised the second edition of the CERES measurement campaign in the southwest of France. This was a follow-up of the initial campaign in 2005. CERES'07 consisted of two intensive observational periods (IOPs), of which one in spring and the other one in summer. During both IOPs, ground stations, tall towers, radiosondes and a number of aircrafts were used, including our own environmental research aircraft (ERA). The ERA is a small aircraft flying at low altitudes and low air speeds, equipped to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent heat and sensible heat using the eddy-correlation technique. In addition, instruments are on board for measuring ground temperature, net radiation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Flux data obtained with the ERA during CERES'07 have been analyzed and will be presented here. In the data analysis, we present regional fluxes of carbon dioxide focussing at seasonal trends in relation to landscape elements. To achieve this, flight tracks were split into homogeneous segments based on land cover, topography and soil type. During both IOPs, weather conditions were constant. This gives us the possibility to average data in each segment across all flights, though the issue of diurnal variation in surface fluxes and radiation still remains. In short, the analysis strategy on our airborne flux data from CERES'07 will be addressed in this presentation together with its results focussing at drivers for these fluxes at landscape scale.

  18. Estimation of TOA radiative fluxes from the GERB instrument data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerbaux, Nicolas; Bertrand, Cedric; Dewitte, Steven; Gonzalez, Luis; Ipe, Alessandro; Nicula, Bogdan

    2003-11-01

    The first Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite was launched in August 2002. This EUMETSAT satellite carries 2 new instruments on the geostationary orbit: the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager, SEVIRI, and the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget, GERB. The unique feature of GERB in comparison with previous measurement missions of the Earth's radiation budget (e.g. ERBE, ScaRab and CERES experiments) is the high temporal sampling afforded by the geostationary orbit, albeit for a limited region of the globe. The GERB instrument provides accurate broadband measurements of the radiant energy originating in the reflection of the incoming solar energy by the Earth-atmosphere system and in the thermal emission within this system. The synergetic use of the SEVIRI data is needed to convert these directional measurements (radiances) into radiative fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere. Additionally, the SEVIRI data allows the enhancement of the spatial resolution of the GERB measurement. This paper describes the near real-time GERB processing system that has been set up at the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMIB). This includes the unfiltering of the instrument data, the radiance-to-flux conversions and the enhancement of the instrument spatial resolution. An early validation of the instrument data by comparison with CERES data is presented. Finally, the different data formats, the way to access them and their expected accuracy are presented.

  19. Accuracy of quantum sensors measuring yield photon flux and photosynthetic photon flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Tibbitts, T.; Sager, J.; Deitzer, G.; Bubenheim, D.; Koerner, G.; Bugbee, B.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Photosynthesis is fundamentally driven by photon flux rather than energy flux, but not all absorbed photons yield equal amounts of photosynthesis. Thus, two measures of photosynthetically active radiation have emerged: photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), which values all photons from 400 to 700 nm equally, and yield photon flux (YPF), which weights photons in the range from 360 to 760 nm according to plant photosynthetic response. We selected seven common radiation sources and measured YPF and PPF from each source with a spectroradiometer. We then compared these measurements with measurements from three quantum sensors designed to measure YPF, and from six quantum sensors designed to measure PPF. There were few differences among sensors within a group (usually <5%), but YPF values from sensors were consistently lower (3% to 20%) than YPF values calculated from spectroradiometric measurements. Quantum sensor measurements of PPF also were consistently lower than PPF values calculated from spectroradiometric measurements, but the differences were <7% for all sources, except red-light-emitting diodes. The sensors were most accurate for broad-band sources and least accurate for narrow-band sources. According to spectroradiometric measurements, YPF sensors were significantly less accurate (>9% difference) than PPF sensors under metal halide, high-pressure sodium, and low-pressure sodium lamps. Both sensor types were inaccurate (>18% error) under red-light-emitting diodes. Because both YPF and PPF sensors are imperfect integrators, and because spectroradiometers can measure photosynthetically active radiation much more accurately, researchers should consider developing calibration factors from spectroradiometric data for some specific radiation sources to improve the accuracy of integrating sensors.

  20. Aerosol properties derived from spectral actinic flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, H.; Schmidt, K. S.; Pilewskie, P.; Cozic, J.; Wollny, A. G.; Brock, C. A.; Baynard, T.; Lack, D.; Parrish, D. D.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    2008-12-01

    Measurement of aerosol properties is very important for understanding climate change. Aerosol optical properties influence solar radiation throughout the troposphere. According to the Working Group I report of the intergovernmental panel for climate change [IPCC, 2007], aerosols have a direct radiative forcing of - 0.5±0.4 W/m2 with a medium to low level of scientific understanding. This relatively large uncertainty indicates the need for more frequent and precise measurements of aerosol properties. We will show how actinic flux measurements can be used to derive important optical aerosol parameters such as aerosol optical thickness and depth, surface albedo, angstrom exponent, radiative forcing by clouds and aerosols, aerosol extinction, and others. The instrument used for this study is a combination of two spectroradiometers measuring actinic flux in the ultraviolet and visible radiation range from 280 to 690 nm with a resolution of 1 nm. Actinic flux is measured as the radiation incident on a spherical surface with sensitivity independent of direction. In contrast, irradiance is measured as the radiation incident on a plane surface, which depends on the cosine of the incident angle. Our goal is to assess the capabilities of using spectral actinic flux measurements to derive various aerosol properties. Here we will compare 1) actinic flux measurements to irradiance measurements from the spectral solar flux radiometer (SSFR), 2) derived aerosol size distributions with measurements from a white light optical particle counter (WLOPC) and ultra high sensitivity aerosol size spectrometer (UHSAS), and 3) derived aerosol optical extinction with measurements from a cavity ringdown aerosol extinction spectrometer (CRD-AES). These comparisons will utilize data from three recent field campaigns over New England and the Atlantic Ocean (ICARTT 2004), Texas and the Gulf of Mexico during (TexAQS/GoMACCS 2006), and Alaska and the Arctic Ocean (ARCPAC 2008) when the instruments were installed on board the NOAA WP-3D aircraft. IPCC (2007), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

  1. Heat flux microsensor measurements and calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, James P.; Hager, Jon M.; Onishi, Shinzo; Diller, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    A new thin-film heat flux gage has been fabricated specifically for severe high temperature operation using platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium for the thermocouple elements. Radiation calibrations of this gage were performed at the AEDC facility over the available heat flux range (approx. 1.0 - 1,000 W/cu cm). The gage output was linear with heat flux with a slight increase in sensitivity with increasing surface temperature. Survivability of gages was demonstrated in quench tests from 500 C into liquid nitrogen. Successful operation of gages to surface temperatures of 750 C has been achieved. No additional cooling of the gages is required because the gages are always at the same temperature as the substrate material. A video of oxyacetylene flame tests with real-time heat flux and temperature output is available.

  2. Anatomy of a Radiation Belt Flux Dropout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennell, J. F.; Friedel, R. H.; Green, J. C.; Guild, T. B.; Mazur, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    During the period 30 June to 4 July 2011 an extended flux dropout of energetic electrons was observed by multiple GOES, HEO and GPS satellites. The GOES >2 MeV electron flux dropped by more than two orders of magnitude to background levels and remained at the reduced levels for about four days. The HEO observations indicate the >6.5, >3 MeV, >1.5 MeV, >0.23 flux reductions were observed down to L~4.8, 4.9, 5.1 and 5.6 respectively. The >320 keV proton fluxes were also observe to drop out down to L~ 5.5. At the time of the flux dropout the interplanetary conditions were relatively steady with low solar wind speed and ion density of ~10/cc. However Bz was <0 and Dst turned negative on 1 July at 02 UT reaching -49 nT by 08 UT. The recovery and duration of the flux dropouts were energy dependent with the hundreds of keV electron fluxes recovering within a day near geosynchronous while the >MeV electrons and >320 keV protons recovered slowly. Only the <500 keV electrons reached flux levels exceeding or approaching their pre dropout levels at HEO and then only in the L=4.5-5.2 range. These < 0.5 MeV flux enhancements were temporary, lasting about a day. The HEO observations show that the recovery of the relativistic electron fluxes proceeded slowly from low to higher L. The >8.5 MeV electrons and >320 keV proton fluxes observed by the HEO satellites had still not recovered to L~6.5 after 6-7 days. We will fold all the available data together from GOES, multiple HEO and GPS satellites plus low altitude observations to provide a comprehensive view of this dropout event.

  3. Analysis of actinic flux profiles measured from an ozonesonde balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Allaart, M.; Knap, W. H.; Stammes, P.

    2015-04-01

    A green light sensor has been developed at KNMI to measure actinic flux profiles using an ozonesonde balloon. In total, 63 launches with ascending and descending profiles were performed between 2006 and 2010. The measured uncalibrated actinic flux profiles are analysed using the Doubling-Adding KNMI (DAK) radiative transfer model. Values of the cloud optical thickness (COT) along the flight track were taken from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) Cloud Physical Properties (CPP) product. The impact of clouds on the actinic flux profile is evaluated on the basis of the cloud modification factor (CMF) at the cloud top and cloud base, which is the ratio between the actinic fluxes for cloudy and clear-sky scenes. The impact of clouds on the actinic flux is clearly detected: the largest enhancement occurs at the cloud top due to multiple scattering. The actinic flux decreases almost linearly from cloud top to cloud base. Above the cloud top the actinic flux also increases compared to clear-sky scenes. We find that clouds can increase the actinic flux to 2.3 times the clear-sky value at cloud top and decrease it to about 0.05 at cloud base. The relationship between CMF and COT agrees well with DAK simulations, except for a few outliers. Good agreement is found between the DAK-simulated actinic flux profiles and the observations for single-layer clouds in fully overcast scenes. The instrument is suitable for operational balloon measurements because of its simplicity and low cost. It is worth further developing the instrument and launching it together with atmospheric chemistry composition sensors.

  4. Experimental Flux Measurements on a Network Scale

    PubMed Central

    Schwender, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic flux is a fundamental property of living organisms. In recent years, methods for measuring metabolic flux in plants on a network scale have evolved further. One major challenge in studying flux in plants is the complexity of the plant’s metabolism. In particular, in the presence of parallel pathways in multiple cellular compartments, the core of plant central metabolism constitutes a complex network. Hence, a common problem with the reliability of the contemporary results of 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis in plants is the substantial reduction in complexity that must be included in the simulated networks; this omission partly is due to limitations in computational simulations. Here, I discuss recent emerging strategies that will better address these shortcomings. PMID:22639602

  5. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Simpson, M.L.; McElhaney, S.A.

    1994-10-04

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination. 3 figs.

  6. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, John T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN); McElhaney, Stephanie A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination.

  7. How to Measure Magnetic Flux with a Single Position Measurement?

    E-print Network

    Yakir Aharonov; Eliahu Cohen

    2014-08-29

    Current methods for measuring magnetic flux are based on performing many measurements over a large ensemble of electrons. We propose a novel method for measuring the flux modulo hc/e using only a single electron. Furthermore, we show, for the first time, how to understand this result on geometric grounds when utilizing only the quantization of angular momentum. A transformation to a rotating frame of reference reveals the nonlocal effect of magnetic flux on the electron, without the need of solving the Schrodinger equation. This provides a new intuition for understanding the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect.

  8. Near-Core and In-Core Neutron Radiation Monitors for Real Time Neutron Flux Monitoring and Reactor Power Level Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas S. McGregor; Marvin L. Adams; Igor Carron; Paul Nelson

    2006-06-12

    MPFDs are a new class of detectors that utilize properties from existing radiation detector designs. A majority of these characteristics come from fission chamber designs. These include radiation hardness, gamma-ray background insensitivity, and large signal output.

  9. Solar UVA and UV-B radiation fluxes at two Alpine stations at different altitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Blumthaler; W. Ambach; W. Rehwald

    1992-01-01

    Daily totals of UV-A and UV-B radiation fluxes and global radiation were measured since 1981 at Jungfraujoch (3576 m) a.s.l.) and in Innsbruck (577 m a.s.l.) in their seasonal course. The altitude effect of annual totals yields 19%\\/1000 m (UV-B), 11%\\/1000 m (UV-A) and 9%\\/1000 m (global radiation) with reference to Innsbruck station. The ratio of the daily totals of

  10. A new one-dimensional radiative equilibrium model for investigating atmospheric radiation entropy flux

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Yangang

    2010-01-01

    A new one-dimensional radiative equilibrium model is built to analytically evaluate the vertical profile of the Earth's atmospheric radiation entropy flux under the assumption that atmospheric longwave radiation emission behaves as a greybody and shortwave radiation as a diluted blackbody. Results show that both the atmospheric shortwave and net longwave radiation entropy fluxes increase with altitude, and the latter is about one order in magnitude greater than the former. The vertical profile of the atmospheric net radiation entropy flux follows approximately that of the atmospheric net longwave radiation entropy flux. Sensitivity study further reveals that a ‘darker’ atmosphere with a larger overall atmospheric longwave optical depth exhibits a smaller net radiation entropy flux at all altitudes, suggesting an intrinsic connection between the atmospheric net radiation entropy flux and the overall atmospheric longwave optical depth. These results indicate that the overall strength of the atmospheric irreversible processes at all altitudes as determined by the corresponding atmospheric net entropy flux is closely related to the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. PMID:20368255

  11. Cosmic matter flux may turn Hawking radiation off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Ellis, George F. R.

    2015-02-01

    An astrophysical (cosmological) black hole forming in a cosmological context will be subject to a flux of infalling matter and radiation, which will cause the outer apparent horizon (a marginal trapping surface) to be spacelike spacelike (Ellis et al., arXiv:1407.3577). As a consequence the radiation emitted close to the apparent horizon no longer arrives at infinity with a diverging redshift. Standard calculations of the emission of Hawking radiation then indicate that no blackbody radiation is emitted to infinity by the black hole in these circumstances, hence there will also then be no black hole evaporation process due to emission of such radiation as long as the matter flux is significant. The essential adiabatic condition (eikonal approximation) for black hole radiation gives a strong limit to the black holes that can emit Hawking radiation. We give the mass range for the black holes that can radiate, according to their cosmological redshift, for the special case of the cosmic blackbody radiation (CBR) influx (which exists everywhere in the universe). At a very late stage of black hole formation when the CBR influx decays away, the black hole horizon becomes first a slowly evolving horizon and then an isolated horizon; at that stage, black hole radiation will start. This study suggests that the primordial black hole evaporation scenario should be revised to take these considerations into account.

  12. Cosmic Matter Flux May Turn Hawking Radiation Off

    E-print Network

    Javad T. Firouzjaee; George F. R. Ellis

    2014-12-06

    An astrophysical (cosmological) black hole forming in a cosmological context will be subject to a flux of infalling matter and radiation, which will cause the outer apparent horizon (a marginal trapping surface) to be spacelike \\cite{ellisetal14}. As a consequence the radiation emitted close to the apparent horizon no longer arrives at infinity with a diverging redshift. Standard calculations of the emission of Hawking radiation then indicate that no blackbody radiation is emitted to infinity by the black hole in these circumstances, hence there will also then be no black hole evaporation process due to emission of such radiation as long as the matter flux is significant. The essential adiabatic condition (eikonal approximation) for black hole radiation gives a strong limit to the black holes that can emit Hawking radiation. We give the mass range for the black holes that can radiate, according to their cosmological redshift, for the special case of the cosmic blackbody radiation (CBR) influx (which exists everywhere in the universe). At a very late stage of black hole formation when the CBR influx decays away, the black hole horizon becomes first a slowly evolving horizon and then an isolated horizon; at that stage, black hole radiation will start. This study suggests that the primordial black hole evaporation scenario should be revised to take these considerations into account.

  13. Determining vegetation indices from solar and photosynthetically active radiation fluxes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. B. Wilson; T. P. Meyers

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the seasonal variability of vegetation spectral indices to deduce leaf area index (LAI) for use in soil–vegetation–atmosphere exchange models using near-real-time and archived flux tower radiation data. The 30-min data from 11 flux tower locations in 5 vegetation types (desert grassland, temperate grasslands, crops, deciduous forests, and pine forest) were collected across

  14. Indication of increasing solar ultraviolet-B radiation flux in alpine regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Blumthaler; W. Ambach

    1990-01-01

    Measurements at the Jungfraujoch High Mountain Station (Swiss Alps, 47°N, 3,576 meters above sea level) indicate that there has been a slight increase of about 1% per year in the flux of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (290 to 330 nanometers) since 1981. A Robertson-Berger detector was used to measure solar erythemal radiation. The increase can be related to a long-term ozone

  15. Combining the effect of crops surface albedo variability on the radiative forcing together with crop GHG budgets calculated from in situ flux measurements in a life cycle assessment approach: methodology and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceschia, E.; Ferlicoq, M.; Brut, A.; Tallec, T.

    2013-12-01

    The carbon and GHG budgets (GHGB) of the 2 crop sites with contrasted management located in South West France was estimated over a complete rotation by combining a classical LCA approach with on site CO2 flux measurements. At both sites, carbon inputs (organic fertilization, seeds), carbon exports (harvest) and net ecosystem production (NEP), measured with the eddy covariance technique, were estimated. The variability of the different terms and their relative contributions to the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) were analyzed for all site-years, and the effect of management on NECB was assessed. To account for GHG fluxes that were not directly measured on site, we estimated the emissions caused by field operations (EFO) for each site using emission factors from the literature. The EFO were added to the NECB to calculate the total GHGB for a range of cropping systems and management regimes. N2O emissions were calculated following the IPCC (2007) guidelines or and CH4 emissions were assumed to be negligible. Albedo was calculated continuously using the short wave incident and reflected radiation measurements in the field from CNR1 sensors. Rapid changes in surface albedo typical from those ecosystems and resulting from management and crop phenology were analysed. The annual radiative forcing for each plot was estimated by calculating the difference between a mean annual albedo for each crop and a reference bare soil albedo value calculated over 5 years for each plot. To finalize the radiative forcing calculation, the method developed by Muñoz et al (2010) using up and down atmospheric transmittance had to be corrected so it would only account for up-going atmospheric transmittance. Annual differences in radiative forcing between crops were then converted in g C equivalent m-2 in order to add this effect to the GHG budget of each crop within a rotation. This methodology could be applied to all ICOS/NEON cropland sites. We found that the differences in radiative forcing between crops (ranging from -1800 to 750 g C-eq for rapeseed and sunflower, respectively) largely exceeded the NEP, the NECB and the GHGB of those crops. Also, as increasing the length of the vegetative period is considered as one of the main levers for improving the NECB and the GHGB of crop ecosystems, we tested the effect of adding intermediate crops on the NECB, GHGB and the radiative forcing resulting from changes in mean annual surface albedo. We showed that the NEP was improved and as a consequence NECB and GHGB too. Intermediate crops also increased the mean annual surface albedo and therefore caused a negative radiative forcing (cooling effect) expressed in g C equivalent m-2 (sink). The use of an intermediate crop could in some cases switch the crop from a positive NEP (source) to a negative one (sink) and the change in radiative forcing (up to -110 g C-eq m-2 yr-1) could overwhelm the NEP term and it improves the GHG budget.

  16. An overview of results from the GEWEX radiation flux assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, E.; Stackhouse, P.; Kinne, S.; Contributors from Europe; the USA

    2013-05-01

    Multi-annual radiative flux averages of the International Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), of the GEWEX - Surface Radiation Budget Project (SRB) and of the Clouds and Earth Radiative Energy System (CERES) are compared and analyzed to characterize the Earth's radiative budget, assess differences and identify possible causes. These satellite based data-sets are also compared to results of a median model, which represents 20 climate models, that participated in the 4th IPCC assessment. Consistent distribution patterns and seasonal variations among the satellite data-sets demonstrate their scientific value, which would further increase if the datasets would be reanalyzed with more accurate and consistent ancillary data.

  17. An intercomparison of surface energy flux measurement systems used during FIFE 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, D.; Kanemasu, E.T.; Fritschen, L.J.; Weaver, H.L.; Smith, E.A.; Verma, S.B.; Field, R.T.; Kustas, W.P.; Stewart, J.B. (Georgia Univ., Griffin (United States) Washington Univ., Seattle (United States) USGS, Denver, CO (United States) Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (United States) Nebraska Univ., Lincoln (United States) Delaware Univ., Newark (United States) USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD (United States) NERC, Inst. of Hydrology, Wallingford (United Kingdom))

    1992-11-01

    During FIFE 1987, surface energy fluxes were measured at 22 flux sites by nine groups of scientists using different measuring systems. A rover Bowen ratio station was taken to 20 of the flux stations to serve as a reference for estimating the instrument-related differences. The rover system was installed within a few meters from the host instrument of a site. Using linear regression analysis, net radiation, Bowen ratio, and latent heat fluxes were compared between the rover measurements and the host measurements. The average differences in net radiation, Bowen ratio, and latent heat flux from different types of instruments can be up to 10, 30, and 20 percent, respectively. The Didcot net radiometer gave higher net radiation while the Swissteco type showed lower values, as compared to the corrected radiation energy balance system (REBS) model. The four-way components method and the Thornthwaite type give similar values to the REBS. The surface energy radiation balance systems type Bowen ratio systems exhibit slightly lower Bowen ratios and thus higher latent heat fluxes, compared to the arid zone evapotranspiration systems. Eddy correlation systems showed slightly lower latent heat flux in comparison to the Bowen ratio systems. It is recommended that users of the flux data take these differences into account. 11 refs.

  18. Micrometeorological flux measurements at a coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Guozheng; Meixner, Franz X.; Bruse, Michael; Mamtimin, Buhalqem

    2014-05-01

    The eddy covariance (EC) technique is the only direct measurement of the momentum, heat, and trace gas (e.g. water vapor, CO2 and ozone) fluxes. The measurements are expected to be most accurate over flat terrain where there is an extended homogenous surface upwind from the tower, and when the environmental conditions are steady. Additionally, the one dimensional approach assumes that vertical turbulent exchange is the dominant flux, whereas advective influences should be negligible. The application of EC method under non-ideal conditions, for example in complex terrain, has yet to be fully explored. To explore the possibilities and limitations of EC technique under non-ideal conditions, an EC system was set up at Selles beach, Crete, Greece (35.33°N, 25.71°E) in the beginning of July 2012. The dominant wind direction was west, parallel to the coast. The EC system consisted of a sonic anemometer (CSAT3 Campbell Scientific), an infrared open-path CO2/H2O gas analyzer (LI-7500, Li-COR Biosciences) and a fast chemiluminescence ozone analyzer (enviscope GmbH). All the signals of these fast response instruments were sampled at 10 Hz and the measurement height was 3 m. Besides, another gradient system was setup. Air temperature, relative humidity (HYGROMER MP 103 A), and wind speed (WMT700 Vaisala) were measured every 10 seconds at 3 heights (0.7, 1.45, 3 m). Air intakes were set up at 0.7m and 3m. A pump drew the air through a flow system and a telflon valve alternately switched between the two heights every 30 seconds. H2O, CO2 (LI-840A, Li-COR Biosciences) and ozone mixing ratio s (model 205, 2BTechnologies) were measured every 10 seconds. Momentum, heat, CO2 and ozone fluxes were evaluated by both EC and gradient technique. For the calculation of turbulent fluxes, TK3 algorithm (Department of Micrometeorology, University Bayreuth, Germany) was applied. We will present the measured fluxes of the two systems and assess the data quality under such non-ideal condition.

  19. ACCURACY OF SOIL HEAT FLUX MEASUREMENTS MADE WITH FLUX PLATES OF CONTRASTING PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flux plate measurements of soil heat flux (G) may include significant errors unless the plates are carefully installed and known errors accounted for. The objective of this research was to quantify potential errors in G when using soil heat flux plates of contrasting designs. Five flux plates with...

  20. Radiation flux tables for ICRCCM using the GLA GCM radiation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HARSHVARDHAN

    1986-01-01

    Tabulated values of longwave and shortwave radiation fluxes and also cooling and heating rates in the atmosphere for standard atmospheric profiles are presented. The radiation codes used in the Goddard general circulation model were employed for the computations. These results were obtained for an international intercomparison projected called Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM).

  1. Approaches of comparison for clear-sky radiative fluxes from general circulation models with Earth Radiation Budget Experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, M. H.; Cess, R. D.; Kwon, T. Y.; Chen, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    In order to compare the clear-sky greenhouse effect and cloud-radiative forcing from general circulation models with Earth Radiation Budget Experiments (ERBE) data, it is necessary to calculate the general circulation model (GCM) clear-sky radiative fluxes in a way consistent with ERBE. This study discusses problems associated with the available methods for clear-sky radiative flux computations in GCMs and proposes a new approach, which uses a statistical relationship between the grid cloud cover and the availability of ERBE clear-sky measurement, established from ERBE pixel data, to sample the model radiative fluxes. Calculations with version 2 of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model using observed sea surface temperature (SST) show good agreement of clear-sky sampling from the proposed method with ERBE sampling. It is also shown that large improvements are achieved in the spatial variability of the model clear-sky radiative fluxes over ocean, with reference to ERBE, by using the new clear-sky sampling method.

  2. SURFACE FLUXES AND CURRENTS FOR VARIOUS SHIELDED RADIATION SOURCES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Cohen; F. B. Estabrook

    1957-01-01

    The flux and current of radiation at the surface of shielded sources are ; calculated as a function of source radius and shield thickness. Curves are ; presented for source radius (or half-thickness) from 0 to 20 mean-freepaths and ; for shield thickness from 0 to 20 mean-free-paths for plane, cylindrical, and ; slab geometries. The curves are particularly useful

  3. Radiation belt electron precipitation fluxes associated with lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clilverd, M. A.; Rodger, C. J.; Nunn, D.

    2004-12-01

    In this study we consider the dependence of precipitation fluxes arising from whistler-induced radiation belt losses on the strength of the associated lightning's return stroke current. As a result of this work, it will be possible to use lightning activity data sets to estimate globally induced precipitation flux rates and thus determine the lightning-induced effect on the radiation belts more accurately. Four study days were selected, during which a high proportion of the lightning activity occurring near the east coast of North America produced observable Trimpi effects on VLF transmitter signals propagating in the region of the Antarctic Peninsula (˜L = 2-2.5). The lack of lightning in Antarctica gives this location a unique advantage for this study. The functional dependence of the relative scattered field amplitude with the return stroke peak current of the lightning discharge suggests that during these events diffusion conditions are occurring near the precipitating radiation belt particles loss cone due to strong whistler wave fields, probably caused by ducted signals. The range of observed Trimpi scatter amplitude of -10 to -35 dB was produced by precipitation bursts with energy fluxes estimated to range over 6.5-0.4 × 10-3 ergs cm-2 s-1. The largest fluxes were found to be driven by lightning currents of about 250 kA, while the smallest detectable fluxes relate to lightning currents of 70 kA. Although 3 of the 4 study days showed a high degree of consistency between the levels of lightning return stroke peak current required to produce any given perturbation scatter amplitude value, conditions were significantly different on 23 April 1994. On this day, observed Trimpi signatures were 6-7 dB greater for any given lightning intensity than on the other study days. These events are consistent with a significantly harder radiation belt precipitation spectra, probably caused by geomagnetic storm-time acceleration processes of radiation belt electrons.

  4. Radiation detection and measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Knoll

    1979-01-01

    The book is a complete, clear and up-to-date text that provides a basic review of instruments and methods of ionizing radiation. The text covers detailed discussion of all detector types; introductory discussions of radiation sources, interactions, and counting statistics; functional analysis of the electronics and pulse processing aspects of radiation detectors in instrumentation systems; and consideration of shielding and background

  5. ERRORS IN SOIL HEAT FLUX MEASUREMENT: EFFECTS OF FLUX PLATE DESIGN AND VARYING SOIL THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flux plate method is the most commonly employed method for measuring soil heat flux (G) in surface energy balance studies. Nonetheless, significant errors in G measured with flux plates can occur unless proper installation techniques are used and necessary corrections made. The objective of th...

  6. Estimation of rainfall interception in grassland using eddy flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, A.; Miyazawa, Y.; Inoue, A.

    2014-12-01

    Rainfall interception plays an important role in the water cycle in natural ecosystems. Interception by the forest canopies have been widely observed or estimated over various ecosystems, such as tropical rainforest, evergreen forest and deciduous forest. However interception by the short canopies, e.g. shrubby plant, grassland and crop, has been rarely observed since it has been difficult to obtain reliable precipitation measurements under the canopy. In this study, we estimated monthly and annual rainfall interception in grassland using evapotranspiration data of eddy flux measurements. Experiments were conducted in grassland (Italian ryegrass) from 2010 to 2012 growing season in Kumamoto, Japan. Evapotranspiration (latent heat flux) were observed throughout the year based on the eddy covariance technique. A three dimensional sonic anemometer and an open path CO2/H2O analyzer were used to calculate 30 min flux. Other meteorological factors, such as air temperature, humidity and solar radiation, were also observed. Rainfall interception was estimated as follows. 1) Using evapotranspiration data during dry period, environmental response of surface conductance (gc) was inversely calculated based on the big-leaf model. 2) Evapotranspiration without interception during precipitation period was estimated using above model and environmental response of gc. 3) Assuming that evaporation of intercepted rainfall is equal to the difference in evapotranspiration between above estimation and actual measurements, rainfall interception was estimated over experimental period. The account of rainfall interception in grassland using this technique will be presented at the meeting.

  7. Multi-spectra Cosmic Ray Flux Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaochun; Dayananda, Mathes

    2010-02-01

    The Earth's upper atmosphere is constantly bombarded by rain of charged particles known as primary cosmic rays. These primary cosmic rays will collide with the atmospheric molecules and create extensive secondary particles which shower downward to the surface of the Earth. In recent years, a few studies have been done regarding to the applications of the cosmic ray measurements and the correlations between the Earth's climate conditions and the cosmic ray fluxes [1,2,3]. Most of the particles, which reach to the surface of the Earth, are muons together with a small percentage of electrons, gammas, neutrons, etc. At Georgia State University, multiple cosmic ray particle detectors have been constructed to measure the fluxes and energy distributions of the secondary cosmic ray particles. In this presentation, we will briefly describe these prototype detectors and show the preliminary test results. Reference: [1] K.Borozdin, G.Hogan, C.Morris, W.Priedhorsky, A.Saunders, L.Shultz, M.Teasdale, Nature, Vol.422, 277 (2003). [2] L.V. Egorova, V. Ya Vovk, O.A. Troshichev, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics 62, 955-966 (2000). [3] Henrik Svensmark, Phy. Rev. Lett. 81, 5027 (1998). )

  8. Measurement of the solar UV flux in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mentall, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the direct solar flux from balloons at an altitude of 40 km are used to determine the effective cross sections of the Schumann-Runge bands. Transmission in these bands, which lie between 180 and 200 nm, allows the Sun's radiation in this region of the spectrum to penetrate into the lower mesosphere. Measurements by a high resolution scanning spectrometer (0.02 nm) are used to measure the transmission in the Schumann-Runge bands. Since ozone absorbs in this wavelength region, a low resolution scanning spectrometer (0.25 nm) measures the transmission between 220 and 260 nm, allowing the column ozone to be determined. Absorption due to ozone can then be calculated and the data corrected for this effect.

  9. Comparison of the Radiative Two-Flux and Diffusion Approximations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuckler, Charles M.

    2006-01-01

    Approximate solutions are sometimes used to determine the heat transfer and temperatures in a semitransparent material in which conduction and thermal radiation are acting. A comparison of the Milne-Eddington two-flux approximation and the diffusion approximation for combined conduction and radiation heat transfer in a ceramic material was preformed to determine the accuracy of the diffusion solution. A plane gray semitransparent layer without a substrate and a non-gray semitransparent plane layer on an opaque substrate were considered. For the plane gray layer the material is semitransparent for all wavelengths and the scattering and absorption coefficients do not vary with wavelength. For the non-gray plane layer the material is semitransparent with constant absorption and scattering coefficients up to a specified wavelength. At higher wavelengths the non-gray plane layer is assumed to be opaque. The layers are heated on one side and cooled on the other by diffuse radiation and convection. The scattering and absorption coefficients were varied. The error in the diffusion approximation compared to the Milne-Eddington two flux approximation was obtained as a function of scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The percent difference in interface temperatures and heat flux through the layer obtained using the Milne-Eddington two-flux and diffusion approximations are presented as a function of scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The largest errors occur for high scattering and low absorption except for the back surface temperature of the plane gray layer where the error is also larger at low scattering and low absorption. It is shown that the accuracy of the diffusion approximation can be improved for some scattering and absorption conditions if a reflectance obtained from a Kubelka-Munk type two flux theory is used instead of a reflection obtained from the Fresnel equation. The Kubelka-Munk reflectance accounts for surface reflection and radiation scattered back by internal scattering sites while the Fresnel reflection only accounts for surface reflections.

  10. Measuring fast calcium fluxes in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Golebiewska, Urszula; Scarlata, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes have multiple Ca(2+) fluxes of varying duration that work together to optimize function (1,2). Changes in Ca(2+) activity in response to extracellular agents is predominantly regulated by the phospholipase C?- G?(q;) pathway localized on the plasma membrane which is stimulated by agents such as acetylcholine (3,4). We have recently found that plasma membrane protein domains called caveolae(5,6) can entrap activated G?(q;)(7). This entrapment has the effect of stabilizing the activated state of G?(q;) and resulting in prolonged Ca(2+) signals in cardiomyocytes and other cell types(8). We uncovered this surprising result by measuring dynamic calcium responses on a fast scale in living cardiomyocytes. Briefly, cells are loaded with a fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator. In our studies, we used Ca(2+) Green (Invitrogen, Inc.) which exhibits an increase in fluorescence emission intensity upon binding of calcium ions. The fluorescence intensity is then recorded for using a line-scan mode of a laser scanning confocal microscope. This method allows rapid acquisition of the time course of fluorescence intensity in pixels along a selected line, producing several hundreds of time traces on the microsecond time scale. These very fast traces are transferred into excel and then into Sigmaplot for analysis, and are compared to traces obtained for electronic noise, free dye, and other controls. To dissect Ca(2+) responses of different flux rates, we performed a histogram analysis that binned pixel intensities with time. Binning allows us to group over 500 traces of scans and visualize the compiled results spatially and temporally on a single plot. Thus, the slow Ca(2+) waves that are difficult to discern when the scans are overlaid due to different peak placement and noise, can be readily seen in the binned histograms. Very fast fluxes in the time scale of the measurement show a narrow distribution of intensities in the very short time bins whereas longer Ca(2+) waves show binned data with a broad distribution over longer time bins. These different time distributions allow us to dissect the timing of Ca(2+)fluxes in the cells, and to determine their impact on various cellular events. PMID:22143396

  11. Measuring Fast Calcium Fluxes in Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Golebiewska, Urszula; Scarlata, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes have multiple Ca2+ fluxes of varying duration that work together to optimize function 1,2. Changes in Ca2+ activity in response to extracellular agents is predominantly regulated by the phospholipase C?- G?q pathway localized on the plasma membrane which is stimulated by agents such as acetylcholine 3,4. We have recently found that plasma membrane protein domains called caveolae5,6 can entrap activated G?q7. This entrapment has the effect of stabilizing the activated state of G?q and resulting in prolonged Ca2+ signals in cardiomyocytes and other cell types8. We uncovered this surprising result by measuring dynamic calcium responses on a fast scale in living cardiomyocytes. Briefly, cells are loaded with a fluorescent Ca2+ indicator. In our studies, we used Ca2+ Green (Invitrogen, Inc.) which exhibits an increase in fluorescence emission intensity upon binding of calcium ions. The fluorescence intensity is then recorded for using a line-scan mode of a laser scanning confocal microscope. This method allows rapid acquisition of the time course of fluorescence intensity in pixels along a selected line, producing several hundreds of time traces on the microsecond time scale. These very fast traces are transferred into excel and then into Sigmaplot for analysis, and are compared to traces obtained for electronic noise, free dye, and other controls. To dissect Ca2+ responses of different flux rates, we performed a histogram analysis that binned pixel intensities with time. Binning allows us to group over 500 traces of scans and visualize the compiled results spatially and temporally on a single plot. Thus, the slow Ca2+ waves that are difficult to discern when the scans are overlaid due to different peak placement and noise, can be readily seen in the binned histograms. Very fast fluxes in the time scale of the measurement show a narrow distribution of intensities in the very short time bins whereas longer Ca2+ waves show binned data with a broad distribution over longer time bins. These different time distributions allow us to dissect the timing of Ca2+fluxes in the cells, and to determine their impact on various cellular events. PMID:22143396

  12. Are far-IR fluxes good measures of cloud mass?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagle, Gururaj; Ferland, G. J.; Troland, T. H.; Abel, N.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that the Herschel far-IR fluxes are a measure of column density, hence, mass of interstellar clouds. The Polaris Flare, a high galactic latitude cirrus cloud, with several starless molecular cores, has been previously observed with the Herschel Space Telescope. We used Cloudy version 13.02 to model a molecular cloud MCLD 123.5+24.9, one of the denser regions of the Polaris Flare. These models include a detailed calculation of far-IR grain opacities, subject to various assumptions about grain composition, and predict far-IR fluxes. The models suggest that the observed fluxes reflect the incident stellar UV radiation field rather than the column density, if N(H) > a few times 1021 cm2 (AV > 1). For higher column densities, the models show that dust temperatures decline rapidly into the cloud. Therefore, the cloud interiors contribute very little additional far-IR flux, and column densities based upon far-IR fluxes can be significantly underestimated. The Polaris Flare, 150 pc distant, is well within the Galactic disc. There are no nearby hot stars. Therefore, the stellar UV radiation field incident on the cloud should be close to the mean interstellar radiation field (ISRF). In addition, the calculated grain opacities required to reproduce the far-IR fluxes in the Cloudy models are a few factors larger than that calculated for standard ISM graphite and silicate grains. This result suggests that the grains in dense regions are coated with water and ammonia ices, increasing their sizes and opacities. The Cloudy models also predict mm-wavelength CO line strengths for comparison with published observations at the IRAM 30-m telescope. In order to reproduce the observed CO line strengths for cores in MCLD 123.5+24.9, the models require that CO molecules be partially frozen out onto the grains. This result places age constraints upon the cores. We have also modeled CO emission from inter-core regions in MCLD 123.5+24.9. For these regions, the models significantly under predict the observed CO line strengths unless the molecular gas is clumped into high-density regions.

  13. Estimation of net radiation flux distribution on the southern slopes of the central Himalayas using MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of the southern slopes of the Himalayas as a possible heating source driving the South Asian Summer Monsoon (SASM). The central Himalayas are characterized by a complex topography; consequently the measurements regarding land surface heat fluxes are scarce. In this study we tested the feasibility of deriving the regional net radiation flux, an essential component of the surface energy balance, from MODIS data. Three MODIS data scenes were used to derive net radiation flux, taking into account the effect of topography and a detailed extinction process within the atmosphere. This is the first time the regional net radiation flux distribution for the southern slopes of the central Himalayas has been derived from satellite data. The net shortwave radiation flux, net longwave radiation flux and net radiation flux from MODIS data agree well with field observations with mean relative errors of 6.19%, 7.72% and 6.60% respectively. We can therefore conclude that the aforementioned net radiation flux can reasonably be obtained using this method.

  14. First UAV Measurements of Entrainment Layer Fluxes with Coupled Cloud Property Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. M.; Praveen, P. S.; Wilcox, E. M.; Pistone, K.; Bender, F.; Ramanathan, V.

    2012-12-01

    This study details entrainment flux measurements made from a lightweight unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) containing turbulent water vapor flux instrumentation (Thomas et al., 2012). The system was flown for 26 flights during the Cloud, Aerosol, Radiative forcing, Dynamics EXperiment (CARDEX) in the Maldives in March 2012 to study interrelationships between entrainment, aerosols, water budget, cloud microphysics and radiative fluxes in a trade wind cumulus cloud regime. A major advantage of using this lightweight, precision autopiloted UAV system with scientific telemetry is the ability to target small-scale features in the boundary layer, such as an entrainment layer, with minimal aircraft induced disruption. Results are presented from two UAVs flown in stacked formation: one UAV situated in-cloud measuring cloud-droplet size distribution spectra and liquid water content, and another co-located 100m above measuring turbulent properties and entrainment latent heat flux (?EE). We also show latent heat flux and turbulence measurements routinely made at the entrainment layer base and altitudes from the surface up to 4kft. Ratios of ?EE to corresponding surface tower values (?ES) display a bimodal frequency distribution with ranges 0.22-0.53 and 0.79-1.5, with occasional events >7. Reasons for this distribution are discussed drawing upon boundary layer and free tropospheric dynamics and meteorology, turbulence length scales, surface conditions, and cloud interactions. Latent heat flux profiles are combined with in-cloud UAV Liquid Water Content (LWC) data and surface based Liquid Water Path (LWP) and Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) measurements to produce observationally constrained vertical water budgets, providing insights into diurnal coupling of ?EE and ?ES. Observed ?EE, ?ES, water budgets, and cloud microphysical responses to entrainment are then contextualized with respect to measured aerosol loading profiles and airmass history.

  15. Kilometric radiation power flux dependence on area of discrete aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saflekos, N. A.; Burch, J. L.; Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.; Sheehan, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    Kilometer wavelength radiation, measured from distant positions over the North Pole and over the Earth's equator, was compared to the area of discrete aurora imaged by several low-altitude spacecraft. Through correlative studies of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) with about two thousand auroral images, a stereoscopic view of the average auroral acceleration region was obtained. A major result is that the total AKR power increases as the area of the discrete auroral oval increases. The implications are that the regions of parallel potentials or the auroral plasma cavities, in which AKR is generated, must possess the following attributes: (1) they are shallow in altitude and their radial position depends on wavelength, (2) they thread flux tubes of small cross section, (3) the generation mechanism in them reaches a saturation limit rapidly, and (4) their distribution over the discrete auroral oval is nearly uniform. The above statistical results are true for large samples collected over a long period of time (about six months). In the short term, AKR frequently exhibits temporal variations with scales as short as three minutes (the resolution of the averaged data used). These fluctuations are explainable by rapid quenchings as well as fast starts of the electron cyclotron maser mechanism. There were times when AKR was present at substantial power levels while optical emissions were below instrument thresholds. A recent theoretical result may account for this set of observations by predicting that suprathermal electrons, of energies as low as several hundred eV, can generate second harmonic AKR. The indirect observations of second harmonic AKR require that these electrons have mirror points high above the atmosphere so as to minimize auroral light emissions. The results provide evidence supporting the electron cyclotron maser mechanism.

  16. Flux measurements using the BATSE spectroscopic detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnamara, Bernard

    1993-01-01

    Among the Compton Gama-Ray Observatory instruments, the BATSE Spectroscopic Detectors (SD) have the distinction of being able to detect photons of energies less than about 20 keV. This is an interesting energy range for the examination of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXB's). In fact, Sco X-1, the prototype LMXB, is easily seen even in the raw BATSE spectroscopic data. The all-sky coverage afforded by these detectors offers a unique opportunity to monitor this source over time periods never before possible. The aim of this investigation was to test a number of ways in which both continous and discrete flux measurements can be obtained using the BATSE spectroscopic datasets. A instrumental description of a SD can be found in the Compton Workshop of Apr. 1989, this report will deal only with methods which can be used to analyze its datasets. Many of the items discussed below, particularly in regard to the earth occultation technique, have been developed, refined, and applied by the BATSE team to the reduction of BATSE LAD data. Code written as part of this project utilizes portions of that work. The following discussions will first address issues related to the reduction of SD datasets using the earth occultation technique. It will then discuss methods for the recovery of the flux history of strong sources while they are above the earth's limb. The report will conclude with recommended reduction procedures.

  17. The Global Character of the Flux of Downward Longwave Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Wild, Martin; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Kato, Seiji; Henderson, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Four different types of estimates of the surface downwelling longwave radiative flux (DLR) are reviewed. One group of estimates synthesizes global cloud, aerosol, and other information in a radiation model that is used to calculate fluxes. Because these synthesis fluxes have been assessed against observations, the global-mean values of these fluxes are deemed to be the most credible of the four different categories reviewed. The global, annual mean DLR lies between approximately 344 and 350 W/sq m with an error of approximately +/-10 W/sq m that arises mostly from the uncertainty in atmospheric state that governs the estimation of the clear-sky emission. The authors conclude that the DLR derived from global climate models are biased low by approximately 10 W/sq m and even larger differences are found with respect to reanalysis climate data. The DLR inferred from a surface energy balance closure is also substantially smaller that the range found from synthesis products suggesting that current depictions of surface energy balance also require revision. The effect of clouds on the DLR, largely facilitated by the new cloud base information from the CloudSat radar, is estimated to lie in the range from 24 to 34 W/sq m for the global cloud radiative effect (all-sky minus clear-sky DLR). This effect is strongly modulated by the underlying water vapor that gives rise to a maximum sensitivity of the DLR to cloud occurring in the colder drier regions of the planet. The bottom of atmosphere (BOA) cloud effect directly contrast the effect of clouds on the top of atmosphere (TOA) fluxes that is maximum in regions of deepest and coldest clouds in the moist tropics.

  18. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zonca, F.; Cohen, S.A.; Bennett, T.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1993-08-24

    An apparatus is described for measuring momentum flux from an intense plasma stream, comprising: refractory target means oriented normal to the flow of said plasma stream for bombardment by said plasma stream where said bombardment by said plasma stream applies a pressure to said target means, pendulum means for communicating a translational displacement of said target to a force transducer where said translational displacement of said target is transferred to said force transducer by an elongated member coupled to said target, where said member is suspended by a pendulum configuration means and where said force transducer is responsive to said translational displacement of said member, and force transducer means for outputting a signal representing pressure data corresponding to said displacement.

  19. Effects of Clouds on Cross-Atmospheric Radiative Flux Divergence: Case Studies in Different Cloud Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghate, V. P.; Miller, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Clouds have a profound effect on the amount of radiation absorbed across the atmospheric column. The amount of absorption mainly depends on the location and type of the clouds, the albedo of the surface and profile of water vapor mixing ratio in the atmospheric column. In this study we have used the data collected during the deployment of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)'s first Mobile Facility (AMF#1) at the island of Graciosa in the North Atlantic and at the Niamey, Niger to assess the impact of different cloud types on the cross-atmospheric radiative flux divergence. The cloud structure was retrieved using the data collected by a vertically pointing w-band cloud radar, a micro-pulse lidar, laser ceilometer among other instruments. The profiles of temperature, moisture and winds were measured by balloon borne radiosondes. The radiation at the surface were measured by broadband radiometers, while the radiation at the top of the atmosphere were measured by the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) radiometers onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. Simulations of a 1-dimensional radiative transfer model called as Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) having representation of cloud and aerosol properties are made to assess the relative impact of different cloud types and water vapor on spectral bands both in the shortwave and longwave radiation spectrum. Results from four case-studies which had cloud free conditions, single layered stratocumulus clouds, broken shallow cumulus clouds and high level cirrus clouds respectively will be presented.

  20. Overview of observations from the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger: 2. Radiative fluxes and divergences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slingo, A.; White, H. E.; Bharmal, N. A.; Robinson, G. J.

    2009-07-01

    Broadband shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes observed both at the surface and from space during the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile Facility, GERB data and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST) experiment in Niamey, Niger, in 2006 are presented. The surface fluxes were measured by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Mobile Facility (AMF) at Niamey airport, while the fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) are from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument on the Meteosat-8 satellite. The data are analyzed as daily averages, in order to minimize sampling differences between the surface and top of atmosphere instruments, while retaining the synoptic and seasonal changes that are the main focus of this study. A cloud mask is used to identify days with cloud versus those with predominantly clear skies. The influence of temperature, water vapor, aerosols, and clouds is investigated. Aerosols are ubiquitous throughout the year and have a significant impact on both the shortwave and longwave fluxes. The large and systematic seasonal changes in temperature and column integrated water vapor (CWV) through the dry and wet seasons are found to exert strong influences on the longwave fluxes. These influences are often in opposition to each other, because the highest temperatures occur at the end of the dry season when the CWV is lowest, while in the wet season the lowest temperatures are associated with the highest values of CWV. Apart from aerosols, the shortwave fluxes are also affected by clouds and by the seasonal changes in CWV. The fluxes are combined to provide estimates of the divergence of radiation across the atmosphere throughout 2006. The longwave divergence shows a relatively small variation through the year, because of a partial compensation between the seasonal variations in the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and surface net longwave radiation. A simple model of the greenhouse effect is used to interpret this result in terms of the dependence of the normalized greenhouse effect at the TOA and of the effective emissivity of the atmosphere at the surface on the CWV. It is shown that, as the CWV increases, the atmosphere loses longwave energy to the surface with about the same increasing efficiency with which it traps the OLR. When combined with the changes in temperature, this maintains the atmospheric longwave divergence within the narrow range that is observed. The shortwave divergence is mainly determined by the CWV and aerosol loadings and the effect of clouds is much smaller than on the component fluxes.

  1. Absolute measurement of the extreme UV solar flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Ogawa, H. S.; Judge, D. L.; Phillips, E.

    1984-01-01

    A windowless rare-gas ionization chamber has been developed to measure the absolute value of the solar extreme UV flux in the 50-575-A region. Successful results were obtained on a solar-pointing sounding rocket. The ionization chamber, operated in total absorption, is an inherently stable absolute detector of ionizing UV radiation and was designed to be independent of effects from secondary ionization and gas effusion. The net error of the measurement is + or - 7.3 percent, which is primarily due to residual outgassing in the instrument, other errors such as multiple ionization, photoelectron collection, and extrapolation to the zero atmospheric optical depth being small in comparison. For the day of the flight, Aug. 10, 1982, the solar irradiance (50-575 A), normalized to unit solar distance, was found to be 5.71 + or - 0.42 x 10 to the 10th photons per sq cm sec.

  2. Cosmic rays muon flux measurements at Belgrade shallow underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselinovi?, N.; Dragi?, A.; Maleti?, D.; Jokovi?, D.; Savi?, M.; Banjanac, R.; Udovi?i?, V.; Ani?in, I.

    2015-02-01

    The Belgrade underground laboratory is a shallow underground one, at 25 meters of water equivalent. It is dedicated to low-background spectroscopy and cosmic rays measurement. Its uniqueness is that it is composed of two parts, one above ground, the other bellow with identical sets of detectors and analyzing electronics thus creating opportunity to monitor simultaneously muon flux and ambient radiation. We investigate the possibility of utilizing measurements at the shallow depth for the study of muons, processes to which these muons are sensitive and processes induced by cosmic rays muons. For this purpose a series of simulations of muon generation and propagation is done, based on the CORSIKA air shower simulation package and GEANT4. Results show good agreement with other laboratories and cosmic rays stations.

  3. Aerosol radiative forcing over east Asia determined from ground-based solar radiation measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Do-Hyeong Kim; B. J. Sohn; Teruyuki Nakajima; Tamio Takamura

    2005-01-01

    We developed a method of retrieving aerosol optical properties and their associated radiative forcing from simultaneously measured sky radiation and surface solar flux data. The method is then applied to data sets collected at Mandalgovi, Dunhuang, Yinchuan, and Sri-Samrong sites of the Skyradiometer Network (SKYNET), and at Anmyon, Gosan, and Amami-Oshima, to examine the aerosol characteristics of east Asia. From

  4. A comparison of small and larger mesoscale latent heat and radiative fluxes: December 6 case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gultepe, I.; Starr, David; Heymsfield, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the small amounts of water vapor, the potential for rapid changes, and the very cold temperatures in the upper troposphere, moisture measuring instruments face several problems related to calibration and response. Calculations of eddy moisture fluxes are, therefore, subject to significant uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to examine the importance of latent heat (moisture) fluxes due to small and larger mesoscale circulations in comparison to radiative fluxes within cirrus. Scale separation is made at about 1 km because of significant changes in the structures within cirrus. Only observations at warmer than -40 C are used in this study. The EG&G hygrometer that is used for measuring dewpoint temperature (Td) is believed to be fairly accurate down to -40 C. On the other hand, Lyman-Alpha (L-alpha) hygrometer measurements of moisture may include large drift errors. In order to compensate for these drift errors, the L-alpha hygrometer is often calibrated against the EG&G hygrometer. However, large errors ensue for Td measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. The cryogenic hygrometer frost point measurements may be used to calibrate L-alpha measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. In this study, however, measurements obtained by EG&G hygrometer and L-alpha measurements are used for the flux calculations.

  5. Acoustic radiation stress measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H., Jr.; Yost, William T.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrasonic radio frequency tone-bursts are launched into a sample of material tested. The amplitude of the tone-bursts and the slope of the resulting static displacement pulses are measured. These measurements are used to calculate the nonlinearities of the materials.

  6. AmeriFlux Measurement Network: Science Team Research

    SciTech Connect

    Law, B E

    2012-12-12

    Research involves analysis and field direction of AmeriFlux operations, and the PI provides scientific leadership of the AmeriFlux network. Activities include the coordination and quality assurance of measurements across AmeriFlux network sites, synthesis of results across the network, organizing and supporting the annual Science Team Meeting, and communicating AmeriFlux results to the scientific community and other users. Objectives of measurement research include (i) coordination of flux and biometric measurement protocols (ii) timely data delivery to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC); and (iii) assurance of data quality of flux and ecosystem measurements contributed by AmeriFlux sites. Objectives of integration and synthesis activities include (i) integration of site data into network-wide synthesis products; and (ii) participation in the analysis, modeling and interpretation of network data products. Communications objectives include (i) organizing an annual meeting of AmeriFlux investigators for reporting annual flux measurements and exchanging scientific information on ecosystem carbon budgets; (ii) developing focused topics for analysis and publication; and (iii) developing data reporting protocols in support of AmeriFlux network goals.

  7. Balloon-borne measurement of energetic electron fluxes inside thunderclouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabshahi, Shahab; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Dwyer, Joseph; Rassoul, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    High-energy radiation is routinely produced by thunderclouds and lightning. This radiation is in the form of x-rays and gamma-rays with timescales ranging from sub-microsecond (x-rays associated with lightning leaders), to sub-millisecond (Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes), to minute long glows (Gamma-ray Glows from thunderclouds seen on the ground and in or near the cloud by aircrafts and balloons). It is generally accepted that these emissions originate from bremsstrahlung interactions of relativistic runaway electrons with air, which can be accelerated in the thundercloud/lightning electric fields and gain up to multi-MeV energies. However, the exact physical details of the mechanism that produces these runaway electrons are still unknown. In order to better understand the source of energetic radiation inside thunderclouds, we have begun a campaign of balloon-borne instruments to directly measure the flux of energetic electrons inside thunderclouds. In the current configuration, each balloon carries Geiger counters to record the energetic particles. Geiger counters are well suited for directly measuring energetic electrons and positrons and have the advantage of being lightweight and dependable. We transmit data at 900MHz, ISM band, with 115.2 kb/s transmission rate. This would provide us a high resolution radiation profile over a relatively large distance. Due to the nature of the thunderstorm environment, the campaign has many design, communication, and safety challenges. In this presentation we will report on the status of the campaign and some of the physical insights gained from the data collected by our instruments. This work was supported in part by the NASA grant NNX12A002H and by DARPA grant HR0011-1-10-1-0061.

