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1

Design of a differential radiometer for atmospheric radiative flux measurements  

SciTech Connect

The Hemispherical Optimized NEt Radiometer (HONER) is an instrument under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for deployment on an unmanned aerospace vehicle as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM/UAV) program. HONER is a differential radiometer which will measure the difference between the total upwelling and downwelling fluxes and is intended to provide a means of measuring the atmospheric radiative flux divergence. Unlike existing instruments which measure the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately, HONER will achieve an optical difference by chopping the two fluxes alternately onto a common pyroelectric detector. HONER will provide data resolved into two spectral bands; one covering the solar dominated region from less than 0.4 micrometer to approximately 4.5 micrometers and the other covering the region from approximately 4.5 micrometers to greater than 50 micrometers, dominated by thermal radiation. The means of separating the spectral regions guarantees seamless summation to calculate the total flux. The fields-of-view are near-hemispherical, upward and downward. The instrument can be converted, in flight, from the differential mode to absolute mode, measuring the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately and simultaneously. The instrument also features continuous calibration from on-board sources. We will describe the design and operation of the sensor head and the on-board reference sources as well as the means of deployment.

LaDelfe, P.C.; Weber, P.G.; Rodriguez, C.W.

1994-11-01

2

Galileo probe measurements of thermal and solar radiation fluxes in the Jovian atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galileo probe net flux radiometer (NFR) measured radiation fluxes in Jupiter's atmosphere from about 0.44 to 14 bars, using five spectral channels to separate solar and thermal components. Onboard calibration results confirm that the NFR responded to radiation approximately as expected. NFR channels also responded to a superimposed thermal perturbation, which can be approximately removed using blind channel measurements

L. A. Sromovsky; A. D. Collard; P. M. Fry; G. S. Orton; M. T. Lemmon; M. G. Tomasko; R. S. Freedman

1998-01-01

3

Comparison of measured and modeled radiation, heat and water vapor fluxes: FIFE pilot study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using radio frequency receivers to collect data from automated weather stations to model fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and radiation using routine weather data collected by automated weather stations was tested and the estimated fluxes were compared with fluxes measured over wheat. The model Cupid was used to model the fluxes. Two or more automated weather stations, interrogated by radio frequency and other means, were utilized to examine some of the climatic variability of the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) site, to measure and model reflected and emitted radiation streams from various locations at the site and to compare modeled latent and sensible heat fluxes with measured values. Some bidirectional reflected and emitted radiation data were collected from 23 locations throughout the FIFE site. Analysis of these data along with analysis of the measured sensible and latent heat fluxes is just beginning.

Blad, Blaine L.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Verma, Shashi B.; Starks, Patrick; Norman, John M.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth

1987-01-01

4

Measuring and modeling near surface reflected and emitted radiation fluxes at the FIFE site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research was conducted during the four Intensive Field Campaigns (IFC) of the FIFE project in 1987. The research was done on a tall grass prairie with specific measurement sites on and near the Konza Prairie in Kansas. Measurements were made to help meet the following objectives: determination of the variability in reflected and emitted radiation fluxes in selected spectral wavebands as a function of topography and vegetative community; development of techniques to account for slope and sun angle effects on the radiation fluxes; estimation of shortwave albedo and net radiation fluxes using the reflected and emitted spectral measurements described; estimation of leaf and canopy spectral properties from calculated normalized differences coupled with off-nadir measurements using inversion techniques; estimation of plant water status at several locations with indices utilizing plant temperature and other environmental parameters; and determination of relationships between estimated plant water status and measured soil water content. Results are discussed.

Blad, Blaine L.; Norman, John M.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth; Starks, Patrick; Vining, Roel; Hays, Cynthia

1988-01-01

5

Comparison of measured and modeled radiation, heat and water vapor fluxes: FIFE pilot study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objectives of the 1985 study were to test the feasibility of using radio frequency receivers to collect data from automated weather stations and to evaluate the use of the data collected by the automated weather stations for modeling the fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and radiation over wheat. The model Cupid was used to calculate these fluxes which were compared with fluxes of these entities measured using micrometeorological techniques. The primary objectives of the 1986 study were to measure and model reflected and emitted radiation streams at a few locations within the First International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) site and to compare modeled and measured latent heat and sensible heat fluxes from the prairie vegetation.

Blad, Blaine L.; Verma, Shashi B.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Starks, Patrick; Hays, Cynthia; Norman, John M.; Waltershea, Elizabeth

1988-01-01

6

Radiation fluxes and canopy transmittance: Models and measurements inside a willow canopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upward and downward fluxes of photosynthetically active and broadband solar radiation, and the transmittance of direct solar radiation measured at different heights inside a willow (Salix viminalis) canopy are compared with modeling results. Two approaches are used for modeling the radiation field inside the canopy: solving the radiative transfer equation using the exact kernel discrete ordinates method and a Monte Carlo model. The measured and modeled canopies include a 1-year-old willow coppice with leaf area index (LAI) = 5 and a 4-year-old coppice with LAI = 8. Biometrical data used in the models are taken from detailed measurements of canopy structure; measured fluxes are used as boundary conditions. An attempt is made to include the effect of clumping on the penetration of direct solar radiation into the radiative transfer model. All models agreed well with measurement results; enhancement of modeled fluxes due to inclusion of clumping depended on the height inside the canopy while the distribution of leaf inclination angle had a minimal effect on the radiation regime of the stand.

Mõttus, Matti; Sulev, Madis

2006-01-01

7

Measurement of surface radiation fluxes and cloud optical properties during the 1994 Arctic Ocean Section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a voyage to the north pole from Alaska by the icebreakers USCGC Polar Sea and Canadian CGC Louis S. St.-Laurent (the 1994 Arctic Ocean Section, July 24 to September 3) an atmospheric radiation and remote sensing experiment measured downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation reaching the sea ice surface. The experiment included a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroradiometer which measured zenith radiance at 1 cm-1 resolution in the middle infrared wavelength range 5-20 ?m, an Eppley pyranometer measuring most of the downwelling shortwave flux (0.28-2.80 ?m), an Eppley pyranometer measuring the downwelling near-infrared flux (0.78-2.80 ?m), and an Eppley pyrgeometer measuring the downwelling longwave flux. In conjunction with a discrete-ordinates radiative transfer model, the FTIR emission spectra are used to estimate 8-12 ?m cloud emissivity and effective radius of the cloud droplet size distribution. The broadband shortwave flux measurements are used to estimate shortwave cloud scattering optical depth. Most of the FTIR emission spectra recorded under overcast skies are consistent with cloud effective radius in the range 10-12 ?m, but 27% of the spectra are more consistent with the range 4-6 ?m, suggesting an occasional continental aerosol influence to Arctic cloud microphysics. The average daily shortwave cloud-scattering optical depth ranged from 2 to 46, which is similar to a range inferred from radiometer data recorded at Barrow, Alaska, during the same season. The downwelling shortwave flux measurements and estimates of net surface flux are generally consistent with a four-decade Russian climatology but also suggest that the frequency of cloud cover sampled during the 1994 Arctic Ocean Section was somewhat larger than the climatological average. These radiation measurement data from the 1994 Arctic Ocean Section should be useful for examining the treatment of atmospheric radiation and surface energy input in Arctic climate model simulations.

Lubin, Dan; Simpson, A. Sabrina

1997-02-01

8

Differential radiometry for measuring the net radiative flux in the earth`s atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

The Hemispheric Optimized NEt Radiometer (HONER) is very briefly described. HONER was developed to resolve technical issues impeding the accurate measurement of atmospheric radiative flux. HONER uses differential radiometry, chopping the signal from upwelling and downwelling fluxes onto a single AC detector system, allowing true optical differencing as well as measurements of the individual fluxes. Wavelength coverage encompasses ultraviolet to more than 50 micrometers. HONER has been used in a ground-based version and will be tested on the Perseus B Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle.

La Delfe, P.C.; Love, S.P.; Weber, P.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-11-01

9

Measuring and modeling near-surface reflected and emitted radiation fluxes at the FIFE site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is presented pertaining to the measurement and estimation of reflected and emitted components of the radiation balance. Information is included about reflectance and transmittance of solar radiation from and through the leaves of some grass and forb prairie species, bidirectional reflectance from a prairie canopy is discussed and measured and estimated fluxes are described of incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation. Results of the study showed only very small differences in reflectances and transmittances for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of grass species in the visible and infrared wavebands, but some differences in the infrared wavebands were noted for the forbs. Reflectance from the prairie canopy changed as a function of solar and view zenith angles in the solar principal plane with definite asymmetry about nadir. The surface temperature of prairie canopies was found to vary by as much as 5 C depending on view zenith and azimuth position and on the solar azimuth. Aerodynamic temperature calculated from measured sensible heat fluxes ranged from 0 to 3 C higher than nadir-viewed temperatures. Models were developed to estimate incoming and reflected shortwave radiation from data collected with a Barnes Modular Multiband Radiometer. Several algorithms for estimating incoming longwave radiation were evaluated and compared to actual measures of that parameter. Net radiation was calculated using the estimated components of the shortwave radiation streams, determined from the algorithms developed, and from the longwave radiation streams provided by the Brunt, modified Deacon, and the Stefan-Boltzmann models. Estimates of net radiation were compared to measured values and found to be within the measurement error of the net radiometers used in the study.

Blad, Blaine L.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Starks, Patrick J.; Vining, Roel C.; Hays, Cynthia J.; Mesarch, Mark A.

1990-01-01

10

Measurements of x-ray spectral flux and intensity distribution of APS/CHESS undulator radiation  

SciTech Connect

Absolute radiation flux and polarization measurements of the APS undulators may have to be made under high thermal loading conditions. A method that may circumvent the high-heat-load problem was tested during a recent APS/CHESS undulator run. The technique makes use of a Si(Li) energy-dispersive detector to measure 5--35 keV x-rays scattered from a well-defined He gas volume at controlled pressure.

Ilinski, P.; Yun, W.; Lai, B.; Gluskin, E.; Cai, Z.

1994-09-01

11

Glucose transport carrier of human erythrocytes. Radiation target size measurement based on flux inactivation  

SciTech Connect

Intact human erythrocytes frozen in the presence of cryoprotective reagents and irradiated with an electron beam retained their diffusion barrier to L-glucose. The carrier-mediated flux of D-glucose, on the other hand, was inactivated as a simple exponential function of the radiation dose. Classical target size analysis of this data yielded a molecular size of 185,000 daltons for the carrier. This represents the first measurement of the functional size of a transport protein based directly on flux inactivation.

Cuppoletti, J.; Jung, C.Y.; Green, F.A.

1981-02-10

12

Double-cavity radiometer for high-flux density solar radiation measurements.  

PubMed

A radiometric method has been developed, suitable for both total power and flux density profile measurement of concentrated solar radiation. The high-flux density radiation is collected by a first optical cavity, integrated, and driven to a second optical cavity, where, attenuated, it is measured by a conventional radiometer operating under a stationary irradiation regime. The attenuation factor is regulated by properly selecting the aperture areas in the two cavities. The radiometer has been calibrated by a pulsed solar simulator at concentration levels of hundreds of suns. An optical model and a ray-tracing study have also been developed and validated, by which the potentialities of the radiometer have been largely explored. PMID:17415384

Parretta, A; Antonini, A; Armani, M; Nenna, G; Flaminio, G; Pellegrino, M

2007-04-20

13

Surface Solar Radiation Flux and Cloud Radiative Forcing for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP): A Satellite, Surface Observations, and Radiative Transfer Model Study.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents surface solar radiation flux and cloud radiative forcing results obtained by using a combination of satellite and surface observations interpreted by means of a simple plane-parallel radiative transfer model called 2001. This model, a revised version of a model initially introduced by Gautier et al., relates calibrated radiance observations from space to incoming surface solar flux. After a description of the model, an evaluation is presented by comparison with a more complex model that the authors have developed, the Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer model (SBDART) based on the discrete ordinate model of Stamnes et al. This evaluation demonstrates this model's accuracy for instantaneous surface flux when used to retrieve daily (and monthly) surface solar flux. Limitations related to its lack of treatment of the bidirectional reflectance properties of clouds are also discussed and quantified by comparison with SBDART for instantaneous surface solar flux retrievals. The influence of satellite sensor calibration uncertainty is also examined in terms of surface solar flux.The model has been applied to hourly GOES data collected over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's central cloud and radiation testbed site in Oklahoma during a 14-month period to estimate hourly, daily, and monthly surface solar radiation flux. Comparisons of the model's results with surface measurements made from pyranometers located at the ARM site indicate good overall agreement. The best results are obtained for daily integrated clear skies with an rms error less than 10 W m2 (or about 3% of the mean value) and a 2.8 W m2 bias. These results indicate that the clear sky model is quite accurate and also that the threshold-based technique to detect cloudy conditions works well for the resolution of the satellite data used in this study. For partly cloudy conditions the comparisons show an rms error of about 20 W m2 (or less than 7% of the mean) and a 2.5 W m2 bias. The performance of the model degrades with cloud cover conditions with an rms error of 22 W m2 (or 13% of the mean) and a bias of 13.9 W m2 for overcast conditions. The results improve considerably for monthly average values with an rms error of about 11 W m2 (or 4% of the mean) and a bias of 2.6 W m2 for all conditions.The model has also been used to evaluate the cloud radiative forcing at the surface and results indicate large values of forcing for the spring and summer reaching daily values over 200 W m2 in May.

Gautier, Catherine; Landsfeld, Martin

1997-05-01

14

Temperature and Radiative Heat Flux Measurements in Microgravity Jet Diffusion Flames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project is to provide detailed measurements and modeling analyses of local soot concentration, temperature and radiation heat flux distributions in laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames under normal (1-g) and reduced gravity (0-g) conditions. Results published to date by these co-PI's and their co-workers include: 1. thermophoretic sampling and size and morphological analyses of soot aggregates in laminar flames under normal and reduced gravity conditions; 2. full-field absorption imaging for soot volume fraction maps in laminar and turbulent flames under normal and reduced gravity conditions; 3. an accurate solver module for detailed radiation heat transfer in nongray nonhomogeneous media; 4. a complete model to include flame structure, soot formation and an energy equation to couple with radiation solver.

Ku, Jerry C.; Greenberg, Paul S.

1997-01-01

15

Net flux sensors for the measurement of Mars surface radiation budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a net flux sensor being devised as part of a network of meteorological sensors for the acquisition of surface data of Mars. The characteristics of the measuring configuration and source of error that drive the sensor design are examined. The pyranometers and pyrgeometers of the sensor use double platform microbolometers with gold black coating for the measurement of radiative fluxes in the spectral range from 0.3 to 50 ?m. The microbolometer detector exhibits a typical responsivity of ~ 1.8×104 V/W and a time constant of ~ 14 ms at the pixel level. The reflectance data confirm that the gold black absorbs more than 98 % of the incident light in the range from 0.2 to 20 ?m, while the absorptance exceeds 94% for wavelengths up to 100 ?m. The detector transfer function is derived to assist in the characterization of net flux sensor. The experimental sensor modules, which differ in the spectral band and field of view, are designed to be interchangeable on the same node of a sensor network. The network is intended for the evaluation of the sensor performance and measurement configuration in analog field experiments.

Ngo Phong, Linh; Alazzam, Anas; Daly, Michael G.; Proulx, Christian; Châteauneuf, Francois

2012-03-01

16

Significance of multidimensional radiative transfer effects measured in surface fluxes at an Antarctic coastline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At a coastal high-latitude site, multiple reflection of photons between the high albedo surface and an overlying cloud can enhance the downwelling shortwave flux out over the adjacent open water to a distance of several kilometers. This coastal albedo effect has been predicted by theoretical radiative transfer studies and has also been measured under ideal conditions. In this study, three multispectral solar ultraviolet radiometers were deployed in the vicinity of Palmer Station, Antarctica (64° 46'S, 64° 04'W) to determine the prevalence of the coastal albedo effect under the region's natural variability in cloud cover. One radiometer was deployed near the base of a glacier, and the other two radiometers were deployed on Janus Island and Outcast Island, islets ˜2.8 km (1.5 nautical miles) and 5.6 km (3 nautical miles) distant from Palmer Station, respectively. The radiometers were operated simultaneously for 16 days during late December 1999 and January 2000. Under all cloudy sky conditions sampled by this experiment the coastal albedo effect is seen in the data 60% of the time, in the form of a decreasing gradient in surface flux from Palmer Station through Janus and Outcast Islands. During the other 40% of the cloudy sky measurements, local cloud inhomogeneity obscured the coastal albedo effect. The effect is more apparent under overcast layers that appear spatially uniform and occurs 86% of the time under the low overcast decks sampled. The presence of stratus fractus of bad weather, under higher overcast layers, obscures the coastal albedo effect such that it occurs only 43% of the time. A wavelength dependence is noted in the data under optically thin cloud cover: the ratio of a flux measured at an islet to that measured at the station increases with wavelength. This wavelength dependence can be explained by plane-parallel radiative transfer theory.

Lubin, Dan; Ricchiazzi, Paul; Payton, Allison; Gautier, Catherine

2002-10-01

17

Galileo Probe Measurements of Thermal and Solar Radiation Fluxes in the Jovian Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo probe net flux radiometer (NFR) measured radiation fluxes in Jupiter's atmosphere from about 0.44 to 14 bars, using five spectral channels to separate solar and thermal components. Onboard calibration results confirm that the NFR responded to radiation approximately as expected. NFR channels also responded to a superimposed thermal perturbation, which can be approximately removed using blind channel measurements and physical constraints. Evidence for the expected NH3 cloud was seen in the spectral character of spin-induced modulations of the direct solar beam signals. These results are consistent with an overlying cloud of small NH3 ice particles (0.5-0.75 microns in radius) of optical depth 1.5-2 at 0.5 microns. Such a cloud would have so little effect on thermal fluxes that NFR thermal channels provide no additional constraints on its properties. However, evidence for heating near 0.45 bar in the NFR thermal channels would seem to require either an additional opacity source beyond this small-particle cloud, implying a heterogeneous-cloud structure to avoid conflicts with solar modulation results, or a change in temperature lapse rate just above the probe measurements. The large thermal flux levels imply water vapor mixing ratios that are only 6% of solar at 10 bars, but possibly increasing with depth, and significantly subsaturated ammonia at pressures less than 3 bars. If deep NH3 mixing ratios at the probe entry site are 3-4 times ground-based inferences, as suggested by probe radio signal attenuation, then only half as much water is needed to match NFR observations. No evidence of a water cloud was seen near the 5-bar level. The 5 microns thermal channel detected the presumed NH4SH cloud base near 1.35 bars. Effects of this cloud were also seen in the solar channel upflux measurements but not in the solar net fluxes, implying that the cloud is a conservative scatterer of sunlight. The minor thermal signature of this cloud is compatible with particle radii near 3 microns, but it cannot rule out smaller particles. Deeper than about 3 bars, solar channels indicate unexpectedly large absorption of sunlight at wavelengths longer than 0.6 microns, which might be due to unaccounted-for absorption by NH3 between 0.65 and 1.5 microns.

Sromovsky, L. A.; Collard, A. D.; Fry, P. M.; Orton, G. S.; Lemmon, M. T.; Tomasko, M. G.; Freedman, R. S.

1998-01-01

18

Galileo Probe Measurements of Thermal and Solar Radiation Fluxes in the Jovian Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo probe net flux radiometer (NFR) measured radiation fluxes in Jupiter's atmosphere from about 0.44 to 14 bars, using five spectral channels to separate solar and thermal components. Onboard calibration results confirm that the NFR responded to radiation approximately as expected. NFR channels also responded to a superimposed thermal perturbation, which can be approximately removed using blind channel measurements and physical constraints. Evidence for the expected NH3 cloud was seen in the spectral character of spin-induced modulations of the direct solar beam signals. These results are consistent with an overlying cloud of small NH3 ice particles (0.5-0.75 microns in radius) of optical depth 1.5-2 at 0.5 microns. Such a cloud would have so little effect on thermal fluxes that NFR thermal channels provide no additional constraints on its properties. However, evidence for heating near 0.45 bar in the NFR thermal channels would seem to require either an additional opacity source beyond this small-particle cloud, implying a heterogeneous cloud structure to avoid conflicts with solar modulation results, or a change in temperature lapse rate just above the probe measurements. The large thermal flux levels imply water vapor mixing ratios that are only 6% of solar at 10 bars, but possibly increasing with depth, and significantly subsaturated ammonia at pressures less than 3 bars. If deep NH3 mixing ratios at the probe entry site are 3-4 times ground-based inferences, as suggested by probe radio signal attenuation, then only half as much water is needed to match NFR observations. No evidence of a water cloud was seen near the 5-bar level. The 5-microns thermal channel detected the presumed NH4SH cloud base near 1.35 bars. Effects of this cloud were also seen in the solar channel upflux measurements but not in the solar net fluxes, implying that the cloud is a conservative scatterer of sunlight. The minor thermal signature of this cloud is compatible with particle radii near 3 gm, but it cannot rule out smaller particles. Deeper than about 3 bars, solar channels indicate unexpectedly large absorption of sunlight at wavelengths longer than 0.6 microns, which might be due to unaccounted-for absorption by NH3 between 0.65 and 1.5 microns.

Sromovsky, L. A.; Collard, A. D.; Fry, P. M.; Orton, G. S.; Lemmon, M. T.; Tomasko, M. G.; Freedman, R. S.

1998-01-01

19

An Investigation of the Compatibility of Radiation and Convection Heat Flux Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for determining time-resolved absorbed surface heat flux and surface temperature in radiation and convection environments is described. The method is useful for verification of aerodynamic, heat transfer and durability models. A practical heat flux gage fabrication procedure and a simple one-dimensional inverse heat conduction model and calculation procedure are incorporated in this method. The model provides an estimate of the temperature and heat flux gradient in the direction of heat transfer through the gage. This paper discusses several successful time-resolved tests of this method in hostile convective heating and cooling environments.

Liebert, Curt H.

1996-01-01

20

Measuring surface fluxes in CAPE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two stations (site 1612 and site 2008) were operated by the University of Georgia group from 6 July 1991 to 18 August 1991. The following data were collected continuously: surface energy fluxes (i.e., net radiation, soil heat fluxes, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux), air temperature, vapor pressure, soil temperature (at 1 cm depth), and precipitation. Canopy reflectance and light interception data were taken three times at each site between 6 July and 18 August. Soil moisture content was measured twice at each site.

Kanemasu, E. T.; D-Shah, T.; Nie, Dalin

1992-01-01

21

Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

Miller, E. R.

1972-01-01

22

Heat flux measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new automated, computer controlled heat flux measurement facility is described. Continuous transient and steady-state surface heat flux values varying from about 0.3 to 6 MW/sq m over a temperature range of 100 to 1200 K can be obtained in the facility. An application of this facility is the development of heat flux gauges for continuous fast transient surface heat flux measurement on turbine blades operating in space shuttle main engine turbopumps. The facility is useful for durability testing at fast temperature transients.

Liebert, Curt H.; Weikle, Donald H.

1989-01-01

23

A new parameterization scheme for estimating surface energy fluxes with continuous surface temperature, air temperature, and surface net radiation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

study develops a method for estimating surface energy fluxes (surface sensible heat flux (H), latent heat flux (LE), and soil heat flux (G)) simultaneously from continuous observations of surface temperature (Ts), air temperature (Ta), and net radiation (Rn) without calculating various resistances. First, H, LE, and G are parameterized by some constant parameters that remain fairly invariant during a given day and some known functions related to Ts and Ta. Second, these constant parameters are solved by a minimization technique based on surface energy balance. Data from ground-based measurements at the Yucheng station were used to evaluate the performance of the developed method. Results show that the simplified parameterization schemes well reproduce H, LE, and G with a root mean square error (RMSE) of ˜20 W/m2 at the instantaneous time scale, and perform better at the daily scale. For the estimates of H, LE, and G using the known Ts, Ta, and Rn measured at the Yucheng station as inputs, the RMSE is ˜60 W/m2 at the instantaneous time scale and ˜20 W/m2 at the daily scale. The requirement of continuous observations throughout a day in the developed method could be met by remotely sensed data from geostationary meteorological satellites. Fewer input variables and the obviation of calculating various resistances give the method the potential to generate surface fluxes over a large area.

Lu, Jing; Tang, Ronglin; Tang, Huajun; Li, Zhao-Liang

2014-02-01

24

Solar and Thermal Radiation Flux Measurements over the East Coast of Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft measurements show that the albedo of much of the east coast of Australia may be described in terms of only two curves of albedo versus solar elevation (A rs. e), those of eucalypt forest and dry grassland. The theoretical albedo of white-capping sea to isotropic sky radiation (derived from an experimental A rs. e curve) is found to be

G. W. Paltridge

1971-01-01

25

Heat flux measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new automated, computer controlled heat flux measurement facility is described. Continuous transient and steady-state surface heat flux values varying from about 0.3 to 6 MW\\/sq m over a temperature range of 100 to 1200 K can be obtained in the facility. An application of this facility is the development of heat flux gauges for continuous fast transient surface heat

Curt H. Liebert; Donald H. Weikle

1989-01-01

26

Fast Longwave and Shortwave Radiative Flux (FLASHFlux) Products from CERES and MODIS Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy Systems (CERES) project is currently producing world-class climatological data products derived from measurements taken aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts (Wielicki et al., 1996). While of exceptional fidelity, these data products require a considerable amount of processing to assure quality and verify accuracy and precision. Obtaining such high quality assurance, however, means that the CERES data is typically released more than six months after the acquisition of the initial measurements. For climate studies, such delays are of little consequence, especially considering the improved quality of the released data products. There are, however, many uses for the CERES data products on a near real-time basis. These include: CERES instrument calibration and subsystem quality checks, CLOUDSAT operations, seasonal predictions, agricultural and ocean assimilations, support of field campaigns, and outreach programs such as S'Cool. The FLASHflux project was envisioned as a conduit whereby CERES data could be provided to the community within a week of the initial measurements, with the trade-off that some degree of fidelity would be exacted to gain speed. In this paper, we will report on some very encouraging initial results from the FLASHflux project in which we compared the FLASHflux instantaneous surface fluxes to the CERES surface-only flux algorithm data products.

Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Kratz, David P.; McGarragh, Greg R.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Geier, Erika B.

2006-01-01

27

A Method for Continuous Estimation of Clear-Sky Downwelling Longwave Radiative Flux Developed Using ARM Surface Measurements.  

SciTech Connect

We present a methodology for the continuous estimation of downwelling clear-sky longwave (LW) radiative flux based on analysis of surface irradiance, air temperature, and humidity measurements. While there is no exact means of determining the uncertainty associated with the clear-sky LW estimations, our analyses and comparison with detailed radiative transfer model calculations suggest that our estimations on average are no worse than model calculations that require temporally and spatially averaged input information. Our technique exhibits a high degree of repeatability for the downwelling LW cloud effect, with agreement at about the 3 Wm-2 level even including the results for a measurement system with a known calibration offset problem. Applying our technique, as well as that of Long and Ackerman (2000) for the shortwave (SW) radiative flux, to 15 years of data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains site shows that the maximum downwelling LW lags the SW maximum by about a month on yearly time scales, and by about 3 hours diurnally. The maximum all-sky and clear-sky SW and LW occurs during the summer months, with the greatest year-to-year clear-sky SW variability occurring in the fall, but the yearto-year clear- and all-sky LW variability is about the same in all seasons. The downwelling LW cloud effect is fairly constant in the aggregate across the seasons, but the greatest SW cloud effect occurs in the spring. Overall, the downwelling net cloud effect is dominated by the SW, with the greatest decrease in radiative energy reaching the surface due to clouds occurring in the spring (-64 Wm-2), and the smallest magnitude net cloud effect occurring during winter (-21 Wm-2).

Long, Charles N.; Turner, David D.

2008-09-30

28

Energy exchanges in a Central Business District - Interpretation of Eddy Covariance and radiation flux measurements (London UK)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global urbanisation brings increasingly dense and complex urban structures. To manage cities sustainably and smartly, currently and into the future under changing climates, urban climate research needs to advance in areas such as Central Business Districts (CBD) where human interactions with the environment are particularly concentrated. Measurement and modelling approaches may be pushed to their limits in dense urban settings, but if urban climate research is to contribute to the challenges of real cities those limits have to be addressed. The climate of cities is strongly governed by surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy, moisture and momentum. Observations of the relevant fluxes provide important information for improvement and evaluation of modelling approaches. Due to the CBD's heterogeneity, a very careful analysis of observations is required to understand the relevant processes. Current approaches used to interpret observations and set them in a wider context may need to be adapted for use in these more complex areas. Here, we present long-term observations of the radiation balance components and turbulent fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat and momentum in the city centre of London. This is one of the first measurement studies in a CBD covering multiple years with analysis at temporal scales from days to seasons. Data gathered at two sites in close vicinity, but with different measurement heights, are analysed to investigate the influence of source area characteristics on long-term radiation and turbulent fluxes. Challenges of source area modelling and the critical aspect of siting in such a complex environment are considered. Outgoing long- and short-wave radiation are impacted by the anisotropic nature of the urban surface and the high reflectance materials increasingly being used as building materials. Results highlight the need to consider the source area of radiometers in terms of diffuse and direct irradiance. Sensible heat fluxes (QH) are positive all year round, even at night. QH systematically exceeds input from net all-wave radiation (Q*), probably sustained by a both storage and anthropogenic heat fluxes (QF). Model estimates suggest QF can exceed the Q* nearly all year round. The positive QH inhibits stable conditions, but the stability classification is determined predominantly by the pattern of friction velocity over the rough urban surface. Turbulent latent heat flux variations are controlled (beyond the available energy) by rainfall due to the small vegetation cover. The Bowen ratio is mostly larger than one. Analysis of the eddy covariance footprint surface controls for the different land cover types by flow patterns for measurements at the two heights suggests the spatial variations of the sensible heat flux observed are partly related to changes in surface roughness, even at the local scale. Where the source areas are most homogeneous, flow conditions are vertically consistent - even if initial morphometric parameters suggested the measurements may be below the blending height. Turbulence statistics and momentum flux patterns prove useful for the interpretation of turbulent heat exchanges observed.

Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

2013-12-01

29

Apparatus for measuring high-flux heat transfer in radiatively heated compact exchangers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus is described which can deliver uniform heat flux densities of up to 80 W/sq cm over an area 7.8 cm x 15.2 cm for use in measuring the heat transfer and pressure drop in thin (6 mm or less), compact heat exchangers. Helium gas at flow rates of 0 to 40 kg/h and pressures to 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) is the working fluid. The instrumentation used in the apparatus and the methods for analyzing the data is described. The apparatus will be used initially to test the performance of prototype cooling jackets for the engine struts of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP).

Olson, Douglas A.

1989-01-01

30

Measurements of net radiation, ground heat flux and surface temperature in an urban canyon  

SciTech Connect

The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect data to increase our knowledge of dispersion in urban areas. Air motions in and around urban areas are very complicated due to the influence of urban structures on both mechanical and thermal forcing. During JU2003, meteorological instruments were deployed at various locations throughout the urban area to characterize the processes that influence dispersion. Some of the instruments were deployed to characterize urban phenomena, such as boundary layer development. In addition, particular sites were chosen for more concentrated measurements to investigate physical processes in more detail. One such site was an urban street canyon on Park Avenue between Broadway and Robinson Avenues in downtown Oklahoma City. The urban canyon study was designed to examine the processes that control dispersion within, into and out of the urban canyon. Several towers were deployed in the Park Avenue block, with multiple levels on each tower for observing the wind using sonic anemometers. Infrared thermometers, net radiometers and ground heat flux plates were deployed on two of the towers midway in the canyon to study the thermodynamic effects and to estimate the surface energy balance. We present results from the surface energy balance observations.

Gouveia, F J; Leach, M J; Shinn, J H

2003-11-06

31

Some experiences on the measuring of long-wave radiation fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Better information about the relation between atmospheric temperature radiation and data genrally available from synoptic weather stations is required. For this purpose a couple of radiation instruments was installed at the airfield of Deelen (Holland), among others meters with polyethylene domes. The sensitivity of the various instruments for short- and long-wave radiation is discussed and it is shown that changes

L. Wartena; C. L. Palland; A. Koetsier

1965-01-01

32

Adsorption calorimetry during metal vapor deposition on single crystal surfaces: Increased flux, reduced optical radiation, and real-time flux and reflectivity measurements  

SciTech Connect

Thin films of metals and other materials are often grown by physical vapor deposition. To understand such processes, it is desirable to measure the adsorption energy of the deposited species as the film grows, especially when grown on single crystal substrates where the structure of the adsorbed species, evolving interface, and thin film are more homogeneous and well-defined in structure. Our group previously described in this journal an adsorption calorimeter capable of such measurements on single-crystal surfaces under the clean conditions of ultrahigh vacuum [J. T. Stuckless, N. A. Frei, and C. T. Campbell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2427 (1998)]. Here we describe several improvements to that original design that allow for heat measurements with ?18-fold smaller standard deviation, greater absolute accuracy in energy calibration, and, most importantly, measurements of the adsorption of lower vapor-pressure materials which would have previously been impossible. These improvements are accomplished by: (1) using an electron beam evaporator instead of a Knudsen cell to generate the metal vapor at the source of the pulsed atomic beam, (2) changing the atomic beam design to decrease the relative amount of optical radiation that accompanies evaporation, (3) adding an off-axis quartz crystal microbalance for real-time measurement of the flux of the atomic beam during calorimetry experiments, and (4) adding capabilities for in situ relative diffuse optical reflectivity determinations (necessary for heat signal calibration). These improvements are not limited to adsorption calorimetry during metal deposition, but also could be applied to better study film growth of other elements and even molecular adsorbates.

Sellers, Jason R. V.; James, Trevor E.; Hemmingson, Stephanie L.; Farmer, Jason A.; Campbell, Charles T., E-mail: campbell@chem.washington.edu [Department of Chemistry, Box 351700, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 (United States)

2013-12-15

33

Adsorption calorimetry during metal vapor deposition on single crystal surfaces: increased flux, reduced optical radiation, and real-time flux and reflectivity measurements.  

PubMed

Thin films of metals and other materials are often grown by physical vapor deposition. To understand such processes, it is desirable to measure the adsorption energy of the deposited species as the film grows, especially when grown on single crystal substrates where the structure of the adsorbed species, evolving interface, and thin film are more homogeneous and well-defined in structure. Our group previously described in this journal an adsorption calorimeter capable of such measurements on single-crystal surfaces under the clean conditions of ultrahigh vacuum [J. T. Stuckless, N. A. Frei, and C. T. Campbell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2427 (1998)]. Here we describe several improvements to that original design that allow for heat measurements with ~18-fold smaller standard deviation, greater absolute accuracy in energy calibration, and, most importantly, measurements of the adsorption of lower vapor-pressure materials which would have previously been impossible. These improvements are accomplished by: (1) using an electron beam evaporator instead of a Knudsen cell to generate the metal vapor at the source of the pulsed atomic beam, (2) changing the atomic beam design to decrease the relative amount of optical radiation that accompanies evaporation, (3) adding an off-axis quartz crystal microbalance for real-time measurement of the flux of the atomic beam during calorimetry experiments, and (4) adding capabilities for in situ relative diffuse optical reflectivity determinations (necessary for heat signal calibration). These improvements are not limited to adsorption calorimetry during metal deposition, but also could be applied to better study film growth of other elements and even molecular adsorbates. PMID:24387440

Sellers, Jason R V; James, Trevor E; Hemmingson, Stephanie L; Farmer, Jason A; Campbell, Charles T

2013-12-01

34

Aerosol radiative impact on spectral solar flux at the surface, derived from principal plane sky measurements.  

E-print Network

the radiation budget and the temperature field by changing the energy balance and distribution of solar and with aerosol models. We study smoke aerosol in Brazil, Saharan dust in Cape Verde and urban in these sites, almost independent of the aerosol type: smoke, dust or urban/industrial pollution. In Washington

35

Remote sounding of surface radiative fluxes in cirrus cloudy conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been long recognized that radiation and radiation perturbations play a critical role in the climate system. Surface radiative fluxes are useful parameters for monitoring global change, for understanding of the effects of clouds on the radiation field, and for improving parameterization of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. Monitoring of the radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere has been one of the prime satellite programs for the last 30 years. However, monitoring radiative fluxes at the surface over the globe from space cannot be performed in a direct way at the present time. In particular, since clouds are the prime regulators of the radiative fluxes, uncertainties in the retrieved cloud parameters, which are inputs to radiative transfer models, can introduce significant errors in the computed radiative fluxes. Thus, remote sounding of surface radiative fluxes in cloudy conditions requires the development of both satellite cloud retrieval scheme and radiation models. In this paper, we present results of computed surface radiative fluxes in cirrus cloudy conditions using a cirrus cloud retrieval scheme and a detailed radiative transfer program. Comparisons have been made between the computed surface radiative fluxes and the ground-based radiometer measurements obtained during FIRE-II-IFO, which was carried out near Coffeyville, Kansas, during November and December, 1991.

Ou, S. C.; Liou, K. N.

1995-01-01

36

Measured and calculated clear-sky solar radiative fluxes during the Subsonic Aircraft Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeled and measured surface insolations are compared with the purpose of evaluating the ability of a radiative transfer model to predict the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface under clear-sky conditions. Model uncertainties are estimated by performing sensitivity studies for variations in aerosol optical depth, aerosol optical properties, water vapor profiles, ozone content, solar irradiance at the top of

Francisco P. J. Valero; Brett C. Bush

1999-01-01

37

Results of a comprehensive atmospheric aerosol-radiation experiment in the southwestern United States. I - Size distribution, extinction optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosols suspended in the atmosphere. II - Radiation flux measurements and  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are reported for a field test that was aimed at acquiring a sufficient set of measurements of aerosol properties required as input for radiative-transfer calculations relevant to the earth's radiation balance. These measurements include aerosol extinction and size distributions, vertical profiles of aerosols, and radiation fluxes. Physically consistent, vertically inhomogeneous models of the aerosol characteristics of a turbid atmosphere over a desert and an agricultural region are constructed by using direct and indirect sampling techniques. These results are applied for a theoretical interpretation of airborne radiation-flux measurements. The absorption term of the complex refractive index of aerosols is estimated, a regional variation in the refractive index is noted, and the magnitude of solar-radiation absorption by aerosols and atmospheric molecules is determined.

Deluisi, J. J.; Furukawa, F. M.; Gillette, D. A.; Schuster, B. G.; Charlson, R. J.; Porch, W. M.; Fegley, R. W.; Herman, B. M.; Rabinoff, R. A.; Twitty, J. T.

1976-01-01

38

Surface Radiative Fluxes in Sub-Sahel Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results of observations of radiative fluxes measured in sub-Sahel Africa during a 2-yr period (1992-94). Shortwave radiation in the solar spectrum (0.2-4.0 m), photosynthetically active radiation (0.4-0.7 m), and longwave radiation (4.0-50.0 m) were observed. In this study, the annual variability and the effects of dust on these fluxes (in particular, on the ratio of photosynthetically active

F. Miskolczi; T. O. Aro; M. Iziomon; R. T. Pinker

1997-01-01

39

Radiation fluxes at the FIFE site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objective of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) has been stated as 'the development of techniques that may be applied to satellite observations of the radiation reflected and emitted from the Earth to yield quantitative information concerning land surface climatological conditions'. The major field study, FIFE (the First ISLSCP Field Experiment), was conducted in 1987-89 to accomplish this objective. Four intensive field campaigns (IFC's) were carried out in 1987 and one in 1989. Factors contributing to observed reflected radiation from the FIFE site must be understood before the radiation observed by satellites can be used to quantify surface processes. Our last report (Walter-Shea et al., 1992b) focused on slope effects on incoming and outgoing shortwave radiation and net radiation from data collected in 1989. We report here on the final analysis of the slope data as well as results from thermal radiation studies conducted during the FIFE experiment. The specific areas reported are the following: (1) analysis of slope effects on measured reflectance values and estimates of surface albedo; (2) using remotely-measured surface temperatures as a means of estimating sensible heat flux from the Konza Prairie; (3) extracting canopy temperatures from remotely-measured composite surface temperatures; (4) modeling the measured composite temperature of partially vegetated surfaces; and (5) estimating gap distribution in partially vegetated surfaces from reflectance measurements.

Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Blad, Blaine L.; Zara, Pedro; Vining, Roel; Hays, Cynthia J.; Mesarch, Mark A.

1993-01-01

40

New Measurement of the Antiproton-to-Proton Flux Ratio up to 100 GeV in the Cosmic Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new measurement of the cosmic-ray antiproton-to-proton flux ratio between 1 and 100 GeV is presented. The results were obtained with the PAMELA experiment, which was launched into low-Earth orbit on-board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on June 15th 2006. During 500 days of data collection a total of about 1000 antiprotons have been identified, including 100 above an energy of 20

O. Adriani; G. C. Barbarino; G. A. Bazilevskaya; R. Bellotti; M. Boezio; E. A. Bogomolov; L. Bonechi; M. Bongi; V. Bonvicini; S. Bottai; A. Bruno; F. Cafagna; D. Campana; P. Carlson; M. Casolino; G. Castellini; M. P. de Pascale; G. de Rosa; D. Fedele; A. M. Galper; L. Grishantseva; P. Hofverberg; A. Leonov; S. V. Koldashov; S. Y. Krutkov; A. N. Kvashnin; V. Malvezzi; L. Marcelli; W. Menn; V. V. Mikhailov; M. Minori; E. Mocchiutti; M. Nagni; S. Orsi; G. Osteria; P. Papini; M. Pearce; P. Picozza; M. Ricci; S. B. Ricciarini; M. Simon; R. Sparvoli; P. Spillantini; Y. I. Stozhkov; E. Taddei; A. Vacchi; E. Vannuccini; G. Vasilyev; S. A. Voronov; Y. T. Yurkin; G. Zampa; N. Zampa; V. G. Zverev

2009-01-01

41

Simulation study of a geometric shape factor technique for estimating earth-emitted radiant flux densities from wide-field-of-view radiation measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geometric shape factors were computed and applied to satellite simulated irradiance measurements to estimate Earth emitted flux densities for global and zonal scales and for areas smaller than the detector field of view (FOV). Wide field of view flat plate detectors were emphasized, but spherical detectors were also studied. The radiation field was modeled after data from the Nimbus 2 and 3 satellites. At a satellite altitude of 600 km, zonal estimates were in error 1.0 to 1.2 percent and global estimates were in error less than 0.2 percent. Estimates with unrestricted field of view (UFOV) detectors were about the same for Lambertian and limb darkening radiation models. The opposite was found for restricted field of view detectors. The UFOV detectors are found to be poor estimators of flux density from the total FOV and are shown to be much better as estimators of flux density from a circle centered at the FOV with an area significantly smaller than that for the total FOV.

Weaver, W. L.; Green, R. N.

1980-01-01

42

Fundamentals of heat measurement. [heat flux transducers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various methods and devices for obtaining experimental data on heat flux density over wide ranges of temperature and pressure are examined. Laboratory tests and device fabrication details are supplemented by theoretical analyses of heat-conduction and thermoelectric effects, providing design guidelines and information relevant to further research and development. A theory defining the measure of correspondence between transducer signal and the measured heat flux is established for individual (isolated) heat flux transducers subject to space and time-dependent loading. An analysis of the properties of stacked (series-connected) transducers of various types (sandwich-type, plane, and spiral) is used to derive a similarity theory providing general governing relationships. The transducers examined are used in 36 types of derivative devices involving direct heat loss measurements, heat conduction studies, radiation pyrometry, calorimetry in medicine and industry and nuclear reactor dosimetry.

Gerashchenko, O. A.

1979-01-01

43

RADIATION FROM COMOVING POYNTING FLUX ACCELERATION  

SciTech Connect

We derive analytic formulas for the radiation power output when electrons are accelerated by a relativistic comoving kinetic Poynting flux, and validate these analytic results with particle-in-cell simulations. We also derive analytically the critical frequency of the radiation spectrum. Potential astrophysical applications of these results are discussed. A quantitative model of gamma-ray bursts based on the breakout of kinetic Poynting flux is presented.

Liang, Edison; Noguchi, Koichi [Rice University, Houston TX 77005-1892 (United States)

2009-11-10

44

Beta ray flux measuring device  

DOEpatents

A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

Impink, Jr., Albert J. (Murrysville, PA); Goldstein, Norman P. (Murrysville, PA)

1990-01-01

45

Radiation from Kinetic Poynting Flux Acceleration  

E-print Network

We derive analytic formulas for the power output and critical frequency of radiation by electrons accelerated by relativistic kinetic Poynting flux, and validate these results with Particle-In-Cell plasma simulations. We find that the in-situ radiation power output and critical frequency are much below those predicted by the classical synchrotron formulae. We discuss potential astrophysical applications of these results.

Edison Liang; Koichi Noguchi

2007-04-13

46

Aerosol-Induced Radiative Flux Changes Off the United States Mid-Atlantic Coast: Comparison of Values Calculated from Sunphotometer and In Situ Data with Those Measured by Airborne Pyranometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) measured a variety of aerosol radiative effects (including flux changes) while simultaneously measuring the chemical, physical, and optical properties of the responsible aerosol particles. Here we use TARFOX-determined aerosol and surface properties to compute shortwave radiative flux changes for a variety of aerosol situations, with midvisible optical depths ranging from 0.06 to 0.55. We calculate flux changes by several techniques with varying degrees of sophistication, in part to investigate the sensitivity of results to computational approach. We then compare computed flux changes to those determined from aircraft measurements. Calculations using several approaches yield downward and upward flux changes that agree with measurements. The agreement demonstrates closure (i.e. consistency) among the TARFOX-derived aerosol properties, modeling techniques, and radiative flux measurements. Agreement between calculated and measured downward flux changes is best when the aerosols are modeled as moderately absorbing (midvisible single-scattering albedos between about 0.89 and 0.93), in accord with independent measurements of the TARPOX aerosol. The calculated values for instantaneous daytime upwelling flux changes are in the range +14 to +48 W/sq m for midvisible optical depths between 0.2 and 0.55. These values are about 30 to 100 times the global-average direct forcing expected for the global-average sulfate aerosol optical depth of 0.04. The reasons for the larger flux changes in TARFOX include the relatively large optical depths and the focus on cloud-free, daytime conditions over the dark ocean surface. These are the conditions that produce major aerosol radiative forcing events and contribute to any global-average climate effect.

Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Hignett, P.; Kinne, S.; Wong, J.; Chien, A.; Bergstrom, R.; Durkee, P.; Hobbs, P. V.

2000-01-01

47

Denoising surface renewal flux density measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When combined with net radiation and ground heat flux density measurements, surface renewal sensible heat flux density measurements can be used to obtain latent heat flux density, and therefore evapotranspiration, via the energy balance residual. Surface renewal is based on analyzing the energy and mass budget of air parcels that interact with plant canopies. The air parcels are manifested as ramp-like shapes in turbulent scalar time series data, and the amplitude and period of the ramps are used to calculate the flux densities. The root mean square error between calibrated surface renewal and eddy covariance is generally twice the root mean square error between two eddy covariance systems. In this presentation, we evaluate the efficacy of various methods for reducing the random error in surface renewal sensible heat flux density measurements. These methods include signal de-spiking, conventional low-pass filtering, wavelet-based filtering, ramp signal to noise thresholds, ramp period scaling, novel rearrangements of the Van Atta procedure (Arch Mech 29:161-171, 1977) for resolving the ramp amplitude and ramp period, sensor replication, and optimization of sensor placement.

Shapland, T.; Paw U, K.; Snyder, R. L.; McElrone, A.; Calderon Orellana, A.; Williams, L.

2012-12-01

48

A comparison between modeled and measured clear-sky radiative shortwave fluxes in Arctic environments, with special emphasis on diffuse radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of the Santa Barbara Disort Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model to predict clear-sky diffuse and direct normal broadband shortwave irradiances is investigated. Model calculations of these quantities are compared with data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. The model tends to consistently underestimate the direct normal irradiances at both sites by about 1%. In regard to clear-sky diffuse irradiance, the model overestimates this quantity at the SGP site in a manner similar to what has been observed in other studies [, 2000]. The difference between the diffuse SBDART calculations and Halthore and Schwartz's MODTRAN calculations is very small, thus demonstrating that SBDART performs similarly to MODTRAN. SBDART is then applied to the NSA site, and here it is found that the discrepancy between the model calculations and corrected diffuse measurements (corrected for daytime offsets) [, 2001] is 0.4 W/m2 when averaged over the 12 cases considered here. Two cases of diffuse measurements from a shaded "black and white" pyranometer are also compared with the calculations and the discrepancy is again minimal. Thus, it appears as if the "diffuse discrepancy" that exists at the SGP site does not exist at the NSA sites. We cannot yet explain why the model predicts diffuse radiation well at one site but not at the other.

Barnard, J. C.; Powell, D. M.

2002-10-01

49

IR thermography heat flux measurement in fire safety applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with heat flux measurement possibilities in fire safety applications. The paper presents two methods for radiation heat flux measurement - the thermography source-target measurement method, and the radiation contact target measurement method. Both the methods were used simultaneously for radiation heat flux measurement during a fire experiment on a high-density polyethylene plastic box storage stack. The theoretical background, experimental set-up, application example, and comparison of both methods are presented in this paper. Dependence of heat flux magnitude on a distance and direction from a heat source is evaluated. The possible safety risks ensuing from high temperatures inside the burning stack, and therefore high heat fluxes near the stack, are discussed.

Švantner, Michal; Vacíková, Petra; Honner, Milan

2012-07-01

50

Experimental evaluation of self-calibrating cavity radiometers for use in earth flux radiation balance measurements from satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for evaluating out-of-field response of wide-field, earth-viewing satellite radiometers is described. The equipment which simulates the earth and space consists of a central blackbody surrounded by a cooled ring. The radiometric and orbital considerations are discussed. Some test results for prototype ERBE cavity sensors are included. This presentation is restricted to longwave radiative transfer

Hickey, J. R.; Karoli, A. R.; Alton, B. M.

1982-01-01

51

ANISOTROPIC COSMIC RADIATION FLUXES OF SOLAR ORIGIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

portant features of three cosmic-ray flare effects that were observed during the first thirty days of the flight of the Pioneer 6 spacecraft. It has been found that the cosmic radiation flux of mean energy 13 Mev\\/nucleon exhibited an extremely anisotropic character throughout each flare effect, the anisotropy persisting for in excess of 48 hours during one event. Subsequent flare

W. C. Bartley; R. P. Bukata; K. G. McCracken; U. R. Rao

1966-01-01

52

Spectral estimates of net radiation and soil heat flux  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conventional methods of measuring surface energy balance are point measurements and represent only a small area. Remote sensing offers a potential means of measuring outgoing fluxes over large areas at the spatial resolution of the sensor. The objective of this study was to estimate net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G) using remotely sensed multispectral data acquired from an aircraft over large agricultural fields. Ground-based instruments measured Rn and G at nine locations along the flight lines. Incoming fluxes were also measured by ground-based instruments. Outgoing fluxes were estimated using remotely sensed data. Remote Rn, estimated as the algebraic sum of incoming and outgoing fluxes, slightly underestimated Rn measured by the ground-based net radiometers. The mean absolute errors for remote Rn minus measured Rn were less than 7%. Remote G, estimated as a function of a spectral vegetation index and remote Rn, slightly overestimated measured G; however, the mean absolute error for remote G was 13%. Some of the differences between measured and remote values of Rn and G are associated with differences in instrument designs and measurement techniques. The root mean square error for available energy (Rn - G) was 12%. Thus, methods using both ground-based and remotely sensed data can provide reliable estimates of the available energy which can be partitioned into sensible and latent heat under nonadvective conditions. ?? 1990.

Daughtry, C.S.T.; Kustas, W.P.; Moran, M.S.; Pinter, P.J., Jr.; Jackson, R.D.; Brown, P.W.; Nichols, W.D.; Gay, L.W.

1990-01-01

53

Non-contact heat flux measurement using a transparent sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A working non-contact heat flux sensor was demonstrated using a transparent material (sapphire) and a multiwavelength pyrometer. The pyrometer is used to measure the temperatures of the two surfaces of the sensor from the spectrum of radiation originating from them. The heat conducted through the material is determined from the temperature difference of the two surfaces and the thermal conductivity of the material. The measured heat flux is equal to the incident heat flux within experimental error indicating that no calibration would be necessary. A steady state heat flux of 100 kW/sq m was easily achieved.

Ng, Daniel; Spuckler, Charles M.

1993-01-01

54

Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems (CO2Flux) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Southern Great Plains (SGP) carbon dioxide flux (CO2 flux) measurement systems provide half-hour average fluxes of CO2, H2O (latent heat), and sensible heat. The fluxes are obtained by the eddy covariance technique, which computes the flux as the mean product of the vertical wind component with CO2 and H2O densities, or estimated virtual temperature. A three-dimensional sonic anemometer is used to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the virtual (sonic) temperature. An infrared gas analyzer is used to obtain the CO2 and H2O densities. A separate sub-system also collects half-hour average measures of meteorological and soil variables from separate 4-m towers.

Fischer, M

2005-01-01

55

Skyglow effects in UV and visible spectra: Radiative fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies have tried to understand the mechanisms and effects of radiative transfer under different night-sky conditions. However, most of these studies are limited to the various effects of visible spectra. Nevertheless, the invisible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum can pose a more profound threat to nature. One visible threat is from what is popularly termed skyglow. Such skyglow is caused by injudiciously situated or designed artificial night lighting systems which degrade desired sky viewing. Therefore, since lamp emissions are not limited to visible electromagnetic spectra, it is necessary to consider the complete spectrum of such lamps in order to understand the physical behaviour of diffuse radiation at terrain level. In this paper, the downward diffuse radiative flux is computed in a two-stream approximation and obtained ultraviolet spectral radiative fluxes are inter-related with luminous fluxes. Such a method then permits an estimate of ultraviolet radiation if the traditionally measured illuminance on a horizontal plane is available. The utility of such a comparison of two spectral bands is shown, using the different lamp types employed in street lighting. The data demonstrate that it is insufficient to specify lamp type and its visible flux production independently of each other. Also the UV emissions have to be treated by modellers and environmental scientists because some light sources can be fairly important pollutants in the near ultraviolet. Such light sources can affect both the living organisms and ambient environment.

Kocifaj, Miroslav; Solano Lamphar, Hector Antonio

2013-09-01

56

Skyglow effects in UV and visible spectra: radiative fluxes.  

PubMed

Several studies have tried to understand the mechanisms and effects of radiative transfer under different night-sky conditions. However, most of these studies are limited to the various effects of visible spectra. Nevertheless, the invisible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum can pose a more profound threat to nature. One visible threat is from what is popularly termed skyglow. Such skyglow is caused by injudiciously situated or designed artificial night lighting systems which degrade desired sky viewing. Therefore, since lamp emissions are not limited to visible electromagnetic spectra, it is necessary to consider the complete spectrum of such lamps in order to understand the physical behaviour of diffuse radiation at terrain level. In this paper, the downward diffuse radiative flux is computed in a two-stream approximation and obtained ultraviolet spectral radiative fluxes are inter-related with luminous fluxes. Such a method then permits an estimate of ultraviolet radiation if the traditionally measured illuminance on a horizontal plane is available. The utility of such a comparison of two spectral bands is shown, using the different lamp types employed in street lighting. The data demonstrate that it is insufficient to specify lamp type and its visible flux production independently of each other. Also the UV emissions have to be treated by modellers and environmental scientists because some light sources can be fairly important pollutants in the near ultraviolet. Such light sources can affect both the living organisms and ambient environment. PMID:23792881

Kocifaj, Miroslav; Solano Lamphar, H A

2013-09-30

57

Measurement of heat flux from steaming ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total thermal flux at the surface of ‘steaming ground’ consists of a convective and a conductive component, even in the absence of any visible steam discharge at the surface. The total flux and its convective component can be measured separately and directly using a water-filled ground calorimeter. The conductive component is given by the difference between the two fluxes,

Manfred P. Hochstein; Christopher J. Bromley

2005-01-01

58

A nonstationary method for measuring heat fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonstationary method for measuring heat fluxes using a hollow cylindrical probe placed in the critical cross section of a nozzle is proposed. The temperature at a fixed distance from the inner surface of the probe is measured as a function of time. The time variation of the heat flux is determined by solving the one-dimensional nonlinear heat-conduction equation.

V. S. Kulikov; G. A. Surkov; V. V. Mazak; F. B. Yurevich

1975-01-01

59

Decadal Changes in Surface Radiative Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent evidence suggests that radiative fluxes incident at the Earth surface are not stable over time but undergo significant changes on decadal timescales. This is not only found in the thermal spectral range, where an increase in the downwelling flux is expected with the increasing greenhouse effect, but also in the solar range. Observations suggest that surface solar radiation, after decades of decline ("global dimming"), reversed into a "brightening" since the mid-1980s at widespread locations. This presentation gives an update on recent investigations related to the decadal variations in these fluxes, based on both observational and modeling approaches. Updated observational data, archived at the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) at ETH Zurich, suggest a continuation of surface solar brightening beyond the year 2000 at numerous locations, yet less pronounced and coherent than during the 1990s, with more regions with no clear changes or declines. Current global climate models as used in the IPCC-AR4 report typically do not reproduce the observed decadal variations to their full extent. Modeling attempts to improve this situation are under way at ETH, based on a global climate model which includes a sophisticated interactive treatment of aerosol and cloud microphysics (ECHAM5-HAM). Further the impact of the decadal changes in surface radiative forcings on different aspects of the global climate system and climate change is discussed, such as 20th century day- and nighttime warming, evapotranspiration changes and the varying intensity of the hydrological cycle as well as the terrestrial carbon cycle. Selected related references: Wild, M., and Co-authors, 2005: From dimming to brightening: Decadal changes in solar radiation at the Earth's surface. Science, 308, 847-850 Wild, M., 2007: Decadal changes in surface radiative fluxes and their importance in the context of global climate change, in: Climate Variability and Extremes during the Past 100 years, Advances in Global Change Research, 140, Editors Stefan Brönnimann et al., p. 155-168. Wild, M., Ohmura A., Makowski, K., 2007: Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L04702, doi:10.1029/2006GL028031. Wild, M., Grieser, J. and Schär, C., 2008: Combined surface solar brightening and greenhouse effect support recent intensification of the global land-based hydrological cycle. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L17706, doi:10.1029/2008GL034842 Wild, M., 2009: How well do IPCC-AR4/CMIP3 climate models simulate global dimming/brightening and 20th century day- and night-time warming? To appear in J. Geophys. Res. Wild, M., Truessel, B., Ohmura, A., Long, C.N. König-Langlo G., Dutton, E.G., and Tsvetkov, A., 2009: Global Dimming and Brightening: an update beyond 2000. To appear in J. Geophys. Res. Wild, M., 2009: Global dimming and brightening: A review on decadal changes in surface solar radiation. To appear in J. Geophys. Res.

Wild, M.

2009-05-01

60

Effect of the radiative background flux in convection  

E-print Network

Numerical simulations of turbulent stratified convection are used to study models with approximately the same convective flux, but different radiative fluxes. As the radiative flux is decreased, for constant convective flux: the entropy jump at the top of the convection zone becomes steeper, the temperature fluctuations increase and the velocity fluctuations decrease in magnitude, and the distance that low entropy fluid from the surface can penetrate increases. Velocity and temperature fluctuations follow mixing length scaling laws.

A. Brandenburg; K. L. Chan; A. Nordlund; R. F. Stein

2005-08-18

61

Diamagnetic flux measurement in Aditya tokamak  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of diamagnetic flux in Aditya tokamak for different discharge conditions are reported for the first time. The measured diamagnetic flux in a typical discharge is less than 0.6 mWb and therefore it has required careful compensation for various kinds of pick-ups. The hardware and software compensations employed in this measurement are described. We introduce compensation of a pick-up due to plasma current of less than 20 kA in short duration discharges, in which plasma pressure gradient is supposed to be negligible. The flux measurement during radio frequency heating is also presented in order to validate compensation.

Kumar, Sameer; Jha, Ratneshwar; Lal, Praveen; Hansaliya, Chandresh; Gopalkrishna, M. V.; Kulkarni, Sanjay; Mishra, Kishore [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Near Indira Bridge, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

2010-12-15

62

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part II; Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) are estimated from empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) that convert instantaneous radiance measurements to TOA fluxes. This paper evaluates the accuracy of CERES TOA fluxes obtained from a new set of ADMs developed for the CERES instrument onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The uncertainty in regional monthly mean reflected shortwave (SW) and emitted longwave (LW) TOA fluxes is less than 0.5 W/sq m, based on comparisons with TOA fluxes evaluated by direct integration of the measured radiances. When stratified by viewing geometry, TOA fluxes from different angles are consistent to within 2% in the SW and 0.7% (or 2 W/sq m) in the LW. In contrast, TOA fluxes based on ADMs from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) applied to the same CERES radiance measurements show a 10% relative increase with viewing zenith angle in the SW and a 3.5% (9 W/sq m) decrease with viewing zenith angle in the LW. Based on multiangle CERES radiance measurements, 18 regional instantaneous TOA flux errors from the new CERES ADMs are estimated to be 10 W/sq m in the SW and, 3.5 W/sq m in the LW. The errors show little or no dependence on cloud phase, cloud optical depth, and cloud infrared emissivity. An analysis of cloud radiative forcing (CRF) sensitivity to differences between ERBE and CERES TRMM ADMs, scene identification, and directional models of albedo as a function of solar zenith angle shows that ADM and clear-sky scene identification differences can lead to an 8 W/sq m root-mean-square (rms) difference in 18 daily mean SW CRF and a 4 W/sq m rms difference in LW CRF. In contrast, monthly mean SW and LW CRF differences reach 3 W/sq m. CRF is found to be relatively insensitive to differences between the ERBE and CERES TRMM directional models.

Loeb, N. G.; Loukachine, K.; Wielicki, B. A.; Young, D. F.

2003-01-01

63

Diamagnetic flux measurement in Aditya tokamak  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of diamagnetic flux in Aditya tokamak for different discharge conditions are reported for the first time. The measured diamagnetic flux in a typical discharge is less than 0.6 mWb and therefore it has required careful compensation for various kinds of pick-ups. The hardware and software compensations employed in this measurement are described. We introduce compensation of a pick-up due

Sameer Kumar; Ratneshwar Jha; Praveen Lal; Chandresh Hansaliya; M. V. Gopalkrishna; Sanjay Kulkarni; Kishore Mishra

2010-01-01

64

Accuracy of quantum sensors measuring yield photon flux and photosynthetic photon flux  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photosynthesis is fundamentally driven by photon flux rather than energy flux, but not all absorbed photons yield equal amounts of photosynthesis. Thus, two measures of photosynthetically active radiation have emerged: photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), which values all photons from 400 to 700 nm equally, and yield photon flux (YPF), which weights photons in the range from 360 to 760 nm according to plant photosynthetic response. We selected seven common radiation sources and measured YPF and PPF from each source with a spectroradiometer. We then compared these measurements with measurements from three quantum sensors designed to measure YPF, and from six quantum sensors designed to measure PPF. There were few differences among sensors within a group (usually <5%), but YPF values from sensors were consistently lower (3% to 20%) than YPF values calculated from spectroradiometric measurements. Quantum sensor measurements of PPF also were consistently lower than PPF values calculated from spectroradiometric measurements, but the differences were <7% for all sources, except red-light-emitting diodes. The sensors were most accurate for broad-band sources and least accurate for narrow-band sources. According to spectroradiometric measurements, YPF sensors were significantly less accurate (>9% difference) than PPF sensors under metal halide, high-pressure sodium, and low-pressure sodium lamps. Both sensor types were inaccurate (>18% error) under red-light-emitting diodes. Because both YPF and PPF sensors are imperfect integrators, and because spectroradiometers can measure photosynthetically active radiation much more accurately, researchers should consider developing calibration factors from spectroradiometric data for some specific radiation sources to improve the accuracy of integrating sensors.

Barnes, C.; Tibbitts, T.; Sager, J.; Deitzer, G.; Bubenheim, D.; Koerner, G.; Bugbee, B.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

1993-01-01

65

A simple method for measuring heat flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the measurement of heat flux using the temperature gradient in a metal pad welded to two adjacent cooling tubes. A number of laboratory experiments have shown that the simple theoretical expression for calculating the heat flux is justified; the meter has operated successfully in an oil-fired boiler.

D. Anson; A. M. Godridge

1967-01-01

66

Earth Radiation Measurement Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is the final report for NASA Grant NAG1-1959, 'Earth Radiation Measurement Science'. The purpose of this grant was to perform research in this area for the needs of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project and for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which are bing conducted by the Radiation and Aerosols Branch of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of Langley Research Center. Earth Radiation Measurement Science investigates the processes by which measurements are converted into data products. Under this grant, research was to be conducted for five tasks: (1) Point Response Function Measurements; (2) Temporal Sampling of Outgoing Longwave Radiation; (3) Spatial Averaging of Radiation Budget Data; (4) CERES Data Validation and Applications; and (5) ScaRaB Data Validation and Application.

Smith, G. Louis

2000-01-01

67

Heat flux microsensor measurements and calibrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new thin-film heat flux gage has been fabricated specifically for severe high temperature operation using platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium for the thermocouple elements. Radiation calibrations of this gage were performed at the AEDC facility over the available heat flux range (approx. 1.0 - 1,000 W/cu cm). The gage output was linear with heat flux with a slight increase in sensitivity with increasing surface temperature. Survivability of gages was demonstrated in quench tests from 500 C into liquid nitrogen. Successful operation of gages to surface temperatures of 750 C has been achieved. No additional cooling of the gages is required because the gages are always at the same temperature as the substrate material. A video of oxyacetylene flame tests with real-time heat flux and temperature output is available.

Terrell, James P.; Hager, Jon M.; Onishi, Shinzo; Diller, Thomas E.

1992-01-01

68

Modeling shortwave radiative fluxes from satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last two decades, significant progress has been made in assessing the Earth Radiation Balance from satellite observations. Yet, satellite based estimates differ from each other and from those provided by numerical models. Major issues are related to quality of satellite observations, such as the frequent changes in satellite observing systems, degradation of sensors, restricted spectral intervals and viewing geometry of sensors, and changes in the quality of atmospheric inputs that drive the inference schemes. To reduce differences among the satellite based estimates requires, among others, updates to inference schemes so that most recent auxiliary information can be fully utilized. This paper reports on improvements introduced to a methodology developed at the University of Maryland to estimate shortwave (SW) radiative fluxes within the atmosphere system from satellite observations, the implementation of the approach with newly available auxiliary information, evaluation of the downwelling SW flux against ground observations, and comparison with independent satellite methods and numerical models. Specifically, introduced are: new Narrow to Broadband (N/B) transformations and new Angular Distribution Models (ADM) for clear and cloudy sky that incorporate most recent land use classifications; improved aerosol treatment; separation of clouds by phase; improved sun-earth geometry; and implementation at 0.5° spatial resolution at 3-hourly intervals integrated to daily and monthly time scales. When compared to an earlier version of the model as implemented at 2.5° at global scale and against observations from the globally distributed Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) stations for a period of six years (at monthly time scale), the bias was reduced from 8.6 (4.6%) to -0.5 (0.3%) W/m2, the standard deviation from 16.6 (8.9%) to 14.5 (7.8%) W/m2while the correlation remained high at 0.98 in both cases. Evaluation was also done over oceanic sites as available from the Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) moorings and from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean/Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TAO/TRITON) moorings in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Overall, results over oceans were not as good as over land for all the satellite retrievals compared in this study.

Ma, Y.; Pinker, R. T.

2012-12-01

69

Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.

Cook, DR

2011-01-31

70

Altitude dependence of surface radiation fluxes and cloud forcing in the alps: results from the alpine surface radiation budget network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ¶The Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB) project was initiated in 1994 to investigate the altitude dependence of the surface\\u000a radiation budget with a particular focus on accurate measurements of the longwave downward radiation. Meanwhile broadband\\u000a short- and longwave radiation fluxes are continuously measured within this network at eleven stations between 370 and 3580?m?a.s.l.\\u000a in the Swiss Alps. New calibration techniques,

Ch. Marty; R. Philipona; C. Fröhlich; A. Ohmura

2002-01-01

71

MAPPING HIGH-RESOLUTION LAND SURFACE RADIATIVE FLUXES FROM MODIS  

E-print Network

pollution (Wang K. et al. 2009), and land cover and land use changes (Wang et al. 2007b). The SRB is alsoChapter 6 MAPPING HIGH-RESOLUTION LAND SURFACE RADIATIVE FLUXES FROM MODIS: ALGORITHMS-Chee Tsay, Robert Wolf, Crystal Schaaf, Alan Strahler 6.1 Introduction Land surface radiative fluxes

Liang, Shunlin

72

Radiation entropy flux and entropy production of the Earth system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the Earth's radiation entropy flux at the top of the atmosphere is reviewed with an emphasis on its estimation methods. Existing expressions for calculating radiation entropy flux scattered in different disciplines are surveyed, and their applicabilities are examined. It is found that the Earth's net radiation entropy flux estimated from these various expressions can differ substantially, more than the typical value of the entropy production rate associated with the atmospheric latent heat process. Comparison analysis shows that the commonly used expression of radiation entropy flux as the ratio of radiation energy flux to absolute temperature underestimates the Earth's radiation entropy flux by >30%. Theoretical analysis reveals that the large difference in the Earth's reflected solar radiation entropy flux among the different expressions arises mainly from the difference of the Earth's reflection properties (i.e., Lambertian or specular) assumed in these expressions. For the Earth system with typical shortwave albedo of 0.30 and longwave emissivity between 0.50 and 1.00, the Earth's net radiation entropy flux derived from the most accurate Planck's spectral expression ranges from 1.272 to 1.284 W m-2 K-1, amounting to the overall Earth's entropy production rate from 6.481 × 1014 to 6.547 × 1014 W K-1.

Wu, Wei; Liu, Yangang

2010-05-01

73

How Well are Recent Climate Variability Signals Resolved by Satellite Radiative Flux Estimates?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One notable aspect of Earth s climate is that although the planet appears to be very close to radiative balance at top-of-atmosphere (TOA), the atmosphere itself and underlying surface are not. Profound exchanges of energy between the atmosphere and oceans, land and cryosphere occur over a range of time scales. Recent evidence from broadband satellite measurements suggests that even these TOA fluxes contain some detectable variations. Our ability to measure and reconstruct radiative fluxes at the surface and at the top of atmosphere is improving rapidly. Understanding the character of radiative flux estimates and relating them to variations in other energy fluxes and climate state variables is key to improving our understanding of climate. In this work we will evaluate several recently released estimates of radiative fluxes, focusing primarily on surface estimates. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project FD radiative flux profiles are available from rnid-1983 to near present and have been constructed by driving the radiative transfer physics from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) global model with ISCCP clouds and HlRS operational soundings profiles. Full and clear sky SW and LW fluxes are produced. A similar product from the NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget Project using different radiative flux codes and thermodynamics from the NASA/Goddard Earth Observing System assimilation model makes a similar calculation of surface fluxes. However this data set currently extends only through 1995. Several estimates of downward LW flux at the surface inferred from microwave data are also examined. Since these products have been evaluated with Baseline Surface Radiation Network data over land we focus over ocean regions and use the DOE/NOAA/NASA Shipboard Ocean Atmospheric Radiation (SOAR) surface flux measurements to characterize performance of these data sets under both clear and cloudy conditions. Some aspects of performance are stratified according to SST and vertical motion regimes. Comparisons to the TRMM/CERES SRB data in 1998 are also interpreted. These radiative fluxes are then analyzed to determine how surface (and TOA) radiative exchanges respond to interannual signals of ENS0 warm and cold events. Our analysis includes regional changes as well as integrated signals over land, ocean and various latitude bands. Changes in water vapor and cloud forcing signatures are prominent on interannual time scales. Prominent signals are also found in the SW fluxes for the Pinatubo volcanic event. These systematic changes in fluxes are related to changes in large-scale circulations and energy transport in the atmosphere and ocean. Some estimates of signal-to-noise and reliability are discussed to place our results in context.

Robertson, Franklin R.; Lu, H.-L.

2004-01-01

74

Monitoring of MNSR operation by measuring subcritical photoneutron flux.  

PubMed

Passive nondestructive assay methods are used to monitor the reactor's operation. It is required for nuclear regulatory, calculation validation and safeguards purposes. So, it plays a vital role in the safety and security of the nuclear plants. The possibility of MNSR operation monitoring by measuring the subcritical state photoneutron flux were investigated in this work. The photoneutron flux is induced by the fuels hard gamma radiation in the beryllium reflector. Theoretical formulation and experimental tests were performed. The results show that within a specified cooling time range, the photoneutron flux is induced by a single dominant hard gamma emitter such as (117)Cd (activation product) and (140)Ba ((140)La fission product). This phenomenon was utilized to monitor the cooling time and the operation neutron flux during the last campaign. Thus a passive nondestructive assay method is proposed with regard to the reactor operation's monitoring. PMID:21168337

Haddad, Kh; Alsomel, N

2011-03-01

75

Experimental flux measurements on a network scale  

SciTech Connect

Metabolic flux is a fundamental property of living organisms. In recent years, methods for measuring metabolic flux in plants on a network scale have evolved further. One major challenge in studying flux in plants is the complexity of the plant's metabolism. In particular, in the presence of parallel pathways in multiple cellular compartments, the core of plant central metabolism constitutes a complex network. Hence, a common problem with the reliability of the contemporary results of {sup 13}C-Metabolic Flux Analysis in plants is the substantial reduction in complexity that must be included in the simulated networks; this omission partly is due to limitations in computational simulations. Here, I discuss recent emerging strategies that will better address these shortcomings.

Schwender, J.

2011-10-11

76

Evapotranspiration fluxes over mixed vegetation areas measured from large aperture scintillometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routine measurement of spatially averaged surface fluxes of sensible heat (H) in river basins is now feasible. These fluxes, when combined with net radiation estimates, can be used to derive areally averaged actual evapotranspiration (ET). The scintillation method is shown to be promising method for estimating areally averaged sensible heat fluxes. The large aperture scintillometer (LAS) is an optical device

H. M. Hemakumara; Lalith Chandrapala; Arnold F. Moene

2003-01-01

77

ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION MEASUREMENT PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ARM scientists focus on obtaining field measurements and developing models to better understand the processes that control solar and...

78

Constraining isoprene emission factors using airborne flux measurements during CABERNET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aircraft flux study was conducted to assess biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from California ecosystems targeting oak woodlands and isoprene for most transects. The direct eddy covariance approach featured high speed proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry onboard a CIRPAS (Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies) Twin Otter aircraft during June 2011 as part of the CABERNET (California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects) project. Isoprene fluxes were calculated using wavelet analysis and scaled to surface fluxes using a divergence term obtained by measuring fluxes at multiple altitudes over homogenous oak terrain. By normalization of fluxes to standard temperature and photosynthetically active radiation levels using standard BVOC modeling equations, the resulting emission factors could be directly compared with those used by MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) and BEIGIS (Biogenic Emission Inventory Geographic Information System) models which are the most commonly used BVOC emission models for California. As expected, oak woodlands were found to be the dominant source of isoprene in all areas surrounding and in the Central Valley of California. The airborne fluxes averaged to 2 km spatial resolution matched remarkably well with current oak woodland distributions driving the models and hence the correspondence of modeled and aircraft derived emission factors was also good, although quantitative differences were encountered depending on the region and driving variables used. Fluxes measured from aircraft proved to be useful for the improvement of the accuracy of modeled predictions for isoprene and other important ozone and aerosol precursor compounds. These are the first regional isoprene flux measurements using direct eddy covariance on aircraft.

Misztal, P. K.; Karl, T.; Jiang, X.; Avise, J. C.; Scott, K.; Jonsson, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

2012-12-01

79

Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements  

DOEpatents

Invention comprises an instrument in which momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer--a capacitance-type pressure gauge. The transducer is protected from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering, and materials used in the target and pendulum are electrically insulating, rigid even at elevated temperatures, and have low thermal conductivity. The instrument enables measurement of small forces (10.sup.-5 to 10.sup.3 N) accompanied by high heat fluxes which are transmitted by energetic particles with 10's of eV of kinetic energy in a intense magnetic field and pulsed plasma environment.

Zonca, Fulvio (Rome, IT); Cohen, Samuel A. (Hopewell, NJ); Bennett, Timothy (Princeton, NJ); Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ)

1993-01-01

80

KNVK vacuum fission chambers for measuring neutron flux density  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum fission chambers (VFC) are used to record the time dependence of the flux density of neutrons from nuclear reactors. Their comparatively high yield of slow secondary electrons (about 500 per fission fragment), large dynamic range, high temporal resolution, radiation resistance, and operating reliability make them superior to other detectors. However, the accuracy with which fast neutrons are recorded with two-electrode VFC is limited by their sensitivity to the accompanying ..gamma.. radiation. A promising approach is to create three-electrode VFC, in which the signal from the ..gamma.. radiation is compensated based on the type of differential chamber, one section of which contains a neutron-sensitive coating, while the other is employed without a coating. In this paper they describe a three-electrode VFC, called the compensated neutron vacuum chamber (KNVK), with a controllable sensitivity to ..gamma.. radiation near zero and an absolute method for measuring the time-dependence of the neutron flux density. The results of dynamic studies of the flux density of neutrons from different energy groups with a collection of VFC of the KNVK2 type with different fissioning isotopes are presented.

Malyshev, E.K.; Chuklyaev, S.V.; Shchetinin, O.I.

1987-09-01

81

Near-Core and In-Core Neutron Radiation Monitors for Real Time Neutron Flux Monitoring and Reactor Power Level Measurements  

SciTech Connect

MPFDs are a new class of detectors that utilize properties from existing radiation detector designs. A majority of these characteristics come from fission chamber designs. These include radiation hardness, gamma-ray background insensitivity, and large signal output.

Douglas S. McGregor; Marvin L. Adams; Igor Carron; Paul Nelson

2006-06-12

82

Spatial Variability of Surface Radiation Fluxes in Mountainous Terrain.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the magnitude and causes of spatial variability of surface radiative fluxes in a complex alpine landscape in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Radiative flux components are simulated for the Tekapo watershed at 100-m resolution for clear-sky summer days, using a surface radiation budget model in conjunction with satellite imagery and topographic modeling to derive surface parameters. Overall, the model results agree well with observations made at a range of sites, with shortwave fluxes simulated more accurately than longwave fluxes. Sensitivity studies were conducted to isolate the role of spatial variability of surface characteristics in generating variance in the radiation budget. In order of most to least important, these characteristics were found to be slope aspect, slope angle, elevation, albedo, shading, sky view factor, and leaf area index. Spatial variability was greatest in midmorning and midafternoon, as a function of optical depth. The role of landscape complexity in the spatial distribution of fluxes was investigated by considering three subareas of the watershed that contain strongly contrasting scales of autocorrelation of topography and surface cover. Increase in topographical complexity yielded a small decrease in spatial average net radiation and a large increase in spatial standard deviation, driven most significantly by incident shortwave radiation. The regional averages scaled more or less linearly, whereas subregional-scale spatial variability differed dramatically.

Oliphant, A. J.; Spronken-Smith, R. A.; Sturman, A. P.; Owens, I. F.

2003-01-01

83

Data assimilation tool to reconstruct particle flux measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the EU-FP7 MAARBLE project, the Salammbô code and an ensemble Kalman filter is being used to reproduce the electron radiation belt dynamics during storms: (1) The ONERA data assimilation tool has been improved to ingest count rates instead of flux when the instrument response function is available. As an example, the ESA/SREM radiation monitor has complex response functions (proton and electron events are mixed, and for a given specie the instrument responds to a broad range of energies with different efficiencies) which makes very challenging to get fluxes out of count rates. (2) INTEGRAL/SREM, GIOVE-B/SREM, XMM/ERMD and GOES/SEM data assimilation is performed to reproduce with high fidelity the electron belt dynamics during magnetic storms. (3) Because the outputs of the tool are phase space densities, it is then possible to reconstruct INTEGRAL/SREM and GIOVE-B/SREM fluxes time series. In the present talk, an overview of the data assimilation tool will be given. The advantage of using assimilation tool to reconstruct particle flux measurements will be discussed. MAARBLE has received fundings from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-.2010-1, SP1 Cooperation, Collaborative project) under grant agreement n284520. This paper reflects only the authors' views and the European Union is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

Bourdarie, Sebastien A.; Maget, Vincent; Lazaro, Didier; Sandberg, Ingmar

2014-05-01

84

Measuring Uv-radiation On Inclined Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general measurements of UV-radition are related to horizontal surfaces, as e.g. also done for the internationally standardised and applied UV-Index. In order to get more relevant information in terms of UV-exposure of humans, eventually also for individ- ual parts of the skin, there is a need for quantitative data on radiation fluxes in the directions of typically orientated surfaces of the human body. To measure these fluxes the new system ASCARATIS (Angle SCAnning RAdiometer for determination of erythemally weighted irradiance on TIlted Surfaces) was devel- oped and built. First results of the measurements are presented.

Oppenrieder, A.; Höppe, P.; Koepke, P.; Reuder, J.; Seefeldner, M.; Rabus, D.; Schween, J.

85

Defining Top-of-Atmosphere Flux Reference Level for Earth Radiation Budget Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To estimate the earth's radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from satellite-measured radiances, it is necessary to account for the finite geometry of the earth and recognize that the earth is a solid body surrounded by a translucent atmosphere of finite thickness that attenuates solar radiation differently at different heights. As a result, in order to account for all of the reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the planet by direct integration of satellite-measured radiances, the measurement viewing geometry must be defined at a reference level well above the earth s surface (e.g., 100 km). This ensures that all radiation contributions, including radiation escaping the planet along slant paths above the earth s tangent point, are accounted for. By using a field-of- view (FOV) reference level that is too low (such as the surface reference level), TOA fluxes for most scene types are systematically underestimated by 1-2 W/sq m. In addition, since TOA flux represents a flow of radiant energy per unit area, and varies with distance from the earth according to the inverse-square law, a reference level is also needed to define satellite-based TOA fluxes. From theoretical radiative transfer calculations using a model that accounts for spherical geometry, the optimal reference level for defining TOA fluxes in radiation budget studies for the earth is estimated to be approximately 20 km. At this reference level, there is no need to explicitly account for horizontal transmission of solar radiation through the atmosphere in the earth radiation budget calculation. In this context, therefore, the 20-km reference level corresponds to the effective radiative top of atmosphere for the planet. Although the optimal flux reference level depends slightly on scene type due to differences in effective transmission of solar radiation with cloud height, the difference in flux caused by neglecting the scene-type dependence is less than 0.1%. If an inappropriate TOA flux reference level is used to define satellite TOA fluxes, and horizontal transmission of solar radiation through the planet is not accounted for in the radiation budget equation, systematic errors in net flux of up to 8 W/sq m can result. Since climate models generally use a plane-parallel model approximation to estimate TOA fluxes and the earth radiation budget, they implicitly assume zero horizontal transmission of solar radiation in the radiation budget equation, and do not need to specify a flux reference level. By defining satellite-based TOA flux estimates at a 20-km flux reference level, comparisons with plane-parallel climate model calculations are simplified since there is no need to explicitly correct plane-parallel climate model fluxes for horizontal transmission of solar radiation through a finite earth.

Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Wielicki, B. A.

2002-01-01

86

Measuring Fluxes Of Heat To A Plasma-Arc Anode  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three probes constructed to provide measurements indicative of conductive, convective, and radiative transfer of heat from free-burning plasma arc to water-cooled copper anode used in generating arc. Each probe consists mainly of copper body with two thermocouples embedded at locations 4 mm apart along length. Thermocouples provide measure of rate of conduction of heat along probe and transfers of heat from plasma to sensing surface at tip of probe. Probes identical except sensing surface of one uncoated and other two coated with different materials to make them sensitive to different components of overall flux of heat.

Sankovic, John M.; Menart, James A.; Pfender, Emil; Heberlein, Joachim

1995-01-01

87

A new one-dimensional radiative equilibrium model for investigating atmospheric radiation entropy flux  

PubMed Central

A new one-dimensional radiative equilibrium model is built to analytically evaluate the vertical profile of the Earth's atmospheric radiation entropy flux under the assumption that atmospheric longwave radiation emission behaves as a greybody and shortwave radiation as a diluted blackbody. Results show that both the atmospheric shortwave and net longwave radiation entropy fluxes increase with altitude, and the latter is about one order in magnitude greater than the former. The vertical profile of the atmospheric net radiation entropy flux follows approximately that of the atmospheric net longwave radiation entropy flux. Sensitivity study further reveals that a ‘darker’ atmosphere with a larger overall atmospheric longwave optical depth exhibits a smaller net radiation entropy flux at all altitudes, suggesting an intrinsic connection between the atmospheric net radiation entropy flux and the overall atmospheric longwave optical depth. These results indicate that the overall strength of the atmospheric irreversible processes at all altitudes as determined by the corresponding atmospheric net entropy flux is closely related to the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. PMID:20368255

Wu, Wei; Liu, Yangang

2010-01-01

88

A new one-dimensional radiative equilibrium model for investigating atmospheric radiation entropy flux.  

PubMed

A new one-dimensional radiative equilibrium model is built to analytically evaluate the vertical profile of the Earth's atmospheric radiation entropy flux under the assumption that atmospheric longwave radiation emission behaves as a greybody and shortwave radiation as a diluted blackbody. Results show that both the atmospheric shortwave and net longwave radiation entropy fluxes increase with altitude, and the latter is about one order in magnitude greater than the former. The vertical profile of the atmospheric net radiation entropy flux follows approximately that of the atmospheric net longwave radiation entropy flux. Sensitivity study further reveals that a 'darker' atmosphere with a larger overall atmospheric longwave optical depth exhibits a smaller net radiation entropy flux at all altitudes, suggesting an intrinsic connection between the atmospheric net radiation entropy flux and the overall atmospheric longwave optical depth. These results indicate that the overall strength of the atmospheric irreversible processes at all altitudes as determined by the corresponding atmospheric net entropy flux is closely related to the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. PMID:20368255

Wu, Wei; Liu, Yangang

2010-05-12

89

Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part I: Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) investigates the critical role that clouds and aerosols play in modulating the radiative energy flow within the Earth-atmosphere system. CERES builds upon the foundation laid by previous missions, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, to provide highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes together with coincident cloud and aerosol properties inferred from

Norman G. Loeb; Natividad Manalo-Smith; Seiji Kato; Walter F. Miller; Shashi K. Gupta; Patrick Minnis; Bruce A. Wielicki

2003-01-01

90

Evaluation of arctic broadband surface radiation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

Matsui, N.; Long, C. N.; Augustine, J.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, T.; Longenecker, D.; Nievergall, O.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

2011-08-01

91

Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW) and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW), radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

Matsui, N.; Long, C. N.; Augustine, J.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, T.; Longenecker, D.; Niebergall, O.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

2012-02-01

92

A mobile detector for measurements of the atmospheric muon flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the underground atmospheric muon flux are important in order to determine accurately the overburden in mwe (meter water equivalent) of an underground laboratory for appreciating which kind of experiments are feasible for that location. Slanic- Prohava is one of the 7 possible locations for the European large underground experiment LAGUNA (Large Apparatus studying Grand Unification and Neutrino Astrophysics). A mobile device consisting of 2 scintillator plates (?0.9 m2, each) one above the other and measuring in coincidence, was set-up for determining the muon flux. The detector it is installed on a van which facilitates measurements on different positions at the surface or in the underground and it is in operation since autumn 2009. The measurements of muon fluxes presented in this contribution have been performed in the underground salt mine Slanic-Prahova, Romania, where IFIN-HH has built a low radiation level laboratory, and at the surface on different sites of Romania, at different elevations from 0 m a.s.l up to 655 m a.s.l. Based on our measurements we can say that Slanic site is a feasible location for LAGUNA in Unirea salt mine at a water equivalent depth of 600 mwe. The results have been compared with Monte-Carlo simulations performed with the simulation codes CORSIKA and MUSIC.

Mitrica, B.; Brancus, I. M.; Margineanu, R.; Petcu, M.; Dima, M.; Sima, O.; Haungs, A.; Rebel, H.; Petre, M.; Toma, G.; Saftoiu, A.; Apostu, A.

2011-04-01

93

An overview of results from the GEWEX radiation flux assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-annual radiative flux averages of the International Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), of the GEWEX - Surface Radiation Budget Project (SRB) and of the Clouds and Earth Radiative Energy System (CERES) are compared and analyzed to characterize the Earth's radiative budget, assess differences and identify possible causes. These satellite based data-sets are also compared to results of a median model, which represents 20 climate models, that participated in the 4th IPCC assessment. Consistent distribution patterns and seasonal variations among the satellite data-sets demonstrate their scientific value, which would further increase if the datasets would be reanalyzed with more accurate and consistent ancillary data.

Raschke, E.; Stackhouse, P.; Kinne, S.; Contributors from Europe; the USA

2013-05-01

94

RADIATION DOSIMETRY AT THE BNL HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR AND MEDICAL RESEARCH REACTOR.  