  8. Heat flux measurements on ceramics with thin film thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holanda, Raymond; Anderson, Robert C.; Liebert, Curt H.

    1993-01-01

    Two methods were devised to measure heat flux through a thick ceramic using thin film thermocouples. The thermocouples were deposited on the front and back face of a flat ceramic substrate. The heat flux was applied to the front surface of the ceramic using an arc lamp Heat Flux Calibration Facility. Silicon nitride and mullite ceramics were used; two thicknesses of each material was tested, with ceramic temperatures to 1500 C. Heat flux ranged from 0.05-2.5 MW/m2(sup 2). One method for heat flux determination used an approximation technique to calculate instantaneous values of heat flux vs time; the other method used an extrapolation technique to determine the steady state heat flux from a record of transient data. Neither method measures heat flux in real time but the techniques may easily be adapted for quasi-real time measurement. In cases where a significant portion of the transient heat flux data is available, the calculated transient heat flux is seen to approach the extrapolated steady state heat flux value as expected.

  9. Aerosol, surface, and cloud optical parameters derived from airborne spectral actinic flux: measurement comparison with other methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, H.; Bierwirth, E.; Schmidt, S.; Kindel, B. C.; Pilewskie, P.; Lack, D. A.; Madronich, S.; Parrish, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Optical parameters of aerosols, surfaces, and clouds are essential for an accurate description of Earth’s radiative balance. We will present values for such parameters derived from spectral actinic flux measured on board the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) study in April 2008. We will compare these measurements to results obtained from other instruments on board the same aircraft, such as the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) for irradiance measurements and aerosol extinction and absorption measurements by cavity ring-down and Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP). Actinic flux is sensitive to these parameters and can be used to measure them directly in the atmosphere without in-situ sampling methods required. We will describe the specifics of the actinic flux measurements, show advantages and disadvantages of this measurement technique, and compare results with other techniques. Furthermore, we will compare our measurements with model calculations from radiative transfer models such as the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible (TUV) radiation model, the widely used library of radiative transfer (libradtran) model, and a Monte-Carlo radiation model (GRIMALDI). Also, we will investigate satellite measurements to constrain the radiation measurements to general radiation conditions in the arctic and to compare the results to aerosol optical depth retrievals. In particular, we will show results for surface albedo of the Arctic Ocean ice surface, extinction and absorption of Arctic haze layers, and optical thickness and albedo measurements of clouds.

  10. Best Estimate Radiation Flux Value-Added Procedure: Algorithm Operational Details and Explanations

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Y; Long, CN

    2002-10-01

    This document describes some specifics of the algorithm for best estimate evaluation of radiation fluxes at Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF). It uses the data available from the three co-located surface radiometer platforms at the SGP CF to automatically determine the best estimate of the irradiance measurements available. The Best Estimate Flux (BEFlux) value-added procedure (VAP) was previously named Best Estimate ShortWave (BESW) VAP, which included all of the broadband and spectral shortwave (SW) measurements for the SGP CF. In BESW, multiple measurements of the same quantities were handled simply by designating one as the primary measurement and using all others to merely fill in any gaps. Thus, this “BESW” is better termed “most continuous,” since no additional quality assessment was applied. We modified the algorithm in BESW to use the average of the closest two measurements as the best estimate when possible, if these measurements pass all quality assessment criteria. Furthermore, we included longwave (LW) fields in the best estimate evaluation to include all major components of the surface radiative energy budget, and renamed the VAP to Best Estimate Flux (BEFLUX1LONG).

  11. MEASURING SOIL WATER FLUX BY THE HEAT PULSE RATIO METHOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurately measuring water fluxes in the vadose zone is a formidable challenge. Heat pulse methods for measuring water flux may allow researchers to overcome this challenge in some settings. The heat pulse ratio method is a relatively simple approach that has been shown to be effective in saturated ...

  12. Field Measured Infiltration Fluxes at the Onset of Ephemeral Streamflow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Blasch; T. P. Ferre; J. P. Hoffmann; J. T. Cordova

    2003-01-01

    A variety of physical and chemical methods have been used to measure transmission losses and infiltration fluxes within large ephemeral streams in southern Arizona, USA. Often these methods are used to estimate a single infiltration flux for a streamflow event, typically measured during steady-state conditions. For long duration events this single estimate can be reasonable, but for short duration events

  13. Sensitivity of shortwave radiative flux density, forcing, and heating rates to the aerosol vertical profile

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Hong; Schmid, Beat; Bucholtz, Anthony; Bergstrom, Robert

    2010-03-31

    The effect of the aerosol vertical distribution on the solar radiation profiles, for idealized and measured profiles of optical properties (extinction and single-scattering albedo (SSA)) during the May 2003 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerosol Intensive Observation Period (AIOP), has been investigated using the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model Shortwave (RRTM_SW) code. Calculated profiles of down-welling and up-welling solar fluxes during the AIOP have been compared with the data measured by up- and down-looking solar broadband radiometers aboard a profiling research aircraft. The measured profiles of aerosol extinction, SSA, and water vapor obtained from the same aircraft that carried the radiometers served as the inputs for the model calculations. It is noteworthy that for this study, the uplooking radiometers were mounted on a stabilized platform that kept the radiometers parallel with respect to the earth’s horizontal plane. The results indicate that the shape of the aerosol extinction profiles has very little impact on direct radiative forcings at the top of atmosphere and surface in a cloud-free sky. However, as long as the aerosol is not purely scattering, the shape of the extinction profiles is important for forcing profiles. Identical extinction profiles with different absorption profiles drastically influence the forcing and heating rate profiles. Using aircraft data from 19 AIOP profiles over the Southern Great Plains (SGP), we are able to achieve broadband down-welling solar flux closure within 0.8% (bias difference) or 1.8% (rms difference), well within the expected measurement uncertainty of 1 to 3%. The poorer agreement in up-welling flux (bias -3.7%, rms 10%) is attributed to the use of inaccurate surface albedo data. The sensitivity tests reveal the important role accurate, vertically resolved aerosol extinction data plays in tightening flux closure. This study also suggests that in the presence of a strongly absorbing substance, aircraft flux measurements from a stabilized platform have the potential to determine heating rate profiles. These measurement-based heating rate profiles provide useful data for heating rate closure studies and indirect estimates of single scattering albedo assumed in radiative transfer calculations.

  14. Heat flux measurement in SSME turbine blade tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    1990-11-01

    Surface heat flux values were measured in the turbine blade thermal cycling tester located at NASA-Marshall. This is the first time heat flux has been measured in a space shuttle main engine turbopump environment. Plots of transient and quasi-steady state heat flux data over a range of about 0 to 15 MW/sq m are presented. Data were obtained with a miniature heat flux gage device developed at NASA-Lewis. The results from these tests are being incorporated into turbine design models. Also, these gages are being considered for airfoil surface heat flux measurement on turbine vanes mounted in SSME turbopump test bed engine nozzles at Marshall. Heat flux effects that might be observed on degraded vanes are discussed.

  15. Heat flux measurement in SSME turbine blade tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    Surface heat flux values were measured in the turbine blade thermal cycling tester located at NASA-Marshall. This is the first time heat flux has been measured in a space shuttle main engine turbopump environment. Plots of transient and quasi-steady state heat flux data over a range of about 0 to 15 MW/sq m are presented. Data were obtained with a miniature heat flux gage device developed at NASA-Lewis. The results from these tests are being incorporated into turbine design models. Also, these gages are being considered for airfoil surface heat flux measurement on turbine vanes mounted in SSME turbopump test bed engine nozzles at Marshall. Heat flux effects that might be observed on degraded vanes are discussed.

  16. Measuring biogenic carbon flux in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, P. [Univ. of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)] [Univ. of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Newton, P. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1997-01-24

    Richard B. Rivkin et al. propose that neither food-web structure nor new production can be used to predict the magnitude or patterns of downward export of biogenic organic carbon (BC) from the euphotic zone, at least for the duration of their study. These conclusions depend critically on the observations that while both food-web structure and new production estimates were different during and after the spring phytoplankton bloom, the BC flux-as estimated using shallow surface-tethered sediment traps-was similar for the two periods. The authors argue that the uncertainties associated with the trap-derived BC flux estimates are too large to support these conclusions, and they offer an alternative explanation for the apparent similarity of bloom and post-bloom export fluxes. The response of the authors of the original article is also given. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Measuring nitrate fluxes to assess estuarine eutrophication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Newton; A. Devol; W. Ruef

    2009-01-01

    Summary form only given.The availability of nitrate sensors has enabled integration of these instruments into real-time profiling buoys and, when coupled with current meters, allows for calculation of nitrate fluxes into and out of estuaries. As the United States' estuaries are increasingly experiencing eutrophication this technological development is timely. We report on the use of nitrate sensors on our profiling

  18. Energy dependence of relativistic electron flux variations in the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ying; Xie, Lun; Li, Jinxing; Fu, Suiyan; Pu, Zuyin; Chen, Lunjin; Ni, Binbin; Li, Wen

    2015-04-01

    Geomagnetic storms can either increase or decrease relativistic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt, depending on the delicate competition between electron energization and loss processes. Despite the well-known "energy independent" prototype in which electron fluxes enhance after geomagnetic storms at all energies, we present observations of "energy dependent" events, i.e., post-storm electron fluxes at lower energies (0.3-2.5 MeV, measured by MEPED/POES) recover or even exceed the pre-storm level, while electron fluxes at higher energies (2.5-14 MeV, measured by PET/SAMPEX) do not restore. The statistical survey of 84 isolated storms demonstrates that geomagnetic storms preferentially decrease relativistic electron fluxes at higher energies while flux enhancements are more common at lower energies: ~ 82% (3%) storm events produce increased (decreased) flux for 0.3-2.5 MeV electrons, while ~ 37% (45%) storms lead to enhancements (reductions) of 2.5-14 MeV electron flux. Superposed epoch analysis suggests that "energy dependent" events preferentially occur during periods of high solar wind density along with high dynamic pressure. Previous statistical studies have shown that this kind of solar wind conditions account for significant enhancements of EMIC waves, which cause efficient precipitation of > 2 MeV electrons into atmosphere via pitch angle scattering. Two cases of "energy dependent" events are investigated in detail with evident observations of EMIC waves that can resonate effectively with >2 MeV electrons. Besides, we do not capture much differences in the chorus wave activity between those "energy dependent" and "energy independent" events. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that EMIC waves play a crucial role in the occurrences of those "energy dependent" events in the outer zone during geomagnetic storms.

  19. Solar cycle variations of trapped proton flux in the inner radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Murong; Zhang, Xianguo; Ni, Binbin; Song, Hongqiang; Zou, Hong; Sun, Yueqiang

    2014-12-01

    Trapped proton population in the inner radiation belt is highly dense, posing a potential danger to astronauts and man-made space assets traversing through this region. While being significantly stable within timescales up to hundreds of days, inner zone proton fluxes can exhibit considerable solar cycle variations, which has not been investigated comprehensively yet. To analyze the long-term variation of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), we adopt the proton flux data measured by NOAA 15 from 1999 through 2009 and perform statistical analyses on the basis of reasonable Gaussian fits. We report that the variation of the peak proton flux in the SAA is anticorrelated with that of F10.7 during a solar cycle. There also exists a phase lag of 685 days between the solar F10.7 flux and the proton flux. Similar features are seen for changes of the SAA distribution area, which in addition shows a rapid decrease during the solar maximum and a slow increase during the solar minimum. We also find that the region where the proton flux peaks drifts westward year by year with larger drift rates during the solar minimum. The peak region shifts southward during the solar maximum but in the opposite direction during the solar minimum with higher shift speed. Enhancements in solar wind dynamic pressure can favor the north-south drift of the SAA.

  20. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  1. Estimating shortwave solar radiation using net radiation and meteorological measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shortwave radiation has a wide variety of uses in land-atmosphere interactions research. Actual evapotranspiration estimation that involves stomatal conductance models like Jarvis and Ball-Berry require shortwave radiation to estimate photon flux density. However, in most weather stations, shortwave...

  2. EXOMARS IRAS (DOSE) radiation measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, C.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Fonte, S.; Pauselli, C.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.

    The characterization and the study of the radiations on their interaction with organic matter is of great interest in view of the human exploration on Mars. The Ionizing RAdiation Sensor (IRAS) selected in the frame of the ExoMars/Pasteur ESA mission is a lightweight particle spectrometer combining various techniques of radiation detection in space. It characterizes the first time the radiation environment on the Mars surface, and provide dose and dose equivalent rates as precursor information absolutely necessary to develop ways to mitigate the radiation risks for future human exploration on Mars. The Martian radiation levels are much higher than those found on Earth and they are relatively low for space. Measurements on the surface will show if they are similar or not to those seen in orbit (modified by the presence of ``albedo'' neutrons produced in the regolith and by the thin Martian atmosphere). IRAS consists of a telescope based on segmented silicon detectors of about 40\\userk\\milli\\metre\\user;k diameter and 300\\user;k\\micro\\metre\\user;k thickness, a segmented organic scintillator, and of a thermoluminescence dosimeter. The telescope will continuously monitor temporal variation of the particle count rate, the dose rate, particle and LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectra. Tissue equivalent BC430 scintillator material will be used to measure the neutron dose. Neutrons are selected by a criteria requiring no signal in the anti-coincidence. Last, the passive thermoluminescence dosimeter, based on LiF:Mg detectors, regardless the on board operation timing, will measure the total dose accumulated during the exposure period and due to beta and gamma radiation, with a responsivity very close to that of a human tissue.

  3. Calibration system for measuring the radon flux density.

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, A; Zhukovsky, M; Bastrikov, V

    2015-06-01

    The measurement of radon flux from soil surface is the useful tool for the assessment of radon-prone areas and monitoring of radon releases from uranium mining and milling residues. The accumulation chambers with hollow headspace and chambers with activated charcoal are the most used devices for these purposes. Systematic errors of the measurements strongly depend on the geometry of the chamber and diffusion coefficient of the radon in soil. The calibration system for the attestation of devices for radon flux measurements was constructed. The calibration measurements of accumulation chambers and chambers with activated charcoal were conducted. The good agreement between the results of 2D modelling of radon flux and measurements results was observed. It was demonstrated that reliable measurements of radon flux can be obtained by chambers with activated charcoal (equivalent volume ?75 l) or by accumulation chambers with hollow headspace of ?7-10 l and volume/surface ratio (height) of >15 cm. PMID:25977351

  4. Metabolic flux analysis using 13C peptide label measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    13C metabolic flux analysis (MFA) has become the experimental method of choice to investigate cellular metabolism. MFA has established flux maps of central metabolism for dozens of microbes, cell cultures, and plant seeds. Steady-state MFA utilizes isotopic labeling measurements of amino acids obtai...

  5. Has Hawking Radiation Been Measured?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unruh, W. G.

    2014-05-01

    It is argued that Hawking radiation has indeed been measured and shown to posses a thermal spectrum, as predicted. This contention is based on three separate legs. The first is that the essential physics of the Hawking process for black holes can be modelled in other physical systems. The second is the white hole horizons are the time inverse of black hole horizons, and thus the physics of both is the same. The third is that the quantum emission, which is the Hawking process, is completely determined by measurements of the classical parameters of a linear physical system. The experiment conducted in 2010 fulfils all of these requirements, and is thus a true measurement of Hawking radiation.

  6. Reconstruction of charged particle fluxes detected by the Radiation Assessment Detector onboard of MSL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Hassler, D.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Ehresmann, B.; Kohler, J.; Boehm, E.; Appel, J. K.; Lohf, H.; Boettcher, S.; Burmeister, S.; Rafkin, S. C.; Kharytonov, A.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Matthiae, D.; Reitz, G.

    2013-12-01

    One of the main science objectives of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is to help planning future human exploration to Mars by constraining the radiation environment during the cruise phase and on the planet's surface. During the 253-day, 560 million km cruise to Mars, the Radiation Assessment Detector, RAD made detailed measurements of the energy spectrum deposited by energetic particles from space and scattered within the spacecraft. Two types of radiation pose potential health risks to astronauts in deep space: a prolonged low-dose exposure to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and short-term exposures to the Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). On the surface of Mars such energetic particles penetrate through its thin atmosphere and generate secondary particles that can also result harms to humans. In order to interpret the energetic charged particle flux coming into the detector, we have developed the Detector Response Function (DRF) using GEANT 4 simulations and employed a Maximum likelihood inversion technique to invert the detected energy spectrum. This method has been applied to RAD detection of GCRs and secondary charged particles on the Martian surface, giving us an unique insight into their energy fluxes. The spectra of the stopping particle fluxes (hydrogen and helium) are also directly obtained from RAD observations and compared with the inversion results.

  7. Arctic ocean radiative fluxes and cloud forcing estimated from the ISCCP C2 cloud dataset, 1983-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweiger, Axel J.; Key, Jeffrey R.

    1994-01-01

    Radiative fluxes and cloud forcings for the ocean areas of the Arctic are computed from the monthly cloud product of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for 1983-90. Spatially averaged short-wave fluxes are compared well with climatological values, while downwelling longwave fluxes are significantly lower. This is probably due to the fact that the ISCCP cloud amounts are underestimates. Top-of-the-atmosphere radiative fluxes are in excellent agreement with measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Computed cloud forcings indicate that clouds have a warming effect at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere during winter and a cooling effect during summer. The net radiative effect of clouds is larger at the surface during winter but greater at the top of the atmosphere during summer. Overall the net radiative effect of clouds at the top of the atmosphere is one of cooling. This is in contrast to a previous result from ERBE data showing arctic cloud forcings have a net warming effect. Sensitivities to errors in input parameters are generally greater during winter with cloud amount being the most important paarameter. During summer the surface radiation balance is most sensitive to errors in the measurements of surface reflectance. The results are encouraging, but the estimated error of 20 W/sq m in surface net radiative fluxes is too large, given that estimates of the net radiative warming effect due to a doubling of CO2 are on the order of 4 W/sq m. Because it is difficult to determine the accuracy of results with existing in situ observations, it is recommended that the development of improved algorithms for the retrieval of surface radiative properties be accompanied by the simultaneous assembly of validation datasets.

  8. A Preliminary Study of CO2 Flux Measurements by Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibert, Fabien; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, T.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the global carbon cycle requires quantification of terrestrial ecosystem CO2 fluxes at regional scales. In this paper, we analyze the potential of a Doppler DIAL system to make flux measurements of atmospheric CO2 using the eddy-covariance and boundary layer budget methods and present results from a ground based experiment. The goal of this study is to put CO2 flux point measurements in a mesoscale context. In June 2007, a field experiment combining a 2-m Doppler Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar (HDIAL) and in-situ sensors of a 447-m tall tower (WLEF) took place in Wisconsin. The HDIAL measures simultaneously: 1) CO2 mixing ratio, 2) atmosphere structure via aerosol backscatter and 3) radial velocity. We demonstrate how to synthesize these data into regional flux estimates. Lidar-inferred fluxes are compared with eddy-covariance fluxes obtained in-situ at 396m AGL from the tower. In cases where the lidar was not yet able to measure the fluxes with acceptable precision, we discuss possible modifications to improve system performance.

  9. Absolute flux measurements in the rocket ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, R. C.; Frimout, D.; Lillie, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    A two-channel spectrometer was calibrated in the wavelength region 1200-3400 A and flown on an Aerobee rocket to observe the stars alpha Lyr, eta UMa, and zeta Oph. Standard tungsten lamps provided the absolute calibration down to 2250 A, and a photodiode calibrated by the National Bureau of Standards was the reference at shorter wavelengths. The molecular branching-ratio technique of relative calibration using the gases CO, NO, and N2 was a check on the absolute calibration. The flux from eta UMa agrees with the prediction of a hydrogen line blanketed model atmosphere within 10% between 1700 and 3400 A and within 4% over most of this wavelength region.

  10. Studies of the net surface radiative flux from satellite radiances during FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the net surface radiative flux from satellite radiances during First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) are presented. Topics covered include: radiative transfer model validation; calibration of VISSR and AVHRR solar channels; development and refinement of algorithms to estimate downward solar and terrestrial irradiances at the surface, including photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) and surface albedo; verification of these algorithms using in situ measurements; production of maps of shortwave irradiance, surface albedo, and related products; analysis of the temporal variability of shortwave irradiance over the FIFE site; development of a spectroscopy technique to estimate atmospheric total water vapor amount; and study of optimum linear combinations of visible and near-infrared reflectances for estimating the fraction of PAR absorbed by plants.

  11. Modeling thermal behavior and work flux in finite-rate systems with radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanislaw Sieniutycz; Piotr Kuran

    2006-01-01

    We apply thermodynamic analysis in modeling, simulation and optimization of radiation engines as non-linear energy converters. We also perform critical analysis of available data for photon flux and photon density that leads to exact numerical value of photon flux constant. Basic thermodynamic principles lead to expressions for converter’s efficiency and generated work in terms of driving energy flux in the

  12. Convenient integrating sphere scanner for accurate luminous flux measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Winter; M. Lindemann; W. Jordan; U. Binder; M. Anokhin

    2009-01-01

    Measurement results and applications of a recently developed device for the measurement of the spatial uniformity of integrating spheres are presented. Due to the complexity of their implementation, sphere scanners are mainly used by national metrology institutes to increase the accuracy of relative and absolute luminous flux measurements (Ohno et al 1997 J. IES 26 107-14, Ohno and Daubach 2001

  13. Flux and brightness calculations for various synchrotron radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.M.; Hulbert, S.L.

    1991-11-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) storage rings are powerful scientific and technological tools. The first generation of storage rings in the US., e.g., SURF (Washington, D.C.), Tantalus (Wisconsin), SSRL (Stanford), and CHESS (Cornell), revolutionized VUV, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray science. The second (present) generation of storage rings, e.g. the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings and Aladdin (Wisconsin), have sustained the revolution by providing higher stored currents and up to a factor of ten smaller electron beam sizes than the first generation sources. This has made possible a large number of experiments that could not performed using first generation sources. In addition, the NSLS XRAY ring design optimizes the performance of wigglers (high field periodic magnetic insertion devices). The third generation storage rings, e.g. ALS (Berkeley) and APS (Argonne), are being designed to optimize the performance of undulators (low field periodic magnetic insertion devices). These extremely high brightness sources will further revolutionize x-ray science by providing diffraction-limited x-ray beams. The output of undulators and wigglers is distinct from that of bending magnets in magnitude, spectral shape, and in spatial and angular size. Using published equations, we have developed computer programs to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness output bending magnets and selected wigglers and undulators of the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings, the Advanced Light Source (ALS), and the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Following is a summary of the equations used, the graphs and data produced, and the computer codes written. These codes, written in the C programming language, can be used to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness curves for bending magnets and insertion devices on any storage ring.

  14. A simple laboratory system for diffusive radon flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranrod, C.; Chanyotha, S.; Tonlublao, S.; Burnett, W. C.

    2015-05-01

    This study designed a simple, custom-made system to estimate the diffusive radon flux from solid materials (e.g., sediments, soils, building materials). Determination of the radon flux is based on the measurement of the radon activity in the air over time inside a closed loop system. For sediments, the system consists of wet sediment and water inside a gas-tight flask connected in a closed loop to a drying system and a radon analyzer (Durridge RAD7). The flux is determined based on an initial slope method in which the slope of radon activities vs. time plot during the first 12 h is evaluated. The slope is then multiplied by the total air volume and divided by the exposed sediment area to obtain the radon flux. The minimal thickness or mass of wet sediment should be about 4 cm or (equivalent to approximately 150 g of wet sediment) to obtain a reliable radon diffusive flux in this study.

  15. A method for obtaining distributed surface flux measurements in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, M. H.; Pardyjak, E.; Nadeau, D. F.; Barrenetxea, G.; Brutsaert, W. H.; Parlange, M. B.

    2011-12-01

    Sonic anemometers and gas analyzers can be used to measure fluxes of momentum, heat, and moisture over flat terrain, and with the proper corrections, over sloping terrain as well. While this method of obtaining fluxes is currently the most accurate available, the instruments themselves are costly, making installation of many stations impossible for most campaign budgets. Small, commercial automatic weather stations (Sensorscope) are available at a fraction of the cost of sonic anemometers or gas analyzers. Sensorscope stations use slow-response instruments to measure standard meteorological variables, including wind speed and direction, air temperature, humidity, surface skin temperature, and incoming solar radiation. The method presented here makes use of one sonic anemometer and one gas analyzer along with a dozen Sensorscope stations installed throughout the Val Ferret catchment in southern Switzerland in the summers of 2009, 2010 and 2011. Daytime fluxes are calculated using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory in conjunction with the surface energy balance at each Sensorscope station as well as at the location of the sonic anemometer and gas analyzer, where a suite of additional slow-response instruments were co-located. Corrections related to slope angle were made for wind speeds and incoming shortwave radiation measured by the horizontally-mounted cup anemometers and incoming solar radiation sensors respectively. A temperature correction was also applied to account for daytime heating inside the radiation shield on the slow-response temperature/humidity sensors. With these corrections, we find a correlation coefficient of 0.77 between u* derived using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory and that of the sonic anemometer. Calculated versus measured heat fluxes also compare well and local patterns of latent heat flux and measured surface soil moisture are correlated.

  16. Fiber-optic sensor system for heat-flux measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yonghang; He, Jinglei; Zhao, Weizhong; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Kenneth T. V.; Pritchard, William D. N.

    2004-04-01

    Two different types of fiber-optic sensors were used in an experiment to measure the heat flux in a simulated refractory lining material. The results obtained with a sensor based on fluorescence lifetime detection and a sensor based on the peak wavelength shift of a fiber Bragg grating are presented and compared. Analysis of the results of the measurements taken indicates that these fiber-optic sensor systems are capable of performing multipoint temperature, and thus the heat flux, measurements. An approach is also presented for the measurement of the temperature dependence of the conductivity coefficient of the materials concerned, using the sensor systems detailed.

  17. Comparison of Different Global Information Sources Used in Surface Radiative Flux Calculation: Radiative Properties of the Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Yuanchong; Rossow, William B.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Direct estimates of surface radiative fluxes that resolve regional and weather-scale variabilty over the whole globe with reasonable accuracy have only become possible with the advent of extensive global, mostly satellite, datasets within the past couple of decades. The accuracy of these fluxes, estimated to be about 10-15 W per square meter is largely limited by the accuracy of the input datasets. The leading uncertainties in the surface fluxes are no longer predominantly induced by clouds but are now as much associated with uncertainties in the surface and near-surface atmospheric properties. This study presents a fuller, more quantitative evaluation of the uncertainties for the surface albedo and emissivity and surface skin temperatures by comparing the main available global datasets from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer product, the NASA Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Surface Radiation Budget project, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, NOAA/NASA Pathfinder Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer project, NOAA Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Image project. The datasets are, in practice, treated as an ensemble of realizations of the actual climate such that their differences represent an estimate of the uncertainty in their measurements because we do not possess global truth datasets for these quantities. The results are globally representative and may be taken as a generalization of our previous ISCCP-based uncertainty estimates for the input datasets. Surface properties have the primary role in determining the surface upward shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) flux. From this study, the following conclusions are obtained. Although land surface albedos in the near near-infrared remain poorly constrained (highly uncertain), they do not cause too much error in total surface SW fluxes; the more subtle regional and seasonal variations associated with vegetation and snow are still on doubt. The uncertainty of the broadband black-sky SW albedo for land surface from this study is about 7%, which can easily induce 5-10 W per square meter uncertainty in (upwelling) surface SW flux estimates. Even though available surface (broadband) LW emissivity datasets differ significantly (3%-5% uncertainty), this disagreement is confined to wavelengths greater than 20 micrometers so that there is little practical effect (1-3 W per square meters) on the surface upwelling LW fluxes. The surface skin temperature is one of two leading factors that cause problems with surface LW fluxes. Even though the differences among the various datasets are generally only 2-4 K, this can easily cause 10-15 W per square meter uncertainty in calculated surface (upwelling) LW fluxes. Significant improvements could be obtained for surface LW flux calculations by improving the retrievals of (in order of decreasing importance): (1) surface skin temperature, (2) surface air and near-surface-layer temperature, (3) column precipitable water amount and (4) broadband emissivity. And for surface SW fluxes, improvements could be obtained (excluding improved cloud treatment) by improving the retrievals of (1) aerosols (from our sensitivity studies but not discussed in this work), and (2) surface (black-sky) albedo, of which, NIR part of the spectrum has much larger uncertainty.

  18. Attenuation of Scalar Fluxes Measured with Spatially-displaced Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, T. W.; Lenschow, D. H.

    2009-02-01

    Observations from the Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (HATS) field program are used to examine the attenuation of measured scalar fluxes caused by spatial separation between the vertical velocity and scalar sensors. The HATS data show that flux attenuation for streamwise, crosswind, and vertical sensor displacements are each a function of a dimensionless, stability-dependent parameter n m multiplied by the ratio of sensor displacement to measurement height. The scalar flux decays more rapidly with crosswind displacements than for streamwise displacements and decays more rapidly for stable stratification than for unstable stratification. The cospectral flux attenuation model of Kristensen et al. agrees well with the HATS data for streamwise sensor displacements, although it is necessary to include a neglected quadrature spectrum term to explain the observation that flux attenuation is often less with the scalar sensor downwind of the anemometer than for the opposite configuration. A simpler exponential decay model provides good estimates for crosswind sensor displacements, as well as for streamwise sensor displacements with stable stratification. A model similar to that of Lee and Black correctly predicts flux attenuation for a combination of streamwise and crosswind displacements, i.e. as a function of wind direction relative to the sensor displacement. The HATS data for vertical sensor displacements extend the near-neutral results of Kristensen et al. to diabatic stratification and confirm their finding that flux attenuation is less with the scalar sensor located below the anemometer than if the scalar sensor is displaced an equal distance either horizontally or above the anemometer.

  19. Solar Model Parameters and Direct Measurements of Solar Neutrino Fluxes

    E-print Network

    Abhijit Bandyopadhyay; Sandhya Choubey; Srubabati Goswami; S. T. Petcov

    2006-08-30

    We explore a novel possibility of determining the solar model parameters, which serve as input in the calculations of the solar neutrino fluxes, by exploiting the data from direct measurements of the fluxes. More specifically, we use the rather precise value of the $^8B$ neutrino flux, $\\phi_B$ obtained from the global analysis of the solar neutrino and KamLAND data, to derive constraints on each of the solar model parameters on which $\\phi_B$ depends. We also use more precise values of $^7Be$ and $pp$ fluxes as can be obtained from future prospective data and discuss whether such measurements can help in reducing the uncertainties of one or more input parameters of the Standard Solar Model.

  20. The influence of contaminated mirror on the flux distributions of stray radiation of infrared telescope systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Pan; Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Bin; Yao, Xiuwen

    2010-05-01

    The existence of contaminated mirror in infrared telescope system not only reduces the contrast between objects and background, but also leads to the nonuniformity of the flux distribution of stray radiation on detector, resulting in great difficulty in obtaining and analyzing the target signal. In this paper, taking Cassegrain telescope as a typical example and using the optical analysis software, i.e., ASAP, the three-dimensional simulation model has also been built up. The self-generated thermal radiation flux and the flux distributions of stray radiation on the image plane have been simulated when the primary mirror under two cases, i.e., clean and local area contaminated. The influence of the size and position of the contaminated area on the uniformity of the flux distributions of stray radiation has been focused on discussion. The radiation flux and the flux distributions of stray radiation have been employed to evaluate the stray radiation performance of the system. The results indicate that the local area contamination on mirrors could change the uniformity of the flux distributions on the image plane and also degrade the stray radiation performance of the system, resulting in the influence on the detection and identification of the target. Consequently, it is of critical importance to keep the surface of optical elements clean, especially to avoid local area contamination on optics.

  1. Simulation of surface and top of atmosphere thermal fluxes and radiances from the radiative atmospheric divergence using the ARM Mobile Facility, GERB data, and AMMA Stations experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharmal, N. A.; Slingo, A.; Robinson, G. J.; Settle, J. J.

    2009-07-01

    Simultaneous observations of thermal radiative fluxes and radiances from the surface (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility, Niamey) and top of atmosphere (Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument) during the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile Facility, GERB data, and AMMA Stations experiment are compared with results from a radiative transfer model (Edwards-Slingo). Emphasis is placed on diagnosing the accuracy of the cloud-free radiation measurements using multiple instruments at the surface. The surface forcing from aerosol is found to regularly exceed 20 Wm-2, and reached ˜100 Wm-2 during the March 2006 dust storm. Equivalent comparisons are made with top of atmosphere (TOA) measurements but here radiance closure is not achieved. A disagreement is found between the angular anisotropy derived from GERB products and that from radiative transfer (RT) calculations. A hybrid TOA radiative flux time series is created using RT-calculated TOA anisotropy and GERB-observed TOA radiance. At 1100 UT (local noon), this hybrid flux differs from the Edition 1 GERB product by a positive difference in the range ˜0-10 Wm-2. Three collections of fluxes exist to calculate column-integrated atmospheric heating (divergence) from surface and TOA fluxes. The first two are fluxes from observations only or from RT calculations only. The third is a combination of RT calculation and observed fluxes that includes the hybrid flux. The resulting divergences are binned by sonde launch times and averaged over the year. The range of divergence during a day depends on the flux collection used (-200 to -111 Wm-2, -212 to -116 Wm-2, or -205 to -112 Wm-2) for observations only, for RT calculations only, or for observation-calculation fluxes. All estimates agree as to the interday variation being larger than that of intraday variability.

  2. The Airborne Measurements of Methane Fluxes (AIRMETH) Arctic Campaign (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafimovich, A.; Metzger, S.; Hartmann, J.; Kohnert, K.; Sachs, T.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most pressing questions with regard to climate feedback processes in a warming Arctic is the regional-scale methane release from Arctic permafrost areas. The Airborne Measurements of Methane Fluxes (AIRMETH) campaign is designed to quantitatively and spatially explicitly address this question. Ground-based eddy covariance (EC) measurements provide continuous in-situ observations of the surface-atmosphere exchange of methane. However, these observations are rare in the Arctic permafrost zone and site selection is bound by logistical constraints among others. Consequently, these observations cover only small areas that are not necessarily representative of the region of interest. Airborne measurements can overcome this limitation by covering distances of hundreds of kilometers over time periods of a few hours. Here, we present the potential of environmental response functions (ERFs) for quantitatively linking methane flux observations in the atmospheric surface layer to meteorological and biophysical drivers in the flux footprints. For this purpose thousands of kilometers of AIRMETH data across the Alaskan North Slope are utilized, with the aim to extrapolate the airborne EC methane flux observations to the entire North Slope. The data were collected aboard the research aircraft POLAR 5, using its turbulence nose boom and fast response methane and meteorological sensors. After thorough data pre-processing, Reynolds averaging is used to derive spatially integrated fluxes. To increase spatial resolution and to derive ERFs, we then use wavelet transforms of the original high-frequency data. This enables much improved spatial discretization of the flux observations, and the quantification of continuous and biophysically relevant land cover properties in the flux footprint of each observation. A machine learning technique is then employed to extract and quantify the functional relationships between the methane flux observations and the meteorological and biophysical drivers in the flux footprints. Lastly, the resulting ERFs are used to extrapolate the methane release over spatio-temporally explicit grids of the Alaskan North Slope. Metzger et al. (2013) have demonstrated the efficacy of this technique for regionalizing airborne EC heat flux observations to within an accuracy of ?18% and a precision of ?5%. Here, we show for the first time results from applying the ERF procedure to airborne methane EC measurements, and report its potential for spatio-temporally explicit inventories of the regional-scale methane exchange. References: Metzger, S., Junkermann, W., Mauder, M., Butterbach-Bahl, K., Trancón y Widemann, B., Neidl, F., Schäfer, K., Wieneke, S., Zheng, X. H., Schmid, H. P., and Foken, T.: Spatially explicit regionalization of airborne flux measurements using environmental response functions, Biogeosciences, 10, 2193-2217, doi:10.5194/bg-10-2193-2013, 2013.

  3. Surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility deployment in Niamey, Niger

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    2009-03-18

    This study presents ground-based remote sensing measurements of aerosol optical properties and corresponding shortwave surface radiative effect calculations for the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger during 2006. Aerosol optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (AP) were derived from multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) measurements during the two dry seasons (Jan-Apr and Oct-Dec) at Niamey. The vertical distribution of aerosol extinction was derived from the collocated micropulse lidar (MPL). The aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution of extinction varied significantly throughout the year, with higher AOD, lower SSA, and deeper aerosol layers during the Jan-Apr time period, when biomass burning aerosol layers were more frequent. Using the retrieved aerosol properties and vertical extinction profiles, broadband shortwave surface fluxes and atmospheric heating rate profiles were calculated. Corresponding calculations with no aerosol were used to estimate the aerosol direct radiative effect at the surface. Comparison of the calculated surface fluxes to observed fluxes for non-cloudy periods indicated that the remote sensing retrievals provided a reasonable estimation of the optical properties, with mean differences between calculated and observed fluxes of less than 5 W/m2 and RMS differences less than 25 W/m2. Sensitivity tests for a particular case study showed that the observed fluxes could be matched with variations of < 10% in the inputs to the radiative transfer model. We estimated the daily-averaged aerosol radiative effect at the surface by subtracting the clear calculations from the aerosol calculations. The average daily SW aerosol radiative effect over the study period was -27 W/m2, which is comparable to values estimated from satellite data and from climate models with sophisticated dust parameterizations.

  4. Passive hyporheic flux meter - measuring nitrate flux to the reactive sites in the river bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Julia Vanessa; Borchardt, Dietrich; Rode, Michael; Annable, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Most European lowland rivers are afflicted by high nitrate loads, modified morphology and discharge regulations, resulting in restricted capacity to retain nitrate. In those nutrient saturated rivers, sediment bound denitrification is the only process by which nitrate is removed from the system. Despite the importance of the hyporheic zone in nutrient reduction we are lacking detailed information on the transport to and retention at those reactive sites. Passive flux meters have successfully been used to measure contaminant transport to aquifers (eg Cho and Annable 2007). Here we present how a modification of those samplers can be used to quantify nitrate flux to and intermediate storage patterns in the interstices of an agriculturally impacted river. Installed in the river bed sediments, water flux and nutrient quantities passing through the device are recorded. While the amount of water flux serves as an index for connectivity of the hyporheic zone (exchange surface-subsurface water) the nitrate flux through the device can be seen as the portion of nitrate subjected to denitrification. The generated data on solute behavior in hyporheic zones are the missing puzzle to in-stream nitrate dynamics. Complementing flume and tracer experiments our approach depicts how discharge, morphology and sediment characteristics control the denitrification rate via the connectivity of the hyporheic zone. Passive hyporheic flux meter are a novel method to directly asses the quantity of removed nitrate by an in situ experiment.

  5. Field Measured Infiltration Fluxes at the Onset of Ephemeral Streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, K. W.; Ferre, T. P.; Hoffmann, J. P.; Cordova, J. T.

    2003-12-01

    A variety of physical and chemical methods have been used to measure transmission losses and infiltration fluxes within large ephemeral streams in southern Arizona, USA. Often these methods are used to estimate a single infiltration flux for a streamflow event, typically measured during steady-state conditions. For long duration events this single estimate can be reasonable, but for short duration events (<24 hrs) typical of those in southern Arizona, infiltration fluxes at the onset of flow can differ substantially in magnitude from those throughout the duration of an event. Use of steady-state infiltration fluxes for short duration events can underestimate the true volume of infiltrated water if the magnitude of the fluxes at flow onset are larger than steady-state values and the duration of the initial transient period is long. For detailed water-budget analyses and hydrologic models dependent on accurate transmission-loss and infiltration-flux estimates, a more comprehensive event record that estimates these values throughout the duration of events is required. A two-dimensional array of water-content and temperature sensors was installed in Rillito Creek in Tucson, Arizona, for the purpose of measuring infiltration fluxes in situ during streamflow events. Infiltration fluxes measured at the onset of 25 streamflow events over a 3-year period ranged from 0.02 to 0.2 m/s in comparison to steady-state fluxes that ranged from 6x10-7 to 2x10-6 m/s. Fluctuations in antecedent soil-water content and fluid/sediment temperatures were examined as possible factors contributing to the observed range of onset fluxes. The average antecedent moisture content of the profiles for the 25 events varied from 0.16 to 0.33 m3/m3. Lower antecedent moisture contents were associated with higher onset infiltration fluxes. Average antecedent temperatures for the profiles ranged from 10oC to 30oC and were directly proportional to onset infiltration rates.

  6. Measurement of radiative neutron decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bales, Matthew; RDK Collaboration, II

    2013-10-01

    By the simultaneous detection of a prompt photon and electron followed by a delayed proton, the RDK II experiment is able to reliably identify radiative neutron decays relative to non-radiative neutron decays in the photon energy range of approximately 0.3 keV to the 782 keV endpoint. RDK II will measure both the radiative branching ratio as well as the energy spectrum of emitted photons. The experimental apparatus consists of a superconducting solenoid magnet, which guides charged particles away from a cold neutron beam to a surface barrier detector located off the neutron-beam axis. Twelve bismuth germinate (BGO) crystals coupled to avalanche photodiodes (APDs) surround the decay region and serve to detect higher energy gammas while three bare APDs directly detect soft x-rays. Having completed its operation on the NG-6 station at the NCNR (NIST Center for Neutron Research) at NIST, Gaithersburg, at the end of 2009, analysis of the RDK II data is nearing completion. We present a summary of the experiment and progress in data analysis and simulations.

  7. Analysis of actinic flux profiles measured from an ozone sonde balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Allaart, M.; Knap, W. H.; Stammes, P.

    2014-12-01

    A green light sensor has been developed at KNMI to measure actinic flux profiles using an ozone sonde balloon. In total, 63 launches with ascending and descending profiles were performed between 2006 and 2010. The measured uncalibrated actinic flux profiles are analyzed using the Doubling Adding KNMI (DAK) radiative transfer model. Values of the cloud optical thickness (COT) along the flight track were taken from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) Cloud Physical Properties (CPP) product. The impact of clouds on the actinic flux profile is evaluated on the basis of the cloud modification factor (CMF) at the cloud top and cloud base, which is the ratio between the actinic fluxes for cloudy and clear-sky scenes. The impact of clouds on the actinic flux is clearly detected: the largest enhancement occurs at the cloud top due to multiple scattering. The actinic flux decreases almost linearly from cloud top to cloud base. Above the cloud top the actinic flux also increases compared to clear-sky scenes. We find that clouds can increase the actinic flux to 2.3 times of the clear-sky value at cloud top and decrease it to about 0.05 at cloud base. The relationship between CMF and COT agrees well with DAK simulations, except for a few outliers. Good agreement is found between the DAK simulated actinic flux profiles and the observations for single layer clouds in fully overcast scenes. The instrument is suitable for operational balloon measurements because of its simplicity and low cost. It is worth to further develop the instrument and launch it together with atmospheric chemistry composition sensors.

  8. Measuring of rotating magnetic flux in an integrated environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Z.; Ivanyi, A.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a measuring method and the establishment of a measuring environment for two-dimensional rotating magnetic fluxes and fields. The measuring method relies on measuring currents and voltages in coils attached to the magnetic specimen. For the processing and generating of measuring signals, a PC-based system running Lab View is applied extended with a NI ELVIS II board, and two high performance KIKUSUI bipolar power supplies. The measurement results are satisfactory and show that the measuring environment established is capable of non-destructively capture the two-dimensional magnetic characteristics of the specimen investigated.

  9. A comparison between spectrally derived vegetation indices and CO2 fluxes measured over a hardwood forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrity, S. R.; Vierling, L. A.; Turnipseed, A.; Vogel, C. S.; Martins, D. K.; Shepson, P. B.

    2006-12-01

    A dual channel, narrow-band spectroradiometer was mounted at 34 m (1.6 x canopy ht) on the University of Michigan Biological Station AmeriFlux tower over the course of 10 days during the period of rapid leaf expansion in late May and early June 2006. Spectral scans of various locations of the plant canopy surrounding the flux tower were collected at one minute intervals during daylight hours within the sampling period. These spectral data were processed to obtain reflectance values from which a scaled Photochemical Reflectance Index (sPRI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were calculated using reflectance values at 531nm and 570nm, and 670nm and 800nm respectively. The sPRI corresponds with xanthophyll cycle activity and thus radiation use efficiency, whereas the NDVI corresponds with absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR). Midday measures of NDVI and sPRI were combined and compared with daily summed CO2 flux measurements from the eddy covariance system associated with the UMBS flux tower for the 10 day sampling period. Correlations between the combined NDVI/sPRI values and daily summed CO2 fluxes were found to vary with species, with r-square values ranging from 0.69 (p <0.1) for birch (Betula papyrifera) dominated pixels to 0.45 (p <0.1) for red pine (Pinus resinosa) dominated pixels.

  10. Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing: Calculations and Measurements from the Tropospheric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Hignett, P.; Stowe, L. L.; Livingston, J. M.; Kinne, S.; Wong, J.; Chan, K. Roland (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Radiative forcing is defined as the change in the net (downwelling minus upwelling) radiative flux at a given level in the atmosphere. This net flux is the radiative power density available to drive climatic processes in the earth-atmosphere system below that level. Recent research shows that radiative forcing by aerosol particles is a major source of uncertainty in climate predictions. To reduce those uncertainties, TARFOX was designed to determine direct (cloud-free) radiative forcing by the aerosols in one of the world's major industrial pollution plumes--that flowing from the east coast of the US over the Atlantic Ocean. TARFOX measured a variety of aerosol radiative effects (including direct forcing) while simultaneously measuring the chemical, physical, and optical properties of the aerosol particles causing those effects. The resulting data sets permit a wide variety of tests of the consistency, or closure, among the measurements and the models that link them. Because climate predictions use the same or similar model components, closure tests help to assess and reduce prediction uncertainties. In this work we use the TARFOX-determined aerosol, gas, and surface properties to compute radiative forcing for a variety of aerosol episodes, with inadvisable optical depths ranging from 0.07 to 0.6. We calculate forcing by several techniques with varying degrees of sophistication, in part to test the range of applicability of simplified techniques--which are often the only ones feasible in climate predictions by general circulation models (GCMs). We then compare computed forcing to that determined from: (1) Upwelling and downwelling fluxes (0.3-0.7 mm and 0.7-3.0 mm) measured by radiometers on the UK MRF C-130. and (2) Daily average cloud-free absorbed solar and emitted thermal radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere derived from the AVHRR radiometer on the NOAA- 14 satellite. The calculations and measurements all yield aerosol direct radiative forcing in the range -50 to -190 W sq m per unit inadvisable optical depth. The magnitudes are about 15 to 100 times larger than the global-average direct forcing expected for the global-average sulfate aerosol optical depth of 0.04. The reasons for the larger forcing in TARFOX include the relatively large optical depths and the focus on cloud-free, daytime conditions over the dark ocean surface. These are the conditions that produce the actual major radiative forcing events that contribute to any global-average climate effect. Detailed comparisons of calculated and measured forcings for specific events are used for more refined tests of closure.

  11. A review of flux considerations for in vivo neurochemical measurements.

    PubMed

    Paul, David W; Stenken, Julie A

    2015-05-18

    The mass transport or flux of neurochemicals in the brain and how this flux affects chemical measurements and their interpretation is reviewed. For all endogenous neurochemicals found in the brain, the flux of each of these neurochemicals exists between sources that produce them and the sites that consume them all within ?m distances. Principles of convective-diffusion are reviewed with a significant emphasis on the tortuous paths and discrete point sources and sinks. The fundamentals of the primary methods of detection, microelectrodes and microdialysis sampling of brain neurochemicals are included in the review. Special attention is paid to the change in the natural flux of the neurochemicals caused by implantation and consumption at microelectrodes and uptake by microdialysis. The detection of oxygen, nitric oxide, glucose, lactate, and glutamate, and catecholamines by both methods are examined and where possible the two techniques (electrochemical vs. microdialysis) are compared. Non-invasive imaging methods: magnetic resonance, isotopic fluorine MRI, electron paramagnetic resonance, and positron emission tomography are also used for different measurements of the above-mentioned solutes and these are briefly reviewed. Although more sophisticated, the imaging techniques are unable to track neurochemical flux on short time scales, and lack spatial resolution. Where possible, determinations of flux using imaging are compared to the more classical techniques of microdialysis and microelectrodes. PMID:25977941

  12. Control of the energetic proton flux in the inner radiation belt by artificial means

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Shao; K. Papadopoulos; A. S. Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Earth's inner radiation belt located inside L = 2 is dominated by a relatively stable flux of trapped protons with energy from a few to over 100 MeV. Radiation effects in spacecraft electronics caused by the inner radiation belt protons are the major cause of performance anomalies and lifetime of Low Earth Orbit satellites. For electronic components with large feature

  13. An iterative procedure for estimating areally averaged heat flux using planetary boundary layer mixed layer height and locally measured heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, R. L.; Gao, W.; Lesht, B. M.

    2000-04-04

    Measurements at the central facility of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) are intended to verify, improve, and develop parameterizations in radiative flux models that are subsequently used in General Circulation Models (GCMs). The reliability of this approach depends upon the representativeness of the local measurements at the central facility for the site as a whole or on how these measurements can be interpreted so as to accurately represent increasingly large scales. The variation of surface energy budget terms over the SGP CART site is extremely large. Surface layer measurements of the sensible heat flux (H) often vary by a factor of 2 or more at the CART site (Coulter et al. 1996). The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) effectively integrates the local inputs across large scales; because the mixed layer height (h) is principally driven by H, it can, in principal, be used for estimates of surface heat flux over scales on the order of tens of kilometers. By combining measurements of h from radiosondes or radar wind profiles with a one-dimensional model of mixed layer height, they are investigating the ability of diagnosing large-scale heat fluxes. The authors have developed a procedure using the model described by Boers et al. (1984) to investigate the effect of changes in surface sensible heat flux on the mixed layer height. The objective of the study is to invert the sense of the model.

  14. Photocatalytic Active Radiation Measurements and Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Underwood, Lauren W.

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic materials are being used to purify air, to kill microbes, and to keep surfaces clean. A wide variety of materials are being developed, many of which have different abilities to absorb various wavelengths of light. Material variability, combined with both spectral illumination intensity and spectral distribution variability, will produce a wide range of performance results. The proposed technology estimates photocatalytic active radiation (PcAR), a unit of radiation that normalizes the amount of light based on its spectral distribution and on the ability of the material to absorb that radiation. Photocatalytic reactions depend upon the number of electron-hole pairs generated at the photocatalytic surface. The number of electron-hole pairs produced depends on the number of photons per unit area per second striking the surface that can be absorbed and whose energy exceeds the bandgap of the photocatalytic material. A convenient parameter to describe the number of useful photons is the number of moles of photons striking the surface per unit area per second. The unit of micro-einsteins (or micromoles) of photons per m2 per sec is commonly used for photochemical and photoelectric-like phenomena. This type of parameter is used in photochemistry, such as in the conversion of light energy for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic response correlates with the number of photons rather than by energy because, in this photochemical process, each molecule is activated by the absorption of one photon. In photosynthesis, the number of photons absorbed in the 400 700 nm spectral range is estimated and is referred to as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). PAR is defined in terms of the photosynthetic photon flux density measured in micro-einsteins of photons per m2 per sec. PcAR is an equivalent, similarly modeled parameter that has been defined for the photocatalytic processes. Two methods to measure the PcAR level are being proposed. In the first method, a calibrated spectrometer with a cosine receptor is used to measure the spectral irradiance. This measurement, in conjunction with the photocatalytic response as a function of wavelength, is used to estimate the PcAR. The photocatalytic response function is determined by measuring photocatalytic reactivity as a function of wavelength. In the second method, simple shaped photocatalytic response functions can be simulated with a broad-band detector with a cosine receptor appropriately filtered to represent the spectral response of the photocatalytic material. This second method can be less expensive than using a calibrated spectrometer.

  15. First TOA fluxes from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Cedric P.; Caprion, Didier; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Dewitte, Steven; Gonzalez, Luis; Ipe, Alessandro

    2004-11-01

    On 29th January 2004 the first Meteosat Second Generation satellite MSG-1, renamed Meteosat-8 (MS-8), commenced routine operations. MS-8 carries the new Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra Red Imager (SEVIRI) and a Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) radiometer. GERB provides valuable short- and long wave broadband measurements of the Earth in order to estimate the top-of-atmosphere radiation budget accurately. The unique feature of GERB in comparison with previous measurements of the Earth's radiation budget is its very fast temporal sampling (15 minutes) afforded by geostationary orbit. On the other hand, the GERB instrument only accounts for a crude spatial resolution (about 50 km at the sub-satellite point). Taking advantage of the synergy between the data from GERB and SEVIRI, we propose at the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium to merge the two data streams to produce near real-time estimates of the radiation budget for limited geographical regions at a 3x3 SEVIRI pixel resolution (the SEVIRI resolution is 3 km at satellite sub-point). Such fluxes aim to be used by the climate and numerical weather prediction (NWP) scientific communities through climate studies and validation/evaluation of the performance of NWP models over the region covered by MS-8.

  16. Experimental measurement of Au M-band flux in indirectly-driven double-shell implosions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. F. Robey; T. S. Perry; H.-S. Park; P. A. Amendt; S. M. Compton; C. M. Sorce; J. P. Knauer

    2004-01-01

    Indirectly-driven double-shell implosions are being investigated as a possible non-cryogenic path to ignition on the NIF. In recent double-shell implosions, the inner shell trajectory was shown to exhibit a strong sensitivity to the temporal history of the M-band (2-5 keV) radiation emitted from the Au hohlraum wall. A large time-dependent discrepancy was observed between measurement and simulation of the flux

  17. Heat flux splitter for near-field thermal radiation

    E-print Network

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Frechette, Luc; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the possibility to efficiently split the near-field heat flux exchanged between graphene nano-disks by tuning their doping. This result paves the way for the developement of an active control of propagation directions for heat fluxes exchanged in near-field throughout integrated nanostructures networks.

  18. Transient response of circular foil heat-flux gauges to radiative fluxes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. R. Keltner; M. W. Wildin

    1975-01-01

    An approximate analytical model of the transient response of a circular foil heat-flux gauge to a step change in incident radiant heat flux is described. This model demonstrates that the sensitivity and the transient response of the gauge are significantly affected by heat flow from the foil to the center lead wire. Results obtained for the transient response to a

  19. Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements

    E-print Network

    Mcdonough, William F.

    Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements Stephen T. Dye, and approved November 16, 2007 (received for review July 11, 2007) Uranium and thorium within the Earth produce of uranium and thorium concentrations in geological reservoirs relies largely on geochemi- cal model

  20. A PROBLEM WITH FLUX CHAMBER MEASUREMENTS OF BIOGENIC SULFUR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problems associated with identifying and quantifying factors that influence liquid-phase controlled evolution of hydrogen sulfide and organic sulfides through the air-water interface are briefly reviewed. It was found that at present flux chamber measurements of the release of th...

  1. Some Recent Secondary Production Measurements for Neutrino Flux Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Geoffrey B.

    2011-12-01

    Recent measurements of meson production in proton-nucleus interactions have made possible reliable neutrino flux determinations at modern neutrino experiments. This article discusses preliminary results from the HARP, MIP, and E910 are discussed along with some of their implications for the MINOS, K2K, and MiniBooNE neutrino experiments.

  2. Airborne flux measurements of Biogenic Isoprene over California

    SciTech Connect

    Misztal, P.; Karl, Thomas G.; Weber, Robin; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2014-10-10

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a PTR-MS and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene, MVK+MAC, methanol, monoterpenes, and MBO over ~10,000-km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions of isoprene. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate "instantaneous" fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Vertical flux divergence of isoprene is expected due to its relatively short lifetime and was measured directly using "racetrack" profiles at multiple altitudes. It was found to be linear and in the range 5% to 30% depending on the ratio of aircraft altitude to PBL height (z/zi). Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently 1 at 400 m ±50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to Basal Emission Factor (BEF) landcover datasets used to drive biogenic VOC (BVOC) emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m-2 h-1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. While isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and coniferous forests were extremely low, high concentrations of methanol and monoterpenes were found above some of these regions. These observations demonstrate the ability to measure fluxes from specific sources by eddy covariance from an aircraft, and suggest the utility of measurements using fast response chemical sensors to constrain emission inventories and map out source distributions for a much broader array of trace gases than was observed in this study. This paper reports the first regional direct eddy covariance fluxes of isoprene. The emissions of VOCs measured from aircraft with 2 km spatial resolution can quantify the distribution of major sources providing the observations required for testing statewide emission inventories of these important trace gases. These measurements will be used in a future study to assess BVOC emission models and their driving variable datasets.

  3. Simulation of high-energy radiation belt electron fluxes using NARMAX-VERB coupled codes

    PubMed Central

    Pakhotin, I P; Drozdov, A Y; Shprits, Y Y; Boynton, R J; Subbotin, D A; Balikhin, M A

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a fusion of data-driven and physics-driven methodologies of energetic electron flux forecasting in the outer radiation belt. Data-driven NARMAX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Averages with eXogenous inputs) model predictions for geosynchronous orbit fluxes have been used as an outer boundary condition to drive the physics-based Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code, to simulate energetic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt environment. The coupled system has been tested for three extended time periods totalling several weeks of observations. The time periods involved periods of quiet, moderate, and strong geomagnetic activity and captured a range of dynamics typical of the radiation belts. The model has successfully simulated energetic electron fluxes for various magnetospheric conditions. Physical mechanisms that may be responsible for the discrepancies between the model results and observations are discussed.

  4. Effects of Radiative Diffusion on Thin Flux Tubes in Turbulent Solar-like Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. A.; Fan, Y.

    2015-05-01

    We study the combined effects of convection and radiative diffusion on the evolution of thin magnetic flux tubes in the solar interior. Radiative diffusion is the primary supplier of heat to convective motions in the lower convection zone, and it results in a heat input per unit volume of magnetic flux tubes that has been ignored by many previous thin flux tube studies. We use a thin flux tube model subject to convection taken from a rotating spherical shell of turbulent, solar-like convection as described by Weber, Fan, and Miesch ( Astrophys. J. 741, 11, 2011; Solar Phys. 287, 239, 2013), now taking into account the influence of radiative heating on 1022 Mx flux tubes, corresponding to flux tubes of large active regions. Our simulations show that flux tubes of ? 60 kG that are subject to solar-like convective flows do not anchor in the overshoot region, but rather drift upward because of the increased buoyancy of the flux tube earlier in its evolution, which results from including radiative diffusion. Flux tubes of magnetic field strengths ranging from 15 kG to 100 kG have rise times of ? 0.2 years and exhibit a Joy's Law tilt-angle trend. Our results suggest that radiative heating is an effective mechanism by which flux tubes can escape from the stably stratified overshoot region. Moreover, flux tubes do not necessarily need to be anchored in the overshoot region to produce emergence properties similar to those of active regions on the Sun.

  5. Automatic magnetic flux measurement of micro plastic-magnetic rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingdong; Lin, Mingxing; Song, Aiwei

    2015-07-01

    Micro plastic-magnetic rotors of various sizes and shapes are widely used in industry, their magnetic flux measurement is one of the most important links in the production process, and therefore some technologies should be adopted to improve the measurement precision and efficiency. In this paper, the automatic measurement principle of micro plastic-magnetic rotors is proposed and the integration time constant and the integrator drift’s suppression and compensation in the measurement circuit are analyzed. Two other factors influencing the measurement precision are also analyzed, including the relative angles between the rotor magnetic poles and the measurement coil, and the starting point of the rotors in the coil where the measurement begins. An instrument is designed to measure the magnetic flux of the rotors. Measurement results show that the measurement error is within??±1%, which meets the basic requirements in industry application, and the measurement efficiency is increased by 10 times, which can cut down labor cost and management cost when compared with manual measurement.

  6. Solar cycle variation of trapped proton fluxes measured by LEO satellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, Natalia; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Panasyuk, Michail

    Now days there are few models of the Earth radiation belts proton fluxes that are used for prediction of the fluxes at the different orbits of the spacecrafts. Discrepancies in their predictions are wellknown. The AP8 model of trapped proton fluxes is based on the satellite data that were measured 1960th and 1970th during the anomalous weak 20th (in comparison with the 21st and 22d ) solar cycle and solar cycle variation is taken into account only by specifying two different models for solar maximum and solar minimum. The TPM-1 model calculates the proton fluxes for any year of solar activity and contains sub-models for quiet and active states of magnetosphere. Solar cycle variation of trapped protons measured during the 23rd solar cycle on board low orbital polar satellites Coronas-F (500 km altitude) and NPOES-15, -17 (800 km altitude) in 2001 - 2007 is considered in this report. The experimental proton fluxes measured for the drift sells L=1.14-1.2 were compared with the predictions of AP8 model for solar maximum and minimum as well as with the prediction of TPM-1 model.

  7. Advances in Air-Sea Flux Measurement by Eddy Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomquist, Byron W.; Huebert, Barry J.; Fairall, Christopher W.; Bariteau, Ludovic; Edson, James B.; Hare, Jeffrey E.; McGillis, Wade R.

    2014-09-01

    Eddy-correlation measurements of the oceanic flux are useful for the development and validation of air-sea gas exchange models and for analysis of the marine carbon cycle. Results from more than a decade of published work and from two recent field programs illustrate the principal interferences from water vapour and motion, demonstrating experimental approaches for improving measurement precision and accuracy. Water vapour cross-sensitivity is the greatest source of error for flux measurements using infrared gas analyzers, often leading to a ten-fold bias in the measured flux. Much of this error is not related to optical contamination, as previously supposed. While various correction schemes have been demonstrated, the use of an air dryer and closed-path analyzer is the most effective way to eliminate this interference. This approach also obviates density corrections described by Webb et al. (Q J R Meteorol 106:85-100, 1980). Signal lag and frequency response are a concern with closed-path systems, but periodic gas pulses at the inlet tip provide for precise determination of lag time and frequency attenuation. Flux attenuation corrections are shown to be 5 % for a cavity ring-down analyzer (CRDS) and dryer with a 60-m inlet line. The estimated flux detection limit for the CRDS analyzer and dryer is a factor of ten better than for IRGAs sampling moist air. While ship-motion interference is apparent with all analyzers tested in this study, decorrelation or regression methods are effective in removing most of this bias from IRGA measurements and may also be applicable to the CRDS.

  8. Effects of high altitude clouds on the earth's infrared radiation flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W.-C.; Kaplan, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    Attention is given to the results of a study of cirrus cloud properties which employed the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences' general circulation model and concentrated on the effects of the nonblackness of high clouds on the IR radiation flux. Although the thermal radiation flux is very sensitive to the treatment of cirrus optical properties in the IR, a more realistic assessment will depend on better parameterizations for cirrus cloud formation, persistence, and dissipation.

  9. Infrared Camera Diagnostic for Heat Flux Measurements on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mastrovito; R. Maingi; H.W. Kugel; A.L. Roquemore

    2003-03-25

    An infrared imaging system has been installed on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to measure the surface temperatures on the lower divertor and center stack. The imaging system is based on an Indigo Alpha 160 x 128 microbolometer camera with 12 bits/pixel operating in the 7-13 {micro}m range with a 30 Hz frame rate and a dynamic temperature range of 0-700 degrees C. From these data and knowledge of graphite thermal properties, the heat flux is derived with a classic one-dimensional conduction model. Preliminary results of heat flux scaling are reported.

  10. A Novel Detector for High Neutron Flux Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Singo, T. D.; Wyngaardt, S. M. [Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Papka, P. [Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Nuclear Physics group, iThemba labs, P. O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Dobson, R. T. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2010-01-05

    Measuring alpha particles from a neutron induced break-up reaction with a mass spectrometer can be an excellent tool for detecting neutrons in a high neutron flux environment. Break-up reactions of {sup 6}Li and {sup 12}C can be used in the detection of slow and fast neutrons, respectively. A high neutron flux detection system that integrates the neutron energy sensitive material and helium mass spectrometer has been developed. The description of the detector configuration is given and it is soon to be tested at iThemba LABS, South Africa.

  11. Structure of Earth's outer radiation belt inferred from long-term electron flux dynamics

    E-print Network

    . Daily-average fluxes are obtained by the Proton- Electron Telescope (PET) on NASA's Solar, AnomalousStructure of Earth's outer radiation belt inferred from long-term electron flux dynamics D their radial range (L = 1­11 RE) using a total of 25 years of observations by NASA, ISAS, and GPS spacecraft

  12. Radiative forcing of the Venus mesosphere. I - Solar fluxes and heating rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Crisp

    1986-01-01

    Most of the solar energy absorbed by Venus is deposited in the atmosphere, at levels more than 60 km above the surface. This unusual flux distribution should have important consequences for the thermal structure and dynamical state of that atmosphere. A radiative transfer model was used to derive the structure and amplitude of the solar fluxes and heating rates in

  13. Development of Aerosol Models for Radiative Flux Calculations at ARM Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Ogren, John A.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; McComiskey, Allison C.

    2006-09-30

    The direct radiative forcing (DRF) of aerosols, the change in net radiative flux due to aerosols in non-cloudy conditions, is an essential quantity for understanding the human impact on climate change. Our work has addressed several key issues that determine the accuracy, and identify the uncertainty, with which aerosol DRF can be modeled. These issues include the accuracy of several radiative transfer models when compared to measurements and to each other in a highly controlled closure study using data from the ARM 2003 Aerosol IOP. The primary focus of our work has been to determine an accurate approach to assigning aerosol properties appropriate for modeling over averaged periods of time and space that represent the observed regional variability of these properties. We have also undertaken a comprehensive analysis of the aerosol properties that contribute most to uncertainty in modeling aerosol DRF, and under what conditions they contribute the most uncertainty. Quantification of these issues enables the community to better state accuracies of radiative forcing calculations and to concentrate efforts in areas that will decrease uncertainties in these calculations in the future.

  14. Measurements of EUV Coronal Holes and Open Magnetic Flux

    E-print Network

    Lowder, Chris; Leamon, Robert; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Coronal holes are regions on the Sun's surface that map the foot-prints of open magnetic field lines. We have developed an automated routine to detect and track boundaries of long-lived coronal holes using full-disk EUV images obtained by SoHO:EIT, SDO:AIA, and STEREO:EUVI. We measure coronal hole areas and magnetic flux in these holes, and compare the measurements with calculations by the PFSS model. It is shown that, from 1996 through 2010, the total area of coronal holes measured with EIT images varies between 5$\\%$ and 17$\\%$ of the total solar surface area, and the total unsigned open flux varies between $2-5 \\times 10^{22}$ Mx. The solar cycle dependence of these measurements are similar to the PFSS results, but the model yields larger hole areas and greater open flux than observed by EIT. The AIA/EUVI measurements from 2010-2013 show coronal hole area coverage of 5-10$\\%$ of the total surface area, with significant contribution from low latitudes, which is under-represented by EIT. AIA/EUVI have measur...

  15. High-Fidelity Measurements of Long-Lived Flux Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hover, David; Macklin, Chris; O'Brien, Kevin; Sears, Adam; Yoder, Jonilyn; Gudmundsen, Ted; Kerman, Jamie; Bolkhovsky, Vladimir; Tolpygo, Sergey; Fitch, George; Weir, Terry; Kamal, Archana; Gustavsson, Simon; Yan, Fei; Birenbaum, Jeff; Siddiqi, Irfan; Orlando, Terry; Clarke, John; Oliver, Will

    2015-03-01

    We report on high-fidelity dispersive measurements of a long-lived flux qubit using a Josephson superconducting traveling wave parametric amplifier (JTWPA). A capacitively shunted flux qubit that incorporates high-Q MBE aluminum will have longer relaxation and dephasing times when compared to a conventional flux qubit, while also maintaining the large anharmonicity necessary for complex gate operations. The JTWPA relies on a Josephson junction embedded transmission line to deliver broadband, nonreciprocal gain with large dynamic range. This research was funded in part by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA); and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract number FA8721-05-C-0002. All statements of fact, opinion or conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be construed as representing the official views or policies of

  16. New H ? flux measurements in nearby dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaisin, S. S.; Karachentsev, I. D.

    2014-10-01

    We present the emission H ? line images for 40 galaxies of the Local Volume based on the observations at the 6-meter BTA telescope. Among them there are eight satellites of the Milky Way and Andromeda (M31) as well as two companions to M51. The measured H? fluxes of the galaxies are used to determine their integral (SFR) and specific (sSFR) star formation rates. The values of log sSFR for the observed galaxies lie in the range of (-9, -14) [yr-1]. A comparison of SFR estimates derived from the H? flux and from the ultraviolet FUV flux yields evidence that two blue compact galaxies MRK475 and LVJ1213+2957 turn out to be at a sharp peak of their star-burst activity.

  17. Exploiting Diurnal Variations to Evaluate the ISCCP-FD Flux Calculations and Radiative-Flux-Analysis-Processed Surface Observations from BSRN, ARM and SURFRAD

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuanchong; Long, Charles N.; Rossow, William B.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.

    2010-08-06

    Based on monthly-3-hourly and 3-hourly mean surface radiative fluxes and their associated meteorological parameters for 2004 from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project-FD (ISCCP-FD) and the Radiative Flux Analysis method-Produced Surface Observations (RFA-PSO) for 15 high-quality-controlled surface stations, operated by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration?s Surface Radiation budget network (SURFRAD), this work, goes beyond the previous validation for FD against surface observation by introducing the Meteorological Similarity Comparison Method (MSCM) to make a more precise, mutual evaluation of both FD and PSO products. The comparison results in substantial uncertainty reduction and provides reasonable physical explanations for the flux differences. This approach compares fluxes for cases where the atmospheric and surface physical properties (specifically, the input parameters for radiative transfer model) are as close as possible to the values determined at the observational sites by matching the RFA-produced cloud fraction (CF) and/or optical thickness (Tau), etc., or alternatively, by directly changing the model input variables for FD to match PSO values, and using such-produced matched sub-datasets to make more accurate comparisons based on more similar meteorological environments between FD and PSO. The crucial part is the availability of flux-associated meteorological parameters from RFA-PSO, which was only recently made available that makes this work possible. For surface downwelling shortwave(SW) flux (SWdn) and its two components, diffuse (Dif) and direct (Dir), uncertainty for monthly mean is 15, 15 and 17 W/m2, respectively, smaller than the separately estimated uncertainty values from both FD and PSO. When applying MSCM by reducing their CF difference, the differences can be reduced by a factor of 2. The strength of MSCM is particularly shown in the comparisons of diurnal variations. For clear sky, reducing the FD values of aerosol optical depth (AOD) by 50% to approximately match the PSO values brings all downward SW flux components into substantial agreement. For cloudy scenes, when both CF and Tau are matched to within 0.1 – 0.25 and ~10, respectively, the majority of the SW flux components have nearly-perfect agreement between FD and PSO. The best restriction differences are not zero indicates the influence of other parameters that are not accounted for yet. For longwave (LW) fluxes, general evaluation also confirms uncertainty values for FD and PSO less than separately estimated. When applying MSCM to CF and surface air temperature, the agreement is substantially improved. For downwelling LW diurnal variation comparison, FD shows good agreement with PSO for both RFA-defined or true clear sky but overestimates the amplitude for cloudy sky by 3-7 W/m2, which may be caused by different sensitivities to cirrus clouds. For upwelling LW diurnal cycle, the situation is reversed; FD now underestimates the diurnal amplitude for all and clear sky but generally agrees for overcast (CF > 0.7). The combined effect of downwelling and upwelling LW fluxes results in FD?s underestimates of the diurnal variation of the net-LW-loss for all the scenes by up to 10 W/m2, although the daily mean net loss is more accurate. Therefore, in terms of amplitude and phase, both FD and PSO seem to have caught correct diurnal variations.

  18. MARIE Dose and Flux Measurements in Mars Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Saganti, P.; Andersen, V.; Lee, K. T.; Pinsky, L. S.; Turner, R.; Atwell, W.

    2004-01-01

    We present results from the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE), aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft in orbit around Mars. MARIE operated successfully from March 2002 through October 2003. At the time of this writing, the instrument is off due to a loss of communications during an extremely intense Solar Particle Event. Efforts to revive MARIE are planned for Spring 2004, when Odyssey's role as a communications relay for the MER rovers is completed. During the period of successful operation, MARIE returned the first detailed energetic charged particle data from Mars. Due to limitations of the instrument, normalizing MARIE data to flux or dose is not straightforward - several large corrections are needed. Thus normalized results (like dose or flux) have large uncertainties and/or significant model-dependence. The problems in normalization are mainly due to inefficiency in detecting high-energy protons (signal-to-noise problems force the trigger threshold to be higher than optimal), to the excessively high gains employed in the signal processing electronics (many ions deposit energy sufficient to saturate the electronics, and dE/dx information is lost), and to artifacts associated with the two trigger detectors (incomplete registration of dE/dx). Despite these problems, MARIE is efficient for detecting helium ions with kinetic energies above about 30 MeV/nucleon, and for detecting high-energy ions (energies above about 400 MeV/nucleon) with charges from 5 to 10. Fluxes of these heavier ions can be compared to fluxes obtained from the ACE/CRIS instrument, providing at least one area of direct comparison between data obtained at Earth and at Mars; this analysis will be presented as a work in progress. We will also present dose-rate data, with a detailed explanation of the many sources of uncertainty in normalization. The results for both flux and dose will be compared to predictions of the HZETRN model of the GCR.

  19. Flux measurements of energy and trace gases in urban Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boedeker, I.; Schade, G. W.; Adams, S.; Park, C.

    2008-12-01

    We describe the setup and some first year results of a new flux measurements tower in an urban area. An existing radio communications tower 4 km north of downtown Houston was equipped with micrometeorological instrumentation and trace gas sampling lines in spring 2007. Wind speed, temperature and relative humidity are recorded at five levels between 12 and 60 m above ground; 3-D wind speed measurements, solar and net radiances, and trace gas sampling are established from the 60 m level. A closed path IRGA is used for CO2 and water vapor fluxes, and independent instrumentation for criteria pollutant and VOC fluxes. Two CSI data loggers and software control the measurements, and EdiRe software is used to analyze turbulence data and compute fluxes. A project description is provided at http://atmo.tamu.edu/yellowcabtower. Surface properties as calculated from the gradient measurements show the site to be surprisingly uniform, with displacement heights between 5 and 9 m and roughness lengths between 0.4 and 0.7 m, despite urban heterogeneity. The latter is investigated through visible/near IR orthoimagery and LIDAR data, which are incorporated into a local GIS. Net radiation was also only marginally affected by surface heterogeneity. At this urban location it is balanced by roughly equal amounts of sensible heat, latent heat, and storage fluxes. Latent heat flux, however, is smaller outside the growing season, with an equivalent increase in winter storage fluxes, as expected. Significant differences are also observed with direction during summer, showing decreased Bowen ratios and lower CO2 emissions from sectors with a larger urban tree canopy cover in the footprint. The largely mature, dominantly oak urban canopy cover alleviates approximately 100 W m- 2 during typical summer days. On the other hand, anthropogenic CO2 emissions dominate over photosynthetic uptake all year round. Measured carbon fluxes peak during morning rush-hour traffic, especially when increasing stretches of the main commuter road fall into the footprint. Outside the rush hour, daytime carbon fluxes typically ranged from 0.4 to 1.6 g C m-2 h-1. A seasonal comparison shows that up to 75% of midday anthropogenic carbon flux is removed via photosynthesis in the dominant wind sector, S, which bears typical tree canopy covers of 25-50% on pervious surfaces.

  20. Tools for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer: Streamer and FluxNet. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Jeffrey R.; Schweiger, Axel J.

    1998-01-01

    Two tools for the solution of radiative transfer problems are presented. Streamer is a highly flexible medium spectral resolution radiative transfer model based on the plane-parallel theory of radiative transfer. Capable of computing either fluxes or radiances, it is suitable for studying radiative processes at the surface or within the atmosphere and for the development of remote-sensing algorithms. FluxNet is a fast neural network-based implementation of Streamer for computing surface fluxes. It allows for a sophisticated treatment of radiative processes in the analysis of large data sets and potential integration into geophysical models where computational efficiency is an issue. Documentation and tools for the development of alternative versions of Fluxnet are available. Collectively, Streamer and FluxNet solve a wide variety of problems related to radiative transfer: Streamer provides the detail and sophistication needed to perform basic research on most aspects of complex radiative processes while the efficiency and simplicity of FluxNet make it ideal for operational use.

  1. Back-reaction of the Hawking radiation flux on a gravitationally collapsing star II

    E-print Network

    Laura Mersini-Houghton

    2015-05-15

    A star collapsing gravitationally into a black hole emits a flux of radiation, known as Hawking radiation. When the initial state of a quantum field on the background of the star, is placed in the Unruh vacuum in the far past, then in the exterior Hawking radiation corresponds to a flux of positive energy radiation travelling outwards from near the surface to future infinity. Based on pair creation, the evaporation of the collapsing star can be equivalently described by the absorption of an ingoing negative energy flux of radiation travelling towards the center of the star. Here, we are interested in the evolution of the star during its collapse. Thus we include the backreaction of the negative energy Hawking flux in the interior geometry of the collapsing star when writing the full 4-dimensional Einstein and hydrodynamic equations. Hawking radiation emitted before the star passes through its Schwarzschild radius slows down and reverses the collapse of the star. The star evaporates without forming an horizon or a singularity. This study provides a more realistic investigation than the one first presented in [1], since the backreaction of Hawking radiation flux on the collapsing star is studied in the case when the initial state of the?field is in Unruh's vacuum.

  2. Integral measurements of neutron and gamma-ray leakage fluxes from the Little Boy replica

    SciTech Connect

    Muckenthaler, F.J.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents integral measurements of neutron and gamma-ray leakage fluxes from a critical mockup of the Hiroshima bomb Little Boy at Los Alamos National Laobratory with detector systems developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Bonner ball detectors were used to map the neutron fluxes in the horizontal midplane at various distances from the mockup and for selected polar angles, keeping the source-detector separation constant. Gamma-ray energy deposition measurements were made with thermoluminescent detectors at several locations on the iron shell of the source mockup. The measurements were performed as part of a larger progam to provide benchmark data for testing the methods used to calculate the radiation released from the Little Boy bomb over Hiroshima. 3 references, 10 figures.

  3. Measurement of a surface heat flux and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. M.; Antoine, G. J.; Diller, T. E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1994-04-01

    The Heat Flux Microsensor is a new sensor which was recently patented by Virginia Tech and is just starting to be marketed by Vatell Corp. The sensor is made using the thin-film microfabrication techniques directly on the material that is to be measured. It consists of several thin-film layers forming a differential thermopile across a thermal resistance layer. The measured heat flux q is proportional to the temperature difference across the resistance layer q= k(sub g)/delta(sub g) x (t(sub 1) - T(sub 2)), where k(sub g) is the thermal conductivity and delta (sub g) is the thickness of the thermal resistance layer. Because the gages are sputter coated directly onto the surface, their total thickness is less than 2 micrometers, which is two orders of magnitude thinner than previous gages. The resulting temperature difference across the thermal resistance layer (delta is less than 1 micrometer) is very small even at high heat fluxes. To generate a measurable signal many thermocouple pairs are put in series to form a differential thermopile. The combination of series thermocouple junctions and thin-film design creates a gage with very attractive characteristics. It is not only physically non-intrusive to the flow, but also causes minimal disruption of the surface temperature. Because it is so thin, the response time is less than 20 microsec. Consequently, the frequency response is flat from 0 to over 50 kHz. Moreover, the signal of the Heat Flux Microsensor is directly proportional to the heat flux. Therefore, it can easily be used in both steady and transient flows, and it measures both the steady and unsteady components of the surface heat flux. A version of the Heat Flux Microsensor has been developed to meet the harsh demands of combustion environments. These gages use platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium as the thermoelectric materials. The thermal resistance layer is silicon monoxide and a protective coating of Al2O3 is deposited on top of the sensor. The superimposed thin-film pattern of all six layers is presented. The large pads are for connection with pins used to bring the signal out the back of the ceramic. flux measurement, the surface temperature is measured with a platinum resistance layer (RTS). &The resistance of this layer increases with increasing temperature. Therefore, these gages simultaneously measure the surface temperature and heat flux. The demonstrated applications include rocket nozzles, SCRAM jet engines, gas turbine engines, boiling heat transfer, flame experiments, basic fluid heat transfer, hypersonic flight, and shock tube testing. *The laboratory involves using one of these sensors in a small combustion flame. -The sensor is made on a 2.5 cm diameter piece of aluminum nitride ceramic.

  4. Magnetic flux emergence in granular convection: Radiative MHD simulations and observational signatures

    E-print Network

    Mark Chun Ming Cheung; Manfred Schuessler; Fernando Moreno-Insertis

    2007-02-25

    We study the emergence of magnetic flux from the near-surface layers of the solar convection zone into the photosphere. To model magnetic flux emergence, we carried out a set of numerical radiative magnetohydrodynamics simulations. Our simulations take into account the effects of compressibility, energy exchange via radiative transfer, and partial ionization in the equation of state. All these physical ingredients are essential for a proper treatment of the problem. Furthermore, the inclusion of radiative transfer allows us to directly compare the simulation results with actual observations of emerging flux. We find that the interaction between the magnetic flux tube and the external flow field has an important influence on the emergent morphology of the magnetic field. Depending on the initial properties of the flux tube (e.g. field strength, twist, entropy etc.), the emergence process can also modify the local granulation pattern. The emergence of magnetic flux tubes with a flux of $10^{19}$ Mx disturbs the granulation and leads to the transient appearance of a dark lane, which is coincident with upflowing material. These results are consistent with observed properties of emerging magnetic flux.

  5. Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements

    PubMed Central

    Dye, Stephen T.; Guillian, Eugene H.

    2008-01-01

    Uranium and thorium within the Earth produce a major portion of terrestrial heat along with a measurable flux of electron antineutrinos. These elements are key components in geophysical and geochemical models. Their quantity and distribution drive the dynamics, define the thermal history, and are a consequence of the differentiation of the Earth. Knowledge of uranium and thorium concentrations in geological reservoirs relies largely on geochemical model calculations. This article describes the methods and criteria to experimentally determine average concentrations of uranium and thorium in the continental crust and in the mantle by using site-specific measurements of the terrestrial antineutrino flux. Optimal, model-independent determinations involve significant exposures of antineutrino detectors remote from nuclear reactors at both a midcontinental and a midoceanic site. This would require major, new antineutrino detection projects. The results of such projects could yield a greatly improved understanding of the deep interior of the Earth. PMID:18172211

  6. Variable Pressure Ion Chamber For Relative And Absolute Flux Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B. X.; Kirz, J.; McNulty, I.

    1986-08-01

    When an X-ray beam is not monochromatic, the transmitted flux through an absorber is not an exponential function of the absorber thickness. Instead, it may be a sum of two, three, or more exponential functions depending on whether the beam contains photons of two, three, or more different energies. This work shows that if the thickness of a gaseous absorber is continuously varied by adjusting the gas pressure, the relative strength of different harmonics in the monochromator output can be determined. This method also provides an accurate means to measure the absolute cross section of the gas molecules, and in conjunction with a modified Samson type ion chamber may also be used to measure the absolute photon flux as well.

  7. Absolute solar flux measurement shortward of 575 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogawa, H. S.; Judge, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    A rare-gas ionization chamber was used to obtain an accurate measurement of the absolute solar EUV flux in the 50- to 575-A region. The instrument, operating in total and near-total absorption, was flown on a solar-pointing sounding rocket on August 16, 1983. For the day of the flight, the solar activity indices were F sub 10.7 = 132.1 and R sub I = 80, and the integrated solar irradiance at the earth, corrected for atmospheric absorption, was found to be 4.31 + or - 0.31 x 10 to the 10th photons sq cm s. Almost exactly a year earlier (August 10, 1982) the same instrument measured an integrated solar flux of 5.71 + or - 0.42 x 10 to the 10th photons/sq cm s during a time of enhanced solar activity (F sub 10.7 = 209.5 and R sub I = 155).

  8. Measuring Radiation Damage from Heavy Energetic Ions in Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Kostin, M., PI-MSU; Ronningen, R., PI-MSU; Ahle, L., PI-LLNL; Gabriel, T., Scientific Investigation and Development; Mansur, L., PI-ORNL; Leonard, K., ORNL; Mokhov, N., FNAL; Niita, K., RIST, Japan

    2009-02-21

    An intense beam of 122 MeV/u (9.3 GeV) 76Ge ions was stopped in aluminum samples at the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at NSCL, MSU. Attempts were made at ORNL to measure changes in material properties by measuring changes in electrical resistivity and microhardness, and by transmission electron microscopy characterization, for defect density caused by radiation damage, as a function of depth and integrated ion flux. These measurements are relevant for estimating damage to components at a rare isotope beam facility.

  9. MY NASA DATA Lesson Plan: Earth's Energy Budget-Seasonal Cycles in Net Radiative Flux

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    This lesson plan uses Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiation data to understand seasonal variations in the pattern of net energy input to the Earth system. The net amount of energy received by different parts of the Earth at different times of year determines the type of weather and climate they will experience. The net radiative flux shows the combined effect of the Sun's location and the conditions in the Earth system. The two primary components of the Earth system that affect the net radiative flux are: 1) the type of surface and 2) clouds. This lesson will allow students to explore these variations.

  10. Actinic flux measurements and photolysis frequencies enhancements near clouds during DC3 and TORERO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Schmidt, S.; Kindel, B. C.; Hair, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Spectrally resolved up and down-welling actinic flux was measured from aircraft during the Deep Convective Clouds & Chemistry Experiment (DC3) and Tropical Ocean Troposphere Exchange of reactive halogen species and oxygenated VOC (TORERO) field campaigns. The measurements were made on the NASA DC-8 and NSF/NCAR G-V aircraft with the Charged coupled device Actinic Flux Spectroradiometer (CAFS)and the HIAPER Airborne Radiation Package (HARP), respectively. Improvements in this instrumentation and the data analysis provide for fast, accurate measurements from the aircraft. Photolysis frequencies calculated from the actinic flux show significant enhancements above clouds. The upwelling signal is enhanced by the high reflectivity of the cloud below. The downwelling is also enhanced due to backscatter of reflected light from the cloud top. Under specific conditions, including high sun and highly reflective clouds, upwelling actinic radiation may exceed the downwelling even with clear skies above. These conditions may have occurred during TORERO and DC3 resulting in regions of highly active photochemistry.

  11. On gravitational radiation and the energy flux of matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Maluf; F. F. Faria

    2004-01-01

    A suitable derivative of Einstein's equations in the framework of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR) yields a continuity equation for the gravitational energy-momentum. In particular, the time derivative of the total gravitational energy is given by the sum of the total fluxes of gravitational and matter fields energy. We carry out a detailed analysis of the continuity equation

  12. Method for radiation detection and measurement

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.D.

    1993-12-21

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength. 9 figures.

  13. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-12-19

    Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

  14. Measurement of diffusive flux of ammonia from water.

    PubMed

    Genfa, Z; Uehara, T; Dasgupta, P K; Clarke, A D; Winiwarter, W

    1998-09-01

    An instrument was developed for the measurement of gaseous ammonia concentration, NH(3(sw,eq)), in equilibrium with surface waters, notably ocean water. The instrument measures the ammonia flux from a flowing water surface under defined conditions and allows the calculation of NH(3(sw,eq)) from the principles of Fickian diffusion. The flux collector resembles a wetted parallel plate denuder previously developed for air sampling. The sample under study runs on one plate of the device; the ammonia released from the sample is collected by a slow flow of a receptor liquid on the other plate. The NH(3) + NH(4)(+) (hereinafter called N(T)) in the effluent receptor liquid is preconcentrated on a silica gel column and subsequently measured by a fluorometric flow injection analysis (FIA) system. With a 6-min cycle (4-min load, 2-min inject), the analytical system can measure down to 0.3 nM N(T) in the receptor liquid. Coupled with the flux collector, it is sufficiently sensitive to measure the ammonia flux from seawater. The instrument design is such that it is little affected by ambient ammonia. In both laboratory (N(T) 0.2-50 ?M), and field investigations (N(T) 0.18-1.7 ?M) good linearity between the ammonia flux and the N(T) concentration in seawater (spiked, synthetic, natural) was observed, although aged seawater, with depleted N(T) content, behaves in an unusual fashion upon N(T) addition, showing the existence of an "ammonia demand". NH(3(sw,eq)) levels from ocean water measured in the Coconut Island Laboratory, HI, ranged from 6.6 to 33 nmol/m(3) with an average of 17.4 ± 6.9 nmol/m(3), in comparison to 2.8-21 nmol/m(3) (average 10 ± 7 nmol/m(3)) NH(3(sw,eq)) values previously reported for the Central Pacific Ocean (Quinn, P. K.; et al. J. Geophys. Res. 1990, 95, 16405-16416). PMID:21644712

  15. A Push-Pull Test to Measure Volatilization Fluxes of Organic Pollutants without Flux Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. C.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    Volatilization of organic contaminants is a potentially significant removal mechanism from wetlands, but field measurements are scarce and the physiochemical controls on volatilization from wetland soils remain poorly understood. It has been established that volatilization rates of certain pollutants are enhanced by vegetation and are strongly correlated with evapotranspiration (ET). These observations rely on flux chambers measurements, which are characterized by significant uncertainty due the chamber's effects on the meteorological variables around the plant and consequent impact on the biophysical processes governing ET and plant uptake of soil contaminants. Here we present data from a mesocosm study using a modified single-well push-pull test to measure in-situ volatilization rates from inundated soils vegetated with the wetland macrophytes Scirpus acutus and Typha latifolia, as well as from unplanted soil. This new method uses a test solution containing the volatile tracers sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), helium (He), and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) to estimate first-order volatilization rates and examine the relationship between physiochemical properties and volatilization rates. The test also yields an estimate for the volume of subsurface gas bubbles, which is used to derive a retardation factor for the effect of interphase partitioning on the estimation of kinetic parameters. We evaluate models to partition observed fluxes into different pathways for plant-mediated volatilization: transpirational uptake and consequent volatilization, and gas-phase diffusion through porous root aerenchyma. Those models are then used to scale tracer-derived volatilization fluxes to priority organic pollutants including benzene, trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. We also discuss the implementation of this method at field scales to estimate volatilization as a component of phytoremediation applications.

  16. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; Holst, T.; Hörtnagl, L.; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Neftel, A.; McKinney, K.; Munger, J. W.; Pallardy, S. G.; Schade, G. W.; Seco, R.; Schoon, N.

    2015-01-01

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model, and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on the production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, and stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem-level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; they are however neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow taking full advantage of the rich information content of micrometeorological flux measurements. PMID:25983744

  17. Intercomparison of surface energy flux measurement systems used during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ziwei; Liu, Shaomin; Li, Xin; Shi, Shengjin; Wang, Jiemin; Zhu, Zhongli; Xu, Tongren; Wang, Weizhen; Ma, Mingguo

    2013-12-01

    among instruments is very important for the Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces of The Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER-MUSOEXE), particularly in regard to radiation and turbulent flux measurements. Before HiWATER-MUSOEXE was conducted, 20 eddy covariance (EC) system sets, 18 radiometer sets, and seven large aperture scintillometers (LASs) sets were intercompared over the Gobi desert between 14 and 24 May 2012. For radiometers, the four-component radiation measurements exhibited good agreement—the average root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean relative error (MRE) for the net radiation were 10.38 W m-2 and 1.24%, respectively. With regard to the EC systems, the best consistency for sensible heat fluxes was found among CSAT3 sonic anemometers and Li7500A/Li7500/EC150 combinations (average RMSE, 12.30 W m-2 and MRE, -1.36%), followed by Gill sonic anemometers and Li7500A/Li7500 combinations when a proper angle of attack correction method was applied (average RMSE, 16.75 W m-2 and MRE, -5.52%). The sensible heat flux measured using different LASs agreed well with high correlation coefficients—the average RMSE and MRE values were 10.26 W m-2 and 5.48% for boundary layer scintillometer (BLS) 900, 16.32 W m-2 and 10.47% for BLS450, and 14.38 W m-2 and -3.72% for ZZLAS, respectively. The EC and LAS measurements were compared and agreed well over homogeneous underlying surfaces, which also indicated that the EC and LAS measurements would be comparable in the follow-up experiment. The intercomparison results can be used to determine instrument placement and are very helpful for subsequent data analysis.

  18. Momentum Flux Measuring Instrument for Neutral and Charged Particle Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schafer, Charles F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An instrument to measure the momentum flux (total pressure) of plasma and neutral particle jets onto a surface has been developed. While this instrument was developed for magnetized plasmas, the concept works for non-magnetized plasmas as well. We have measured forces as small as 10(exp -4) Newtons on a surface immersed in the plasma where small forces are due to ionic and neutral particles with kinetic energies on the order of a few eV impacting the surface. This instrument, a force sensor, uses a target plate (surface) that is immersed in the plasma and connected to one end of an alumina rod while the opposite end of the alumina rod is mechanically connected to a titanium beam on which four strain gauges are mounted. The force on the target generates torque causing strain in the beam. The resulting strain measurements can be correlated to a force on the target plate. The alumina rod electrically and thermally isolates the target plate from the strain gauge beam and allows the strain gauges to be located out of the plasma flow while also serving as a moment arm of several inches to increase the strain in the beam at the strain gauge location. These force measurements correspond directly to momentum flux and may be used with known plasma conditions to place boundaries on the kinetic energies of the plasma and neutral particles. The force measurements may also be used to infer thrust produced by a plasma propulsive device. Stainless steel, titanium, molybdenum, and aluminum flat target plates have been used. Momentum flux measurements of H2, D2, He, and Ar plasmas produced in a magnetized plasma device have been performed.

  19. An information theory approach for evaluating earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements - Nonuniform sampling of reflected shortwave radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Direskeneli, Haldun; Halyo, Nesim

    1992-01-01

    An information theory approach to examine the temporal nonuniform sampling characteristics of shortwave (SW) flux for earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements is suggested. The information gain is computed by computing the information content before and after the measurements. A stochastic diurnal model for the SW flux is developed, and measurements for different orbital parameters are examined. The methodology is applied to specific NASA Polar platform and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) orbital parameters. The information theory approach, coupled with the developed SW diurnal model, is found to be promising for measurements involving nonuniform orbital sampling characteristics.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  1. Gamma heating measurements in a mixed radiation field

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, H.K. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Bennett, E.F.; Micklich, B.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Gamma hearing measurements have been made in a low-Z assembly irradiated with 14-MeV neutrons and (n,n{prime}) gammas produced by a Texas Nuclear Model 9400 neutron generator. The assembly is composed of 144 magnesium sleeves (5cm {times} 5cm {times} 60cm {times} 3 mm thick) filled with graphite to simulate a fusion blanket test module. Heating measurements were made in the mid-line of the assembly using a proportional counter operating in the Continuously-varied Bias-voltage Acquisition (CBA) mode. The neutron induced atomic recoil signal was rejected by observing the signal rise-time differences inherent to radiations of different LET. The experiment was modelled using the one-dimensional radiation transport code ANISN/PC. The operating limits of this technique were identified by comparing measurements made at different positions in the assembly and then comparing these measurements to the calculated flux. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Acoustic measurements of boundary layer flow and sediment flux.

    PubMed

    Thorne, P D; Taylor, J

    2000-10-01

    Results are reported on an assessment of the application of coherent Doppler and cross-correlation techniques to measure nearbed boundary layer flow. The approaches use acoustic backscattering from sediments entrained into the water column from the bed, to obtain high-resolution profiles of the nearbed hydrodynamics. Measurements are presented from a wave tunnel experiment in which sediment was entrained by unidirectional, oscillatory, and combined flows. The data collected have been used to evaluate the capability of the two flow techniques to measure boundary layer mean, turbulent, and intrawave velocity profiles. Further, the backscattered signal has been used to measure suspended sediment concentration profiles, which have been combined with the velocity profiles to obtain high-resolution measurements of boundary layer sediment flux. PMID:11051485

  3. Doppler lidar measurement of profiles of turbulence and momentum flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhard, Wynn L.; Cupp, Richard E.; Healy, Kathleen R.

    1989-01-01

    A short-pulse CO2 Doppler lidar with 150-m range resolution measured vertical profiles of turbulence and momentum flux. Example measurements are reported of a daytime mixed layer with strong mechanical mixing caused by a wind speed of 15 m/sec, which exceeded the speed above the capping inversion. The lidar adapted an azimuth scanning technique previously demonstrated by radar. Scans alternating between two elevation angles allow determination of mean U-squared, V-squared, and W-squared. Expressions were derived to estimate the uncertainty in the turbulence parameters. A new processing method, partial Fourier decomposition, has less uncertainty than the filtering used earlier.

  4. A simple yet more accurate model to calculate solar radiative flux in the inhomogeneous atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, J. H.

    2002-05-01

    A simple yet more accurate semiempirical model is developed to calculate solar radiative flux in the optically inhomogeneous atmosphere. In the model a parameterized expression of spherical reflectance and transmitance of the atmosphere is confirmed, and the weighted single scatter albedo and weighted asymmetric factor are introduced to fit four empirical correction factors responsible for radiative fluxes in the inhomogeneous atmosphere. For both clean and turbid models, there are 120060 sets of radiative flux simulations for accuracy checks of the model, which cover 0-50 cloud optical depths, 0-0.8 surface reflectance, Junge and Log-normal aerosol size distributions, and 0-0.05 imaginary parts of aerosol refractive indexes. In case of the homogeneous atmosphere, standard errors of the 120060 upward fluxes from the present model are 1.08% and 1.04% for clean and turbid aerosol models, respectively; and those of the downward fluxes are 4.12% and 3.31%. In case of the inhomogeneous atmosphere, standard errors of the upward fluxes from the present model are 3.01% and 3.48% for clean and turbid aerosol models, respectively; and those of the downward fluxes are 4.54% and 4.89%, showing a much better accuracy than the results calculated by using an assumption of the homogeneous atmosphere.

  5. Offline GCSS Intercomparison of Cloud-Radiation Interaction and Surface Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Johnson, D.; Krueger, S.; Zulauf, M.; Donner, L.; Seman, C.; Petch, J.; Gregory, J.

    2004-01-01

    Simulations of deep tropical clouds by both cloud-resolving models (CRMs) and single-column models (SCMs) in the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Working Group 4 (WG4; Precipitating Convective Cloud Systems), Case 2 (19-27 December 1992, TOGA-COARE IFA) have produced large differences in the mean heating and moistening rates (-1 to -5 K and -2 to 2 grams per kilogram respectively). Since the large-scale advective temperature and moisture "forcing" are prescribed for this case, a closer examination of two of the remaining external types of "forcing", namely radiative heating and air/sea hear and moisture transfer, are warranted. This paper examines the current radiation and surface flux of parameterizations used in the cloud models participating in the GCSS WG4, be executing the models "offline" for one time step (12 s) for a prescribed atmospheric state, then examining the surface and radiation fluxes from each model. The dynamic, thermodynamic, and microphysical fluids are provided by the GCE-derived model output for Case 2 during a period of very active deep convection (westerly wind burst). The surface and radiation fluxes produced from the models are then divided into prescribed convective, stratiform, and clear regions in order to examine the role that clouds play in the flux parameterizations. The results suggest that the differences between the models are attributed more to the surface flux parameterizations than the radiation schemes.

  6. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics with radiative transfer in the flux-limited diffusion approximation

    E-print Network

    Stuart C. Whitehouse; Matthew R. Bate

    2004-07-12

    We describe the implementation and testing of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code that solves the equations of radiation hydrodynamics in the flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation. The SPH equations of radiation hydrodynamics for an explicit integration scheme are derived and tested. We also discuss the implementation of an implicit numerical scheme for solving the radiation equations that allows the system to be evolved using timesteps much longer than the explicit radiation timestep. The code is tested on a variety of one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics problems including radiation propagating in an optically thin medium, optically thick and thin shocks, subcritical and supercritical radiating shocks, and a radiation dominated shock. Many of the tests were also performed by Turner and Stone (2001) to test their implementation of a FLD module for the ZEUS-2D code. The SPH code performs at least as well as the ZEUS-2D code in these tests.

  7. SIERRA-Flux: Measuring Regional Surface Fluxes of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Water Vapor from an Unmanned Aircraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fladeland; Yates, Emma Louise; Bui, Thaopaul Van; Dean-Day, Jonathan; Kolyer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Eddy-Covariance Method for quantifying surface-atmosphere fluxes is a foundational technique for measuring net ecosystem exchange and validating regional-to-global carbon cycle models. While towers or ships are the most frequent platform for measuring surface-atmosphere exchange, experiments using aircraft for flux measurements have yielded contributions to several large-scale studies including BOREAS, SMACEX, RECAB by providing local-to-regional coverage beyond towers. The low-altitude flight requirements make airborne flux measurements particularly dangerous and well suited for unmanned aircraft.

  8. Effects of horizontal site heterogeneity on turbulent CO2 flux measurements assessed with two independent empirical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Wu, Jian; Pilegaard, Kim

    2013-04-01

    Horizontal heterogeneity can be a major problem for turbulent flux measurements above forest that is difficult to quantify in the field. We use directional analyses with two different empirical approaches in order to quantify the systematic effects of source area heterogeneity on CO2 flux measurements above a Danish beech forest. The forest fetch around the tower varies from 400 m to more than 700 m depending on direction. On average 20% of the forest cover are irregularly distributed conifer plantations. Our hypothesis is that if the fetch had a considerable effect on the flux measurement in 43 m, i.e., ca. 21 m above the displacement height, this will be seen as systematic variability across fluxes measured from different forest sectors. A complication when testing this hypothesis is that the wind direction is correlated with the weather type and that the frequency distribution of the wind direction has two strong maxima, i.e. from SW and E. To consider this, we normalised the flux with its average value within comparable weather conditions. For this we build appropriate air temperature (Tair) x solar radiation (Rg) classes and calculated the flux averages for the elements of this 2 D matrix. The flux values from 8 different forest sectors were then normalised with the flux average within similar combinations of Tair and Rg. Weighting with the frequency compensated for the non-uniform distribution of observations within the weather variable space when calculating an average normalised flux value for each of the 8 forest sectors. These values are interpreted as a measure of systematic effects of site heterogeneity. To further test the validity of this approach, we compared CO2 flux measurements in 43m height with CO2 flux measurements at 34 m height. As the footprint is narrower for the 34m height measurement, effects of horizontal fetch limitation and stand inhomogeneity can be expected to cause systematic spatial patterns of the ratios between the flux measurements from the two heights. The horizontal variability of the ratio is an independent measure of the effects of horizontal heterogeneity on the fluxes estimation. The results of both approaches will be presented and compared. Systematic differences due to site heterogeneity were in the order of 4% relative standard variation during daytime but increased to values of 11% when only night time data were considered. Further comparison with the spatial distribution of the forest fetch and the tree species composition will be used to explain the observed effects. The presented simple empirical approach enables estimation of horizontal homogeneity from a single tower measurement.

  9. Estimation of surface heat and moisture fluxes over a prairie grassland. I - In situ energy budget measurements incorporating a cooled mirror dew point hygrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Crosson, William L.; Tanner, Bertrand D.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is focused on in situ measurements taken during FIFE required to support the development and validation of a biosphere model. Seasonal time series of surface flux measurements obtained from two surface radiation and energy budget stations utilized to support the FIFE surface flux measurement subprogram are examined. Data collection and processing procedures are discussed along with the measurement analysis for the complete 1987 test period.

  10. Micrometeoroid Flux in the Earth-Venus Region Measured by the IKAROS-ALADDIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Hajime

    2012-07-01

    The ALADDIN (Arrayed Large-Area Dust Detectors in INterplanetary space) made of 0.54 ^{m2} PVDF sensors was deployed on the anti-Sun face of the thin polyimide sail membrane of the deep space solar sail spacecraft "IKAROS (Interplanetary Kitecraft Accelerated by the Radiation Of the Sun)". It has measured micrometeoroid flux between the Earth's orbit and Venus' orbit (i.e., 1.0~0.7 AU of heliocentric distance) for 1.5 revolutions from June 2010 until October 2011. The ALADDIN dust detector is arrayed by 8 channels of 9-20 micron-thick PVDF sensors, which are capable of detecting hypervelocity impacts of micrometeoroids at >~10 ^{-12 }g, according to ground calibration impact experiments. The sensors filter electronic, thermal and vibration noises and can record time, peak hold value above its threshold, and relaxation duration of each impact signal. In total, its cruising measurements counted more than 3000 dust impacts after screening noise signals. The ALADDIN flux in the 2010-2011 epoch was compared with fluxes at similar mass range of micrometeoroids and in similar heliocentric distances measured by Helios in 1970's and Galileo in 1990's, both composed of much less number of impact data. Then, it suggested enhancement of dust flux in the trailing edge of circumsolar orbits of the Earth and Venus, which are consistent with previous reports of larger dust grain enhancements observed by infrared telescopes. This also implies that the temporal flux enhancement of large micrometeoroids in the blob may have caused a cascading effect to produce smaller dust by collisions with sporadic meteoroids. Also it is apparent that the micrometeoroid flux increases by approximately one order of magnitude from 1 AU to 0.7 AU during the 2010-2011 epoch. The temporal variance of the Helios flux data in 1976-80 in the same region of 1 AU may be associated with difference of averaged solar activities during both epochs. Since the solar activity in the years 2010-2011 was around the minimum of the solar cycle, smaller micrometeoroids, which are more affected by solar radiation pressure than larger ones, may have survived longer than those in the Helios epoch, which covered from the minimum to the maximum of the solar cycle in late 1970's.

  11. Effect of electron flux on radiation damage in GaAs solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Y. Loo; G. S. Kamath; R. C. Knechtli

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of electron flux and temperature on radiation damage in GaAs solar cells. The defect levels and the power ratio of the GaAs solar cells under various irradiation conditions are compared. In a 200 C continuous annealing experiment, the GaAs solar cells which were irradiated at a flux of 2 x

  12. MAPPING HIGH-RESOLUTION LAND SURFACE RADIATIVE FLUXES FROM MODIS

    E-print Network

    Liang, Shunlin

    ) is the key quantity that determines global climate and climate change from elevated greenhouse gases, air- face radiation over the last several decades (1960-1990), the so-called "dimming effect,'' and the more recent evidence of a reversal in "dimming'' over some loca- tions beyond 1990 suggest several

  13. ROUTINE SPECTRAL MEASUREMENTS OF INFRARED RADIATION FROM THE ATMOSPHERE

    E-print Network

    Berdahl, P.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of Infrared Radiation From the Atmosphere PaulMEASUREMENTS OF INFRARED RADIATION FROM THE ATMOSPHERE* Paulinfrared radiative transfer between the atmosphere and a building's surface requires detailed information regarding the angular and spectral distribution of the radiation

  14. Measurements of Smith--Purcell radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, I.; Salisbury, W.; Masters, D.; Chang, D. (Hughes Aircraft Company, Support Systems, P.O. Box 9399, Long Beach, California 90810-0399 (US))

    1990-03-01

    We present experimental results on Smith--Purcell radiation. Our primary interest was in the measurement of radiation angular distribution, output power, and spectral content. The variations of the angular distribution and the output power were shown for different electron-beam voltages and currents. The output power measured with a 3-mA and 120-kV electron beam was {similar to}30 {mu}W/cm{sup 2}-sr. The spectral analysis of the radiation shows excellent agreement between the measurements and the theoretical predictions. Our results were compared with those obtained by Gover et al. (J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 723 (1984)).

  15. Partitioning forest carbon fluxes with overstory and understory eddy-covariance measurements: A synthesis based

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Partitioning forest carbon fluxes with overstory and understory eddy-covariance measurements Ridge, TN, United States Abstract Forests are complex ecosystems characterized by several distinctive of forest type, structure and climate. We showed that eddy-covariance flux measurements made

  16. Design and measurement of improved capacitively-shunted flux qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Adam; Birenbaum, Jeffrey; Hover, David; Gudmundsen, Theodore; Kerman, Andrew; Welander, Paul; Yoder, Jonilyn L.; Gustavsson, Simon; Jin, Xiaoyue; Kamal, Archana; Clarke, John; Oliver, William

    2014-03-01

    The addition of a capacitive or inductive shunt across one of the junctions can alter the coherence properties of a classic flux or RF-SQUID qubit. We have studied the performance of capacitively shunted flux qubits fabricated with MBE aluminum, starting from a 2D coplanar waveguide geometry used in similar high-performance transmon qubits, and measured dispersively. We will detail the importance of design parameters that preserve the flux qubit's anharmonicity and discuss conclusions about materials quality based on calculations of the participation of junction, dielectric, and superconductor components. This research was funded in part by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA); and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract number FA8721-05-C-0002. All statements of fact, opinion or conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be construed as representing the official views or policies of IARPA, the ODNI, or the U.S. Government Present address: SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA.