SciTech Connect

RADIATION DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS HAVE BEEN PERFORMED OVER A PERIOD OF MANY YEARS AT THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR (HFBR) AND THE MEDICAL RESEARCH REACTOR (BMRR) AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ON THE ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEUTRON FLUX, NEUTRON DOSE RATES, GAMMA-RAY FLUXES AND GAMMA-RAY DOSE RATES. THE MCNP PARTICLE TRANSPORT CODE PROVIDED MONTE CARLO RESULTS TO COMPARE WITH VARIOUS DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS PERFORMED AT THE EXPERIMENTAL PORTS, AT THE TREATMENT ROOMS AND IN THE THIMBLES AT BOTH HFBR AND BMRR.

HOLDEN,N.E.

1999-09-10

95

Indication of increasing solar ultraviolet-B radiation flux in alpine regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements at the Jungfraujoch High Mountain Station (Swiss Alps, 47°N, 3,576 meters above sea level) indicate that there has been a slight increase of about 1% per year in the flux of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (290 to 330 nanometers) since 1981. A Robertson-Berger detector was used to measure solar erythemal radiation. The increase can be related to a long-term ozone

M. Blumthaler; W. Ambach

1990-01-01

96

Efficient acceleration and radiation in Poynting flux powered GRB outflows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effects of magnetic energy release by local magnetic dissipation processes in Poynting flux-powered GRBs. For typical GRB parameters (energy and baryon loading) the dissipation takes place mainly outside the photosphere, producing non-thermal radiation. This process converts the total burst energy into prompt radiation at an efficiency of 10-50%. At the same time the dissipation has the effect

G. Drenkhahn; H. C. Spruit

2002-01-01

97

NIST Measurement Services: Heat-Flux Sensor Calibration  

E-print Network

NIST Measurement Services: Heat-Flux Sensor Calibration NIST Special Publication 250-65 Benjamin K Special Publication 250-65 NIST MEASUREMENT SERVICES: Heat-Flux Sensor Calibration Benjamin K. Tsai Measurement Services: Heat-Flux Sensor Calibrations is a new publication. It covers the calibration of heat

98

Radiation flux tables for ICRCCM using the GLA GCM radiation codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tabulated values of longwave and shortwave radiation fluxes and also cooling and heating rates in the atmosphere for standard atmospheric profiles are presented. The radiation codes used in the Goddard general circulation model were employed for the computations. These results were obtained for an international intercomparison projected called Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM).

HARSHVARDHAN

1986-01-01

99

Are far-IR fluxes good measures of cloud mass?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is commonly assumed that the Herschel far-IR fluxes are a measure of column density, hence, mass of interstellar clouds. The Polaris Flare, a high galactic latitude cirrus cloud, with several starless molecular cores, has been previously observed with the Herschel Space Telescope. We used Cloudy version 13.02 to model a molecular cloud MCLD 123.5+24.9, one of the denser regions of the Polaris Flare. These models include a detailed calculation of far-IR grain opacities, subject to various assumptions about grain composition, and predict far-IR fluxes. The models suggest that the observed fluxes reflect the incident stellar UV radiation field rather than the column density, if N(H) > a few times 1021 cm2 (AV > 1). For higher column densities, the models show that dust temperatures decline rapidly into the cloud. Therefore, the cloud interiors contribute very little additional far-IR flux, and column densities based upon far-IR fluxes can be significantly underestimated. The Polaris Flare, 150 pc distant, is well within the Galactic disc. There are no nearby hot stars. Therefore, the stellar UV radiation field incident on the cloud should be close to the mean interstellar radiation field (ISRF). In addition, the calculated grain opacities required to reproduce the far-IR fluxes in the Cloudy models are a few factors larger than that calculated for standard ISM graphite and silicate grains. This result suggests that the grains in dense regions are coated with water and ammonia ices, increasing their sizes and opacities. The Cloudy models also predict mm-wavelength CO line strengths for comparison with published observations at the IRAM 30-m telescope. In order to reproduce the observed CO line strengths for cores in MCLD 123.5+24.9, the models require that CO molecules be partially frozen out onto the grains. This result places age constraints upon the cores. We have also modeled CO emission from inter-core regions in MCLD 123.5+24.9. For these regions, the models significantly under predict the observed CO line strengths unless the molecular gas is clumped into high-density regions.

Wagle, Gururaj; Ferland, G. J.; Troland, T. H.; Abel, N.

2014-01-01

100

Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is described for measuring momentum flux from an intense plasma stream, comprising: refractory target means oriented normal to the flow of said plasma stream for bombardment by said plasma stream where said bombardment by said plasma stream applies a pressure to said target means, pendulum means for communicating a translational displacement of said target to a force transducer where said translational displacement of said target is transferred to said force transducer by an elongated member coupled to said target, where said member is suspended by a pendulum configuration means and where said force transducer is responsive to said translational displacement of said member, and force transducer means for outputting a signal representing pressure data corresponding to said displacement.

Zonca, F.; Cohen, S.A.; Bennett, T.; Timberlake, J.R.

1993-08-24

101

First UAV Measurements of Entrainment Layer Fluxes with Coupled Cloud Property Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study details entrainment flux measurements made from a lightweight unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) containing turbulent water vapor flux instrumentation (Thomas et al., 2012). The system was flown for 26 flights during the Cloud, Aerosol, Radiative forcing, Dynamics EXperiment (CARDEX) in the Maldives in March 2012 to study interrelationships between entrainment, aerosols, water budget, cloud microphysics and radiative fluxes in a trade wind cumulus cloud regime. A major advantage of using this lightweight, precision autopiloted UAV system with scientific telemetry is the ability to target small-scale features in the boundary layer, such as an entrainment layer, with minimal aircraft induced disruption. Results are presented from two UAVs flown in stacked formation: one UAV situated in-cloud measuring cloud-droplet size distribution spectra and liquid water content, and another co-located 100m above measuring turbulent properties and entrainment latent heat flux (?EE). We also show latent heat flux and turbulence measurements routinely made at the entrainment layer base and altitudes from the surface up to 4kft. Ratios of ?EE to corresponding surface tower values (?ES) display a bimodal frequency distribution with ranges 0.22-0.53 and 0.79-1.5, with occasional events >7. Reasons for this distribution are discussed drawing upon boundary layer and free tropospheric dynamics and meteorology, turbulence length scales, surface conditions, and cloud interactions. Latent heat flux profiles are combined with in-cloud UAV Liquid Water Content (LWC) data and surface based Liquid Water Path (LWP) and Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) measurements to produce observationally constrained vertical water budgets, providing insights into diurnal coupling of ?EE and ?ES. Observed ?EE, ?ES, water budgets, and cloud microphysical responses to entrainment are then contextualized with respect to measured aerosol loading profiles and airmass history.

Thomas, R. M.; Praveen, P. S.; Wilcox, E. M.; Pistone, K.; Bender, F.; Ramanathan, V.

2012-12-01

102

Large Area Lunar Dust Flux Measurement Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instrument under development is designed to characterize the flux and size distribution of the lunar micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta environment. When deployed on the lunar surface, the data collected will benefit fundamental lunar science as well as enabling more reliable impact risk assessments for human lunar exploration activities. To perform this task, the instrument requirements are demanding. It must have as large a surface area as possible to sample the very sparse population of the larger potentially damage-inducing micrometeorites. It must also have very high sensitivity to enable it to measure the flux of small (<10 micron) micrometeorite and secondary ejecta dust particles. To be delivered to the lunar surface, it must also be very low mass, rugged and stow compactly. The instrument designed to meet these requirements is called FOMIS. It is a large-area thin film under tension (i.e. a drum) with multiple fiber optic displacement (FOD) sensors to monitor displacements of the film. This sensor was chosen since it can measure displacements over a wide dynamic range: 1 cm to sub-Angstrom. A prototype system was successfully demonstrated using the hypervelocity impact test facility at the University of Kent (Canterbury, UK). Based on these results, the prototype system can detect hypervelocity (approx.5 km/s) impacts by particles as small as 2 microns diameter. Additional tests using slow speeds find that it can detect secondary ejecta particles (which do not penetrate the film) with momentums as small as 15 pico-gram 100m/s, or nominally 5 microns diameter at 100 m/s.

Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Burchell, M.; Stansbery, Eugene; Lagakos, N.

2009-01-01

103

New technique of the local heat flux measurement in combustion chambers of steam boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for measurement of local heat flux to water-walls of steam boilers was developed. A flux meter tube was made from an eccentric tube of short length to which two longitudinal fins were attached. These two fins prevent the boiler setting from heating by a thermal radiation from the combustion chamber. The fins are not welded to the adjacent water-wall tubes, so that the temperature distribution in the heat flux meter is not influenced by neighbouring water-wall tubes. The thickness of the heat flux tube wall is larger on the fireside to obtain a greater distance between the thermocouples located inside the wall which increases the accuracy of heat flux determination. Based on the temperature measurements at selected points inside the heat flux meter, the heat flux absorbed by the water-wall, heat transfer coefficient on the inner tube surface and temperature of the water-steam mixture was determined.

Taler, Jan; Taler, Dawid; Sobota, Tomasz; Dzierwa, Piotr

2011-12-01

104

Horizontal Radiative Fluxes in Clouds at Absorbing Wavelengths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We discuss the effect of horizontal fluxes on the accuracy of a conventional plane-parallel radiative transfer calculation for a single pixel, known as the Independent Pixel Approximation (IPA) at absorbing wavelengths. Vertically integrated horizontal fluxes can be represented as a sum of three components; each component is the IPA accuracy on a pixel-by-pixel basis for reflectance, transmittance and absorptance, respectively. We show that IPA accuracy for reflectance always improves with more absorption, while the IPA accuracy for transmittance is less sensitive to the changes in absorption: with respect to the non-absorbing case, it may first deteriorate for weak absorption and then improve again for strongly absorbing wavelengths. EPA accuracy for absorptance always deteriorates with more absorption. As a result, vertically integrated horizontal fluxes, as a sum of IPA accuracies for reflectance, transmittance and absorptance, increase with more absorption. Finally, the question of correlations between horizontal fluxes, IPA uncertainties and radiative smoothing is addressed using wavenumber spectra of radiation fields reflected from or transmitted through fractal clouds.

Marshak, A.; Oreopoulos, L.; Davis, A. B.; Wiscombe, W. J.

1998-01-01

105

Measurement of local high-level, transient surface heat flux  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study is part of a continuing investigation to develop methods for measuring local transient surface heat flux. A method is presented for simultaneous measurements of dual heat fluxes at a surface location by considering the heat flux as a separate function of heat stored and heat conducted within a heat flux gage. Surface heat flux information is obtained from transient temperature measurements taken at points within the gage. Heat flux was determined over a range of 4 to 22 MW/sq m. It was concluded that the method is feasible. Possible applications are for heat flux measurements on the turbine blade surfaces of space shuttle main engine turbopumps and on the component surfaces of rocket and advanced gas turbine engines and for testing sensors in heat flux gage calibrators.

Liebert, Curt H.

1988-01-01

106

Comparison of the Radiative Two-Flux and Diffusion Approximations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximate solutions are sometimes used to determine the heat transfer and temperatures in a semitransparent material in which conduction and thermal radiation are acting. A comparison of the Milne-Eddington two-flux approximation and the diffusion approximation for combined conduction and radiation heat transfer in a ceramic material was preformed to determine the accuracy of the diffusion solution. A plane gray semitransparent layer without a substrate and a non-gray semitransparent plane layer on an opaque substrate were considered. For the plane gray layer the material is semitransparent for all wavelengths and the scattering and absorption coefficients do not vary with wavelength. For the non-gray plane layer the material is semitransparent with constant absorption and scattering coefficients up to a specified wavelength. At higher wavelengths the non-gray plane layer is assumed to be opaque. The layers are heated on one side and cooled on the other by diffuse radiation and convection. The scattering and absorption coefficients were varied. The error in the diffusion approximation compared to the Milne-Eddington two flux approximation was obtained as a function of scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The percent difference in interface temperatures and heat flux through the layer obtained using the Milne-Eddington two-flux and diffusion approximations are presented as a function of scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The largest errors occur for high scattering and low absorption except for the back surface temperature of the plane gray layer where the error is also larger at low scattering and low absorption. It is shown that the accuracy of the diffusion approximation can be improved for some scattering and absorption conditions if a reflectance obtained from a Kubelka-Munk type two flux theory is used instead of a reflection obtained from the Fresnel equation. The Kubelka-Munk reflectance accounts for surface reflection and radiation scattered back by internal scattering sites while the Fresnel reflection only accounts for surface reflections.

Spuckler, Charles M.

2006-01-01

107

Kilometric radiation power flux dependence on area of discrete aurora  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kilometer wavelength radiation, measured from distant positions over the North Pole and over the Earth's equator, was compared to the area of discrete aurora imaged by several low-altitude spacecraft. Through correlative studies of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) with about two thousand auroral images, a stereoscopic view of the average auroral acceleration region was obtained. A major result is that the total AKR power increases as the area of the discrete auroral oval increases. The implications are that the regions of parallel potentials or the auroral plasma cavities, in which AKR is generated, must possess the following attributes: (1) they are shallow in altitude and their radial position depends on wavelength, (2) they thread flux tubes of small cross section, (3) the generation mechanism in them reaches a saturation limit rapidly, and (4) their distribution over the discrete auroral oval is nearly uniform. The above statistical results are true for large samples collected over a long period of time (about six months). In the short term, AKR frequently exhibits temporal variations with scales as short as three minutes (the resolution of the averaged data used). These fluctuations are explainable by rapid quenchings as well as fast starts of the electron cyclotron maser mechanism. There were times when AKR was present at substantial power levels while optical emissions were below instrument thresholds. A recent theoretical result may account for this set of observations by predicting that suprathermal electrons, of energies as low as several hundred eV, can generate second harmonic AKR. The indirect observations of second harmonic AKR require that these electrons have mirror points high above the atmosphere so as to minimize auroral light emissions. The results provide evidence supporting the electron cyclotron maser mechanism.

Saflekos, N. A.; Burch, J. L.; Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.; Sheehan, R. E.

1989-01-01

108

An iterative procedure for estimating areally averaged heat flux using planetary boundary layer mixed layer height and locally measured heat flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements at the central facility of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) are intended to verify, improve, and develop parameterizations in radiative flux models that are subsequently used in General Circulation Models (GCMs). The reliability of this approach depends upon the representativeness of the local measurements at the central facility for the site as a whole

R. L. Coulter; W. Gao; B. M. Lesht

2000-01-01

109

An inter-comparison of surface energy flux measurement systems used during FIFE, 1987  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the first International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Program Field Experiment (FIFE-87), surface energy fluxes were measured at 22 flux sites by nine groups of scientists using different measuring systems. A rover Bowen ratio station was taken to nearly all the flux stations to serve as a reference for estimating the instrument related differences. The rover system was installed within a few meters from the host instrument of a site. Net radiation, Bowen ratio, and latent heat fluxes were compared between the rover and the host for the stations visited. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between rover measurements and host measurements. These inter-comparisons are needed to examine the influence of instrumentation on measurement uncertainty. Highly significant effects of instrument type were detected from these comparisons. Instruments of the same type showed average differences of less than 5 percent for net radiation, 10 percent for Bowen ratio, and 6 percent for latent heat flux. The corresponding average differences for different types of instruments can be up to 10, 30, and 20 percent respectively. The Didcot net radiometer gave higher net radiation while the Swissteco type showed lower values, as compared to the corrected REBS model. The 4-way components methed and the Thornswaite type give similar values to the REBS. The SERBS type Bowen ratio systems exhibit slightly lower Bowen ratios and thus higher latent heat fluxes, compared to the AZET systems. Eddy correlation systems showed slightly lower latent heat flux in comparison to the Bowen ratio systems.

Nie, D.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Fritschen, L. J.; Weaver, H.; Smith, E. A.; Verma, S. B.; Field, R. T.; Kustas, W.; Stewart, J. B.

1990-01-01

110

Comparison of Measured and Calculated Actinic Flux Density and Downward Uv Irradiance At The Ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-based measurements of spectral actinic flux density (300 - 660 nm wave- length) and spectral downward UV irradiance (300 - 325 nm) have been compared with the results obtained from radiative transfer calculations employing concurrent airborne vertical profile measurements of aerosol particle size distributions. The same comparison was made for measured and calculated photolysis frequencies of nitro- gen dioxide, J(NO2),

B. Früh; E. Eckstein; T. Trautmann; M. Wendisch; M. Fiebig; U. Feister

2002-01-01

111

Buoyant magnetic flux tubes enhance radiation in Z pinches  

PubMed

In numerous experiments, magnetic energy coupled to strongly radiating Z-pinch plasmas exceeds the thermalized kinetic energy, sometimes by a factor of 2-3. We demonstrate that the enhanced energy coupling may be due to the buoyancy rise of toroidal magnetic flux tubes converging to the axis through the unstable pinch plasma. We derive an explicit formula for the enhanced dissipation rate and apply this formula to reconsider an old problem of power balance in a steady-state Z pinch, and then to analyze a new challenge of producing K-shell 3 to 10 keV radiation in long-pulse Z-pinch implosions. PMID:11019081

Rudakov; Velikovich; Davis; Thornhill; Giuliani; Deeney

2000-04-10

112

Absolute measurement of the extreme UV solar flux  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A windowless rare-gas ionization chamber has been developed to measure the absolute value of the solar extreme UV flux in the 50-575-A region. Successful results were obtained on a solar-pointing sounding rocket. The ionization chamber, operated in total absorption, is an inherently stable absolute detector of ionizing UV radiation and was designed to be independent of effects from secondary ionization and gas effusion. The net error of the measurement is + or - 7.3 percent, which is primarily due to residual outgassing in the instrument, other errors such as multiple ionization, photoelectron collection, and extrapolation to the zero atmospheric optical depth being small in comparison. For the day of the flight, Aug. 10, 1982, the solar irradiance (50-575 A), normalized to unit solar distance, was found to be 5.71 + or - 0.42 x 10 to the 10th photons per sq cm sec.

Carlson, R. W.; Ogawa, H. S.; Judge, D. L.; Phillips, E.

1984-01-01

113

Annual Cycle of Radiation Fluxes over the Arctic Ocean: Sensitivity to Cloud Optical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between cloud optical properties and the radiative fluxes over the Arctic Ocean is explored by conducting a series of modeling experiments. The annual cycle of arctic cloud optical properties that are required to reproduce both the outgoing radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere as determined from satellite observations and the available determinations of surface radiative fluxes

Judith A. Curry; Elizabeth E. Ebert

1992-01-01

114

A comparison of new measurements of total monoterpene flux with improved measurements of speciated monoterpene flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many monoterpenes have been identified in forest emissions using gas chromatography (GC). Until now, it has been impossible to determine whether all monoterpenes are appropriately measured using GC techniques. We used a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) coupled with the eddy covariance (EC) technique to measure mixing ratios and fluxes of total monoterpenes above a ponderosa pine plantation. We compared PTR-MS-EC results with simultaneous measurements of eight speciated monoterpenes, ?-pinene, ?-pinene, 3-carene, d-limonene, ?-phellandrene, ?-terpinene, camphene, and terpinolene, made with an automated, in situ gas chromatograph with flame ionization detectors (GC-FID), coupled to a relaxed eddy accumulation system (REA). Monoterpene mixing ratios and fluxes measured by PTR-MS averaged 30±2.3% and 31±9.2% larger than by GC-FID, with larger differences at night than during the day. Four unidentified peaks that correlated with ?-pinene were resolved in the chromatograms and completely accounted for the daytime difference and reduced the nighttime difference to 19±3.4%. Measurements of total monoterpenes by PTR-MS-EC indicated that GC-FID-REA measured the common, longer-lived monoterpenes well, but that additional monoterpenes were emitted from the ecosystem that represented an important contribution to the total mixing ratio above the forest at night, and that must have been oxidized during the day before they escaped the forest canopy.

Lee, A.; Schade, G. W.; Holzinger, R.; Goldstein, A. H.

2004-12-01

115

A comparison of new measurements of total monoterpene flux with improved measurements of speciated monoterpene flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many monoterpenes have been identified in forest emissions using gas chromatography (GC). Until now, it has been impossible to determine whether all monoterpenes are appropriately measured using GC techniques. We used a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) coupled with the eddy covariance (EC) technique to measure mixing ratios and fluxes of total monoterpenes above a ponderosa pine plantation. We compared PTR-MS-EC results with simultaneous measurements of eight speciated monoterpenes, ?-pinene, ?-pinene, 3-carene, d-limonene, ?-phellandrene, ?-terpinene, camphene, and terpinolene, made with an automated, in situ gas chromatograph with flame ionization detectors (GC-FID), coupled to a relaxed eddy accumulation system (REA). Monoterpene mixing ratios and fluxes measured by PTR-MS averaged 30±2.3% and 31±9.2% larger than by GC-FID, with larger mixing ratio discrepancies between the two techniques at night than during the day. Two unidentified peaks that correlated with ?-pinene were resolved in the chromatograms and completely accounted for the daytime difference and reduced the nighttime mixing ratio difference to 20±2.9%. Measurements of total monoterpenes by PTR-MS-EC indicated that GC-FID-REA measured the common, longer-lived monoterpenes well, but that additional terpenes were emitted from the ecosystem that represented an important contribution to the total mixing ratio above the forest at night.

Lee, A.; Schade, G. W.; Holzinger, R.; Goldstein, A. H.

2005-02-01

116

Scaling of shortwave radiation fluxes for sub grid topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shortwave radiation plays an important role in the surface energy balance for understanding mass balances, snow cover distribution as well as snow melt. Incident shortwave radiation is greatly altered by mountainous terrain. While distributed radiation balance models can account for all topographic influences at small scales, for larger scale applications, such as climate and hydrological models, physically based sub grid parameterizations are required. We present a complete shortwave radiation parameterization scheme for sub grid topography accounting for shading, limited sky view and terrain reflections. Each radiative flux is parameterized individually. The parameters required are sun elevation angle, domain-averaged surface albedo and terrain parameters such as slope angle, slope distribution and sky view factor. We show that the domain-averaged sky view factor as an important parameter of the scheme can be theoretically related to the slope distribution. This suggests that the parametrization can solely be computed from slope characteristics and the numerically expensive computation of horizons angles can be abandoned. To validate the parameterization scheme we used domain-averaged values from a detailed radiation balance model for the three-dimensional radiative transfer in complex terrain. In order to minimize influences in the modeled distributed radiation arising from specific geomorphology and climate we compiled a large ensemble of several thousand Gaussian topographies with a broad range of characteristic scales and used fixed sun positions. Overall, modeled radiation from the simulated topographies compared well with parameterized values. We found that depending on sun elevation angles, shading and limited sky view alter direct beam and diffuse sky radiation by up to 40% each. We confirmed that when using domain-averaged values, multiple, anisotropic terrain reflections can be approximated with single, isotropic terrain reflections.

Helbig, N.; Loewe, H.; Adams, E. E.

2011-12-01

117

Charged Particle Measurements with the Radiation Assessment Detector on Board the Mars Science Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on board the MSL Curiosity rover is conducting the first-ever radiation measurements on the martian surface. Here, we present measurement results of charged particle fluxes and their temporal evolution.

Ehresmann, B.; Hassler, D. M.; Zeitlin, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Koehler, J.; Appel, J. K.; Boehm, E.; Boettcher, S.; Brinza, D. E.; Burmeister, S.; Guo, J.; Lohf, H.; Martin, C.; Posner, A.; Rafkin, S.; Reitz, G.

2014-07-01

118

Efficient acceleration and radiation in Poynting flux powered GRB outflows  

E-print Network

We investigate the effects of magnetic energy release by local magnetic dissipation processes in Poynting flux-powered GRBs. For typical GRB parameters (energy and baryon loading) the dissipation takes place mainly outside the photosphere, producing non-thermal radiation. This process converts the total burst energy into prompt radiation at an efficiency of 10-50%. At the same time the dissipation has the effect of accelerating the flow to a large Lorentz factor. For higher baryon loading, the dissipation takes place mostly inside the photosphere, the efficiency of conversion of magnetic energy into radiation is lower, and an x-ray flash results instead of a GRB. We demonstrate these effects with numerical one-dimensional steady relativistic MHD calculations.

Drenkhahn, G

2002-01-01

119

Efficient acceleration and radiation in Poynting flux powered GRB outflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the effects of magnetic energy release by local magnetic dissipation processes in Poynting flux-powered GRBs. For typical GRB parameters (energy and baryon loading) the dissipation takes place mainly outside the photosphere, producing non-thermal radiation. This process converts the total burst energy into prompt radiation at an efficiency of 10-50%. At the same time the dissipation has the effect of accelerating the flow to a large Lorentz factor. For higher baryon loading, the dissipation takes place mostly inside the photosphere, the efficiency of conversion of magnetic energy into radiation is lower, and an X-ray flash results instead of a GRB. We demonstrate these effects with numerical one-dimensional steady relativistic MHD calculations.

Drenkhahn, G.; Spruit, H. C.

2002-09-01

120

Efficient acceleration and radiation in Poynting flux powered GRB outflows  

E-print Network

We investigate the effects of magnetic energy release by local magnetic dissipation processes in Poynting flux-powered GRBs. For typical GRB parameters (energy and baryon loading) the dissipation takes place mainly outside the photosphere, producing non-thermal radiation. This process converts the total burst energy into prompt radiation at an efficiency of 10-50%. At the same time the dissipation has the effect of accelerating the flow to a large Lorentz factor. For higher baryon loading, the dissipation takes place mostly inside the photosphere, the efficiency of conversion of magnetic energy into radiation is lower, and an X-ray flash results instead of a GRB. We demonstrate these effects with numerical one-dimensional steady relativistic MHD calculations.

G. Drenkhahn; H. C. Spruit

2002-02-21

121

Effects of Clouds on Cross-Atmospheric Radiative Flux Divergence: Case Studies in Different Cloud Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds have a profound effect on the amount of radiation absorbed across the atmospheric column. The amount of absorption mainly depends on the location and type of the clouds, the albedo of the surface and profile of water vapor mixing ratio in the atmospheric column. In this study we have used the data collected during the deployment of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)'s first Mobile Facility (AMF#1) at the island of Graciosa in the North Atlantic and at the Niamey, Niger to assess the impact of different cloud types on the cross-atmospheric radiative flux divergence. The cloud structure was retrieved using the data collected by a vertically pointing w-band cloud radar, a micro-pulse lidar, laser ceilometer among other instruments. The profiles of temperature, moisture and winds were measured by balloon borne radiosondes. The radiation at the surface were measured by broadband radiometers, while the radiation at the top of the atmosphere were measured by the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) radiometers onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. Simulations of a 1-dimensional radiative transfer model called as Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) having representation of cloud and aerosol properties are made to assess the relative impact of different cloud types and water vapor on spectral bands both in the shortwave and longwave radiation spectrum. Results from four case-studies which had cloud free conditions, single layered stratocumulus clouds, broken shallow cumulus clouds and high level cirrus clouds respectively will be presented.

Ghate, V. P.; Miller, M. A.

2013-12-01

122

Upward mass fluxes in tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere derived from radiative transfer calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yang et al. [1] quantified vertical velocity and upward mass fluxes in tropical lower stratosphere based on radiative heating rate calculations using the Fu-Liou radiation model along with 8-year Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes balloon-borne measurements of temperature and ozone and cryogenic frost-point hygrometer measured water vapor. The impact of tropospheric clouds on stratospheric heating rates was considered using cloud distributions from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. Since the radiative heating rate in the lower stratosphere can be as small as 0.1-0.2 K/day, an accurate radiative heating rate calculation including all radiatively active species is required. In this paper, we revisit the calculations in Yang et al. [1] by developing a line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM-D4S) for multiple scattering atmospheres. We consider the cloud impact using the cloud fields based on active lidar and radar observations from CALIPSO and CloudSat so that the quantification of upward mass fluxes in tropical lower stratosphere can be extended to tropical upper troposphere. The annual mean mass fluxes and vertical velocities from LBLRTM-D4S are ?14 kg m-2 day-1 and 0.77 mm s-1, respectively, at 120 hPa (15.5 km), and ?1.2 kg m-2 day-1 and 0.13 mm s-1 at 60 hPa (19.5 km). We examine the accuracy of three commonly used efficient radiation models including Fu-Liou, RRTM, and SBDART in estimating tropical upward mass fluxes against the LBLRTM-D4S results.

Lin, L.; Fu, Q.; Zhang, H.; Su, J.; Yang, Q.; Sun, Z.

2013-03-01

123

AmeriFlux Measurement Network: Science Team Research  

SciTech Connect

Research involves analysis and field direction of AmeriFlux operations, and the PI provides scientific leadership of the AmeriFlux network. Activities include the coordination and quality assurance of measurements across AmeriFlux network sites, synthesis of results across the network, organizing and supporting the annual Science Team Meeting, and communicating AmeriFlux results to the scientific community and other users. Objectives of measurement research include (i) coordination of flux and biometric measurement protocols (ii) timely data delivery to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC); and (iii) assurance of data quality of flux and ecosystem measurements contributed by AmeriFlux sites. Objectives of integration and synthesis activities include (i) integration of site data into network-wide synthesis products; and (ii) participation in the analysis, modeling and interpretation of network data products. Communications objectives include (i) organizing an annual meeting of AmeriFlux investigators for reporting annual flux measurements and exchanging scientific information on ecosystem carbon budgets; (ii) developing focused topics for analysis and publication; and (iii) developing data reporting protocols in support of AmeriFlux network goals.

Law, B E

2012-12-12

124

Shortwave Flux from Satellite-Measured Radiance: A Theoretical Study over Marine Boundary Layer Clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth radiation budget measurements, important to climate monitoring and to validating climate models, require that radiances measured by satellite instruments be converted to hemispherical flux. This paper examines that problem theoretically, using inhomogeneous cloud models constructed from Landsat scenes of marine boundary layer clouds. The spherical harmonics discrete ordinates method (SHDOM) code is applied to the model scenes to compute

L. H. Chambers; B. A. Wielicki; N. G. Loeb

2001-01-01

125

Measurement of the meteoroid flux at Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the fall of 2005, a dedicated meteor observing campaign was carried out by the Panoramic Camera (Pancam) onboard the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit to determine the viability of using MER cameras as meteor detectors and to obtain the first experimental estimate of the meteoroid flux at Mars. Our observing targets included both the sporadic meteoroid background and two predicted martian meteor showers: one associated with 1P/Halley and a potential stream associated with 2001/R1 LONEOS. A total of 353 images covering 2.7 h of net exposure time were analyzed with no conclusive meteor detections. From these data, an upper limit to the background meteoroid flux at Mars is estimated to be <4.4×10 meteoroidskmh for meteoroids with mass larger than 4 g. For comparison, the estimated flux to this mass limit at the Earth is 10 meteoroidskmh [Grün, E., Zook, H.A., Fechtig, H., Giese, R.H., 1985. Icarus 62, 244-272]. This result is qualitatively consistent, within error bounds, with theoretical models predicting martian fluxes of ˜50% that at Earth for meteoroids of mass 10-10 g [Adolfsson, L.G., Gustafson, B.A.S., Murray, C.D., 1996. Icarus 119, 144-152]. The MER cameras, even using the most sensitive mode of operation, should expect to see on average only one coincident meteor on of order 40-150 h of total exposure time based on these same theoretical martian flux estimates. To more meaningfully constrain these flux models, a longer total integrated exposure time or more sensitive camera is needed. Our analysis also suggests that the event reported as the first martian meteor [Selsis, F., Lemmon, M.T., Vaubaillon, J., Bell, J.F., 2005. Nature 435, 581] is more likely a grazing cosmic ray impact, which we show to be a major source of confusion with potential meteors in all Pancam images.

Domokos, A.; Bell, J. F.; Brown, P.; Lemmon, M. T.; Suggs, R.; Vaubaillon, J.; Cooke, W.

2007-11-01

126

Shortwave Flux from Satellite-Measured Radiance: A Theoretical Study over Marine Boundary Layer Clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Earth radiation budget measurements, important to climate monitoring and to validating climate models, require that radiances measured,by satellite instruments be converted,to hemispherical,flux. This paper examines,that problem theoretically, using inhomogeneous cloud models constructed from Landsat scenes of marine boundary layer clouds. The spherical harmonics,discrete ordinates method,(SHDOM) code is applied to the model scenes to compute full two-dimensional radiation fields, which

L. H. Chambers; B. A. Wielicki; N. G. Loeb

2001-01-01

127

Photoabsorption cross section of CH3CN - Photodissociation rates by solar flux and interstellar radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photoabsorption cross section of CH2CN vapor was measured in the 106-180 nm region using synchrotron radiation as a light source. The cross section and the quantum yield for the production of CN (A, B-X) fluorescence were measured and were used to infer the photodissociation cross section of CH3CN. The cross sections were used to calculate the photodissociation rates of CH3CN by the solar flux and by the interstellar radiation. In both the stratosphere and the troposphere, the solar photodissociation of CH3CN is negligible in comparison with chemical degradation.

Suto, M.; Lee, L. C.

1985-01-01

128

Heat flux measurement in SSME turbine blade tester  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface heat flux values were measured in the turbine blade thermal cycling tester located at NASA-Marshall. This is the first time heat flux has been measured in a space shuttle main engine turbopump environment. Plots of transient and quasi-steady state heat flux data over a range of about 0 to 15 MW/sq m are presented. Data were obtained with a miniature heat flux gage device developed at NASA-Lewis. The results from these tests are being incorporated into turbine design models. Also, these gages are being considered for airfoil surface heat flux measurement on turbine vanes mounted in SSME turbopump test bed engine nozzles at Marshall. Heat flux effects that might be observed on degraded vanes are discussed.

Liebert, Curt H.

1990-01-01

129

Heat Flux Determination From Measured Heating Rates Using Thermographic Phosphors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for measuring the heating rate (defined as the time rate of change of temperature) and estimating heat flux from the heating rate is proposed. The example problem involves analytic heat conduction in a one-dimensional slab, where the measure- ment location of temperature or heating rate coincides with the location of the estimated heat flux. The new method

D. G. Walker

2005-01-01

130

Atmospheric radiation measurements and modeling during ATTREX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) flew the first of four planned missions to study the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) over the tropical Pacific Ocean during October and November of 2011. The NASA Global Hawk was equipped with the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) system and thermal broadband instruments. The SSFR made spectrally resolved measurements of upwelling and downwelling solar irradiance from 350 to 2150 nm. The broadband instruments measured integrated thermal upwelling and downwelling irradiance from 4 to 40 um. An important goal of the ATTREX mission is to investigate the radiative impacts of persistent thin cirrus clouds associated with the TTL. The measurements made by SSFR and the thermal broadband instruments and radiative transfer modeling are presented from the first flights of the ATTREX mission. These include real-time ice and liquid water cloud retrievals with phase separation and potential methods for determining important, but challenging, thin cirrus cloud layer properties such as heating rates.

Kindel, B. C.; Pilewskie, P.; Schmidt, S.; Leblanc, S. E.

2012-12-01

131

On the heating of the outer radiation belt to produce high fluxes of relativistic electrons: Measured heating rates at geosynchronous orbit for high-speed stream-driven storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heating rate of the outer electron radiation belt at geosynchronous orbit is determined for the interval from 36 to 72 h after the onset of high-speed stream-driven storms. Multisatellite measurements of the radiation belt temperature are used for 93 high-speed stream-driven storms. During the storms, the outer electron radiation belt temperature changes from ?120 keV to ?190 keV. The

Joseph E. Borovsky; Michael H. Denton

2010-01-01

132

On the heating of the outer radiation belt to produce high fluxes of relativistic electrons: Measured heating rates at geosynchronous orbit for high-speed stream-driven storms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heating rate of the outer electron radiation belt at geosynchronous orbit is determined for the interval from 36 to 72 h after the onset of high-speed stream-driven storms. Multisatellite measurements of the radiation belt temperature are used for 93 high-speed stream-driven storms. During the storms, the outer electron radiation belt temperature changes from ˜120 keV to ˜190 keV. The

Joseph E. Borovsky; Michael H. Denton

2010-01-01

133

Measurements for the JASPER Program Flux Monitor Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Flux Monitor Experiment was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) during the months of May and June 1992, as part of the continuing series of eight experiments planned for the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER) program that was started in 1986. This series of experiments was designed to examine shielding concerns and radiation transport effects pertaining to in-vessel flux monitoring systems (FMS) in current reactor shield designs proposed for both the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design and the Japanese loop-type design. The program is a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) and the Japanese Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). The Tower Shielding Reactor H (TSR-II) neutron source was altered by the spectrum modifier (SM) used previously in the Axial Shield Experiment, and part of the Japanese Removable Radial Shield (RRS) before reaching the axial shield. In the axial shield were placed six homogeneous boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) hexagons around a center hexagon of aluminum used to represent sodium. Shield designs to be studied were placed beyond the axial shield, each design forming a void directly behind the axial shield. Measurements were made in the void and behind each slab as successive slabs were added.

Muckenthaler, F.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Hunter, H.T.; Hull, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Shono, A. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

1993-02-01

134

A comparison of small and larger mesoscale latent heat and radiative fluxes: December 6 case study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the small amounts of water vapor, the potential for rapid changes, and the very cold temperatures in the upper troposphere, moisture measuring instruments face several problems related to calibration and response. Calculations of eddy moisture fluxes are, therefore, subject to significant uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to examine the importance of latent heat (moisture) fluxes due to small and larger mesoscale circulations in comparison to radiative fluxes within cirrus. Scale separation is made at about 1 km because of significant changes in the structures within cirrus. Only observations at warmer than -40 C are used in this study. The EG&G hygrometer that is used for measuring dewpoint temperature (Td) is believed to be fairly accurate down to -40 C. On the other hand, Lyman-Alpha (L-alpha) hygrometer measurements of moisture may include large drift errors. In order to compensate for these drift errors, the L-alpha hygrometer is often calibrated against the EG&G hygrometer. However, large errors ensue for Td measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. The cryogenic hygrometer frost point measurements may be used to calibrate L-alpha measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. In this study, however, measurements obtained by EG&G hygrometer and L-alpha measurements are used for the flux calculations.

Gultepe, I.; Starr, David; Heymsfield, A. J.

1993-01-01

135

Best Estimate Radiation Flux Value-Added Procedure: Algorithm Operational Details and Explanations  

SciTech Connect

This document describes some specifics of the algorithm for best estimate evaluation of radiation fluxes at Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF). It uses the data available from the three co-located surface radiometer platforms at the SGP CF to automatically determine the best estimate of the irradiance measurements available. The Best Estimate Flux (BEFlux) value-added procedure (VAP) was previously named Best Estimate ShortWave (BESW) VAP, which included all of the broadband and spectral shortwave (SW) measurements for the SGP CF. In BESW, multiple measurements of the same quantities were handled simply by designating one as the primary measurement and using all others to merely fill in any gaps. Thus, this “BESW” is better termed “most continuous,” since no additional quality assessment was applied. We modified the algorithm in BESW to use the average of the closest two measurements as the best estimate when possible, if these measurements pass all quality assessment criteria. Furthermore, we included longwave (LW) fields in the best estimate evaluation to include all major components of the surface radiative energy budget, and renamed the VAP to Best Estimate Flux (BEFLUX1LONG).

Shi, Y; Long, CN

2002-10-01

136

Quantifying the "chamber effect" in CO2 flux measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The significance of aquatic CO2 emissions has received attention in recent years. For example annual aquatic emissions in the Amazon basin have been estimated as 500 Mt of carbon1. Methods for determining the flux rates include eddy covariance flux tower measurements, flux estimates calculated from partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in water and the use floating flux chambers connected to an infra-red gas analyser. The flux chamber method is often used because it is portable, cheaper and allows smaller scale measurements. It is also a direct method and hence avoids problems related to the estimation of the gas transfer coefficient that is required when fluxes are calculated from pCO2. However, the use of a floating chamber may influence the flux measurements obtained. The chamber shields the water underneath from effects of wind which could lead to lower flux estimates. Wind increases the flux rate by i) causing waves which increase the surface area for efflux, and ii) removing CO2 build up above the water surface, hence maintaining a higher concentration gradient. Many floating chambers have an underwater extension of the chamber below the float to ensure better seal to water surface and to prevent any ingress of atmospheric air when waves rock the chamber. This extension may cause additional turbulence in flowing water and hence lead to overestimation of flux rates. Some groups have also used a small fan in the chamber headspace to ensure thorough mixing of air in the chamber. This may create turbulence inside the chamber which could increase the flux rate. Here we present results on the effects of different chamber designs on the detected flux rates. 1Richey et al. 2002. Outgassing from Amazonian rivers and wetlands as a large tropical source of atmospheric CO2. Nature 416: 617-620.

Vihermaa, Leena; Childs, Amy; Long, Hazel; Waldron, Susan

2014-05-01

137

Measurement of flux distribution in toroidal and multiaperture cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, magnetic devices utilizing a partial switching have been used in many fields. From a point of core design, a flux distribution must be known. It is possible to calculate them under some assumptions, but it is difficult to measure them experimentally. This paper describes a technique of determining a flux distribution in toroidal and multiaperture ferrite cores. The patterns

Y. Ohbuchi; T. Urabe; Y. Sakurai

1971-01-01

138

Sensitivity of shortwave radiative flux density, forcing, and heating rates to the aerosol vertical profile  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the aerosol vertical distribution on the solar radiation profiles, for idealized and measured profiles of optical properties (extinction and single-scattering albedo (SSA)) during the May 2003 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerosol Intensive Observation Period (AIOP), has been investigated using the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model Shortwave (RRTM_SW) code. Calculated profiles of down-welling and up-welling solar fluxes during the AIOP have been compared with the data measured by up- and down-looking solar broadband radiometers aboard a profiling research aircraft. The measured profiles of aerosol extinction, SSA, and water vapor obtained from the same aircraft that carried the radiometers served as the inputs for the model calculations. It is noteworthy that for this study, the uplooking radiometers were mounted on a stabilized platform that kept the radiometers parallel with respect to the earth’s horizontal plane. The results indicate that the shape of the aerosol extinction profiles has very little impact on direct radiative forcings at the top of atmosphere and surface in a cloud-free sky. However, as long as the aerosol is not purely scattering, the shape of the extinction profiles is important for forcing profiles. Identical extinction profiles with different absorption profiles drastically influence the forcing and heating rate profiles. Using aircraft data from 19 AIOP profiles over the Southern Great Plains (SGP), we are able to achieve broadband down-welling solar flux closure within 0.8% (bias difference) or 1.8% (rms difference), well within the expected measurement uncertainty of 1 to 3%. The poorer agreement in up-welling flux (bias -3.7%, rms 10%) is attributed to the use of inaccurate surface albedo data. The sensitivity tests reveal the important role accurate, vertically resolved aerosol extinction data plays in tightening flux closure. This study also suggests that in the presence of a strongly absorbing substance, aircraft flux measurements from a stabilized platform have the potential to determine heating rate profiles. These measurement-based heating rate profiles provide useful data for heating rate closure studies and indirect estimates of single scattering albedo assumed in radiative transfer calculations.

Guan, Hong; Schmid, Beat; Bucholtz, Anthony; Bergstrom, Robert

2010-03-31

139

FLUX MEASUREMENTS FROM A TALL TOWER IN A COMPLEX LANDSCAPE  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy and representativeness of flux measurements from a tall tower in a complex landscape was assessed by examining the vertical and sector variability of the ratio of wind speed to momentum flux and the ratio of vertical advective to eddy flux of heat. The 30-60 m ratios were consistent with theoretical predictions which indicate well mixed flux footprints. Some variation with sector was observed that were consistent with upstream roughness. Vertical advection was negligible compared with vertical flux except for a few sectors at night. This implies minor influence from internal boundary layers. Flux accuracy is a function of sector and stability but 30-60 m fluxes were found to be generally representative of the surrounding landscape. This paper will study flux data from a 300 m tower, with 4 levels of instruments, in a complex landscape. The surrounding landscape will be characterized in terms of the variation in the ratio of mean wind speed to momentum flux as a function of height and wind direction. The importance of local advection will be assessed by comparing vertical advection with eddy fluxes for momentum and heat.

Kurzeja, R.; Weber, A.; Chiswell, S.; Parker, M.

2010-07-22

140

A study of the expansion of the solar corona with radiation heat flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expansion of the solar corona is studied using the hydrodynamic blast wave theory and the concept of the Roche model, with both solar gravity and radiation heat flux taken into consideration. Similarity solutions are developed when the radiation heat flux is more important than the radiation pressure and energy; the gas in the undisturbed field is assumed to be

J. B. Bhowmick

1980-01-01

141

KNVK vacuum fission chambers for measuring neutron flux density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum fission chambers (VFC) are used to record the time dependence of the flux density of neutrons from nuclear reactors. Their comparatively high yield of slow secondary electrons (about 500 per fission fragment), large dynamic range, high temporal resolution, radiation resistance, and operating reliability make them superior to other detectors. However, the accuracy with which fast neutrons are recorded with

E. K. Malyshev; S. V. Chuklyaev; O. I. Shchetinin

1987-01-01

142

Test site suitability assessment for radiation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field and attenuation methods for site suitability assessment for radiation measurements are presented. Attention is given to the IEC procedure for checking the suitability of radiation measurement site.

Borsero, M.; Nano, E.

1980-04-01

143

A statistical approach to determining energetic outer radiation belt electron precipitation fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

radio wave data from an Antarctic-Arctic Radiation-Belt (Dynamic) Deposition VLF Atmospheric Research Konsortia (AARDDVARK) receiver located in Churchill, Canada, is analyzed to determine the characteristics of electron precipitation into the atmosphere over the range 3 < L < 7. The study advances previous work by combining signals from two U.S. transmitters from 20 July to 20 August 2010, allowing error estimates of derived electron precipitation fluxes to be calculated, including the application of time-varying electron energy spectral gradients. Electron precipitation observations from the NOAA POES satellites and a ground-based riometer provide intercomparison and context for the AARDDVARK measurements. AARDDVARK radiowave propagation data showed responses suggesting energetic electron precipitation from the outer radiation belt starting 27 July 2010 and lasting ~20 days. The uncertainty in >30 keV precipitation flux determined by the AARDDVARK technique was found to be ±10%. Peak >30 keV precipitation fluxes of AARDDVARK-derived precipitation flux during the main and recovery phase of the largest geomagnetic storm, which started on 4 August 2010, were >105 el cm-2 s-1 sr-1. The largest fluxes observed by AARDDVARK occurred on the dayside and were delayed by several days from the start of the geomagnetic disturbance. During the main phase of the disturbances, nightside fluxes were dominant. Significant differences in flux estimates between POES, AARDDVARK, and the riometer were found after the main phase of the largest disturbance, with evidence provided to suggest that >700 keV electron precipitation was occurring. Currently the presence of such relativistic electron precipitation introduces some uncertainty in the analysis of AARDDVARK data, given the assumption of a power law electron precipitation spectrum.

Simon Wedlund, Mea; Clilverd, Mark A.; Rodger, Craig J.; Cresswell-Moorcock, Kathy; Cobbett, Neil; Breen, Paul; Danskin, Donald; Spanswick, Emma; Rodriguez, Juan V.

2014-05-01

144

Seasonality of Overstory and Understory Fluxes in a Semi-Arid Oak Savanna: What can be Learned from Comparing Measured and Modeled Fluxes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semi-arid climates experience large seasonal and inter-annual variability in radiation and precipitation, creating natural conditions adequate to study how year-to-year changes affect atmosphere-biosphere fluxes. Especially, savanna ecosystems, that combine tree and below-canopy components, create a unique environment in which phenology dramatically changes between seasons. We used a 10-year flux database in order to define seasonal and interannual variability of climatic inputs and fluxes, and evaluate model capability to reproduce observed variability. This is based on the perception that model capability to construct the deviation, and not the average, is important in order to correctly predict ecosystem sensitivity to climate change. Our research site is a low density and low LAI (0.8) semi-arid savanna, located at Tonzi Ranch, Northern California. In this system, trees are active during the warm season (Mar - Oct), and grasses are active during the wet season (Dec - May). Measurements of carbon and water fluxes above and below the tree canopy using eddy covariance and supplementary measurements have been made since 2001. Fluxes were simulated using bio-meteorological process-oriented ecosystem models: BEPS and 3D-CAONAK. Models were partly capable of reproducing fluxes on daily scales (R2=0.66). We then compared model outputs for different ecosystem components and seasons, and found distinct seasons with high correlations while other seasons were purely represented. Comparison was much higher for ET than for GPP. The understory was better simulated than the overstory. CANOAK overestimated spring understory fluxes, probably due to the capability to directly calculated 3D radiative transfer. BEPS underestimated spring understory fluxes, following the pre-description of grass die-off. Both models underestimated peak spring overstory fluxes. During winter tree dormant, modeled fluxes were null, but occasional high fluxes of both ET and GPP were measured following precipitation events, likely produced by an adverse measurement effect. This analysis enabled to pinpoint specific areas where models break, and stress that model capability to reproduce fluxes vary among seasons and ecosystem components. The combined response was such, that comparison decreases when ecosystem fluxes were partitioned between overstory and understory fluxes. Model performance decreases with time scale; while performance was high for some seasons, models were less capable of reproducing the high variability in understory fluxes vs. the conservative overstory fluxes on annual scales. Discrepancies were not always a result of models' faults; comparison largely improved when measurements of overstory fluxes during precipitation events were excluded. Conclusions raised from this research enable to answer the critical question of the level and type of details needed in order to correctly predict ecosystem respond to environmental and climatic change.

Raz-Yaseef, N.; Sonnentag, O.; Kobayashi, H.; Chen, J. M.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Ma, S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

2011-12-01

145

A Preliminary Study of CO2 Flux Measurements by Lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mechanistic understanding of the global carbon cycle requires quantification of terrestrial ecosystem CO2 fluxes at regional scales. In this paper, we analyze the potential of a Doppler DIAL system to make flux measurements of atmospheric CO2 using the eddy-covariance and boundary layer budget methods and present results from a ground based experiment. The goal of this study is to put CO2 flux point measurements in a mesoscale context. In June 2007, a field experiment combining a 2-m Doppler Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar (HDIAL) and in-situ sensors of a 447-m tall tower (WLEF) took place in Wisconsin. The HDIAL measures simultaneously: 1) CO2 mixing ratio, 2) atmosphere structure via aerosol backscatter and 3) radial velocity. We demonstrate how to synthesize these data into regional flux estimates. Lidar-inferred fluxes are compared with eddy-covariance fluxes obtained in-situ at 396m AGL from the tower. In cases where the lidar was not yet able to measure the fluxes with acceptable precision, we discuss possible modifications to improve system performance.

Gibert, Fabien; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, T.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

2008-01-01

146

Heat flux measurement from vertical temperature profile and thermal infrared imagery in low-flux fumarolic zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal systems are associated to most of the dormant volcanoes. Heat is transported by steam from the hot magma body in the connected porosity and the fissures of the rock to the surface. If the flux is low enough (<500 W/m²), the steam mainly condensates in the soil close to surface, and a significant proportion of the heat is transported to the surface by conduction, producing a gradient of temperature and a thermal anomaly detectable at the surface. Detecting and monitoring these fluxes is crucial for hazard management, since it reflects the state of the magma body in depth. In order to quantify this flux two methods are considered. First, a vertical profile of temperature is measured by a series of thermocouples, and the conducted flux is estimated thanks to the Fourier law. Secondly, a more recent method uses the thermal infrared imagery to monitor the surface temperature anomaly (STA) between the studied zone and an equivalent zone not affected by the geothermal flux. The heat flux from the soil to the atmosphere is computed as the sum of (1) the radiative flux, (2) the sensible flux and (3) the residual steam flux. These two methods are complementary and have an equivalent uncertainty of approximately 20%, which would allow to track the major changes in the hydrothermal system. However, the surface and sub-surface temperatures are strongly influenced by the climate. For instance, it has been widely demonstrated that the surface temperature dramatically decreases after a rainfall. In order to estimate the reliability of the measurements, a numerical model simulating the evolution of the subsurface temperature in low flux fumarolic zone has been built. In depth, the heat can be transported either by conduction, or by the rising steam, or by condensed water. In surface, both the radiative flux and the sensible flux (convection of the atmosphere) are taken into account. This model allows to estimate the changes of temperature due to a variation of solar illumination, wind, or rainfalls. It has been successfully tested during 5 months with a permanent station built on the Ty fault on La Soufrière volcano (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles). Results show that the diurnal cycle has a significant influence on the temperature up to ca. 30 cm depth, hindering the use of the thermal gradient in this zone, while the STA has a negligible variation. Rain has a more dramatic influence: the surface temperature and the STA are significantly affected, even for small rains. The model shows that the drop of temperature and the affected thickness are mainly controlled by the amount of rain, while the relaxation time is primarily a function of the heat flux. These results have strong implications in the interpretation and the reliability of the temperature surveys, and could be used to correct them from the climate fluctuations.

Gaudin, Damien; Finizola, Anthony; Beauducel, François; Brothelande, Elodie; Allemand, Pascal; Delacourt, Christophe; Delcher, Eric; Peltier, Aline

2014-05-01

147

The BESS-Polar Proton & Helium flux measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting Spectrometer (BESS) instrument pro-vides precise measurements of the elemental and isotopic composition of the light Galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) component. The ability to determine the charge sign of incident par-ticles enables the instrument to search for GCR antimatter, which is a major objective of the BESS program. Since 1993, the US-Japan BESS collaboration has conducted 11 successful balloon flights, nine northern-latitude flights of 1-day duration and most recently two long-duration balloon flights (8.5 days in 2004 & 24.5 days in 2007/2008), with the BESS-Polar instrument. The BESS-Polar instrument is the current effort of BESS program specifically designed for long-duration, low-geomagnetic cutoff Antarctic flights with significantly increased transparency for incident CR particle allowing to study anti/proton down to 100 MeV and a faster data acquisition enables processing of all CR events without event selection. The first BESS-Polar flight was launched on Dec 13, 2004 from Williams Field, near McMurdo Station in Antarctica. The instrument recorded data for 8.5 days, limited by the cryogenic life time of the superconducting magnet. During this flight the BESS-Polar instrument recorded 0.9 x 109 CR events. In this paper, we present the absolute proton and helium flux for the first BESS-Polar flight as well as the time variation of the fluxes due to solar activity.

Hams, Thomas; et al.

148

Error Evaluation of Methyl Bromide Aerodynamic Flux Measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methyl bromide volatilization fluxes were calculated for a tarped and a nontarped field using 2 and 4 hour sampling periods. These field measurements were averaged in 8, 12, and 24 hour increments to simulate longer sampling periods. The daily flux profiles were progressively smoothed and the cumulative volatility losses increased by 20 to 30% with each longer sampling period. Error associated with the original flux measurements was determined from linear regressions of measured wind speed and air concentration as a function of height, and averaged approximately 50%. The high errors resulted from long application times, which resulted in a nonuniform source strength; and variable tarp permeability, which is influenced by temperature, moisture, and thickness. The increase in cumulative volatilization losses that resulted from longer sampling periods were within the experimental error of the flux determination method.

Majewski, M.S.

1997-01-01

149

Fast Flux Test Facility passive safety reactivity feedback measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments conducted in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) measured the reactivity change between approximately 200 reactor states. The test data have been evaluated to determine the thermal hydraulic parameters of the reactor at those states. Auxiliary measurements have been analyzed to convert the measured control rod position changes to reactivity and to correct for burnup effects.

B. J. Knutson; R. A. Harris; D. H. Nguyen; R. P. Omberg

1988-01-01

150

Hybrid heat flux measurement system for solar central receiver evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid heat flux measurement system has been designed, built and mounted on top of the SSPS-CRS tower at the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) to measure the incident solar power that is concentrated by a heliostat field on the flat aperture of a central receiver. This device is composed of two measurement systems, one direct and the other indirect.

J. Ballestrín; R. Monterreal

2004-01-01

151

Radiation measurements on the Mir Orbital Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation measurements made onboard the MIR Orbital Station have spanned nearly a decade and covered two solar cycles, including one of the largest solar particle events, one of the largest magnetic storms, and a mean solar radio flux level reaching 250 x 10(4) Jansky that has been observed in the last 40 years. The cosmonaut absorbed dose rates varied from about 450 microGy day-1 during solar minimum to approximately half this value during the last solar maximum. There is a factor of about two in dose rate within a given module, and a similar variation from module to module. The average radiation quality factor during solar minimum, using the ICRP-26 definition, was about 2.4. The drift of the South Atlantic Anomaly was measured to be 6.0 +/- 0.5 degrees W, and 1.6 +/- 0.5 degrees N. These measurements are of direct applicability to the International Space Station. This paper represents a comprehensive review of Mir Space Station radiation data available from a variety of sources. c2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Badhwar, G. D.; Atwell, W.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Heinrich, W.

2002-01-01

152

Radiation measurements on the Mir Orbital Station.  

PubMed

Radiation measurements made onboard the MIR Orbital Station have spanned nearly a decade and covered two solar cycles, including one of the largest solar particle events, one of the largest magnetic storms, and a mean solar radio flux level reaching 250 x 10(4) Jansky that has been observed in the last 40 years. The cosmonaut absorbed dose rates varied from about 450 microGy day-1 during solar minimum to approximately half this value during the last solar maximum. There is a factor of about two in dose rate within a given module, and a similar variation from module to module. The average radiation quality factor during solar minimum, using the ICRP-26 definition, was about 2.4. The drift of the South Atlantic Anomaly was measured to be 6.0 +/- 0.5 degrees W, and 1.6 +/- 0.5 degrees N. These measurements are of direct applicability to the International Space Station. This paper represents a comprehensive review of Mir Space Station radiation data available from a variety of sources. PMID:12440430

Badhwar, G D; Atwell, W; Reitz, G; Beaujean, R; Heinrich, W

2002-10-01

153

Reconstruction of charged particle fluxes detected by the Radiation Assessment Detector onboard of MSL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main science objectives of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is to help planning future human exploration to Mars by constraining the radiation environment during the cruise phase and on the planet's surface. During the 253-day, 560 million km cruise to Mars, the Radiation Assessment Detector, RAD made detailed measurements of the energy spectrum deposited by energetic particles from space and scattered within the spacecraft. Two types of radiation pose potential health risks to astronauts in deep space: a prolonged low-dose exposure to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and short-term exposures to the Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). On the surface of Mars such energetic particles penetrate through its thin atmosphere and generate secondary particles that can also result harms to humans. In order to interpret the energetic charged particle flux coming into the detector, we have developed the Detector Response Function (DRF) using GEANT 4 simulations and employed a Maximum likelihood inversion technique to invert the detected energy spectrum. This method has been applied to RAD detection of GCRs and secondary charged particles on the Martian surface, giving us an unique insight into their energy fluxes. The spectra of the stopping particle fluxes (hydrogen and helium) are also directly obtained from RAD observations and compared with the inversion results.

Guo, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Hassler, D.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Ehresmann, B.; Kohler, J.; Boehm, E.; Appel, J. K.; Lohf, H.; Boettcher, S.; Burmeister, S.; Rafkin, S. C.; Kharytonov, A.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Matthiae, D.; Reitz, G.

2013-12-01

154

Noninvasive measurement of pulmonary transvascular protein flux in normal man.  

PubMed Central

Onset of lung edema is usually associated with increase in the pulmonary transvascular flux of water and proteins. Clinical measurement of these parameters may aid in early diagnosis of pulmonary edema, and allow differentiation between "cardiogenic" and "noncardiogenic" types base on the magnitude of the detected changes. We have previously described a noninvasive method for estimating transvascular protein flux in lung (Gorin, A. B., W. J. Weidner, R. H. Demling, and N. C. Staub, 1978. Noninvasive measurement of pulmonary transvascular protein flux in sheep. J. Appl. Physiol. 45: 225-233). Using this method we measured the net transvascular flux of [113mIn]transferrin (mol wt, 76,000 in lungs of nine normal human volunteers. Plasma clearance of [113In]transferrin occurred with a T1/2 = 7.0 +/- 2.6 h (mean +/- SD). The pulmonary transvascular flux coefficient, alpha, was 2.9 +/- 1.4 X 10(-3) ml/s (mean +/- SD) in man, slightly greater than that previously measured in sheep (2.7 +/- 0.7 X 10(-3) ml/s; mean +/- SD). The pulmonary transcapillary escape rate is twofold greater than the transcapillary escape rate for the vascular bed as a whole, indicating a greater "porosity" of exchanging vessels in the lung than exists for the "average" microvessel in the body. Time taken to reach half-equilibrium concentration of tracer protein in the lung interstitium was quite short, 52 +/- 13 min (mean +/- SD). We have shown that measurement of pulmonary transvascular protein flux in man is practical. The coefficient of variation of measurements of alpha (between subjects) was 0.48, and of measurements of pulmonary transcapillary escape rates was 0.39. In animals, endothelial injury commonly results in a two- to threefold increase in transvascular protein flux. Thus, external radioflux detection should be a suitable means of quantitating lung vascular injury in human disease states. PMID:7430349

Gorin, A B; Kohler, J; DeNardo, G

1980-01-01

155

Cosmic muon flux measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ~ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC.

Kalousis, L. N.; Guarnaccia, E.; Link, J. M.; Mariani, C.; Pelkey, R.

2014-08-01

156

Cosmic Muon Flux Measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility  

E-print Network

In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ~ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC.

Kalousis, L N; Link, J M; Mariani, C; Pelkey, R

2014-01-01

157

Cosmic Muon Flux Measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility  

E-print Network

In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ~ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC.

L. N. Kalousis; E. Guarnaccia; J. M. Link; C. Mariani; R. Pelkey

2014-06-10

158

Solar Model Parameters and Direct Measurements of Solar Neutrino Fluxes  

E-print Network

We explore a novel possibility of determining the solar model parameters, which serve as input in the calculations of the solar neutrino fluxes, by exploiting the data from direct measurements of the fluxes. More specifically, we use the rather precise value of the $^8B$ neutrino flux, $\\phi_B$ obtained from the global analysis of the solar neutrino and KamLAND data, to derive constraints on each of the solar model parameters on which $\\phi_B$ depends. We also use more precise values of $^7Be$ and $pp$ fluxes as can be obtained from future prospective data and discuss whether such measurements can help in reducing the uncertainties of one or more input parameters of the Standard Solar Model.

Abhijit Bandyopadhyay; Sandhya Choubey; Srubabati Goswami; S. T. Petcov

2006-08-30

159

Techniques and Methods used to determine the Best Estimate of Radiation Fluxes at SGP Central Facility  

SciTech Connect

The DOE ARM Program operates three independent surface radiation measurement systems co-located within a few meters at the Southern Great Plains Central Facility (SGP CF) site. This redundancy affords a unique opportunity for producing a high quality estimate of the actual continuous irradiance record. The Best Estimate Radiation Flux Value Added Product (VAP) currently being developed for ARM (beflux1long VAP) is attempting to determine the best estimate value for each radiation field from these multiple measurements as an operational product. In the development of this VAP, it is necessary to assess the nominal long-term unattended operational accuracy (as opposed to accuracy assessments based on calibrations or short term attended operation) to screen the data for quality assessment. We will present statistical results of this assessment, including our estimates of nominal operational accuracies, and the amount of data that pass the resultant data quality testing. Central to data quality assessment is the notion that having three pieces of information allows one not only to detect measurement problems, but to identify which of the three similar measurements is likely to be in error. We will discuss the techniques we have developed to use similar, but often differing, measurement data as comparison tools for operationally detecting measurement errors. We will also present statistical analyses of the resultant best estimate radiation climatology for the SGP CF.

Shi, Yan; Long, Charles N.

2002-07-30

160

A method for obtaining distributed surface flux measurements in complex terrain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sonic anemometers and gas analyzers can be used to measure fluxes of momentum, heat, and moisture over flat terrain, and with the proper corrections, over sloping terrain as well. While this method of obtaining fluxes is currently the most accurate available, the instruments themselves are costly, making installation of many stations impossible for most campaign budgets. Small, commercial automatic weather stations (Sensorscope) are available at a fraction of the cost of sonic anemometers or gas analyzers. Sensorscope stations use slow-response instruments to measure standard meteorological variables, including wind speed and direction, air temperature, humidity, surface skin temperature, and incoming solar radiation. The method presented here makes use of one sonic anemometer and one gas analyzer along with a dozen Sensorscope stations installed throughout the Val Ferret catchment in southern Switzerland in the summers of 2009, 2010 and 2011. Daytime fluxes are calculated using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory in conjunction with the surface energy balance at each Sensorscope station as well as at the location of the sonic anemometer and gas analyzer, where a suite of additional slow-response instruments were co-located. Corrections related to slope angle were made for wind speeds and incoming shortwave radiation measured by the horizontally-mounted cup anemometers and incoming solar radiation sensors respectively. A temperature correction was also applied to account for daytime heating inside the radiation shield on the slow-response temperature/humidity sensors. With these corrections, we find a correlation coefficient of 0.77 between u* derived using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory and that of the sonic anemometer. Calculated versus measured heat fluxes also compare well and local patterns of latent heat flux and measured surface soil moisture are correlated.

Daniels, M. H.; Pardyjak, E.; Nadeau, D. F.; Barrenetxea, G.; Brutsaert, W. H.; Parlange, M. B.

2011-12-01

161

Arctic ocean radiative fluxes and cloud forcing estimated from the ISCCP C2 cloud dataset, 1983-1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiative fluxes and cloud forcings for the ocean areas of the Arctic are computed from the monthly cloud product of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for 1983-90. Spatially averaged short-wave fluxes are compared well with climatological values, while downwelling longwave fluxes are significantly lower. This is probably due to the fact that the ISCCP cloud amounts are underestimates. Top-of-the-atmosphere radiative fluxes are in excellent agreement with measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Computed cloud forcings indicate that clouds have a warming effect at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere during winter and a cooling effect during summer. The net radiative effect of clouds is larger at the surface during winter but greater at the top of the atmosphere during summer. Overall the net radiative effect of clouds at the top of the atmosphere is one of cooling. This is in contrast to a previous result from ERBE data showing arctic cloud forcings have a net warming effect. Sensitivities to errors in input parameters are generally greater during winter with cloud amount being the most important paarameter. During summer the surface radiation balance is most sensitive to errors in the measurements of surface reflectance. The results are encouraging, but the estimated error of 20 W/sq m in surface net radiative fluxes is too large, given that estimates of the net radiative warming effect due to a doubling of CO2 are on the order of 4 W/sq m. Because it is difficult to determine the accuracy of results with existing in situ observations, it is recommended that the development of improved algorithms for the retrieval of surface radiative properties be accompanied by the simultaneous assembly of validation datasets.

Schweiger, Axel J.; Key, Jeffrey R.

1994-01-01

162

Solar and thermal radiation in Jupiter's atmosphere: initial results of the Galileo probe net flux radiometer.  

PubMed

The Galileo probe net flux radiometer measured radiation within Jupiter's atmosphere over the 125-kilometer altitude range between pressures of 0.44 bar and 14 bars. Evidence for the expected ammonia cloud was seen in solar and thermal channels down to 0.5 to 0.6 bar. Between 0.6 and 10 bars large thermal fluxes imply very low gaseous opacities and provide no evidence for a deep water cloud. Near 8 bars the water vapor abundance appears to be about 10 percent of what would be expected for a solar abundance of oxygen. Below 8 bars, measurements suggest an increasing water abundance with depth or a deep cloud layer. Ammonia appears to follow a significantly subsaturated profile above 3 bars. Unexpectedly high absorption of sunlight was found at wavelengths greater than 600 nanometers. PMID:8629018

Sromovsky, L A; Best, F A; Collard, A D; Fry, P M; Revercomb, H E; Freedman, R S; Orton, G S; Hayden, J L; Tomasko, M G; Lemmon, M T

1996-05-10

163

Has Hawking radiation been measured?  

E-print Network

It is argued that Hawking radiation has indeed been measured and shown to posses a thermal spectrum, as predicted. This contention is based on three separate legs. The first is that the essential physics of the Hawking process for black holes can be modelled in other physical systems. The second is the white hole horizons are the time inverse of black hole horizons, and thus the physics of both is the same. The third is that the quantum emission, which is the Hawking process, is completely determined by measurements of the classical parameters of a linear physical system. The experiment conducted in 2010 fulfills all of these requirements, and is thus a true measurement of Hawking radiation.

W. G. Unruh

2014-01-26

164

Has Hawking Radiation Been Measured?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is argued that Hawking radiation has indeed been measured and shown to posses a thermal spectrum, as predicted. This contention is based on three separate legs. The first is that the essential physics of the Hawking process for black holes can be modelled in other physical systems. The second is the white hole horizons are the time inverse of black hole horizons, and thus the physics of both is the same. The third is that the quantum emission, which is the Hawking process, is completely determined by measurements of the classical parameters of a linear physical system. The experiment conducted in 2010 fulfils all of these requirements, and is thus a true measurement of Hawking radiation.

Unruh, W. G.

2014-05-01

165

Flux measurement and modeling in a typical mediterranean vineyard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vineyard ecosystems are typical in the Mediterranean area, since wine is one of the most important economic sectors. Nevertheless, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate the interactions between this kind of vegetation and the atmosphere. These information are important both to understand the behaviour of such ecosystems in different environmental conditions, and are crucial to parameterize crop and flux simulation models. Combining direct measurements and modelling can obtain reliable estimates of surface fluxes and crop evapotranspiration. This study would contribute both to (1) directly measure energy fluxes and evapotranspiration in a typical Mediterranean vineyard, located in the South of Sardinia (Italy), through the application of the Eddy Covariance micrometeorological technique and to (2) evaluate the land surface model ACASA (Advanced-Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) in simulating energy fluxes and evapotranspiration over vineyard. Independent datasets of direct measurements were used to calibrate and validate model results during the growing period. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate model performance and accuracy in predicting surface fluxes. Results will be showed as well as the model capability to be used for future studies to predict energy fluxes and crop water requirements under actual and future climate.

Marras, Serena; Bellucco, Veronica; Pyles, David R.; Falk, Matthias; Sirca, Costantino; Duce, Pierpaolo; Snyder, Richard L.; Tha Paw U, Kyaw; Spano, Donatella

2014-05-01

166

Studies of the net surface radiative flux from satellite radiances during FIFE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the net surface radiative flux from satellite radiances during First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) are presented. Topics covered include: radiative transfer model validation; calibration of VISSR and AVHRR solar channels; development and refinement of algorithms to estimate downward solar and terrestrial irradiances at the surface, including photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) and surface albedo; verification of these algorithms using in situ measurements; production of maps of shortwave irradiance, surface albedo, and related products; analysis of the temporal variability of shortwave irradiance over the FIFE site; development of a spectroscopy technique to estimate atmospheric total water vapor amount; and study of optimum linear combinations of visible and near-infrared reflectances for estimating the fraction of PAR absorbed by plants.

Frouin, Robert

1993-01-01

167

Flux and brightness calculations for various synchrotron radiation sources  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron radiation (SR) storage rings are powerful scientific and technological tools. The first generation of storage rings in the US., e.g., SURF (Washington, D.C.), Tantalus (Wisconsin), SSRL (Stanford), and CHESS (Cornell), revolutionized VUV, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray science. The second (present) generation of storage rings, e.g. the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings and Aladdin (Wisconsin), have sustained the revolution by providing higher stored currents and up to a factor of ten smaller electron beam sizes than the first generation sources. This has made possible a large number of experiments that could not performed using first generation sources. In addition, the NSLS XRAY ring design optimizes the performance of wigglers (high field periodic magnetic insertion devices). The third generation storage rings, e.g. ALS (Berkeley) and APS (Argonne), are being designed to optimize the performance of undulators (low field periodic magnetic insertion devices). These extremely high brightness sources will further revolutionize x-ray science by providing diffraction-limited x-ray beams. The output of undulators and wigglers is distinct from that of bending magnets in magnitude, spectral shape, and in spatial and angular size. Using published equations, we have developed computer programs to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness output bending magnets and selected wigglers and undulators of the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings, the Advanced Light Source (ALS), and the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Following is a summary of the equations used, the graphs and data produced, and the computer codes written. These codes, written in the C programming language, can be used to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness curves for bending magnets and insertion devices on any storage ring.

Weber, J.M.; Hulbert, S.L.

1991-11-01

168

Comparison of surface radiative flux data sets over the Arctic Ocean Jiping Liu,1,2  

E-print Network

Comparison of surface radiative flux data sets over the Arctic Ocean Jiping Liu,1,2 Judith A. Curry in the Arctic Ocean. To assess how well we can reconstruct the variations of surface radiative fluxes used of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) over the seasonal cycle and during particular storm events. The CASPR and NCEP-R2

169

Two-Flux Method for Transient Radiative Transfer in a Semitransparent Layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two-flux method was used to obtain transient solutions for a plane layer including internal reflections and scattering. The layer was initially at uniform temperature, and was heated or cooled by external radiation and convection. The two-flux equations were examined as a means for evaluating the radiative flux gradient in the transient energy equation. Comparisons of transient temperature distributions using the two-flux method were made with results where the radiative flux gradient was evaluated from the exact radiative transfer equations. Good agreement was obtained for optical thicknesses from 0.5 to 5 and for refractive indices of 1 and 2. Illustrative results obtained with the two-flux method demonstrate the effect of isotropic scattering coupled with changing the refractive index. For small absorption with large scattering the maximum layer temperature is increased when the refractive index is increased. For larger absorption the effect is opposite, and the maximum temperature decreases with increased refractive index .

Siegel, Robert

1996-01-01

170

Uncertainties Associated with Flux Measurements Due to Heterogeneous Contaminant Distributions  

EPA Science Inventory

Mass flux and mass discharge measurements at contaminated sites have been applied to assist with remedial management, and can be divided into two broad categories: point-scale measurement techniques and pumping methods. Extrapolation across un-sampled space is necessary when usi...

171

SO2 flux measurements at Mount Etna (Sicily)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1987, over 220 measurements of the SO2 flux at Mount Etna have been carried out using a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) with different measuring techniques (mainly with COSPEC mounted on ground-based vehicle). This paper reports and analyzes the data obtained between October 1987 and December 1991. During this period, three distinct time intervals characterized by particular SO2 emission patterns were

Tommaso Caltabiano; Romolo Romano; Gennaro Budetta

1994-01-01

172

Turbogenerator field winding shorted turn detection by AC flux measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new testing technique for detecting shorted turns in turbogenerator rotors is presented, where the field winding is supplied with power frequency voltage as for a normal impedance measurement. The circumferential flux is measured in the centerline of all slot wedges and compared between individual poles by amplitude and\\/or phase. When the rotor is removed, the turn short can be

E. Woschnagg

1994-01-01

173

Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall objectives of the Symposium were to afford (1) an opportunity for workers in the field to describe the equipment and procedures currently in use for measuring thermal radiation properties of solids, (2) an opportunity for constructive criticism of the material presented, and (3) an open forum for discussion of mutual problems. It was also the hope of the sponsors that the published proceedings of the Symposium would serve as a valuable reference on measurement techniques for evaluating thermal radiation properties of solids, partic.ularly for those with limited experience in the field. Because of the strong dependence of emitted flux upon temperature, the program committee thought it advisable to devote the first session to a discussion of the problems of temperature measurement. All of the papers in Session I were presented at the request of and upon topics suggested by the Committee. Because of time and space limitations, it, was impossible to consider all temperature measurement problems that might arise--the objective was rather to call to the attention of the reader some of the problems that might be encountered, and to provide references that might provide solutions.

Richmond, J. C. (Editor)

1963-01-01

174

Interannual variability of surface radiative fluxes and rainfall in the semi-arid Sahel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Sahel, interannual variability of rainfall is known to be strong, from meso- to continental spatial scales. This is associated with changes in surface radiative fluxes. The actual role played by surface fluxes on the interannual variability of rainfall has been much debated, especially within the context of the major regional scale, multi-decadal West African drought which started at the end of the 1960's (e.g. changes in surface albedo, Charney et al. Science 1975). The significance of conclusions that have been drawn, essentially from modelling approaches, is however limited because of weaknesses in models (e.g. parametrizations of rainfall and clouds, vegetation and aerosols) coupled to a lack of data for assessing the relevance of theories or hypotheses put forward on such bases. The present study aims to quantify and to analyse the interannual variability of surface radiative fluxes and rainfall measured with ground-based automatic weather stations (AWS) for seven years. The AWS are located in the Malian Gourma, from the semi-arid Central Sahel (15°N, 1.5°W) to Northern Sahel (17°N, 1°W), on the border of the Sahara, over the dominant Sahelian surface type (sandy soil). The variability displayed by satellite estimates SRB over this area is also presented and discussed. This study is linked to another one presented in the session AS1.14, African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) by Guichard et al. "Couplings between the seasonal cycles of surface thermodynamics and radiative fluxes in the semi-arid Sahel" (see also Guichard et al. J. Hydrology 2009, AMMA-Catch special issue, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.09.007) The large interannual variability of annual rainfall sampled by AWS (less than 200 mm to more than 400 mm) is associated with an equally significant variability of surface net radiation Rnet. It is the more pronounced during the core of the monsoon season. More rainy monsoon seasons are characterized by higher Rnet; the difference can reach up to 30 W.m-2 on average over the month of August. This difference in Rnet is not related to an enhancement of the incoming longwave flux, LWin actually fluctuates by less than 5 W.m-2. More rain in August is associated with less incoming shortwave radiation, with a difference of about 10W.m-2. At this monthly time scale, variations of Rnet are more largely explained by changes in surface properties. This involves the vegetation dynamics, which accounts for large interannual fluctuations of albedo (Samain et al., J. Geophys. Res. 2008, http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2008/2007JD009174.shtml). However, the processes accounting for the interannual variability of the upwelling longwave flux, LWup, are found to be at least as important as albedo effects when accounting for changes in Rnet. LWup decreases sharply in response to the succession of rainfall events in this region where soil temperature reaches very high values in Spring. At larger time scale (June to September average), LWup and rainfall are also found to be strongly and consistently related. As the interannual variability of shortwave incoming and upwelling flux partly balance each other, the upwelling longwave flux LWup appears as a major driver of the interannual variability of Rnet. These results emphasize the strong couplings taking place in the Sahelian climate between surface radiation, energy fluxes and the water cycle. They point to the significance of a variety of processes, among which aerosols and vegetation-related processes cannot be neglected. Finally, they provide valuable guidance for models over an area where interactions among processes are complex and climate projections currently very uncertain.

Guichard, F.; Grippa, M.; Kergoat, L.; Hiernaux, P.; Mougin, E.; Timouk, F.; Delbart, N.

2009-04-01

175

Intercomparison of gas analyzers for methane flux measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four gas analyzers, capable of measuring methane concentration at a response time necessary for eddy covariance flux measurements, were operated in parallel for about six months between March and August 2010. Their reliability, need of maintenance, user friendliness, data coverage, and data quality were evaluated. The primary aim of this campaign was to provide an instrumentation suggestion for the European Research Infrastructure ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System). The instruments used were TGA100A (Campbell Scientific Inc.), RMT-200 (Los Gatos Research Inc.) , G1301-f (Picarro Inc.), and LI-7700 (Li-Cor Inc.). The last one, LI-7700, was a prototype of a later commercialized open path analyzer. The other instruments were closed path analyzers. The measurement site is an oligotrophic open fen Siikaneva, located in southern Finland. The site provides spatially quite uniform methane flux within the footprint. The methane flux rises in the spring, peaks in early August and falls down during the autumn. This provides excellent opportunity to study the performance of the analyzers at different CH4 flux levels from near zero up to about 5 mg m-2 h-1. The preliminary results show great similarity among the instruments in both concentrations and fluxes. Detailed numbers of the measurement characteristics will be provided later. The reliability and need of maintenance are difficult to evaluate quantitatively during that short period.

Haapanala, S.; Rinne, J.; Vesala, T.

2010-12-01

176

Comparison of Different Global Information Sources Used in Surface Radiative Flux Calculation: Radiative Properties of the Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct estimates of surface radiative fluxes that resolve regional and weather-scale variabilty over the whole globe with reasonable accuracy have only become possible with the advent of extensive global, mostly satellite, datasets within the past couple of decades. The accuracy of these fluxes, estimated to be about 10-15 W per square meter is largely limited by the accuracy of the input datasets. The leading uncertainties in the surface fluxes are no longer predominantly induced by clouds but are now as much associated with uncertainties in the surface and near-surface atmospheric properties. This study presents a fuller, more quantitative evaluation of the uncertainties for the surface albedo and emissivity and surface skin temperatures by comparing the main available global datasets from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer product, the NASA Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Surface Radiation Budget project, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, NOAA/NASA Pathfinder Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer project, NOAA Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Image project. The datasets are, in practice, treated as an ensemble of realizations of the actual climate such that their differences represent an estimate of the uncertainty in their measurements because we do not possess global truth datasets for these quantities. The results are globally representative and may be taken as a generalization of our previous ISCCP-based uncertainty estimates for the input datasets. Surface properties have the primary role in determining the surface upward shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) flux. From this study, the following conclusions are obtained. Although land surface albedos in the near near-infrared remain poorly constrained (highly uncertain), they do not cause too much error in total surface SW fluxes; the more subtle regional and seasonal variations associated with vegetation and snow are still on doubt. The uncertainty of the broadband black-sky SW albedo for land surface from this study is about 7%, which can easily induce 5-10 W per square meter uncertainty in (upwelling) surface SW flux estimates. Even though available surface (broadband) LW emissivity datasets differ significantly (3%-5% uncertainty), this disagreement is confined to wavelengths greater than 20 micrometers so that there is little practical effect (1-3 W per square meters) on the surface upwelling LW fluxes. The surface skin temperature is one of two leading factors that cause problems with surface LW fluxes. Even though the differences among the various datasets are generally only 2-4 K, this can easily cause 10-15 W per square meter uncertainty in calculated surface (upwelling) LW fluxes. Significant improvements could be obtained for surface LW flux calculations by improving the retrievals of (in order of decreasing importance): (1) surface skin temperature, (2) surface air and near-surface-layer temperature, (3) column precipitable water amount and (4) broadband emissivity. And for surface SW fluxes, improvements could be obtained (excluding improved cloud treatment) by improving the retrievals of (1) aerosols (from our sensitivity studies but not discussed in this work), and (2) surface (black-sky) albedo, of which, NIR part of the spectrum has much larger uncertainty.

Zhang, Yuanchong; Rossow, William B.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

2007-01-01

177

Calorimeter probes for measuring high thermal flux. [in arc jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expendable, slug-type calorimeter probes were developed for measuring high heat-flux levels of 10-30 kW/sq cm in electric-arc jet facilities. The probes were constructed with thin tungsten caps mounted on Teflon bodies. The temperature of the back surface of the tungsten cap is measured, and its time rate of change gives the steady-state absorbed heat flux as the calorimeter probe heats to destruction when inserted into the arc jet. Design, construction, test, and performance data are presented.

Russell, L. D.

1979-01-01

178

Direct Measurement of Turbulent Particle and Gas Fluxes by Eddy Covariance Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct Measurement of Turbulent Particle and Gas Fluxes by Eddy Covariance Technique Fumiyoshi KONDO (The University of Tokyo) Frank GRIESSBAUM (Universität Münster) Osamu TSUKAMOTO (Okayama University) Mitsuo UEMATSU (The University of Tokyo) The oceans play major key roles in global energy transport, element cycles, and atmospheric radiation balance. The study of the processes at the interface of ocean and atmosphere is essential to develop profound understanding of the mechanisms driving ocean-atmosphere interaction and climate. Eddy covariance technique is the only direct measurement of air-sea particle and gas fluxes. This technique has little assumption (constant flux layer and steady state), and may evaluate small spatial and temporal particle and gas fluxes. For these reasons, we hope that the eddy covariance technique investigates uncertain processes that control the air-sea particle (aerosol) and gas (CO2) fluxes. The understanding of processes controlling both the CO2 uptake to the ocean and the oceans as major source of aerosols is vital for quantifying the role of the global oceans in the climate system. We developed the simultaneous measurement system of turbulent particle and gas fluxes by eddy covariance technique and installed with ship motion correction system on the top of the foremast of R/V Hakuho-Maru and Mirai. The turbulent flux system on the top of the foremast consisted of a sonic anemometer-thermometer (Gill, HS-50), an infrared CO2/H2O gas analyzer (LI-COR, LI-7500), a water-based condensation particle counter (TSI, WCPC3785), and Fog Monitor (Droplet Measurement, FM-100). The ship motion correction system consisted of a three-axis accelerometer and a three-axis rate gyro (Systron Donner, MotionPak II). The sonic anemometer measures three-dimensional wind components relative to the ship including apparent wind velocity due to the ship motion. Then, the ship motion correction system measures the ship motions by time integral of accelerometer and rate gyro. The turbulent flux system on the top of the foremast is capable to simultaneously measure the turbulent flux of the CO2 and H2O gases, fine aerosols (5 nm - 3 ?m diameters), and fog water droplets (2 ?m - 50 ?m diameters). Analog and digital output signals from both systems are sampled at 10 Hz by a PC-based data logging systems. In this study, we will present the direct flux measurement system and discuss results of air-sea particle and CO2 fluxes directly evaluated by the eddy covariance technique over the open ocean.

Kondo, F.; Griessbaum, F.; Tsukamoto, O.; Uematsu, M.

2010-12-01

179

An analysis of volumetric radiation heat flux and experimental comparison with arc light sensing in GTA welding process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volumetric radiation heat flux was analyzed from a model of the entire free burning arc of GTA welding and its results were compared with measurements of the arc light intensity to find a relationship between them. Experiments were carried out for various welding currents using electrodes of different vertex angles. The results showed similar behavior for both the volumetric

J.-H. Lee; S.-J. Na

2001-01-01

180

High heat flux measurements and experimental calibrations/characterizations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent progress in techniques employed in the measurement of very high heat-transfer rates in reentry-type facilities at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is described. These advances include thermal analyses applied to transducer concepts used to make these measurements; improved heat-flux sensor fabrication methods, equipment, and procedures for determining the experimental time response of individual sensors; performance of absolute heat-flux calibrations at levels above 2,000 Btu/cu ft-sec (2.27 kW/cu cm); and innovative methods of performing in-situ run-to-run characterizations of heat-flux probes installed in the test facility. Graphical illustrations of the results of extensive thermal analyses of the null-point calorimeter and coaxial surface thermocouple concepts with application to measurements in aerothermal test environments are presented. Results of time response experiments and absolute calibrations of null-point calorimeters and coaxial thermocouples performed in the laboratory at intermediate to high heat-flux levels are shown. Typical AEDC high-enthalpy arc heater heat-flux data recently obtained with a Calspan-fabricated null-point probe model are included.

Kidd, Carl T.

1992-01-01

181

Sampling Errors of Monthly-mean Radiative Fluxes from the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Radiation Experiment (ERBE) consisted of scanning and non-scanning radiometers on the dedicated Earth Radiation Budget Satellite ERBS) and also on the NOAA-9 and -10 operational spacecraft. The non-scanning radiometers included a pair of wide field-of-view (WFOV) radiometers for measuring outgoing longwave radiation and reflected solar radiation (Luther et al., 1986). The ERBS was placed into an orbit with 57 deg. inclination and 620 km altitude on 16 October 1984. The instruments began collecting data in November 1984 and the non-scanning radiometers provided data until June 2002, providing a 17-year data set.

Bess, T. Dale; Wong, Takmeng; Smith, G. Louis

2002-01-01

182

A mobile detector for measurements of the atmospheric muon flux in underground sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muons comprise an important contribution of the natural radiation dose in air (approx. 30 nSv/h of a total dose rate of 65-130 nSv/h), as well as in underground sites even when the flux and relative contribution are significantly reduced. The flux of muons observed underground can be used as an estimator for the depth in mwe (meter water equivalent) of the underground site. The water equivalent depth is important information to devise physics experiments feasible for a specific site. A mobile detector for performing measurements of the muon flux was developed in IFIN-HH, Bucharest. Consisting of two scintillator plates (approx. 0.9 m2) which measure in coincidence, the detector is installed on a van which facilitates measurements at different locations at the surface or underground. The detector was used to determine muon fluxes at different sites in Romania. In particular, data were taken and the values of meter water equivalents were assessed for several locations at the salt mine in Slanic-Prahova, Romania. The measurements have been performed in two different galleries of the Slanic mine at different depths. In order to test the stability of the method, also measurements of the muon flux at the surface at different elevations were performed. The results were compared with predictions of Monte-Carlo simulations using the CORSIKA and MUSIC codes.

Mitrica, Bogdan; Margineanu, Romul; Stoica, Sabin; Petcu, Mirel; Brancus, Iliana; Jipa, Alexandru; Lazanu, Ionel; Sima, Octavian; Haungs, Andreas; Rebel, Heinigerd; Petre, Marian; Toma, Gabriel; Saftoiu, Alexandra; Stanca, Denis; Apostu, Ana; Gomoiu, Claudia

2011-10-01

183

Primary Cosmic Ray Proton Flux Measured by AMS-02  

E-print Network

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a high energy particle detector designed to study origin and nature of cosmic rays up to a few TV from space. It was installed on the International Space Station (ISS) on May 19, 2011. During the first two years of operation AMS-02 performed precise measurements of the proton flux. In the low rigidity range, from 1 GV to 20 GV, the proton flux was daily measured with a statistical error less than 1%. In the same rigidity range a gradual decrease due to Solar modulation effect and transit variations due to Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejection were also observed. In the rigidity range from 20 GV up to 100 GV instead, AMS-02 data show no drastic variation and the results are consistent with other experiments. Above 100 GV, AMS-02 proton flux exhibits a single power low behavior with no fine structures nor brakes.