  17. Energy, Water and CO2 turbulent fluxes measurements over a large reservoir in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potes, Miguel; Salgado, Rui; João Costa, Maria; Rodrigues, Carlos; Serrano, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Exchanges of energy, water, CO2 and momentum were measured between water and air with the new IRGASON eddy-covariance system installed in a floating platform in Alqueva reservoir, southeast of Portugal, with a surface area of 250 km2 and a total capacity of 4150 hm3. This new system is composed with a 3D sonic anemometer and an open-path CO2/ H2O gas analyser. The measurements were performed during the ALqueva hydro-meteorological EXperiment, ALEX 2014, between June and September 2014. ALEX 2014 (http://www.alex2014.cge.uevora.pt) was an integrated field campaign with measurements of chemical, physical and biological parameters at different experimental sites in the reservoir and in its surrounding area. Together with the turbulent fluxes also radiative fluxes, both short and long wave, were measured in the platform in order to assess the radiative balance, and also water temperature profiles were continuously recorded. The estimation of the eddy-covariance evaporation is compared with results obtained from a vat installed in a small island nearby. Thus, with detailed information of the Lake-Atmosphere interactions, it is possible to determine the energy and mass balance of the reservoir.

  18. A New Technique for Measuring Thermal Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. William Reece; Gregory Theoclitus

    1965-01-01

    A new technique is presented for measuring thermal radiation. The technique was conceived to aid in the evaluation of the base heating experienced by rocket vehicles due to radiation from the exhaust plumes. The instrumentation, chosen for its ruggedness combined with high sensitivity, is derived from thin-film resistance thermometry as originally developed for short-duration test devices such as hypersonic impulse

  19. Nonequilibrium and equilibrium shock front radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Surendra P.; Gillespie, Walter

    1990-01-01

    The intensities of the radiation emitted behind a normal shock wave in N were measured in an electric-arc driven shock tube at a shock velocity of 6.2 km/sec. Both a time-resolved broad-band radiation intensity measurement and a time-frozen spectral measurement were conducted. The rotational and vibrational temperatures are determined in both the equilibrium and the nonequilibrium regions. The results are compared with the similar data obtained by Allen et al. (1961). The measured rotational temperature seems to be in nonequilibrium, contradicting the two-temperature assumption of Park (1988), but the measured vibrational temperature agrees with Park's model.

  20. Solar-Radiation Measuring Equipment and Glossary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, E. A.; Patel, A. M.; Greenbaum, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    1976 listing of commercially available solar-radiation measuring equipment is presented in 50-page report. Sensor type, response time, cost data, and comments concerning specifications and intended usage are listed for 145 instruments from 38 manufactures.

  1. Measurement of the solar nue flux with the Homestake 37Cl detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Cleveland; T. Daily; R. Davis; J. Distel; K. Lande; C. K. Lee; P. Wildenhain; J. Ullman

    1992-01-01

    From twenty years of measurements of the solar nue flux with the Homestake chlorine detector, the authors find the average solar nue detection rate is 2.2±0.3 SNU and that the nue flux appears to vary with the 11 year solar activity cycle. Higher nue fluxes are observed during solar quiet periods and lower nue fluxes during solar active periods. When

  2. Flux measurements of benzene and toluene from landfill cover soils.

    PubMed

    Tassi, Franco; Montegrossi, Giordano; Vaselli, Orlando; Morandi, Andrea; Capecchiacci, Francesco; Nisi, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide and CH(4), C(6)H(6) and C(7)H(8) fluxes from the soil cover of Case Passerini landfill site (Florence, Italy) were measured using the accumulation and static closed chamber methods, respectively. Results show that the CH(4)/CO(2), CH(4)/C(6)H(6) and CH(4)/C(7)H(8) ratios of the flux values are relatively low when compared with those of the 'pristine' biogas produced by degradation processes acting on the solid waste material disposed in the landfill. This suggests that when biogas transits through the cover soil, CH(4) is affected by degradation processes activated by oxidizing bacteria at higher extent than both CO(2) and mono-aromatics. Among the investigated hydrocarbons, C(6)H(6) has shown the highest stability in a wide range of redox conditions. Toluene behaviour only partially resembles that of C(6)H(6), possibly because de-methylation processes require less energy than that necessary for the degradation of C(6)H(6), the latter likely occurring via benzoate at anaerobic conditions and/or through various aerobic metabolic pathways at relatively shallow depth in the cover soil where free oxygen is present. According to these considerations, aromatics are likely to play an important role in the environmental impact of biogas released into the atmosphere from such anthropogenic emission sites, usually only ascribed to CO(2) and CH(4). In this regard, flux measurements using accumulation and static closed chamber methods coupled with gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis may properly be used to obtain a dataset for the estimation of the amount of volatile organic compounds dispersed from landfills. PMID:21041416

  3. Mapping High-Resolution Land Surface Radiative Fluxes from MODIS: Algorithms and Preliminary Validation Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunlin Liang; Kaicun Wang; Wenhui Wang; Dongdong Wang; Sheng Gui; Xiaotong Zhang; Jeremy Mirmelstein; Xiufang Zhu; Hye-yun Kim; Juan Du; Steven Running; John Townshend; Si-Chee Tsay; Robert Wolf; Crystal Schaaf; Alan Strahler

    \\u000a Land surface radiative fluxes are needed to address a variety of scientific and application issues related to climate changes,\\u000a hydrologic and biogeophysical modeling, solar energy applications, and agriculture. The Earth's surface radiation budget (SRB)\\u000a is the key quantity that determines global climate and climate change from elevated greenhouse gases, air pollution (Wang\\u000a K. et al. 2009), and land cover and

  4. Satellite interferometric measurements of auroral kilometric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumback, M. M.; Gurnett, D. A.; Calvert, W.; Shawhan, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    The first satellite interferometric measurements of auroral kilometric radiation were performed by cross-correlating the waveforms detected by the ISEE 1 and ISEE 2 spacecraft. High correlations were found for all projected baselines, with little or no tendency to decrease even for the longest baselines. For incoherent radiation, the correlation as a function of the baseline is the Fourier transform of the source brightness distribution, implying an average source region diameter for all of the bursts analyzed of less than about 10 km. For such small source diameters, the required growth rates are too large to be explained by existing incoherent theories, strongly indicating that the radiation must be coherent. For coherent radiation, an upper limit to the source region diameter can be inferred instead from the angular width of the radiation pattern. The angular width of the radiation pattern must be at least 2.5 deg, implying that the diameter of the source must be less than about 20 km.

  5. Seasonal Characteristics of Surface Meteorological and Radiative Fluxes on the East Rongbuk Glacier in Mt. Qomolangma (the Mt. Everest) Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Zhang, T.; Qin, D.; Kang, S.; Qin, X.; Liu, H.

    2008-12-01

    Ground-based measurements are essential for understanding alpine glacier dynamics, especially in remote regions where in-situ measurements are extremely limited. The meteorological and radiative fluxes were measured over the accumulation area on the East Rongbuk Glacier, Mt. Qomolangma (the Mt. Everest) at elevation of 6,560 m a.s.l. Measurements were conducted using an automatic weather station (AWS) from May 1 through July 22, 2005 (spring-summer period) and from October 2 of 2007 through January 20 of 2008 (autumn-winter period). Surface meteorological and radiative characteristics were strongly controlled by two major synoptic circulation regimes: the southwesterly Indian monsoon regime in summer and the westerlies in winter. At the AWS site on the East Rongbuk Glacier, north or northwest winds prevail with higher wind speed (up to 35 ms-1 in January) in winter and south or southeast winds predominate after the onset of the southwesterly Indian monsoon with relatively low wind speed in summer. Intensity of incoming shortwave radiation is extremely high due to its high elevation and high reflective surrounding surface. The striking feature is that the observed 10-minute mean incoming shortwave radiative fluxes around local noon were frequently higher than the solar constant at the top of the atmosphere from May through July, 2005. The observed higher-than-solar-constant values are mainly due to the impact of local convective broken clouds and high surface reflectivity over the surrounding terrains. We estimated that horizontal component of received diffusive solar radiation from surrounding terrains ranged from 140 to 310 Wm-2, accounting for about 10 to 25% of the observed incoming shortwave radiation under clear sky conditions. This value could be even higher under overcast cloudy days. The mean surface albedo ranged from 0.72 during summer- spring period and 0.69 during the autumn-winter period. The atmospheric incoming longwave radiation was strongly controlled by cloud conditions and atmospheric moisture content. Overall impact of clouds on net radiation balance is negative in Mt. Qomolangma region. The daily mean net all-wave radiation was positive during the entire spring-summer period and mostly positive during the autumn-winter period except a few overcast cloudy days. On monthly basis, net all-wave radiation was always positive.

  6. Scrape-off layer modeling of radiative divertor and high heat flux experiments on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, R. B.; Petrie, T. W.; Hill, D. N.

    1992-12-01

    We use a new multispecies 1D fluid code, NEWT-ID, to model DIII-D scrape-off layer (SOL) behavior during radiative divertor and high heat flux experiments. The separatrix location and the width of the SOL are uncertain, and affect the comparison of the data in important ways. The model agrees with many of the experimental measurements for a particular prescription for the separatrix location. The model cannot explain the recent data on the separatrix Ti with a conventional picture of ion and electron power flows across the separatrix. Radial transport of particles and heat in some form is required to explain the peak heat flux data before and after gas puffing. For argon puffing in the private flux region, entrainment is poor in the steady state. The calculations suggest that strike point argon puffing in a slot divertor geometry results in substantially better entrainment. Self-consistent, steady-state solutions with radiated powers up to 80% of the SOL power input are obtained in 1D. We discuss significant radial effects which warrant the development of a code which can treat strongly radiating impurities in 2D geometries.

  7. Scrape-off layer modeling of radiative divertor and high heat flux experiments on D3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, R. B.; Petrie, T. W.; Hill, D. N.

    1992-03-01

    We use a new multispecies 1-D fluid code, NEWT-1D, to model DIII-D scrape-off layer (SOL) behavior during radiative divertor and high heat flux experiments. The separatrix location and the width of the SOL are uncertain, and affect the comparison of the data in important ways. The model agrees with many of the experimental measurements for a particular prescription for the separatrix location. The model cannot explain the recent data on the separatrix T(sub i) with a conventional picture of ion and electron power flows across the separatrix. Radial transport of particles and heat in some form is required to explain the peak heat flux data before and after gas puffing. For argon puffing in the private flux region, entrainment is poor in the steady state. The calculations suggest that strike point argon puffing in a slot divertor geometry results in substantially better entrainment. Self-consistent, steady-state solutions with radiated powers up to 80 percent of the SOL power input are obtained in 1-D. We discuss significant radial effects which warrant the development of a code which can treat strongly radiating impurities in 2-D geometries.

  8. Determination of Top-of-Atmosphere Longwave Radiative Fluxes: A Comparison Between Two Approaches Using ScaRaB Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ting; Rossow, William B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Two conceptually different approaches (broadband-based ERBE and narrowband-based ISCCP approaches), used to derive the TOA longwave radiative fluxes, are compared using the ScaRaB simultaneous narrowband and broadband measurements. This study directly shows that the ERBE MLE-derived cloud covers implicitly contain some information on the cloud optical properties. A spurious view-zenith-angle dependence of the MLE scene identification scheme is confirmed by this study. Except for very thin cirrus clouds, differences between the ERBE and ISCCP approaches are in general < 10 W/sq m for the TOA LW radiative fluxes. For clear pixels, the model calculated (ISCCP approach) TOA LW radiances are systematically smaller than the observations. Though the bias is found to be correlated on the column precipitable water amount, the exact source of this discrepancy remains undetermined and merits further study. Compared with the radiative transfer model used in this study, the ERBE LW ADMs are too weakly limb-darkened for optically thin clouds, but too strongly limb-darkened for optically thick clouds, indicating that more accurate instantaneous TOA LW flux estimations from the ERBE approach would require additional cloud classes based on cloud height and optical thickness.

  9. Radiative flux emitted by a burning PMMA slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parent, G.; Acem, Z.; Collin, A.; Berfroi, R.; Boulet, P.; Pizzo, Y.; Mindykowski, P.; Kaiss, A.; Porterie, B.

    2012-11-01

    The degradation of a PMMA sample has been studied based on experimental results obtained for the radiation emission by a burning slab. Observations of the infrared emission perpendicular to the plate, in the range where the optically thin flame is weakly emitting, indicate a plate temperature close to 680 K which is an indication on the surface temperature during the degradation process. Observations from the side allow a flame characterization without the plate emission superimposition. This is a promising way for evaluating data regarding the flame characteristics: temperature, gaz concentration and soot volumetric fraction.

  10. Particle and heat flux measurements in PDX edge plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Budny, R.; Manos, D.

    1983-12-01

    This paper describes the use of novel combined Langmuir-calorimeter probes to measure edge plasma conditions near the midplane in PDX. The probes consisted of up to five Langmuir probes and up to two calorimeters. Single and double probe characteristics yield n/sub e/ and T/sub e/ which are compared with that derived from a triple probe analysis. The calorimeters measure heat flux in the electron and ion drift directions. This paper presents time-resolved radial profiles of n/sub e/, T/sub e/, V/sub F/ (floating potential), and P (heat flux) during high power neutral beam-heated, single-null discharges and circular scoop limiter discharges. The temporal dependence of these quantities displays the previous observed behavior with respect to gross discharge characteristics; however, an additional dependence on confinement mode has been observed. During the H-mode of energy confinement, a transient depression of n/sub e/, T/sub e/, and P occurs in the scrape-off plasma.

  11. Heat flux measurements for use in physiological and clothing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermann, R.; Psikuta, A.; Rossi, R. M.

    2014-08-01

    Scientists use passive heat flow meters to measure body heat exchanges with the environment. In recent years, several such sensors have been developed and concerns about their proper calibration have been addressed. However, calibration methods have differed in the geometry of the heated device as well as in the heat transfer mechanism. Therefore, a comparison of calibration methods is needed in order to understand the obtained differences in calibration lines. We chose three commercially available heat flux sensors and placed them on four different heated devices: a hot plate, double hot plate, nude cylinder and a cylinder covered with a spacer material. We found differences between the calibration line of the manufacturer and our own measurements, especially when forced convection was involved as the main heat transfer mechanism. The results showed clearly that the calibration method should be chosen according to the intended purpose of use. In addition, we recommend use a thin, light heat flux sensor with good thermal conduction in human subject studies.

  12. Estimates of radiative flux divergence in the atmosphere from satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Bess, T. D.; Gupta, Shashi; Rutan, David; Rose, Fred G.

    1990-01-01

    Several options for the inference of the atmospheric radiative flux divergence (ARD) on the basis of satellite data are discussed. Attention is given to the clear-sky case and the cloudy-sky case. LW ARD profiles for different climatological regimes are presented and the effect of cloud base height on LW ARD divergence at various heights is illustrated.

  13. Testing loss mechanisms capable of rapidly depleting relativistic electron flux in the Earth's outer radiation belt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Green; T. G. Onsager; T. P. O'Brien; D. N. Baker

    2004-01-01

    We investigate how relativistic electrons are lost from the Earth's magnetosphere in order to better understand the dynamic variability of the radiation belts. We identify 52 events where the >2 MeV electron flux at geostationary orbit decreases rapidly and use a superposed epoch analysis of multispacecraft data to characterize the accompanying solar wind and geomagnetic conditions and examine the relevance

  14. On climate response to changes in the cosmic ray flux and radiative budget

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nir J. Shaviv

    2005-01-01

    We examine the results linking cosmic ray flux (CRF) variations to global climate change. We then proceed to study various periods over which there are estimates for the radiative forcing, temperature change and CRF variations relative to today. These include the Phanerozoic as a whole, the Cretaceous, the Eocene, the Last Glacial Maximum, the 20th century, as well as the

  15. Local Heat Flux Measurements with Single Element Coaxial Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregg; Protz, Christopher; Bullard, Brad; Hulka, James

    2006-01-01

    To support the mission for the NASA Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a program in 2005 to improve the capability to predict local thermal compatibility and heat transfer in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. The ultimate objective was to predict and hence reduce the local peak heat flux due to injector design, resulting in a significant improvement in overall engine reliability and durability. Such analyses are applicable to combustion devices in booster, upper stage, and in-space engines, as well as for small thrusters with few elements in the injector. In this program, single element and three-element injectors were hot-fire tested with liquid oxygen and ambient temperature gaseous hydrogen propellants at The Pennsylvania State University Cryogenic Combustor Laboratory from May to August 2005. Local heat fluxes were measured in a 1-inch internal diameter heat sink combustion chamber using Medtherm coaxial thermocouples and Gardon heat flux gauges. Injectors were tested with shear coaxial and swirl coaxial elements, including recessed, flush and scarfed oxidizer post configurations, and concentric and non-concentric fuel annuli. This paper includes general descriptions of the experimental hardware, instrumentation, and results of the hot-fire testing for three of the single element injectors - recessed-post shear coaxial with concentric fuel, flush-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel, and scarfed-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel. Detailed geometry and test results will be published elsewhere to provide well-defined data sets for injector development and model validatation.

  16. Surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility deployment in Niamey, Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, S. A.; Kassianov, E. I.; Barnard, J.; Flynn, C.; Ackerman, T. P.

    2009-07-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed to Niamey, Niger, during 2006. Niamey, which is located in sub-Saharan Africa, is affected by both dust and biomass burning emissions. Column aerosol optical properties were derived from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, measurements and the vertical distribution of aerosol extinction was derived from a micropulse lidar during the two observed dry seasons (January-April and October-December). Mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) at 500 nm during January-April were 0.53 ± 0.4 and 0.94 ± 0.05, while during October-December mean AOD and SSA were 0.33 ± 0.25 and 0.99 ± 0.01. Aerosol extinction profiles peaked near 500 m during the January-April period and near 100 m during the October-December period. Broadband shortwave surface fluxes and heating rate profiles were calculated using retrieved aerosol properties. Comparisons for noncloudy periods indicated that the remote sensing retrievals provided a reasonable estimation of the aerosol optical properties, with mean differences between calculated and observed fluxes of less than 5 W m-2 and RMS differences less than 25 W m-2. Sensitivity tests showed that the observed fluxes could be matched with variations of <10% in the inputs to the radiative transfer model. The calculated 24-h averaged SW instantaneous surface aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) was -21.1 ± 14.3 W m-2 and was estimated to account for 80% of the total radiative forcing at the surface. The ARF was larger during January-April (-28.5 ± 13.5 W m-2) than October-December (-11.9 ± 8.9 W m-2).

  17. Effect of Spectrally Varying Albedo of Vegetation Surfaces on Shortwave Radiation Fluxes and Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, L.; Martins, J. V.; Yu, H.

    2012-01-01

    This study develops an algorithm for representing detailed spectral features of vegetation albedo based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observations at 7 discrete channels, referred to as the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Albedo (MEVA) algorithm. The MEVA algorithm empirically fills spectral gaps around the vegetation red edge near 0.7 micrometers and vegetation water absorption features at 1.48 and 1.92 micrometers which cannot be adequately captured by the MODIS 7 channels. We then assess the effects of applying MEVA in comparison to four other traditional approaches to calculate solar fluxes and aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) based on the MODIS discrete reflectance bands. By comparing the DRF results obtained through the MEVA method with the results obtained through the other four traditional approaches, we show that filling the spectral gap of the MODIS measurements around 0.7 micrometers based on the general spectral behavior of healthy green vegetation leads to significant improvement in the instantaneous aerosol DRF at TOA (up to 3.02Wm(exp -2) difference or 48% fraction of the aerosol DRF, .6.28Wm(exp -2), calculated for high spectral resolution surface reflectance from 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers for deciduous vegetation surface). The corrections of the spectral gaps in the vegetation spectrum in the near infrared, again missed by the MODIS reflectances, also contributes to improving TOA DRF calculations but to a much lower extent (less than 0.27Wm(exp -2), or about 4% of the instantaneous DRF). Compared to traditional approaches, MEVA also improves the accuracy of the outgoing solar flux between 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers at TOA by over 60Wm(exp -2) (for aspen 3 surface) and aerosol DRF by over 10Wm(exp -2) (for dry grass). Specifically, for Amazon vegetation types, MEVA can improve the accuracy of daily averaged aerosol radiative forcing in the spectral range of 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers at equator at the equinox by 3.7Wm(exp -2). These improvements indicate that MEVA can contribute to regional climate studies over vegetated areas and can help to improve remote sensing-based studies of climate processes and climate change.

  18. The temperature distribution within a sphere placed in a directed uniform heat flux and allowed to radiatively cool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, D.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature field within a sphere is found when the sphere is heated by a directed heat flux and cooled by blackbody radiation. For small heat fluxes, the analytic solution is obtained by transform methods. For large heat fluxes, the solution is computed numerically.

  19. Measurement of the Atmospheric ?e Flux in IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bell, M.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohaichuk, S.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Brown, A. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Groß, A.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Heereman, D.; Heimann, P.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jlelati, O.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krasberg, M.; Kroll, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leute, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pirk, N.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rädel, L.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Salameh, T.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheel, M.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönherr, L.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Sheremata, C.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soiron, M.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Usner, M.; van der Drift, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Wasserman, R.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zilles, A.; Zoll, M.

    2013-04-01

    We report the first measurement of the atmospheric electron neutrino flux in the energy range between approximately 80 GeV and 6 TeV, using data recorded during the first year of operation of IceCube’s DeepCore low-energy extension. Techniques to identify neutrinos interacting within the DeepCore volume and veto muons originating outside the detector are demonstrated. A sample of 1029 events is observed in 281 days of data, of which 496±66(stat)±88(syst) are estimated to be cascade events, including both electron neutrino and neutral current events. The rest of the sample includes residual backgrounds due to atmospheric muons and charged current interactions of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The flux of the atmospheric electron neutrinos is consistent with models of atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range. This constitutes the first observation of electron neutrinos and neutral current interactions in a very large volume neutrino telescope optimized for the TeV energy range.

  20. Measurement of the atmospheric ?e flux in IceCube.

    PubMed

    Aartsen, M G; Abbasi, R; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker Tjus, J; Becker, K-H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Cruz Silva, A H; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Groß, A; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Haj Ismail, A; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heimann, P; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J-H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Pérez de los Heros, C; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H-G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönherr, L; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zilles, A; Zoll, M

    2013-04-12

    We report the first measurement of the atmospheric electron neutrino flux in the energy range between approximately 80 GeV and 6 TeV, using data recorded during the first year of operation of IceCube's DeepCore low-energy extension. Techniques to identify neutrinos interacting within the DeepCore volume and veto muons originating outside the detector are demonstrated. A sample of 1029 events is observed in 281 days of data, of which 496±66(stat)±88(syst) are estimated to be cascade events, including both electron neutrino and neutral current events. The rest of the sample includes residual backgrounds due to atmospheric muons and charged current interactions of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The flux of the atmospheric electron neutrinos is consistent with models of atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range. This constitutes the first observation of electron neutrinos and neutral current interactions in a very large volume neutrino telescope optimized for the TeV energy range. PMID:25167245

  1. Measurement of the Atmospheric $?_e$ flux in IceCube

    E-print Network

    IceCube Collaboration; M. G. Aartsen; R. Abbasi; Y. Abdou; M. Ackermann; J. Adams; J. A. Aguilar; M. Ahlers; D. Altmann; K. Andeen; J. Auffenberg; X. Bai; M. Baker; S. W. Barwick; V. Baum; R. Bay; K. Beattie; J. J. Beatty; S. Bechet; J. Becker Tjus; K. -H. Becker; M. Bell; M. L. Benabderrahmane; S. BenZvi; J. Berdermann; P. Berghaus; D. Berley; E. Bernardini; D. Bertrand; D. Z. Besson; D. Bindig; M. Bissok; E. Blaufuss; J. Blumenthal; D. J. Boersma; S. Bohaichuk; C. Bohm; D. Bose1; S. Boser; O. Botner; L. Brayeur; A. M. Brown; R. Bruijn; J. Brunner; S. Buitink; M. Carson; J. Casey; M. Casier; D. Chirkin; B. Christy; K. Clark; F. Clevermann; S. Cohen; D. F. Cowen; A. H. Cruz Silva; M. Danninger; J. Daughhetee; J. C. Davis; C. De Clercq; S. De Ridder; F. Descamps; P. Desiati; G. de Vries-Uiterweerd; T. DeYoung; J. C. Diaz-Velez; J. Dreyer; J. P. Dumm; M. Dunkman; R. Eagan; B. Eberhardt; J. Eisch; R. W. Ellsworth; O. Engdegard; S. Euler; P. A. Evenson; O. Fadiran; A. R. Fazely; A. Fedynitch; J. Feintzeig; T. Feusels; K. Filimonov; C. Finley; T. Fischer-Wasels; S. Flis; A. Franckowiak; R. Franke; K. Frantzen; T. Fuchs; T. K. Gaisser; J. Gallagher; L. Gerhardt; L. Gladstone; T. Glusenkamp; A. Goldschmidt; G. Golup; J. A. Goodman; D. Gora; D. Grant; A. Gross; S. Grullon; M. Gurtner; C. Ha; A. Haj Ismail; A. Hallgren; F. Halzen; K. Hanson; D. Heereman; P. Heimann; D. Heinen; K. Helbing; R. Hellauer; S. Hickford; G. C. Hill; K. D. Hoffman; R. Hoffmann; A. Homeier; K. Hoshina; W. Huelsnitz; P. O. Hulth; K. Hultqvist; S. Hussain; A. Ishihara; E. Jacobi; J. Jacobsen; G. S. Japaridze; O. Jlelati; A. Kappes; T. Karg; A. Karle; J. Kiryluk; F. Kislat; J. Klas; S. R. Klein; J. -H. Kohne; G. Kohnen; H. Kolanoski; L. Kopke; C. Kopper; S. Kopper; D. J. Koskinen; M. Kowalski; M. Krasberg; G. Kroll; J. Kunnen; N. Kurahashi; T. Kuwabara; M. Labare; H. Landsman; M. J. Larson; R. Lauer; M. Lesiak-Bzdak; J. Lunemann; J. Madsen; R. Maruyama; K. Mase; H. S. Matis; F. McNally; K. Meagher; M. Merck; P. Meszaros; T. Meures; S. Miarecki; E. Middell; N. Milke; J. Miller; L. Mohrmann; T. Montaruli; R. Morse; R. Nahnhauer; U. Naumann; S. C. Nowicki; D. R. Nygren; A. Obertacke; S. Odrowski; A. Olivas; M. Olivo; A. O'Murchadha; S. Panknin; L. Paul; J. A. Pepper; C. Perez de los Heros; D. Pieloth; N. Pirk; J. Posselt; P. B. Price; G. T. Przybylski; L. Radel; K. Rawlins; P. Redl; E. Resconi; W. Rhode; M. Ribordy; M. Richman; B. Riedel; J. P. Rodrigues; C. Rott; T. Ruhe; B. Ruzybayev; D. Ryckbosch; S. M. Saba; T. Salameh; H. -G. Sander; M. Santander; S. Sarkar; K. Schatto; M. Scheel; F. Scheriau; T. Schmidt; M. Schmitz; S. Schoenen; S. Schoneberg; L. Schonherr; A. Schonwald; A. Schukraft; L. Schulte; O. Schulz; D. Seckel; S. H. Seo; Y. Sestayo; S. Seunarine; C. Sheremata; M. W. E. Smith; M. Soiron; D. Soldin; G. M. Spiczak; C. Spiering; M. Stamatikos; T. Stanev; A. Stasik; T. Stezelberger; R. G. Stokstad; A. Stoss; E. A. Strahler; R. Strom; G. W. Sullivan; H. Taavola; I. Taboada; A. Tamburro; S. Ter-Antonyan; S. Tilav; P. A. Toale; S. Toscano; M. Usner; D. van der Drift; N. van Eijndhoven; A. Van Overloop; J. van Santen; M. Vehring; M. Voge1; M. Vraeghe; C. Walck; T. Waldenmaier; M. Wallraff; M. Walter; R. Wasserman; Ch. Weaver; C. Wendt; S. Westerhoff; N. Whitehorn; K. Wiebe; C. H. Wiebusch; D. R. Williams; H. Wissing; M. Wolf; T. R. Wood; K. Woschnagg; C. Xu; D. L. Xu; X. W. Xu; J. P. Yanez; G. Yodh; S. Yoshida; P. Zarzhitsky; J. Ziemann; S. Zierke; A. Zilles; M. Zoll

    2013-03-22

    We report the first measurement of the atmospheric electron neutrino flux in the energy range between approximately 80 GeV and 6 TeV, using data recorded during the first year of operation of IceCube's DeepCore low energy extension. Techniques to identify neutrinos interacting within the DeepCore volume and veto muons originating outside the detector are demonstrated. A sample of 1029 events is observed in 281 days of data, of which 496 $\\pm$ 66(stat.) $\\pm$ 88(syst.) are estimated to be cascade events, including both electron neutrino and neutral current events. The rest of the sample includes residual backgrounds due to atmospheric muons and charged current interactions of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The flux of the atmospheric electron neutrinos is consistent with models of atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range. This constitutes the first observation of electron neutrinos and neutral current interactions in a very large volume neutrino telescope optimized for the TeV energy range.

  2. Radiation measured with different dosimeters during STS121 space mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Zhou; E. Semones; R. Gaza; S. Johnson; N. Zapp; M. Weyland; R. Rutledge; T. Lin

    2009-01-01

    Radiation impact to astronauts depends on the particles’ linear energy transfer (LET) and is dominated by high LET radiation. Radiation risk experienced by astronauts can be determined with the radiation LET spectrum measured and the risk response function obtained from radiobiology. Systematical measurement of the space radiation is an important part for the research on the impact of radiation to

  3. Standardization of flux chambers and wind tunnels for area source emission measurements at animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers and practitioners have used many varied designs of wind tunnels and flux chambers to measure the flux of volatile organic compounds, odor, and ammonia from area sources at animal feeding operations. The measured fluxes are used to estimate emission factors or compare treatments. We sho...

  4. Careful Measurements and Energy Balance Closure - The Case of Soil Heat Flux

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An area of persistent concern in micrometeorological measurements is the failure to close the energy balance at surface flux stations. While most attention has focused on corrections associated with the eddy fluxes, none of the energy balance terms are measured without error. The flux plate method i...

  5. YEAST DYNAMIC METABOLIC FLUX MEASUREMENT IN NUTRIENT-RICH MEDIA BY HPLC AND ACCELERATOR MASS SPECTROMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Benjamin J.; Navid, Ali; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Bench, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic flux, the flow of metabolites through networks of enzymes, represents the dynamic productive output of cells. Improved understanding of intracellular metabolic fluxes will enable targeted manipulation of metabolic pathways of medical and industrial importance to a greater degree than is currently possible. Flux balance analysis (FBA) is a constraint-based approach to modeling metabolic fluxes, but its utility is limited by a lack of experimental measurements. Incorporation of experimentally measured fluxes as system constraints will significantly improve the overall accuracy of FBA. We applied a novel, two-tiered approach in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to measure nutrient consumption rates (extracellular fluxes) and a targeted intracellular flux using a 14C-labeled precursor with HPLC separation and flux quantitation by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The use of AMS to trace the intracellular fate of 14C-glutamine allowed the calculation of intracellular metabolic flux through this pathway, with glutathione as the metabolic endpoint. Measured flux values provided global constraints for the yeast FBA model which reduced model uncertainty by more than 20%, proving the importance of additional constraints in improving the accuracy of model predictions and demonstrating the use of AMS to measure intracellular metabolic fluxes. Our results highlight the need to use intracellular fluxes to constrain the models. We show that inclusion of just one such measurement alone can reduce the average variability of model predicted fluxes by 10%. PMID:21062031

  6. Combined Sensor Package COMARS+ for Measuring Aerothermal and Radiation Loads on the Exomars EDM Capsule Back Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guelhan, A.; Siebe, F.; Thiele, T.

    2014-06-01

    Based on the former flight instrumentation experience combined aerothermal sensor package COMARS+ has been developed to perform radiative and convective heat flux measurements on the EDM back cover TPS of ExoMars EDM flight in 2016.

  7. Measurements of the total ion flux from vacuum arc cathodespots

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu; Savkin,Konstantin P.; Brown, Ian G.; Nikolaev, Alexey G.

    2005-05-25

    The ion flux from vacuum arc cathode spots was measured in two vacuum arc systems. The first was a vacuum arc ion source which was modified allowing us to collect ions from arc plasma streaming through an anode mesh. The second discharge system essentially consisted of a cathode placed near the center of a spherically shaped mesh anode. In both systems, the ion current streaming through the mesh was measured by a biased collector. The mesh anodes had geometric transmittances of 60 percent and 72 percent, respectively, which were taken into account as correction factors. The ion current from different cathode materials was measured for 50-500 A of arc current. The ion current normalized by the arc current was found to depend on the cathode material, with values in the range from 5 percent to 19 percent. The normalized ion current is generally greater for elements of low cohesive energy. The ion erosion rates were determined from values of ion current and ion charge states, which were previously measured in the same ion source. The absolute ion erosion rates range from 16-173 mu g/C.

  8. Accelerated Detector - Quantum Field Correlations: From Vacuum Fluctuations to Radiation Flux

    E-print Network

    Shih-Yuin Lin; B. L. Hu

    2006-06-21

    In this paper we analyze the interaction of a uniformly accelerated detector with a quantum field in (3+1)D spacetime, aiming at the issue of how kinematics can render vacuum fluctuations the appearance of thermal radiance in the detector (Unruh effect) and how they engender flux of radiation for observers afar. Two basic questions are addressed in this study: a) How are vacuum fluctuations related to the emitted radiation? b) Is there emitted radiation with energy flux in the Unruh effect? We adopt a method which places the detector and the field on an equal footing and derive the two-point correlation functions of the detector and of the field separately with full account of their interplay. From the exact solutions, we are able to study the complete process from the initial transient to the final steady state, keeping track of all activities they engage in and the physical effects manifested. We derive a quantum radiation formula for a Minkowski observer. We find that there does exist a positive radiated power of quantum nature emitted by the detector, with a hint of certain features of the Unruh effect. We further verify that the total energy of the dressed detector and a part of the radiated energy from the detector is conserved. However, this part of the radiation ceases in steady state. So the hint of the Unruh effect in radiated power is actually not directly from the energy flux that the detector experiences in Unruh effect. Since all the relevant quantum and statistical information about the detector (atom) and the field can be obtained from the results presented here, they are expected to be useful, when appropriately generalized, for addressing issues of quantum information processing in atomic and optical systems, such as quantum decoherence, entanglement and teleportation.

  9. Automatic solar image motion measurements. [electronic disk flux monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgate, S. A.; Moore, E. P.

    1975-01-01

    The solar seeing image motion has been monitored electronically and absolutely with a 25 cm telescope at three sites along the ridge at the southern end of the Magdalena Mountains west of Socorro, New Mexico. The uncorrelated component of the variations of the optical flux from two points at opposite limbs of the solar disk was continually monitored in 3 frequencies centered at 0.3, 3 and 30 Hz. The frequency band of maximum signal centered at 3 Hz showed the average absolute value of image motion to be somewhat less than 2sec. The observer estimates of combined blurring and image motion were well correlated with electronically measured image motion, but the observer estimates gave a factor 2 larger value.

  10. Reentrant albedo proton fluxes measured by the PAMELA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; Donato, C. De; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Di Felice, V.; Formato, V.; Galper, A. M.; Karelin, A. V.; Koldashov, S. V.; Koldobskiy, S.; Krutkov, S. Y.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Leonov, A.; Malakhov, V.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mayorov, A. G.; Menn, W.; Mergé, M.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sarkar, R.; Scotti, V.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Y. I.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Voronov, S. A.; Yurkin, Y. T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.

    2015-05-01

    We present a precise measurement of downward going albedo proton fluxes for kinetic energy above ˜70 MeV performed by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) experiment at an altitude between 350 and 610 km. On the basis of a trajectory tracing simulation, the analyzed protons were classified into quasi-trapped, concentrating in the magnetic equatorial region, and untrapped spreading over all latitudes, including both short-lived (precipitating) and long-lived (pseudotrapped) components. In addition, features of the penumbra region around the geomagnetic cutoff were investigated in detail. PAMELA results significantly improve the characterization of the high-energy albedo proton populations at low-Earth orbits.

  11. Analysis of radiation belt energetic electron phase space density using THEMIS SST measurements: Crosssatellite calibration

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Analysis of radiation belt energetic electron phase space density using THEMIS SST measurements state telescope (SST) flux measurements based on electron phase space density (PSD) conjunctions at fixed phase space coordinates. By comparing PSD around L* = 6 between THEMIS SST and Los Alamos National

  12. Direction finding measurements of auroral kilometric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Baumback, M. M.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Direction finding measurements with plasma wave experiments onboard the Hawkeye-1 and IMP-8 satellites were used to locate the source region of auroral kilometric radiation. The radiation exhibits peak intensities between about 100 kHz and 300 kHz, and emits intense sporadic bursts lasting for between one half hour to several hours. The total power emitted in this frequency range exceeds 10 to the 9th power watts at peak intensity. The occurrence of the radiation is known to be closely associated with bright auroral arcs which occur in the local evening auroral regions.

  13. Methods of in vivo radiation measurement

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Dennis D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kelsey, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM); Lane, Richard (Galveston, TX); Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Snelling, Jay B. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Methods of and apparatus for in vivo radiation measurements relay on a MOSFET dosimeter of high radiation sensitivity with operates in both the passive mode to provide an integrated dose detector and active mode to provide an irradiation rate detector. A compensating circuit with a matched unirradiated MOSFET is provided to operate at a current designed to eliminate temperature dependence of the device. Preferably, the MOSFET is rigidly mounted in the end of a miniature catheter and the catheter is implanted in the patient proximate the radiation source.

  14. Current measurement system utilizing cryogenic techniques for the absolute measurement of the magnetic flux quantum

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, T.; Murayama, Y.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sakuraba, T. (Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki (JP)); Shiota, F. (National Research Lab. of Metrology, 1-1-4 Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305 (JP))

    1989-04-01

    A series of systems composed of cryogenic devices such as a Josephson potentiometer and a cryogenic current comparator has been proposed and developed to precisely measure a current with any value up to 1 A. These systems will be used to measure the injected electrical energy with an uncertainty of the order of 0.01 ppm or less in the absolute measurement of the magnetic flux quantum by superconducting magnetic levitation. Some preliminary experiments are described.

  15. Measuring neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes with CCD cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Smith, G.W. (Ministry of Defense, Aldermaston (United Kingdom). Atomic Weapons Establishment); Zagarino, P.; Thomas, M.C. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations)

    1991-01-01

    The capability to measure bursts of neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes directly with charge coupled device (CCD) cameras while being able to distinguish between the video signals produced by these two types of radiation, even when they occur simultaneously, has been demonstrated. Volume and area measurements of transient radiation-induced pixel charge in English Electric Valve (EEV) Frame Transfer (FT) charge coupled devices (CCDs) from irradiation with pulsed neutrons (14 MeV) and Bremsstrahlung photons (4--12 MeV endpoint) are utilized to calibrate the devices as radiometric imaging sensors capable of distinguishing between the two types of ionizing radiation. Measurements indicate {approx}.05 V/rad responsivity with {ge}1 rad required for saturation from photon irradiation. Neutron-generated localized charge centers or peaks'' binned by area and amplitude as functions of fluence in the 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2} range indicate smearing over {approx}1 to 10% of CCD array with charge per pixel ranging between noise and saturation levels.

  16. Measuring neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes with CCD cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, G.W. [Ministry of Defense, Aldermaston (United Kingdom). Atomic Weapons Establishment; Zagarino, P.; Thomas, M.C. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations

    1991-12-01

    The capability to measure bursts of neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes directly with charge coupled device (CCD) cameras while being able to distinguish between the video signals produced by these two types of radiation, even when they occur simultaneously, has been demonstrated. Volume and area measurements of transient radiation-induced pixel charge in English Electric Valve (EEV) Frame Transfer (FT) charge coupled devices (CCDs) from irradiation with pulsed neutrons (14 MeV) and Bremsstrahlung photons (4--12 MeV endpoint) are utilized to calibrate the devices as radiometric imaging sensors capable of distinguishing between the two types of ionizing radiation. Measurements indicate {approx}.05 V/rad responsivity with {ge}1 rad required for saturation from photon irradiation. Neutron-generated localized charge centers or ``peaks`` binned by area and amplitude as functions of fluence in the 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2} range indicate smearing over {approx}1 to 10% of CCD array with charge per pixel ranging between noise and saturation levels.

  17. Cloud cover classification through simultaneous ground-based measurements of solar and infrared radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Orsini; Claudio Tomasi; Francescopiero Calzolari; Marianna Nardino; Alessandra Cacciari; Teodoro Georgiadis

    2002-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of downwelling short-wave solar irradiance and incoming total radiation flux were performed at the Reeves Nevè glacier station (1200 m MSL) in Antarctica on 41 days from late November 1994 to early January 1995, employing the upward sensors of an albedometer and a pyrradiometer. The downwelling short-wave radiation measurements were analysed following the Duchon and O'Malley [J. Appl.

  18. Developing Clear-Sky Flux Products for the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futyan, J. M.; Russell, J. E.

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes the planned processing of monthly mean and monthly mean diurnal cycle flux products for the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) experiment. The use of higher-spatial-resolution flux estimates based on multichannel narrowband imager data to improve clear-sky sampling is investigated. Significant improvements in temporal sampling are found, leading to reduced temporal sampling errors and less dependence on diurnal models for the monthly mean products. The reduction in temporal sampling errors is found to outweigh any spatial sampling errors that are introduced. The resulting flux estimates are used to develop an improved version of the half-sine model that is used for the diurnal interpolation of clear-sky longwave fluxes over land in the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) missions. Maximum outgoing longwave radiation occurs from 45 min to 1.5 h after local noon for most of the GERB field of view. Use of the ERBE half-sine model for interpolation therefore results in significant distortion of the diurnal cycle shape. The model that is proposed here provides a well-constrained fit to the true diurnal shape, even for limited clear-sky sampling, making it suitable for use in the processing of both GERB and CERES second-generation monthly mean clear-sky data products.

  19. Eddy covariance and lysimeter measurements of moisture fluxes over supraglacial debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Supraglacial debris covers have the potential to evaporate large quantities of water derived from either sub-debris ice melt or precipitation. Currently, knowledge of evaporation and condensation rates in supraglacial debris is limited due to the difficulty of making direct measurements. This paper presents eddy covariance and lysimeter measurements of moisture fluxes made over a 0.2 m debris layer at Miage debris covered glacier, Italian Alps, during the 2013 ablation season. The meteorological data are complimented by reflectometer measurements of volumetric water fraction in the saturated and vadose zones of the debris layer. The lysimeters were designed specifically to mimic the debris cover and were embedded within the debris matrix, level with the surface. Over the ablation season, the latent heat flux is dominated by evaporation, and the flux magnitude closely follows the daily cycle of daytime solar heating and night time radiative cooling of debris. Mean flux values are of the order of 1 kg m-2 day-1, but often higher for short periods following rainfall. Condensation rates are relatively small and restricted to night time and humid conditions when the debris-atmosphere vapour pressure gradient reverses due to relatively warm air overlying cold debris. The reflectometer measurements provide evidence of vertical water movement through capillary rise in the upper part of the fine-grained debris layer, just above the saturated horizon, and demonstrate how debris bulk water content increases after rainfall. The latent heat flux responds directly to changes in wind speed, indicating that atmospheric turbulence can penetrate porous upper debris layers to the saturated horizon. Hence, vertical sorting of debris sediments and antecedent rainfall are important in determining evaporation rates, in addition to current meteorological conditions. Comparison of lysimeter measurements with rainfall data provides an estimate that between 45% and 89% of rainfall is evaporated directly back to the atmosphere. Rainfall evaporation rates increase with debris impermeability and temperature, with highest rates occurring when a shower falls on hot debris. If these point measurements are representative of larger scales, evaporation rates of the order of 1000 tonnes km-2 day-1 are implied, with higher rates following rainfall. This has important implications for downstream runoff, sub-debris ice melt rates (due to consumption of evaporative latent heat energy) and, possibly, convective atmospheric processes.

  20. Role of plant-generated water vapor and VOC fluxes in shoot chamber measurements of O3 and NOx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joensuu, J.; Altimir, N.; Raivonen, M.; Kolari, P.; Keronen, P.; Vesala, T.; Bäck, J.; Hari, P.; Järvinen, E.; Nikinmaa, E.

    2012-04-01

    One of the processes underlying the atmospheric balance of O3 and NOx is their interaction with vegetation. Both are removed, absorbed, and NOx potentially also emitted by foliage. Uncertainties remain on relevant factors controlling O3 and NOx interactions with foliage as well as on including them in large-scale models. One reason for the uncertainty is that chamber measurements of O3 and NOx fluxes are complicated. These reactive gases are adsorbed and desorbed on the chamber walls, depending on the conditions (i.e. humidity). These artefact gas fluxes (chamber blank) must also be quantified and taken into account in the data analysis. Their importance increases when measuring in clean air, where the fluxes are generally small. At near-zero concentrations, the fluxes may not pass the detection limit of the instrumentation, which usually means it is not possible to separate the plant-related fluxes from the chamber blank. The long-term field measurements at the SMEAR II station in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland, have provided valuable insights into O3 and NOx exchange (i.e. Raivonen & al. 2009, Altimir & al. 2006). This project builds up on the expertise and conclusions from these works. The aim of this study was to improve the reliability of the measuring system by checking the role of potential measuring artefact(s). A live shoot, enclosed in a chamber, creates a water vapor in the chamber flux by transpiring. There are also biogenic VOC emissions from the shoot. In principle, these may affect the reactions of O3 and possibly NOx in the chamber. The potential interference of these fluxes created naturally during chamber closure is a main concern. Their effect on the O3 and NOx flux measurements has been tested with field calibrations in 2010-2011. In these calibrations, a controlled water vapor /VOC flux was fed into an empty shoot measurement chamber, and the H2O, CO2, O3 and NOx fluxes created in the chamber were measured. The created water vapor flux pattern was modified to either simulate shoot transpiration or to break the close connection of natural daily variation in transpiration, radiation and temperature. We will present results of this experiment. The project is funded by the Maj and Tor Nessling Foundation and the Ella and Georg Ehnrooth Foundation.

  1. Radiative forcing of the Venus mesosphere. II - Thermal fluxes, cooling rates, and radiative equilibrium temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, D.

    1989-02-01

    A radiative heat-transfer model is presently used to ascertain the way in which radiative forcing contributes to the up to 20 K higher temperature of the Venus polar regions, by comparison with the tropics, in the 60-100 km mesospheric levels. Model global-mean radiative equilibrium temperatures for 55-100 km are compared with observations to show how each opacity source contributes to the thermal structure. The results obtained from latitude-dependent radiative equilibrium experiments indicate that meridional variations in radiative forcing obliterate observed mesospheric temperature gradients and yield polar temperatures up to 40 K cooler than the tropics.

  2. Online radiation dose measurement system for ATLAS experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Mandic?; V. Cindro; I. Dolenc; A. Goris?ek; G. Kramberger; M. Mikuz?; J. Hartert; J. Bronner; S. Franz

    2009-01-01

    In experiments at Large Hadron Collider detectors and electronics will be exposed to high fluxes of photons, charged particles and neutrons. Damage caused by the radiation will influence performance of detectors. It will therefore be important to continuously monitor the radiation dose in order to follow the level of degradation of detectors and electronics and to correctly predict future radiation

  3. Multigroup radiation hydrodynamics with flux-limited diffusion and adaptive mesh refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M.; Vaytet, N.; Commerçon, B.; Masson, J.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Radiative transfer plays a crucial role in the star formation process. Because of the high computational cost, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations performed up to now have mainly been carried out in the grey approximation. In recent years, multifrequency radiation-hydrodynamics models have started to be developed in an attempt to better account for the large variations in opacities as a function of frequency. Aims: We wish to develop an efficient multigroup algorithm for the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES which is suited to heavy proto-stellar collapse calculations. Methods: Because of the prohibitive timestep constraints of an explicit radiative transfer method, we constructed a time-implicit solver based on a stabilized bi-conjugate gradient algorithm, and implemented it in RAMSES under the flux-limited diffusion approximation. Results: We present a series of tests that demonstrate the high performance of our scheme in dealing with frequency-dependent radiation-hydrodynamic flows. We also present a preliminary simulation of a 3D proto-stellar collapse using 20 frequency groups. Differences between grey and multigroup results are briefly discussed, and the large amount of information this new method brings us is also illustrated. Conclusions: We have implemented a multigroup flux-limited diffusion algorithm in the RAMSES code. The method performed well against standard radiation-hydrodynamics tests, and was also shown to be ripe for exploitation in the computational star formation context.

  4. Tunable diode-laser-based measurements of a gas flux emanating from a two-dimensional surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, Heather A.; Feng, Yongsheng; Li, Xiaomei; Schiff, Harold I.; Mackay, Gervase I.

    2003-02-01

    Remote optical techniques are well suited for obtaining representative average values for gas fluxes emanating from a semi-infinite flat surface. Unisearch, the Alberta Reserach Council and the University of Alberta have developed a technique and methodology for making such measurements using a near-IR tunable diode laser analyzer and a set of open path optics. The technqiue uses the LasIR to measure gas concentrations at two different heights along paths which folow the perimeter of a square, flat surface. The measurements are used to calculate a concentration gradient across the height difference. These values, along with air temperature, relative humidity, soil heat flux, net radiation and wind speed/direction data, are then used to calculate the average flux emanating from the surface by applying an integrated flux gradient analysis based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. This method was applied to measure fluxes of methane emanating from a 50m × 50m test agricultural plot after the application of manure. Plans are underway to extend the capability of the system to measure up to four different species simultaneously.

  5. Comparison of the tropical radiative flux and cloud radiative effect profiles in a climate model with Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenying Su; Alejandro Bodas-Salcedo; Kuan-Man Xu; Thomas P. Charlock

    2010-01-01

    An insightful link of model performance to the physical assumptions in general circulation models (GCMs) can be explored if assessment of radiative fluxes and cloud radiative effects go beyond those at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). In this study, we compare the radiative flux profiles (at surface, 500 hPa, 200 hPa, 70 hPa, and TOA) and cloud effect profiles

  6. Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1989-01-01

    A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

  7. Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1988-01-01

    A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, Earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

  8. Visible radiation measurement for temperature determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elands, P. J. M.; Wijchers, T.

    1985-11-01

    The theory of radiation according to the laws of Planck and Stefan-Boltzmann is treated, and the detection of radiation and the detection geometrics are discussed. A detector consisting of a camera, a diode, and an amplifier, was examined to determine geometrics, including lens openings, focal distance, and principal planes. Saturation and the error in adjustment were determined. The procedure of detector calibration by means of a tungsten ribbon lamp is described. Measurements with the equipment to check the calibration constant were carried out on a piece of iron with known temperature. There is fairly good agreement between the results of this pyrometer method and temperature measurements with a thermocouple.

  9. Radiation measurements from polar and geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1973-01-01

    During the 1960's, radiation budget measurements from satellites have allowed quantitative study of the global energetics of our atmosphere-ocean system. A continuing program is planned, including independent measurement of the solar constant. Thus far, the measurements returned from two basically different types of satellite experiments are in agreement on the long term global scales where they are most comparable. This fact, together with independent estimates of the accuracy of measurement from each system, shows that the energy exchange between earth and space is now measured better than it can be calculated. Examples of application of the radiation budget data were shown. They can be related to the age-old problem of climate change, to the basic question of the thermal forcing of our circulation systems, and to the contemporary problems of local area energetics and computer modeling of the atmosphere.

  10. SIERRA-Flux: measuring regional surface fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor from an unmanned aircraft system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fladeland, M. M.; Yates, E. L.; Bui, T. P.; Dean-Day, J. M.; Kolyer, R.; Schiro, K.; Berthold, R.; Iraci, L. T.; Loewenstein, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Eddy-Covariance Method for quantifying surface-atmosphere fluxes is a foundational technique for measuring net ecosystem exchange and validating regional-to-global carbon cycle models. While towers or ships are the more frequent platform for measuring surface-atmosphere exchange, experiments using aircraft for flux measurements have yielded contributions to several large-scale studies including BOREAS, SMACEX, RECAB by providing local-to-regional coverage beyond towers. The low-altitude flight requirements make airborne flux measurements particularly dangerous and well suited for unmanned aircraft. In a series of flights in June of 2011, the NASA SIERRA carried a payload consisting of the NASA Ames Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) and a fast response (10Hz) CO2, CH4, and H2O vapor analyzer in order to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring fluxes from unmanned aircraft and to characterize accuracy and precision based upon ground measurements. The flights were conducted in Railroad Valley, NV in order to provide a simple model for understanding biases and uncertainties. This paper describes the system specifications, provides preliminary data compared against coincident ground measurements, and discusses future applications of the system.

  11. Sources and measurement of ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Diffey, Brian L

    2002-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The biological effects of UV radiation vary enormously with wavelength and for this reason the UV spectrum is further subdivided into three regions: UVA, UVB, and UVC. Quantities of UV radiation are expressed using radiometric terminology. A particularly important term in clinical photobiology is the standard erythema dose (SED), which is a measure of the erythemal effectiveness of a UV exposure. UV radiation is produced either by heating a body to an incandescent temperature, as is the case with solar UV, or by passing an electric current through a gas, usually vaporized mercury. The latter process is the mechanism whereby UV radiation is produced artificially. Both the quality (spectrum) and quantity (intensity) of terrestrial UV radiation vary with factors including the elevation of the sun above the horizon and absorption and scattering by molecules in the atmosphere, notably ozone, and by clouds. For many experimental studies in photobiology it is simply not practicable to use natural sunlight and so artificial sources of UV radiation designed to simulate the UV component of sunlight are employed; these are based on either optically filtered xenon arc lamps or fluorescent lamps. The complete way to characterize an UV source is by spectroradiometry, although for most practical purposes a detector optically filtered to respond to a limited portion of the UV spectrum normally suffices. PMID:12231182

  12. A highly portable, rapidly deployable system for eddy covariance measurements of CO2 fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Billesbach, David P.; Fischer, Marc L.; Torn, Margaret S.; Berry, Joe A.