C. Consolandi; on Behalf of the AMS-02 Collaboration

2014-02-03

184

Primary Cosmic Ray Proton Flux Measured by AMS-02  

E-print Network

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a high energy particle detector designed to study origin and nature of cosmic rays up to a few TV from space. It was installed on the International Space Station (ISS) on May 19, 2011. During the first two years of operation AMS-02 performed precise measurements of the proton flux. In the low rigidity range, from 1 GV to 20 GV, the proton flux was daily measured with a statistical error less than 1%. In the same rigidity range a gradual decrease due to Solar modulation effect and transit variations due to Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejection were also observed. In the rigidity range from 20 GV up to 100 GV instead, AMS-02 data show no drastic variation and the results are consistent with other experiments. Above 100 GV, AMS-02 proton flux exhibits a single power low behavior with no fine structures nor brakes.

Consolandi, C

2014-01-01

185

Urban greenhouse gas mole fraction in-situ measurements: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) was designed to develop and evaluate methods for the measurement and modeling of greenhouse gas fluxes from urban environments. Determination of greenhouse gas fluxes and uncertainty bounds is essential for the evaluation of the effectiveness of mitigation strategies. The current INFLUX observation network includes twelve in-situ tower-based, continuous measurements of CO2, CO, and CH4, flask sampling of 14CO2 and other trace gases, and periodic aircraft sampling of greenhouse gases and meteorological conditions. Eddy covariance and radiative flux are measured at four of the tower sites, and a scanning Doppler lidar was installed in April 2013; both are used to quantify key boundary layer meteorological properties and evaluate model performance. Additionally, a total carbon column observing network (TCCON) column remote sensing station was deployed August - December 2012. The data from the towers, TCCON, and aircraft measurements are being used in an inverse-modeling approach to yield estimates of the urban area flux at 1 km2 resolution. Very high space/time resolution estimates of fossil fuel carbon emissions (Hestia project) offer state-of-the-art "bottom up" emissions estimates for the city and its surroundings. Here we present an overview of the progress from INFLUX, with a focus on tower-based results. With this high density of urban tower-based greenhouse gas measurements, we will quantify horizontal and vertical spatial patterns in atmospheric mole fractions of CO2, CO, and CH4 in Indianapolis. The consistency of the observed horizontal gradients with that expected based on differences in land-cover contributions according to footprint analysis will be evaluated. The ability to correctly model transport and mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer, responsible for carrying greenhouse gases from their source to the point of measurement, is essential. Thus we investigate differences between the modeled and observed sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, air temperature, and wind speed.

Miles, Natasha; Lauvaux, Thomas; Davis, Kenneth; Richardson, Scott; Sarmiento, Daniel; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Hardesty, Robert Michael; Turnbull, Jocelyn; Iraci, Laura; Gurney, Kevin; Razlivanov, Igor; Obiminda Cambaliza, Maria; Shepson, Paul; Whetstone, James

2014-05-01

186

Multiple-Point Mass Flux Measurement System Using Rayleigh Scattering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multiple-point Rayleigh scattering diagnostic is being developed to provide mass flux measurements in gas flows. Spectroscopic Rayleigh scattering is an established flow diagnostic that has the ability to provide simultaneous density, temperature, and velocity measurements. Rayleigh scattered light from a focused 18 Watt continuous-wave laser beam is directly imaged through a solid Fabry-Perot etalon onto a CCD detector which permits spectral analysis of the light. The spatial resolution of the measurements is governed by the locations of interference fringes, which can be changed by altering the etalon characteristics. A prototype system has been used to acquire data in a Mach 0.56 flow to demonstrate feasibility of using this system to provide mass flux measurements. Estimates of measurement uncertainty and recommendations for system improvements are presented

Mielke, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.; Clem, Michelle M.

2009-01-01

187

Some Recent Secondary Production Measurements for Neutrino Flux Determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent measurements of meson production in proton-nucleus interactions have made possible reliable neutrino flux determinations at modern neutrino experiments. This article discusses preliminary results from the HARP, MIP, and E910 are discussed along with some of their implications for the MINOS, K2K, and MiniBooNE neutrino experiments.

Mills, Geoffrey B.

2011-12-01

188

A PROBLEM WITH FLUX CHAMBER MEASUREMENTS OF BIOGENIC SULFUR EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Problems associated with identifying and quantifying factors that influence liquid-phase controlled evolution of hydrogen sulfide and organic sulfides through the air-water interface are briefly reviewed. It was found that at present flux chamber measurements of the release of th...

189

Estimation of wet surface evaporation from sensible heat flux measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is proposed to estimate wet surface evaporation by means of measurements of sensible heat flux and of air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed at one level only. This formulation is made possible by the linearization of the Bowen ratio, a common assumption in other methods, such as Penman's model and its derivatives. The method will be

Nikki Vercauteren; Elie Bou-Zeid; Hendrik Huwald; Marc B. Parlange; Wilfried Brutsaert

2009-01-01

190

Shortwave Flux from Satellite-Measured Radiance: A Theoretical Study over Marine Boundary Layer Clouds.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth radiation budget measurements, important to climate monitoring and to validating climate models, require that radiances measured by satellite instruments be converted to hemispherical flux. This paper examines that problem theoretically, using inhomogeneous cloud models constructed from Landsat scenes of marine boundary layer clouds. The spherical harmonics discrete ordinates method (SHDOM) code is applied to the model scenes to compute full two-dimensional radiation fields, which then simulate measured radiances. Inversion to flux is performed by several different methods, including plane-parallel table lookup and empirical angular distribution models with three different ways of determining scene identification, to examine error sources and relative magnitudes. Using a simple plane-parallel table lookup results in unacceptably large flux bias errors of 11%-60%, depending on the orbital viewing geometry. This bias can be substantially reduced, to no more than 6%, by using empirical angular distribution models. Further improvement, to no more than 2% flux bias error, is obtained if known biases in optical-depth retrievals are taken into account when building the angular models. Last, the bias can be further reduced to a fraction of a percent using scene identification based on multiple views of the same area. There are limits, however, to the reduction in the instantaneous error with this approach. Trends in the flux error are also identified, in particular an equator-to-pole trend in the flux bias. Given the importance of satellite measurements for determining heat transport from equator to pole, this consistent bias should be kept in mind, and efforts should be made to reduce it in the future.

Chambers, L. H.; Wielicki, B. A.; Loeb, N. G.

2001-12-01

191

Heat flux measurement from thermal infrared imagery in low-flux fumarolic zones: Example of the Ty fault (La Soufrière de Guadeloupe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the geothermal flux of a dormant volcano is necessary both for hazard assessment and for studying hydrothermal systems. Heat from a magma body located at depth is transported by steam to the surface, where it is expelled in fumaroles if the heat flow exceeds 500 W/m2. If the heat flow is lower than 500 W/m2, steam mainly condensates in the soil close to surface and produces a thermal anomaly detectable at the surface. In this study, we propose a method to quantify low heat fluxes from temperature anomalies measured at the surface by a thermal infrared camera. Once corrected from the atmospheric and surface effects, thermal infrared images are used to compute (1) the excess of radiative flux, (2) the excess of sensible flux and (3) the steam flux from the soil to the atmosphere. These calculations require measurements of atmospheric parameters (temperature, wind velocity and humidity) and estimations of surface parameters (roughness and emissivity). This method has been tested on a low-flux fumarolic zone of the Soufrière volcano (Guadeloupe Island — Lesser Antilles), and compared to a flux estimation realized from the thermal gradient measurements into the soil. The two methods show a good agreement and a similar precision (267 ± 46 W/m2 for the thermal infrared method, and 275 ± 50 W/m2 for the vertical temperature gradient method), if surface roughness is well calibrated.

Gaudin, Damien; Beauducel, François; Allemand, Pascal; Delacourt, Christophe; Finizola, Anthony

2013-11-01

192

Testing Geological Models with Terrestrial Antineutrino Flux Measurements  

E-print Network

Uranium and thorium are the main heat producing elements in the earth. Their quantities and distributions, which specify the flux of detectable antineutrinos generated by the beta decay of their daughter isotopes, remain unmeasured. Geological models of the continental crust and the mantle predict different quantities and distributions of uranium and thorium. Many of these differences are resolvable with precision measurements of the terrestrial antineutrino flux. This precision depends on both statistical and systematic uncertainties. An unavoidable background of antineutrinos from nuclear reactors typically dominates the systematic uncertainty. This report explores in detail the capability of various operating and proposed geo-neutrino detectors for testing geological models.

Dye, Steve

2009-01-01

193

Testing Geological Models with Terrestrial Antineutrino Flux Measurements  

E-print Network

Uranium and thorium are the main heat producing elements in the earth. Their quantities and distributions, which specify the flux of detectable antineutrinos generated by the beta decay of their daughter isotopes, remain unmeasured. Geological models of the continental crust and the mantle predict different quantities and distributions of uranium and thorium. Many of these differences are resolvable with precision measurements of the terrestrial antineutrino flux. This precision depends on both statistical and systematic uncertainties. An unavoidable background of antineutrinos from nuclear reactors typically dominates the systematic uncertainty. This report explores in detail the capability of various operating and proposed geo-neutrino detectors for testing geological models.

Steve Dye

2009-12-14

194

A Novel Detector for High Neutron Flux Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Measuring alpha particles from a neutron induced break-up reaction with a mass spectrometer can be an excellent tool for detecting neutrons in a high neutron flux environment. Break-up reactions of {sup 6}Li and {sup 12}C can be used in the detection of slow and fast neutrons, respectively. A high neutron flux detection system that integrates the neutron energy sensitive material and helium mass spectrometer has been developed. The description of the detector configuration is given and it is soon to be tested at iThemba LABS, South Africa.

Singo, T. D.; Wyngaardt, S. M. [Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Papka, P. [Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Nuclear Physics group, iThemba labs, P. O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Dobson, R. T. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

2010-01-05

195

Advances in Air-Sea Flux Measurement by Eddy Correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eddy-correlation measurements of the oceanic flux are useful for the development and validation of air-sea gas exchange models and for analysis of the marine carbon cycle. Results from more than a decade of published work and from two recent field programs illustrate the principal interferences from water vapour and motion, demonstrating experimental approaches for improving measurement precision and accuracy. Water vapour cross-sensitivity is the greatest source of error for flux measurements using infrared gas analyzers, often leading to a ten-fold bias in the measured flux. Much of this error is not related to optical contamination, as previously supposed. While various correction schemes have been demonstrated, the use of an air dryer and closed-path analyzer is the most effective way to eliminate this interference. This approach also obviates density corrections described by Webb et al. (Q J R Meteorol 106:85-100, 1980). Signal lag and frequency response are a concern with closed-path systems, but periodic gas pulses at the inlet tip provide for precise determination of lag time and frequency attenuation. Flux attenuation corrections are shown to be 5 % for a cavity ring-down analyzer (CRDS) and dryer with a 60-m inlet line. The estimated flux detection limit for the CRDS analyzer and dryer is a factor of ten better than for IRGAs sampling moist air. While ship-motion interference is apparent with all analyzers tested in this study, decorrelation or regression methods are effective in removing most of this bias from IRGA measurements and may also be applicable to the CRDS.

Blomquist, Byron W.; Huebert, Barry J.; Fairall, Christopher W.; Bariteau, Ludovic; Edson, James B.; Hare, Jeffrey E.; McGillis, Wade R.

2014-09-01

196

Evaluation of the flux gradient technique for measurement of ozone surface fluxes over snowpack at Summit, Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-step procedure for investigating ozone surface fluxes over polar snow by the tower gradient method was developed and evaluated. These measurements were then used to obtain five months (April-August 2004) of turbulent ozone flux data at the Summit research camp located in the center of the Greenland ice shield. Turbulent fluxes were determined by the gradient method incorporating tower

F. Bocquet; D. Helmig; B. A. van Dam; C. W. Fairall

2011-01-01

197

Surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility deployment in Niamey, Niger  

SciTech Connect

This study presents ground-based remote sensing measurements of aerosol optical properties and corresponding shortwave surface radiative effect calculations for the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger during 2006. Aerosol optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (AP) were derived from multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) measurements during the two dry seasons (Jan-Apr and Oct-Dec) at Niamey. The vertical distribution of aerosol extinction was derived from the collocated micropulse lidar (MPL). The aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution of extinction varied significantly throughout the year, with higher AOD, lower SSA, and deeper aerosol layers during the Jan-Apr time period, when biomass burning aerosol layers were more frequent. Using the retrieved aerosol properties and vertical extinction profiles, broadband shortwave surface fluxes and atmospheric heating rate profiles were calculated. Corresponding calculations with no aerosol were used to estimate the aerosol direct radiative effect at the surface. Comparison of the calculated surface fluxes to observed fluxes for non-cloudy periods indicated that the remote sensing retrievals provided a reasonable estimation of the optical properties, with mean differences between calculated and observed fluxes of less than 5 W/m2 and RMS differences less than 25 W/m2. Sensitivity tests for a particular case study showed that the observed fluxes could be matched with variations of < 10% in the inputs to the radiative transfer model. We estimated the daily-averaged aerosol radiative effect at the surface by subtracting the clear calculations from the aerosol calculations. The average daily SW aerosol radiative effect over the study period was -27 W/m2, which is comparable to values estimated from satellite data and from climate models with sophisticated dust parameterizations.

McFarlane, Sally A.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

2009-03-18

198

MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL RADIANT FLUX OF UV LEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a source-based method and a detector-based method for total radiant flux measurement for deep-blue and UV LEDs, using a 2.5 m integrating sphere. Several UV LEDs with peak wavelengths of 375 nm and 390 nm were measured using both the source-based method and the detector-based method with a relative expanded uncertainty (k=2) of ~6 % and ~5

199

Measuring Regional CO2 Fluxes Using a Lagrangian Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difficulty of measuring regional fluxes of CO2 has limited our understanding of the global carbon budget and the processes controlling carbon exchange across politically relevant spatial scales. A Lagrangian experiment was conducted over Iowa on June 19, 2007 as part of the North American Carbon Program's Mid-Continent Intensive using a light-weight, cost-effective aircraft to measure a net drawdown of

D. K. Martins; C. Sweeney; B. H. Stirm; P. B. Shepson

2008-01-01

200

Ecosystem photosynthesis inferred from measurements of carbonyl sulphide flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limited understanding of carbon dioxide sinks and sources on land is often linked to the inability to distinguish between the carbon dioxide taken up by photosynthesis, and that released by respiration. Carbonyl sulphide, a sulphur-containing analogue of carbon dioxide, is also taken up by plants, and could potentially serve as a powerful proxy for photosynthetic carbon dioxide uptake, which cannot be directly measured above the leaf scale. Indeed, variations in atmospheric concentrations of carbonyl sulphide are closely related to those of carbon dioxide at regional, local and leaf scales. Here, we use eddy covariance and laser spectroscopy to estimate the net exchange of carbon dioxide and carbonyl sulphide across three pine forests, a cotton field and a wheat field in Israel. We estimate gross primary productivity--a measure of ecosystem photosynthesis--directly from the carbonyl sulphide fluxes, and indirectly from carbon dioxide fluxes. The two estimates agree within an error of +/-15%. The ratio of carbonyl sulphide to carbon dioxide flux at the ecosystem scale was consistent with the variability in mixing ratios observed on seasonal timescales in the background atmosphere. We suggest that atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulphide flux could provide an independent constraint on estimates of gross primary productivity, key to projecting the response of the land biosphere to climate change.

Asaf, David; Rotenberg, Eyal; Tatarinov, Fyodor; Dicken, Uri; Montzka, Stephen A.; Yakir, Dan

2013-03-01

201

MARIE Dose and Flux Measurements in Mars Orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results from the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE), aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft in orbit around Mars. MARIE operated successfully from March 2002 through October 2003. At the time of this writing, the instrument is off due to a loss of communications during an extremely intense Solar Particle Event. Efforts to revive MARIE are planned for Spring 2004, when Odyssey's role as a communications relay for the MER rovers is completed. During the period of successful operation, MARIE returned the first detailed energetic charged particle data from Mars. Due to limitations of the instrument, normalizing MARIE data to flux or dose is not straightforward - several large corrections are needed. Thus normalized results (like dose or flux) have large uncertainties and/or significant model-dependence. The problems in normalization are mainly due to inefficiency in detecting high-energy protons (signal-to-noise problems force the trigger threshold to be higher than optimal), to the excessively high gains employed in the signal processing electronics (many ions deposit energy sufficient to saturate the electronics, and dE/dx information is lost), and to artifacts associated with the two trigger detectors (incomplete registration of dE/dx). Despite these problems, MARIE is efficient for detecting helium ions with kinetic energies above about 30 MeV/nucleon, and for detecting high-energy ions (energies above about 400 MeV/nucleon) with charges from 5 to 10. Fluxes of these heavier ions can be compared to fluxes obtained from the ACE/CRIS instrument, providing at least one area of direct comparison between data obtained at Earth and at Mars; this analysis will be presented as a work in progress. We will also present dose-rate data, with a detailed explanation of the many sources of uncertainty in normalization. The results for both flux and dose will be compared to predictions of the HZETRN model of the GCR.

Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Saganti, P.; Andersen, V.; Lee, K. T.; Pinsky, L. S.; Turner, R.; Atwell, W.

2004-01-01

202

Eddy-Covariance Flux Measurements in the Complex Terrain of an Alpine Valley in Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the surface energy budget of an Alpine grassland in highly complex terrain to explore possibilities and limitations for application of the eddy-covariance technique, also for CO2 flux measurements, at such non-ideal locations. This paper focuses on the influence of complex terrain on the turbulent energy measurements of a characteristic high Alpine grassland on Crap Alv (Alp Weissenstein) in the Swiss Alps during the growing season 2006. Measurements were carried out on a topographic terrace with a slope of 25? inclination. Flux data quality is assessed via the closure of the energy budget and the quality flag method used within the CarboEurope project. During 93% of the time the wind direction was along the main valley axis (43% upvalley and 50% downvalley directions). During the transition times of the typical twice daily wind direction changes in a mountain valley the fraction of high and good quality flux data reached a minimum of ?50%, whereas during the early afternoon ?70% of all records yielded good to highest quality (CarboEurope flags 0 and 1). The overall energy budget closure was 74 ± 2%. An angular correction for the shortwave energy input to the slope improved the energy budget closure slightly to 82 ± 2% for afternoon conditions. In the daily total, the measured turbulent energy fluxes are only underestimated by around 8% of net radiation. In summary, our results suggest that it is possible to yield realistic energy flux measurements under such conditions. We thus argue that the Crap Alv site and similar topographically complex locations with short-statured vegetation should be well suited also for CO2 flux measurements.

Hiller, Rebecca; Zeeman, Matthias J.; Eugster, Werner

2008-06-01

203

Next-generation angular distribution models for top-of-atmosphere radiative flux calculation from the CERES instruments: methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes are critical components to advancing our understanding of the Earth's radiative energy balance, radiative effects of clouds and aerosols, and climate feedback. The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments provide broadband shortwave and longwave radiance measurements. These radiances are converted to fluxes by using scene type dependent Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). This paper describes the next-generation ADMs that are developed for Terra and Aqua using all available CERES rotating azimuth plane radiance measurements. Coincident cloud and aerosol retrievals, and radiance measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and meteorological parameters from Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) data assimilation version 5.4.1 are used to define scene type. CERES radiance measurements are stratified by scene type and by other parameters that are important for determining the anisotropy of the given scene type. Anisotropic factors are then defined either for discrete intervals of relevant parameters or as a continuous functions of combined parameters, depending on the scene type. Compared to the existing ADMs, the new ADMs change the monthly mean instantaneous fluxes by up to 5 W m-2 on a regional scale of 1° latitude × 1° longitude, but the flux changes are less than 0.5 W m-2 on a global scale.

Su, W.; Corbett, J.; Eitzen, Z.; Liang, L.

2014-08-01

204

Photocatalytic Active Radiation Measurements and Use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photocatalytic materials are being used to purify air, to kill microbes, and to keep surfaces clean. A wide variety of materials are being developed, many of which have different abilities to absorb various wavelengths of light. Material variability, combined with both spectral illumination intensity and spectral distribution variability, will produce a wide range of performance results. The proposed technology estimates photocatalytic active radiation (PcAR), a unit of radiation that normalizes the amount of light based on its spectral distribution and on the ability of the material to absorb that radiation. Photocatalytic reactions depend upon the number of electron-hole pairs generated at the photocatalytic surface. The number of electron-hole pairs produced depends on the number of photons per unit area per second striking the surface that can be absorbed and whose energy exceeds the bandgap of the photocatalytic material. A convenient parameter to describe the number of useful photons is the number of moles of photons striking the surface per unit area per second. The unit of micro-einsteins (or micromoles) of photons per m2 per sec is commonly used for photochemical and photoelectric-like phenomena. This type of parameter is used in photochemistry, such as in the conversion of light energy for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic response correlates with the number of photons rather than by energy because, in this photochemical process, each molecule is activated by the absorption of one photon. In photosynthesis, the number of photons absorbed in the 400 700 nm spectral range is estimated and is referred to as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). PAR is defined in terms of the photosynthetic photon flux density measured in micro-einsteins of photons per m2 per sec. PcAR is an equivalent, similarly modeled parameter that has been defined for the photocatalytic processes. Two methods to measure the PcAR level are being proposed. In the first method, a calibrated spectrometer with a cosine receptor is used to measure the spectral irradiance. This measurement, in conjunction with the photocatalytic response as a function of wavelength, is used to estimate the PcAR. The photocatalytic response function is determined by measuring photocatalytic reactivity as a function of wavelength. In the second method, simple shaped photocatalytic response functions can be simulated with a broad-band detector with a cosine receptor appropriately filtered to represent the spectral response of the photocatalytic material. This second method can be less expensive than using a calibrated spectrometer.

Davis, Bruce A.; Underwood, Lauren W.

2011-01-01

205

Uncertainty and heterogeneity for eddy covariance flux measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the issues of global climate changing, monitoring CO2 flux including sensible and latent heat flux has been carried out using eddy covariance (EC) method, and accumulating those data are available to investigate the issues over the worldwide. However, it may be difficult to make use of the data to explore ecosystem intercomparison, model development, and model-data synthesis, because of the lack of uncertainty information about EC measurements. In this study, we calculated the fractional uncertainty ? and estimated the expected fractional uncertainty ? using data collected over various land covers and at different instrumental heights. We also investigated ? properties by spatiotemporal scale and flux averaging timescale ?. We demonstrated that when ? is estimated by the least median of squares method to filter outliers, its values are stable and uniform regardless of flux type, spatiotemporal scale and land covers. Using the stability, uniformity, and randomness of ?, we determined those baseline as a function of ?: ?base=??-1/2, and the heterogeneity scale parameter ? as the normalized discrepancy between the baseline and the expected values: ?=1-(?/?). These results, therefore, suggest that there may be a general threshold to support data quality control and assurance, that uncertainty analysis can be used to estimate error value and source, and that a data-model synthesis can usefully be applied to EC measurements to explore ecosystem intercomparison, model development, and model-data synthesis.

Kim, W.; Komori, D.; Cho, J.

2009-12-01

206

Time and Space Resolved Heat Flux Measurements During Nucleate Boiling with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lack of temporally and spatially resolved measurements under nucleate bubbles has complicated efforts to fully explain pool-boiling phenomena. The objective of this current work was to acquire time and space resolved temperature distributions under nucleating bubbles on a constant heat flux surface using a microheater array with 100x 100 square microns resolution, then numerically determine the wall to liquid heat flux. This data was then correlated with high speed (greater than l000Hz) visual recordings of The bubble growth and departure from the heater surface acquired from below and from the side of the heater. The data indicate that microlayer evaporation and contact line heat transfer are not major heat transfer mechanisms for bubble growth. The dominant heat transfer mechanism appears to be transient conduction into the liquid as the liquid rewets the wall during the bubble departure process.

Yerramilli, Vamsee K.; Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Kim, Jungho

2005-01-01

207

A study of the expansin of the solar corona with radiation heat flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expansion of the solar corona, with the aid of hydrodynamic blast wave theory using the concept of the Roche model, is studied here when both the solar gravity and radiation heat flux are taken into consideration.

J. B. Bhowmick

1980-01-01

208

A Model of the Starfish Flux in the Inner Radiation Zone.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model of the Starfish electrons injected into the radiation belt in July 1962 was determined for epoch Septmeber 1964. This model distinguishes between artificial and natural electrons and provides the artificial unidirectional electron flux as a functi...

E. G. Stassinopoulos, M. J. Teague

1972-01-01

209

Simulation of high-energy radiation belt electron fluxes using NARMAX-VERB coupled codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a fusion of data-driven and physics-driven methodologies of energetic electron flux forecasting in the outer radiation belt. Data-driven NARMAX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Averages with eXogenous inputs) model predictions for geosynchronous orbit fluxes have been used as an outer boundary condition to drive the physics-based Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code, to simulate energetic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt environment. The coupled system has been tested for three extended time periods totalling several weeks of observations. The time periods involved periods of quiet, moderate, and strong geomagnetic activity and captured a range of dynamics typical of the radiation belts. The model has successfully simulated energetic electron fluxes for various magnetospheric conditions. Physical mechanisms that may be responsible for the discrepancies between the model results and observations are discussed.

Pakhotin, I. P.; Drozdov, A. Y.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Boynton, R. J.; Subbotin, D. A.; Balikhin, M. A.

2014-10-01

210

Measurement of a surface heat flux and temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Heat Flux Microsensor is a new sensor which was recently patented by Virginia Tech and is just starting to be marketed by Vatell Corp. The sensor is made using the thin-film microfabrication techniques directly on the material that is to be measured. It consists of several thin-film layers forming a differential thermopile across a thermal resistance layer. The measured heat flux q is proportional to the temperature difference across the resistance layer q= k(sub g)/delta(sub g) x (t(sub 1) - T(sub 2)), where k(sub g) is the thermal conductivity and delta (sub g) is the thickness of the thermal resistance layer. Because the gages are sputter coated directly onto the surface, their total thickness is less than 2 micrometers, which is two orders of magnitude thinner than previous gages. The resulting temperature difference across the thermal resistance layer (delta is less than 1 micrometer) is very small even at high heat fluxes. To generate a measurable signal many thermocouple pairs are put in series to form a differential thermopile. The combination of series thermocouple junctions and thin-film design creates a gage with very attractive characteristics. It is not only physically non-intrusive to the flow, but also causes minimal disruption of the surface temperature. Because it is so thin, the response time is less than 20 microsec. Consequently, the frequency response is flat from 0 to over 50 kHz. Moreover, the signal of the Heat Flux Microsensor is directly proportional to the heat flux. Therefore, it can easily be used in both steady and transient flows, and it measures both the steady and unsteady components of the surface heat flux. A version of the Heat Flux Microsensor has been developed to meet the harsh demands of combustion environments. These gages use platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium as the thermoelectric materials. The thermal resistance layer is silicon monoxide and a protective coating of Al2O3 is deposited on top of the sensor. The superimposed thin-film pattern of all six layers is presented. The large pads are for connection with pins used to bring the signal out the back of the ceramic. In addition to the heat flux measurement, the surface temperature is measured with a platinum resistance layer (RTS). The resistance of this layer increases with increasing temperature. Therefore, these gages simultaneously measure the surface temperature and heat flux. The demonstrated applications include rocket nozzles, SCRAM jet engines, gas turbine engines, boiling heat transfer, flame experiments, basic fluid heat transfer, hypersonic flight, and shock tube testing. The laboratory involves using one of these sensors in a small combustion flame. The sensor is made on a 2.5 cm diameter piece of aluminum nitride ceramic.

Davis, R. M.; Antoine, G. J.; Diller, T. E.; Wicks, A. L.

1994-01-01

211

Airborne flux measurements of biogenic isoprene over California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic isoprene fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene over 7400 km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes of isoprene over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate instantaneous isoprene fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently at 400 m ± 50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence determined in the racetrack-stacked profiles. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to basal emission factor (BEF) land-cover data sets used to drive BVOC emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m-2 h-1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. Even though the isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and coniferous forests were extremely low, observations at the Walnut Grove tower south of Sacramento demonstrate that isoprene oxidation products from the high emitting regions in the surrounding oak woodlands accumulate at night in the residual layer above the valley and mix down into the valley in the morning. Thus, the isoprene emissions surrounding the valley have relevance for the regional photochemistry that is not immediately apparent solely from the direct emission flux distribution. This paper reports the first regional observations of fluxes from specific sources by eddy covariance from an aircraft which can finally constrain statewide isoprene emission inventories used for ozone simulations by state agencies. While previously there was no available means to constrain the biogenic models, our results provide a good understanding of what the major sources of isoprene are in California, their magnitude, and how they are distributed. This data set on isoprene fluxes will be particularly useful for evaluating potential model alternatives which will be dealt with in a separate paper to assess isoprene emission models and their driving variable data sets.

Misztal, P. K.; Karl, T.; Weber, R.; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, A. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

2014-10-01

212

Aerosol properties derived from spectral actinic flux measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of aerosol properties is very important for understanding climate change. Aerosol optical properties influence solar radiation throughout the troposphere. According to the Working Group I report of the intergovernmental panel for climate change [IPCC, 2007], aerosols have a direct radiative forcing of - 0.5±0.4 W\\/m2 with a medium to low level of scientific understanding. This relatively large uncertainty indicates

H. Stark; K. S. Schmidt; P. Pilewskie; J. Cozic; A. G. Wollny; C. A. Brock; T. Baynard; D. Lack; D. D. Parrish; F. C. Fehsenfeld

2008-01-01

213

Variations in the flux of high-energy particles in the inner radiation belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors carry out a statistical analysis of experimental data on the flux of high-energy particles in the inner radiation belt. The data were obtained from the Meteor-3 earth satellite from 16 June to 16 July 1990. The authors construct a statistical model of the flux of high-energy particles and find anomalous local flux variations (148 events). They give a

V. P. Pustovetov; E. A. Ginzburg; A. B. Malyshev; I. P. Proshkina

1993-01-01

214

Fast Flux Test Facility passive safety reactivity feedback measurements  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments conducted in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) measured the reactivity change between approximately 200 reactor states. The test data have been evaluated to determine the thermal hydraulic parameters of the reactor at those states. Auxiliary measurements have been analyzed to convert the measured control rod position changes to reactivity and to correct for burnup effects. The data are now available for studies of the temperature reactivity feedbacks in liquid metal reactors. Preliminary comparisons with a feedback algorithm developed from normal FFTF operation indicate that the functional form of feedbacks can be extrapolated to offnormal conditions. 1 ref., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Knutson, B.J.; Harris, R.A.; Nguyen, D.H.; Omberg, R.P.

1988-03-01

215

An investigation of the consistency of the ionospheric measurements of the photoelectron flux and solar EUV flux  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper demonstrates that there is an inconsistency between ionospheric measurements of the photoelectron flux and the solar EUV flux. The problem which occurs for EUV wavelengths near 250 A or photoelectron energies near 35 eV has serious implications for theoretical photoelectron flux calculations and could help to explain up to 40 percent of the difference between calculated and measured photoelectron fluxes for electron energies below 35 eV. It is also shown that: (1) only photons with wavelengths shorter than 310 A are of importance in producing photoelectrons; (2) above 20 eV, the photoelectron flux is controlled by the production of primary photoelectrons, while below 20 eV the flux is controlled by degraded photoelectrons; (3) the calculated cascading production rate is insensitive to the cross sections used for the calculation; and (4) the photoelectron flux is inversely proportional to the total inelastic cross sections.

Richards, P. G.; Torr, D. G.

1984-01-01

216

Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements  

E-print Network

Uranium and thorium within the Earth produce a major portion of terrestrial heat along with a measurable flux of electron antineutrinos. These elements are key components in geophysical and geochemical models. Their quantity and distribution drive the dynamics, define the thermal history, and are a consequence of the differentiation of the Earth. Knowledge of uranium and thorium concentrations in geological reservoirs relies largely on geochemical model calculations. This research report describes the methods and criteria to experimentally determine average concentrations of uranium and thorium in the continental crust and in the mantle using site-specific measurements of the terrestrial antineutrino flux. Optimal, model-independent determinations involve significant exposures of antineutrino detectors remote from nuclear reactors at both a mid-continental and a mid-oceanic site. This would require major, new antineutrino detection projects. The results of such projects could yield a greatly improved understa...

Dye, Stephen T

2008-01-01

217

A new disjunct eddy-covariance system for BVOC flux measurements - validation on CO2 and H2O fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) method is an interesting alternative to the conventional eddy covariance (EC) method because it allows the estimation of turbulent fluxes of species for which fast sensors are not available. We have developed and validated a new disjunct sampling system (called MEDEE). This system is built with chemically inert materials. Air samples are taken quickly and alternately in two cylindrical reservoirs, the internal pressures of which are regulated by a moving piston. The MEDEE system was designed to be operated either on the ground or aboard an aircraft. It is also compatible with most analysers since it transfers the air samples at a regulated pressure. To validate the system, DEC and EC measurements of CO2 and latent heat fluxes were performed concurrently during a field campaign. EC fluxes were first compared to simulated DEC (SDEC) fluxes and then to actual DEC fluxes. Both the simulated and actual DEC fluxes showed a good agreement with EC fluxes in terms of correlation. The determination coefficients (R2) were 0.93 and 0.91 for DEC and SDEC latent heat fluxes, respectively. For DEC and SDEC CO2 fluxes R2 was 0.69 in both cases. The conditions of low fluxes experienced during the campaign impaired the comparison of the different techniques especially for CO2 flux measurements. Linear regression analysis showed an 14% underestimation of DEC fluxes for both CO2 and latent heat compared to EC fluxes. A first field campaign, focusing on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, was carried out to measure isoprene fluxes above a downy oak (Quercus Pubescens) forest in the south-east of France. The measured standard emission rate was in the lower range of reported values in earlier studies. Further analysis will be conducted through ground-based and airborne campaigns in the coming years.

Baghi, R.; Durand, P.; Jambert, C.; Jarnot, C.; Delon, C.; Serça, D.; Striebig, N.; Ferlicoq, M.; Keravec, P.

2012-12-01

218

A new disjunct eddy-covariance system for BVOC flux measurements - validation on CO2 and H2O fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) method is an interesting alternative to the conventional eddy covariance (EC) method, because it allows the estimation of turbulent fluxes of species for which fast sensors are not available. A new disjunct sampling system (called MEDEE) was developed and validated. This system was built with chemically inert materials. Air samples are grabbed quickly and alternately in two cylindrical reservoirs, whose internal pressures are regulated by a moving piston. It was designed to be operated either on ground or aboard an airplane (the French ATR-42 research aircraft). It is also compatible with most analysers since it transfers the air samples at a regulated pressure. For validating the system, DEC and EC measurements of CO2 and latent heat fluxes were performed concurrently during a field campaign. EC fluxes were first compared to simulated DEC (SDEC) fluxes and then to actual DEC fluxes. The EC fluxes were in agreement with both the simulated and actual DEC fluxes. The EC fluxes compare well to SDEC fluxes (R2 = 0.92 and 0.68 for latent heat and CO2 fluxes, respectively) and to actual DEC fluxes (R2 = 0.91 and 0.67 for latent heat and CO2 fluxes, respectively), in spite of low fluxes experienced during the campaign. This good agreement between the two techniques demonstrates that MEDEE is suitable for DEC measurements and highlights the DEC method as a reliable alternative to EC for slower sensors. A first field campaign focused on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions was done to measure isoprene fluxes above a downy oak (Quercus Pubescens) forest in the southeast of France. The measured emission rates were in good agreement with the values reported in earlier studies. Further analysis will be conducted from ground-based and airborne campaigns in the forthcoming years.

Baghi, R.; Durand, P.; Jambert, C.; Jarnot, C.; Delon, C.; Serça, D.; Striebig, N.; Ferlicoq, M.; Keravec, P.

2012-06-01

219

Development of Aerosol Models for Radiative Flux Calculations at ARM Sites  

SciTech Connect

The direct radiative forcing (DRF) of aerosols, the change in net radiative flux due to aerosols in non-cloudy conditions, is an essential quantity for understanding the human impact on climate change. Our work has addressed several key issues that determine the accuracy, and identify the uncertainty, with which aerosol DRF can be modeled. These issues include the accuracy of several radiative transfer models when compared to measurements and to each other in a highly controlled closure study using data from the ARM 2003 Aerosol IOP. The primary focus of our work has been to determine an accurate approach to assigning aerosol properties appropriate for modeling over averaged periods of time and space that represent the observed regional variability of these properties. We have also undertaken a comprehensive analysis of the aerosol properties that contribute most to uncertainty in modeling aerosol DRF, and under what conditions they contribute the most uncertainty. Quantification of these issues enables the community to better state accuracies of radiative forcing calculations and to concentrate efforts in areas that will decrease uncertainties in these calculations in the future.

Ogren, John A.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; McComiskey, Allison C.

2006-09-30

220

Initial Tile Temperature and Heat Flux Measurements in NSTX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to their compact nature, spherical tori are projected to experience higher peak heat flux than conventional aspect ratio tokamaks of comparable heating power. For NSTX, it has been predicted[1,2] that the peak heat flux in double-null divertor configuration could reach between 10-15 MW/m2, and single-null operation would result in even higher peak heat flux. To test these predictions and support physics operations, two infrared television cameras (Inframetrics 525) have been installed on NSTX to monitor real-time tile heating and surface heat flux. The data are analyzed in real-time with a frame grabber (IMAXX) and software, and these data are also archived on videotape for future analysis. The first set of measurements will focus on thermal emission from the RF antenna, the center stack, and divertor regions. Initial data and comparison with the earlier predictions will be presented. 1 R.Maingi, et. al., "Estimates of Scrape-Off Layer and Divertor Parameters in NSTX", Proc. 1996 Int’l Workshop on the Spherical Torus, Abingdon, U.K., Dec. 4-6, 1996. 2 R. Maingi, et. al., "2-D Edge Plasma Transport Calculations for NSTX", Proc. 1997 Int’l Workshop on the Spherical Torus, St. Petersburg, Russia, Sept. 3-5, 1997.

Maingi, Rajesh; Kugel, Henry; Roquemore, Lane; Lasnier, Charles; Johnson, Dave

1999-11-01

221

DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

2007-12-19

222

Energy budget components, ammonia concentration and flux measurements on an agricultural landscape near Bjerringbro, Denmark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of the NitroEurope common field experiment, energy budget components and ammonia concentrations were measured by various methods on an agricultural field near Bjerringbro, Denmark in April 2009. Several sources of ammonia (pig farms, nearby fertilized fields) were present in the landscape and the field itself was also fertilized with pig slurry during the campaign. Turbulent fluxes were calculated using micrometeorological measurement data (standard meteorological parameters, radiation and surface energy budget components) as well as three different methods: (i) the gradient, (ii) the Bowen ratio and (iii) the eddy covariance method using 15 min average time. Results obtained using different methodologies for flux calculations and local effects on energy budget closure were compared. Instrumentation used for measuring ammonia concentrations included two wet-chemical (AMANDA) instruments and two photoacoustic instruments (a mid-IR CO2 laser based Nitolux and a self-developed near-IR diode laser based WaSul instrument). The WaSul instrument was operated in gradient configuration, which also enables the calculation of ammonia fluxes. The instruments were placed at different points of the field to gain more information on the spatial concentration distribution. Ammonia concentration data measured by the different instruments and wind speed and direction data were used to estimate the location of ammonia sources within the landscape. After fertilization of the field ammonia emission fluxes were calculated from the gradient data.

Pogány, Andrea; Weidinger, Tamás.; Bienkowski, Jerzy; Bordás, Árpád.; Bozóki, Zoltán.; Eredics, Attila; Hensen, Arjan; Janku, Krzysztof; Kiss, Gy?z?; Kraai, Aline; Istenes, Zoltán.; Mohácsi, Árpád.; Szabó, Gábor; Schelde, Kirsten; Theobald, Mark

2010-05-01

223

Tools for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer: Streamer and FluxNet. Revised  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two tools for the solution of radiative transfer problems are presented. Streamer is a highly flexible medium spectral resolution radiative transfer model based on the plane-parallel theory of radiative transfer. Capable of computing either fluxes or radiances, it is suitable for studying radiative processes at the surface or within the atmosphere and for the development of remote-sensing algorithms. FluxNet is a fast neural network-based implementation of Streamer for computing surface fluxes. It allows for a sophisticated treatment of radiative processes in the analysis of large data sets and potential integration into geophysical models where computational efficiency is an issue. Documentation and tools for the development of alternative versions of Fluxnet are available. Collectively, Streamer and FluxNet solve a wide variety of problems related to radiative transfer: Streamer provides the detail and sophistication needed to perform basic research on most aspects of complex radiative processes while the efficiency and simplicity of FluxNet make it ideal for operational use.

Key, Jeffrey R.; Schweiger, Axel J.

1998-01-01

224

Annual cycle of radiation fluxes over the Arctic ocean: Sensitivity to cloud optical properties  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between cloud optical properties and the radiative fluxes over the Arctic Ocean is explored by conducting a series of modeling experiments. The annual cycle of arctic cloud optical properties that are required to reproduce both the outgoing radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere as determined from satellite observations and the available determinations of surface radiative fluxes are derived. Existing data on cloud fraction and cloud microphysical properties are utilized. Four types of cloud are considered: low stratus clouds, midlevel clouds, citrus clouds, and wintertime ice crystal precipitation. Internally consistent annual cycles of surface temperature, surface albedo, cloud fraction and cloud optical properties, components of surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes, and cloud radiative forcing are presented. The modeled total cloud optical depth (weighted by cloud fraction) ranges from a low value in winter of 2 to a high summertime value of 8. Infrared emmissivities for liquid water clouds are shown to be substantially less than unity during the cold half of the year. Values of modeled surface cloud radiative forcing are positive except for two weeks in midsummer; over the course of the year clouds have a net warming effect on the surface in the Arctic. Total cloud radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere is determined to be positive only briefly in early autumn. Surface longwave fluxes are shown to be very sensitive to the presence of lower-tropospheric ice crystal precipitation during the cold half of the year.

Curry, J.A. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Ebert, E.E. (Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne (Australia))

1992-11-01

225

Experimental evaluation of latent heat flux during night-time radiative hoarfrost  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to evaluate the latent heat flux during favourable conditions to frost formation has been tested with measurements made on two consecutive nights. The method is based on a surface thermal budget. Results show sign changes in the computed latent heat flux according to the observed cycle of frost formation and thaw. Flux estimates of 0.045 cal cm-2 min-1,

M. Severini; B. Olivieri

1980-01-01

226

Momentum Flux Measuring Instrument for Neutral and Charged Particle Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrument to measure the momentum flux (total pressure) of plasma and neutral particle jets onto a surface has been developed. While this instrument was developed for magnetized plasmas, the concept works for non-magnetized plasmas as well. We have measured forces as small as 10(exp -4) Newtons on a surface immersed in the plasma where small forces are due to ionic and neutral particles with kinetic energies on the order of a few eV impacting the surface. This instrument, a force sensor, uses a target plate (surface) that is immersed in the plasma and connected to one end of an alumina rod while the opposite end of the alumina rod is mechanically connected to a titanium beam on which four strain gauges are mounted. The force on the target generates torque causing strain in the beam. The resulting strain measurements can be correlated to a force on the target plate. The alumina rod electrically and thermally isolates the target plate from the strain gauge beam and allows the strain gauges to be located out of the plasma flow while also serving as a moment arm of several inches to increase the strain in the beam at the strain gauge location. These force measurements correspond directly to momentum flux and may be used with known plasma conditions to place boundaries on the kinetic energies of the plasma and neutral particles. The force measurements may also be used to infer thrust produced by a plasma propulsive device. Stainless steel, titanium, molybdenum, and aluminum flat target plates have been used. Momentum flux measurements of H2, D2, He, and Ar plasmas produced in a magnetized plasma device have been performed.

Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schafer, Charles F. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

227

Multi-element silicon detector for x-ray flux measurements  

SciTech Connect

A 30-element Si(Li) detector has been fabricated to measure the one-dimensional flux profile of 33 KeV x-rays from a synchrotron radiation beam. The device, which is fabricated from a single 39 mm x 15 mm silicon wafer, is a linear array of 0.9 mm x 7 mm elements with a 1 mm center-to-center spacing. It is 5 mm thick and when operated at room temperature has an average leakage current of 10 nA/element. The x-ray flux in each element is determined by measuring the current with a high quality operational amplifier followed by a current digitizer. This detector is being used to study the use of synchrotron radiation for non-invasive imaging of coronary arteries. The experiment uses the difference in the transmitted flux of a monochromatized x-ray beam above and below the iodine K-edge. Measurements have been made on plastic phantoms and on excised animal hearts with iodinated arteries. The images obtained indicate that a 256-element device with similar properties, but with 0.6 mm element spacing, will make a very effective detector for high-speed medical imaging.

Thompson, A.C.; Goulding, F.S.; Sommer, H.A.; Walton, J.T.; Hughes, E.B.; Rolfe, J.; Zeman, H.D.

1981-10-01

228

Actinic flux measurements and photolysis frequencies enhancements near clouds during DC3 and TORERO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectrally resolved up and down-welling actinic flux was measured from aircraft during the Deep Convective Clouds & Chemistry Experiment (DC3) and Tropical Ocean Troposphere Exchange of reactive halogen species and oxygenated VOC (TORERO) field campaigns. The measurements were made on the NASA DC-8 and NSF/NCAR G-V aircraft with the Charged coupled device Actinic Flux Spectroradiometer (CAFS)and the HIAPER Airborne Radiation Package (HARP), respectively. Improvements in this instrumentation and the data analysis provide for fast, accurate measurements from the aircraft. Photolysis frequencies calculated from the actinic flux show significant enhancements above clouds. The upwelling signal is enhanced by the high reflectivity of the cloud below. The downwelling is also enhanced due to backscatter of reflected light from the cloud top. Under specific conditions, including high sun and highly reflective clouds, upwelling actinic radiation may exceed the downwelling even with clear skies above. These conditions may have occurred during TORERO and DC3 resulting in regions of highly active photochemistry.

Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Schmidt, S.; Kindel, B. C.; Hair, J. W.

2012-12-01

229

Controlling quantum flux through measurement: An idealised example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classically, no transfer occurs between two equally filled reservoirs, no matter how one looks at them, but the situation can be different quantum-mechanically. This paradoxically surprising phenomenon rests on the distinctive property of the quantum world that one cannot stare at a system without disturbing it. It was recently discovered that this seemingly annoying feature could be harnessed to control small quantum systems using weak measurements. Here we present one of the simplest models —an idealised double quantum dot—where by toying with the dot measurement strength, i.e. the intensity of the look, it is possible to create a particle flux in an otherwise completely symmetric system. The basic property underlying this phenomena is that measurement disturbances are very different on a system evolving unitarily and a system evolving dissipatively. This effect shows that adaptive measurements can have dramatic effects enabling transport control but possibly inducing biases in the measurement of macroscopic quantities if not handled with care.

Tilloy, A.; Bauer, M.; Bernard, D.

2014-07-01

230

An EOF Iteration Approach for Obtaining Homogeneous Radiative Fluxes from Satellites Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventional observations of climate parameters are sparse in space and/or in time and the representativeness of such information needs to be optimized. Observations from satellites provide improved spatial coverage than point observations however they pose new challenges for obtaining homogeneous coverage. Surface radiative fluxes, the forcing functions of the hydrologic cycle and biogeophysical processes, are now becoming available from global scale satellite observations. They are derived from independent satellite platforms and sensors that differ in temporal and spatial resolution and in the size of the footprint from which information is derived. Data gaps, degraded spatial resolution near boundaries of geostationary satellites, and different viewing geometries in areas of satellite overlap, could result in biased estimates of radiative fluxes. In this study, discussed will be issues related to the sources of inhomogeneity in surface radiative fluxes as derived from satellites; development of an approach to obtain homogeneous data sets; and application of the methodology to the widely used International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data that currently serve as a source of information for deriving estimates of surface and top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes. Introduced is an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) iteration scheme for homogenizing the fluxes. The scheme is evaluated in several ways including comparison of the inferred radiative fluxes against ground observations, both before and after the EOF approach is applied. On the average, the latter reduces the rms error by about 2-3 W/m2.

Zhang, Banglin; Pinker, Rachel T.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

2007-01-01

231

Momentum flux measurements using an impact thrust stand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A device has been developed to measure the force caused by a beam of charged and neutral particles impacting a target plate. This device, an impact thrust stand, was developed to allow thrusters, during early stages of development, to be quickly and easily evaluated and compared to other thrusters. Since some thruster concepts are tested using laboratory equipment that is heavy and cumbersome, measuring the momentum flux of the particles in the plume can be much simpler than placing the entire thruster on a thrust stand. Conservation of momentum requires the momentum flux measured in the plume to be related to the thrust produced by the thruster. The impact thrust stand was designed to be placed in the plume of an electric thruster and has been tested and compared to the thrust measured from a Hall thruster placed on a pendulum thrust stand. Force measurements taken at several axial locations in the magnetic nozzle region of the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket will be presented.

Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Breizman, Boris; Bengtson, Roger

2004-11-01

232

Momentum Flux Measurements Using an Impact Thrust Stand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device has been developed to measure the force caused by a beam of charged and neutral particles impacting a target plate. This device, an impact thrust stand, was developed to allow thrusters, during early stages of development, to be quickly and easily exhausted and compared to other thrusters. Since some thruster concepts are tested using laboratory equipment that is heavy and cumbersome, measuring the momentum flux of the particles in the plume can be much simpler than placing the entire thruster on a thrust stand. Conservation of momentum requires the momentum flux measured in the plume to be related to the thrust produced by the thruster. The impact thrust stand was designed to be placed in the plume of an electric thruster and has been tested and compared to the thrust measured from a Hall thruster placed on a pendulum thrust stand. Force measurements taken at several axial locations in the magnetic nozzle region of the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket will be presented.

Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Breizman, Boris; Bengtson, Roger

2004-01-01

233

A high flux normal incidence monochromator for circularly polarized synchrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design and performance of a 6.3 m normal incidence UHV-monochromator (see fig. 1) of the Gillieson type for synchrotron radiation are described. The monochromator will be used for simultaneously spin polarization and emission angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy; it combines a high photon flux and a high degree of circular polarization of the monochromatized radiation with a moderate resolution.

Eyers, A.; Heckenkamp, Ch.; Schäfers, F.; Schönhense, G.; Heinzmann, U.

1983-04-01

234

Observation and simulation of dust aerosol cycle and impact on radiative fluxes during the FENNEC campaign in summer 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sahara desert is one of the principal worldwide sources of dust aerosol emissions that play significant role in the climatic system. In the framework of the FENNEC campaign, conducted during the summer 2011, we focus on dust radiative effect and impact on the atmospheric dynamics and profile structure. We study the variability of the measured radiative parameters and model atmospheric dynamics during dust plume observations at the FENNEC sites, therefore, trying to understand the link between the Saharan heat low system and dust aerosols. Due to its large size the airborne dust can absorb and scatter not only solar, but also thermal infrared radiation, which requires consideration of both spectral ranges. Analysis of AERONET and other optical observations during the period of intensive campaign in summer 2011 provides information on variability of aerosol optical characteristics and perturbation of solar and TIR flux. We use these observations in conjunction with the meso-scale model RAMS to understand the impact of the dust plumes on the atmospheric dynamics. We also simulate the dust cycle in order to find the contribution of the different emission sources and identify structure of transport over an extended domain. Then, coupling the radiative code (GAME) we calculate the radiative forcing of dust and compare it to the radiative flux observed and computed based on the AERONET observations. Validation of simulations is made using measurements from space-borne CALIOP lidar, SEVIRI and OMI satellites, AERONET ground-based stations and observations acquired onboard the SAFIRE Falcon 20 research aircraft.

Minvielle, Fanny; Derimian, Yevgeny; Pere, Jean-Christophe; Flamant, Cyrille; Brogniez, Gérard

2013-04-01

235

On Sensitivity of Spectral Radiative Fluxes to Atmospheric Water Vapor in the 940 nm Region (Numerical Simulation)  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor is well known to be a critical component in many aspects of atmospheric research, such as radiative transfer and cloud and aerosol processes. This requires both improved measurements of the columnar water vapor and its profiles in the atmosphere in a wide range of conditions, and adjustment of water vapor parameterizations in radiation codes including the perfection of spectroscopic parameters. In this paper we will present the results of comparison of our calculations and downward solar fluxes measured with Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer under conditions of horizontally homogeneous clouds. We also will discuss the sensitivity of atmospheric radiation characteristics to variations of water vapor in the band 940 nm: these results may be useful for development of new methods of retrieval of the total column water vapor content (WVC) in the atmosphere from data of radiation observations.

Zhuravleva, T.B.; Firsov, K.M.

2005-03-18

236

Absorption of solar radiation by stratocumulus clouds: Aircraft measurements and theoretical calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft observations of shortwave radiative properties of stratocumulus clouds were carried out over the western North Pacific Ocean during January 1991. Two aircraft were equipped with a pair of pyranometers and near-infrared pyranometers. Downward and upward shortwave fluxes above and below the cloud were synchronously measured by two aircraft. The cloud radiative properties, especially the absorptance obtained from measurements, were

Tadahiro Hayasaka; Nobuyuki Kikuchi; Masayuki Tanaka

1995-01-01

237

MY NASA DATA Lesson Plan: Earth's Energy Budget-Seasonal Cycles in Net Radiative Flux  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan uses Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiation data to understand seasonal variations in the pattern of net energy input to the Earth system. The net amount of energy received by different parts of the Earth at different times of year determines the type of weather and climate they will experience. The net radiative flux shows the combined effect of the Sun's location and the conditions in the Earth system. The two primary components of the Earth system that affect the net radiative flux are: 1) the type of surface and 2) clouds. This lesson will allow students to explore these variations.

2006-01-01

238

Progress on a Rayleigh Scattering Mass Flux Measurement Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Rayleigh scattering diagnostic has been developed to provide mass flux measurements in wind tunnel flows. Spectroscopic molecular Rayleigh scattering is an established flow diagnostic tool that has the ability to provide simultaneous density and velocity measurements in gaseous flows. Rayleigh scattered light from a focused 10 Watt continuous-wave laser beam is collected and fiber-optically transmitted to a solid Fabry-Perot etalon for spectral analysis. The circular interference pattern that contains the spectral information that is needed to determine the flow properties is imaged onto a CCD detector. Baseline measurements of density and velocity in the test section of the 15 cm x 15 cm Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center are presented as well as velocity measurements within a supersonic combustion ramjet engine isolator model installed in the tunnel test section.

Mielke-Fagan, Amy F.; Clem, Michelle M.; Elam, Kristie A.; Hirt, Stefanie M.

2010-01-01

239

How common problems with estimating surface radiative fluxes impact snow simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Net radiation provides most of the melt energy for seasonal snow, a critical water resource for many parts of the world. In many cases shortwave radiation is the dominant flux, but when it is reduced by factors such as high albedo, cloud cover, and topographic shading, longwave radiation can also contribute substantially to the surface energy balance. Methods for determining these surface fluxes include: numerical weather models, reanalysis, direct observations, satellite measurements, and empirical algorithms based on proxy data. Long- and shortwave irradiances are rarely measured in mountainous environments. Those measurements that are made in these locations are subject to difficult conditions, which often result in snow-covered instruments and tilted instrumentation or sloped installation surface. To avoid these problems, measurements may be taken from a more protected valley location, but this may lead to a mismatch between measurement and study site conditions, such as a fog covered valley observation used to force a simulation at a higher, fog-free elevation. Satellites are useful tools for observing surface fluxes over large areas. However, satellite data products can have problems with mixed pixels of clouds and no clouds. Finally, algorithms based on proxy data have known biases and errors, can lack cloud and topographic corrections, and may not represent the diurnal cycle or cloud cover variability. In this study, we explored four scenarios for estimating long- and shortwave surface irradiances that have known errors and assessed the impact of these errors on simulations of SWE. The four scenarios were: 1) improper instrument siting such as a tilted sensor or improper projection of observations onto sloped terrain, 2) biases and errors in surface irradiances characteristic of algorithms based on proxy data, 3) mixed pixels of cloudy and non-cloudy conditions resulting from a coarse spatial resolution in a satellite or reanalysis product, and 4) lack of temporal variability such as when using a daily cloud cover fraction. To understand the effect of these systematic errors, we simulated SWE at three study sites using snow models of varying complexity in the representation of snow pack internal energy. Artificial errors, representing the four scenarios above, were created and used to force the snow models in place of the original observations and compared to the original simulations. The models used were the Utah Energy Balance model, which has a skin temperature and a bulk temperature, and the Modular Snow Model, which is a multi-layer model. These models were chosen to demonstrate the interaction of model complexity with different error structures. This study was conducted at three sites with full energy balance observations: the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in Idaho operated by the USDA with a record 25 years long (1983-2008); Umpqua National Forest, Oregon, operated as part of the Demonstration for Ecosystem Management Options during the winters between 1996-1999, and Lake O'Hara, British Columbia, operated as part of the Improved Processes and Parameterization for Prediction in Cold Regions research network over the water year 2008. The results from this study highlight which errors have the most impact on snow modeling and thus where efforts should be concentrated for improving estimates of surface radiative fluxes.

Lapo, K. E.; Lundquist, J. D.; Hinkelman, L. M.

2012-12-01

240

Comparison of different global information sources used in surface radiative flux calculation: Radiative properties of the surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct estimates of surface radiative fluxes that resolve regional and weather-scale variability over the whole globe with reasonable accuracy have only become possible with the advent of extensive global, mostly satellite, data sets within the past couple of decades. The accuracy of these fluxes, estimated to be about 10–15 W\\/m2, is largely limited by the accuracy of the input data

Yuanchong Zhang; William B. Rossow; Paul W. Stackhouse Jr

2007-01-01

241

Concentrated solar-flux measurements at the IEA-SSPS solar-central-receiver power plant, Tabernas - Lameria (Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flux analyzing system (F.A.S.) was installed at the central receiver system of the SSPS project to determine the relative flux distribution of the heliostat field and to measure the entire optical solar flux reflected from the heliostat field into the receiver cavity. The functional principles of the F.A.S. are described. The raw data and the evaluation of the measurements of the entire helistat field are given, and an approach to determine the actual fluxes which hit the receiver tube bundle is presented. A method is described to qualify the performance of each heliostat using a computer code. The data of the measurements of the direct radiation are presented.

Vontobel, G.; Schelders, C.; Real, M.

242

[Research on reducing mold flux's radiative heat transfer based on FTIR and XRD].  

PubMed

The mold fluxes samples containing transition metal oxides TiO2 were designed based on the composition of commercial mold fluxes in continuous casting of steel, and the relation between radiative heat transfer and the content of TiO2 was obtained through FTIR spectrum analysis and XRD analysis. The result of FTIR analysis indicates that TiO2 has a great negative effect on infrared transmittance of flux samples in the wavelength range of 1-6 microm. The result of XRD analysis indicates that crystallization of cuspidine was restrained with addition of TiO2, and CaTiO3 and other phases were found in the samples. The decrease in cuspidine phase is beneficial to strand lubrication in the mold. Radiation heat flux from the strand to the mold was calculated using a radiative heat transfer model concluded in previous study. Addition of TiO2 was found to result in a remarkable decrease in radiation heat flux for both glassy and crystalline samples, and the heat flux tended to decrease with increasing TiO2, with the maximal decrease reaching 30%. As a result of great refraction and scatter at surface and grain boundaries of samples, the negative effect of crystalline samples was much larger than that of the glassy ones. PMID:19445198

Diao, Jiang; Xie, Bing

2009-02-01

243

11C measurement and CNO and pep fluxes at Borexino  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Borexino experiment is specifically designed for measuring the solar 7Be- ? flux. Moreover, Borexino has the potential to extend the energy window of observation in order to probe solar neutrinos from the pep fusion process and from the CNO cycle, a region dominated by the in situ production of cosmogenic 11C. We investigated the possibility to reject 11C events in Borexino by looking at the three-fold coincidence with the parent muon track and the subsequent neutron capture on protons. Furthermore, the three-fold coincidence has been applied to the Counting Test Facility data in order to evaluate the detection efficiency.

Franco, D.; Borexino Collaboration

244

System having unmodulated flux locked loop for measuring magnetic fields  

DOEpatents

A system (10) for measuring magnetic fields, wherein the system (10) comprises an unmodulated or direct-feedback flux locked loop (12) connected by first and second unbalanced RF coaxial transmission lines (16a, 16b) to a superconducting quantum interference device (14). The FLL (12) operates for the most part in a room-temperature or non-cryogenic environment, while the SQUID (14) operates in a cryogenic environment, with the first and second lines (16a, 16b) extending between these two operating environments.

Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Blue Springs, MO)

2006-08-15

245

The AmeriFlux Network of Long-Term CO{sub 2} Flux Measurement Stations: Methodology and Intercomparability  

SciTech Connect

A portable flux measurement system has been used within the AmeriFlux network of CO{sub 2} flux measurement stations to enhance the comparability of data collected across the network. No systematic biases were observed in a comparison between portable system and site H, LE, or CO{sub 2} flux values although there were biases observed between the portable system and site measurement of air temperature and PPFD. Analysis suggests that if values from two stations differ by greater than 26% for H, 35% for LE, and 32% for CO{sub 2} flux they are likely to be significant. Methods for improving the intercomparability of the network are also discussed.

Hollinger, D. Y.; Evans, R. S.

2003-05-20

246

Micrometeoroid Flux in the Earth-Venus Region Measured by the IKAROS-ALADDIN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALADDIN (Arrayed Large-Area Dust Detectors in INterplanetary space) made of 0.54 ^{m2} PVDF sensors was deployed on the anti-Sun face of the thin polyimide sail membrane of the deep space solar sail spacecraft "IKAROS (Interplanetary Kitecraft Accelerated by the Radiation Of the Sun)". It has measured micrometeoroid flux between the Earth's orbit and Venus' orbit (i.e., 1.0~0.7 AU of heliocentric distance) for 1.5 revolutions from June 2010 until October 2011. The ALADDIN dust detector is arrayed by 8 channels of 9-20 micron-thick PVDF sensors, which are capable of detecting hypervelocity impacts of micrometeoroids at >~10 ^{-12 }g, according to ground calibration impact experiments. The sensors filter electronic, thermal and vibration noises and can record time, peak hold value above its threshold, and relaxation duration of each impact signal. In total, its cruising measurements counted more than 3000 dust impacts after screening noise signals. The ALADDIN flux in the 2010-2011 epoch was compared with fluxes at similar mass range of micrometeoroids and in similar heliocentric distances measured by Helios in 1970's and Galileo in 1990's, both composed of much less number of impact data. Then, it suggested enhancement of dust flux in the trailing edge of circumsolar orbits of the Earth and Venus, which are consistent with previous reports of larger dust grain enhancements observed by infrared telescopes. This also implies that the temporal flux enhancement of large micrometeoroids in the blob may have caused a cascading effect to produce smaller dust by collisions with sporadic meteoroids. Also it is apparent that the micrometeoroid flux increases by approximately one order of magnitude from 1 AU to 0.7 AU during the 2010-2011 epoch. The temporal variance of the Helios flux data in 1976-80 in the same region of 1 AU may be associated with difference of averaged solar activities during both epochs. Since the solar activity in the years 2010-2011 was around the minimum of the solar cycle, smaller micrometeoroids, which are more affected by solar radiation pressure than larger ones, may have survived longer than those in the Helios epoch, which covered from the minimum to the maximum of the solar cycle in late 1970's.

Yano, Hajime

2012-07-01

247

First-wall heat-flux measurements during ELMing H-mode plasma  

SciTech Connect

In this report we present measurements of the diverter heat flux in DIII-D for ELMing H-mode and radiative diverter conditions. In previous work we have examined heat flux profiles in lower single-null diverted plasmas and measured the scaling of the peak heat flux with plasma current and beam power. One problem with those results was our lack of good power accounting. This situation has been improved to better than 80--90% accountability with the installation of new bolometer arrays, and the operation of the entire complement of 5 Infrared (IR) TV cameras using the DAPS (Digitizing Automated Processing System) video processing system for rapid inter-shot data analysis. We also have expanded the scope of our measurements to include a wider variety of plasma shapes (e.g., double-null diverters (DND), long and short single-null diverters (SND), and inside-limited plasmas), as well as more diverse discharge conditions. Double-null discharges are of particular interest because that shape has proven to yield the highest confinement (VH-mode) and beta of all DIII-D plasmas, so any future diverter modifications for DIII-D will have to support DND operation. In addition, the proposed TPX tokamak is being designed for double-null operation, and information on the magnitude and distribution of diverter heat flux is needed to support the engineering effort on that project. So far, we have measured the DND power sharing at the target plates and made preliminary tests of heat flux reduction by gas injection.

Lasnier, C.J.; Allen, S.L.; Hill, D.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Leonard, A.W.; Petrie, T.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

1994-01-28

248

Performance measurements at the fast flux test facility  

SciTech Connect

In 1984, Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) management recognized the need to develop a measurement system that would quantify the operational performance of the FFTF and the human resources needed to operate it. Driven by declining budgets and the need to safely manage a manpower rampdown at FFTF, an early warning system was developed. Although the initiating event for the early warning system was the need to safely manage a manpower rampdown, many related uses have evolved. The initial desired objective for the FFTF performance measurements was to ensure safety and control of key performance trends. However, the early warning system has provided a more quantitative, supportable basis upon which to make decisions. From this initial narrow focus, efforts in the FFTF plant and supporting organizations are leading to measurement of and, subsequently, improvements in productivity. Pilot projects utilizing statistical process control have started with longer range productivity improvement.

Baumhardt, R.J.; Newland, D.J.; Praetorius, P.R.

1987-01-01

249

Radiative fluxes in the troposphere from upper air meteorological data in Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

An attempt is made to use the empirical type of parameterization scheme for the calculations of solar radiative fluxes and atmospheric heating or cooling rates in the troposphere by using observed upper air meteorological data. This type of parameterization scheme is useful in calculating the upper air heating/cooling rate for use in planetary boundary layer modeling and in the evaluation of the surface heat budget equation. The results presented in this paper are based on the upper air data collected between 1300 to 1500 Local Standard Time (LST) in Dhahran for the year 1989. The diurnal variation of vertical profiles of radiative fluxes and heating/cooling rates is calculated by changing the solar zenith angle. The diurnal variation of annually averaged solar radiation fluxes reaching the ground is compared with the observed values of solar radiative flux at Dhahran. The calculated values are in excellent agreement with the observed values in the morning and evening times. The scheme used in this paper can be used for obtaining solar radiative fluxes and atmospheric heating or cooling rates above the earth's surface at places where only upper air meteorological data is available.

Rehman, S.; Husain, T.; Halawani, T.O. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

1992-07-01

250

Offline GCSS Intercomparison of Cloud-Radiation Interaction and Surface Fluxes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulations of deep tropical clouds by both cloud-resolving models (CRMs) and single-column models (SCMs) in the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Working Group 4 (WG4; Precipitating Convective Cloud Systems), Case 2 (19-27 December 1992, TOGA-COARE IFA) have produced large differences in the mean heating and moistening rates (-1 to -5 K and -2 to 2 grams per kilogram respectively). Since the large-scale advective temperature and moisture "forcing" are prescribed for this case, a closer examination of two of the remaining external types of "forcing", namely radiative heating and air/sea hear and moisture transfer, are warranted. This paper examines the current radiation and surface flux of parameterizations used in the cloud models participating in the GCSS WG4, be executing the models "offline" for one time step (12 s) for a prescribed atmospheric state, then examining the surface and radiation fluxes from each model. The dynamic, thermodynamic, and microphysical fluids are provided by the GCE-derived model output for Case 2 during a period of very active deep convection (westerly wind burst). The surface and radiation fluxes produced from the models are then divided into prescribed convective, stratiform, and clear regions in order to examine the role that clouds play in the flux parameterizations. The results suggest that the differences between the models are attributed more to the surface flux parameterizations than the radiation schemes.

Tao, W.-K.; Johnson, D.; Krueger, S.; Zulauf, M.; Donner, L.; Seman, C.; Petch, J.; Gregory, J.

2004-01-01

251

YEAR PROGRESS REPORT1 Proposal Title: Top-of-Atmosphere Clear-Sky Broadband Radiative Flux and Direct  

E-print Network

) depends critically on the accuracy of shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) TOA radiative fluxes. Since's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument and from theoretical broadband radiative transfer modelGACP 2nd YEAR PROGRESS REPORT1 Proposal Title: Top-of-Atmosphere Clear-Sky Broadband Radiative Flux

252

Grasland Stable Isotope Flux Measurements: Three Isotopomers of Carbon Dioxide Measured by QCL Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve our understanding of greenhouse gas dynamics of managed ecosystems such as grasslands, we not only need to investigate the effects of management (e.g., grass cuts) and weather events (e.g., rainy days) on carbon dioxide fluxes, but also need to increase the time resolution of our measurements. Thus, for the first time, we assessed respiration and assimilation fluxes with high time resolution (5Hz) stable isotope measurements at an intensively managed farmland in Switzerland (Chamau, 400m ASL). Two different methods were used to quantify fluxes of carbon dioxide and associated fluxes of stable carbon isotopes: (1) the flux gradient method, and (2) the eddy covariance method. During a week long intensive measurement campaign, we (1) measured mixing ratios of carbon dioxide isotopomers (12C16O2, 12C16O18O, 13C16O2) with a Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL, Aerodyne Inc.) spectroscope and (2) collected air samples for isotope analyses (13C/12C) and (18O/16O) of carbon dioxide by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS, Finnigan) every two hours, concurrently along a height profile (z = 0.05; 0.10; 0.31; 2.15m). In the following week, the QCL setup was used for closed-path eddy covariance flux measurement of the carbon dioxide isotopomers, with the air inlet located next to an open-path Infra Red Gas Analyzers (IRGA, LiCor 7500) used simultaneously for carbon dioxide measurements. During this second week, an area of grass inside the footprint was cut and harvested after several days. The first results of in-field continuous QCL measurements of carbon dioxide mixing ratios and their stable isotopic ratios show good agreement with IRGA measurements and isotope analysis of flask samples by IRMS. Thus, QCL spectroscopy is a very promising tool for stable isotope flux investigations.

Zeeman, M. J.; Tuzson, B.; Eugster, W.; Werner, R. A.; Buchmann, N.; Emmenegger, L.

2007-12-01

253

Method for radiation detection and measurement  

DOEpatents

Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength. 9 figures.

Miller, S.D.

1993-12-21

254

Method for radiation detection and measurement  

DOEpatents

Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength.

Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

255

Heat flux measurements for use in physiological and clothing research.  

PubMed

Scientists use passive heat flow meters to measure body heat exchanges with the environment. In recent years, several such sensors have been developed and concerns about their proper calibration have been addressed. However, calibration methods have differed in the geometry of the heated device as well as in the heat transfer mechanism. Therefore, a comparison of calibration methods is needed in order to understand the obtained differences in calibration lines. We chose three commercially available heat flux sensors and placed them on four different heated devices: a hot plate, double hot plate, nude cylinder and a cylinder covered with a spacer material. We found differences between the calibration line of the manufacturer and our own measurements, especially when forced convection was involved as the main heat transfer mechanism. The results showed clearly that the calibration method should be chosen according to the intended purpose of use. In addition, we recommend use a thin, light heat flux sensor with good thermal conduction in human subject studies. PMID:23824222

Niedermann, R; Psikuta, A; Rossi, R M

2014-08-01

256

Neutron flux characterization techniques for radiation effects studies  

E-print Network

energies making activation damage possible. If sufficient recoil is imparted to the daughter nucleus during, a detailed and precise description of the radiation environ- ment used to damage samples is often required to make sense of subsequent materials analysis. The types of reac- tions and extent of damage that occur

Ferreira, Paulo J.

257

A novel ozone sensor for direct eddy flux measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small fast-response ozone sensor for direct eddy-flux measurements is built. The basis for detection is the chemiluminescence of an organic dye adsorbed on dry silica gel in the reaction with ozone. The chemiluminescence is monitored with a blue-sensitive photomultiplier. At a flow rate of 100 l/min the ozone sensor has a 90 percent response time of significantly better than 0.1 s with a detection limit lower than 50 ppt at S/N = 3. Water vapor and SO2 enhance the chemiluminescence efficiency of the ozone sensor. No correlation between rapid ozone fluctuations and those of these two trace gases is noticed by the ozone sensor when operating at a frequency of 10 Hz. Good agreement was found between ozone dry-deposition velocities derived from profile measurements and by eddy correlation.

Guesten, Hans; Heinrich, Guenther; Schmidt, Ralf W. H.; Schurath, Ulrich

1992-04-01

258

Measurement of geothermal flux through poorly consolidated sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In many regions, crystalline rocks are covered by hundreds of meters of unconsolidated and poorly consolidated sediments. Estimates of heat flux within these sediments using standard continental techniques (temperature and conductivity measurements at intervals of 10 to 30 meters) are unreliable, mainly because of the difficulty in obtaining and preserving representative lengths of core. However, it is sometimes feasible to use what amounts to an oceanographic technique by making closely spaced temperature and conductivity measurements within short cored intervals. This is demonstrated in a borehole at Menlo Park, California (37??27???N, 122??10???W, elevation 16 meters), where heat flows determined over 12 separate 1-meter intervls al lie within 10% of their mean value; 2.2 ??cal/cm2 sec. ?? 1968.

Sass, J. H.; Munroe, R. J.; Lachenbruch, A. H.

1968-01-01

259

Temperature and Heat Flux Estimation from Sampled Transient Sensor Measurements Z. C. Feng 1  

E-print Network

Page 1 Temperature and Heat Flux Estimation from Sampled Transient Sensor Measurements Z. C. Feng to calculate the front surface heat input (temperature and heat flux) from the back surface measurements (temperature and/or heat flux) when the front surface measurements are not feasible to obtain. This paper

Montgomery-Smith, Stephen

260

Estimation of surface heat and moisture fluxes over a prairie grassland. I - In situ energy budget measurements incorporating a cooled mirror dew point hygrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is focused on in situ measurements taken during FIFE required to support the development and validation of a biosphere model. Seasonal time series of surface flux measurements obtained from two surface radiation and energy budget stations utilized to support the FIFE surface flux measurement subprogram are examined. Data collection and processing procedures are discussed along with the measurement analysis for the complete 1987 test period.

Smith, Eric A.; Crosson, William L.; Tanner, Bertrand D.

1992-01-01

261

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

LR Roeder

2008-12-01

262

Radiation Environment Variations at Mars - Model Calculations and Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in the space radiation environment due to changes in the GCR (Galactic Cosmic Ray) from the past (#23) solar cycle to the current one (#24) has been intriguing in many ways, with an unprecedented long duration of the recent solar minimum condition and a very low peak activity of the current solar maximum. Model calculated radiation data and assessment of variations in the particle flux - protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions of the GCR environment is essential for understanding radiation risk and for any future intended long-duration human exploration missions. During the past solar cycle, we have had most active and higher solar maximum (2001-2003) condition. In the beginning of the current solar cycle (#24), we experienced a very long duration of solar minimum (2009-2011) condition with a lower peak activity (2013-2014). At Mars, radiation measurements in orbit were obtained (onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft) during the past (#23) solar maximum condition. Radiation measurements on the surface of Mars are being currently measured (onboard the Mars Science Laboratory, 2012 - Curiosity) during the current (#24) solar peak activity (August 2012 - present). We present our model calculated radiation environment at Mars during solar maxima for solar cycles #23 and #24. We compare our earlier model calculations (Cucinotta et al., J. Radiat. Res., 43, S35-S39, 2002; Saganti et al., J. Radiat. Res., 43, S119-S124, 2002; and Saganti et al., Space Science Reviews, 110, 143-156, 2004) with the most recent radiation measurements on the surface of Mars (2012 - present).

Saganti, Premkumar; Cucinotta, Francis

263

Local Heat Flux Measurements with Single Element Coaxial Injectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To support the mission for the NASA Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a program in 2005 to improve the capability to predict local thermal compatibility and heat transfer in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. The ultimate objective was to predict and hence reduce the local peak heat flux due to injector design, resulting in a significant improvement in overall engine reliability and durability. Such analyses are applicable to combustion devices in booster, upper stage, and in-space engines, as well as for small thrusters with few elements in the injector. In this program, single element and three-element injectors were hot-fire tested with liquid oxygen and ambient temperature gaseous hydrogen propellants at The Pennsylvania State University Cryogenic Combustor Laboratory from May to August 2005. Local heat fluxes were measured in a 1-inch internal diameter heat sink combustion chamber using Medtherm coaxial thermocouples and Gardon heat flux gauges. Injectors were tested with shear coaxial and swirl coaxial elements, including recessed, flush and scarfed oxidizer post configurations, and concentric and non-concentric fuel annuli. This paper includes general descriptions of the experimental hardware, instrumentation, and results of the hot-fire testing for three of the single element injectors - recessed-post shear coaxial with concentric fuel, flush-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel, and scarfed-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel. Detailed geometry and test results will be published elsewhere to provide well-defined data sets for injector development and model validatation.

Jones, Gregg; Protz, Christopher; Bullard, Brad; Hulka, James

2006-01-01

264

Radiation: Physical Characterization and Environmental Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this session, Session WP4, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Production of Neutrons from Interactions of GCR-Like Particles; Solar Particle Event Dose Distributions, Parameterization of Dose-Time Profiles; Assessment of Nuclear Events in the Body Produced by Neutrons and High-Energy Charged Particles; Ground-Based Simulations of Cosmic Ray Heavy Ion Interactions in Spacecraft and Planetary Habitat Shielding Materials; Radiation Measurements in Space Missions; Radiation Measurements in Civil Aircraft; Analysis of the Pre-Flight and Post-Flight Calibration Procedures Performed on the Liulin Space Radiation Dosimeter; and Radiation Environment Monitoring for Astronauts.

1997-01-01

265

Measurement of the atmospheric ?e flux in IceCube.  

PubMed

We report the first measurement of the atmospheric electron neutrino flux in the energy range between approximately 80 GeV and 6 TeV, using data recorded during the first year of operation of IceCube's DeepCore low-energy extension. Techniques to identify neutrinos interacting within the DeepCore volume and veto muons originating outside the detector are demonstrated. A sample of 1029 events is observed in 281 days of data, of which 496±66(stat)±88(syst) are estimated to be cascade events, including both electron neutrino and neutral current events. The rest of the sample includes residual backgrounds due to atmospheric muons and charged current interactions of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The flux of the atmospheric electron neutrinos is consistent with models of atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range. This constitutes the first observation of electron neutrinos and neutral current interactions in a very large volume neutrino telescope optimized for the TeV energy range. PMID:25167245

Aartsen, M G; Abbasi, R; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker Tjus, J; Becker, K-H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Cruz Silva, A H; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Groß, A; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Haj Ismail, A; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heimann, P; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J-H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Pérez de los Heros, C; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H-G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönherr, L; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zilles, A; Zoll, M

2013-04-12

266

Experimental evaluation of latent heat flux during night-time radiative hoarfrost  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to evaluate the latent heat flux during favourable conditions to frost formation has been tested with measurements made on two consecutive nights. The method is based on a surface thermal budget. Results show sign changes in the computed latent heat flux according to the observed cycle of frost formation and thaw. Flux estimates of 0.045 cal cm-2 min-1, with a mean relative error of 30%, have been obtained during the period of maximum frost accretion.

Severini, M.; Olivieri, B.

1980-08-01

267

Diurnal Variability of the Hydrologic Cycle and Radiative Fluxes: Comparisons Between Observation and a GCM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The simulated diurnal cycle is in many ways an ideal test bed for new physical parameterizations. The purpose of this paper is to compare observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission, the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Experiment, and the Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study with the diurnal variability of the Amazonian hydrologic cycle and radiative energy budget as simulated by the Colorado State University general circulation model, and to evaluate improvements and deficiencies of the model physics. The model uses a prognostic cumulus kinetic energy (CKE) to relax the quasi-equilibrium closure of the Arakawa-Schubert cumulus parameterization. A parameter, alpha, is used to relate the CKE to the cumulus mass flux. This parameter is expected to vary with cloud depth, mean shear, and the level of convective activity, but up to now a single constant value for all cloud types has been used. The results of the present study show clearly that this approach cannot yield realistic simulations of both the diurnal cycle and the monthly mean climate state. Improved results are obtained using a version of the model in which alpha is permitted to vary with cloud depth.

Lin, Xin; Randall, David A.; Fowler, Laura D.

2000-01-01

268

Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments—application of the RayMan model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important meteorological parameter affecting the human energy balance during sunny weather conditions is the mean\\u000a radiant temperature Tmrt. It considers the uniform temperature of a surrounding surface giving off blackbody radiation, which results in the same\\u000a energy gain of a human body given the prevailing radiation fluxes. This energy gain usually varies considerably in open space\\u000a conditions. In

Andreas Matzarakis; Frank Rutz; Helmut Mayer

2007-01-01

269

Measuring transient radiation effects in optical fibers  

SciTech Connect

We propose a new method for measuring transient radiation effects in optical fibers on a nanosecond timescale. The method, which incorporates a streak camera, allows more precise time resolution than other methods and has the advantage of measuring the radiation-induced attenuation as a function of wavelength and time simultaneously. By choosing different light sources and sweep speeds, radiation-induced attenuation may be measured under a variety of experimental configurations. Examples of the type of output obtained with our method are given.

Rotter, M.D.; Jander, D.R.

1984-07-01

270

Measuring transient radiation effects in optical fibers  

SciTech Connect

A new method is proposed for measuring transient radiation effects in optical fibers on a nanosecond timescale. The method, which incorporates a streak camera, allows more precise time resolution than other methods and has the advantage of measuring the radiation-induced attenuation as a function of wavelength and time simultaneously. By choosing different light sources and sweep speeds, radiation-induced attenuation may be measured under a variety of experimental configurations. Examples of the types of output obtained with our method are given. 4 references, 6 figures.

Rotter, M.D.; Jander, D.R.

1984-01-01

271

Spatial variability of shortwave radiative fluxes in the context of snowmelt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow-covered mountain ranges are a major source of water supply for run-off and groundwater recharge. Snowmelt supplies as much as 75% of surface water in basins of the western United States. Factors that affect the rate of snow melt include incoming shortwave and longwave radiation, surface albedo, snow emissivity, snow surface temperature, sensible and latent heat fluxes, ground heat flux, and energy transferred to the snowpack from deposited snow or rain. The net radiation generally makes up about 80% of the energy balance and is dominated by the shortwave radiation. Complex terrain poses a great challenge for obtaining the needed information on radiative fluxes from satellites due to elevation issues, spatially-variable cloud cover, rapidly changing surface conditions during snow fall and snow melt, lack of high quality ground truth for evaluation of the satellite based estimates, as well as scale issues between the ground observations and the satellite footprint. In this study we utilize observations of high spatial resolution (5-km) as available from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) to derive surface shortwave radiative fluxes in complex terrain, with attention to the impact of slopes on the amount of radiation received. The methodology developed has been applied to several water years (January to July during 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2009) over the western part of the United States, and the available information was used to derive metrics on spatial and temporal variability in the shortwave fluxes. It is planned to apply the findings from this study for testing improvements in Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) estimates.

Pinker, Rachel T.; Ma, Yingtao; Hinkelman, Laura; Lundquist, Jessica

2014-05-01

272

A novel approach to measuring heat flux in swimming animals Kate Willis*, Markus Horning  

E-print Network

A novel approach to measuring heat flux in swimming animals Kate Willis*, Markus Horning Laboratory measurements of heat flux from animal experiments to account for the thermal resistance of HFSs and insulative 22 September 2004 Abstract We present a design for long-term or removable attachment of heat flux

273

Prediction and measurement of incipient boiling heat flux in micro-channel heat sinks  

E-print Network

Prediction and measurement of incipient boiling heat flux in micro-channel heat sinks Weilin Qu Abstract Experiments were performed to measure the incipient boiling heat flux in a heat sink containing 21 to predict the incipient boiling heat flux, accounting for the complexities of bubble formation along

Qu, Weilin

274

Investigation of Flux Linkage Profile Measurement Methods for Switched Reluctance Motors and Permanent Magnet  

E-print Network

- 1 - Investigation of Flux Linkage Profile Measurement Methods for Switched Reluctance Motors and Permanent Magnet Motors K. Y. Lu, P. O. Rasmussen, A. E. Ritchie Abstract ­ Knowledge of actual flux linkage pure AC flux linkage measurement method is discussed and evaluated, which does not require a search

Lu, Kaiyuan

275

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)/Cart Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) goals are as follows: (1) to provide an experimental test bed for improving the treatment of radiative transfer in global climate models (GCM's) under all kinds of cloud cover; and (2) to improve the param...

B. Pennell

1993-01-01

276

UV RADIATION MEASUREMENTS/ATMOSPHERIC CHARACTERIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Because exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an ecosystem stressor and poses a human health risk, the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has undertaken a research program to measure the intensity of UV-B radiation at various locations throughout the U.S. In Septem...

277

Visualization of Radiation Environment on Mars: Assessment with MARIE Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For a given GCR (Galactic Cosmic Ray) environment at Mars, particle flux of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions, are also needed on the surface of Mars for future human exploration missions. For the past twelve months, the MARJE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument onboard the 200J Mars Odyssey has been providing the radiation measurements from the Martian orbit. These measurements are well correlated with the HZETRN (High Z and Energy Transport) and QMSFRG (Quantum Multiple-Scattering theory of nuclear Fragmentation) model calculations. These model calculations during these specific GCR environment conditions are now extended and transported through the CO2 atmosphere onto the Martian surface. These calculated pa11icle flux distributions are presented as a function of the Martian topography making use of the MOLA (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter) data from the MGS (Mars Global Surveyor). Also, particle flux calculations are presented with visualization in the human body from skin depth to the internal organs including the blood-forming organs.

Saganti, P.; Cucinotta, F.; Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T.; Flanders, J.; Riman, F.; Hu, X.; Pinsky, L.; Lee, K.; Anderson, V.; Atwell, W.; Turner, R.

2003-01-01

278

Figure 5. Net radiation of the study area on June 21, 2003 ESTIMATION OF HEAT FLUXES  

E-print Network

In the absence of advection or precipitation , the energy balance at the land surface is given by Rn - G - LE ­ H on vegetation, meteorological and atmospheric conditions In urban areas in addition to the net radiation the anthropogenic heat discharge also causes heat fluxes. Human activities, mainly energy production, use

Hall, Sharon J.

279

Radiation and environmental protection experience at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiological and environmental protection experience at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has been excellent. Plant personnel radiation exposures have been very low, contamination has been readily controlled and releases of radioactivity to the environment have been essentially nonexistent. This report discusses these three aspects of fast reactor safety at the FFTF and covers the first five operating cycles. This

P. R. Prevo; D. O. Hess

1985-01-01

280

Testing loss mechanisms capable of rapidly depleting relativistic electron flux in the Earth's outer radiation belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate how relativistic electrons are lost from the Earth's magnetosphere in order to better understand the dynamic variability of the radiation belts. We identify 52 events where the >2 MeV electron flux at geostationary orbit decreases rapidly and use a superposed epoch analysis of multispacecraft data to characterize the accompanying solar wind and geomagnetic conditions and examine the relevance

J. C. Green; T. G. Onsager; T. P. O'Brien; D. N. Baker

2004-01-01

281

A multigrid Newton-Krylov method for flux-limited radiation diffusion  

SciTech Connect

The authors focus on the integration of radiation diffusion including flux-limited diffusion coefficients. The nonlinear integration is accomplished with a Newton-Krylov method preconditioned with a multigrid Picard linearization of the governing equations. They investigate the efficiency of the linear and nonlinear iterative techniques.

Rider, W.J.; Knoll, D.A.; Olson, G.L.

1998-09-01

282

Would be the photon a composed particle? quantization of field fluxes in electromagnetic radiation  

E-print Network

[En] Here it is made a comparative analysis between the classical and the quantum expressions for the energy of electromagnetic radiation (ER). The comparison points to the possibility of the quantization of the magnetic and the electric field fluxes in the ER.

Celso de Araujo Duarte

2013-05-15

283

Solar Modulation of Inner Trapped Belt Radiation Flux as a Function of Atmospheric Density  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

No simple algorithm seems to exist for calculating proton fluxes and lifetimes in the Earth's inner, trapped radiation belt throughout the solar cycle. Most models of the inner trapped belt in use depend upon AP8 which only describes the radiation environment at solar maximum and solar minimum in Cycle 20. One exception is NOAAPRO which incorporates flight data from the TIROS/NOAA polar orbiting spacecraft. The present study discloses yet another, simple formulation for approximating proton fluxes at any time in a given solar cycle, in particular between solar maximum and solar minimum. It is derived from AP8 using a regression algorithm technique from nuclear physics. From flux and its time integral fluence, one can then approximate dose rate and its time integral dose.