    2001-09-19

    To facilitate the study of flux heterogeneity within a region, the authors have designed, built, and field-tested a highly portable, rapidly deployable, eddy covariance CO{sub 2} flux measurement system. The system is built from off-the-shelf parts and was assembled at a minimal cost. The unique combination of features of this system allow for a very rapid deployment with a minimal number of field personnel. The system is capable of making high precision, unattended measurements of turbulent CO{sub 2} fluxes, latent heat (LE) fluxes, sensible heat fluxes (H), and momentum transfer fluxes. In addition, many of the meteorological and ecosystem variables necessary for quality control of the fluxes and for running ecosystem models are measured. A side-by-side field comparison of the system at a pair of established AmeriFlux sites has verified that, for single measurements, the system is capable of CO{sub 2} flux accuracy of about {+-} 1.2 {micro}mole/m{sup 2}/sec, LE flux accuracy of about {+-} 15 Watts/m{sup 2}, H flux accuracy of about {+-} 7 Watts/m{sup 2}, and momentum transfer flux accuracy of about {+-} 11 gm-m/sec/sec. System deployment time is between 2 and 4 hours by a single person. The system was measured to draw between 30 and 35 Watts of power and may be run from available line power, storage batteries, or solar panels.

  13. Using enhanced-mitophagy to measure autophagic flux

    PubMed Central

    Baudot, Alice D.; Haller, Martina; Mrschtik, Michaela; Tait, Stephen W.G.; Ryan, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Macroautophagy (hereafter termed autophagy) is a cellular membrane-trafficking process that functions to deliver cytoplasmic constituents to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagy operates at basal levels to turn over damaged and misfolded proteins and it is the only process for the turnover of organelles. The process is therefore critically important for the preservation of cellular integrity and viability. Autophagy is also highly adaptable and the rate and cargoes of autophagy can be altered to bring about desired cellular responses to intracellular and environmental cues, disease states and a spectrum of pharmaceutical drugs. As a result, there is much interest in understanding the dynamics of autophagy in a variety of situations. To date, the majority of assays to monitor autophagy either measure changes in a parameter of the process at a set point in time or use markers/tracers to monitor flow of membrane-bound proteins from one point in the process to another. As such, these assays do not measure changes in endogenous cargo degradation which is the ultimate end-point of the autophagy process. We describe here an assay to measure autophagic cargo degradation by engineering cells to degrade mitochondria en masse. We show that this ‘enhanced-mitophagy’ assay can be used to measure differences in the rate of autophagy between different cells or in response to agents which are known to promote or inhibit autophagic flux. We consider therefore that this assay will prove to be a valuable resource for investigations in which autophagy is considered important and is believed to be modulated. PMID:25498004

  14. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Grether, Donald; Evans, David; Hunt, Arlon; Wahlig, Michael

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide measurements and analyses of the solar and circumsolar radiation for application to solar energy systems that employ lenses or mirrors to concentrate the incident sunlight. Circumsolar radiation results from the scattering of direct sunlight through small angles by atmospheric aerosols (e.g., dust, water-droplets or ice crystals in thin clouds). Concentrating solar energy systems will typically collect all of the direct solar radiation (that originating from the disk of the sun) plus some fraction of the circumsolar radiation. The exact fraction depends upon many factors, but primarily upon the angular size (field-of-view) of the receiver. A knowledge of the circumsolar radiation is then one factor in predicting or evaluating the performance of concentrating systems. The project employs unique instrument systems (called Circumsolar Telescopes) that were designed and fabricated at LBL. The basic measurements are (1) the "circumsolar scan", the brightness of the sun and circumsolar region as a function of angular distance from the center of the sun and (2) the usual "normal incidence" measurement of a pyrheliometer. Both measurements are made for the entire solar spectrum, and (via colored filters) for eight essentially contiguous wavelength bands. Thus the measurements are applicable to systems in which the receiver is essentially wavelength-insensitive (e.g., central receiver) and to wavelength-sensitive systems (e.g., concentrating photovoltaics). A secondary purpose of the project is to relate the data to the atmospheric processes that attenuate the solar radiation available to terrestrial solar energy systems.

  15. Critical Radiation Fluxes and Luminosities of Black Holes and Relativistic Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, F. K.; Miller, M. C.

    1994-05-01

    The critical luminosity at which the outward force of radiation balances the inward force of gravity plays an important role in many astrophysical systems. We present expressions for the radiation force on particles with arbitrary cross sections and analyze the radiation field produced by radiating matter, such as a disk, ring, or stellar surface, that rotates slowly around a slowly rotating gravitating mass. We then use these results to investigate the effect on the critical flux and, where possible, the critical luminosity in general relativity. We show that if the momentum transfer cross section is independent of both frequency and direction, the critical flux for matter orbiting slowly in the rotation equator of the gravitating mass is the same to first order as it would be if the source and mass were static. If in addition the radiation field in the absence of rotation would be spherically symmetric, the critical luminosity of the system is independent of the spectrum and angular size of the radiation source and is unaffected by rotation of the source and the mass and orbital motion of the matter to first order. If instead the momentum transfer cross section is frequency- or angle-dependent, the critical flux generally depends on the angular size and spectrum of the source and is affected by rotation of the source and the mass and orbital motion of the matter to first order. We suggest that for a system containing a rotating gravitating mass, the critical radiation flux that is likely to be most useful as an astrophysical benchmark is the flux that causes a particle initially at rest in the locally nonrotating frame (LNRF) at a given radius to remain at that radius. Finally, we discuss the maximum possible luminosity of a star powered by steady spherically symmetric radial accretion in general relativity. This research was supported in part by NSF grant PHY 91-00283 and NASA grant NAGW 1583 at the Univeristy of Illinois and NASA grant NAGW 830 at the University of Chicago.

  16. Radiation damage measurements in room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry A. Franks; Bruce A. Brunett; Richard W. Olsen; David S. Walsh; Gyögy Vizkelethy; Jacob I. Trombka; Barney L. Doyle; Ralph B. James

    1999-01-01

    The literature of radiation damage measurements on cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), cadmium telluride (CT), and mercuric iodide (HgI2) is reviewed and in the case of CZT supplemented by new alpha particle data. CZT strip detectors exposed to intermediate energy (1.3MeV) proton fluences exhibit increased interstrip leakage after 1010 p\\/cm2 and significant bulk leakage after 1012 p\\/cm2. CZT exposed to 200MeV

  17. Assessment of radiative feedback in climate models using satellite observations of annual flux variation.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Yoko; Manabe, Syukuro

    2013-05-01

    In the climate system, two types of radiative feedback are in operation. The feedback of the first kind involves the radiative damping of the vertically uniform temperature perturbation of the troposphere and Earth's surface that approximately follows the Stefan-Boltzmann law of blackbody radiation. The second kind involves the change in the vertical lapse rate of temperature, water vapor, and clouds in the troposphere and albedo of the Earth's surface. Using satellite observations of the annual variation of the outgoing flux of longwave radiation and that of reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, this study estimates the so-called "gain factor," which characterizes the strength of radiative feedback of the second kind that operates on the annually varying, global-scale perturbation of temperature at the Earth's surface. The gain factor is computed not only for all sky but also for clear sky. The gain factor of so-called "cloud radiative forcing" is then computed as the difference between the two. The gain factors thus obtained are compared with those obtained from 35 models that were used for the fourth and fifth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment. Here, we show that the gain factors obtained from satellite observations of cloud radiative forcing are effective for identifying systematic biases of the feedback processes that control the sensitivity of simulated climate, providing useful information for validating and improving a climate model. PMID:23613585

  18. Assessment of radiative feedback in climate models using satellite observations of annual flux variation

    PubMed Central

    Tsushima, Yoko; Manabe, Syukuro

    2013-01-01

    In the climate system, two types of radiative feedback are in operation. The feedback of the first kind involves the radiative damping of the vertically uniform temperature perturbation of the troposphere and Earth’s surface that approximately follows the Stefan–Boltzmann law of blackbody radiation. The second kind involves the change in the vertical lapse rate of temperature, water vapor, and clouds in the troposphere and albedo of the Earth’s surface. Using satellite observations of the annual variation of the outgoing flux of longwave radiation and that of reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, this study estimates the so-called “gain factor,” which characterizes the strength of radiative feedback of the second kind that operates on the annually varying, global-scale perturbation of temperature at the Earth’s surface. The gain factor is computed not only for all sky but also for clear sky. The gain factor of so-called “cloud radiative forcing” is then computed as the difference between the two. The gain factors thus obtained are compared with those obtained from 35 models that were used for the fourth and fifth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment. Here, we show that the gain factors obtained from satellite observations of cloud radiative forcing are effective for identifying systematic biases of the feedback processes that control the sensitivity of simulated climate, providing useful information for validating and improving a climate model. PMID:23613585

  19. Couplings between the seasonal cycles of surface thermodynamics and radiative fluxes in the semi-arid Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guichard, F.; Kergoat, L.; Mougin, E.; Timouk, F.; Bock, O.; Hiernaux, P.

    2009-04-01

    A good knowledge of surface fluxes and atmospheric low levels is central to improving our understanding of the West African monsoon. This study provides a quantitative analysis of the peculiar seasonal and diurnal cycles of surface thermodynamics and radiative fluxes encountered in Central Sahel. It is based on a multi-year dataset collected in the Malian Gourma over a sandy soil at 1.5°W-15.3°N (a site referred to as Agoufou) with an automated weather station and a sunphotometer (AERONET), complemented by observations from the AMMA field campaign. The seasonal cycle of this Tropical region is characterized by a broad maximum of temperature in May, following the first minimum of the solar zenith angle by a few weeks, when Agoufou lies within the West African Heat-Low, and a late summer maximum of equivalent potential temperature within the core of the monsoon season, around the second yearly maximum of solar zenith angle, as the temperature reaches its Summer minimum. More broadly, subtle balances between surface air temperature and moisture fields are found on a range of scales. For instance, during the monsoon, apart from August, their opposite daytime fluctuations (warming, drying) lead to an almost flat diurnal cycle of the equivalent potential temperature at the surface. This feature stands out in contrast to other more humid continental regions. Here, the strong dynamics associated with the transition from a drier hot Spring to a brief cooler wet tropical Summer climate involves very large transformations of the diurnal cycles. The Summer increase of surface net radiation, Rnet, is also strong; typically 10-day mean Rnet reaches about 5 times its Winter minimum (~30 W.m-2) in August (~150 W.m-2). A major feature revealed by observations is that this increase is mostly driven by modifications of the surface upwelling fluxes shaped by rainfall events and vegetation phenology (surface cooling and darkening), while the direct impact of atmospheric changes on the total incoming radiation is limited to shorter time scales in Summer over this Central Sahelian location. However, observations also reveal astonishing radiative signatures of the monsoon on the surface incoming radiative flux. The incoming longwave flux does not reach its maximum during the monsoon season when the atmosphere is the most cloudy and humid, but earlier, prior to the onset of rainfall, as the dry and warmer atmosphere suddenly becomes moist. This feature points to the significance of the atmospheric cooling during the monsoon season and of the aerosol amounts in Spring. It also reveals that prior to the rainfall onset, the monsoon flow plays a major role on the diurnal cycle of the low-level temperature, due to its radiative properties. Conversely, the incoming solar radiation at the surface increases slightly from late Spring to the core monsoon season even though the atmosphere becomes moister and cloudier; this again involves the high aerosol optical thickness prevailing in late Spring and early Summer against a weaker shortwave forcing by monsoon clouds. The climatological combination of thermodynamic and radiative variations taking place during the monsoon eventually leads to a positive correlation between the equivalent potential temperature and Rnet. This correlation is, in turn, broadly consistent with an overall positive soil moisture rainfall feedback at this scale. Beyond these Sahelian-specific features, and in agreement with some previous studies, strong links are found between the atmospheric humidity and the net longwave flux, LWnet at the surface all year long, even across the much lower humidity ranges encountered in this region. They point to, and locally quantify the major control of water vapour and water-related processes on the surface-atmosphere thermal coupling as measured by LWnet. Namely, they are found to be more tightly coupled (LWnet closer to 0) when the atmosphere is moister and cloudier. Observational results such as presented here provide valuable ground truth for assessing models over a continental area displayi

  20. Solar flux estimated from electron density and ion composition measurements in the lower thermosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Chakrabarty; A. K. Saha; D. K. Chakrabarty

    1977-01-01

    Appropriate models of solar flux in X-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) bands are presented in the light of the current status of ion chemistry in the region from 90 to 130 km and of reliable measurements of reaction rates, electron density, and ion composition. It is found that the EUV flux of Schmidtke (1976) and the X-ray flux of Manson

  1. Snow, Shrubs, Grasses, and Footprint Theory: Measuring Moisture and Energy Fluxes in Patchy Landscapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Strack; G. E. Liston; C. A. Hiemstra; R. A. Pielke

    2004-01-01

    When measuring sensible and latent heat flux from a tower within a heterogeneous landscape, one must consider which part of the landscape influences the flux sampled by the instruments. This variable landscape fraction, known as a footprint, is dependent upon wind direction, wind speed and atmospheric stability (thermal and mechanical). From 1 December 2002 - 31 March 2003, the FLuxes

  2. Long-term measurements of CO2 flux and evapotranspiration in a Chihuahuan desert grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We measured CO2 and evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes above a Chihuahuan desert grassland from 1996 through 2001. Averaged across six years, this ecosystem was a source (positive flux)of CO2 in every month. Over that period, sustained periods of carbon uptake (negative flux)were rare. Averaged across a...

  3. Horizontal radiative fluxes in clouds and accuracy of the independent pixel approximation at absorbing wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshak, A.; Oreopoulos, L.; Davis, A. B.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Cahalan, R. F.

    For absorbing wavelengths, we discuss the effect of horizontal solar radiative fluxes in clouds on the accuracy of a conventional plane-parallel radiative transfer calculation for a single pixel, known as the Independent Pixel Approximation (IPA). Vertically integrated horizontal fluxes can be represented as a sum of three components: the IPA accuracies for reflectance, transmittance and absorptance. We show that IPA accuracy for reflectance always improves with more absorption, while the IPA accuracy for transmittance is less sensitive to the changes in absorption: with respect to the non-absorbing case, it may first deteriorate for weak absorption and then improve again for strongly absorbing wavelengths. IPA accuracy for absorptance always deteriorates with more absorption.

  4. SUMER - Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Wilhelm; W. Curdt; E. Marsch; U. Schühle; P. Lemaire; A. Gabriel; J.-C. Vial; M. Grewing; M. C. E. Huber; S. D. Jordan; A. I. Poland; R. J. Thomas; M. Kühne; J. G. Timothy; D. M. Hassler; O. H. W. Siegmund

    1995-01-01

    The instrument SUMER - Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation is designed to investigate structures and associated dynamical processes occurring in the solar atmosphere, from the chromosphere through the transition region to the inner corona, over a temperature range from 104 to 2 × 106K and above. These observations will permit detailed spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma densities and temperatures in

  5. Neutron radiation measurements on several international flights.

    PubMed

    Poje, Marina; Vukovi?, Branko; Radoli?, Vanja; Miklav?i?, Igor; Planini?, Josip

    2015-03-01

    The earth is continually exposed to cosmic radiation of both solar and galactic origin. High-energy particles interact with the constituents in the atmosphere producing secondary particles that create radiation fields at aircraft altitudes. These secondary particles consist mainly of photons, protons, neutrons, charged and uncharged pions, and muons. The neutron component dominates the hadron cascade at lower altitudes as a result of its longer mean free path. Since air transportation has become more available to a greater number of people, this has led to an increase in the number of persons exposed to ionizing radiation of cosmic origin. This concerns pilots and cabin crews as well as frequent flyers. A neutron component of cosmic radiation was measured using an LR 115/CR-39 track detector associated with a 10B converter foil. The measurement of the neutron dose is a good approximation of the total dose since neutrons carry about 50% of the total ambient dose equivalent at aircraft altitudes. Also, the results of the measurements were compared with the data obtained by EPCARD software simulation. The measured neutron dose rate had a span from 0.36 to 8.83 ?Sv h(-1) (dose enhancement due to high solar activity in the flight period). PMID:25627946

  6. Silicon radiation measurements around mammary type implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Wilflingseder; G. Hoinkes; H. Hussl; Ch. Papp; G. Mikuz; A. Propst

    1982-01-01

    The Silicon Elastomers, which are widely being used in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery cause a constrictive fibrosis to a varying degree. The intensity determinations of Silicon radiation show that all capsules around those implants contain intra- and extracellular particles, deriving from the implants. In order to measure the suitability of implant materials manufactured from Silicon Elastomers as well as to

  7. Radiation measurements on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is becoming a reality with the docking of the Russian Service module (Zarya) with the Unity module (Zaveda). ISS will be in a nominal 51.65-degree inclination by 400 km orbit. This paper reviews the currently planned radiation measurements, which are in many instances, based on experiments previously flown on the Space Shuttle. Results to be expected based on Shuttle measurements are presented.

  8. Theoretical studies of the flux and energy spectrum of gamma radiation from the Sun

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-Chieh Cheng

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the various ?-ray-production mechanisms in solar flares and to calculate the flux, the spectrum, and the decay curves of ? radiation. Using the continuity equation and taking into account the energy losses for solar-flare-accelerated particles, we obtain the time-dependent particle distribution and thus the time behavior of the resulting ? rays. The

  9. Relevance of decadal variations in surface radiative fluxes for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that radiative fluxes incident at Earth's surface are not stable over time but undergo significant changes on decadal timescales. This is not only found in the thermal spectral range, where an increase in the downwelling flux is expected due to the increasing greenhouse effect, but also in the solar spectral range. Observations suggest that surface solar radiation, after a period of decline from the 1950s to the 1980s ("global dimming"), reversed into a "brightening" since the mid-1980s at widespread locations, often in line with changes in anthropogenic air pollution. These decadal variations observed in both solar and thermal surface radiative fluxes have the potential to affect various aspects of climate change. Discussed here are specifically the evidence for potential effects on global warming, as seen in asymmetries in hemispheric warming rates as well as in differences in the decadal warming rates over land and oceans. These variations in observed warming rates fit well to our conceptual understanding of how aerosol and greenhouse gas-induced changes in the surface radiative fluxes should affect global warming. Specifically, on the Northern Hemisphere, the suppression of warming from the 1950s to the 1980s fits to the concurrent dimming and increasing air pollution, while the accelerated warming from the 1980s to 2000 matches with the brightening and associated reduction in pollution levels. The suppression of warming from the 1950s to the 1980s is even somewhat stronger over oceans than over land, in line with the conceptual idea that aerosol-induced dimming and brightening tendencies may be enhanced through cloud aerosol interactions particularly over the pristine ocean areas. On the Southern Hemisphere, the absence of significant pollution levels as well as trend reversals therein, fit to the observed stable warming rates over the entire 1950 to 2000 period.

  10. An unmanned aircraft vehicle system for boundary-layer flux measurements over forest canopies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason M. Daida; P. B. Russell; Timothy L. Crawford; J. F. Vesecky

    1994-01-01

    Describes a system design of an unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV) system for boundary-layer measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes, particularly of those fluxes over forest canopies. The system is aircraft-based, which permits measurements that are difficult to obtain by ground-based line-of-sight instruments (e.g., lidar). The system is unmanned, which permits flux measurements to as low as 5 m above a forest

  11. MEASURED AND PREDICTED FLUXES OF BIOGENIC SILICA IN LAKE MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diatom production in the offshore waters of Lake Michigan is limited by silica supplies in late summer and can be predicted from the seasonal disappearance of silica from the trophogenic zone. Biogenic silica fluxes obtained from sediment trap collections were compared with fluxe...

  12. The validation of the GEWEX SRB surface longwave flux data products using BSRN measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Cox, Stephen J.; Mikovitz, J. Colleen

    2015-01-01

    The longwave downward fluxes at the Earth's surface are a significant part of the products of the NASA GEWEX SRB (Surface Radiation Budget) project which has produced and archived a 24.5-year continuous record from July 1983 to December 2007 of global shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation fluxes at TOA and the surface from satellite measurements. The data are generated on a system of grid boxes ranging from 1° latitude by 1° longitude at lower latitudes to 1° latitude by 120° longitude next to the poles. The LW datasets, which are available as 3-hourly, 3-hourly-monthly, daily and monthly means, are produced from two sets of algorithms, the GEWEX LW (GLW) algorithm which is designated as primary and the Langley Parameterized LW (LPLA) algorithm which is designated as quality-check. The inputs of the latest versions, GLW (V3.1) and LPLA (V3.0), include the Geostationary Satellite system (GEOS) Version 4.0.3 meteorological information and cloud properties derived from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) DX data. In this paper, we compare the LW downward fluxes at the Earth's surface from both algorithms against over 4000 site-months of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) data from among the 59 BSRN sites. The comparisons are made for the 3-hourly, daily and monthly means each for the entire record, and on a month-by-month basis as well as a site-by-site basis. It is found that the overall daily mean bias/RMS for the GLW (V3.1) and LPLA (V3.0) algorithms are, respectively, 1.1/22.1 and 4.6/22.8 W m-2, their monthly counterparts are, respectively, 0.9/11.1 and 4.5/12.9 W m-2. Anomaly time series for a subset of more continuous BSRN measurement data sets show a standard deviation of 2.3 W m-2 and a correlation of 0.82 indicating the accurate replication of month-to-month variability. Clusters of similar surface types are analyzed showing that the uncertainties are largest over the polar regions. Finally, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) two-sample test and Cramér-von Mises (CvM) two-sample test are used to show that the GLW is able to replicate the cumulative frequency distribution of the measurements at the 0.01 significance level.

  13. Bayesian calibration of reactor neutron flux spectrum using activation detectors measurements: Application to CALIBAN reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cartier, J. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Casoli, P. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, Valduc, F-21120 Is sur Tille (France); Chappert, F. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present calibration methods in order to estimate reactor neutron flux spectrum and its uncertainties by using integral activation measurements. These techniques are performed using Bayesian and MCMC framework. These methods are applied to integral activation experiments in the cavity of the CALIBAN reactor. We estimate the neutron flux and its related uncertainties. The originality of this work is that these uncertainties take into account measurements uncertainties, cross-sections uncertainties and model error. In particular, our results give a very good approximation of the total flux and indicate that neutron flux from MCNP simulation for energies above about 5 MeV seems to overestimate the 'real flux'. (authors)

  14. How well do we understand the Earth's radiation budget and the role of clouds? Selected results of the GEWEX radiation flux assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, E.; Kinne, S.

    2013-05-01

    Multi-year average radiative flux maps of three satellite data-sets (CERES, ISSCP and GEWEX-SRB) are compared to each other and to typical values by global modeling (median values of results of 20 climate models of the 4th IPCC Assessment). Diversity assessments address radiative flux products and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface, with particular attention to impacts by clouds. Involving both data from surface and TOA special attention is given to the vertical radiation flux divergence and on the infrared Greenhouse effect, which are rarely shown in literature.

  15. Wide Range Neutron Flux Measuring Channel for Aerospace Application

    SciTech Connect

    Cibils, R. M.; Busto, A.; Gonella, J. L.; Martinez, R.; Chielens, A. J.; Otero, J. M.; Nunez, M. [INVAP S.E., Moreno 1089, 8400 Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Tropea, S. E. [INTI, Av. Gral. Paz 5445, 1650 San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-01-21

    The use of classical techniques for neutron flux measurements in nuclear reactors involves the switching between several detection chains as the power grows up to 10 decades. In space applications where mass and size constraints are of key significance, such volume of hardware represents a clear disadvantage. Instead of requiring different instruments for each reactor operating range (start-up, ramping-up, and nominal power), a single instrument chain should be desirable. A Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) system, combining a classic pulse Counting Channel with a Campbell's theorem based Fluctuation Channel can be implemented for the monitoring and control of a space nuclear reactor. Such an instrument will allow for a reduction in the complexity of space-based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. In this presentation we will discuss the criteria and tradeoffs involved in the development of such a system. We will focus particularly on the characteristics of the System On Chip (SOC) and the DSP board used to implement this instrument.

  16. Decoupled cantilever arms for highly versatile and sensitive temperature and heat flux measurements

    E-print Network

    Burg, Brian R.

    Microfabricated cantilever beams have been used in microelectromechanical systems for a variety of sensor and actuator applications. Bimorph cantilevers accurately measure temperature change and heat flux with resolutions ...

  17. A Strategy to Assess Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing of Climate Using Satellite Radiation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have a complex internal chemical composition and optical properties. Therefore it is difficult to model their impact on redistribution and absorption of solar radiation, and the consequent impact on atmospheric dynamics and climate. The use in climate models of isolated aerosol parameters retrieved from satellite data (e.g. optical thickness) may result in inconsistent calculations, if the model assumptions differ from these of the satellite retrieval schemes. Here we suggest a strategy to assess the direct impact of aerosol on the radiation budget at the top and bottom of the atmosphere using satellite and ground based measurements of the spectral solar radiation scattered by the aerosol. This method ensures consistent use of the satellite data and increases its accuracy. For Kaufman and Tanre: Strategy for aerosol direct forcing anthropogenic aerosol in the fine mode (e.g. biomass burning smoke and urban pollution) consistent use of satellite derived optical thickness can yield the aerosol impact on the spectral solar flux with accuracy an order of magnitude better than the optical thickness itself. For example, a simulated monthly average smoke optical thickness of 0.5 at 0.55 microns (forcing of 40-50 W/sq m) derived with an error of 20%, while the forcing can be measured directly with an error of only 0-2 W/sq m. Another example, the effect of large dust particles on reflection of solar flux can be derived three times better than retrievals of optical thickness. Since aerosol impacts not only the top of the atmosphere but also the surface irradiation, a combination of satellite and ground based measurements of the spectral flux, can be the most direct mechanism to evaluate the aerosol effect on climate and assimilate it in climate models. The strategy is applied to measurements from SCAR-B and the Tarfox experiments. In SCAR-B aircraft spectral data are used to derive the 24 hour radiative forcing of smoke at the top of the atmosphere of (Delta)F(sub 24hr)/(Delta)tau = - 25 +/- 5 W/sq m. Ground based data give forcing at the surface of (Delta)F(sub 24hr)/(Delta)taur = -80 +/- 5 W/sq m. In TARFOX a mixture of maritime and regional pollution aerosol resulted in a varied forcing at the top of the atmosphere, (Delta)F(sub 24hr)/(Delta)tau, between -26 W/sq 2 and -50 W/sq m depending on mixture of coarse and accumulation modes, for Angstrom exponents of 1.0 and 0.2 respectively.

  18. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

  19. Effect of electron flux on radiation damage in GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, R. Y.; Kamath, G. S.; Knechtli, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of electron flux and temperature on radiation damage in GaAs solar cells. The defect levels and the power ratio of the GaAs solar cells under various irradiation conditions are compared. In a 200 C continuous annealing experiment, the GaAs solar cells which were irradiated at a flux of 2 x 10 to the 9th e/sq cm s suffered less power degradation than the cells which were irradiated at the same temperature at a higher flux of 4 x 10 to the 10th e/sq cm s. After the continuous annealing experiment, a single-step post annealing at 200 C was performed for 40 hr on these irradiated cells. An additional improvement in power recovery was observed only on those cells irradiated at the high flux of 4 x 10 to the 10th e/sq cm s. DLTS data indicate that the defect density decreases with lower electron flux. Both of these observations strongly suggest that the continuous annealing in GaAs cells can be effective at temperatures as low as 150 C, or even less in a space environment such as geosynchronous orbit.

  20. Preliminary results of radiation measurements on EURECA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    The eleven-month duration of the EURECA mission allows long term radiation effects to be studied similarly to those of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Basic data can be generated for projections of crew doses and electronic and computer reliability on spacecraft missions. A radiation experiment has been designed for EURECA which uses passive integrating detectors to measure average radiation levels. The components include a Trackoscope, which employs fourteen plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) stacks to measure the angular dependence of LET (greater than or equal to 6 keV/microns) radiation. Also included are TLD's for total absorbed doses, thermal/resonance neutron detectors (TRND's) for low energy neutron fluences and a thick PNTD stack for depth dependence measurements. LET spectra are derived from the PNTD measurements. Preliminary TLD results from seven levels within the detector array show that integrated doses inside the flight canister varied from 18.8 plus or minus 0.6 cGy to 38.9 plus or minus 1.2 cGy. The TLD's oriented toward the least shielded direction averaged 53 percent higher in dose than those oriented away from the least shielded direction (minimum shielding toward the least shielded direction varied from 1.13 to 7.9 g/cm(exp 2), Al equivalent). The maximum dose rate on EURECA (1.16 mGy/day) was 37 percent of the maximum measured on LDEF and dose rates at all depths were less than measured on LDEF. The shielding external to the flight canister covered a greater solid angle about the canister than in the LDEF experiments.

  1. Preliminary results of radiation measurements on EURECA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    The eleven-month duration of the EURECA mission allows long-term radiation effects to be studied similarly to those of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Basic data can be generated for projections to crew doses and electronic and computer reliability on spacecraft missions. A radiation experiment has been designed for EURECA which uses passive integrating detectors to measure average radiation levels. The components include a Trackoscope, which employs fourteen plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) stacks to measure the angular dependence of high LET (greater than or equal to 6 keV/micro m) radiation. Also included are TLD's for total absorbed doses, thermal/resonance neutron detectors (TRND's) for low energy neutron fluences and a thick PNTD stack for depth dependence measurements. LET spectra are derived from the PNTD measurements. Preliminary TLD results from seven levels within the detector array show that integrated does inside the flight canister varied from 18.8 +/- 0.6 cGy to 38.9 +/- 1.2 cGy. The TLD's oriented toward the least shielded direction averaged 53% higher in dose than those oriented away from the least shielded direction (minimum shielding toward the least shielded direction varied from 1.13 to 7.9 g/cm(exp 2), Al equivalent). The maximum dose rate on EURECA (1.16 mGy/day) was 37% of the maximum measured on LDEF and dose rates at all depths were less than measured on LDEF. The shielding external to the flight canister covered a greater solid angle about the canister than the LDEF experiments.

  2. High Time Resolution Measurements of Methane Fluxes From Enteric Fermentation in Cattle Rumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerchinger, C. R.; Herndon, S.; Fortner, E.; Roscioli, J. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Knighton, W. B.; Molina, L. T.; Zavala, M.; Castelán, O.; Ku Vera, J.; Castillo, E.

    2013-12-01

    Methane accounts for roughly 20% of the global radiative climate forcing in the last two and a half centuries. Methane emissions arise from a number of anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In some areas enteric fermentation in livestock produces over 90% of agricultural methane. In the spring of 2013, as a part of the Short Lived Climate Forcer-Mexico field campaign, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory in partnership with the Molina Center for the Environment studied methane production associated with enteric fermentation in the rumen of cattle. A variety of different breeds and stocks being raised in two agricultural and veterinary research facilities located in different areas of Mexico were examined. Methane fluxes were quantified using two methods: 1) an atmospherically stable gaseous tracer release was collocated with small herds in a pasture, allowing tracer ratio flux measurements; 2) respiratory CO2 was measured in tandem with methane in the breath of individual animals allowing methane production to be related to metabolism. The use of an extensive suite of very high time response instruments allows for differentiation of individual methane producing rumination events and respiratory CO2 from possible background interferences. The results of these studies will be presented and compared to data from traditional chamber experiments.

  3. Predicting radiation belt electron flux with adaptive multi-input linear filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigler, E. Joshua

    2004-06-01

    The broad goal of the research and results described in this thesis is to improve our ability to make short-term space weather forecasts, and in particular, to predict relativistic electron flux variations over a broad range of altitudes based on measured solar wind inputs. Previous efforts using single-input time-stationary finite impulse response (FIR) linear prediction filters have enjoyed limited success, but generally fail to account for various non-stationary (statistically speaking), and ultimately non-linear dynamical behavior. Two different methods designed to account for the non-stationary radiation belt behavior are studied. The first assumes poor predictions result from failing to account for all relevant system inputs. Designing linear filters that operate on multiple simultaneous inputs eliminates much bias caused by single-input filters due to simple time-correlations of unmodeled solar wind inputs. FIR profiles (as functions of geomagnetic equatorial altitude, or L -shell) subsequently transition from somewhat smeared functions of space and time-lag, to a set of more specific and impulsive responses that can distinguish between different types of input events. An added benefit is the improvement in prediction efficiencies (PEs) over single-input filters at all altitudes. The second method for accounting for non-stationary radiation belt behavior involves the adaptive identification of the linear prediction filter coefficients. The well-known Kalman Filter is used to recursively update filter coefficients and minimize prediction error on the fly. This gives a simple linear filter the flexibility to track considerably NON-linear dynamics with time. Not surprisingly, prediction efficiencies improve dramatically at nearly all altitudes for both single-input and multi-input filters. This improvement is not uniform across all L -shells, but rather tends to scale with regions of the radiation belts that exhibit increasingly persistent behavior. This is expected since persistence allows the Kalman Filter more time to adjust the FIR coefficients to match the current conditions. One drawback is that the Kalman Filter adapts at different rates for different inputs based on their magnitude and dynamic variability. V sw response functions are therefore able to adapt more quickly to changing conditions, and generally experience more improved PEs than either of the other inputs, when used in a single-input configuration. When adaptive multi-input filter coefficients are calculated, the fact that V sw filter coefficients adapt more quickly causes it to account for an undue share of the electron flux variability. Very good predictions are still provided across a broad range L - shells, but definitive statements regarding the physical cause of the various responses are ill-advised. Modifications to the standard Kalman Filter identification algorithm are suggested in the thesis that address this problem, but they have not been implemented for the studies discussed in this thesis.

  4. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, R.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the attributes of the 2.7-K microwave background radiation (CBR) are reviewed, with emphasis on the analytic phase of CBR studies. Methods for the direct measurement of the CBR spectrum are discussed; attention is given to receivers, antennas, absolute receiver calibration, atmospheric emission and absorption, the galactic background contribution, the analysis of LF measurements, and recent HF observations of the CBR spectrum. Measurements of the large-angular-scale intensity distribution of the CBR (the most convincing evidence that the radiation is of cosmological origin) are examined, along with limits on the linear polarization of the CBR. A description is given of the NASA-sponsored Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite mission. The results of the COBE mission will be a set of sky maps showing, in the wave number range from 1 to 10,000 kaysers, the galactic background radiation due to synchrotron emission from galactic cosmic rays, to diffuse thermal emission from H II regions, and to diffuse thermal emission from interstellar and interplanetary dust, as well as a residue consisting of the CBR and whatever other cosmological background might exist.

  5. Correction factors for the sun shield used with the Eppley pyranometer for the measurement of sky radiation under clear and partly cloudy skies 

    E-print Network

    Albro, William Arthur

    1967-01-01

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5. Calendar dates corresponding to the occurrence of certain angles of solar declination. . . . . . . . . . . . 32 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTIOH This thesis concerns the measurement of the flux of sky radi- ation received on a horizontal surface.... Sky radiation is the solar radiation scattered from the direct solar beam by the air molecules, water droplets, and solid impurities in the atmosphere. At most meteorological stations where continuous radiation measurements are made, only the flux...

  6. Measurement of wall radiation in the soft x-ray region of PDX

    SciTech Connect

    Sesnic, S.; Tenney, F.H.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.; von Goeler, S.

    1985-01-01

    A detector setup with three LN-cooled Si(Li) diodes is used to measure soft x-ray spectra (0.8 to 20 keV) emitted from the inside walls of the PDX vessel during the plasma discharge. This setup is part of a pulse-height-analysis system, which is used to measure the plasma and wall radiation simultaneously at five different radial positions. The wall and the plasma radiation are measured under different plasma conditions (e.g., OH and neutral beam heating). The wall radiation is increased very much during the neutral beam heating with an enhancement factor of at least 10 over OH wall radiation. Since we measure the plasma and the wall radiation at the same time, these measurements allow the conclusion that the wall radiation can be attributed essentially to fluorescence (line radiation, e.g., Ti-K/sub ..cap alpha../) and scattering (continuum part of the wall radiation spectrum). The fluorescence and the scattering are both caused by soft x-ray radiation flux coming from the plasma. There seems to be no need to invoke other, more exotic causes for the wall radiation (like charge particle bombardment of the wall).

  7. Eddy covariance flux measurements of gaseous elemental mercury using cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Ashley M; Moore, Christopher W; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Kljun, Natascha; Obrist, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    A newly developed pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system for measuring atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations at high temporal resolution (25 Hz) was used to successfully conduct the first eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of GEM. GEM is the main gaseous atmospheric form, and quantification of bidirectional exchange between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere is important because gas exchange is important on a global scale. For example, surface GEM emissions from natural sources, legacy emissions, and re-emission of previously deposited anthropogenic pollution may exceed direct primary anthropogenic emissions. Using the EC technique for flux measurements requires subsecond measurements, which so far has not been feasible because of the slow time response of available instrumentation. The CRDS system measured GEM fluxes, which were compared to fluxes measured with the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) and a dynamic flux chamber (DFC). Measurements took place near Reno, NV, in September and October 2012 encompassing natural, low-mercury (Hg) background soils and Hg-enriched soils. During nine days of measurements with deployment of Hg-enriched soil in boxes within 60 m upwind of the EC tower, the covariance of GEM concentration and vertical wind speed was measured, showing that EC fluxes over an Hg-enriched area were detectable. During three separate days of flux measurements over background soils (without Hg-enriched soils), no covariance was detected, indicating fluxes below the detection limit. When fluxes were measurable, they strongly correlated with wind direction; the highest fluxes occurred when winds originated from the Hg-enriched area. Comparisons among the three methods showed good agreement in direction (e.g., emission or deposition) and magnitude, especially when measured fluxes originated within the Hg-enriched soil area. EC fluxes averaged 849 ng m(-2) h(-1), compared to DFC fluxes of 1105 ng m(-2) h(-1) and MBR fluxes of 1309 ng m(-2) h(-1). This study demonstrated that a CRDS system can be used to measure GEM fluxes over Hg-enriched areas, with a conservative detection limit estimate of 32 ng m(-2) h(-1). PMID:25608027

  8. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, P.; Villela, T.

    1986-01-01

    Data on the cosmic microwave background radiation obtained with a maser at 12 mm and a Schottky diode mixer at 3 mm are presented. The dipole anisotropy, apparently due to our motion, has been measured sufficiently well to determine our direction of motion within two degrees. The results show that the Galaxy is moving in a direction that is about 44 deg from the center of the Virgo cluster.

  9. Radiation measured for MATROSHKA-1 experiment with passive dosimeters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Zhou; E. Semones; D. O’Sullivan; N. Zapp; M. Weyland; G. Reitz; T. Berger; E. R. Benton

    2010-01-01

    The radiation field in low Earth orbit (LEO) and deep space is complicated. The radiation impact on astronauts depends strongly on the particles’ linear energy transfer (LET) and is dominated by high LET radiation. Radiation risk is a key concern for human space flight and can be estimated with radiation LET spectra measured for the different organs of an astronaut

  10. CR-39 detector based thermal neutron flux measurements, in the photo neutron project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mameli, A.; Greco, F.; Fidanzio, A.; Fusco, V.; Cilla, S.; D'Onofrio, G.; Grimaldi, L.; Augelli, B. G.; Giannini, G.; Bevilacqua, R.; Totaro, P.; Tommasino, L.; Azario, L.; Piermattei, A.

    2008-08-01

    PhoNeS (photo neutron source) is a project aimed at the production and moderation of neutrons by exploiting high energy linear accelerators, currently used in radiotherapy. A feasibility study has been carried out with the scope in mind to use the high energy photon beams from these accelerators for the production of neutrons suitable for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Within these investigations, it was necessary to carry out preliminary measurements of the thermal neutron component of neutron spectra, produced by the photo-conversion of X-ray radiotherapy beams supplied by three LinAcs: 15 MV, 18 MV and 23 MV. To this end, a simple passive thermal neutron detector has been used which consists of a CR-39 track detector facing a new type of boron-loaded radiator. Once calibrated, this passive detector has been used for the measurement of both the thermal neutron component and the cadmium ratio of different neutron spectra. In addition, bubble detectors with a response highly sensitive to thermal neutrons have also been used. Both thermal neutron detectors are simple to use, very compact and totally insensitive to low-ionizing radiation such as electrons and X-rays. The resultant thermal neutron flux was above 10 6 n/cm 2s and the cadmium ratio was no greater than 15 for the first attempt of photo-conversion of X-ray radiotherapy beams.

  11. Measurement and modelling of spectral solar radiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehne, K.; Czeplak, G.

    1996-03-01

    Small band measurements of spectral solar radiation by means of commercially available spectral radiometers, which are generally designed for laboratory work, require thorough aptitude tests and mostly special fitting measures. For the already available DM 150, first of all an entrance optics to correct cosine errors, a thermostatted weathercasing, as well as a special control lamp device for field use were developped. An international IEA-field intercomparison of 12 spectral radiometers in the Oberpfaffenhofen area of DLR showed deviations between the global radiation spectra of (+/-)15% and (+/-)40% for the best and the worst case, resp. The latter was caused by the operational requirements in the field and the mechanical instabilities of some radiometers (including the DM 150). Generally a remarkable portion of the deviations belongs to calibration uncertainties and imperfect cosine corrections. With regard to the summarized experience only principal recommendations on the use of spectral radiometers are given. Measured data of atmospheric heat radiation A and other meteorological data of 16 IEA stations were compiled in a data base at MOH to facilitate the fast uniform validation of 30 formulae for parametrization of A. For the case of sky clouded in 3 layers a parametrization formula was improved and successfully validated. A special reliable A-formula could be developped from the sufficiently high number of data of station Schleswig for the case of low cloudiness only.

  12. How to characterize soft magnetic materials by measuring magnetic flux density in a rotating field apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Azzouz; A. Mouillet

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the characterization of the magnetic permeability of soft magnetic materials under a rotating magnetic field. The paper reviews the principle of the rotating-flux-density device used for measurement of flux density, then describes the mathematical method used to calculate permeability from the measurements. The method combines direct and inverse solutions and is based on a functional minimization

  13. SIX YEARS OF CO2 FLUX MEASUREMENTS FOR A GRAZED MIXED-GRASS PRAIRIE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide fluxes were measured over a moderately grazed mixed-grass prairie site using the CO2 Bowen ratio/energy balance technique. Fluxes were measured from 24 April to 26 October from 1996 through 2001 at Mandan, ND. The site is mostly cool season grass species with a complement of warm se...

  14. Eddy correlation measurements of the air\\/sea flux of dimethylsulfide over the North Pacific Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Marandino; W. J. De Bruyn; S. D. Miller; E. S. Saltzman

    2007-01-01

    Shipboard measurements of air\\/sea fluxes and sea surface concentrations of dimethylsulfide (DMS) were made over the tropical and midlatitude North Pacific Ocean. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry was used to measure DMS levels in ambient air and in air equilibrated with surface seawater drawn from a depth of 5 m. Air\\/sea fluxes were obtained using eddy covariance. Corrections and

  15. LEAF, BRANCH, STAND & LANDSCAPE SCALE MEASUREMENTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND FLUXES FROM U.S. WOODLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural volatile organic compounds (VOC) fluxes were measured in three U.S. woodlands in summer 1993. Fluxes from individual leaves and branches were estimated with enclosure techniques and used to initialize and evaluate VOC emission model estimates. Ambient measurements were us...

  16. Calculating the detection limits of chamber-based greenhouse gas flux measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chamber-based measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from soil is a common technique. However, when changes in chamber headspace gas concentrations are small over time, determination of the flux can be problematic. Several factors contribute to the reliability of measured fluxes, including: samplin...

  17. A fast response atmospheric CO2 sensor for eddy correlation flux measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. P. Jones; T. V. Ward; H. H. Zwick

    1978-01-01

    The direct measurement of carbon dioxide fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer is of considerable importance in studies of ocean atmosphere exchange and in productivity of crops and forests. A promising technique for measuring CO2 fluxes, the eddy correlation method, requires a sensitive fast response sensor. We describe the sensor requirements and present a design which has proved successful in

  18. Remote Measurement of Heat Flux from Power Plant Cooling Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.; Kurzeja, R.; Villa-Aleman, E.; Bollinger, J.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have demonstrated a correlation between the rate of heat loss q? from an experimental fluid to the air above and the standard deviation ? of the thermal variability in images of the fluid surface. These experimental results imply that q? can be derived directly from thermal imagery by computing ?. This paper analyses thermal imagery collected over two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the same relationship exists. Turbulent boundary layer theory predicts a linear relationship between q? and ? when both forced (wind driven) and free (buoyancy driven) convection are present. Datasets derived from ground- and helicopter-based imagery collections had correlation coefficients between ? and q? of 0.45 and 0.76, respectively. Values of q? computed from a function of ? and friction velocity u* derived from turbulent boundary layer theory had higher correlations with measured values of q? (0.84 and 0.89). This research may be applicable to the problem of calculating losses of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere during high-latitude cold-air outbreaks because it does not require the information typically needed to compute sensible, evaporative, and thermal radiation energy losses to the atmosphere.

  19. Solid He: Progress, Status, and Outlook for Mass Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallock, R. B.

    2015-07-01

    After a brief introduction, what is provided there is brief summary of work with solid He done at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and an outlook for future work. What is presented here is based on a presentation made at the Quantum Gases Fluids and Solids Workshop in Sao Paulo, Brazil in August of 2014. Our work with solid He is aimed at the question: Can a sample cell filled with solid He support a mass flux through the cell? The answer, as will be shown here, is yes. Evidence for this from several types of experiments will be reviewed. There will be an emphasis on more recent work, work that explores how the flux observed depends on temperature and on the He impurity level. The behavior observed suggests that solid He may be an example of a material that demonstrates Bosonic Luttinger liquid behavior. The normalized He flux has a universal temperature dependence. The presence of He at different impurity levels shows that the He blocks the flux at a characteristic temperature. The behavior appears to be consistent with the cores of dislocations as the entity that carries the flux, but it is clear that more work needs to be done to fully understand solid He.

  20. RATES OF PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FLUX CANCELLATION MEASURED WITH HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Soyoung; Chae, Jongchul [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Litvinenko, Yuri E. [Department of Mathematics, University of Waikato, P.O. Box 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2009-10-10

    Photospheric magnetic flux cancellation on the Sun is generally believed to be caused by magnetic reconnection occurring in the low solar atmosphere. Individual canceling magnetic features are observationally characterized by the rate of flux cancellation. The specific cancellation rate, defined as the rate of flux cancellation divided by the interface length, gives an accurate estimate of the electric field in the reconnecting current sheet. We have determined the specific cancellation rate using the magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard the Hinode satellite. The specific rates determined with SOT turned out to be systematically higher than those based on the data taken by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. The median value of the specific cancellation rate was found to be 8 x 10{sup 6} G cm s{sup -1}-a value four times that obtained from the MDI data. This big difference is mainly due to a higher angular resolution and better sensitivity of the SOT, resulting in magnetic fluxes up to five times larger than those obtained from the MDI. The higher rates of flux cancellation correspond to either faster inflows or stronger magnetic fields of the reconnection inflow region, which may have important consequences for the physics of photospheric magnetic reconnection.

  1. SAMPEX - A Synoptic View of Earths Electron Radiation Belts: North Pole Energetic Fluxes from PET

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela ONeil

    1995-01-01

    The Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer, SAMPEX, measures fluxes of energetic particles from the sun, the Earths magnetosphere, and cosmic ray sources over a broad range of energies. The four instruments aboard SAMPEX are the Low-Energy Ion Analyzer (LEICA), The Heavy Ion Large Telescope (HILT), The Mass Spectrometer Telescope (MAST), and the Proton-Electron Telescope (PET).

  2. SAMPEX - A Synoptic View of Earths Electron Radiation Belts: South Pole Energetic Fluxes from HILT

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela ONeil

    1995-01-01

    The Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer, SAMPEX, measures fluxes of energetic particles from the sun, the Earths magnetosphere, and cosmic ray sources over a broad range of energies. The four instruments aboard SAMPEX are the Low-Energy Ion Analyzer (LEICA), The Heavy Ion Large Telescope (HILT), The Mass Spectrometer Telescope (MAST), and the Proton-Electron Telescope (PET).

  3. SAMPEX - A Synoptic View of Earths Electron Radiation Belts: North Pole Energetic Fluxes from HILT

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela ONeil

    1995-01-01

    The Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer, SAMPEX, measures fluxes of energetic particles from the sun, the Earths magnetosphere, and cosmic ray sources over a broad range of energies. The four instruments aboard SAMPEX are the Low-Energy Ion Analyzer (LEICA), The Heavy Ion Large Telescope (HILT), The Mass Spectrometer Telescope (MAST), and the Proton-Electron Telescope (PET).

  4. SAMPEX - A Synoptic View of Earths Electron Radiation Belts: South Pole Energetic Fluxes from PET

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela ONeil

    1995-01-01

    The Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer, SAMPEX, measures fluxes of energetic particles from the sun, the Earths magnetosphere, and cosmic ray sources over a broad range of energies. The four instruments aboard SAMPEX are the Low-Energy Ion Analyzer (LEICA), The Heavy Ion Large Telescope (HILT), The Mass Spectrometer Telescope (MAST), and the Proton-Electron Telescope (PET).

  5. The effect of cumulus cloud field anisotropy on solar radiative fluxes and atmospheric heating rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkelman, Laura M.

    The effect of fair-weather cumulus cloud field anisotropy on domain average surface fluxes and atmospheric heating profiles was studied. Causes of anisotropy were investigated using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model. Cloud formation under a variety of environmental conditions was simulated and the degree of anisotropy in the output fields was calculated. Wind shear was found to be the single greatest factor in the development of both vertically tilted and horizontally stretched cloud structures. A stochastic field generation algorithm was used to produce twenty three-dimensional liquid water content fields based on the statistical properties of the LES cloud scenes. Progressively greater degrees of tilt and stretching were imposed on each of these scenes, so that an ensemble of scenes were produced for each level of distortion. The resulting scenes were used as input to a three-dimensional Monte Carlo model. Domain-average transmission, reflection, and absorption of broadband solar radiation were computed for each scene along with the average heating rate profile. Both tilt and horizontal stretching were found to significantly affect calculated fluxes, with the amount and sign of flux differences depending strongly on sun position relative to cloud distortion geometry. For nearly all solar geometries, domain-averaged fluxes and atmospheric heating rate profiles calculated using the Independent Pixel Approximation differed substantially from the corresponding three-dimensional Monte Carlo results.

  6. THE PRINCIPLES OF THE NUCLEAR RADIATION MEASURING TECHNIQUE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weise

    1960-01-01

    This part of a series of articles on the principles of radiation ; measurements deals exclusively with radiation detectors. Types of radiation and ; ways io differentiate be. tween the radiation, penetrating pewers, and the ; basic concepts of detector systems are discussed. The statistics governing ; nuclear decay and the time element of their measurements are explained, and ;

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program - unmanned aerospace vehicle: The follow-on phase

    SciTech Connect

    Vitko, J. Jr. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) demonstration flights (UDF) are designed to provide an early demonstration of the scientific utility of UAVs by using an existing UAV and instruments to measure broadband radiative flux profiles under clear sky conditions. UDF is but the first of three phases of ARM-UAV. The second phase significantly extends both the UAV measurement techniques and the available instrumentation to allow both multi-UAV measurements in cloudy skies and extended duration measurements in the tropopause. These activities build naturally to the third and final phase, that of full operational capability, i.e., UAVs capable of autonomous operations at 20-km altitudes for multiple days with a full suite of instrumentation for measuring radiative flux, cloud properties, and water vapor profiles.

  8. Investigation of Flux Linkage Profile Measurement Methods for Switched Reluctance Motors and Permanent Magnet

    E-print Network

    Lu, Kaiyuan

    - 1 - Investigation of Flux Linkage Profile Measurement Methods for Switched Reluctance Motors for switched reluctance motors (SRM's) and permanent magnet motors (PMM's). Various measurement methods have reluctance motors, permanent magnet motors. I. INTRODUCTION Switched Reluctance Motors (SRM's) have very

  9. Computation of Solar Radiative Fluxes by 1D and 3D Methods Using Cloudy Atmospheres Inferred from A-train Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Howard W.; Kato, Serji; Wehr, T.

    2012-01-01

    The main point of this study was to use realistic representations of cloudy atmospheres to assess errors in solar flux estimates associated with 1D radiative transfer models. A scene construction algorithm, developed for the EarthCARE satellite mission, was applied to CloudSat, CALIPSO, and MODIS satellite data thus producing 3D cloudy atmospheres measuring 60 km wide by 13,000 km long at 1 km grid-spacing. Broadband solar fluxes and radiances for each (1 km)2 column where then produced by a Monte Carlo photon transfer model run in both full 3D and independent column approximation mode (i.e., a 1D model).

  10. Direct measurements of sensible and latent fluxes in the hurricane boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drennan, W.; Zhang, J.; French, J.; Black, P.

    2006-12-01

    One of the goals of the recent CBLAST-hurricane experiment was to measure turbulent fluxes in the high wind conditions of the hurricane boundary layer. During the experiment 6 low level flights into hurricanes Fabian and Isabel were made with NOAA's P3 Hurricane Hunter aircraft. While the momentum and latent heat flux results have been reported elsewhere, here we present the results for sensible heat flux. Up to the highest 10m winds measured (30m/s), the Stanton number remains constant, and in the range of previous lower wind estimates. The impact of this on hurricane enthalpy flux calculations is discussed.

  11. Identifying and Managing Data Validity Challenges with Automated Data Checks in the AmeriFlux Flux Measurement Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, C.; Pastorello, G.; Papale, D.; Trotta, C.; Ribeca, A.; Canfora, E.; Faybishenko, B.; Samak, T.; Gunter, D.; Hollowgrass, R.; Agarwal, D.