Lodhi, M. A. K.

2005-01-01

284

Solar-Radiation Measuring Equipment and Glossary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1976 listing of commercially available solar-radiation measuring equipment is presented in 50-page report. Sensor type, response time, cost data, and comments concerning specifications and intended usage are listed for 145 instruments from 38 manufactures.

Carter, E. A.; Patel, A. M.; Greenbaum, S. A.

1982-01-01

285

Time and space resolved wall temperature and heat flux measurements during nucleate boiling with constant heat flux boundary conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of time and space resolved measurements under nucleating bubbles has complicated efforts to fully explain pool-boiling phenomena. In this work, time and space resolved temperature and heat flux distributions under nucleating bubbles on a constant heat flux surface were obtained using a 10×10 microheater array with 100?m resolution along with high-speed images. A numerical simulation was used to

Jerry G. Myers; Vamsee K. Yerramilli; Sam W. Hussey; Glenda F. Yee; Jungho Kim

2005-01-01

286

Radiation scanning and measuring device  

SciTech Connect

A scanning device for examining an object with gamma rays with shielding for protection from radiation and protection of the mechanism from heat by a cooling jacket formed by spaced plates around the object. The shielding is formed by a pair of shutter-halves forming a lead shutter with mechanism to move the shutter-halves toward and away from each other and one of the shutter-halves mounted on a rotating drum which also carries three gamma ray sources. Gamma ray detectors are mounted in a circle concentric and outside the circle of the sources.

Tatham, E. J.; Clymer, J. C.; Hoffman, C. D.; Kravits, R.

1985-04-16

287

Satellite interferometric measurements of auroral kilometric radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first satellite interferometric measurements of auroral kilometric radiation were performed by cross-correlating the waveforms detected by the ISEE 1 and ISEE 2 spacecraft. High correlations were found for all projected baselines, with little or no tendency to decrease even for the longest baselines. For incoherent radiation, the correlation as a function of the baseline is the Fourier transform of the source brightness distribution, implying an average source region diameter for all of the bursts analyzed of less than about 10 km. For such small source diameters, the required growth rates are too large to be explained by existing incoherent theories, strongly indicating that the radiation must be coherent. For coherent radiation, an upper limit to the source region diameter can be inferred instead from the angular width of the radiation pattern. The angular width of the radiation pattern must be at least 2.5 deg, implying that the diameter of the source must be less than about 20 km.

Baumback, M. M.; Gurnett, D. A.; Calvert, W.; Shawhan, S. D.

1986-01-01

288

Universal measurement of quantum correlations of radiation  

E-print Network

A measurement technique is proposed which, in principle, allows one to observe the general space-time correlation properties of a quantized radiation field. Our method, called balanced homodyne correlation measurement, unifies the advantages of balanced homodyne detection with those of homodyne correlation measurements.

E. Shchukin; W. Vogel

2006-02-15

289

Measuring neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes with CCD cameras  

SciTech Connect

The capability to measure bursts of neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes directly with charge coupled device (CCD) cameras while being able to distinguish between the video signals produced by these two types of radiation, even when they occur simultaneously, has been demonstrated. Volume and area measurements of transient radiation-induced pixel charge in English Electric Valve (EEV) Frame Transfer (FT) charge coupled devices (CCDs) from irradiation with pulsed neutrons (14 MeV) and Bremsstrahlung photons (4--12 MeV endpoint) are utilized to calibrate the devices as radiometric imaging sensors capable of distinguishing between the two types of ionizing radiation. Measurements indicate {approx}.05 V/rad responsivity with {ge}1 rad required for saturation from photon irradiation. Neutron-generated localized charge centers or peaks'' binned by area and amplitude as functions of fluence in the 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2} range indicate smearing over {approx}1 to 10% of CCD array with charge per pixel ranging between noise and saturation levels.

Yates, G.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Smith, G.W. (Ministry of Defense, Aldermaston (United Kingdom). Atomic Weapons Establishment); Zagarino, P.; Thomas, M.C. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations)

1991-01-01

290

Measuring neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes with CCD cameras  

SciTech Connect

The capability to measure bursts of neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes directly with charge coupled device (CCD) cameras while being able to distinguish between the video signals produced by these two types of radiation, even when they occur simultaneously, has been demonstrated. Volume and area measurements of transient radiation-induced pixel charge in English Electric Valve (EEV) Frame Transfer (FT) charge coupled devices (CCDs) from irradiation with pulsed neutrons (14 MeV) and Bremsstrahlung photons (4--12 MeV endpoint) are utilized to calibrate the devices as radiometric imaging sensors capable of distinguishing between the two types of ionizing radiation. Measurements indicate {approx}.05 V/rad responsivity with {ge}1 rad required for saturation from photon irradiation. Neutron-generated localized charge centers or ``peaks`` binned by area and amplitude as functions of fluence in the 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2} range indicate smearing over {approx}1 to 10% of CCD array with charge per pixel ranging between noise and saturation levels.

Yates, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, G.W. [Ministry of Defense, Aldermaston (United Kingdom). Atomic Weapons Establishment; Zagarino, P.; Thomas, M.C. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations

1991-12-01

291

Measurement of Flux Density of Cas A at Low Frequencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cas A is used as a flux calibrator throughout the radio spectrum. Therefore it is important to know the spectral and secular variations in its flux density. Earlier observations by Scott et. al. (1969) and Baars et. al. (1972) suggested a secular decrease in flux density of Cas A at a rate of about 1% per year at all frequencies. However later observations by Erickson & Perley (1975) and Read (1977) indicated anomalously high flux from Cas A at 38 MHz. Also, these observations suggested that the original idea of faster decay of the flux density rate at low frequencies may be in error or that something more complex than simple decay is affecting the flux density at low frequencies. The source changes at 38 MHz still remains a mystery. We intend to present the results of follow up observations made from 1995 to 1998 with a three element interferometer in Green Bank operating in frequency range 30 to 120 MHz. We will discuss the problems at such low frequencies due to large beamwidth and unstable ionosphere. We will also discuss the strategies we have used so far to to find the flux density of Cas A by calculating the ratio of flux density of Cas A to that of Cyg A, assuming flux density of Cyg A to be constant. Above mentioned work was performed in summer student program sponsored by National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

Patil, Ajinkya; Fisher, R.

2012-01-01

292

Modeling CAP-LTER Flux Tower Measurements using an Advanced Urban Canopy Model  

E-print Network

, and volumetric soil moisture profiles for a variety of urban land cover types. ASLUM is a "state-Zeid E (2010). A spatially-analytical scheme for surface temperatures and conductive heat fluxes in urban to predict regional scale urban climatology. In that way, the radiation budgets and turbulent heat fluxes

Hall, Sharon J.

293

Effect of spectrally varying albedo of vegetation surfaces on shortwave radiation fluxes and aerosol direct radiative forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study develops an algorithm for representing detailed spectral features of vegetation albedo based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observations at 7 discrete channels, referred to as the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Albedo (MEVA) algorithm. The MEVA algorithm empirically fills spectral gaps around the vegetation red edge near 0.7 ?m and vegetation water absorption features at 1.48 and 1.92 ?m which cannot be adequately captured by the MODIS 7 channels. We then assess the effects of applying MEVA in comparison to four other traditional approaches to calculate solar fluxes and aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) based on the MODIS discrete reflectance bands. By comparing the DRF results obtained through the MEVA method with the results obtained through the other four traditional approaches, we show that filling the spectral gap of the MODIS measurements around 0.7 ?m based on the general spectral behavior of healthy green vegetation leads to significant improvement in the instantaneous aerosol DRF at TOA (up to 3.02 W m-2 difference or 48% fraction of the aerosol DRF, -6.28 W m-2, calculated for high spectral resolution surface reflectance from 0.3 to 2.5 ?m for deciduous vegetation surface). The corrections of the spectral gaps in the vegetation spectrum in the near infrared, again missed by the MODIS reflectances, also contributes to improving TOA DRF calculations but to a much lower extent (less than 0.27 W m-2, or about 4% of the instantaneous DRF). Compared to traditional approaches, MEVA also improves the accuracy of the outgoing solar flux between 0.3 to 2.5 ?m at TOA by over 60 W m-2 (for aspen 3 surface) and aerosol DRF by over 10 W m-2 (for dry grass). Specifically, for Amazon vegetation types, MEVA can improve the accuracy of daily averaged aerosol radiative forcing in the spectral range of 0.3 to 2.5 ?m at equator at the equinox by 3.7 W m-2. These improvements indicate that MEVA can contribute to regional climate studies over vegetated areas and can help to improve remote sensing-based studies of climate processes and climate change.

Zhu, L.; Martins, J. V.; Yu, H.

2012-12-01

294

Effect of Spectrally Varying Albedo of Vegetation Surfaces on Shortwave Radiation Fluxes and Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study develops an algorithm for representing detailed spectral features of vegetation albedo based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observations at 7 discrete channels, referred to as the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Albedo (MEVA) algorithm. The MEVA algorithm empirically fills spectral gaps around the vegetation red edge near 0.7 micrometers and vegetation water absorption features at 1.48 and 1.92 micrometers which cannot be adequately captured by the MODIS 7 channels. We then assess the effects of applying MEVA in comparison to four other traditional approaches to calculate solar fluxes and aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) based on the MODIS discrete reflectance bands. By comparing the DRF results obtained through the MEVA method with the results obtained through the other four traditional approaches, we show that filling the spectral gap of the MODIS measurements around 0.7 micrometers based on the general spectral behavior of healthy green vegetation leads to significant improvement in the instantaneous aerosol DRF at TOA (up to 3.02Wm(exp -2) difference or 48% fraction of the aerosol DRF, .6.28Wm(exp -2), calculated for high spectral resolution surface reflectance from 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers for deciduous vegetation surface). The corrections of the spectral gaps in the vegetation spectrum in the near infrared, again missed by the MODIS reflectances, also contributes to improving TOA DRF calculations but to a much lower extent (less than 0.27Wm(exp -2), or about 4% of the instantaneous DRF). Compared to traditional approaches, MEVA also improves the accuracy of the outgoing solar flux between 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers at TOA by over 60Wm(exp -2) (for aspen 3 surface) and aerosol DRF by over 10Wm(exp -2) (for dry grass). Specifically, for Amazon vegetation types, MEVA can improve the accuracy of daily averaged aerosol radiative forcing in the spectral range of 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers at equator at the equinox by 3.7Wm(exp -2). These improvements indicate that MEVA can contribute to regional climate studies over vegetated areas and can help to improve remote sensing-based studies of climate processes and climate change.

Zhu, L.; Martins, J. V.; Yu, H.

2012-01-01

295

Two-Flux Green's Function Analysis for Transient Spectral Radiation in a Composite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is developed for obtaining transient temperatures in a two-layer semitransparent composite with spectrally dependent properties. Each external boundary of the composite is subjected to radiation and convection. The two-flux radiative transfer equations are solved by deriving a Green's function. This yields the local radiative heat source needed to numerically solve the transient energy equation. An advantage of the two-flux method is that isotropic scattering is included without added complexity. The layer refractive indices are larger than one. This produces internal reflections at the boundaries and the internal interface; the reflections are assumed diffuse. Spectral results using the Green's function method are verified by comparing with numerical solutions using the exact radiative transfer equations. Transient temperature distributions are given to illustrate the effect of radiative heating on one side of a composite with external convective cooling. The protection of a material from incident radiation is illustrated by adding scattering to the layer adjacent to the radiative source.

Siegel, Robert

1996-01-01

296

Accelerated Detector - Quantum Field Correlations: From Vacuum Fluctuations to Radiation Flux  

E-print Network

In this paper we analyze the interaction of a uniformly accelerated detector with a quantum field in (3+1)D spacetime, aiming at the issue of how kinematics can render vacuum fluctuations the appearance of thermal radiance in the detector (Unruh effect) and how they engender flux of radiation for observers afar. Two basic questions are addressed in this study: a) How are vacuum fluctuations related to the emitted radiation? b) Is there emitted radiation with energy flux in the Unruh effect? We adopt a method which places the detector and the field on an equal footing and derive the two-point correlation functions of the detector and of the field separately with full account of their interplay. From the exact solutions, we are able to study the complete process from the initial transient to the final steady state, keeping track of all activities they engage in and the physical effects manifested. We derive a quantum radiation formula for a Minkowski observer. We find that there does exist a positive radiated power of quantum nature emitted by the detector, with a hint of certain features of the Unruh effect. We further verify that the total energy of the dressed detector and a part of the radiated energy from the detector is conserved. However, this part of the radiation ceases in steady state. So the hint of the Unruh effect in radiated power is actually not directly from the energy flux that the detector experiences in Unruh effect. Since all the relevant quantum and statistical information about the detector (atom) and the field can be obtained from the results presented here, they are expected to be useful, when appropriately generalized, for addressing issues of quantum information processing in atomic and optical systems, such as quantum decoherence, entanglement and teleportation.

Shih-Yuin Lin; B. L. Hu

2005-07-13

297

Accelerated detector-quantum field correlations: From vacuum fluctuations to radiation flux  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we analyze the interaction of a uniformly accelerated detector with a quantum field in (3+1)D spacetime, aiming at the issue of how kinematics can render vacuum fluctuations the appearance of thermal radiance in the detector (Unruh effect) and how they engender flux of radiation for observers afar. Two basic questions are addressed in this study: (a) How are vacuum fluctuations related to the emitted radiation? (b) Is there emitted radiation with energy flux in the Unruh effect? We adopt a method which places the detector and the field on an equal footing and derive the two-point correlation functions of the detector and of the field separately with full account of their interplay. From the exact solutions, we are able to study the complete process from the initial transient to the final steady state, keeping track of all activities they engage in and the physical effects manifested. We derive a quantum radiation formula for a Minkowski observer. We find that there does exist a positive radiated power of quantum nature emitted by the detector, with a hint of certain features of the Unruh effect. We further verify that the total energy of the dressed detector and a part of the radiated energy from the detector is conserved. However, this part of the radiation ceases in steady state. So the hint of the Unruh effect in radiated power is actually not directly from the energy flux that the detector experiences in Unruh effect. Since all the relevant quantum and statistical information about the detector (atom) and the field can be obtained from the results presented here, they are expected to be useful, when appropriately generalized, for addressing issues of quantum information processing in atomic and optical systems, such as quantum decoherence, entanglement, and teleportation.

Lin, S.-Y.; Hu, B.L. [Center for Quantum and Gravitational Physics, Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China) and Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States)

2006-06-15

298

A Summary of Mass Flux Measurements in Solid 4He  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we provide a summary and brief review of some of the work done with solid 4He at the University of Massachusetts Amherst below a sample pressure of 28 bar. The motivation for the work has been to attempt to pass 4He atoms through solid 4He without directly applying mechanical pressure to the solid itself. The specific technique chosen is limited to pressures near the melting curve and was initially designed to provide a yes/no answer to the question of whether or not it might be possible to observe such a mass flux. The thermo-mechanical effect and direct mass injection have been separately used to create chemical potential differences between two reservoirs of superfluid 4He connected to each other through superfluid-filled Vycor rods in series with solid 4He, which is in the hcp region of the phase diagram. The thermo-mechanical effect is a more versatile approach. And, in a particular symmetric application it is designed to provide a mass flux with little or no net increase in the density of the solid. Our observations, off but near the melting curve, have included: (1) the presence of an increasing DC flux of atoms through the solid-filled cell with decreasing temperature below ?650 mK and no flux above this temperature; (2) the presence of a flux minimum and flux instability in the vicinity of 75-80 mK, with a flux increase at lower temperatures; (3) the temperature dependence of the flux above 100 mK and the dependence of the flux on the net driving chemical potential difference provide interesting insights on the possible mechanism that leads to the flux above 100 mK. The most recent data suggest that whatever is responsible for the flux in solid 4He, at least for T>100 mK, may be an example of a Bosonic Luttinger liquid.

Hallock, R. B.; Ray, M. W.; Vekhov, Y.

2012-11-01

299

Inversion of Multi-Angle Radiation Measurement  

SciTech Connect

Our need to reconcile models and measurements in an efficient manner that allows for the operational retrieval of particle sizes for a two layer cloud led us to develop a new method for calculating the Green's functions for radiative transfer. The method uses the fact that doubling/adding codes can be easily used to calculate internal radiation fields at arbitrarily high resolution. We have also determined that the adjoint downwelling and upwelling vector radiation fields are simply related to the usual downwelling and upwelling vector radiation fields so that the entire Green's function can be determined from a single calculation. The Green's functions have then been used to calculate the particle sizes in a two layer cloud that are consistent with both the reflectance and polarization measurements. This approach may be of use in other applications where adjoint calculations are used, particularly if multiangle measurements are being analyzed.

Cairns, B.; Alexandrov, M. Lacis, A.; Carlson, B.

2005-03-18

300

Reconciling models of luminous blazars with magnetic fluxes determined by radio core shift measurements  

E-print Network

Estimates of magnetic field strength in relativistic jets of active galactic nuclei (AGN), obtained by measuring the frequency-dependent radio core location, imply that the total magnetic fluxes in those jets are consistent with the predictions of the magnetically-arrested disk (MAD) scenario of jet formation. On the other hand, the magnetic field strength determines the luminosity of the synchrotron radiation, which forms the low-energy bump of the observed blazar spectral energy distribution (SED). The SEDs of the most powerful blazars are strongly dominated by the high-energy bump, which is most likely due to the external radiation Compton (ERC) mechanism. This high Compton dominance may be difficult to reconcile with the MAD scenario, unless 1) the geometry of external radiation sources (broad-line region, hot-dust torus) is quasi-spherical rather than flat, or 2) most gamma-ray radiation is produced in jet regions of low magnetization, e.g., in magnetic reconnection layers or in fast jet spines.

Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Begelman, Mitchell C

2014-01-01

301

Reconciling Models of Luminous Blazars with Magnetic Fluxes Determined by Radio Core-shift Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of magnetic field strength in relativistic jets of active galactic nuclei, obtained by measuring the frequency-dependent radio core location, imply that the total magnetic fluxes in those jets are consistent with the predictions of the magnetically arrested disk (MAD) scenario of jet formation. On the other hand, the magnetic field strength determines the luminosity of the synchrotron radiation, which forms the low-energy bump of the observed blazar spectral energy distribution (SED). The SEDs of the most powerful blazars are strongly dominated by the high-energy bump, which is most likely due to the external radiation Compton mechanism. This high Compton dominance may be difficult to reconcile with the MAD scenario, unless (1) the geometry of external radiation sources (broad-line region, hot-dust torus) is quasi-spherical rather than flat, or (2) most gamma-ray radiation is produced in jet regions of low magnetization, e.g., in magnetic reconnection layers or in fast jet spines.

Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Sikora, Marek; Begelman, Mitchell C.

2014-11-01

302

Soil air and soil flux measurements of 222Radon and CO2: A soil flux parametrization at Lutjewad (NL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric 222Radon concentration measurements are used as a valuable transport tracer verifying the transport part of Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gas models. The production rate of the radioactive noble gas 222Radon (T1?2 = 3.8 days) by radioactive decay of 226Radium in the soil is constant, the absolute quantity depending on the local soil Radium concentration. The flux of 222Radon to the atmosphere (the soil exhalation, or effective atmospheric production rate), however, is not constant. It strongly depends on soil texture, soil humidity, precipitation and other parameters, but is nearly constant if these parameters stay unchanged. Recently, an effort has been done to predict this flux rate with widely available γ-dosimetry measurements (Szegvary et al., Predicting terrestrial 222Rn-flux using gamma dose rate as a proxy, ACP 7, 2789-2795, 2007), but real 222Radon-flux measurements are sparse. 222Radon undergoes the same transport processes on the way from soil to atmosphere as any other soil-derived (greenhouse) gas. This makes 222Radon an ideal tracer to separate variations in e.g. soil CO2-production from changes in the soil-atmosphere CO2-transport, both being reflected in the total soil-atmosphere CO2-flux. At the atmospheric measurement site Lutjewad in the north of the Netherlands (53N24'18", 6E21'13", www.rug.nl/ees/onderzoek/cio/projecten/atmosphericgases) we started in 2006 with the measurements of the soil 222Radon and CO2 concentration through soil probes as well as the Radon and CO2 soil fluxes by means of an automatic soil chamber. While there are up to eight soil air measurements per day, the soil chamber is automatically closed twice per day. The station is situated directly on the Waddensea dike at an elevation of 1 m a.s.l. on seaclay soil. The groundwater table shows variations between 0.5 m and 2 m below terrain. From our measurements we find that in the dryer summer season, from April to July, the mean 222Radon-flux can be up to 40 % higher than the during the rest of the year, but the variability is generally very high. Short-term flux minima are mainly due to precipitation events. First results will be shown of the parameterization of the 222Radon and CO2 fluxes with the groundwater level, soil temperature and humidity, rain events and atmospheric pressure changes.

Neubert, R. E. M.; Kettner, E.; Palstra, S. W. L.; Hoekman, S.; van der Graaf, E. R.

2009-04-01

303

Plasma Lens for High Flux X-Ray Radiation  

SciTech Connect

We have developed the Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) to provide a database of reaction violence from thermal explosion for explosives of interest. Such data are needed to develop, calibrate, and validate predictive capability for thermal explosions using simulation computer codes. A cylinder of explosive 25, 50 or 100 mm in diameter, is confined in a steel cylinder with heavy end caps, and heated under controlled conditions until reaction. Reaction violence is quantified through non-contact micropower impulse radar measurements of the cylinder wall velocity and by strain gauge data at reaction onset. Here we describe the test concept, design and diagnostic recording, and report results with HMX- and RDX-based energetic materials.

Shlyaptsev, V N; Toor, A; Tatchyn, R O

2001-12-17

304

Three-dimensional non-LTE radiative transfer effects in Fe I lines. I. Flux sheet and flux tube geometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In network and active region plages, the magnetic field is concentrated into structures often described as flux tubes (FTs) and sheets (FSs). Three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer is important for energy transport in these concentrations. It is also expected to be important for diagnostic purposes but has rarely been applied for that purpose. Using true 3D, non-local thermodynamic-equilibrium (non-LTE or NLTE) radiative transfer (RT) in FT and FS models, we compute iron line profiles commonly used to diagnose the Sun's magnetic field by using and comparing the results with those obtained from LTE or one-dimensional (1D) NLTE calculations. Employing a multilevel iron atom, we study the influence of several basic parameters such as either FS or FT Wilson depression, wall thickness, radius/width, thermal stratification or magnetic field strength on Stokes I and the polarized Stokes parameters in the thin-tube approximation. The use of different levels of approximations of RT (3D NLTE, 1D NLTE, LTE) may lead to considerable differences in profile shapes, intensity contrasts, equivalent widths, and the determination of magnetic field strengths. In particular, LTE, which often provides a good approach in planar 1D atmospheres, is a poor approximation in our flux sheet model for some of the most important diagnostic Fe i lines (524.7 nm, 525.0 nm, 630.1 nm, and 630.2 nm). The observed effects depend on parameters such as the height of line formation, field strength, and internal temperature stratification. Differences between the profile shapes may lead to errors in the determination of magnetic fields on the order of 10% to 20%, while errors in the determined temperature can reach 300-400 K. The empirical FT models NET and PLA turn out to minimize the effects of 3D RT, so that results obtained with these models by applying LTE may also remain valid for 3D NLTE calculations. Finally, horizontal RT is found to only insignificantly smear out structures such as the optically thick walls of flux tubes and sheets, allowing features as narrow as 10 km to remain visible. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Holzreuter, R.; Solanki, S. K.

2012-11-01

305

Measurement of angular distribution of neutron flux for the 6MeV race-track microtron based pulsed neutron source.  

PubMed

The 6MeV race track microtron based pulsed neutron source has been designed specifically for the elemental analysis of short lived activation products, where the low neutron flux requirement is desirable. Electrons impinges on a e-gamma target to generate bremsstrahlung radiations, which further produces neutrons by photonuclear reaction in gamma-n target. The optimisation of these targets along with their spectra were estimated using FLUKA code. The measurement of neutron flux was carried out by activation of vanadium at different scattering angles. Angular distribution of neutron flux indicates that the flux decreases with increase in the angle and are in good agreement with the FLUKA simulation. PMID:20447829

Patil, B J; Chavan, S T; Pethe, S N; Krishnan, R; Dhole, S D

2010-09-01

306

Radiation budget measurement/model interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report includes research results from the period February, 1981 through November, 1982. Two new results combine to form the final portion of this work. They are the work by Hanna (1982) and Stevens to successfully test and demonstrate a low-order spectral climate model and the work by Ciesielski et al. (1983) to combine and test the new radiation budget results from NIMBUS-7 with earlier satellite measurements. Together, the two related activities set the stage for future research on radiation budget measurement/model interfacing. Such combination of results will lead to new applications of satellite data to climate problems. The objectives of this research under the present contract are therefore satisfied. Additional research reported herein includes the compilation and documentation of the radiation budget data set a Colorado State University and the definition of climate-related experiments suggested after lengthy analysis of the satellite radiation budget experiments.

Vonderhaar, T. H.; Ciesielski, P.; Randel, D.; Stevens, D.

1983-01-01

307

Direction finding measurements of auroral kilometric radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direction finding measurements with plasma wave experiments onboard the Hawkeye-1 and IMP-8 satellites were used to locate the source region of auroral kilometric radiation. The radiation exhibits peak intensities between about 100 kHz and 300 kHz, and emits intense sporadic bursts lasting for between one half hour to several hours. The total power emitted in this frequency range exceeds 10 to the 9th power watts at peak intensity. The occurrence of the radiation is known to be closely associated with bright auroral arcs which occur in the local evening auroral regions.

Kurth, W. S.; Baumback, M. M.; Gurnett, D. A.

1974-01-01

308

Results and interpretation of measurements of the light flux in the near-surface layer of the Venusian atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of the field of radiation in the near surface layer of the atmosphere and on the surface of Venus are reported. Optical measurements made during the landing of the descent vehicles are described. The relief of the surface and the amount of dust on it are examined. The spectral relationship of the albedo of the soil and the light flux incident on the surface is discussed.

Golovin, Y. M.; Moshkin, B. Y.; Ekonomov, A. P. E.

1979-01-01

309

Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements  

E-print Network

the dynamics, define the thermal history, and are a consequence of the differentiation of the Earth. Knowledge of the elec- tron antineutrino flux from 238 U and 232 Th decay and of radio- genic heat production within

Mcdonough, William F.

310

Mass Flux Measurements of Arsenic in Groundwater (Battelle Conference)  

EPA Science Inventory

Concentration trends of arsenic are typically used to evaluate the performance of remediation efforts designed to mitigate arsenic contamination in groundwater. A complementary approach would be to track changes in mass flux of the contaminant through the subsurface, for exampl...

311

The flux measure of influence in engineering networks  

E-print Network

The objective of this project is to characterize the influence of individual nodes in complex networks. The flux metric developed here achieves this goal by considering the difference between the weighted outdegree and ...

Schwing, Kyle Michael

2009-01-01

312

Decoupled cantilever arms for highly versatile and sensitive temperature and heat flux measurements  

E-print Network

Microfabricated cantilever beams have been used in microelectromechanical systems for a variety of sensor and actuator applications. Bimorph cantilevers accurately measure temperature change and heat flux with resolutions ...

Burg, Brian R.

313

A novel approach to measuring heat flux in swimming animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a design for long-term or removable attachment of heat flux sensors (HFSs) to stationary or swimming animals in water that enables collection of heat flux data on both captive and free-ranging pinnipeds. HFSs were modified to allow for independent, continuous, and long-term or removable attachment to study animals. The design was tested for effects of HFSs and the

Kate Willis; Markus Horning

2005-01-01

314

The measurable heat flux that accompanies active transport Dick Bedeauxw and Signe Kjelstrupw  

E-print Network

The measurable heat flux that accompanies active transport by Ca2+ -ATPase Dick Bedeauxw and Signe how the measurable heat flux and the heat production under isothermal conditions, as well of measurements, that the heat production in active trans- port is significant and varies. These authors studied

Kjelstrup, Signe

315

Cloud cover classification through simultaneous ground-based measurements of solar and infrared radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous measurements of downwelling short-wave solar irradiance and incoming total radiation flux were performed at the Reeves Nevè glacier station (1200 m MSL) in Antarctica on 41 days from late November 1994 to early January 1995, employing the upward sensors of an albedometer and a pyrradiometer. The downwelling short-wave radiation measurements were analysed following the Duchon and O'Malley [J. Appl.

Antonio Orsini; Claudio Tomasi; Francescopiero Calzolari; Marianna Nardino; Alessandra Cacciari; Teodoro Georgiadis

2002-01-01

316

A model of the Starfish flux in the inner radiation zone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model of the Starfish electrons injected into the radiation belt in July 1962 was determined for epoch September 1964. This model distinguishes between artificial and natural electrons and provides the artificial unidirectional electron flux as a function of equatorial pitch angle, energy, and L value. The model is based primarily upon data from the OGO-1, OGO-3, OGO-5, 1963-38C, and the OV3-3 satellites. Decay times for the Starfish electrons are given as a function of energy and L value. These decay times represent the best compromise between a number of independently determined values. The times at which the artificial Starfish flux component had become insignificant in comparison to the natural flux component are determined as functions of energy and L value. These times are determined by two separate methods, and averaged values are presented. It is shown that Starfish electrons, by the present time, have become insignificant for all energies and L values.

Teague, M. J.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.

1972-01-01

317

Assessment of radiative feedback in climate models using satellite observations of annual flux variation  

PubMed Central

In the climate system, two types of radiative feedback are in operation. The feedback of the first kind involves the radiative damping of the vertically uniform temperature perturbation of the troposphere and Earth’s surface that approximately follows the Stefan–Boltzmann law of blackbody radiation. The second kind involves the change in the vertical lapse rate of temperature, water vapor, and clouds in the troposphere and albedo of the Earth’s surface. Using satellite observations of the annual variation of the outgoing flux of longwave radiation and that of reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, this study estimates the so-called “gain factor,” which characterizes the strength of radiative feedback of the second kind that operates on the annually varying, global-scale perturbation of temperature at the Earth’s surface. The gain factor is computed not only for all sky but also for clear sky. The gain factor of so-called “cloud radiative forcing” is then computed as the difference between the two. The gain factors thus obtained are compared with those obtained from 35 models that were used for the fourth and fifth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment. Here, we show that the gain factors obtained from satellite observations of cloud radiative forcing are effective for identifying systematic biases of the feedback processes that control the sensitivity of simulated climate, providing useful information for validating and improving a climate model. PMID:23613585

Tsushima, Yoko; Manabe, Syukuro

2013-01-01

318

Assessment of radiative feedback in climate models using satellite observations of annual flux variation.  

PubMed

In the climate system, two types of radiative feedback are in operation. The feedback of the first kind involves the radiative damping of the vertically uniform temperature perturbation of the troposphere and Earth's surface that approximately follows the Stefan-Boltzmann law of blackbody radiation. The second kind involves the change in the vertical lapse rate of temperature, water vapor, and clouds in the troposphere and albedo of the Earth's surface. Using satellite observations of the annual variation of the outgoing flux of longwave radiation and that of reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, this study estimates the so-called "gain factor," which characterizes the strength of radiative feedback of the second kind that operates on the annually varying, global-scale perturbation of temperature at the Earth's surface. The gain factor is computed not only for all sky but also for clear sky. The gain factor of so-called "cloud radiative forcing" is then computed as the difference between the two. The gain factors thus obtained are compared with those obtained from 35 models that were used for the fourth and fifth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment. Here, we show that the gain factors obtained from satellite observations of cloud radiative forcing are effective for identifying systematic biases of the feedback processes that control the sensitivity of simulated climate, providing useful information for validating and improving a climate model. PMID:23613585

Tsushima, Yoko; Manabe, Syukuro

2013-05-01

319

Cloud radiative forcing on surface shortwave fluxes: A case study based on Cloud Lidar and Radar Exploratory Test  

SciTech Connect

Shortwave downward fluxes for selected stratus, cirrus, and mixed phase cloud cases are analyzed based on cloud and surface radiation measurements from the Cloud Lidar and Radar Exploratory Test conducted in the Denver-Boulder area of Colorado during September-October, 1989. A medium resolution, discrete-ordinate shortwave radiative transfer model is used to provide clear-sky conditions and to examine the cloud shortwave radiative forcing. The model simulation indicates that for stratus clouds the effective radius increases with increasing liquid water path. For cirrus cloud simulation, the model results are within 10% agreement with the surface flux measurements. However, using the one-dimensional plane-parallel model, the model results are in poor agreement for the inhomogeneous mixed phase cloud case. Over the elevated observation site, the reduction in shortwave downward flux by clouds can be as large as 40% for a small cloud water path value of 20 g m{sup {minus}2}. The variation in observed cloud shortwave forcing is highly correlated with the integrated cloud water path. The normalized (by the clear-sky value) cloud shortwave forcing increases rapidly when the cloud water path is small. The rate of increase decreases, and the normalized cloud forcing approaches saturation when cloud water path becomes large. The magnitude of the saturation value depends on cloud optical properties. The variation in observed cloud forcing is consistent with the theoretical curve for cloudy atmospheric albedo variation. At a constant value of cloud water path, the normalized cloud forcing increases with solar zenith angle. The solar zenith angle effect is less significant for larger value of cloud water path. 44 refs., 11 figs.

Shi, L. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

1994-12-20

320

Intercalibration of benthic flux chambers I. Accuracy of flux measurements and influence of chamber hydrodynamics [review article  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrodynamic properties and the capability to measure sediment-water solute fluxes, at assumed steady state conditions, were compared for three radically different benthic chamber designs: the “Microcosm”, the “Mississippi” and the “Göteborg” chambers. The hydrodynamic properties were characterized by mounting a PVC bottom in each chamber and measuring mixing time, diffusive boundary layer thickness (DBL thickness) shear velocity (u ?) , and total pressure created by the water mixing. The Microcosm had the most even distribution of DBL thickness and u ?, but the highest differential pressure at high water mixing rates. The Mississippi chamber had low differential pressures at high u ?. The Göteborg chamber was in between the two others regarding these properties. DBL thickness and u ? were found to correlate according to the following empirical formula: DBL=76.18(u ?) -0.933. Multiple flux incubations with replicates of each of the chamber types were carried out on homogenized, macrofauna-free sediments in four tanks. The degree of homogeneity was determined by calculating solute fluxes (of oxygen, silicate, phosphate and ammonium) from porewater profiles and by sampling for porosity, organic carbon and meiofauna. All these results, except meiofauna, indicated that there were no significant horizontal variations within the sediment in any of the parallel incubation experiments. The statistical evaluations also suggested that the occasional variations in meiofauna abundance did not have any influence on the measured solute fluxes. Forty-three microelectrode profiles of oxygen in the DBL and porewater were evaluated with four different procedures to calculate diffusive fluxes. The procedure presented by Berg, Risgaard-Petersen and Rysgaard, 1989 [Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1500] was found to be superior because of its ability to fit measured profiles accurately, and because it takes into consideration vertical zonation with different oxygen consumption rates in the sediment. During the flux incubations, the mixing in the chambers was replicated ranging from slow mixing to just noticeable sediment resuspension. In the “hydrodynamic characterizations” these mixing rates corresponded to average DBL thickness from 120 to 550 ?m, to u ? from 0.12 to 0.68 cm/s, and to differential pressures from 0-3 Pa. Although not directly transferable, since the incubations were done on a “real” sediment with a rougher surface while in the characterizations a PVC plate simulated the sediments surface, these data give ideas about the prevailing hydrodynamic condition in the chambers during the incubations. The variations in water mixing did not generate statistically significant differences between the chamber types for any of the measured fluxes of oxygen or nutrients. Consequently it can be concluded that, for these non-permeable sediments and so long as appropriate water mixing (within the ranges given above) is maintained, the type of stirring mechanism and chamber design used were not critical for the magnitude of the measured fluxes. The average measured oxygen flux was 11.2 ± 2.7 (from 40 incubations), while the diffusive flux calculated (from 43 profiles using the Berg et al., 1989 [Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1500] procedure) was 11.1 ± 3.0 mmol m -2 day -1. This strongly suggests that accurate oxygen flux measurements were obtained with the three types of benthic chambers used and that the oxygen uptake is diffusive.

Tengberg, A.; Stahl, H.; Gust, G.; Müller, V.; Arning, U.; Andersson, H.; Hall, P. O. J.

2004-01-01

321

Radiation measurements from polar and geosynchronous satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 1960's, radiation budget measurements from satellites have allowed quantitative study of the global energetics of our atmosphere-ocean system. A continuing program is planned, including independent measurement of the solar constant. Thus far, the measurements returned from two basically different types of satellite experiments are in agreement on the long term global scales where they are most comparable. This fact, together with independent estimates of the accuracy of measurement from each system, shows that the energy exchange between earth and space is now measured better than it can be calculated. Examples of application of the radiation budget data were shown. They can be related to the age-old problem of climate change, to the basic question of the thermal forcing of our circulation systems, and to the contemporary problems of local area energetics and computer modeling of the atmosphere.

Vonderhaar, T. H.

1973-01-01

322

Estimating Total Heliospheric Magnetic Flux from Single-Point in Situ Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fraction of the total photospheric magnetic flux opens to the heliosphere to form the interplanetary magnetic field carried by the solar wind. While this open flux is critical to our understanding of the generation and evolution of the solar magnetic field, direct measurements are generally limited to single-point measurements taken in situ by heliospheric spacecraft. An observed latitude invariance in the radial component of the magnetic field suggests that extrapolation from such single-point measurements to total heliospheric magnetic flux is possible. In this study we test this assumption using estimates of total heliospheric flux from well-separated heliospheric spacecraft and conclude that single-point measurements are indeed adequate proxies for the total heliospheric magnetic flux, though care must be taken when comparing flux estimates from data collected at different heliocentric distances.

Owens, M. J.; Arge, C. N.; Crooker, N. U.; Schwardron, N. A.; Horbury, T. S.

2008-01-01

323

Airborne eddy correlation gas flux measurements - Design criteria for optical techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although several methods exist for the determination of the flux of an atmospheric species, the airborne eddy correlation method has the advantage of providing direct flux measurements that are representative of regional spatial domains. The design criteria pertinent to the construction of chemical instrumentation suitable for use in airborne eddy correlation flux measurements are discussed. A brief overview of the advantages and limitations of the current instrumentation used to obtain flux measurements for CO, CH4, O3, CO2, and water vapor are given. The intended height of the measurement within the convective boundary layer is also shown to be an important design criteria. The sensitivity, or resolution, which is required in the measurement of a scalar species to obtain an adequate species flux measurement is discussed. The relationship between the species flux resolution and the more commonly stated instrumental resolution is developed and it is shown that the standard error of the flux estimate is a complicated function of the atmospheric variability and the averaging time that is used. The use of the recently proposed intermittent sampling method to determine the species flux is examined. The application of this technique may provide an opportunity to expand the suite of trace gases for which direct flux measurements are possible.

Ritter, John A.; Sachse, Glen W.; Anderson, Bruce E.

1993-01-01

324

Measurement of Global Radiation using Photovoltaic Panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vito Unit - Environmental and Spatial Aspects (RMA) - for many of its models makes use of global solar radiation. From this viewpoint and also from the notion that this variable is seldom measured or available at the local scale and at high multi-temporal frequencies, it can be stated that many models are fed with low quality estimates of global solar radiation at the local to regional scales. A project was initiated called SUNSPIDER with the following objective. To make use of photovoltaic solar panels to measure solar radiation at the highest spatio-temporal resolution, from the local to the regional scales and from minutes to years. To integrate the measured solar fields in different application fields like, plant systems and agriculture, agro-meteorology and hydrology and last but not least solar energy applications. In Belgium about 250.000 PV installations have been built leading to about 6% electric power supply from photovoltaics on a yearly basis. Last year in June, the supply reached a peak of more than 20% of the total power input on the Belgian grid. A database of Belgian residential solar panel sites will be compiled. The database will serve as an input to an inverted PV model to be able to perform radiation calculations specifically for each of the validated panel sites based on minutely logged power data. Data acquisition for these sites will start each time a site is validated and hence imported in the database. Keywords: Photovoltaic Panels; PV modelling; Global Radiation.

Veroustraete, Frank; Bronders, Jan; Lefevre, Filip; Mensink, Clemens

2014-05-01

325

Determination of TFTR far-field neutron detector efficiencies by local neutron flux spectrum measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron detectors have often been located on the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR) test cell floor 3 m or more from the vacuum vessel for ease of detector access, to reduce radiation damage, minimize count saturation problems, and to avoid high magnetic fields. These detectors include Si surface-barrier diodes, fission chambers, natural diamond detectors, and T2 production in a moderated 3He cell. To evaluate the performance of these detectors during deuterium-tritium (D-T) operation, we determined the neutron flux spectrum incident on the principal detector enclosure using nuclide sample sets containing Al, Ti, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni, Zr, Nb, In, and Au activation foils. Foils were installed and then removed after ample exposure to TFTR D-T neutrons. High efficiency, high purity Ge detectors were used for gamma spectroscopy of the irradiated foils. The incident neutron fluence and spectral distribution were unfolded from the measured results, and used to derive absolute detector efficiencies.

Jassby, D. L.; Ascione, G.; Kugel, H. W.; Roquemore, A. L.; Barcelo, T. W.; Kumar, A.

1997-01-01

326

Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until

Robert V

1993-01-01

327

Remote Measurement of Heat Flux from Power Plant Cooling Lakes  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments have demonstrated a correlation between the rate of heat loss q? from an experimental fluid to the air above and the standard deviation ? of the thermal variability in images of the fluid surface. These experimental results imply that q? can be derived directly from thermal imagery by computing ?. This paper analyses thermal imagery collected over two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the same relationship exists. Turbulent boundary layer theory predicts a linear relationship between q? and ? when both forced (wind driven) and free (buoyancy driven) convection are present. Datasets derived from ground- and helicopter-based imagery collections had correlation coefficients between ? and q? of 0.45 and 0.76, respectively. Values of q? computed from a function of ? and friction velocity u* derived from turbulent boundary layer theory had higher correlations with measured values of q? (0.84 and 0.89). This research may be applicable to the problem of calculating losses of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere during high-latitude cold-air outbreaks because it does not require the information typically needed to compute sensible, evaporative, and thermal radiation energy losses to the atmosphere.

Garrett, A.; Kurzeja, R.; Villa-Aleman, E.; Bollinger, J.

2013-01-01

328

Effects of tropospheric aerosols on radiative flux calculations at UV and visible wavelengths  

SciTech Connect

The surface fluxes in the wavelength range 175 to 735nm have been calculated for an atmosphere which contains a uniformly mixed aerosol layer of thickness 1km at the earth`s surface. Two different aerosol types were considered, a rural aerosol, and an urban aerosol. The visibility range for the aerosol layers was 95 to 15 km. Surface flux ratios (15km/95km) were in agreement with previously published results for the rural aerosol layer to within about 2%. The surface flux ratios vary from 7 to 14% for the rural aerosol layer and from 13 to 23% for the urban aerosol layer over the wavelength range. A tropospheric radiative forcing of about 1.3% of the total tropospheric flux was determined for the 95km to 15km visibility change in the rural aerosol layer, indicating the potential of tropospheric feedback effects on the surface flux changes. This effect was found to be negligible for the urban aerosol layer. Stratospheric layer heating rate changes due to visibility changes in either the rural or urban aerosol layer were found to be negligible.

Grossman, A.S.; Grant, K.E.