    2014-12-01

    AmeriFlux is a network of sites managed by independent investigators measuring carbon, water and heat fluxes. Individual investigators perform many data validity checks. Network-level data validity checks are also being applied to increase network-wide data consistency. A number of different types or errors occur in flux data, and while corrections have been developed to address some types of errors, other error types can be difficult to detect. To identify errors rapidly and consistently, we have developed automated data validity checks that rely on theoretical limits or relationships for specific measured variables. We present an example of a data validity check that is being developed for the friction velocity u*. The friction velocity is a crucial variable used to identify when low turbulent mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer invalidates eddy covariance measurements of fluxes. It is measured via sonic anemometer and is related to the wind speed WS, the measurement height relative to the canopy height, and the surface roughness, through the log law. Comparing independent measurements of WS and u* can help identify issues related to the sensor but doesn't take into consideration changes in the canopy (e.g. due to leaf emergence). The u* data check proposed relies on recent work comparing multiple methods for determining the aerodynamic roughness length z0 and zero plane displacement d (Graf, A., A. van de Boer, A. Moene & H. Vereecken, 2014, Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 151, 373-387). These methods, each of which is most robust across a different atmospheric stability range, yield multiple estimates for z0 and d at daily resolution. We use these multiple estimates for z0 and d, as well as half-hourly wind speeds and Obukhov length scales and their uncertainties to generate a predicted u* and a tolerance around this predicted value. In testing, this check correctly identified as invalid u* data known to be erroneous but did not flag data that could look anomalous but instead reflect real changes in the vegetation canopy. This and other validity checks both manual and automated are serving to increase accuracy and inter-comparability of all data within the AmeriFlux and FLUXNET networks preceding the upcoming release of a new global data set of fluxes.

  12. Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Decker, Franz-Josef; Hogan, Mark; Iverson, Richard H.; Krejcik, Patrick; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, Dieter; /SLAC; Kirby, Neil; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Clayton, Chris; Huang, Chengkun; Johnson, Devon K.; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Ken; /UCLA; Deng, Suzhi; Oz, Erdem; /Southern California U.

    2005-06-24

    The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10 kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28 GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts for a single shot CTR autocorrelator.

  13. On Using CO2 Concentration Measurements at Mountain top and Valley Locations in Regional Flux Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wekker, S. F.; Song, G.; Stephens, B. B.

    2007-12-01

    Data from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON) are used to investigate atmospheric controls on temporal and spatial variability of CO2 in mountainous terrain and the usefulness of mountain top and valley measurement for the estimation of regional CO2 fluxes. Rocky RACCOON consists of four sites installed in fall of 2005 and spring of 2006: Niwot Ridge, near Ward, Colorado; Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, Colorado; Fraser Experimental Forest, near Fraser Colorado; and Hidden Peak, near Snowbird, Utah. The network uses the NCAR-developed Autonomous Inexpensive Robust CO2 Analyzer. These units measure CO2 concentrations at three levels on a tower, producing individual measurements every 2.5 minutes precise to 0.1 ppm CO2 and closely tied to the WMO CO2 scale. Three of the sites are located on a mountain top while one site is located in a valley. Initial analyses show interesting relationships between CO2 concentration and atmospheric parameters, such as wind speed and direction, temperature, and incoming solar radiation. The nature of these relationships is further investigated with an atmospheric mesoscale model. Idealized and realistic simulations are able to capture the observed behavior of spatial and temporal CO2 variability and reveal the responsible physical processes. The implications of the results and the value of the measurements for providing information on local to regional scale respiration and photosynthesis rates in the Rockies are discussed.

  14. A scintillating fission detector for neutron flux measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sy Stange; Ernst I Esch; Eric A Burgett; Iain May; Ross E Muenchausen; Felicia Taw; Fredrik K Tovesson

    2010-01-01

    Neutron flux monitors are commonly used for a variety of nuclear physics applications. A scintillating neutron detector, consisting of a liquid scintillator loaded with fissionable material, has been developed, characterized, and tested in the beam line at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, and shows a significant improvement in neutron sensitivity compared with a conventional fission chamber. Recent research on

  15. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-03-16

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

  16. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Robert V. (Tijeras, NM)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infra-red sensing devices.

  17. Developing Consistent Earth System Data Records for the Global Terrestrial Water Cycle: Focus on Shortwave and Longwave Radiative Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinker, R. T.; Ma, Y.; Nussbaumer, E. A.

    2012-04-01

    The overall goal of the MEaSUREs activity titled: "Developing Consistent Earth System Data Records for the Global Terrestrial Water Cycle" is to develop consistent, long-term Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) for the major components of the terrestrial water cycle at a climatic time scale. The shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes at the Earth's surface determine the exchange of energy between the land and the atmosphere are the focus of this presentation. During the last two decades, significant progress has been made in assessing the Earth Radiation Balance from satellite observations. Yet, satellite based estimates differ from each other and long term satellite observations at global scale are not readily available. There is a need to utilize existing records of satellite observations and to improve currently available estimates. This paper reports on improvements introduced to an existing methodology to estimate shortwave (SW) radiative fluxes within the atmospheric system, on the development of a new inference scheme for deriving LW fluxes, the implementation of the approach with the ISCCP DX observations and improved atmospheric inputs for the period of 1983-2007, evaluation against ground observations, and comparison with independent satellite methods and numerical models. The resulting ESDRs from the entire MEaSUREs Project are intended to provide a consistent basis for estimating the mean state and variability of the land surface water cycle at a spatial scale relevant to major global river basins. MEaSUREs Project "Developing Consistent Earth System Data Records for the Global Terrestrial Water Cycle" Team Members: E. F. Wood (PI)1, T. J Bohn2, J. L Bytheway3, X. Feng4, H. Gao2, P. R.Houser4 (CO-I), C. D Kummerow3 (CO-I), D. P Lettenmaier2 (CO-I), C. Li5, Y. Ma5, R. F MacCracken4, M. Pan1, R. T Pinker5 (CO-I), A. K. Sahoo1, J. Sheffield1 1. Dept of CEE, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA. 2. Dept of CEE, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. 3. Dept of Atmospheric Science, Fort Collins, CO, USA. 4. Dept of Geography and GeoInformation Scie., George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA. 5. Dept of Meteorology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.

  18. Future radiation measurements in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The first Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission has demonstrated the value of the LDEF concept for deep surveys of the space radiation environment. The kinds of measurements that could be done on a second LDEF mission are discussed. Ideas are discussed for experiments which: (1) capitalize on the discoveries from LDEF 1; (2) take advantage of LDEF's unique capabilities; and (3) extend the investigations begun on LDEF 1. These ideas have been gleaned from investigators on LDEF 1 and others interested in the space radiation environment. They include new approaches to the investigation of Be-7 that was discovered on LDEF 1, concepts to obtain further information on the ionic charge state of cosmic rays and other energetic particles in space and other ideas to extend the investigations begun on LDEF 1.

  19. Derivation of Surface Net Radiation at the Valencia Anchor Station from Top of the Atmosphere Gerb Fluxes by Means of Linear Models and Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldo Ferreira, A.; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Velazquez Blazquez, Almudena; Soria-Olivas, Emilio; Serrano Lopez, Antonio J.; Gomez Chova, Juan

    2012-07-01

    In this work, Linear Models (LM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been developed to estimate net radiation (RN) at the surface. The models have been developed and evaluated by using the synergy between Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB-1) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data, both instruments onboard METEOSAT-9, and ``in situ'' measurements. The data used in this work, corresponding to August 2006 and June to August 2007, proceed from Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) broadband fluxes from GERB-1, every 15 min, and from net radiation at the surface measured, every 10 min, at the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) area, having measured independently the shortwave and the longwave radiation components (downwelling and upwelling) for different land uses and land cover. The adjustment of both temporal resolutions for the satellite and in situ data was achieved by linear interpolation that showed less standard deviation than the cubic one. The LMs were developed and validated by using satellite TOA RN and ground station surface RN measurements, only considering cloudy free days selected from the ground data. The ANN model was developed both for cloudy and cloudy-free conditions using seven input variables selected for the training/validation sets, namely, hour, day, month, surface RN, solar zenith angle and TOA shortwave and longwave fluxes. Both, LMs and ANNs show remarkably good agreement when compared to surface RN measurements. Therefore, this methodology can be successfully applied to estimate RN at surface from GERB/SEVIRI data.

  20. Flux enhancement of radiation belt electrons during geomagnetic storms driven by coronal mass ejections and corotating interaction regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryuho Kataoka; Yoshizumi Miyoshi

    2006-01-01

    A meteorological view of solar wind structures is useful for probability prediction of the flux enhancement of radiation belt electrons. We report the averaged variations of the solar wind parameters and radiation belt electrons during isolated geomagnetic storms driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs), using a superposed epoch analysis centered on interplanetary shocks and stream

  1. Critical assessment of surface incident solar radiation observations collected by SURFRAD, USCRN and AmeriFlux networks from 1995 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaicun; Augustine, John; Dickinson, Robert E.

    2012-12-01

    Surface incident solar radiation (Rs) drives weather and climate changes. Observations of Rs have been widely used as reference data to evaluate climate model simulations and satellite retrievals. However, few have studied uncertainties of Rs observations, especially long term. This paper compares Rs from 1995 to 2011 at collocated sites collected by the Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD), the U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) and the AmeriFlux network. SURFRAD stations have measured separately the diffuse and direct components of Rs as well as Rs by a pyranometer, while Rs was measured by a pyranometer or a net radiometer at the USCRN and AmeriFlux sites. Rs can be calculated by summing the diffuse and direction radiation measurements. Rs measured by the summation technique was compared those measured by a pyranometer or a net radiometer at collocated sites. Agreement among these four independent Rs measurements is good with correlation coefficients higher than 0.98 and an average error (one standard deviation) of about 4% at both hourly and monthly time scales. Rs has a large spatial variability at the hourly time scale, even exceeding 100 W m-2 in ˜6 km. This spatial variability is substantially reduced at the monthly time scale. The two independent measurement systems at the SURFRAD sites agree rather well in annual variability of Rs with an average relative standard deviation error of 34%. The errors are 71% and 85% for the USCRN and AmeriFlux sites. Evidently, caution should be taken when using the Rs data collected at the USCRN and AmeriFlux sites to study annual variability of Rs.

  2. Methods of and apparatus for radiation measurement, and specifically for in vivo radiation measurement

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, D.D.; Hughes, R.C.; Kelsey, C.A.; Lane, R.; Ricco, A.J.; Snelling, J.B.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1986-08-29

    Methods of and apparatus for in vivo radiation measurements rely on a MOSFET dosimeter of high radiation sensitivity which operates in both the passive mode to provide an integrated dose detector and active mode to provide an irradiation rate detector. A compensating circuit with a matched unirradiated MOSFET is provided to operate at a current designed to eliminate temperature dependence of the device. Preferably, the MOSFET is rigidly mounted in the end of a miniature catheter and the catheter is implanted in the patient proximate the radiation source.

  3. Combined FTIR-micrometeorological techniques for long term measurements of greenhouse gas fluxes from agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, A. K.; Griffith, D.; Harvey, M.; Naylor, T.; Smith, M.

    2009-04-01

    The exchange of trace gases between the biosphere and the atmosphere affects the atmospheric concentrations of gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen dioxide and others. The quantification of the exchange between a biogenic system and the atmosphere is necessary for the evaluation of the impact of these interactions. This is of special interest for agricultural systems which can be sources or sinks of trace gases, and the measurement of the fluxes is necessary when evaluating both the environmental impact of agricultural activities and the impact of atmospheric pollution on agricultural production and sustainability. With the exception of CO2, micrometeorological measurements of the fluxes of greenhouse gases from agricultural activities are still mostly possible only in campaign mode due to the complexity and logistical requirements of the existing measurement techniques. This limitation precludes studies of fluxes which run for longer periods, for example over full seasonal or growing cycles for both animal- and crop-based agriculture. We have developed an instrument system for long-term flux measurements through a combination of micrometeorological flux measurement techniques such as Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) and Flux-Gradient (FG) with the high precision multi-species detection capabilities of FTIR spectroscopy. The combined technique is capable of simultaneous flux measurements of N2O, CH4 and CO2 at paddock to regional scales continuously, over longer terms (months, seasonal cycles, years). The system was tested on a 3 weeks field campaign in NSW, Australia on a flat, homogeneous circular grass paddock with grazing cattle. The flux of the atmospheric trace gas CO2 was measured with three different micrometeorological techniques: Relaxed Eddy Accumulation, Flux-Gradient, and Eddy Correlation. Simultaneously, fluxes of CH4 and N2O were measured by REA and FG technique.

  4. Radiated microwave power transmission system efficiency measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.; Brown, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The measured and calculated results from determining the operating efficiencies of a laboratory version of a system for transporting electric power from one point to another via a wireless free space radiated microwave beam are reported. The system's overall end-to-end efficiency as well as intermediated conversion efficiencies were measured. The maximum achieved end-to-end dc-to-ac system efficiency was 54.18% with a probable error of + or - 0.94%. The dc-to-RF conversion efficiency was measured to be 68.87% + or - 1.0% and the RF-to-dc conversion efficiency was 78.67 + or - 1.1%. Under these conditions a dc power of 495.62 + or - 3.57 W was received with a free space transmitter antenna receiver antenna separation of 170.2 cm (67 in).

  5. Radiated BPF sound measurement of centrifugal compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohuchida, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2013-12-01

    A technique to measure radiated BPF sound from an automotive turbocharger compressor impeller is proposed in this paper. Where there are high-level background noises in the measurement environment, it is difficult to discriminate the target component from the background. Since the effort of measuring BPF sound was taken in a room with such condition in this study, no discrete BPF peak was initially found on the sound spectrum. Taking its directionality into consideration, a microphone covered with a parabolic cone was selected and using this technique, the discrete peak of BPF was clearly observed. Since the level of measured sound was amplified due to the area-integration effect, correction was needed to obtain the real level. To do so, sound measurements with and without a parabolic cone were conducted for the fixed source and their level differences were used as correction factors. Consideration is given to the sound propagation mechanism utilizing measured BPF as well as the result of a simple model experiment. The present method is generally applicable to sound measurements conducted with a high level of background noise.

  6. Solar flux estimated from electron density and ion composition measurements in the lower thermosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Chakrabarty; D. K. Chakrabarty; A. K. Saha

    1977-01-01

    Appropriate models of solar flux in X-rays and Extreme Ultra Violet (XEUV) bands are presented in the light of the present status of ion chemistry in the region 90 to 130 km and reliable measurements of reaction rates, electron density, and ion composition. It was found that the EUV-flux of Schmidtke (1976) and the X-ray flux of Manson (1976) give

  7. Long-term isoprene flux measurements above a northern hardwood forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shelley Pressley; Brian Lamb; Hal Westberg; Julia Flaherty; Jack Chen; Christoph Vogel

    2005-01-01

    We report continuous whole canopy isoprene emission fluxes from a northern hardwood forest in Michigan for the 1999–2002 growing seasons. The eddy covariance fluxes of isoprene, CO2, latent heat, and sensible heat are presented along with an analysis of the seasonal and year-to-year variations. Measurements were made in collaboration with the AmeriFlux site located at the University of Michigan Biological

  8. Novel dynamic flux chamber for measuring air-surface exchange of Hg(o) from soils.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Jen; Zhu, Wei; Li, Xianchang; Feng, Xinbin; Sommar, Jonas; Shang, Lihai

    2012-08-21

    Quantifying the air-surface exchange of Hg(o) from soils is critical to understanding the cycling of mercury in different environmental compartments. Dynamic flux chambers (DFCs) have been widely employed for Hg(o) flux measurement over soils. However, DFCs of different sizes, shapes, and sampling flow rates yield distinct measured fluxes for a soil substrate under identical environmental conditions. In this study, we performed an integrated modeling, laboratory and field study to design a DFC capable of producing a steady and uniform air flow over a flat surface. The new DFC was fabricated using polycarbonate sheets. The internal velocity field was experimentally verified against model predictions using both theoretical and computational fluid dynamics techniques, suggesting fully developed flow with velocity profiles in excellent agreement with model results. Laboratory flux measurements demonstrated that the new design improves data reproducibility as compared to a conventional DFC, and reproduces the model-predicted flux trend with increasing sampling flow. A mathematical relationship between the sampling flow rate and surface friction velocity, a variable commonly parametrized in atmospheric models, was developed for field application. For the first time, the internal shear property of a DFC can be precisely controlled using the sampling flow rate, and the flux under atmospheric condition can be inferred from the measured flux and surface shear property. The demonstrated methodology potentially bridges the gap in measured fluxes obtained by the DFC method and the micrometeorological methods. PMID:22823466

  9. Effect of aerosols and NO2 concentration on ultraviolet actinic flux near Mexico City during MILAGRO: Measurements and model calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Palancar, Gustavo G.; Lefer, Barry; Hall, Samual R.; Shaw, William J.; Corr, Chelsea A.; Herndon, Scott C.; Slusser, J. R.; Madronich, Sasha

    2013-01-24

    Ultraviolet (UV) actinic ?uxes (AF) measured with three Scanning Actinic Flux Spectroradiometers (SAFS) are compared with the Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible (TUV) model v.5 in order to assess the effects of aerosols and NO2 concentrations on the radiation. Measurements were made during the MILAGRO campaign near Mexico City in March 2006, at a ground-based station near Mexico City (the T1 supersite) and from the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft. At the surface, measurements are typically smaller by up to 25 % in the morning, 10% at noon, and 40% in the afternoon, than actinic flux modeled for clean, cloud-free conditions. When measurements of PBL height, NO2 concentration and aerosols optical properties are included in the model, the agreement improves to within ±10% in the morning and afternoon, and ±3% at noon. Based on daily averages, aerosols account for 68%, NO2 for 25%, and residual uncertainties for 7% of these AF reductions observed at the surface. Several overpasses from the C-130 aircraft provided the opportunity to examine the actinic flux perturbations aloft, and also show better agreement with the model when aerosol and NO2 effects are included above and below the flight altitude. TUV model simulations show that the vertical structure of the actinic flux is sensitive to the choice of the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) at UV wavelengths. Typically, aerosols caused enhanced AF above the PBL and reduced AF near the surface. However, for highly scattering aerosols (SSA > 0.95), enhancements can penetrate well into the PBL, while for strongly absorbing aerosols (SSA<0.7) reductions in AF are computed in the free troposphere as well as in the PBL. Additional measurements of the SSA at these wavelengths are needed to better constrain the effect of aerosols on the vertical structure of the actinic flux.

  10. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    E-print Network

    SNO Collaboration

    2009-02-16

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between $-1 \\le \\cos{\\theta}_{\\rm zenith} \\le 0.4$ in a total exposure of 2.30\\times 10^{14}$ cm$^{2}$ s. The measured flux normalization is $1.22 \\pm 0.09$ times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle $\\cos{\\theta}_{\\rm zenith} > 0.4$ is measured to be $(3.31 \\pm 0.01 {\\rm (stat.)} \\pm 0.09 {\\rm (sys.)}) \\times 10^{-10}~\\mu$/s/cm$^{2}$.

  11. Aerodynamic Temperature Derived from Flux-Profile Measurements and Two-Source Model Predictions over a Cotton Row Crop in an Advective Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface aerodynamic temperature (SAT) is related to the atmospheric forcing conditions (radiation, wind speed and air temperature) and surface conditions. SAT is required in the bulk surface resistance equation to calculate the rate of sensible heat flux exchange. SAT cannot be measured directly...

  12. Novel Surface Thermocouple Probes for Divertor Heat Flux Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangadhara, S.; Labombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Pierce, N.

    1996-11-01

    An array of novel surface thermocouple probes have been installed and tested in the outer divertor of Alcator C-Mod. These sensors can, in principle, record divertor surface temperatures with fast time response (? >= 10 ? sec), allowing a direct estimate of the plasma heat flux to be inferred. The design is an adaptation of a commercially available device(``The Self-Renewing Thermocouple,'' Nanmac Corp., Framingham, MA), employing a coaxial-like geometry with a single tungsten-rhenium ribbon wire embedded inside a 6.35 mm diameter molybdenum rod. Various prototypes were tested, including probes with flush and 5^circ angles with respect to the divertor surface, and probes with and without protective surface coatings. Typical surface temperature rises are ~ 300-700 ^circC, corresponding to signals of ~ 3-9 mV. RC filters with 10 ms time constants are used to reduce noise introduced by the plasma environment. The surface temperature corresponding to typical RMS noise levels is ~ 25 ^circC. Using a one-dimensional, semi-infinite slab model, parallel heat fluxes in the range of 50-500 MW/m^2 are estimated. A comparison with heat flux estimates from Langmuir probes located adjacent to the thermocouple array will be presented. Supported by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-78ET51013

  13. Zonal average earth radiation budget measurements from satellites for climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. S.; Haar, T. H. V.

    1976-01-01

    Data from 29 months of satellite radiation budget measurements, taken intermittently over the period 1964 through 1971, are composited into mean month, season and annual zonally averaged meridional profiles. Individual months, which comprise the 29 month set, were selected as representing the best available total flux data for compositing into large scale statistics for climate studies. A discussion of spatial resolution of the measurements along with an error analysis, including both the uncertainty and standard error of the mean, are presented.

  14. Measurements of Air Breakdown Process using 193 NM Focused Laser Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Thiyagarajan; J. Scharer; C. M. Denning; Siqi Luo

    2007-01-01

    Summary form only given. We report the measurements and analysis of air breakdown process by focusing 193 nm, 200 mJ, 10 MW high power UV laser radiation on to a 10-20 mum spot size that can produce a maximum laser intensity of 1012-1013 W\\/cm2, and well above the threshold flux for air ionization. The breakdown threshold is measured and compared

  15. Measurements of Air Breakdown and Scaling to Microwaves Using 193 nm Focused Laser Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Scharer; M. Thiyagarajan; C. M. Denning; Siqi Luo

    2007-01-01

    Summary form only given. The measurements and analysis of air breakdown processes by focusing 193 nm, 200 mJ, 10 MW high power UV laser radiation on to a 10-20 mum spot size that produces laser power densities up to 1012-1013 W\\/cm2, well above the threshold power flux for air ionization will be presented. The breakdown threshold is measured and compared

  16. A comparison of six methods for measuring soil-surface carbon dioxide fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, J. M.; Kucharik, C. J.; Gower, S. T.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Crill, P. M.; Rayment, M.; Savage, K.; Striegl, R. G.

    1997-12-01

    Measurements of soil-surface CO2 fluxes are important for characterizing the carbon budget of boreal forests because these fluxes can be the second largest component of the budget. Several methods for measuring soil-surface CO2 fluxes are available: (1) closed-dynamic-chamber systems, (2) closed-static-chamber systems, (3) open-chamber systems, and (4) eddy covariance systems. This paper presents a field comparison of six individual systems for measuring soil-surface CO2 fluxes with each of the four basic system types represented. A single system is used as a reference and compared to each of the other systems individually in black spruce (Picea mariana), jack pine (Pinus banksiana), or aspen (Populus tremuloides) forests. Fluxes vary from 1 to 10 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1. Adjustment factors to bring all of the systems into agreement vary from 0.93 to 1.45 with an uncertainty of about 10-15%.

  17. Measurement and assessment of radiation dose of astronauts in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Binquan; Sun, Yue-qiang; Yang, Chuibai; Zhang, Shenyi; Liang, Jinbao

    Astronauts in flight are exposed by the space radiation, which is mainly composed of proton, electron, heavy ion, and neutron. To assess the radiation risk, measurement and assessment of radiation dose of astronauts is indispensable. Especially, measurement for heavy ion radiation is most important as it contributes the major dose. Until now, most of the measurements and assessments of radiation dose of astronauts are based on the LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectrum of space radiation. However, according to the ICRP Publication 123, energy and charge number of heavy ions should be measured in order to assess space radiation exposure to astronauts. In addition, from the publication, quality factors for each organs or tissues of astronauts are different and they should be calculated or measured independently. Here, a method to measure the energy and charge number of heavy ion and a voxel phantom based on the anatomy of Chinese adult male are presented for radiation dose assessment of astronauts.

  18. Comparisons of Radiative Flux Distributions from Satellite Observations and Global Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, Ehrhard; Kinne, Stefan; Wild, Martin; Stackhouse, Paul; Rossow, Bill

    2014-05-01

    Radiative flux distributions at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface are compared between typical data from satellite observations and from global modeling. Averages of CERES, ISCCP and SRB data-products (for the same 4-year period) represent satellite observations. Central values of IPCC-4AR output (over a 12-year period) represent global modeling. At TOA, differences are dominated by differences for cloud-effects, which are extracted from the differences between all-sky and clear-sky radiative flux products. As satellite data are considered as TOA reference, these differences document the poor representation of clouds in global modeling, especially for low altitude clouds over oceans. At the surface the differences, caused by the different cloud treatment are overlaid by a general offset. Satellite products suggest a ca 15Wm-2 stronger surface net-imbalance (and with it stronger precipitation). Since surface products of satellite and modeling are based on simulations and many assumptions, this difference has remained an open issue. BSRN surface monitoring is too short and too sparsely distributed for clear answers to provide a reliable basis for validation.

  19. First TOA fluxes from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipe, A.; Bertrand, C.; Clerbaux, N.; Dewitte, S.; Gonzalez, L.

    2003-04-01

    The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument was launched last summer together with the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on board of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. This broadband radiometer aims to deliver near real-time estimates of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes in the shortwave (0.3 - 4 ?m) and the longwave (4 - 120 ?m) regions at high temporal resolution. The accuracy of the TOA fluxes is expected to be better than 10 {Wm}-2 for both channels. In this contribution, we shall discuss the strategies implemented in the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMIB) GERB Processing (RGP) in order to derive science datasets. This is achieved by the synergetic use of GERB and SEVIRI data. A quick view on the generated products with their main assets will follow. These products aims to be used by the climate and the numerical weather prediction scientific communities through assimilation in various models and climate studies.

  20. Accuracy of the relaxed eddy-accumulation technique, evaluated using CO 2 flux measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Pattey; R. L. Desjardins; P. Rochette

    1993-01-01

    A system capable of measuring the fluxes of trace gases was developed. It is based on a simpler version of the eddy-accumulation technique (EA), known as the relaxed eddy-accumulation technique (REA). It accumulates air samples associated with updrafts and downdrafts at a constant flow rate in two containers for later analysis of the trace gas mean concentration. The flux integration

  1. Balloon-borne measurements of the ultraviolet flux in the Arctic stratosphere during winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Cornelius; Mueller, Martin; Klein, Erich; Schmidt, Ulrich; Roeth, Ernst-Peter

    1994-01-01

    Filter radiometers sensitive from 280 to 320 nm and from 280 to 400 nm, respectively, were used for measurements of the actinic flux in the stratosphere. Since the instruments are calibrated for absolute spectral sensitivity the data can be compared with model calculations of the actinic flux. Data were obtained during seven balloon flights during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (EASOE).

  2. An assessment of corrections for eddy covariance measured turbulent fluxes over snow in mountain environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snow-covered complex terrain is an extremely important runoff generating landscape in high altitude and latitude environments, yet is often considered non-viable for eddy covariance measurements of turbulent fluxes. Turbulent flux data are useful for evaluating the coupled snow cover mass and energ...

  3. Interplanetary dust detection by radio antennas: Mass calibration and fluxes measured by STEREO/WAVES

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Interplanetary dust detection by radio antennas: Mass calibration and fluxes measured by STEREO/WAVES radio instrument onboard the two STEREO spacecraft near 1 A.U. during the period 2007­2010. The impact detection area compared to conventional dust detectors provides flux data with a better statistics. We show

  4. An Approximate Footprint Model for Flux Measurements in the Convective Boundary Layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiguo Wang; Kenneth J. Davis; Daniel M. Ricciuto; Martha P. Butler

    2006-01-01

    An explicit footprint model for flux measurements of passive scalars in the lower part of the convective boundary layer (CBL) is introduced. A simple footprint model is derived analytically in an idealized CBL. The simple model can simulate the overall characteristics of the flux footprint. Then a method is proposed to adjust the analytical solutions to those from a Lagrangian

  5. Measurements of Formaldehyde Fluxes in Houston, Texas Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a chemical compound that has

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    Measurements of Formaldehyde Fluxes in Houston, Texas Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a chemical compound - May 31, 2009. ·To determine the HCHO fluxes in Texas City from industrial sources ·To understand the production of HCHO in the area ·To contribute to models of the effects these industrial emissions have

  6. A Heat Flux Instrument for Measuring Venus Surface Heat Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauken, M.; Smrekar, S.

    2015-04-01

    An instrument has been developed to measure the surface heat flow on Venus. Heat flow measurement would provide a better understanding of the evolutionary development of Venus. The instrument uses a semiconductor thermopile to measure heat flow.

  7. Development of integrated high temperature sensor for simultaneous measurement of wall heat flux and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long; Wang, Jing; Fan, Xuejun

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, an integrated water-cooled sensor has been developed to simultaneously measure the heat flux and temperature at the wall of a scramjet combustor. The upgrade sensor was designed based on the principle of Gardon heat-flux gauge with many improvements. The sensor was well calibrated by both conductive heating sources and blackbody cavity device. The effects of structural material and dimensions on the sensor's responses were examined. Both the experimental measurements and numerical simulation were conducted and showed that the new sensor has the maximum measure ability of heat flux of 400 W/cm2 and stagnation temperatures up to 1920 K along with satisfactory response time.

  8. Measurement of advective soil gas flux: Results of field and laboratory experiments with CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Amonette, James E.; Barr, Jonathan L.; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Dobeck, Laura M.; Barr, Jamie L.; Shaw, Joseph A.

    2013-10-01

    We modified our multi-channel, steady-state flow-through (SSFT), soil-CO2 flux monitoring system to include an array of inexpensive pyroelectric non-dispersive infrared detectors for full-range (0-100%) coverage of CO2 concentrations without dilution, and a larger-diameter vent tube. We then conducted field testing of this system from late July through mid-September 2010 at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) project site located in Bozeman, MT, and subsequently, laboratory testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, WA using a flux bucket filled with dry sand. In the field, an array of twenty-five SSFT and three non-steady-state (NSS) flux chambers was installed in a 10x4 m area, the long boundary of which was directly above a shallow (2-m depth) horizontal injection well located 0.5 m below the water table. Two additional chambers (one SSFT and one NSS) were installed 10 m from the well for background measurements. Volumetric soil moisture sensors were installed at each SSFT chamber to measure mean levels in the top 0.15 m of soil. A total flux of 52 kg CO2 d-1 was injected into the well for 27 d and the efflux from the soil was monitored by the chambers before, during, and for 27 d after the injection. Overall, the results were consistent with those from previous years, showing a radial efflux pattern centered on a known “hot spot”, rapid responses to changes in injection rate and wind power, evidence for movement of the CO2 plume during the injection, and nominal flux levels from the SSFT chambers that were up to 6-fold higher than those measured by adjacent NSS chambers. Soil moisture levels varied during the experiment from moderate to near saturation with the highest levels occurring consistently at the hot spot. The effects of wind on measured flux were complex and decreased as soil moisture content increased. In the laboratory, flux bucket testing with the SSFT chamber showed large measured-flux enhancement due to the Venturi effect on the chamber vent, but an overall decrease in measured flux when wind also reached the sand surface. Flux-bucket tests at a high flux (comparable to that at the hot spot) also showed that the measured flux levels increase linearly with the chamber-flushing rate until the actual level is reached. At the SSFT chamber-flushing rate used in the field experiment the measured flux in the laboratory was only about a third of the actual flux. The ratio of measured to actual flux increased logarithmically as flux decreased, and reached parity at low levels typical of diffusive flux systems. Taken together, our results suggest that values for advective CO2 flux measured by SSFT and NSS chamber systems are likely to be significantly lower than the actual values due to back pressure developed in the chamber that diverts flux from entering the chamber. Chamber designs that counteract the back pressure and also avoid large Venturi effects associated with vent tubes, such as the SSFT with a narrow vent tube operated at a high chamber-flushing rate, are likely to yield flux measurements closer to the true values.

  9. Absolute beam flux measurement at NDCX-I using gold-melting calorimetry technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, P.A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Lidia, S.M.; Welch, J.

    2011-04-01

    We report on an alternative way to measure the absolute beam flux at the NDCX-I, LBNL linear accelerator. Up to date, the beam flux is determined from the analysis of the beam-induced optical emission from a ceramic scintilator (Al-Si). The new approach is based on calorimetric technique, where energy flux is deduced from the melting dynamics of a gold foil. We estimate an average 260 kW/cm2 beam flux over 5 {micro}s, which is consistent with values provided by the other methods. Described technique can be applied to various ion species and energies.

  10. Enhancing the precision and accuracy within and among AmeriFlux site measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Bev

    2013-11-25

    This is the final report for AmeriFlux QA/QC at Oregon State University. The major objective of this project is to contribute to the AmeriFlux network by continuing to build consistency in AmeriFlux measurements by addressing objectives stated in the AmeriFlux strategic plan and self evaluation, the North American Carbon Program, and the US Carbon Cycle Science Program. The project directly contributes to NACP and CCSP goals to establish an integrated, near-real time network of observations to inform climate change science.

  11. Incorporating spatial heterogeneity into the measurement of methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from a restored wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatala, J.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Kljun, N.; O'Connell, J.; Knox, S.; Verfaillie, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    Using eddy covariance data to interpret mechanistic controls on ecosystem fluxes from spatially heterogeneous land surfaces is challenging since the measured flux is the net result of multiple sources and/or sinks. This challenge is especially profound when measuring CH4 fluxes, which can vary by orders of magnitude on small spatial scales. In wetlands, plants couple ecosystem CO2 and CH4 fluxes both biologically and physically, so spatially heterogeneous vegetation patterns can exert strong controls on the production and release of CH4. We assessed the impact of spatial heterogeneity on CO2 and CH4 fluxes at a restored wetland in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta by combining a 2-D flux footprint model, repeat satellite imagery, and eddy covariance measurements of CO2 and CH4 fluxes from two towers (one mobile and one stationary). Using imagery from the high-resolution WorldView-2 satellite from May 2011 - September 2012, we characterized spatial changes in plant distribution and open water extent as vegetation expanded following restoration. By combing the satellite data and the 2-D flux footprint model, we assessed the impact of vegetation pattern and abundance on measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes. We then determined the CH4 flux contribution from areas covered by plants compared and areas of open water by using a spatial mixture model with simultaneous data collected at the two towers. This analysis demonstrates that remote sensing-eddy covariance data synthesis with multiple towers is a powerful tool for understanding landscape-scale CH4 fluxes in spatially heterogeneous ecosystems.

  12. Status of LDEF ionizing radiation measurements and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    The LDEF-1 results from the particle astrophysics, radiation environments, and dosimetry measurements on LDEF-1 are summarized, including highlights from presentations at the 2nd symposium. Progress in using LDEF data to improve radiation environment models and calculation methods is reviewed. Radiation effects, or the lack thereof are discussed. Future plans of the LDEF Ionizing Radiation Special Investigation Group are presented.

  13. Snowpack snow water equivalent measurement using the attenuation of cosmic gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Osterhuber, R. [Univ. of California, Soda Springs, CA (United States). Central Sierra Snow Lab.; Fehrke, F. [California Dept. of Water Resources, Sacramento, CA (United States); Condreva, K. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Incoming, background cosmic radiation constantly fluxes through the earth`s atmosphere. The high energy gamma portion of this radiation penetrates many terrestrial objects, including the winter snowpack. The attenuation of this radiation is exponentially related to the mass of the medium through which it penetrates. For the past three winters, a device measuring cosmic gamma radiation--and its attenuation through snow--has been installed at the Central Sierra Snow Laboratory, near Donner Pass, California. This gamma sensor, measuring energy levels between 5 and 15 MeV, has proved to be an accurate, reliable, non-invasive, non-mechanical instrument with which to measure the total snow water equivalent of a snowpack. This paper analyzes three winters` worth of data and discusses the physics and practical application of the sensor for the collection of snow water equivalent data from a remote location.

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, January 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D.L.

    2000-02-16

    The subject of this newsletter is the ARM unmanned aerospace vehicle program. The ARM Program's focus is on climate research, specifically research related to solar radiation and its interaction with clouds. The SGP CART site contains highly sophisticated surface instrumentation, but even these instruments cannot gather some crucial climate data from high in the atmosphere. The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense joined together to use a high-tech, high-altitude, long-endurance class of unmanned aircraft known as the unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV). A UAV is a small, lightweight airplane that is controlled remotely from the ground. A pilot sits in a ground-based cockpit and flies the aircraft as if he were actually on board. The UAV can also fly completely on its own through the use of preprogrammed computer flight routines. The ARM UAV is fitted with payload instruments developed to make highly accurate measurements of atmospheric flux, radiance, and clouds. Using a UAV is beneficial to climate research in many ways. The UAV puts the instrumentation within the environment being studied and gives scientists direct measurements, in contrast to indirect measurements from satellites orbiting high above Earth. The data collected by UAVs can be used to verify and calibrate measurements and calculated values from satellites, therefore making satellite data more useful and valuable to researchers.

  15. Eddy-covariance methane flux measurements over a European beech forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentsch, Lydia; Siebicke, Lukas; Knohl, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The role of forests in global methane (CH4) turnover is currently not well constrained, partially because of the lack of spatially integrative forest-scale measurements of CH4 fluxes. Soil chamber measurements imply that temperate forests generally act as CH4 sinks. Upscaling of chamber observations to the forest scale is however problematic, if the upscaling is not constrained by concurrent 'top-down' measurements, such as of the eddy-covariance type, which provide sufficient integration of spatial variations and of further potential CH4 flux components within forest ecosystems. Ongoing development of laser absorption-based optical instruments, resulting in enhanced measurement stability, precision and sampling speed, has recently improved the prospects for meaningful eddy-covariance measurements at sites with presumably low CH4 fluxes, hence prone to reach the flux detection limit. At present, we are launching eddy-covariance CH4 measurements at a long-running ICOS flux tower site (Hainich National Park, Germany), located in a semi natural, unmanaged, beech dominated forest. Eddy-covariance measurements will be conducted with a laser spectrometer for parallel CH4, H2Ov and CO2 measurements (FGGA, Los Gatos Research, USA). Independent observations of the CO2 flux by the FGGA and a standard Infrared Gas Analyser (LI-7200, LI-COR, USA) will allow to evaluate data quality of measured CH4 fluxes. Here, we want to present first results with a focus on uncertainties of the calculated CH4 fluxes with regard to instrument precision, data processing and site conditions. In future, we plan to compare eddy-covariance flux estimates to side-by-side turbulent flux observations from a novel eddy accumulation system. Furthermore, soil CH4 fluxes will be measured with four automated chambers situated within the tower footprint. Based on a previous soil chamber study at the same site, we expect the Hainich forest site to act as a CH4 sink. However, we hypothesize that our measurements might also reveal short CH4 emission periods when soils become water-saturated. Nonetheless, CH4 emissions by plants could also result in a close to neutral net CH4 flux.

  16. Modern Perspectives on Measuring and Interpreting Seafloor Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Robert N.; Fisher, Andrew; Ruppel, Carolyn; Martinez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The Future of Marine Heat Flow: Defining Scientific Goals and Experimental Needs for the 21st Century; Salt Lake City, Utah, 6-7 September 2007; There has been a resurgence of interest in marine heat flow in the past 10-15 years, coinciding with fundamental achievements in understanding the Earth's thermal state and quantifying the dynamics and impacts of material and energy fluxes within and between the lithosphere and hydrosphere. At the same time, technical capabilities have dwindled to the point that no U.S. academic institution currently operates a seagoing heat flow capacity.

  17. Simultaneous equatorial measurements of waves and precipitating electrons in the outer radiation belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhof, W. L.; Robinson, R. M.; Collin, H. L.; Wygant, J. R.; Anderson, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    Simultaneous wave and precipitating electron measurements near the equator in the outer radiation belt have been made from the CRRES satellite. The electron data of principal concern here were acquired in and about the loss cone with narrow angular resolution spectrometers covering the energy range 340 eV to 5 MeV. The wave data included electric field measurements spanning frequencies from 5 Hz to 400 kHz and magnetic field measurements from 5 Hz to 10 kHz. This paper presents examples in which the variations in electron fluxes in the loss cone and the wave intensities were correlated. These variations in electron flux were confined to pitch angles less than about 30 deg. The association between the flux enhancements and the waves is consistent with wave-induced pitch angle diffusion processes.

  18. Measurement of LNAPL flux using single-well intermittent mixing tracer dilution tests.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tim; Sale, Tom; Lyverse, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The stability of subsurface Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPLs) is a key factor driving expectations for remedial measures at LNAPL sites. The conventional approach to resolving LNAPL stability has been to apply Darcy's Equation. This paper explores an alternative approach wherein single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing are used to resolve LNAPL stability. As a first step, an implicit solution for single-well intermittent mixing tracer dilution tests is derived. This includes key assumptions and limits on the allowable time between intermittent mixing events. Second, single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing are conducted under conditions of known LNAPL flux. This includes a laboratory sand tank study and two field tests at active LNAPL recovery wells. Results from the sand tank studies indicate that LNAPL fluxes in wells can be transformed into formation fluxes using corrections for (1) LNAPL thicknesses in the well and formation and (2) convergence of flow to the well. Using the apparent convergence factor from the sand tank experiment, the average error between the known and measured LNAPL fluxes is 4%. Results from the field studies show nearly identical known and measured LNAPL fluxes at one well. At the second well the measured fluxes appear to exceed the known value by a factor of two. Agreement between the known and measured LNAPL fluxes, within a factor of two, indicates that single-well tracer dilution tests with intermittent mixing can be a viable means of resolving LNAPL stability. PMID:22489832

  19. Automated modeling of ecosystem CO2 fluxes based on closed chamber measurements: A standardized conceptual and practical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Jurisch, Nicole; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Hagemann, Ulrike; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Closed chamber measurements are widely used for determining the CO2 exchange of small-scale or heterogeneous ecosystems. Among the chamber design and operational handling, the data processing procedure is a considerable source of uncertainty of obtained results. We developed a standardized automatic data processing algorithm, based on the language and statistical computing environment R© to (i) calculate measured CO2 flux rates, (ii) parameterize ecosystem respiration (Reco) and gross primary production (GPP) models, (iii) optionally compute an adaptive temperature model, (iv) model Reco, GPP and net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and (v) evaluate model uncertainty (calibration, validation and uncertainty prediction). The algorithm was tested for different manual and automatic chamber measurement systems (such as e.g. automated NEE-chambers and the LI-8100A soil CO2 Flux system) and ecosystems. Our study shows that even minor changes within the modelling approach may result in considerable differences of calculated flux rates, derived photosynthetic active radiation and temperature dependencies and subsequently modeled Reco, GPP and NEE balance of up to 25%. Thus, certain modeling implications will be given, since automated and standardized data processing procedures, based on clearly defined criteria, such as statistical parameters and thresholds are a prerequisite and highly desirable to guarantee the reproducibility, traceability of modelling results and encourage a better comparability between closed chamber based CO2 measurements.

  20. Evolution of electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt computed with the VERB code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shprits, Yuri Y.; Subbotin, Dmitri; Ni, Binbin

    2009-11-01

    Three-dimensional simulations of the dynamics of outer radiation belt electrons with the recently developed Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code are presented. Simulations are preformed for an idealized storm with geomagnetic activity-dependent wave amplitudes that are parameterized as a function of the level of geomagnetic activity. Numerical experiments using the VERB code with various scattering processes (pitch angle diffusion, radial diffusion, and energy diffusion) indicate that diffusive processes are strongly coupled with each other and that they all should be included in realistic simulations of the radiation belts. We show that during storms, inward radial diffusion can produce significant accelerations to relativistic energies, while pitch angle scattering and energy diffusion produce a decrease and an increase in fluxes, respectively. We show that in the presence of high-latitude and low-latitude chorus, peaks in the radial profile of phase space density are formed between L of 4 and 6 during the recovery phase of a storm and are later smoothed by radial diffusion. Sensitivity experiments show that geomagnetic control of wave intensities plays a controlling role in the dynamics of radiation belt electrons. Numerical simulations indicate that electrons of 10-100 keV near geosynchronous orbit can reach MeV energies in the heart of the radiation belts by combined radial diffusion and in situ acceleration. We present two scenarios of acceleration of the plasma sheet electrons: (1) in the range of hundreds of keV by means of radial diffusion and (2) in the range of tens of keV by means of radial diffusion combined with local acceleration.

  1. Description of heat flux measurement methods used in hydrocarbon and propellant fuel fires at Sandia.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.

  2. The Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Solid Samples by Heat Flux Differantial Scanning Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kök, M.; Aydo?du, Y.

    2007-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of polyvinylchloride (PVC), polysytrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP) were measured by heat flux DSC. Our results are in good agreement with the results observed by different methods.

  3. Terrestrial Antineutrino Flux Measurements S.T. Dye,1,2

    E-print Network

    Learned, John

    Terrestrial Antineutrino Flux Measurements S.T. Dye,1,2 E.H. Guillian,3 and C. Lan3 1 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA 2 College of Natural

  4. Eddy covariance flux measurements of pollutant gases in urban Mexico City

    E-print Network

    Velasco, Erik

    Eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of the atmosphere/surface exchange of gases over an urban area are a direct way to improve and evaluate emissions inventories, and, in turn, to better understand urban atmospheric ...

  5. Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds from an Urban Tower Platform 

    E-print Network

    Park, Chang Hyoun

    2011-08-08

    combined with a dual-channel gas chromatography - flame ionization detection used for volatile organic compound (VOC) flux measurements in the urban area, focusing on the results of selected anthropogenic VOCs, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene...

  6. Impurity identifications, concentrations and particle fluxes from spectral measurements of the EXTRAP T2R plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menmuir, S.; Kuldkepp, M.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-10-01

    An absolute intensity calibrated 0.5 m spectrometer with optical multi-channel analyser detector was used to observe the visible-UV radiation from the plasma in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Spectral lines were identified indicating the presence of oxygen, chromium, iron and molybdenum impurities in the hydrogen plasma. Certain regions of interest were examined in more detail and at different times in the plasma discharge. Impurity concentration calculations were made using the absolute intensities of lines of OIV and OV measured at 1-2 ms into the discharge generating estimates of the order of 0.2% of ne in the central region rising to 0.7% of ne at greater radii for OIV and 0.3% rising to 0.6% for OV. Edge electron temperatures of 0.5-5 eV at electron densities of 5-10×1011 cm-3 were calculated from the measured relative intensities of hydrogen Balmer lines. The absolute intensities of hydrogen lines and of multiplets of neutral chromium and molybdenum were used to determine particle fluxes (at 4-5 ms into the plasma) of the order 1×1016, 7×1013 and 3×1013 particles cm-2 s-1, respectively.

  7. Space solar patrol absolute measurements of ionizing solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakyan, S.

    In 1996 - 2003 the experiment Space Solar Patrol has been built for permanent absolute measurements of the ionizing solar radiation from the full disk of the Sun. Every 72 seconds the solar spectrum from 0.14 nm to 198 nm will be recorded with the resolution of <1.0 nm. The Space Solar Patrol mission consists of the Radiometer and the grating Spectrometer. Two Spectrometers have been build - EUV-Spectrometer normal incidence and X/EUV-Spectrometer grazing incidence. EUV-Spectrometer employs a classical arrangement of the entrance and six exit slits on the Rowland circle at their "middle" position. The spectrum is scanned by rotating the diffraction grating through an angle of ± 1.9 relative to its middle position. The spectrometer is a scanning polychromator which covers a spectral range from 16 nm to 153 nm by five channels, each one having a bandwidth of about 35 nm and being equipped with its own exit slit and radiation detector. All working five channels for the EUV spectral region overlap so that all the most intense and important lines in the solar flux at 30.4, 58.4, 89-92 (near Lyman continuum), and 121.6 nm are detected twice during a 72-sec measuring cycle. The absolute fluxes are determined with the Radiometer whose 20 filters are all overlapping. With the first filter a permanent control of the sensitivity is carried out by making use of the isotope 55Fe (0.2 nm) source. Since the Radiometer pass bands near the L and M edges of absorption are wide, the EUV-Spectrometer is to be used for measurements of the spectrally resolved solar spectrum. In 2001 - 2003 a new type of X/EUV-Spectrometer of was build, which is characterized by an extremely wide spectral range (from 1.8 nm to 198 nm) and by a large dynamic range of the signal recording (>1\\cdot 106) at the same time. All working channels Spectrometers and Radiometer used open secondary electron multipliers, worked at the Vavilov State Optical Institute. These multipliers are ``solar blind'' for UV and visible light where the sensitiveness decreases by 1\\cdot 1010 times and more. The paper will present details of the Space Solar Patrol apparatus. The methodology of the absolute spectral measurements as well as the calibration including the application of a synchrotron source will also be described. This work is supported by the International Science and Technology Center, Moscow (Projects # 385, 385B, 1523, and 2500).

  8. Simulating the Compton-Getting effect for hydrogen flux measurements: Implications for IBEX-Hi and -Lo observations

    SciTech Connect

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Schwadron, N. A., E-mail: eric.zirnstein@uah.edu [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX), launched in 2008 October, has improved our understanding of the solar wind-local interstellar medium interaction through its detection of neutral atoms, particularly that of hydrogen (H). IBEX is able to create full maps of the sky in six-month intervals as the Earth orbits the Sun, detecting H with energies between ?0.01 and 6 keV. Due to the relative motion of IBEX to the solar inertial frame, measurements made in the spacecraft frame introduce a Compton-Getting (CG) effect, complicating measurements at the lowest energies. In this paper we provide results from a numerical simulation that calculates fluxes of H atoms at 1 AU in the inertial and spacecraft frames (both ram and anti-ram), at energies relevant to IBEX-Hi and -Lo. We show theory behind the numerical simulations, applying a simple frame transformation to derived flux equations that provides a straightforward way to simulate fluxes in the spacecraft frame. We then show results of H energetic neutral atom fluxes simulated at IBEX-Hi energy passbands 2-6 in all frames, comparing with IBEX-Hi data along selected directions, and also show results simulated at energies relevant to IBEX-Lo. Although simulations at IBEX-Hi energies agree reasonably well with the CG correction method used for IBEX-Hi data, we demonstrate the importance of properly modeling low energy H fluxes due to inherent complexities involved with measurements made in moving frames, as well as dynamic radiation pressure effects close to the Sun.

  9. Measuring planetary neutron albedo fluxes by remote gamma-ray sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Metzger, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    In order to measure the planetary neutron albedo fluxes, a neutron-absorbing shield which emits gamma rays of characteristic energy and serves as a neutron detector, is added to a gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS). The gamma rays representing the neutron flux are observed against interference consisting of cosmic gamma rays, planetary continuum and line emission, and gamma rays arising from the interaction of cosmic rays with the GRS and the spacecraft. The uncertainty and minimum detection limits in neutron albedo fluxes are calculated for two missions, a lunar orbiter and a comet nucleus rendezvous. A GRS on a lunar orbiter at 100 km altitude detects a thermal neutron albedo flux as low as 0.002/sq cm/s and an expected flux of about 0.6/sq cm/s is measured with an uncertainty of 0.001/sq cm/s, for a 100 h observation period. For the comet nucleus, again in a 100 h observing period, a thermal neutron albedo flux is detected at a level of 0.006/sq cm/s and an expected flux of about 0.4/sq cm/s is measured with an uncertainty of 0.004/sq cm/s. The expanded geological capabilities made possible by this technique include improvements in H sensitivity, spatial resolution, and measurement depth; and an improved model of induced gamma-ray emission.

  10. Nightside electron flux measurements at Mars by the Phobos-2 HARP instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shutte, N.; Gringauz, K.; Kiraly, P.; Kotova, G.; Nagy, A. F.; Rosenbauer, H.; Szego, K.; Verigin, M.

    1995-01-01

    All the available nightside electron data obtained during circular orbits at Mars from the Phobos-2 Hyperbolic Retarded Potential Analyzer (HARP) instrument have been examined in detail and are summarized in this paper. An electron flux component with energies exceeding that of the unperturbed solar wind was observed inside the magnetosheath, indicating the presence of acceleration mechanism(s). The character of the electron fluxes measured in the magnetotail cannot be classified in any simple manner, however, there is a correlation between the electron fluxes measured well inside this region and the unperturbed solar wind ram pressure.

  11. Estimating regional methane surface fluxes: the relative importance of surface and GOSAT mole fraction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, A.; Palmer, P. I.; Feng, L.; Boesch, H.; Cogan, A.; Parker, R.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Fraser, P. J.; Krummel, P. B.; Langenfelds, R. L.; O'Doherty, S.; Prinn, R. G.; Steele, L. P.; van der Schoot, M.; Weiss, R. F.

    2013-06-01

    We use an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), together with the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model, to estimate regional monthly methane (CH4) fluxes for the period June 2009-December 2010 using proxy dry-air column-averaged mole fractions of methane (XCH4) from GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) and/or NOAA ESRL (Earth System Research Laboratory) and CSIRO GASLAB (Global Atmospheric Sampling Laboratory) CH4 surface mole fraction measurements. Global posterior estimates using GOSAT and/or surface measurements are between 510-516 Tg yr-1, which is less than, though within the uncertainty of, the prior global flux of 529 ± 25 Tg yr-1. We find larger differences between regional prior and posterior fluxes, with the largest changes in monthly emissions (75 Tg yr-1) occurring in Temperate Eurasia. In non-boreal regions the error reductions for inversions using the GOSAT data are at least three times larger (up to 45%) than if only surface data are assimilated, a reflection of the greater spatial coverage of GOSAT, with the two exceptions of latitudes >60° associated with a data filter and over Europe where the surface network adequately describes fluxes on our model spatial and temporal grid. We use CarbonTracker and GEOS-Chem XCO2 model output to investigate model error on quantifying proxy GOSAT XCH4 (involving model XCO2) and inferring methane flux estimates from surface mole fraction data and show similar resulting fluxes, with differences reflecting initial differences in the proxy value. Using a series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) we characterize the posterior flux error introduced by non-uniform atmospheric sampling by GOSAT. We show that clear-sky measurements can theoretically reproduce fluxes within 10% of true values, with the exception of tropical regions where, due to a large seasonal cycle in the number of measurements because of clouds and aerosols, fluxes are within 15% of true fluxes. We evaluate our posterior methane fluxes by incorporating them into GEOS-Chem and sampling the model at the location and time of surface CH4 measurements from the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) network and column XCH4 measurements from TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network). The posterior fluxes modestly improve the model agreement with AGAGE and TCCON data relative to prior fluxes, with the correlation coefficients (r2) increasing by a mean of 0.04 (range: -0.17 to 0.23) and the biases decreasing by a mean of 0.4 ppb (range: -8.9 to 8.4 ppb).

  12. Ground truth data for test sites (SL-3). [solar radiation and thermal radiation brightness temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Field measurements performed simultaneously with Skylab overpasses in order to provide comparative calibration and performance evaluation measurements for the EREP sensors are presented. The solar radiation region from 400 to 1300 nanometers and the thermal radiation region from 8 to 14 micrometer region were investigated. The measurements of direct solar radiation were analyzed for atmospheric optical depth; the total and reflected solar radiation were analyzed for target reflectivity. These analyses were used in conjunction with a radiative transfer computer program in order to calculate the amount and spectral distribution of solar radiation at the apertures of the EREP sensors. The instrumentation and techniques employed, calibrations and analyses performed, and results obtained are discussed.

  13. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, April 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-05-03

    Intensive Observation Period Projects Scheduled--Several IOP projects have been scheduled for the SGP CART site this spring. These projects either have already begun or will begin shortly. Radiosondes--The RS-90 Transition IOP is currently under way. The RS-90 model radiosonde is gradually replacing the older RS-80 model. Radiosondes are instrument packages attached to and launched by weather balloons. The instruments measure atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity as the balloon rises through the air. The new RS-90 model is a high-performance radiosonde with fast-response sensors capable of providing data for each variable every second. The relatively environmentally friendly package is constructed of cardboard and steel rather than Styrofoam, and it has a water-activated battery that contains no toxic substances. The RS-90 Transition IOP is taking place during April. Operators will launch both the old RS-80 and the new RS-90 radiosondes simultaneously once each day to obtain duplicate vertical profiles of the atmosphere for comparison. This procedure will also allow data users to test the output from the old and new radiosondes in models. Narrow Field of View (NFOV) Solar Spectrometer Cloud Optical Depth Retrieval Campaign--The NFOV IOP is scheduled to take place on May 7-August 31, 2001. A researcher from Pennsylvania State University will be deploying a dual-spectrometer instrument that measures the hemispheric flux and zenith NFOV radiance over a wavelength range of 300- 1000 nanometers. (One nanometer equals 1 billionth of a meter or 0.000000039 inches.) This wavelength range includes the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared spectra. These measurements are used to estimate cloud optical depth--a quantity related to the amount of solar radiation intercepted by a cloud--for broken cloud fields over vegetated surfaces. The IOP measurements will be compared with optical depth measurements made by SGP instruments. Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation Campaign--Researchers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California will be deploying instruments at the CART site in May. Portable micrometeorology towers will be used to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide, water, and heat between the surface and the atmosphere. The exchange of these constituents varies with regional climate, soil type, and surface vegetation. Greater knowledge will improve the accuracy of computer models (and hence predictions) of the exchanges. Measurements made with the portable instruments will be compared with measurements being collected by instruments at the central facility. AWS Campaign--The State University of New York at Albany will deploy an oxygen A-band and water vapor band spectrometer (AWS) at the CART site on May 20-June 30, 2001. Measurements made by the AWS will be used to determine absorption of radiation by water vapor within clouds, a quantity important to understanding the behavior of solar radiation as it passes through clouds.

  14. Comparison of general circulation models to Earth Radiation Budget Experiment data - Computation of clear-sky fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, Robert D.; Potter, Gerald L.; Gates, W. L.; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques; Corsetti, Lisa

    1992-01-01

    A clear-sky flux computation method is described which is representative of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment data processing, while at the same time being enough straightforward for implementation in a general circulation model (GCM). The method is a hybrid version of Cess and Potter (1987) Method I and Method II clear-sky top-of-the-atmosphere flux computations for GCMs. The procedure is demonstrated using the ECMWF GCM.

  15. Simulated Airborne Flux Measurements in a LES generated Convective Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, M.; Bange, J.; Raasch, S.

    One aim of past boundary-layer experiments with aircraft was the determination of areally averaged heat fluxes. In spite ofsophisticated instrumentation the measured fluxes extrapolated to the ground differed significantly from fluxes measured directly at ground stations. This studypresents simulated sensible heat flux measurements with aircraft flightsthrough a synthetic convective boundary layer created by a401 × 401 × 42 cubic-grid large eddy simulation (LES) with agrid spacing of 50 m. After some considerations with respect to necessary measurement lengths using results ofLenschow and Stankov (1986 - J. Atmos. Sci. 43, 1198-1209), simulated measurementcampaigns were carried out in three modelruns. During each model run five sets ofmeasurement runs were carried out successively.During each set of runs 10 aircraftflew at 10 altitudes with a ground speedof 100 m s-1 simultaneously throughtime and space. In total, 150 legs were carried out, 15 at each flight level. The resulting`measured' heat fluxes were compared withthose of the `true' flux profiles obtaineddirectly from the ensemble-averagedLES-generated data. No significant systematic error between `measured' and `true' profiles was observed. Furthermore, the comparison of the resulting relative error with the theory ofLenschow and Stankov showed a good agreement at allmeasurement levels.

  16. Photoabsorption cross section of CH3CN - Photodissociation rates by solar flux and interstellar radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masako Suto; L. C. Lee

    1985-01-01

    The photoabsorption cross section of CH2CN vapor was measured in the 106-180 nm region using synchrotron radiation as a light source. The cross section and the quantum yield for the production of CN (A, B-X) fluorescence were measured and were used to infer the photodissociation cross section of CH3CN. The cross sections were used to calculate the photodissociation rates of

  17. Radiative Transfer Effects and Convective Collapse: Size-Strength Distribution for the Small-scale Solar Magnetic Flux Tubes

    E-print Network

    S. Rajaguru; Siraj S. Hasan

    1999-01-12

    The effects of radiative energy exchange on the convective instability of a weak field magnetic structure, which lead to a prediction and a physical explanation of the magnetic flux dependent field strength, are examined in detail using a real model stratification for the photospheric and convection zone structure of the Sun. Adopting the generalised Eddington approximation for the radiative transfer, which is valid both in the optically thick and the thin limits, we model the lateral radiative energy exchange by the tube with the external medium with a self-consistent inclusion of vertical radiative losses.

  18. PENETRATING RADIATION MEASUREMENT BY IONIZATION OF A PARTICLE BEARING AEROSOL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rich

    1963-01-01

    A radiation-measuring device is described wherein an aerosol-particle-; bearing gaseous sample of a known concentration is exposed to the radiation to be ; measured so that the aerosol particles are charged by the ionizing effect of the ; radiation to an extent determined by the intensity of the radiation. The charged ; aerosol-particle fraction is reMoved by passing the sample

  19. Measuring radiative capture rates at DRAGON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, U.; Davids, B.; Fallis, J.; Greife, U.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Rojas, A.; Ruiz, C.

    2013-04-01

    The DRAGON recoil separator facility is located at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF, Vancouver. It is designed to measure radiative alpha and proton capture reactions of astrophysical importance in inverse kinematics. The Supernanogan ion source at ISAC provides stable beams of high intensities. The DRAGON collaboration has taken advantage of this over the last years by measuring several reactions requiring high-intensity stable oxygen beams. In particular,the ^17O(p,?) and ^16O(?,?) reaction rates were recently measured. The former reaction is part of the hot CNO cycle, and strongly influences the abundance of ^18F in classical novae. Because of its relatively long lifetime, ^18F is a possible target for satellite-based gamma-ray spectroscopy. The ^16O(?,?) reaction plays a role in steady-state helium burning in massive stars, where it follows the ^12C(?,?) reaction. At astrophysically relevant energies, the reaction proceeds exclusively via direct capture, resulting in a low rate. In both cases, the unique capabilities of DRAGON enabled determination not only of the total reaction rates, but also of decay branching ratios. Results from both experiments will be presented.

  20. Climate monitoring with Earth radiation budget measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, S.; Clerbaux, N.; Ipe, A.; Velazquez, A.; Baudrez, E.; Nevens, S.; Decoster, I.

    2013-05-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) and its geographical distribution is intimately linked with the earth's climate and with the general circulation. We analyze 10 years of global Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements from 2000 to 2010 and 8 years of diurnally resolved Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) from 2004 to 2011 to illustrate this link and to verify if we can detect climate variability or systematic change. In response to the diurnal wave of solar heating three tropical convection maxima exist over South America, Africa, and around Indonesia. The Indonesian convection maximum is unstable due to a lack of a stabilizing land mass; this is the root cause of the El Ni?o/La Ni?a inter-annual variation with a global pattern of teleconnected variations through the general Walker circulation. Since 2000 a change in global dynamics seems to have occurred. There was a general strengthening of La Ni?a, coinciding with a `break in global temperature rise', and with an `eastern dimming', i.e. an increase of aerosols over Asia. There is a resemblance to the period of `western dimming' from 1945 to 1980, and a contrast with the period of global temperature rise and El Ni?o strengthening from 1980 to 2000. It is of paramount importance that the suspected link between the eastern dimming, the strengthening of La Ni?a and the break in global temperature rise is thoroughly investigated. This can best be done by a move of a satellite of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) series over the Indian Ocean. MSG provides diurnally resolved measurements of the key variables of the ERB, clouds and aerosols, and of the auxiliary variables of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and static stability.

  1. Application of an energy balance correction method for turbulent flux measurements based on buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babel, Wolfgang; Charuchittipan, Doojdao; Zhao, Peng; Biermann, Tobias; Gatzsche, Kathrin; Foken, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The energy imbalance in flux measurements between the atmosphere and the surface is a well-known problem, but unsolved due to the complexity of possible reasons and potential error sources. In order to provide unbiased budgets, however, eddy-covariance measurements of sensible and latent heat flux should be corrected according to the closure gap. Recent studies utilising turbulent flux data and LES models suggest that the transport of the missing turbulent flux is triggered by meso-scale circulations, not detected by eddy-covariance measurements within typical averaging intervals of 30 minutes. These motions on longer timescales are driven by buoyancy, suggesting that the missing turbulent flux is a missing buoyancy flux. Based on this assumption we present an energy balance closure correction method according to the buoyancy flux. The effects are compared with the results obtained by the commonly used correction according to the Bowen ratio (Twine et al., Agr. Forest Meteorol., 2000). We show that in general both correction methods could be applied to daytime fluxes and conditions with positive Bowen ratios. Finally the corrected turbulent fluxes are compared with different simulations of SVAT-type models for Tibetan grassland sites and a central European spruce forest site. The model performance with respect to the used data correction method is linked to the different mechanism of closing the energy balance within the model. Model validation requires energy balance closure correction in case the model relies on the energy balance equation. We conclude that mechanistic model development of turbulent flux parameterisations should recognize the recent hypotheses concerning the energy balance closure rather than fitting just to the uncorrected eddy-covariance data.

  2. A flux-gradient system for simultaneous measurement of the CH4, CO2, and H2O fluxes at a lake-air interface.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei; Liu, Shoudong; Li, Hanchao; Xiao, Qitao; Wang, Wei; Hu, Zhenghua; Hu, Cheng; Gao, Yunqiu; Shen, Jing; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Mi; Lee, Xuhui

    2014-12-16

    Inland lakes play important roles in water and greenhouse gas cycling in the environment. This study aims to test the performance of a flux-gradient system for simultaneous measurement of the fluxes of water vapor, CO2, and CH4 at a lake-air interface. The concentration gradients over the water surface were measured with an analyzer based on the wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy technology, and the eddy diffusivity was measured with a sonic anemometer. Results of a zero-gradient test indicate a flux measurement precision of 4.8 W m(-2) for water vapor, 0.010 mg m(-2) s(-1) for CO2, and 0.029 ?g m(-2) s(-1) for CH4. During the 620 day measurement period, 97%, 69%, and 67% of H2O, CO2, and CH4 hourly fluxes were higher in magnitude than the measurement precision, which confirms that the flux-gradient system had adequate precision for the measurement of the lake-air exchanges. This study illustrates four strengths of the flux-gradient method: (1) the ability to simultaneously measure the flux of H2O, CO2, and CH4; (2) negligibly small density corrections; (3) the ability to resolve small CH4 gradient and flux; and (4) continuous and noninvasive operation. The annual mean CH4 flux (1.8 g CH4 m(-2) year(-1)) at this hypereutrophic lake was close to the median value for inland lakes in the world (1.6 g CH4 m(-2) year(-1)). The system has adequate precision for CH4 flux for broad applications but requires further improvement to resolve small CO2 flux in many lakes. PMID:25377990

  3. Measurements of high-energy neutron and proton fluxes on-board "Mir-Spectr" orbital complex.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, M I; Bogomolov, A V; Bogomolov, V V; Denisov YuI; Svertilov, S I

    1998-01-01

    The measurements of high-energy neutron (with energies approximately 30-300 MeV) and proton (with energies approximately 1-200 MeV) fluxes are being conducted on-board "Mir-Spectr" orbital complex. Neutrons are detected by the undirected (FOV approximately 4 pi sr) scintillator spectrometer, consisting of 4 identical CsI(T1) detector units (the effective area for neutrons approximately 30 cm2). The gamma-quanta, which can be also detected by this instrument, are separated from neutrons by the analysis of the scintillator output pulse shape. To exclude registration of charged particles an anticoincidence plastic scintillator shield is realized in each detector unit. The proton fluxes are measured by the telescope based on 3 semiconductor detectors with small geometry factor (approximately 1 cm2 x sr). As the first result of the experiment the upper limit of the integral flux of local and albedo neutrons in the equatorial region (L<1. 1) was estimated. The results of this measurements can be useful for the radiation security. Also, the neutrons of solar flares can be detected in this experiment. PMID:11542900

  4. Flux measurements of CA II H and K emission. [from stellar chromospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, A. H.; Preston, G. W.; Wilson, O. C.

    1978-01-01

    A four-channel photon-counting spectrophotometer (designated HKP-2) is described which is designed for measuring stellar chromospheric calcium emission. The HKP-2 is calibrated, and its performance and accuracy evaluated, by observing 63 of Wilson's (1968) program stars on the same nights with both the HKP-2 and a coude scanner designated HKP-1. The results of the observations are discussed in terms of the calibration of mean H-K flux indices, variations in individual stellar fluxes, the flux ratio for H and K, and the instrument color index. It is shown that the HKP-2 provides satisfactory performance in the measurement of stellar chromospheric emission in a manner closely analogous to the method of Wilson and that a single observation yields a color index as well as flux indices for H and K that can be calibrated and transferred unambiguously to Wilson's system of measurement.

  5. Sounding rocket measurement of the absolute solar EUV flux utilizing a silicon photodiode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogawa, H. S.; Mcmullin, D.; Judge, D. L.; Canfield, L. R.

    1990-01-01

    A newly developed stable and high quantum efficiency silicon photodiode was used to obtain an accurate measurement of the integrated absolute magnitude of the solar extreme UV photon flux in the spectral region between 50 and 800 A. The adjusted daily 10.7-cm solar radio flux and sunspot number were 168.4 and 121, respectively. The unattenuated absolute value of the solar EUV flux at 1 AU in the specified wavelength region was 6.81 x 10 to the 10th photons/sq cm per s. Based on a nominal probable error of 7 percent for National Institute of Standards and Technology detector efficiency measurements in the 50- to 500-A region (5 percent on longer wavelength measurements between 500 and 1216 A), and based on experimental errors associated with the present rocket instrumentation and analysis, a conservative total error estimate of about 14 percent is assigned to the absolute integral solar flux obtained.

  6. Analysis of field measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Shashi B.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of the field measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes is discussed. These data were examined in conjunction with reflectance obtained from helicopter mounted Modular Multiband Radiometer. These measurements are representative of the canopy scale (10 to 100 m)(exp 2) and provide a good basis for investigating the hypotheses/relationship potentially useful in remote sensing applications. All the micrometeorological data collected during FIFE-89 were processed and fluxes of CO2, water vapor, and sensible heat were calculated. Soil CO2 fluxes were also estimated. Employing these soil CO2 flux values, in conjunction with micrometeorological measurements, canopy photosynthesis is being estimated. A biochemical model of leaf photosynthesis was adapted to the prairie vegetation. The modeled leaf photosynthesis rates were scaled up to the canopy level. This model and a multiplicative stomatal conductance model are also used to calculate canopy conductance.

  7. Surface Catalysis and Oxidation on Stagnation Point Heat Flux Measurements in High Enthalpy Arc Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Driver, David M.; Terrazas-Salinas

    2013-01-01

    Heat flux sensors are routinely used in arc jet facilities to determine heat transfer rates from plasma plume. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of surface composition changes on these heat flux sensors. Surface compositions can change due to oxidation and material deposition from the arc jet. Systematic surface analyses of the sensors were conducted before and after exposure to plasma. Currently copper is commonly used as surface material. Other surface materials were studied including nickel, constantan gold, platinum and silicon dioxide. The surfaces were exposed to plasma between 0.3 seconds and 3 seconds. Surface changes due to oxidation as well as copper deposition from the arc jets were observed. Results from changes in measured heat flux as a function of surface catalycity is given, along with a first assessment of enthalpy for these measurements. The use of cupric oxide is recommended for future heat flux measurements, due to its consistent surface composition arc jets.

  8. Measurement of the vertical cosmic muon flux in a region of large rigidity cutoff

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pham Ngoc Dinh; Nguyen Tien Dung; Bui Duc Hieu; Nguyen Phuc; Pham Trung Phuong; Pierre Darriulat; Dang Quang Thieu; Vo Van Thuan

    2002-01-01

    The vertical cosmic muon flux has been measured in Hanoi using a segmented scintillator hodoscope. It is the first measurement performed at VATLY, a cosmic ray laboratory recently created in Vietnam and installed in the premises of the Institute for Nuclear Sciences and Techniques. The measurement, performed at sea level in a region where the geomagnetic rigidity cutoff reaches 17 GV,

  9. Charged Particle Measurements with the Mars Science Laboratory's Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehresmann, B.; Hassler, D.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Kohler, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Appel, J. K.; Boehm, E.; Böttcher, S. I.; Brinza, D. E.; Burmeister, S.; Guo, J.; Lohf, H.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Matthiae, D.; Posner, A.; Rafkin, S. C.; Reitz, G.

    2014-12-01

    Since the Curiosity rover's landing in Gale crater on the surface of Mars, the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on board the rover has been conducting the first-ever measurements of the Martian surface radiation field. This field is induced by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and their interactions with the atoms of the Martian atmosphere and soil. Furthermore, sporadic Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events can lead to large, but short-term enhancements in the intensity of the radiation field. A large part of the radiation environment is made up of charged particles, e.g., ions and their isotopes, electrons, and positrons amongst others. There are mainly two factors influencing the surface radiation field: the modulation of the incoming GCR flux due to the solar magnetic field correlating with the solar cycle; the amount of atmospheric column mass above Gale crater resulting in changes of GCR penetration depth into the atmosphere, as well as influencing the secondary particle production rate. Here, we focus on the temporal evolution of the radiation environment since the landing, analyzing changes in the measured particle spectra for different phases in the Martian seasonal cycle and solar activity. Furthermore, we present enhancements in the proton flux during directly observed SEP events.

  10. Albedo and flux extinction coefficient of impure snow for diffuse shortwave radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Mo, T.; Wang, J. R.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1981-01-01

    Impurities enter a snowpack as a result of fallout of scavenging by falling snow crystals. Albedo and flux extinction coefficient of soot contaminated snowcovers were studied using a two stream approximation of the radiative transfer equation. The effect of soot was calculated by two methods: independent scattering by ice grains and impurities and average refractive index for ice grains. Both methods predict a qualitatively similar effect of soot; the albedo is decreased and the extinction coefficient is increased compared to that for pure snow in the visible region; the infrared properties are largely unaffected. Quantitatively, however, the effect of soot is more pronounced in the average refractive index method. Soot contamination provides a qualitative explanation for several snow observations.

  11. Measurements on radiation shielding efficacy of Polyethylene and Kevlar in the ISS (Columbus)

    PubMed Central

    Di Fino, L.; Larosa, M.; Zaconte, V.; Casolino, M.; Picozza, P.; Narici, L.

    2014-01-01

    The study and optimization of material effectiveness as radiation shield is a mandatory step toward human space exploration. Passive radiation shielding is one of the most important element in the entire radiation countermeasures package. Crewmembers will never experience direct exposure to space radiation; they will be either inside some shelter (the spacecraft, a ‘base’) or in an EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) suit. Understanding the radiation shielding features of materials is therefore an important step toward an optimization of shelters and suits construction in the quest for an integrated solution for radiation countermeasures. Materials are usually tested for their radiation shielding effectiveness first with Monte Carlo simulations, then on ground, using particle accelerators and a number of specific ions known to be abundant in space, and finally in space. Highly hydrogenated materials perform best as radiation shields. Polyethylene is right now seen as the material that merges a high level of hydrogenation, an easiness of handling and machining as well as an affordable cost, and it is often referred as a sort of ‘standard’ to which compare other materials' effectiveness. Kevlar has recently shown very interesting radiation shielding properties, and it is also known to have important characteristics toward debris shielding, and can be used, for example, in space suits. We have measured in the ISS the effectiveness of polyethylene and kevlar using three detectors of the ALTEA system [ 1– 3] from 8 June 2012 to 13 November 2012, in Express Rack 3 in Columbus. These active detectors are able to provide the radiation quality parameters in any orbital region; being identical, they are also suitable to be used in parallel (one for the unshielded baseline, two measuring radiation with two different amounts of the same material: 5 and 10 g/cm2). A strong similarity of the shielding behavior between polyethylene and kevlar is documented. We measured shielding providing as much as ?40% reduction for high Z ions. In Fig. 1, the integrated behavior (3 ?LET ? 350 keV/µm) is shown (ratios with the baseline measurements with no shield) both for polyethylene and kevlar, in flux, dose and dose equivalent. The measured reductions in dose for the 10 g/cm2 shields for high LET (>50 keV/µm, not shown in the figure) are in agreement with what found in accelerator measurements (Fe, 1 GeV) [4]. The thinner shielding (5 g/cm2) in our measurements performs ?2% better (in unit areal density). Fig. 1.Integrated behavior (3 ? LET ? 350 keV/?m) of Flux, Dose and Equivalent Dose. The ratios with the baseline measurements with no shield are shown, both for Kevlar and Polyethylene as measured with the two different material thicknesses.

  12. A scintillating fission detector for neutron flux measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Esch, Ernst I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burgett, Eric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; May, Iain [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muenchausen, Ross E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taw, Felicia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tovesson, Fredrik K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Neutron flux monitors are commonly used for a variety of nuclear physics applications. A scintillating neutron detector, consisting of a liquid scintillator loaded with fissionable material, has been developed, characterized, and tested in the beam line at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, and shows a significant improvement in neutron sensitivity compared with a conventional fission chamber. Recent research on nanocomposite-based scintillators for gamma-ray detection indicates that this approach can be extended to load nanoparticles of fissionable material into a scintillating matrix, with up to three orders of magnitude higher loading than typical fission chambers. This will result in a rugged, cost-efficient detector with high efficiency, a short signal rise time, and the ability to be used in low neutron-flux environments. Initial efforts to utilize the luminescence of uranyl oxide to eliminate the need for wavelength-shifting dyes were unsuccessful. Excitation of uranyl compounds has been reported at wavelengths ranging from 266 nm to 532 nm. However, neither the 300 nm emission of toluene, nor the 350 nm emission of PPO, nor the 410 nm emission of POPOP resulted in significant excitation of and emission by uranyl oxide. As indicated by UV/visible spectroscopy, light emitted at these wavelengths was absorbed by the colored solution. {sup 235}U remains the most attractive candidate for a fissionable scintillator, due to its high fission cross-section and lack of a threshold fission energy, but all solutions containing molecular uranium compounds will be colored, most more highly than the U{sup 6+} compounds used here. Research is therefore continuing toward the fabrication of uranium nanoparticles, in which, due to Rayleigh scattering, the coloration should be less pronounced. The characterization of the thorium-loaded liquid scintillator and the fabrication of the 100 mL detectors for use at LANSCE demonstrated the feasibility of loading fissionable material into a liquid scintillator. Analysis of beam line experiments using the thorium-loaded scintillator is underway to determine the fission event rate in the detector, for comparison with a conventional fission chamber as well as with an unloaded liquid scintillator.

  13. Energetic ion diagnostics using neutron flux measurements during pellet injection

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron measurements during injection of deuterium pellets into deuterium plasmas on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) indicate that the fractional increase in neutron emission about 0.5 msec after pellet injection is proportional to the fraction of beam-plasma reactions to total fusion reactions in the unperturbed plasma. These observations suggest three diagnostic applications of neutron measurements during pellet injection: (1) measurement of the beam-plasma reaction rate in deuterium plasmas for use in determining the fusion Q in an equivalent deuterium-tritium plasma, (2) measurement of the radial profile of energetic beam ions by varying the pellet size and velocity, and (3) measurement of the ''temperature'' of ions accelerated during wave heating. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Measurement of emission fluxes from Technical Area 54, Area G and L. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, B. [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-03-15

    The emission flux (mass/time-area) of tritiated water from TA-54 was measured to support the characterization of radioactive air emissions from waste sites for the Radioactive Air Emissions Management (RAEM) program and for the Area G Performance Assessment. Measurements were made at over 180 locations during the summers of 1993 and 1994, including randomly selected locations across Area G, three suspected areas of contamination at Area G, and the property surrounding TA-54. The emission fluxes of radon were measured at six locations and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at 30 locations. Monitoring was performed at each location over a several-hour period using the U.S. EPA flux chamber approach. Separate samples for tritiated water, radon, and VOCs were collected and analyzed in off-site laboratories. The measured tritiated water emission fluxes varied over several orders of magnitude, from background levels of about 3 pCi/m{sup 2}-min to 9.69 x 10{sup 6} pCi/m{sup 2}-min near a disposal shaft. Low levels of tritiated water were found to have migrated into Pajarito Canyon, directly south of Area G. The tritium flux data were used to generate an estimated annual emission rate of 14 Curies/yr for all of Area G, with the majority of this activity being emitted from relatively small areas adjacent to several disposal shafts. The estimated total annual release is less than 1% of the total tritium release from all LANL in 1992 and results in a negligible off-site dose. Based on the limited data available, the average emission flux of radon from Area G is estimated to be 8.1 pCi/m{sup 2}-min. The measured emission fluxes of VOCs were < 100 {mu}g/m{sup 2}-min, which is small compared with fluxes typically measured at hazardous waste landfills. The air quality impacts of these releases were evaluated in a separate report.

  15. Comparing convective heat fluxes derived from thermodynamics to a radiative-convective model and GCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Chirag; Renner, Maik; Kleidon, Axel

    2015-04-01

    The convective transport of heat and moisture plays a key role in the climate system, but the transport is typically parameterized in models. Here, we aim at the simplest possible physical representation and treat convective heat fluxes as the result of a heat engine. We combine the well-known Carnot limit of this heat engine with the energy balances of the surface-atmosphere system that describe how the temperature difference is affected by convective heat transport, yielding a maximum power limit of convection. This results in a simple analytic expression for convective strength that depends primarily on surface solar absorption. We compare this expression with an idealized grey atmosphere radiative-convective (RC) model as well as Global Circulation Model (GCM) simulations at the grid scale. We find that our simple expression as well as the RC model can explain much of the geographic variation of the GCM output, resulting in strong linear correlations among the three approaches. The RC model, however, shows a lower bias than our simple expression. We identify the use of the prescribed convective adjustment in RC-like models as the reason for the lower bias. The strength of our model lies in its ability to capture the geographic variation of convective strength with a parameter-free expression. On the other hand, the comparison with the RC model indicates a method for improving the formulation of radiative transfer in our simple approach. We also find that the latent heat fluxes compare very well among the approaches, as well as their sensitivity to surface warming. What our comparison suggests is that the strength of convection and their sensitivity in the climatic mean can be estimated relatively robustly by rather simple approaches.

  16. Field intercomparison of four methane gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltola, O.; Mammarella, I.; Haapanala, S.; Burba, G.; Vesala, T.

    2013-06-01

    Performances of four methane gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance measurements are assessed. The assessment and comparison was performed by analyzing eddy covariance data obtained during summer 2010 (1 April to 26 October) at a pristine fen, Siikaneva, Southern Finland. High methane fluxes with pronounced seasonality have been measured at this fen. The four participating methane gas analyzers are commercially available closed-path units TGA-100A (Campbell Scientific Inc., USA), RMT-200 (Los Gatos Research, USA), G1301-f (Picarro Inc., USA) and an early prototype open-path unit Prototype-7700 (LI-COR Biosciences, USA). The RMT-200 functioned most reliably throughout the measurement campaign, during low and high flux periods. Methane fluxes from RMT-200 and G1301-f had the smallest random errors and the fluxes agree remarkably well throughout the measurement campaign. Cospectra and power spectra calculated from RMT-200 and G1301-f data agree well with corresponding temperature spectra during a high flux period. None of the gas analyzers showed statistically significant diurnal variation for methane flux. Prototype-7700 functioned only for a short period of time, over one month, in the beginning of the measurement campaign during low flux period, and thus, its overall accuracy and season-long performance were not assessed. The open-path gas analyzer is a practical choice for measurement sites in remote locations due to its low power demand, whereas for G1301-f methane measurements interference from water vapor is straightforward to correct since the instrument measures both gases simultaneously. In any case, if only the performance in this intercomparison is considered, RMT-200 performed the best and is the recommended choice if a new fast response methane gas analyzer is needed.

  17. Methyl halide fluxes from tropical plants under controlled radiation and temperature regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blei, Emanuel; Yokouchi, Yoko; Saito, Takuya; Nozoe, Susumu

    2015-04-01

    Methyl halides (CH3Cl, CH3Br, CH3I) contribute significantly to the halogen burden of the atmosphere and have the potential to influence the stratospheric ozone layer through their catalytic effect in the Chapman cycle. As such they have been studied over the years, and many plants and biota have been examined for their potential to act as a source of these gases. One of the potentially largest terrestrial sources identified was tropical vegetation such as tropical ferns and Dipterocarp trees. Most of these studies concentrated on the identification and quantification of such fluxes rather than their characteristics and often the chambers used in these studies were either opaque or only partially transparent to the full solar spectrum. Therefore it is not certain to which degree emissions of methyl halides are innate to the plants and how much they might vary due to radiation or temperature conditions inside the enclosures. In a separate development it had been proposed that UV-radiation could cause live plant materials to be become emitters of methane even under non-anoxic conditions. As methane is chemically very similar to methyl halides and had been proposed to be produced from methyl-groups ubiquitously found in plant cell material there is a relatively good chance that such a production mechanism would also apply to methyl halides. To test whether radiation can affect elevated emissions of methyl halides from plant materials and to distinguish this from temperature effects caused by heat build-up in chambers a set of controlled laboratory chamber enclosures under various radiation and temperature regimes was conducted on four different tropical plant species (Magnolia grandiflora, Cinnamonum camphora, Cyathea lepifera, Angiopteris lygodiifolia), the latter two of which had previously been identified as strong methyl halide emitters. Abscised leaf samples of these species were subjected to radiation treatments such UV-B, UV-A and broad spectrum radiation similar to natural sunlight without the UV-component and the emissions were compared to dark enclosures. Parallel to this temperature effects were studied in dark enclosures as well. The presentation will discuss the outcome of these experiments and what conclusions can be drawn from them.

  18. Sources and measurement of ultraviolet radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian L. Diffey

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The biological effects of UV radiation vary enormously with wavelength and for this reason the UV spectrum is further subdivided into three regions: UVA, UVB, and UVC. Quantities of UV radiation are expressed using radiometric terminology. A particularly important term in clinical photobiology is the standard erythema dose (SED), which is

  19. EMI Radiated Noise Measurement System Using the Source Reconstruction Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta MarÍa Hernando; Arturo Fernandez; Manuel Arias; Miguel Rodriguez; Yuri Alvarez; Fernando Las-Heras

    2008-01-01

    One of the requirements that electronics circuits must satisfy comprises conducted and irradiated noise specifications. Whereas conducted noise is well covered in the literature, radiated noise is not. Radiated noise regulations impose limits on the noise measured 3 or 10 m away from electronic equipment. These measurements are usually made in anechoic rooms, which are very expensive. Moreover, the measurement

  20. Growth and yield characteristics of 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce under different photon fluxes from metal halide or incandescent + fluorescent radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Sharon L.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    1988-01-01

    Growth of 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce under metal halide radiation was compared with that under In = Fl at the same photosynthetic photon flux (920 micromol/s/sq m) to evaluate the influence of lamp type on growth. No differences in leaf dry weight, leaf area, relative growth rate or photosynthesis occurred after 8 days of exposure to these radiation treatments for 20 h/day.

  1. Vibrational density of states of thin films measured by inelastic scattering of synchrotron radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Rohlsberger, R.

    1998-09-18

    Vibrational spectra of thin films were measured by inelastic nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotrons radiation in grazing incidence geometry. A strong enhancement of the inelastic signal was obtained by designing the layer system as x-ray waveguide and coupling the incident beam into a guided mode. This effect opens the possibility to study vibrational excitations in thin films that were so far impossible to obtain due to flux limitations.

  2. ELF-magnetic flux densities measured in a city environment in summer and winter.

    PubMed

    Straume, Aksel; Johnsson, Anders; Oftedal, Gunnhild

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated a connection between extremely low frequency magnetic flux densities above 0.4 microT (time weighted average) and childhood leukemia risks. This conclusion is based mainly on indoor exposure measurements. We therefore regarded it important to map outdoor magnetic flux densities in public areas in Trondheim, Norway. Because of seasonal power consumption variations, the fields were measured during both summer and winter. Magnetic flux density was mapped 1.0 m above the ground along 17 km of pavements in downtown Trondheim. The spectrum was measured at some spots and the magnetic flux density emanated mainly from the power frequency of 50 Hz. In summer less than 4% of the streets showed values exceeding 0.4 microT, increasing to 29% and 34% on cold and on snowy winter days, respectively. The average levels were 0.13 microT (summer), 0.85 microT (winter, cold), and 0.90 microT (winter, snow), with the highest recorded value of 37 microT. High spot measurements were usually encountered above underground transformer substations. In winter electric heating of pavements also gave rise to relatively high flux densities. There was no indication that the ICNIRP basic restriction was exceeded. It would be of interest to map the flux density situation in other cities and towns with a cold climate. PMID:17786926

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, T

    2004-10-31

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

  4. Heat and mass flux measurement from thermal infrared imagery: Example of the Soufrière Volcano (Guadeloupe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, D.; Beauducel, F.; Finizola, A.; Allemand, P.; Delacourt, C.; Richon, P.; Coutant, O.; de Chabalier, J.

    2012-12-01

    The estimation of mass and heat emissions is crucial for volcano monitoring. These fluxes may be diffuse or concentrated on precise zones of the volcano : gas fumaroles, thermal anomalies, hot springs. The total flux evolution is good indicator of the volcanic activity global behavior, while local flux at focused zones may help to characterize the hydrothermal system. However, large-scale surveys using classical methods are difficult to carry on, since field conditions may prevent permanent instrument installation. Thermal infrared pictures (7.5 - 14 ?m) can be used to map temperatures of surfaces and gases. In this study, we investigated relationships between temperature anomalies and heat flux, in order to evaluate the potential of thermal imagery for volcano monitoring. Two surveys have been achieved in 2010 and 2012 on la Soufrière Volcano (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles), both by airborne and handled thermal cameras. We first calibrate the uncooled microbolometers cameras, then we correct images from atmospheric absorption according to sensor elevation and atmospheric humidity, pressure and temperature. To correct effects of surface reflexion, we estimate surface emissivity and incoming flux at surface. Finally, the absolute precision of measurements is 2 K while the relative sensitivity is about 0.2 K. In order to estimate the total heat flux, we map thermal anomalies on the volcano edifice by overlapping infrared airborne images on visible orthorectified images. Active zones are clearly identified at the top (actives and potential fumaroles) and on the slopes (former active fumaroles and hot springs). At the summit active fumaroles, we estimate the mass flux of gas by measuring the panache dilution into the atmosphere. Indeed, it is shown that temperature profile along the plume is a function of the wind velocity, distance and mass flux at the source vent. Measured fluxes of 30 m3/s for the South Crater and 5 m3/s for the Tarissan Pit are estimated, and compared to other methods results. At the Ty Fault thermal anomaly (low flux fumarolian zone), we conducted an experiment to estimate the heat flux from thermal gradient anomaly at surface. This implies the measurement of external parameters describing the atmosphere dynamics (surface roughness, wind velocity, rainfall, etc.). We validate our interpretative model of surface flux with in situ vertical temperature gradient measurements. The surface flux is integrated over all spatial areas to provide the total flux of the zone. Our measurements on La Soufrière Volcano show that the fluxes emitted in hot springs and in sub-fumarolian zones (1.5 MW for the Ty Fault zone) represents a few percents of the total budget of heat (50 MW). However, the evolution of the localization and of the power of different heat sources shows a clear evolution from 2010 to 2012, with an increase of the summit activity and a decrease of the peripheral sub-fumarolian heat flux. These observations are in good agreement with the seismic, tectonic and geochemical observations, showing a pressurization of the volcano since 1997. Finally, thermal infrared imaging enables a precise mapping of mass and heat fluxes. It has a great potential in volcano monitoring, because of its ease of use, and the large variety of measurements which can be achieved from a single image.

  5. Methane fluxes measured by eddy covariance at a temperate upland forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Murphy, J. G.; Winsborough, C. L.; Basiliko, N.; Geddes, J. A.; Thomas, S.

    2012-12-01

    Methane flux measurements were carried out at a temperate upland forest in Central Ontario, Haliburton Forest and Wildlife Reserve (45.28° N, 78.55° W) using the eddy covariance (EC) method. An off-axis integrated cavity output spectrometer (OA-ICOS) Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyzer (FGGA from Los Gatos Research, Inc.) operated at a sampling rate of 10 Hz allowed for simultaneous measurement of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water (H2O) over five months from June to October in 2011. Air was pulled from the top of a 32 m tower, 8 m above the forest canopy, to the bottom of the tower through 40 m of tubing to the instrument. A sonic anemometer and a LI-7500 open-path sensor were also used at the top of the tower to provide high frequency wind data and comparative open-path measurements of CO2 and H2O. A nearby soil station measured soil water content and soil temperature at 0, 3, and 10 cm below the surface. Observed methane fluxes showed net uptake of CH4 over the measurement period with an average uptake flux value (± standard deviation of the mean) of -2.7±0.13 nmol m-2 s-1. In early June when measurements commenced, the soil moisture was relatively high and CH4 flux values showed net emission. As the season advanced the soil became progressively drier, and there was an increasing trend in CH4 uptake, peaking in mid-September. There was also a diurnal trend in the CH4 flux, with increased uptake during the day, and decreased uptake between 0:00 and 08:00. The CH4 flux values correlated well with the horizontal wind speed measured within the forest canopy. We hypothesize that this may be due to a ventilation effect in which higher wind speed facilitates the introduction of CH4-rich air and removes CH4-depleted air near the methanotrophs in the soil. The measurements were made in an uneven-aged managed forest stand last harvested 15 years ago containing sandy and acidic soils (pH 4.0 - 5.0). Chamber flux measurements of CH4 were also performed at seven toposequences around the tower, every two weeks from June to October. These chamber flux values are qualitatively consistent with those measured by eddy covariance in terms of magnitude and seasonality. While the flux measurements indicate net uptake by soils, the diurnal cycle of mixing ratios often showed nighttime accumulation of methane, indicating that over the broader landscape around the tower, emissions may dominate.

  6. Soft defect printability: correlation to optical flux-area measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Darren; Fiekowsky, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Soft defects on photomasks have, historically, been difficult to measure, and predict how the measured size of a soft defect will correlate to what prints, if at all. Over the past few years KLA-Tencor STARlight surface inspection has become the inspection of choice for soft defects. Though the capture rate of this tool is exceptional, the defect sizing capability has lacked in accuracy. Customer specifications have traditionally been built around defect size and transmission. If a given defect cannot be accurately sized then it cannot be accurately dispositioned. In this study we are attempting to show a correlation between the AVI defect measurement tool sizing and what actually prints on the wafer. We will show defect sizing both from the KLA-Tencor STARlight and pattern tools, the AVI tool, AIMS and VSS printability data.

  7. Can CO2 Turbulent Flux Be Measured by Lidar? A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Fabien; Koch, Grady; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, Timothy W.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Flamant, Pierre H.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical profiling ofCO2 turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is investigated using a coherent differential absorption lidar (CDIAL) operated nearby a tall tower in Wisconsin during June 2007. A CDIAL can perform simultaneous range-resolved CO2 DIAL and velocity measurements. The lidar eddy covariance technique is presented. The aims of the study are (i) an assessment of performance and current limitation of available CDIAL for CO2 turbulent fluxes and (ii) the derivation of instrument specifications to build a future CDIAL to perform accurate range-resolved CO2 fluxes. Experimental lidar CO2 mixing ratio and vertical velocity profiles are successfully compared with in situ sensors measurements. Time and space integral scales of turbulence in the ABL are addressed that result in limitation for time averaging and range accumulation. A first attempt to infer CO2 fluxes using an eddy covariance technique with currently available 2-mm CDIAL dataset is reported.

  8. Improved Eddy Flux Measurements by Open-Path Gas Analyzer and Sonic Anemometer Co-Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoev, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    A novel instrument design combines the sensing paths of an open-path gas analyzer and a 3-D sonic anemometer and integrates the sensors in a single aerodynamic body. Common electronics provide fast-response, synchronized measurements of wind vector, sonic temperature, CO2 and H2O densities, and atmospheric pressure. An instantaneous CO2 mixing ratio, relative to dry air, is computed in real time. The synergy of combined sensors offers an alternative to the traditional density-based flux calculation method historically used for standalone open-path analyzers. A simple method is described for a direct, in-situ, mixing-ratio-based flux calculation. The method consists of: (i) correcting sonically derived air temperature for humidity effects using instantaneous water vapor density and atmospheric pressure measurements, (ii) computing water vapor pressure based on water-vapor density and humidity-corrected sonic temperature, (iii) computing fast-response CO2 mixing ratio based on CO2 density, sonic temperature, water vapor, and atmospheric pressures, and (iv) computing CO2 flux from the covariance of the vertical wind speed and the CO2 mixing ratio. Since CO2 mixing ratio is a conserved quantity, the proposed method simplifies the calculations and eliminates the need for corrections in post-processing by accounting for temperature, water-vapor, and pressure-fluctuation effects on the CO2 density. A field experiment was conducted using the integrated sensor to verify performance of the mixing-ratio method and to quantify the differences with density-derived CO2 flux corrected for sensible and latent-heat fluxes. The pressure term of the density corrections was also included in the comparison. Results suggest that the integrated sensor with co-located sonic and gas sensing paths and the mixing-ratio-based method minimize or eliminate the following uncertainties in the measured CO2 flux: (i) correcting for frequency-response losses due to spatial separation of measured quantities, (ii) correcting sonically-derived, sensible-heat flux for humidity, (iii) correcting latent-heat flux for sensible-heat flux and water-vapor self-dilution, (iv) correcting CO2 flux for sensible- and latent-heat fluxes, (v) correcting CO2 flux for pressure-induced density fluctuations.

  9. Pool size measurements facilitate the determination of fluxes at branching points in non-stationary metabolic flux analysis: the case of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Heise, Robert; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Stitt, Mark; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Pool size measurements are important for the estimation of absolute intracellular fluxes in particular scenarios based on data from heavy carbon isotope experiments. Recently, steady-state fluxes estimates were obtained for central carbon metabolism in an intact illuminated rosette of Arabidopsis thaliana grown photoautotrophically (Szecowka et al., 2013; Heise et al., 2014). Fluxes were estimated therein by integrating mass-spectrometric data of the dynamics of the unlabeled metabolic fraction, data on metabolic pool sizes, partitioning of metabolic pools between cellular compartments and estimates of photosynthetically inactive pools, with a simplified model of plant central carbon metabolism. However, the fluxes were determined by treating the pool sizes as fixed parameters. Here we investigated whether and, if so, to what extent the treatment of pool sizes as parameters to be optimized in three scenarios may affect the flux estimates. The results are discussed in terms of benchmark values for canonical pathways and reactions, including starch and sucrose synthesis as well as the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation and oxygenation reactions. In addition, we discuss pathways emerging from a divergent branch point for which pool sizes are required for flux estimation, irrespective of the computational approach used for the simulation of the observable labeling pattern. Therefore, our findings indicate the necessity for development of techniques for accurate pool size measurements to improve the quality of flux estimates from non-stationary flux estimates in intact plant cells in the absence of alternative flux measurements.

  10. Pool size measurements facilitate the determination of fluxes at branching points in non-stationary metabolic flux analysis: the case of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Heise, Robert; Fernie, Alisdair R; Stitt, Mark; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Pool size measurements are important for the estimation of absolute intracellular fluxes in particular scenarios based on data from heavy carbon isotope experiments. Recently, steady-state fluxes estimates were obtained for central carbon metabolism in an intact illuminated rosette of Arabidopsis thaliana grown photoautotrophically (Szecowka et al., 2013; Heise et al., 2014). Fluxes were estimated therein by integrating mass-spectrometric data of the dynamics of the unlabeled metabolic fraction, data on metabolic pool sizes, partitioning of metabolic pools between cellular compartments and estimates of photosynthetically inactive pools, with a simplified model of plant central carbon metabolism. However, the fluxes were determined by treating the pool sizes as fixed parameters. Here we investigated whether and, if so, to what extent the treatment of pool sizes as parameters to be optimized in three scenarios may affect the flux estimates. The results are discussed in terms of benchmark values for canonical pathways and reactions, including starch and sucrose synthesis as well as the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation and oxygenation reactions. In addition, we discuss pathways emerging from a divergent branch point for which pool sizes are required for flux estimation, irrespective of the computational approach used for the simulation of the observable labeling pattern. Therefore, our findings indicate the necessity for development of techniques for accurate pool size measurements to improve the quality of flux estimates from non-stationary flux estimates in intact plant cells in the absence of alternative flux measurements. PMID:26082786

  11. Wind tunnels vs. flux chambers: Area source emission measurements and the necessity for VOC and odour correction factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind tunnels and flux chambers have been used to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC), odour, and ammonia (NH3) with little regard to air velocity or sweep air flow rates. As a result, flux measurements have been highly variable and scientists have been in disagreement as to the better...

  12. Solar flare neutron fluxes derived from interplanetary charged particle measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Evenson; R. Kroeger; P. Meyer; D. Muller

    1983-01-01

    The first observation of interplanetary protons produced by the decay of solar neutrons made by Evenson et al. (1983) after a solar flare which occurred on June 3, 1982, is expanded, extending the measurement of the spectrum of the decay protons to higher energy. The spectrum of the decay protons for the June 21, 1980, neutron event observed by Chupp

  13. Lidar Based Particulate Flux Measurements of Agricultural Field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-wavelength portable scanning lidar system was developed to derive information on particulate spatial aerosol distribution over remote distances. The lidar system and retrieval approach has been tested during several field campaigns measuring agricultural emissions from a swine feeding operat...

  14. Combining meteorology, eddy fluxes, isotope measurements, and modeling to understand

    E-print Network

    Ehleringer, Jim

    * *Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA, wDepartment of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA, USA, zLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Earth Sciences Division factors (i.e. vapor pressure deficit) and simulated dR as measured in ecosystem surveys of dR. Therefore

  15. A Local Heat Flux Measurement Technique for Inclined Heat Exchanger Tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Wu; K. Vierow

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the design, fabrication, and calibration of thermocouple pairs for local heat flux measurement. The intended application of the thermocouple pairs is on the tubes of phase-change heat exchangers experiencing heat fluxes on the order of 10 W\\/m. Particular advantages of this technique are that it is accurate even for thin-wall tubes, there are no restrictions on the

  16. Spatially explicit regionalization of airborne flux measurements using environmental response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, S.; Junkermann, W.; Mauder, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Trancón y Widemann, B.; Neidl, F.; Schäfer, K.; Wieneke, S.; Zheng, X. H.; Schmid, H. P.; Foken, T.

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize the sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat exchange for different land covers in the heterogeneous steppe landscape of the Xilin River catchment, Inner Mongolia, China. Eddy-covariance flux measurements at 50-100 m above ground were conducted in July 2009 using a weight-shift microlight aircraft. Wavelet decomposition of the turbulence data enables a spatial discretization of 90 m of the flux measurements. For a total of 8446 flux observations during 12 flights, MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) in each flux footprint are determined. Boosted regression trees are then used to infer an environmental response function (ERF) between all flux observations (H, LE) and biophysical (LST, EVI) and meteorological drivers. Numerical tests show that ERF predictions covering the entire Xilin River catchment (?3670 km2) are accurate to ?18% (1 ?). The predictions are then summarized for each land cover type, providing individual estimates of source strength (36 W m-2 < H < 364 W m-2, 46 W m-2 < LE < 425 W m-2) and spatial variability (11 W m-2 < ?H < 169 W m-2, 14 W m-2 < ?LE < 152 W m-2) to a precision of ?5%. Lastly, ERF predictions of land cover specific Bowen ratios are compared between subsequent flights at different locations in the Xilin River catchment. Agreement of the land cover specific Bowen ratios to within 12 ± 9% emphasizes the robustness of the presented approach. This study indicates the potential of ERFs for (i) extending airborne flux measurements to the catchment scale, (ii) assessing the spatial representativeness of long-term tower flux measurements, and (iii) designing, constraining and evaluating flux algorithms for remote sensing and numerical modelling applications.

  17. Spatial resolution and regionalization of airborne flux measurements using environmental response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, S.; Junkermann, W.; Mauder, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Trancón y Widemann, B.; Neidl, F.; Schäfer, K.; Wieneke, S.; Zheng, X. H.; Schmid, H. P.; Foken, T.

    2012-11-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize the sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat exchange for different land covers in the heterogeneous steppe landscape of the Xilin River Catchment, Inner Mongolia, China. Eddy-covariance flux measurements at 50-100 m above ground were conducted in July 2009 using a weight-shift microlight aircraft. Wavelet decomposition of the turbulence data enables a spatial discretization of 90 m of the flux measurements. For a total of 8446 flux observations during 12 flights, MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) in each flux footprint are determined. Boosted regression trees are then used to infer an environmental response function (ERF) between all flux observations (H, LE) and biophysical- (LST, EVI) and meteorological drivers. Numerical tests show that ERF predictions covering the entire Xilin River Catchment (? 3670 km2) are accurate to ? 18%. The predictions are then summarized for each land cover type, providing individual estimates of source strength (36 W m-2 < H < 364 W m-2, 46 W m-2 < LE < 425 W m-2) and spatial variability (11 W m-2 < ?H < 169 W m-2, 14 W m-2 < ?LE < 152 W m-2) to a precision of ? 5%. Lastly, ERF predictions of land cover specific Bowen ratios are compared between subsequent flights at different locations in the Xilin River Catchment. Agreement of the land cover specific Bowen ratios to within 12 ± 9% emphasizes the robustness of the presented approach. This study indicates the potential of ERFs for (i) extending airborne flux measurements to the catchment scale, (ii) assessing the spatial representativeness of long-term tower flux measurements, and (iii) designing, constraining and evaluating flux algorithms for remote sensing and numerical modelling applications.

  18. Automated gas chromatographic analysis system for micrometeorological measurements of trace gas fluxes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. M. Arah; I. J. Crichton; K. A. Smith; H. Clayton; U. Skiba

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution analytical techniques are required for micrometeorological measurement of trace gas fluxes. By adding to a standard gas chromatograph (GC), a programmable autoinjector built in the laboratory at a total material cost of about $8k, we were able to attain the precision necessary to detect N2O and CH4 fluxes of the order of 2 nmol\\/sq m\\/s. Ten to fifteen repeated

  19. Field intercomparison of four methane gas analysers suitable for eddy covariance flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltola, O.; Mammarella, I.; Haapanala, S.; Burba, G.; Vesala, T.

    2012-12-01

    Performances of four methane gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance measurements are assessed. The assessment and comparison was performed by analyzing eddy covariance data obtained during summer 2010 (1 April to 26 October) at a pristine fen, Siikaneva, Southern Finland. High methane fluxes with pronounced seasonality have been measured at this fen. The four participating methane gas analyzers are commercially available closed-path units TGA-100A (Campbell Scientific Inc., USA), RMT-200 (Los Gatos Research, USA), G1301-f (Picarro Inc., USA) and an early prototype open-path unit Prototype-7700 (LI-COR Biosciences, USA). The RMT-200 functioned most reliably throughout the measurement campaign, during low and high flux periods. Methane fluxes from RMT-200 and G1301-f had the smallest random errors and the fluxes agree remarkably well throughout the measurement campaign. Cospectra and power spectra calculated from RMT-200 and G1301-f data agree well with corresponding temperature spectra during a high flux period. None of the gas analysers showed statistically significant diurnal variation for methane flux. Prototype-7700 functioned only for a short period of time, over one month, in the beginning of the measurement campaign during low flux period, and thus, its overall accuracy and long-term performance were not assessed. Prototype-7700 is a practical choice for measurement sites in remote locations due to its low power demand, however if only the performance in this intercomparison is considered, RMT-200 performed the best and is the recommended choice if a new fast response methane gas analyser is needed.

  20. Radiation measured for MATROSHKA-1 experiment with passive dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Semones, E.; O'Sullivan, D.; Zapp, N.; Weyland, M.; Reitz, G.; Berger, T.; Benton, E. R.

    2010-01-01

    The radiation field in low Earth orbit (LEO) and deep space is complicated. The radiation impact on astronauts depends strongly on the particles' linear energy transfer (LET) and is dominated by high LET radiation. Radiation risk is a key concern for human space flight and can be estimated with radiation LET spectra measured for the different organs of an astronaut phantom. At present the best passive personal dosimeters used for astronauts are thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) for low LET and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for high LET. CR-39 PNTDs, TLDs and OSLDs were used for the MATROSHKA-1 experiment to measure radiation experienced by astronauts outside the international space station (ISS). LET spectra and radiation field quantities (differential and integral fluence, absorbed dose and dose equivalent) were measured for the different organs and skin locations of the MAROSHKA phantom using CR-39 PNTDs and TLDs. The spectra and results can be used to determine the radiation quantities for astronaut's extra vehicular activity (EVA) and for the further in-depth study of the radiation risk for astronauts. Sensitivity fading of CR-39 detectors was observed for the MATROSHKA experiment and a practical method was developed to correct it. This paper presents the radiation LET spectra measured with CR-39 PNTDs and the total radiation quantities combined from results measured with CR-39 PNTDs and TLDs.

  1. Radiation measured with different dosimeters during STS-121 space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Semones, E.; Gaza, R.; Johnson, S.; Zapp, N.; Weyland, M.; Rutledge, R.; Lin, T.

    2009-02-01

    Radiation impact to astronauts depends on the particles' linear energy transfer (LET) and is dominated by high LET radiation. Radiation risk experienced by astronauts can be determined with the radiation LET spectrum measured and the risk response function obtained from radiobiology. Systematical measurement of the space radiation is an important part for the research on the impact of radiation to astronauts and to make the radiation ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). For NASA space missions at low Earth orbit (LEO), the active dosimeter used for all LET is the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and the passive dosimeters used for the astronauts and for the monitored areas are the combination of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for high LET and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLDs) for low LET. TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs and TLDs/OSLDs were used to measure the radiation during STS-121 space mission. LET spectra and radiation quantities were obtained with active and passive dosimeters. This paper will introduce the physical principles for TEPC and CR-39 detectors, the LET spectrum method for radiation measurement using CR-39 detectors and TEPC, and will present and compare the radiation LET spectra and quantities measured with TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs and TLDs/OSLDs.

  2. Measurement uncertainties in quantifying aeolian mass flux: evidence from wind tunnel and field site data.

    PubMed

    Poortinga, Ate; Keijsers, Joep G S; Maroulis, Jerry; Visser, Saskia M

    2014-01-01

    Aeolian sediment traps are widely used to estimate the total volume of wind-driven sediment transport, but also to study the vertical mass distribution of a saltating sand cloud. The reliability of sediment flux estimations from such measurements are dependent upon the specific configuration of the measurement compartments and the analysis approach used. In this study, we analyse the uncertainty of these measurements by investigating the vertical cumulative distribution and relative sediment flux derived from both wind tunnel and field studies. Vertical flux data was examined using existing data in combination with a newly acquired dataset; comprising meteorological data and sediment fluxes from six different events, using three customized catchers at Ameland beaches in northern Netherlands. Fast-temporal data collected in a wind tunnel shows that the median transport height has a scattered pattern between impact and fluid threshold, that increases linearly with shear velocities above the fluid threshold. For finer sediment, a larger proportion was transported closer to the surface compared to coarser sediment fractions. It was also shown that errors originating from the distribution of sampling compartments, specifically the location of the lowest sediment trap relative to the surface, can be identified using the relative sediment flux. In the field, surface conditions such as surface moisture, surface crusts or frozen surfaces have a more pronounced but localized effect than shear velocity. Uncertainty in aeolian mass flux estimates can be reduced by placing multiple compartments in closer proximity to the surface. PMID:25071984

  3. Wind Tunnel Measurement of Turbulent and Advective Scalar Fluxes: A Case Study on Intersection Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Kuka?ka, Libor; Nosek, Št?pán; Kellnerová, Radka; Jur?áková, Klára; Ja?our, Zbyn?k

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine processes of pollution ventilation in the X-shaped street intersection in an idealized symmetric urban area for the changing approach flow direction. A unique experimental setup for simultaneous wind tunnel measurement of the flow velocity and the tracer gas concentration in a high temporal resolution is assembled. Advective horizontal and vertical scalar fluxes are computed from averaged measured velocity and concentration data within the street intersection. Vertical advective and turbulent scalar fluxes are computed from synchronized velocity and concentration signals measured in the plane above the intersection. All the results are obtained for five approach flow directions. The influence of the approach flow on the advective and turbulent fluxes is determined. The contribution of the advective and turbulent flux to the ventilation is discussed. Wind direction with the best dispersive conditions in the area is found. The quadrant analysis is applied to the synchronized signals of velocity and concentration fluctuation to determine events with the dominant contribution to the momentum flux and turbulent scalar flux. PMID:22649290

  4. Measurement of KL0 flux at the J-PARC neutral-kaon beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, K.; Baek, K. Y.; Comfort, J.; Iwai, E.; Kawasaki, N.; Ko, J. W.; Komatsubara, T. K.; Lee, J. W.; Lim, G. Y.; Maeda, Y.; Masuda, T.; Naito, D.; Nakaya, Y.; Nanjo, H.; Nomura, T.; Sasaki, M.; Sasao, N.; Sato, K.; Shimogawa, T.; Sugiyama, Y.; Tajima, Y.; Takahashi, G.; Togawa, M.; Watanabe, H.; Yamanaka, T.; Yanagida, Y.; Yoshida, H. Y.

    2012-02-01

    We describe the KL0 flux measurements performed at the J-PARC neutral-kaon beam line. This beam line was constructed for an experiment aiming to observe the CP-violating rare decay KL0??0??¯. The primary proton energy was 30 GeV and the KL0 production angle was 16°. Prior to the physics run, the KL0 flux and spectrum were measured by counting KL0??+?-?0 decays with a simple setup, which was composed of an electromagnetic calorimeter and a hodoscope system. Results from these measurements are presented and compared with various hadron-interaction simulations.

  5. A faster algorithm for smoothed particle hydrodynamics with radiative transfer in the flux-limited diffusion approximation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart C. Whitehouse; Matthew R. Bate; Joe J. Monaghan

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new, faster implicit algorithm for solving the radiation hydrodynamics equations in the flux-limited diffusion approximation for smoothed particle hydrodynamics. This improves on the method elucidated in Whitehouse and Bate by using a Gauss-Seidel iterative method rather than iterating over the exchange of energy between pairs of particles. The new algorithm is typically many thousands of times faster

  6. Potential evaporation trends over land between 1983-2008: driven by radiative fluxes or vapour-pressure deficit?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Matsoukas; N. Benas; N. Hatzianastassiou; K. G. Pavlakis; M. Kanakidou; I. Vardavas

    2011-01-01

    We model the Penman potential evaporation (PE) over all land areas of the globe for the 25-yr period 1983-2008, relying on radiation transfer models (RTMs) for the shortwave and longwave fluxes. Penman's PE is determined by two factors: available energy for evaporation and ground to atmosphere vapour transfer. Input to the PE model and RTMs comprises satellite cloud and aerosol

  7. Measurement of Radiation Pressure in an Ambient Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dakang; Garrett, Joseph; Munday, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    Light has momentum and thus exerts ``radiation pressure'' when it is reflected or absorbed due to the conservation of momentum. Micromechanical transducers and oscillators are suitable for measurement and utilization of radiation pressure due to their high sensitivities. However, other light-induced mechanical deformations such as photothermal effects often obscure accurate measurements of radiation pressure in these systems. In this work, we investigate the radiation pressure and photothermal force on an uncoated silicon nitride microcantilever under illumination by a 660 nm laser in an ambient environment. To magnify the mechanical effects, the cantilever is driven optically from dc across its resonance frequency, and the amplitude and phase of its oscillation are acquired by an optical beam deflection method and a lockin amplifier. We show that radiation pressure and photothermal effects can be distinguished through the cantilever's frequency response. Furthermore, in a radiation pressure dominant regime, our measurement of the radiation force agrees quantitatively with the theoretical calculation.

  8. Radiation Imaging Technique for Thermal Conductivity Measurement Above 1000°C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Glaser; S. Merra; W. K. Sepetoski; D. F. Comstock; A. G. Emslie

    1962-01-01

    Imaging techniques and apparatus have been developed for measurement of thermal conductivity of small size samples at temperatures from 1000°C to the melting point of the material. Details of the method for heating the sample in an electric arc imaging furnace, measuring the temperature distribution over the sample surface with an optical pyrometer, and measuring the heat flux leaving the

  9. Standardization of flux chamber and wind tunnel flux measurements for quantifying volatile organic compound and ammonia emissions from area sources at animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of wind tunnels and flux chambers have been used to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3) at animal feeding operations (AFO). However, there has been little regard to the extreme variation and potential inaccuracies caused by inappropriate air velocity or sw...

  10. Measurement of Heat Flux at Metal-Mold Interface during Casting Solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    All previous studies on interfacial heat transfer coefficient have been based on indirect methods for estimating the heat flux that employed either inverse heat transfer analysis procedures or instrumentation arrangements to measure temperatures and displacements near the metal-mold interface. In this paper, the heat transfer at the metal-mold interfaces is investigated using a sensor for the direct measurement of heat flux. The heat flux sensor (HFS) was rated for 700oC and had a time response of less than 10 ms. Casting experiments were conducted using graphite molds for aluminum alloy A356. Several casting experiments were performed using a graphite coating and a boron nitride coating. The measurement errors were estimated. The temperature of the mold surface was provided by the HFS while the temperature of the casting surface was measured using a thermocouple. Results for the heat transfer coefficients were obtained based on measured heat flux and temperatures. Four stages were clearly identified for the variation in time of the heat flux. Values of the heat transfer coefficient were in good agreement with data from previous studies.

  11. RADON FLUX MONITOR FOR IN SITU MEASUREMENT OF GRANITE AND CONCRETE SURFACES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredrick Stieff; Daniel J. Steck

    Recent interest in radon (222Rn) emanation from building materials like granite and concrete has sparked the development of a measurement device that is suitable for field or home measurements. Based on test with discrete component flux monitors, a large volume (960 ml) hemispherical electret ion chamber (EIC) was modified to integrate the accumulator and detector, into a single device. The

  12. Methodology for direct field measurements of ozone flux to foliage with shoot chambers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuria Altimir; Timo Vesala; Petri Keronen; Markku Kulmala; Pertti Hari

    2002-01-01

    Values of ozone (O3) flux measured on the shoot scale by enclosure techniques can provide detailed information about the partition and seasonality of the removal pathways on the foliage. However, O3 reactivity makes such measurements potentially inaccurate, particularly in field conditions where ambient concentration is low. Special consideration should be given to the losses on the chamber wall material, which

  13. Potential and Limitations of an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor in Disjunct Eddy Covariance Aerosol Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, A.; Niessner, R.; Bosveld, F.; Klemm, O.

    2006-12-01

    A micrometeorological application of an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) is proposed for the measurement of size-resolved particle fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere. This extends flux measurement capabilities to cover submicron particles in several size classes simultaneously. The disjunct eddy covariance system combines a sonic anemometer, an ELPI and a valve-controlled particle sampling unit. Depending on the valve setting, ambient air or filtered particle-free air is sampled and introduced into the impactor. For disjunct eddy covariance measurements, ambient air is sampled only during a very short sampling interval (~ 0.1 s) in measurement intervals of several seconds. The integrated ELPI signal is representative for the particle size distribution during the short sampling interval. This information may be correlated with fast measurements of the vertical wind speed to obtain turbulent fluxes of submicron particles simultaneously in several size classes. A prototype system has been tested in lab and field experiments in order to evaluate the technical limitations of this approach. Tests show that different valve switch cycles do not affect the concentration measurements. However, longitudinal diffusion processes within the sampling lines lead to signal dilatation. In addition, reliable measurements require a minimum number of charged particles impacting on each stage. This leads to the exclusion of some size bins in typical field applications. Nevertheless, the system showed its potential for size-resolved flux measurements under favorable conditions. Travel support by the ACCENT Access to Infrastructures program is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Measurement and modeling of atmospheric flux of ammonia from dairy milking cow housing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Rumburg; George H. Mount; Jenny Filipy; Brian Lamb; Hal Westberg; David Yonge; Ron Kincaid; Kristen Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) measurements are needed to better understand the impacts of NH3 emissions on aerosol formation and concentrations and anthropogenic changes to the N cycle. This paper describes concentration measurements of NH3 using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), tracer ratio flux experiments, and development of a NH3 emissions model from a dairy milking cow free stall house with concrete

  15. Ammonia fluxes for beech forest in the leaf fall transition period - measurements and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, K.; Sørensen, L.; Hertel, O.; Geels, C.; Skjøth, C. A.; Jensen, B.; Boegh, E.

    2012-12-01

    Deposition of atmospheric reactive nitrogen represents uncertainties for the prediction of future greenhouse gas exchange between land surfaces and the atmosphere. This is because the mechanisms describing nutritional effects are not well developed in climate and ecosystems models. Improving the understanding of biochemical feed-back mechanisms in the climate system and quantifying the magnitude of the NH3 flux in the biosphere-atmosphere system is therefore essential. In particular, more knowledge of the bi-directional ammonia (NH3) exchange between natural ecosystems and the atmosphere is needed. We investigated the NH3 exchange for deciduous forests in relation to leaf fall by studying the atmospheric NH3 fluxes throughout a 25 days period during autumn 2010 (21 October - 14 November) for the Danish beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest, Lille Bøgeskov. Vegetation status was observed using plant area index (PAI) and leaf area index (LAI). The atmospheric NH3 fluxes were measured using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method and compared to NH3 denuder measurements. Model calculations were obtained using the Danish Ammonia MOdelling System (DAMOS). We found that 57.7% of the fluxes measured showed emission and 19.5% deposition. The mean NH3 flux was 0.087±0.19 ?g NH3-N m-2 s-1. Measurements indicate a clear tendency of the flux going from negative (deposition) to positive (emission) fluxes of up to 0.96±0.40 ?g NH3-N m-2 s-1 throughout the measurement period. In the leaf fall period (23 October - 8 November) the measured atmospheric NH3 concentration was increasing in relation to the increasing forest NH3 flux. The mean NH3 concentration was well simulated in DAMOS before leaf fall, but was underestimated following leaf fall. The results indicate that there is a missing contribution to atmospheric NH3 concentration from vegetative surfaces related to leaf fall of a relatively large magnitude in the model. This points to the need for representing forest leaf fall and associated NH3 emissions in chemical transport models when the focus is N-deposition to forest ecosystems. Despite the large uncertainties associated with the results obtained in this study due to the assessment techniques as well as the limited dataset, the results must be considered as a good start for a better understanding of the processes related to natural emissions of NH3 and for quantifying the NH3 emission flux and the total biosphere-atmosphere net flux.

  16. Net radiation in the atmosphere of Venus - Measurements and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suomi, V. E.; Sromovsky, L. A.; Revercomb, H. E.

    1980-12-01

    Aerodynamic testing of the Pioneer Venus small probe net flux radiometer (SNFR) has led to a better understanding of transient errors in the net flux measurements immediately following deployment. Corrections to the net flux profiles in this region produce profiles that are reasonably consistent with constraints imposed by ground-based and orbiter results for fluxes above the atmosphere. The tests raised questions about possible steady state errors associated with the changing atmospheric temperature encountered as the probes descended. However, the lack of sensor-to-sensor variability of the transient error (caused by a newly discovered flow-through mechanism) suggests that any related errors discovered by future testing will be correctable and will not alter the conclusions that net fluxes in the lower atmosphere vary considerably with location and are relatively large at the north and night probe sites.

  17. Radiation pressure measurements on micron-size individual dust grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Witherow, W. K.; West, E. A.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.; Fishman, G. J.; Tankosic, D.; Leclair, A.; Sheldon, R.; Thomas, E.

    2003-06-01

    Measurements of electromagnetic radiation pressure have been made on individual silica (SiO2) particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance. These measurements were made by inserting single charged particles of known diameter in the 0.2- to 6.82-?m range and irradiating them from above with laser radiation focused to beam widths of ˜175-400 ?m at ambient pressures ˜10-3-10-4 torr. The downward displacement of the particle due to the radiation force is balanced by the electrostatic force indicated by the compensating dc potential applied to the balance electrodes, providing a direct measure of the radiation force on the levitated particle. Theoretical calculations of the radiation pressure with a least-squares fit to the measured data yield the radiation pressure efficiencies of the particles, and comparisons with Mie scattering theory calculations provide the imaginary part of the refractive index of SiO2 and the corresponding extinction and scattering efficiencies.

  18. Development of a Passive Sensor for Measuring Water and Solute Mass Flux in the Hyporheic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annable, Michael D.; Layton, Leif; Hatfield, Kirk; Newman, Mark C.; Cho, Jaehyun; Klammler, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Measuring water, pollutant and nutrient exchange at the groundwater-surface water interface is challenging due to the dynamic nature of the hyporheic zone. Quantifying the exchange is critical to understanding mass balance across this interface. Technologies currently exist to identify groundwater discharge zones and infer estimates of contaminant mass flux based on total contaminant concentration in bulk sediment, though it is generally accepted that freely dissolved concentration in pore water is a better measure of potential exposure. Laboratory and preliminary field testing has been completed to demonstrate a new tool with potential to provide more accurate characterization of water, pollutant and nutrient flux at the groundwater-surface water interface through direct in-situ measurement. The sediment bed passive flux meter (SBPFM) was designed for passively and directly providing in-situ measurements of volumetric water flux and solute mass flux vertically through the upper surface sediment layer and into the overlying water column. The SBPFM consists of an internal permeable sorbent which is impregnated with one or more water soluble tracers (typically alcohols) and is contained in a dedicated drive-point with upper and lower screened openings for fluid intake and exhaust. This configuration generates water flow through the device proportional to the vertical gradient between the sediment bed and the water column. Once the SBPFM has been deployed, the tracers are displaced from the sorbent at rates proportional to the average vertical specific discharge. The mass loss of tracers during deployment can be used to calculate the cumulative water flux. Similarly, the cumulative mass of sorbed pollutants or nutrients provide a direct measurement of the vertical mass flux during deployment. The SBPFM prototype has been tested in controlled laboratory sediment interface models. The results show good agreement between the SBPFM calculated and the applied water and contaminant fluxes through the laboratory aquifer model. Flow reversals are anticipated for tidal sites and sorbent layers within the PFM are segmented and used to determine next flux magnitude and direction averaged over the deployment period. Preliminary field testing is underway focusing on an areas with chlorinated solvent contamination discharging to surface water. The SBPFM is deployed to quantify the net mass discharge of contaminants to a small stream over a short reach. The integrated mass discharge can be compared to concentrations and mass discharge observed in surface water. The SBPFM provides a new tool to assess water and solute flux at point locations and can provide spatial variability that can be integrated to support mass balance studies on segments of surface water reaches.

  19. Measured radiation patterns of the scale model dipole tool

    E-print Network

    Lu, Rongrong

    2003-01-01

    The sound field of finite dipole acoustic transducers in a steel tool was investigated and their horizontal by measuring their vertical radiation patterns in water at two different frequencies. Measurements were also made ...

  20. Measurement of total ion flux in vacuum Arc discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Brown, Ian G.

    2004-04-12

    A vacuum arc ion source was modified allowing us to collections from arc plasma streaming through an anode mesh. The mesh had ageometric transmittance of 60 percent, which was taken into account as acorrection factor. The ion current from twenty-two cathode materials wasmeasured at an arc current of 100 A. The ion current normalized by thearc current was found to depend on the cathode material, with valuesinthe range from 5 percent to 11 percent. The normalized ion current isgenerally greater for light elements than for heavy elements. The ionerosion rates were determined fromvalues of ion currentand ion chargestates, which were previously measured in the same experimental system.The ion erosion rates range from 12-94 mu g/C.

  1. Development of integrated high temperature sensor for simultaneous measurement of wall heat flux and temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Wang, Jing; Fan, Xuejun

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, an integrated water-cooled sensor has been developed to simultaneously measure the heat flux and temperature at the wall of a scramjet combustor. The upgrade sensor was designed based on the principle of Gardon heat-flux gauge with many improvements. The sensor was well calibrated by both conductive heating sources and blackbody cavity device. The effects of structural material and dimensions on the sensor's responses were examined. Both the experimental measurements and numerical simulation were conducted and showed that the new sensor has the maximum measure ability of heat flux of 400 W/cm(2) and stagnation temperatures up to 1920 K along with satisfactory response time. PMID:22852712

  2. Remote Measurement of Surface Compliance Distribution Using Ultrasound Radiation Pressure

    E-print Network

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki

    . In the experiments, the distribution of the surface compliance comparable to the human skin was successfully measuredRemote Measurement of Surface Compliance Distribution Using Ultrasound Radiation Pressure Masahiro broadcasting. Our system is composed of an ultrasound phased array generating acoustic radiation pressure

  3. Pyroelectric detector development for the Radiation Measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, G. S.; Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr.; Hanel, R. P.; Dominguez, D. E.; Valero, F. P. J.; Baumann, Hilary; Hansen, W. L.; Haller, E. E.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of high detectivity pyroelectric detectors developed for optimization of the radiation measurement system within the framework of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is described. These devices are intended to provide detectivities of up to about 10 exp 11 cm Hz exp 0.5/W with cooling to about 100 K required for the detector focal plane.

  4. A straightforward method for Vacuum-Ultraviolet flux measurements: The case of the hydrogen discharge lamp and implications for solid-phase actinometry

    SciTech Connect

    Fulvio, D., E-mail: daniele.fulvio@uni-jena.de, E-mail: dfu@oact.inaf.it; Brieva, A. C.; Jäger, C. [Laboratory Astrophysics Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Cuylle, S. H.; Linnartz, H. [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics, Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Henning, T. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-07-07

    Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) radiation is responsible for the photo-processing of simple and complex molecules in several terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. In the laboratory such radiation is commonly simulated by inexpensive and easy-to-use microwave-powered hydrogen discharge lamps. However, VUV flux measurements are not trivial and the methods/devices typically used for this purpose, mainly actinometry and calibrated VUV silicon photodiodes, are not very accurate or expensive and lack of general suitability to experimental setups. Here, we present a straightforward method for measuring the VUV photon flux based on the photoelectric effect and using a gold photodetector. This method is easily applicable to most experimental setups, bypasses the major problems of the other methods, and provides reliable flux measurements. As a case study, the method is applied to a microwave-powered hydrogen discharge lamp. In addition, the comparison of these flux measurements to those obtained by O{sub 2} actinometry experiments allow us to estimate the quantum yield (QY) values QY{sub 122}?=?0.44?±?0.16 and QY{sub 160}?=?0.87?±?0.30 for solid-phase O{sub 2} actinometry.

  5. A straightforward method for Vacuum-Ultraviolet flux measurements: The case of the hydrogen discharge lamp and implications for solid-phase actinometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulvio, D.; Brieva, A. C.; Cuylle, S. H.; Linnartz, H.; Jäger, C.; Henning, T.

    2014-07-01

    Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) radiation is responsible for the photo-processing of simple and complex molecules in several terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. In the laboratory such radiation is commonly simulated by inexpensive and easy-to-use microwave-powered hydrogen discharge lamps. However, VUV flux measurements are not trivial and the methods/devices typically used for this purpose, mainly actinometry and calibrated VUV silicon photodiodes, are not very accurate or expensive and lack of general suitability to experimental setups. Here, we present a straightforward method for measuring the VUV photon flux based on the photoelectric effect and using a gold photodetector. This method is easily applicable to most experimental setups, bypasses the major problems of the other methods, and provides reliable flux measurements. As a case study, the method is applied to a microwave-powered hydrogen discharge lamp. In addition, the comparison of these flux measurements to those obtained by O2 actinometry experiments allow us to estimate the quantum yield (QY) values QY122 = 0.44 ± 0.16 and QY160 = 0.87 ± 0.30 for solid-phase O2 actinometry.

  6. Determination of environmental radiation flux and organ doses using in-situ gamma spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghamdi, Abdulrahman S.

    Contamination of buildings represent a unique problem during Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. It is necessary to determine the long-lived radionuclides and their respective specific activities in building materials before the right D&D decision can be made. At the same time, radiation risk of workers or potential occupants in the facility must be assessed as part of the D&D process. The goal of this project was to develop a methodology of obtaining gamma radiation flux and organ doses from in-situ gamma spectroscopy. Algorithms were developed to simulate the response functions of the HPGe detector and to convert the spectra into photon fluences. A Monte Carlo code, MCNP4C, was used to simulate HPGe detector response and to develop the conversion algorithm. The simulated spectra obtained for an HPGe detector were converted to flux using the algorithm for various different geometries. The response functions of the detector are presented in this document for the gamma energies from 60 keV to 2.2 MeV. Published fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients were used to calculate organ doses and effective dose equivalent. We then tested the theory at a 100-MeV linear electron accelerator at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). Samples of the activated concrete walls and floor in the target room of the Linac facility as well as some steel samples were taken to quantify the specific activities of the structures. The results show that the most important long-lived radionuclides include 22 Na, 46Sc, 54 Mn, 57Co, 60 Co, 65Zn, 152 Eu and 154Eu, depending on the location and composition of the material. The specific activities at the Linac facility range from 1.15E-01 to 765.31 muCi/Kg. The annual effective dose equivalent was assessed to be 2.44 mSv y-1 (0.244 rem y-1 ), which is about 5% of the Annual EDE limits to workers.

  7. Accurate periodicity measurement of superconducting quantum interference device magnetic flux response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Masakazu

    2010-09-01

    It is theoretically explained that a response of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is periodically dependent on total magnetic flux coupling to the SQUID ring (?) and its period is a flux quantum (?o=h/2e, where h and e, respectively, express Planck's constant and elementary charge). For example, the voltage of an electromagnetically oscillated rf-SQUID or a current biased dc-SQUID is thought to be periodically dependent on ? with a period of ?o. In this paper, we propose an accurate method to check the periodicity of a SQUID response by using a set of sensing coils covered with a superconducting sheath. As a demonstration, we measured periodicity of a commercially available thin-film type rf-SQUID response in magnetic flux ranging up to approximately 4300?o. Its flux dependence was periodic below about 3400?o.

  8. A comparison of estimated and directly measured turbulent heat fluxes in the lower stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heck, W.

    1977-01-01

    The contribution of small-scale motions to the vertical heat flux in the lower stratosphere is determined from wind and temperature fluctuation statistics obtained during the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence investigation. Analysis of the cospectra suggests a horizontal wavelength of 3 km as the appropriate long-wave cutoff of small-scale motion. With this scale restriction, the measured vertical heat fluxes are in good agreement with the values of heat flux estimated by Lilly et al. (1974) from the kinetic energy dissipation rate. Hence, the hypothesis of Lilly et al. for estimating heat flux from the dissipation rate is considered to be reliable. It follows that, in the lower stratosphere, subsynoptic vertical transport is small compared to large-scale transport.

  9. The Greenhouse Effect - Determination From Accurate Surface Longwave Radiation Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Philipona

    2002-01-01

    Longwave radiation measurements have been drastically improved in recent years. Uncertainty levels down to s2 Wm-2 are realistic and achieved during long-term ´ longwave irradiance measurements. Longwave downward irradiance measurements together with temperature and humidity measurements at the station are used to sepa- rate clear-sky from cloudy-sky situations. Longwave net radiation separated between clear-sky and all-sky situations allows to determine

  10. Flux penetration measurements and the harmonic magnetic response of hot isostatically pressed ,,Pb,Gd...Mo6S8

    E-print Network

    Hampshire, Damian

    Flux penetration measurements and the harmonic magnetic response of hot isostatically pressed ,,Pb penetration measurements and the harmonic magnetic response have been measured from 4.2 K up to the critical In this article, we present detailed flux penetration measurements made in high magnetic fields and investigate

  11. Spatial and temporal variations of methane flux measured by autochambers in a temperate ombrotrophic peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Derrick Y. F.; Moore, Tim R.; Roulet, Nigel T.

    2014-05-01

    We measured CH4 flux at high temporal resolution with triplicate autochambers from three different plant communities at the ombrotrophic Mer Bleue bog in Canada to investigate the spatial and temporal variations, and factors that related to the CH4 flux. Our results show that seasonal mean CH4 fluxes from the Eriophorum-dominated community were 1.4-2.2 and 3.7-5.5 times higher than those from Maianthemum/Ledum and Chamaedaphne communities, respectively. Significant interannual variations in CH4 flux were observed in Maianthemum/Ledum and Chamaedaphne communities, attributable to a 55-60% reduction of mean summer (July-September) CH4 flux in 2010 as a consequence of a 5.5-9.0 cm lower mean summer water table compared to 2009. The Eriophorum community showed a much larger rate of increase in CH4 flux with peat temperature in the early growing season than in midsummer, which might be caused by a concomitant increase in root exudation of labile carbon for methanogenesis. Temporal variability of log-transformed CH4 flux was correlated (r ? 0.4) with peat temperature only when water table was less than 20, 30, and 40 cm below the peat surface for Maianthemum/Ledum, Chamaedaphne, and Eriophorum communities, respectively. This difference in water table threshold among communities might partly be related to differences in rooting depth and hence the ability of plants to sustain CH4 flux in dry conditions. These results suggest that modeling of CH4 flux from ombrotrophic peatlands over time should take into account the role of different vegetation types, since the relationships between CH4 emissions and environmental factors vary among vascular plant communities.

  12. Development of airborne eddy-correlation flux measurement capabilities for reactive oxides of nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, John (Principal Investigator); Zheng, Xiaonan; Sandholm, Scott T.

    1996-01-01

    This research is aimed at producing a fundamental new research tool for characterizing the source strength of the most important compound controlling the hemispheric and global scale distribution of tropospheric ozone. Specifically, this effort seeks to demonstrate the proof-of-concept of a new general purpose laser-induced fluorescence based spectrometer for making airborne eddy-correlation flux measurements of nitric oxide (NO) and other reactive nitrogen compounds. The new all solid-state laser technology being used in this advanced sensor will produce a forerunner of the type of sensor technology that should eventually result in highly compact operational systems. The proof-of-concept sensor being developed will have over two orders-of-magnitude greater sensitivity than present-day instruments. In addition, this sensor will offer the possibility of eventual extension to airborne eddy-correlation flux measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and possibly other compounds, such as ammonia (NH3), peroxyradicals (HO2), nitrateradicals (NO3) and several iodine compounds (e.g., I and IO). Demonstration of the new sensor's ability to measure NO fluxes will occur through a series of laboratory and field tests. This proof-of-concept demonstration will show that not only can airborne fluxes of important ultra-trace compounds be made at the few parts-per-trillion level, but that the high accuracy/precision measurements currently needed for predictive models can also. These measurement capabilities will greatly enhance our current ability to quantify the fluxes of reactive nitrogen into the troposphere and significantly impact upon the accuracy of predictive capabilities to model O3's distribution within the remote troposphere. This development effort also offers a timely approach for producing the reactive nitrogen flux measurement capabilities that will be needed by future research programs such as NASA's planned 1999 Amazon Biogeochemistry and Atmospheric Chemistry Experimental portion of LBA.

  13. pyMCZ: Oxygen abundances calculations and uncertainties from strong-line flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Federica B.; Modjaz, Maryam; Oh, Seung Man; Fierroz, David; Liu, Yuqian; Kewley, Lisa; Graur, Or

    2015-05-01

    pyMCZ calculates metallicity according to a number of strong line metallicity diagnostics from spectroscopy line measurements and obtain uncertainties from the line flux errors in a Monte Carlo framework. Given line flux measurements and their uncertainties, pyMCZ produces synthetic distributions for the oxygen abundance in up to 13 metallicity scales simultaneously, as well as for E(B-V), and estimates their median values and their 66% confidence regions. The code can output the full MC distributions and their kernel density estimates.

  14. Environmental response functions - relating eddy-covariance flux measurements to ecosystem drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkermann, W.; Metzger, S. R.; Mauder, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Trancon y Widemann, B.; Taylor, J. R.; Loescher, H.; Zheng, X.; Schmid, H. E.; Foken, T.

    2012-12-01

    Ground-based eddy-covariance (EC) measurements are suited to continuously monitor the water and heat exchange above selected sites. However, these results may only represent small areas surrounding the immediate measurement locations. On the other hand, aircraft-based EC measurements can provide flux information on regional scales, but are restricted to short time intervals. It is desirable to integrate both approaches in an effort to provide suitable datasets for the design, constraint, and evaluation of flux algorithms for remote sensing and numerical modeling applications. The objective of this study is to develop environmental response functions (ERF), which enable the integration of ground-based and airborne EC flux measurements. The idea behind ERF is to explicitly relate flux observations (responses) to meteorological forcing and biophysical surface properties (drivers). Thus far ERF have built upon (i) low spatial discretization and binning of airborne flux observations, (ii) discrete land cover representations, and (iii) parametric relationships. Here, we present an approach that advances the scalability of ERFs, and enables the rigorous quantification of uncertainty. This approach consists of; (i) wavelet decomposition of airborne EC high-frequency data, which enables high resolution flux observations, (ii) quantification of continuous and biophysically relevant land cover properties in the flux footprint of each observation, and (iii) boosted regression trees, that enable detecting highly non-linear ERFs according to the information in the data. The resulting ERFs can then be used to extrapolate the water and heat exchange, e.g. across a watershed. We apply the present approach to airborne EC flux measurements that were conducted in July 2009 at ?50 m above the heterogeneous steppe landscape of the Xilin River Watershed, Inner Mongolia, P.R. China. The wavelet decomposition of the turbulence data results in 8446 flux observations during 12 flights. Using footprint modeling, the MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) in the source area of each observation are determined. Boosted regression trees are then used to infer ERFs between all observations of the sensible- and latent heat flux (H, LE) and biophysical- (LST, EVI) and meteorological drivers. Numerical tests show that ERF extrapolations covering the entire Xilin River Watershed (? 3670 km2) are accurate to ? 18%. The extrapolations are then summarized for each land cover type, providing individual estimates of source strength (40 W m-2 < H < 359 W m-2, 68 W m-2 < LE < 300 W m-2) and spatial variability (17 W m-2 < ?H < 129 W m-2, 35 W m-2 < ?LE < 134 W m-2) to a precision of ? 5%. This study demonstrates the potential of ERFs for 'mining' the information content of EC flux observations and extracting quantitative relationships with environmental drivers. In doing so, ERFs can aid bridging observational scales by, e.g., isolating and quantifying relevant land-atmosphere exchange processes, extending flux measurements to the watershed scale, assessing the spatial representativeness of EC flux measurements etc. Deriving analogous ERFs from ground-based EC measurements could aid, e.g., constraining local to regional water budgets, distinguishing anthropogenic and natural sources/sinks in urban environments, and substantiating process-studies.

  15. Gluon correlations from a Glasma flux-tube model compared to measured hadron correlations on transverse momentum $\\bf (p_t,p_t)$ and angular differences $\\bf (?_?,?_?)$

    E-print Network

    Thomas A. Trainor; R. L. Ray

    2011-05-26

    A Glasma flux-tube model has been proposed to explain strong elongation on pseudorapidity $\\eta$ of the same-side 2D peak in minimum-bias angular correlations from $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200$ GeV \\auau collisions. The same-side peak or "soft ridge" is said to arise from coupling of flux tubes to radial flow. Gluons radiated transversely from flux tubes are boosted by radial flow to form a narrow structure or ridge on azimuth. In this study we test the conjecture by comparing predictions for particle production, spectra and correlations from the Glasma model and conventional fragmentation processes with measurements. We conclude that the Glasma model is contradicted by measured hadron yields, spectra and correlations, whereas a two-component model of hadron production, including minimum-bias parton fragmentation, provides a quantitative description of most data, although $\\eta$ elongation remains unexplained.

  16. Numerical research of dynamic characteristics in tower solar cavity receiver based on step-change radiation flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhengwei; Wang, Yueshe; Hao, Yun; Wang, Qizhi

    2013-07-01

    The solar cavity receiver is an important light-energy to thermal-energy convector in the tower solar thermal power plant system. The heat flux in the inner surface of the cavity will show the characteristics of non-continuous step change especially in non-normal and transient weather conditions, which may result in a continuous dynamic variation of the characteristic parameters. Therefore, the research of dynamic characteristics of the receiver plays a very important role in the operation and the control safely in solar cavity receiver system. In this paper, based on the non-continuous step change of radiation flux, a non-linear dynamic model is put forward to obtain the effects of the non-continuous step change radiation flux and step change feed water flow on the receiver performance by sequential modular approach. The subject investigated in our study is a 1MW solar power station constructed in Yanqing County, Beijing. This study has obtained the dynamic responses of the characteristic parameters in the cavity receiver, such as drum pressure, drum water level, main steam flow and main steam enthalpy under step change radiation flux. And the influence law of step-change feed water flow to the dynamic characteristics in the receiver also has been analyzed. The results have a reference value for the safe operation and the control in solar cavity receiver system.

  17. Measuring forest floor CO 2 fluxes in a Douglas-fir forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B Drewitt; T. A Black; Z Nesic; E. R Humphreys; E. M Jork; R Swanson; G. J Ethier; T Griffis; K Morgenstern

    2002-01-01

    CO2 exchange was measured on the forest floor of a coastal temperate Douglas-fir forest located near Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada. Continuous measurements were obtained at six locations using an automated chamber system between April and December, 2000. Fluxes were measured every half hour by circulating chamber headspace air through a sampling manifold assembly and a closed-path infrared gas analyzer.

  18. Modeling magnetic fields measured by surface probes embedded in a cylindrical flux conserver.

    PubMed

    Golingo, R P

    2007-03-01

    Calculating magnetic fields at the surface of a flux conserver, perfect conductor, for displaced plasma currents is useful for understanding modes of a Z-pinch. The magnetic fields measured at the flux conserver are a sum of the magnetic fields from the plasma current and the eddy currents which form in the walls to keep the flux constant. While the magnetic field at the wall from the plasma current alone is easily calculated using the Biot-Savart law, finding the eddy currents in the flux conserver which satisfy the boundary conditions can be a tedious process. A simple method of calculating the surface magnetic field for a given Z-pinch displacement off-axis is derived for a cylindrical flux conserver. This relationship does not require the explicit calculation of the eddy currents, saving time when analyzing surface magnetic probe measurements. Analytic expressions can be used to describe the surface magnetic field which increase the understanding of the magnetic probe measurements. PMID:17411182

  19. Large-scale reflection and absorption of solar radiation by clouds as influencing earth radiation budgets - New aircraft measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, A. J.; Hickey, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the first results of extensive recent aircraft measurements, in the short wavelengths, of the reflection and absorption properties of clouds and their impact on radiation budget studies. From the data obtained, the albedo of typical cloud types was determined integrally and spectrally. Some preliminary results are also offered for short-wave absorption and the apparent transmission of clouds. The effect of the atmospheric pathlength between sensor and target, exhibited through molecular scattering and aerosol scattering and absorption, is included in the data analysis. Results are also presented on vertical (short-wave) radiative flux profiles, within specific wavelength intervals, from near sea level to altitudes of about 40,000 ft over relatively short time intervals.

  20. Assessing and correcting spatial representativeness of tower eddy-covariance flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, S.; Xu, K.; Desai, A. R.; Taylor, J. R.; Kljun, N.; Blanken, P.; Burns, S. P.; Scott, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Estimating the landscape-scale exchange of ecologically relevant trace gas and energy fluxes from tower eddy-covariance (EC) measurements is often complicated by surface heterogeneity. For example, a tower EC measurement may represent less than 1% of a grid cell resolved by mechanistic models (order 100-1000 km2). In particular for data assimilation or comparison with large-scale observations, it is hence critical to assess and correct the spatial representativeness of tower EC measurements. We present a procedure that determines from a single EC tower the spatio-temporally explicit flux field of its surrounding. The underlying principle is to extract the relationship between biophysical drivers and ecological responses from measurements under varying environmental conditions. For this purpose, high-frequency EC flux processing and source area calculations (?60 h?1) are combined with remote sensing retrievals of land surface properties and subsequent machine learning. Methodological details are provided in our companion presentation "Towards the spatial rectification of tower-based eddy-covariance flux observations". We apply the procedure to one year of data from each of four AmeriFlux sites under different climate and ecological environments: Lost Creek shrub fen wetland, Niwot Ridge subalpine conifer, Park Falls mixed forest, and Santa Rita mesquite savanna. We find that heat fluxes from the Park Falls 122-m-high EC measurement and from a surrounding 100 km2 target area differ up to 100 W m?2, or 65%. Moreover, 85% and 24% of the EC flux observations are adequate surrogates of the mean surface-atmosphere exchange and its spatial variability across a 900 km2 target area, respectively, at 5% significance and 80% representativeness levels. Alternatively, the resulting flux grids can be summarized as probability density functions, and used to inform mechanistic models directly with the mean flux value and its spatial variability across a model grid cell. Lastly, for each site we evaluate the applicability of the procedure based on a full bottom-up uncertainty budget.

  1. Eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements in nocturnal conditions: an analysis of the problem.

    PubMed

    Aubinet, Marc

    2008-09-01

    A detailed analysis of the various processes at work in stable boundary layers was made. It pointed out that two main mechanisms may affect eddy covariance measurements in stable conditions and that their impacts were different. On one hand, intermittent turbulence produces strongly nonstationary events during which the validity of turbulent transport and storage measurements is uncertain. On the other hand, during breeze and drainage flow events, significant advection takes place and competes with turbulent flux and storage. Intermittent turbulence questions both the ability of eddy covariance systems to adequately capture turbulent flux and storage and the representativeness of the measurements. Ability of the systems to capture the fluxes could be improved by adapting the averaging time period or the high pass filtering characteristics. However, beyond this, the question of representativeness of the flux remains open as the flux measured during an intermittent turbulence event represents not only the source term, but also the removal of CO2 that built up in the control volume and that cannot be simply related to the source term. In these conditions, the u* discrimination is likely to be insufficient and should be completed with a stationarity criterion. Further research should allow determining better selection criteria. Advection occurs mainly in presence of flows associated with topographical slopes (drainage flows) or with land use changes (breezes). Direct advection measurements were performed at several sites, but the results were shown to be strongly site dependent. A classification based on the general flow pattern and on the source intensity evolution along streamlines was proposed here. Five different patterns were identified that helped to classify the different observations. The classification was found to be a fairly good fit for the observations. This could serve as a tool to better understand and quantify the fluxes at sites subjected to repeatable patterns. PMID:18767616

  2. Imposing strong constraints on tropical terrestrial CO2 fluxes using passenger aircraft based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Yosuke; Machida, Toshinobu; Sawa, Yousuke; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Schuck, Tanja J.; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Imasu, Ryoichi; Satoh, Masaki

    2012-06-01

    Because very few measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are available in the tropics, estimates of surface CO2 fluxes in tropical regions are beset with considerable uncertainties. To improve estimates of tropical terrestrial fluxes, atmospheric CO2 inversion was performed using passenger aircraft based measurements of the Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airliner (CONTRAIL) project in addition to the surface measurement data set of GLOBALVIEW-CO2. Regional monthly fluxes at the earth's surface were estimated using the Bayesian synthesis approach focusing on the period 2006-2008 using the Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model-based Transport Model (NICAM-TM). By adding the aircraft to the surface data, the posterior flux errors were greatly reduced; specifically, error reductions of up to 64% were found for tropical Asia regions. This strong impact is closely related to efficient vertical transport in the tropics. The optimized surface fluxes using the CONTRAIL data were evaluated by comparing the simulated atmospheric CO2 distributions with independent aircraft measurements of the Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) project. The inversion with the CONTRAIL data yields the global carbon sequestration rates of 2.22 ± 0.28 Pg C yr-1 for the terrestrial biosphere and 2.24 ± 0.27 Pg C yr-1 for the oceans (the both are adjusted by riverine input of CO2). For the first time the CONTRAIL CO2 measurements were used in an inversion system to identify the areas of greatest impact in terms of reducing flux uncertainties.

  3. Eddy covariance flux measurements of ammonia by high temperature chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintermann, J.; Spirig, C.; Jordan, A.; Kuhn, U.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2011-03-01

    A system for fast ammonia (NH3) measurements with chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (CIMS) based on a commercial Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) is presented. It uses electron transfer reaction as ionisation pathway and features a drift tube of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and silica-coated steel. Heating the instrumental inlet and the drift tube to 180 °C enabled an effective time resolution of ~1 s and made it possible to apply the instrument for eddy covariance (EC) measurements. EC fluxes of NH3 were measured over two agricultural fields in Oensingen, Switzerland, following fertilisations with cattle slurry. Air was aspirated close to a sonic anemometer at a flow of 100 STP L min-1 and was directed through a 23 m long 1/2" PFA tube heated to 150 °C to an air-conditioned trailer where the gas was sub-sampled from the large bypass stream. This setup minimised damping of fast NH3 concentration changes between the sampling point and the actual measurement. High-frequency attenuation loss of the NH3 fluxes of 20 to 40% was quantified and corrected for using an empirical ogive method. The instrumental NH3 background signal showed a minor interference with H2O which was characterised in the laboratory. The resulting correction of the NH3 flux after slurry spreading was less than 1‰. The flux detection limit of the EC system was about 5 ng m-2 s-1 while the accuracy of individual flux measurements was estimated 16% for the high-flux regime during these experiments. The NH3 emissions after broad spreading of the slurry showed an initial maximum of 150 ?g m-2 s-1 with a fast decline in the following hours.

  4. Measurements of the frequency spectrum of transition radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, M. L.; Mueller, D.

    1977-01-01

    We report a measurement of the frequency spectrum of X-ray transition radiation. X rays were generated by electrons of 5 and 9 GeV in radiators of multiple polypropylene foils, and detected in the range 4 to 30 keV with a calibrated single-crystal Bragg spectrometer. The experimental results closely reproduce the features of the theoretically predicted spectrum. In particular, the pronounced interference pattern of multifoil radiators and the expected hardening of the radiation with increasing foil thickness are clearly observed. The overall intensity of the radiation is somewhat lower than predicted by calculations.

  5. Global solar radiation measurements in Maceió, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Leonaldo De Souza; Rosilene Mendonça Nicácio; Marcos Antonio Lima Moura

    2005-01-01

    This work focuses on the variability of the global solar radiation over the area of Maceió (9°40?S, 35°42?W, 127m), located in Northeastern State of Alagoas, Brazil, during the1997–1999 period. Solar radiation variability was evaluated on 5min, hourly, daily, monthly and seasonal scales. The results showed that the maximum values of the hourly global solar irradiation, Hgh, in the dry (September–February)

  6. The exchange of acetaldehyde between plants and the atmosphere: Stable carbon isotope and flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, Kolby Jeremiah

    The exchange of acetaldehyde between plant canopies and the atmosphere may significantly influence regional atmospheric chemistry and plant metabolism. While plants are known to both produce and consume acetaldehyde, the exchange of this compound with forested ecosystems is complicated by physical, biological, and chemical processes that range from being poorly understood to completely unknown. This precludes a quantitative understanding of acetaldehyde exchange rates between the atmosphere and the biosphere. In this study, the processes controlling the exchange of acetaldehyde with plant canopies was investigated using concentration, flux, and natural abundance 13C measurements of gas phase acetaldehyde from individual plants, soils, and entire ecosystems. Although previously only considered important in anoxic tissues, it was discovered that acetaldehyde is produced and consumed in leaves through ethanolic fermentation coupled to the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass system under normal aerobic conditions. These coupled pathways determine the acetaldehyde compensation point, a major factor controlling its exchange with the atmosphere. Carbon isotope analysis suggests a new pathway for acetaldehyde production from plants under stress involving the peroxidation of membrane fatty acids. This pathway may be a major source of acetaldehyde to the atmosphere from plants under biotic and abiotic stresses. Plant stomata were found to be the dominant pathway for the exchange of acetaldehyde with the atmosphere with stomatal conductance influencing both emission and uptake fluxes. In addition, increasing temperature and solar radiation was found to increase the compensation point by increasing the rates of acetaldehyde production relative to consumption. Under ambient conditions, bare soil was neutral to the exchange of acetaldehyde while senescing and decaying leaves were found to be strong source of acetaldehyde to the atmosphere due to increased decomposition processes and the loss of biological sink(s). Vertical concentration profiles and within-canopy turbulence characterization allowed for the estimation of fine scale source/sink profiles of acetaldehyde in forested ecosystems in Michigan, California, and North Carolina. The different vertical and temporal acetaldehyde exchange patterns between the sites were well described using a simple canopy exchange model based on the results from the process based branch studies. We find that net ecosystem acetaldehyde emission rates are inversely related to foliage density by influencing the extinction of sunlight in a plant canopy. While high foliage density canopies can effectively mitigate regional air pollution by behaving as a net sink of atmospheric acetaldehyde, lower density canopies may aggravate it by acting as a net source.

  7. Intercomparison of Photosynthetically Active Radiation Measurements Obtained With Different Sensor Types at Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, D.; Endo, T.; Yasuoka, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Field and simulation studies have indicated that accurate modeling of terrestrial photosynthesis and ecosystem-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange at daily and sub-daily timescales requires information on the diffuse and beam fluxes of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm). Such data provide a critical basis for analyzing and monitoring the effects of clouds and aerosols on vegetation productivity and the terrestrial carbon cycle, and for validation of remotely sensed satellite estimates of PAR. In practice, diffuse PAR and global PAR are typically measured in situ, and beam PAR is calculated as the difference of these two fluxes. Whereas time-series data on instantaneous diffuse PAR for seasonal and longer periods were uncommon in the past, growing recognition of their importance in carbon cycle studies has led to increased deployment of PAR sensors capable of measuring both diffuse and global PAR fluxes. Improved information and understanding of the relative accuracy of PAR measurements obtained with different sensor types is important as a basis for determining the confidence limits of model results and to enable meaningful comparison of data sets. In this study, we examine measurements of diffuse and global PAR (photosynthetic photon flux density, PPFD) measured during 2004 at Hokkaido, Japan, with two relatively new and unique types of PAR sensors: the Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (model MFR-7 from Yankee Environmental Systems, Inc., custom-configured for PAR) and the Sunshine Sensor (model BF3 from Delta-T Devices). As a reference data set, we employ measurements of the global flux of spectral solar irradiance obtained with a spectral radiometer (from Eko Instruments, Co., Ltd.), from which we calculate PPFD. The results provide insight into the potential uncertainty or error associated with measurements of diffuse and global PAR from two common sensor types and with application of the data to models of vegetation photosynthesis and ecosystem-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange.

  8. ECF2 : A pulsed power generator based on magnetic flux compression for K-shell radiation production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Eplattenier, P.; Lassalle, F.; Mangeant, C.; Hamann, F.; Bavay, M.; Bayol, F.; Huet, D.; Morell, A.; Monjaux, P.; Avrillaud, G.; Lalle, B.

    2002-12-01

    The 3 MJ energy stored ECF2 generator is developed at Centre d'Etudes de Gramat, France, for K-shell radiation production. This generator is based on microsecond LTD stages as primary generators, and on the magnetic flux compression scheme for power amplification from the microsecond to the 100ns regime. This paper presents a general overview of the ECF2 generator. The flux compression stage, a key component, will be studied in details. We will present its advantages and drawbacks. We will then present the first experimental and numerical results which show the improvements that have already been made on this scheme.

  9. Intercomparison of shortwave radiative transfer codes and measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rangasayi N. Halthore; David Crisp; Stephen E. Schwartz; G. P. Anderson; A. Berk; B. Bonnel; O. Boucher; Fu-Lung Chang; Ming-Dah Chou; Eugene E. Clothiaux; P. Dubuisson; Boris Fomin; Y. Fouquart; S. Freidenreich; Catherine Gautier; Seiji Kato; Istvan Laszlo; Z. Li; J. H. Mather; Artemio Plana-Fattori; V. Ramaswamy; P. Ricchiazzi; Y. Shiren; A. Trishchenko; W. Wiscombe

    2005-01-01

    Computation of components of shortwave (SW) or solar irradiance in the surface-atmospheric system forms the basis of intercomparison between 16 radiative transfer models of varying spectral resolution ranging from line-by-line models to broadband and general circulation models. In order of increasing complexity the components are: direct solar irradiance at the surface, diffuse irradiance at the surface, diffuse upward flux at

  10. Solar radiation measurements and their applications in climate research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Bangsheng

    Aerosols and clouds play important roles in the climate system through their radiative effects and their vital link in the hydrological cycle. Accurate measurements of aerosol and cloud optical and microphysical properties are crucial for the study of climate and climate change. This study develops/improves retrieval algorithms for aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) and low liquid water path (LWP) cloud optical properties, evaluates a new spectrometer, and applies long-term measurements to establish climatology of aerosol and cloud optical properties. The following results were obtained. (1) The ratio of diffuse horizontal and direct normal fluxes measured from Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) has been used to derive the aerosol SSA. Various issues have impacts on the accuracy of SSA retrieval, from measurements (e.g., calibration accuracy, cosine respond correction, and forward scattering correction) to input parameters and assumptions (e.g., asymmetry factor, Rayleigh scattering optical depth, and surface albedo). This study carefully analyzed these issues and extensively assessed their impacts on the retrieval accuracy. Furthermore, the retrievals of aerosol SSA from MFRSR are compared with independent measurements from co-located instruments. (2) The Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) has been used to derive simultaneously the cloud optical depth (COD) and cloud drop effective radius (DER), subsequently inferring the cloud liquid-water path (LWP). The evaluation of the TCRSR indicates that the error of radiometric calibration has limited impact on the cloud DER retrievals. However, the retrieval accuracy of cloud DER is sensitive to the uncertainties of background setting (e.g., aerosol loading and the existence of ice cloud) and the measured solar aureole shape. (3) A new high resolution oxygen A-band spectrometer (HABS) has been developed, which has the ability to measure both direct-beam and zenith diffuse solar radiation with polarization capability. The HABS exhibits excellent performance: stable spectral response ratio, high SNR, high spectrum resolution (0.16 nm), and high Out-of-Band Rejection (10-5). The HABS measured spectra and polarization spectra are basically consistent with the related simulated spectra. The main difference between them occurs at or near the strong oxygen absorption line centers. Furthermore, our study demonstrates that it is a good method to derive the degree of polarization-oxygen absorption optical depth (DOP-k) relationship through a polynomial fitting in the DOP-k space. (4) The long-term MFRSR measurements at Darwin (Australia), Nauru (Nauru), and Manus (Papua New Guinea) sites have been processed to develop the climatology of aerosols and clouds in the Tropical Warm Pool (TWP) region at the interannual, seasonal, and diurnal temporal scales. Due to the association of these three sites with large-scale circulation patterns, aerosol and cloud properties exhibit distinctive characteristics. The cloud optical depth (COD) and cloud fraction (CF) exhibit apparent increasing trends from 1998 to 2007 and decreasing trends after 2007. The monthly anomaly values, to some extent, are bifurcately correlated with SOI, depending on the phase of ENSO. At the two oceanic sites of Manus and Nauru, aerosols, clouds, and precipitation are modulated by the meteorological changes associated with MJO events. (5) The long-term measurements at Barrow and Atqasuk sites also have been processed to develop the climatology of aerosol and cloud properties in the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) region at interannual, seasonal, and diurnal temporal scales. Due to Arctic climate warming, at these two sites, the snow melting day arrives earlier and the non-snow-cover duration increases. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) increased during the periods of 2001-2003 and 2005-2009, and decreased during 2003-2005. The LWP, COD, and CF exhibit apparently decreasing trends from 2002 to 2007 and increased significantly after 2008. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. Potentials and challenges associated with automated closed dynamic chamber measurements of soil CO2 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Kammann, Claudia; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2015-04-01

    Soil respiration fluxes are influenced by natural factors such as climate and soil type, but also by anthropogenic activities in managed ecosystems. As a result, soil CO2 fluxes show a large intra- and interannual as well as intra- and intersite variability. Most of the available soil CO2 flux data giving insights into this variability have been measured with manually closed static chambers, but technological advances in the past 15 years have also led to an increased use of automated closed chamber systems. The great advantage of automated chambers in comparison to manually operated chambers is the higher temporal resolution of the flux data. This is especially important if we want to better understand the effects of short-term events, e.g. fertilization or heavy rainfall, on soil CO2 flux variability. However, the chamber method is an invasive measurement met