1994-08-01

329

Intercomparison of Shortwave Radiative Transfer Codes and Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Computation of components of shortwave (SW) or solar irradiance in the surface-atmospheric system forms the basis of intercomparison between 16 radiative transfer models of varying spectral resolution ranging from line-by-line models to broadband and general circulation models. In order of increasing complexity the components are: direct solar irradiance at the surface, diffuse irradiance at the surface, diffuse upward flux at the surface, and diffuse upward flux at the top of the atmosphere. These components allow computation of the atmospheric absorptance. Four cases are considered from pure molecular atmospheres to atmospheres with aerosols and atmosphere with a simple uniform cloud. The molecular and aerosol cases allow comparison of aerosol forcing calculation among models. A cloud-free case with measured atmospheric and aerosol properties and measured shortwave radiation components provides an absolute basis for evaluating the models. For the aerosol-free and cloud-free dry atmospheres, models agree to within 1% (root mean square deviation as a percentage of mean) in broadband direct solar irradiance at surface; the agreement is relatively poor at 5% for a humid atmosphere. A comparison of atmospheric absorptance, computed from components of SW radiation, shows that agreement among models is understandably much worse at 3% and 10% for dry and humid atmospheres, respectively. Inclusion of aerosols generally makes the agreement among models worse than when no aerosols are present, with some exceptions. Modeled diffuse surface irradiance is higher than measurements for all models for the same model inputs. Inclusion of an optically thick low-cloud in a tropical atmosphere, a stringent test for multiple scattering calculations, produces, in general, better agreement among models for a low solar zenith angle (SZA = 30?) than for a high SZA (75?). All models show about a 30% increase in broadband absorptance for 30? SZA relative to the clear-sky case and almost no enhancement in absorptance for a higher SZA of 75?, possibly due to water vapor line saturation in the atmosphere above the cloud.

Halthore, Rangasayi N.; Crisp, David; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Anderson, Gail; Berk, A.; Bonnel, B.; Boucher, Olivier; Chang, Fu-Lung; Chou, Ming-Dah; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Dubuisson, P.; Fomin, Boris; Fouquart, Y.; Freidenreich, S.; Gautier, Catherine; Kato, Seiji; Laszlo, Istvan; Li, Zhanqing; Mather, Jim H.; Plana-Fattori, Artemio; Ramaswamy, V.; Ricchiazzi, P.; Shiren, Y.; Trishchenko, A.; Wiscombe, Warren J.

2005-06-03

330

Measurement of ESD-gun radiated fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient radiated fields from an ESD-gun are measured. Experimental results show that very strong transient electromagnetic fields exist nearby the ESD-gun. In the system level ESD test (IEC 61000-4-2) applied to devices, this transient field is directly coupled to printed circuit assembly traces and associated signal\\/power cables through space, which produce less accurate data.

Masamitsu Honda

2007-01-01

331

LEAF, BRANCH, STAND & LANDSCAPE SCALE MEASUREMENTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND FLUXES FROM U.S. WOODLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Natural volatile organic compounds (VOC) fluxes were measured in three U.S. woodlands in summer 1993. Fluxes from individual leaves and branches were estimated with enclosure techniques and used to initialize and evaluate VOC emission model estimates. Ambient measurements were us...

332

A method of measuring heat fluxes across nickel surfaces using the metal oxide on the surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using the semiconducting oxide film on a metal surface to measure the heat flux through that surface and to measure the temperature of the surface has been demonstrated for nickel. The output compares favourably with other available heat flux meters.

P L Weickhardt; I M Ritchie; R J Batterham; D G Wood

1969-01-01

333

Measurements and heat-flux transport modelling in a heated cylinder wake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot-wire measurements of velocity and temperature fluctuations have been made in the self-preserving turbulent wake region of a heated cylinder. Second order statistics including Reynolds fluxes, ui?, are determined along with relevant triple correlations appearing in the Reynolds stress and Reynolds flux transport equations. The primary aim with these measurements is to study different modelling levels for passive scalar quantities.

Petra M. Wikström; Magnus Hallbäck; Arne V. Johansson

1998-01-01

334

Evaluation of the N2 flux approach for measuring sediment denitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct gas chromatographic measurement of denitrification rates via N2 fluxes from aquatic sediments can avoid some of the artifacts and complexities associated with indirect approaches and tracer techniques. However, measurement protocols have typically been determined based upon initial results or previous studies. We present a process-level study and simulation model for evaluating and optimizing N2 gas flux approaches in closed

M. Robert Hamersley; Brian L. Howes

2005-01-01

335

MERCURY FLUX MEASUREMENTS OVER AIR AND WATER IN KEJIMKUJIK NATIONAL PARK, NOVA SCOTIA  

E-print Network

MERCURY FLUX MEASUREMENTS OVER AIR AND WATER IN KEJIMKUJIK NATIONAL PARK, NOVA SCOTIA F. S. BOUDALA. Mercury flux measurements were conducted at two lakes and three soil sites in Kejimkujik National Park, located in the eastern Canadian province of Nova Scotia. One of the lakes had high levels of both mercury

Folkins, Ian

336

Ir Thermographic Measurements of Temperatures and Heat Fluxes in Hypersonic Plasma Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technological development achieved in instruments and methodology concerning both flights and ground hypersonic experiment (employed in space plane planning) goes towards an updating and a standardization of the heat flux technical measurements. In fact, the possibility to simulate high enthalpy flow relative to reentry condition by hypersonic arc-jet facility needs devoted methods to measure heat fluxes. Aim of this

G. Cardone; G. Tortora; A. del Vecchio

2005-01-01

337

Measurement of the cosmic ray and neutrino-induced muon flux at the Sudbury neutrino observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and unoscillated portion of the neutrino

B. Aharmim; S. N. Ahmed; T. C. Andersen; A. E. Anthony; N. Barros; E. W. Beier; A. Bellerive; B. Beltran; M. Bergevin; S. D. Biller; K. Boudjemline; M. G. Boulay; T. H. Burritt; B. Cai; Y. D. Chan; M. Chen; M. C. Chon; B. T. Cleveland; G. A. Cox-Mobrand; C. A. Currat; X. Dai; F. Dalnoki-Veress; H. Deng; J. Detwiler; P. J. Doe; R. S. Dosanjh; G. Doucas; P.-L. Drouin; F. A. Duncan; M. Dunford; S. R. Elliott; H. C. Evans; G. T. Ewan; J. Farine; H. Fergani; F. Fleurot; R. J. Ford; J. A. Formaggio; N. Gagnon; J. T. M. Goon; K. Graham; D. R. Grant; E. Guillian; S. Habib; R. L. Hahn; A. L. Hallin; E. D. Hallman; C. K. Hargrove; P. J. Harvey; R. Hazama; K. M. Heeger; W. J. Heintzelman; J. Heise; R. L. Helmer; R. J. Hemingway; R. Henning; A. Hime; C. Howard; M. A. Howe; M. Huang; B. Jamieson; N. A. Jelley; J. R. Klein; M. Kos; A. Krüger; C. Kraus; C. B. Krauss; T. Kutter; C. C. M. Kyba; R. Lange; J. Law; I. T. Lawson; K. T. Lesko; J. R. Leslie; I. Levine; J. C. Loach; S. Luoma; R. MacLellan; S. Majerus; H. B. Mak; J. Maneira; A. D. Marino; R. Martin; N. McCauley; A. B. McDonald; S. McGee; C. Mifflin; M. L. Miller; B. Monreal; J. Monroe; A. J. Noble; N. S. Oblath; C. E. Okada; H. M. O'Keeffe; Y. Opachich; G. D. Orebi Gann; S. M. Oser; R. A. Ott; S. J. M. Peeters; A. W. P. Poon; G. Prior; K. Rielage; B. C. Robertson; R. G. H. Robertson; E. Rollin; M. H. Schwendener; J. A. Secrest; S. R. Seibert; O. Simard; J. J. Simpson; D. Sinclair; P. Skensved; M. W. E. Smith; T. J. Sonley; T. D. Steiger; L. C. Stonehill; N. Tagg; G. Tesic; N. Tolich; T. Tsui; R. G. van de Water; B. A. Vandevender; C. J. Virtue; D. Waller; C. E. Waltham; H. Wan Chan Tseung; D. L. Wark; P. Watson; J. Wendland; J. F. Wilkerson; J. R. Wilson; J. M. Wouters; A. Wright; M. Yeh; F. Zhang; K. Zuber

2009-01-01

338

Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments--application of the RayMan model.  

PubMed

The most important meteorological parameter affecting the human energy balance during sunny weather conditions is the mean radiant temperature T(mrt). It considers the uniform temperature of a surrounding surface giving off blackbody radiation, which results in the same energy gain of a human body given the prevailing radiation fluxes. This energy gain usually varies considerably in open space conditions. In this paper, the model 'RayMan', used for the calculation of short- and long-wave radiation fluxes on the human body, is presented. The model, which takes complex urban structures into account, is suitable for several applications in urban areas such as urban planning and street design. The final output of the model is, however, the calculated T(mrt), which is required in the human energy balance model, and thus also for the assessment of the urban bioclimate, with the use of thermal indices such as predicted mean vote (PMV), physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and standard effective temperature (SET*). The model has been developed based on the German VDI-Guidelines 3789, Part II (environmental meteorology, interactions between atmosphere and surfaces; calculation of short- and long-wave radiation) and VDI-3787 (environmental meteorology, methods for the human-biometeorological evaluation of climate and air quality for urban and regional planning. Part I: climate). The validation of the results of the RayMan model agrees with similar results obtained from experimental studies. PMID:17093907

Matzarakis, Andreas; Rutz, Frank; Mayer, Helmut

2007-03-01

339

Measurements and Phenomenological Modeling of Magnetic FluxBuildup in Spheromak Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Internal magnetic field measurements and high-speed imaging at the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [E. B. Hooper, L. D. Pearlstein, R. H. Bulmer, Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)] are used to study spheromak formation and field buildup. The measurements are analyzed in the context of a phenomenological model of magnetic helicity based on the topological constraint of minimum helicity in the open flux before reconnecting and linking closed flux. Two stages are analyzed: (1) the initial spheromak formation, i. e. when all flux surfaces are initially open and reconnect to form open and closed flux surfaces, and (2) the stepwise increase of closed flux when operating the gun on a new mode that can apply a train of high-current pulses to the plasma. In the first stage, large kinks in the open flux surfaces are observed in the high-speed images taken shortly after plasma breakdown, and coincide with large magnetic asymmetries recorded in a fixed insertable magnetic probe that spans the flux conserver radius. Closed flux (in the toroidal average sense) appears shortly after this. This stage is also investigated using resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In the second stage, a time lag in response between open and closed flux surfaces after each current pulse is interpreted as the time for the open flux to build helicity, before transferring it through reconnection to the closed flux. Large asymmetries are seen during these events, which then relax to a slowly decaying spheromak before the next pulse.

Romero-Talamas, C A; Hooper, E B; Jayakumar, R; McLean, H S; Wood, R D; Moller, J M

2007-12-14

340

CR-39 detector based thermal neutron flux measurements, in the photo neutron project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PhoNeS (photo neutron source) is a project aimed at the production and moderation of neutrons by exploiting high energy linear accelerators, currently used in radiotherapy. A feasibility study has been carried out with the scope in mind to use the high energy photon beams from these accelerators for the production of neutrons suitable for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Within these investigations, it was necessary to carry out preliminary measurements of the thermal neutron component of neutron spectra, produced by the photo-conversion of X-ray radiotherapy beams supplied by three LinAcs: 15 MV, 18 MV and 23 MV. To this end, a simple passive thermal neutron detector has been used which consists of a CR-39 track detector facing a new type of boron-loaded radiator. Once calibrated, this passive detector has been used for the measurement of both the thermal neutron component and the cadmium ratio of different neutron spectra. In addition, bubble detectors with a response highly sensitive to thermal neutrons have also been used. Both thermal neutron detectors are simple to use, very compact and totally insensitive to low-ionizing radiation such as electrons and X-rays. The resultant thermal neutron flux was above 10 6 n/cm 2s and the cadmium ratio was no greater than 15 for the first attempt of photo-conversion of X-ray radiotherapy beams.

Mameli, A.; Greco, F.; Fidanzio, A.; Fusco, V.; Cilla, S.; D'Onofrio, G.; Grimaldi, L.; Augelli, B. G.; Giannini, G.; Bevilacqua, R.; Totaro, P.; Tommasino, L.; Azario, L.; Piermattei, A.

2008-08-01

341

Comparison of Heat Flux Measurements and Calculations at an Arctic Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex exchanges between the atmosphere and the surface are one of the primary drivers of the changes that are occurring in the Arctic environment. These exchanges are exceedingly difficult to parameterize or observe remotely, and it is clear that flux parameterizations developed for lower latitudes and oceans are not representative in the Arctic. In response, several Arctic sites have recently installed micrometeorological flux towers with suites of instruments to produce measurements that can be used to calculate turbulent and sensible heat fluxes. These towers typically also have surface heat flux plates and active layer thermistor strings as part of the suite of instruments characterizing the near surface boundary layer. In this presentation we compare measurements from two surface heat flux plates and a one meter thermistor probe that is installed near the micrometeorological flux tower at the Tiksi Hydrometeorological Observatory in the Sakha Republic of Russia. Theoretically the direct measurement of heat flux from the plates and the calculated flux from the thermistor temperature profiles should be identical, however, it is expected that a number of biases and inconsistencies will result from inhomogeneity in surface characteristics, and within the underlying active layer, including snow cover, standing water, vegetation, soil characteristics as well as instrument measurement limitations. Quantification and error analysis of these measurement limitations are important as the surface heat flux is an important parameter in achieving closure between the heat budgets of the atmosphere and the underlying surface.

Crepinsek, S.; Uttal, T.; Sandoval, C.; Persson, O. P.; Grachev, A. A.

2013-12-01

342

SkyLine and SkyGas: Novel automated technologies for automatic GHG flux measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Concerns for the future of the Earth's climate centre around the anthropogenically-driven continuing increases in atmospheric concentrations of the major 'greenhouse gases' (GHGs) which include CO2, CH4 and N2O. A major component of the global budgets for all three of these gases is the flux between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. 2. Currently, these fluxes are poorly quantified, largely due to technical limitations associated with making these flux measurements. Whilst eddy covariance systems have greatly improved such measurements at the ecosystem scale, flux measurements at the plot scale are commonly made using labour intensive traditional 'cover box' approaches; technical limitations have frequently been a bottle-neck in producing adequate and appropriate GHG flux data necessary for making land management decisions. For example, there are almost no night time flux data for N2O fluxes, and frequently such data are only measured over bare soil patches. 3. We have been addressing the design of novel field equipment for the automation of GHG flux measurements at the chamber and plot scale and will present here some of the technical solutions we have developed. These solutions include the development of the SkyLine and SkyGas approaches which resolve many of the common problems associated with making high frequency, sufficiently replicated GHG flux measurements under field conditions. 4. Unlike most other automated systems, these technologies 'fly' a single chamber to the measurement site, rather than have multiple replicated chambers and analysers. We will present data showing how such systems can deliver high time and spatial resolution flux data, with a minimum of operator intervention and, potentially, at relatively low per plot cost. We will also show how such measurements can be extended to monitoring fluxes from freshwater features in the landscape.

Ineson, Philip; Stockdale, James

2014-05-01

343

Continuous Measurements of Nitrous Oxide Fluxes Through the Seasonal Snowpack, Niwot Ridge, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, microbial activity in seasonally snow covered ecosystems was thought to be limited during the snow-covered season. However, in the last decade many studies have shown that the gas fluxes through the snowpack in winter can be a significant component of the annual flux of gases produced by microbial processes in soils. Because of the logistical difficulties of winter measurements, these cumulative fluxes have often been based on weekly or even more infrequent measurements. Here we present what we believe is the first essentially continuous record of nitrous oxide fluxes through deep (up to 2 m) seasonal snowpack for a four-month period on Niwot Ridge, Colorado. Air samples were collected at four heights throughout the snowpack and analyzed for nitrous oxide on a gas chromatograph in a nearby underground laboratory. The sample collection was automated such that the concentration gradient through the snowpack was assessed every eighty minutes. In addition to nitrous oxide, the concentrations of nitric oxide, and carbon dioxide were also measured. Fluxes of these gases were then calculated based on the concentration gradient using Fick's law. This sampling design allowed us to examine the patterns of gas fluxes throughout the snowpack and at multiple temporal scales. In addition, we can compare the fluxes of multiple gases produced by microbial processes in soils. The winter fluxes can also be contrasted to growing season fluxes to estimate the contribution of winter fluxes to the annual total.

Liptzin, D.; Chowanski, K. M.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Seok, B.; Williams, M. W.

2006-12-01

344

A bottom-up perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of global eddy covariance flux measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methanol (CH3OH) is, after methane, the second most abundant VOC in the troposphere and globally represents nearly 20% of the total biospheric VOC emissions. With typical concentrations of 1-10 ppb in the continental boundary layer, methanol plays a crucial role in atmospheric chemistry, which needs to be evaluated in the light of ongoing changes in land use and climate. Previous global methanol budgets have approached the net land flux by summing up the various emission terms (namely primary biogenic and anthropogenic emissions, plant decay and biomass burning) and by subtracting dry and wet deposition, resulting in a net land flux in the range of 75-245 Tg y-1. The data underlying these budget calculations largely stem from small-scale leaf gas exchange measurements and while recently column-integrated remotely sensed methanol concentrations have become available for constraining budget calculations, there have been few attempts to contrast model calculations with direct net ecosystem-scale methanol flux measurements. Here we use eddy covariance methanol flux measurements from 8 sites in Europe and North America to study the magnitude of and controls on the diurnal and seasonal variability in the net ecosystem methanol flux. In correspondence with leaf-level literature, our data show that methanol emission and its strong environmental and biotic control (by temperature and stomatal conductance) prevailed at the more productive (agricultural) sites and at a perturbed forest site. In contrast, at more natural, less productive sites substantial deposition of methanol occurred, in particular during periods of surface wetness. These deposition processes are poorly represented by currently available temperature/light and/or production-driven modelling algorithms. A new framework for modelling the bi-directional land-atmosphere methanol exchange is proposed which accounts for the production of methanol in leaves, the regulation of leaf methanol emission by stomatal conductance and the bi-directional methanol exchange within plant canopies as governed by surface wetness and ambient methanol concentrations.

Wohlfahrt, Georg; Amelynck, Crist; Ammann, Christof; Arneth, Almut; Bamberger, Ines; Goldstein, Allen; Hansel, Armin; Heinesch, Bernhard; Holst, Thomas; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Karl, Thomas; Neftel, Albrecht; McKinney, Karena; Munger, William; Schade, Gunnar; Schoon, Niels

2014-05-01

345

Measuring Radiation Pressure on Individual Dust Aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of dust particles in astrophysical environments is determined by several interactions, e.g. gravitation, gas friction, and the interaction with radiation. A combination of all three interactions mentioned can e.g. explain dust rings around young stars like HR 4796 A. However, to understand the observations better a detailed knowledge of the interactions is required. In astrophysical environments devoid of gas like our own Solar System the details are even more important for the dynamics of dust particles. A small change in the radiation pressure allows a particle to stay on a bound orbit for some time or to be blown to outer space. To analyze the problem of light-dust interaction we have developed an experimental setup in Münster for measuring the radiation pressure on individual dust particles. Experiments are carried out for wavelengths ranging from near infrared to near UV. Therefore the measurements span a range especially suited for application to sun like spectra. As cosmic analog particles we consider micron-sized aggregates (grown in a cluster-cluster aggregation) consisting of small (sub)-micron-sized units. Furthermore Interplanetary Dust Particles collected in the stratosphere which are attributed to cometary origin (also aggregates) are good candidates for measurements. As far as CCAs are considered we measure the radiation pressure as a function of the aggregate's size, building block size, morphology, and material properties. The principle of measurement is to observe the momentum transfer from a high-power laser pulse to a dust sample that is stored in a quadrupole trap. By imaging the particle and parts of the particle trajectories information on its motion and its morphology is gained before and after the irradiation pulse. Also non-radial components of the radiation pressure can be measured and the measurements can be correlated to orientations of the particle. In addition to the particle properties and the laser wavelength other parameters can be varied, e.g. the pressure of the surrounding gas. Thus, even starting with radiation pressure measurements, the influence of friction or competing processes like photophoresis can be studied on the same aggregate. Angular resolved light scattering is another feature that gets easily accessible for a given individual aggregate in known orientation.

Krauss, Oliver; Wurm, Gerhard

346

Area-Averaged Surface Fluxes Over the Litfass Region Based on Eddy-Covariance Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micrometeorological measurements (including eddy-covariance measurements of the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat) were performed during the LITFASS-2003 experiment at 13 field sites over different types of land use (forest, lake, grassland, various agricultural crops) in a 20 × 20 km2 area around the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg (MOL) of the German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD). Significant differences in the energy fluxes could be found between the major land surface types (forest, farmland, water), but also between the different agricultural crops (cereals, rape, maize). Flux ratios between the different surfaces changed during the course of the experiment as a result of increased water temperature of the lake, changing soil moisture, and of the vegetation development at the farmland sites. The measurements over grass performed at the boundary-layer field site Falkenberg of the MOL were shown to be quite representative for the farmland part of the area. Measurements from the 13 sites were composed into a time series of the area-averaged surface flux by taking into account the data quality of the single flux values from the different sites and the relative occurrence of each surface type in the area. Such composite fluxes could be determined for about 80% of the whole measurement time during the LITFASS-2003 experiment. Comparison of these aggregated surface fluxes with area-averaged fluxes from long-range scintillometer measurements and from airborne measurements showed good agreement.

Beyrich, Frank; Leps, Jens-Peter; Mauder, Matthias; Bange, Jens; Foken, Thomas; Huneke, Sven; Lohse, Horst; Lüdi, Andreas; Meijninger, Wouter M. L.; Mironov, Dmitrii; Weisensee, Ulrich; Zittel, Peter

2006-10-01

347

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, October 2000.  

SciTech Connect

Energy Balance Bowen Ratio System--Estimates of surface energy fluxes are a primary product of the data collection systems at the ARM SGP CART site. Surface fluxes tell researchers a great deal about the effects of interactions between the sun's energy and Earth. Surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat can be estimated by measuring temperature and relative humidity gradients across a vertical distance. Sensible heat is what we feel coming from a warm sidewalk or a metal car door; it can be measured with a thermometer. Latent heat, on the other hand, is released or absorbed during transformations such as the freezing of water into ice or the evaporation of morning dew from a lawn. Such a transformation is referred to as a ''phase change,'' the conversion of a substance among its solid, liquid, and vapor phases. Phase change is an important aspect of our climate. Earth's water cycle abounds with phase changes: rain falls and evaporates, changing from liquid to vapor; the water vapor in the air condenses to form clouds, changing from a gas into a liquid cloud droplet, and eventually falls to Earth's surface as rain or snow; snow falls and melts to liquid or sublimes directly to water vapor. This cyclic process has no end. Surface vegetation and land use play extremely important roles in surface energy fluxes. Plants absorb and reflect solar radiation and also take up water and expel water vapor. The type of plant material, its stage of growth, and its color determine whether and to what extent the surface and air can couple and exchange energy.

Sisterson, D. L.

2000-11-09

348

Comparison of Two Chamber Methods for Measuring Soil Trace-gas Fluxes in Bioenergy Cropping Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gas emissions from soils are often measured using trace-gas flux chamber techniques without a standardized protocol, raising concerns about measurement accuracy and consistency. To address this, we compared measurements from non-steady-state non-through-flow (NTF) chambers with a non-steady-state through-flow (TF) chamber system in three bioenergy cropping systems located in Wisconsin. Additionally, we investigated the effects of NTF flux calculation method and deployment time on flux measurements. In all cropping systems, when NTF chambers were deployed for 60 min and a linear (LR) flux calculation was used, soil CO2 and N2O fluxes were, on average, 18% and 12% lower, respectively, than fluxes measured with a 15 min deployment. Fluxes calculated with the HMR method, a hybrid of non-linear and linear approaches, showed no deployment time effects for CO2 and N2O and produced 27-32% higher CO2 fluxes and 28-33% higher N2O fluxes in all crops than the LR approach with 60 min deployment. Across all crops, CO2 fluxes measured with the TF chamber system were higher by 24.4 to 84.9 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, than fluxes measured with NTF chambers using either flux calculation method. These results suggest NTF chamber deployment time should be shortened if the LR approach is used though detection limits should be considered, and the HMR approach may be more appropriate when long deployment times are necessary. Significant differences in absolute flux values with different chamber types highlight the need for significant effort in determining the accuracy of methods or alternative flux measurement technologies. N2O fluxes with chamber deployment time for (a) all crops (switchgrass, corn, hybrid poplar) using both linear (LR) and HMR flux calculation methods, (b) each crop individually using LR approach, and (c) each crop individually using HMR approach. Given are seasonal (May-August) means + standard error. Letters indicate significant differences among deployment times (p<0.05, Tukey-Kramer test). Because there were no significant crop x deployment time interactions, significance letters are not shown in (b) and (c).

Duran, B. E.; Kucharik, C. J.

2013-12-01

349

Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

NONE

1996-02-01

350

Measurement of the cosmic ray and neutrino-induced muon flux at the Sudbury neutrino observatory  

E-print Network

Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth’s surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring ...

Formaggio, Joseph A.

351

CERES: The Next Generation of Earth Radiation Budget Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is part of an international program for studying the Earth from space using a multiple-instrument, multiple-satellite approach. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment is designed to monitor changes in the Earth s radiant energy system and cloud systems and to provide these data with sufficient simultaneity and accuracy to examine critical cloud/climate feedback mechanisms which may play a major role in determining future changes in the climate system. The first EOS satellite (Terra), scheduled for launch this year, and the EOS-PM satellite, to be launched in late 2000, will each carry two CERES instruments. The first CERES instrument was launched in 1997 on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The CERES TRMM data show excellent instrument stability and a factor of 2 to 3 less error than previous Earth radiation budget missions. The first CERES data products have been validated and archived. The data consist of instantaneous longwave and shortwave broadband radiances, top-of-atmosphere fluxes, scene types, and time and space averaged fluxes and albedo. A later data product will combine CERES radiances and high- resolution imager data to produce cloud properties and fluxes throughout the atmosphere and at the surface.

Gibson, Gary G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.

1999-01-01

352

A Strategy to Assess Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing of Climate Using Satellite Radiation Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric aerosols have a complex internal chemical composition and optical properties. Therefore it is difficult to model their impact on redistribution and absorption of solar radiation, and the consequent impact on atmospheric dynamics and climate. The use in climate models of isolated aerosol parameters retrieved from satellite data (e.g. optical thickness) may result in inconsistent calculations, if the model assumptions differ from these of the satellite retrieval schemes. Here we suggest a strategy to assess the direct impact of aerosol on the radiation budget at the top and bottom of the atmosphere using satellite and ground based measurements of the spectral solar radiation scattered by the aerosol. This method ensures consistent use of the satellite data and increases its accuracy. For Kaufman and Tanre: Strategy for aerosol direct forcing anthropogenic aerosol in the fine mode (e.g. biomass burning smoke and urban pollution) consistent use of satellite derived optical thickness can yield the aerosol impact on the spectral solar flux with accuracy an order of magnitude better than the optical thickness itself. For example, a simulated monthly average smoke optical thickness of 0.5 at 0.55 microns (forcing of 40-50 W/sq m) derived with an error of 20%, while the forcing can be measured directly with an error of only 0-2 W/sq m. Another example, the effect of large dust particles on reflection of solar flux can be derived three times better than retrievals of optical thickness. Since aerosol impacts not only the top of the atmosphere but also the surface irradiation, a combination of satellite and ground based measurements of the spectral flux, can be the most direct mechanism to evaluate the aerosol effect on climate and assimilate it in climate models. The strategy is applied to measurements from SCAR-B and the Tarfox experiments. In SCAR-B aircraft spectral data are used to derive the 24 hour radiative forcing of smoke at the top of the atmosphere of (Delta)F(sub 24hr)/(Delta)tau = - 25 +/- 5 W/sq m. Ground based data give forcing at the surface of (Delta)F(sub 24hr)/(Delta)taur = -80 +/- 5 W/sq m. In TARFOX a mixture of maritime and regional pollution aerosol resulted in a varied forcing at the top of the atmosphere, (Delta)F(sub 24hr)/(Delta)tau, between -26 W/sq 2 and -50 W/sq m depending on mixture of coarse and accumulation modes, for Angstrom exponents of 1.0 and 0.2 respectively.

Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

353

Improved radon-flux-measurement system for uranium-tailings pile measurement  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing cover technology for uranium mill tailings that will inhibit the diffusion of radon to the atmosphere. As part of this cover program, an improved radon flux measurement system has been developed. The radon measurement system is a recirculating, pressure-balanced, flow-through system that uses activated carbon at ambient temperatures to collect the radon. With the system, an area of 0.93 m/sup 2/ is sampled for periods ranging from 1 to 12 h. The activated carbon is removed from the radon trap and the collected radon is determined by counting the /sup 214/Bi daughter product. Development of the system included studies to determine the efficiency of activated carbon, relative calibration measurements and field measurements made during 1980 at the inactive tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado. Results of these studies are presented.

Freeman, H.D.

1981-10-01

354

Radiative and turbulent surface heat fluxes over sea ice in the western Weddell Sea in early summer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiative and turbulent heat fluxes between the snow-covered sea ice and the atmosphere were analyzed on the basis of observations during the Ice Station Polarstern (ISPOL) in the western Weddell Sea from 28 November 2004 to 2 January 2005. The net heat flux to the snowpack was 3 ± 2 W m?2 (mean ± standard deviation; defined positive toward

Timo Vihma; Milla M. Johansson; Jouko Launiainen

2009-01-01

355

Experimental Measurements of Temperature and Heat Flux in a High Temperature Black Body Cavity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During hypersonic flight, high temperatures and high heat fluxes are generated. The Flight Loads Laboratory (FLL) at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is equipped to calibrate high heat fluxes up to 1100 kW/sq m. There are numerous uncertainties associated with these heat flux calibrations, as the process is transient, there are expected to be interactions between transient conduction, natural and forced convection, radiation, and possibly an insignificant degree of oxidation of the graphite cavity. Better understanding, of these mechanisms during the calibration process, will provide more reliable heat transfer data during either ground testing or flight testing of hypersonic vehicles.

Abdelmessih, Amanie N.

1998-01-01

356

Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infra-red sensing devices.

Duncan, Robert V. (Tijeras, NM)

1993-01-01

357

Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

Duncan, R.V.

1993-03-16

358

A fast gauge for energy flux density measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein, the design and characterization of a fast energy flux density gauge are described. The gauge is based on a thermoelectrical pair with the junction made of a thin layer of silver. High absorptivity is attained by an electrolytic deposit of platinum black on the silver coat. Dynamic calibration gives a response time below 100 microsec. Computer methods to obtain the energy flux density from temperature-time history were evaluated. The results of the tests performed with igniters of pelleted boron/potassium nitrate and black powder, used in solid propellant ignition, are shown. The gauge developed can be applied to fast processes which require small response time. The gauge does not need previous calibration, it is resistant to vibrations and accelerations, and, at the same time, it is small in size, economical, and easy to build.

Garcia, Jorge; Bana de Schor, Beatriz

1990-01-01

359

A Comparison of EAST Shock-Tube Radiation Measurements with a New Air Radiation Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a comparison between the recent EAST shock tube radiation measurements (Grinstead et al., AIAA 2008-1244) and the HARA radiation model. The equilibrium and nonequilibrium radiation measurements are studied for conditions relevant to lunar-return shock-layers; specifically shock velocities ranging from 9 to 11 kilometers per second at initial pressures of 0.1 and 0.3 Torr. The simulated shock-tube flow is assumed one-dimensional and is calculated using the LAURA code, while a detailed nonequilibrium radiation prediction is obtained in an uncoupled manner from the HARA code. The measured and predicted intensities are separated into several spectral ranges to isolate significant spectral features, mainly strong atomic line multiplets. The equations and physical data required for the prediction of these strong atomic lines are reviewed and their uncertainties identified. The 700-1020 nm wavelength range, which accounts for roughly 30% of the radiative flux to a peak-heating lunar return shock-layer, is studied in detail and the measurements and predictions are shown to agree within 15% in equilibrium. The plus or minus 1.5% uncertainty on the measured shock velocity is shown to cause up to a plus or minus 30% difference in the predicted radiation. This band of predictions contains the measured values in almost all cases. For the highly nonequilibrium 0.1 Torr cases, the nonequilibrium radiation peaks are under-predicted by about half. This under-prediction is considered acceptable when compared to the order-of-magnitude over-prediction obtained using a Boltzmann population of electronic states. The reasonable comparison in the nonequilibrium regions provides validation for both the non-Boltzmann modeling in HARA and the thermochemical nonequilibrium modeling in LAURA. The N2 (+)(1-) and N2(2+) molecular band systems are studied in the 290 480 nm wavelength range for both equilibrium and nonequilibrium regimes. The non-Boltzmann rate models for these systems, which have significant uncertainties, are tuned to improve the comparison with measurements.

Johnston, Christopher O.

2008-01-01

360

Evaluation of sensible heat fluxes derived from Large Aperture Scintillometer measurements over irrigated and dryland cotton during BEAREX08  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The path integrating capabilities of scintillometer over heterogeneous landscapes makes it a powerful tool for validating satellite-based evapotranspiration (ET) maps. Numerous studies have evaluated the accuracy of sensible heat fluxes (H) derived from Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) measurements using eddy covariance (EC) measurements. EC systems have the energy balance closure problem (Rn-H-LE-G?0) up to 20 percent. For that reason we chose to evaluate the accuracy of the LAS-based ET fluxes against lysimeter data. Data used in this study was collected during the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote Sensing Experiment 2008 (BEAREX08). The BEAREX08 was conducted at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) in Bushland [350 11' N, 1020 06' W; 1,170 m elevation MSL] located in the semi-arid Southern High Plains of Texas, USA during the 2008 summer cropping season. The CPRL is equipped with four large (3 x 3 x 2.5 m) monolithic lysimeters, with each lysimeter located in the center of 210 x 225 m fields arranged in a block pattern. One LAS was deployed across two dryland lysimeter fields (designated as NW and SW) and another on two irrigated lysimeter fields (designated as NE and SE), and all four fields were planted to cotton. The structure parameter of the refractive index of air was monitored at a 1-min interval and averaged for 15-minute periods between 10 July and 30 August, synchronized with weather station and lysimeter measurements. In addition, net radiation (Rn) and soil heat fluxes (G) were measured in all four lysimeter fields. Sensible heat fluxes (H) were derived from LAS measurements using a heat flux source area function and estimated ET fluxes as a residual from the energy balance were compared against lysimeter data. Trends in the LAS-based ET fluxes closely followed those in the observed data. However, LAS-based ET fluxes were over predicted by 10-35%. Differences between lysimeter- and LAS-based ET estimates over dryland cotton may be partly due to non-uniform vegetation growth on the NW and SW lysimeter fields. Overall, results indicate that the LAS is a promising tool for estimating ET fluxes.

Gowda, P.; Hartogensis, O.; Howell, T.; Scanlon, B.

2009-09-01

361

The effect of cumulus cloud field anisotropy on solar radiative fluxes and atmospheric heating rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of fair-weather cumulus cloud field anisotropy on domain average surface fluxes and atmospheric heating profiles was studied. Causes of anisotropy were investigated using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model. Cloud formation under a variety of environmental conditions was simulated and the degree of anisotropy in the output fields was calculated. Wind shear was found to be the single greatest factor in the development of both vertically tilted and horizontally stretched cloud structures. A stochastic field generation algorithm was used to produce twenty three-dimensional liquid water content fields based on the statistical properties of the LES cloud scenes. Progressively greater degrees of tilt and stretching were imposed on each of these scenes, so that an ensemble of scenes were produced for each level of distortion. The resulting scenes were used as input to a three-dimensional Monte Carlo model. Domain-average transmission, reflection, and absorption of broadband solar radiation were computed for each scene along with the average heating rate profile. Both tilt and horizontal stretching were found to significantly affect calculated fluxes, with the amount and sign of flux differences depending strongly on sun position relative to cloud distortion geometry. For nearly all solar geometries, domain-averaged fluxes and atmospheric heating rate profiles calculated using the Independent Pixel Approximation differed substantially from the corresponding three-dimensional Monte Carlo results.

Hinkelman, Laura M.

362

Outer atmospheres of cool stars. II - Mg II flux profiles and chromospheric radiative loss rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

International Ultraviolet Explorer high-resolution spectra of the Mg II lines at 2796, 2803 A in 15 stars of spectral type G2-M2 including a wide range of luminosities are presented. These spectra are calibrated in absolute flux units at earth and at the stellar surface, and the chromospheric radiative loss rates in the Mg II lines are compared with corresponding rates in the Ca II H, K, and 8542 lines. The ratio of Mg II surface flux to total surface flux is found to be independent of stellar luminosity and thus gravity; may decrease slowly with decreasing effective temperature, and increases with decreasing period among RS Canum Venaticorum binaries. The factor of 10 range in this ratio at each effective temperature may be due to differences in the fractional surface area covered by plages and may indicate that stars of all luminosity classes have chromospheric plages. In this small data sample no evidence is found that the Mg II line surface fluxes indicate whether a star possesses a transition region and hot corona.

Basri, G. S.; Linsky, J. L.

1979-01-01

363

Decoupled cantilever arms for highly versatile and sensitive temperature and heat flux measurements.  

PubMed

Microfabricated cantilever beams have been used in microelectromechanical systems for a variety of sensor and actuator applications. Bimorph cantilevers accurately measure temperature change and heat flux with resolutions several orders of magnitude higher than those of conventional sensors such as thermocouples, semiconductor diodes, as well as resistance and infrared thermometers. The use of traditional cantilevers, however, entails a series of important measurement limitations, because their interactions with the sample and surroundings often create parasitic deflection forces and the typical metal layer degrades the thermal sensitivity of the cantilever. The paper introduces a design to address these issues by decoupling the sample and detector section of the cantilever, along with a thermomechanical model, the fabrication, system integration, and characterization. The custom-designed bi-arm cantilever is over one order of magnitude more sensitive than current commercial cantilevers due to the significantly reduced thermal conductance of the cantilever sample arm. The rigid and immobile sample section offers measurement versatility ranging from photothermal absorption, near-field thermal radiation down to contact, conduction, and material thermal characterization measurements in nearly identical configurations. PMID:23126793

Burg, Brian R; Tong, Jonathan K; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Chen, Gang

2012-10-01

364

Relationships among canopy scale energy fluxes and isoprene flux derived from long-term, seasonal eddy covariance measurements over a hardwood forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flux of isoprene, one of the more reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds, was measured using eddy covariance techniques on a continuous basis during the 2000–2002 growing seasons at a mixed hardwood forest in northern lower MI. Daytime fluxes of isoprene and both sensible (H) and latent heat flux (LE) were linearly correlated with a positive slope on a daily

Shelley Pressley; Brian Lamb; Hal Westberg; Christoph Vogel

2006-01-01

365

Radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system  

DOEpatents

A radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system for measuring the average power of a beam such as a laser beam, including a calorimeter configured to operate over a wide range of coolant flow rates and being cooled by continuously flowing coolant for absorbing light from a laser beam to convert the laser beam energy into heat. The system further includes a flow meter for measuring the coolant flow in the calorimeter and a pair of thermistors for measuring the temperature difference between the coolant inputs and outputs to the calorimeter. The system also includes a microprocessor for processing the measured coolant flow rate and the measured temperature difference to determine the average power of the laser beam.

Baker, John (Livermore, CA); Collins, Leland F. (Pleasanton, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA); Micali, James V. (Dublin, CA)

1992-01-01

366

Diurnal Variations of Energetic Particle Radiation Dose Measured by the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity has collected data on the interplanetary radiation environment during cruise from Earth to Mars and at the surface of Mars since its landing in August 2012. RAD's particle detection capabilities are achieved with a solid-state detector (SSD) stack (A, B, C), a CsI(Tl) scintillator (D), and a plastic scintillator (E) for neutron detection. The D and E detectors are surrounded by an anticoincidence shield (F), also made of plastic scintillator. All scintillators are optically coupled to silicon diodes which convert scintillation light to electrons. RAD is capable of measuring both Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) thought to be produced by supernovae outside the heliosphere and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). GCRs are relativistic particles (100 MeV/nuc to >10 GeV/nuc) composed of roughly 89% protons, 10% alpha particles (He), and 1% heavier nuclei [1]. Because of their high energies and continuous nature, GCRs are the dominant source of background radiation at the Martian surface, and are responsible for the production of secondary particles (notably neutrons) via complex interactions in the atmosphere and regolith. SEPs are produced by coronal mass ejections. These intermittent storms are most likely to occur near solar maximum and typical fluxes are dominated by protons with energies lower than 100 MeV/nuc. Unlike the GCR flux, the SEP flux can vary by five or more orders of magnitude over timescales of a day. Even under a constant flux of energetic particle radiation at the top of the atmosphere, the radiation dose at the surface should vary as a function of surface elevation [2]. This variation is directly related to the change in the shielding provided by the total atmospheric mass column, which is to a very good approximation directly related to surface pressure. Thus, the flux of primary energetic particles should increase with altitude, all other things being equal. At present, MSL has been at a nearly constant altitude of ~-4.4 km MOLA so that no elevation-induced changes are expected and none have been observed. However, any process that changes the column mass of atmosphere should change the dose at the surface. On Mars there are two major processes that substantially change column atmospheric mass. The first is the seasonal condensation cycle during which ~25% of the dominant atmospheric constituent (CO2) condenses onto the winter pole. This seasonal signal is very strong and has been observed by surface pressure measurements from the Viking Landers up through MSL [3,4]. The second major process is related to the thermal tide. The direct heating of the Martian atmosphere by the Sun produces global scale waves that redistribute mass [5]. The two most dominant tidal modes are the diurnal and semidiurnal tide. Together, the thermal tide can produce a variation of 10-15% over a Martian day (sol). Here, we report on the dose measured by the RAD E detector and the variation of this dose over the diurnal cycle. Further, we show that the variation in the E dose rate is very likely due to the variation of column mass, as measured by the pressure sensor on the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS), driven by the thermal tide. While changes in dose were expected from changes in altitude or season, the discovery of a diurnal variation was not anticipated, although it should have been reasonably expected in hindsight.

Rafkin, Scot; Zeitlin, Cary; Ehresmann, Bent; Köhler, Jan; Guo, Jingnan; Kahanpää, Henrik; Hassler, Don; -Gomez, Javier E.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Brinza, David; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckhard; Burmeister, Sonka; Martin, Cesar; Müller-Mellin, Robert; Appel, Jan; Posner, Arik; Reitz, Gunter; Kharytonov, Aliksandr; Cucinotta, Francis

2013-04-01

367

SAMPEX - A Synoptic View of Earths Electron Radiation Belts: North Pole Energetic Fluxes from HILT  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer, SAMPEX, measures fluxes of energetic particles from the sun, the Earths magnetosphere, and cosmic ray sources over a broad range of energies. The four instruments aboard SAMPEX are the Low-Energy Ion Analyzer (LEICA), The Heavy Ion Large Telescope (HILT), The Mass Spectrometer Telescope (MAST), and the Proton-Electron Telescope (PET).

Oneil, Pamela; Baker, Dan; Blake, J.; Callis, Linwood; Kanekal, S.; Klecker, Berndt

1995-01-01

368

SAMPEX - A Synoptic View of Earths Electron Radiation Belts: North Pole Energetic Fluxes from PET  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer, SAMPEX, measures fluxes of energetic particles from the sun, the Earths magnetosphere, and cosmic ray sources over a broad range of energies. The four instruments aboard SAMPEX are the Low-Energy Ion Analyzer (LEICA), The Heavy Ion Large Telescope (HILT), The Mass Spectrometer Telescope (MAST), and the Proton-Electron Telescope (PET).

Oneil, Pamela; Baker, Dan; Blake, J.; Callis, Linwood; Kanekal, S.; Klecker, Berndt

1995-01-01

369

Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner, Phase II Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report covers progress made during Phase 2 of a three-phase DOE-sponsored project to develop and demonstrate the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux burner (also referred to as the Radiation Stabilized Burner, or RSB) for use in industrial watertube boilers and process heaters. The goal of the DOE-sponsored work is to demonstrate an industrial boiler burner with NOx emissions below 9 ppm and CO emissions below 50 ppm (corrected to 3% stack oxygen). To be commercially successful, these very low levels of NOx and CO must be achievable without significantly affecting other measures of burner performance such as reliability, turndown, and thermal efficiency. Phase 1 of the project demonstrated that sub-9 ppm NOx emissions and sub-50 ppm CO emissions (corrected to 3% oxygen) could be achieved with the RSB in a 3 million Btu/Hr laboratory boiler using several methods of NOx reduction. The RSB was also tested in a 60 million Btu/hr steam generator used by Chevron for Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery (TEOR). In the larger scale tests, fuel staging was demonstrated, with the RSB consistently achieving sub-20 ppm NOx and as low as 10 ppm NOx. Large-scale steam generator tests also demonstrated that flue gas recirculation (FGR) provided a more predictable and reliable method of achieving sub-9 ppm NOx levels. Based on the results of tests at San Francisco Thermal and Chevron, the near-term approach selected by Alzeta for achieving low NOx is to use FGR. This decision was based on a number of factors, with the most important being that FGR has proved to be an easier approach to transfer to different facilities and boiler designs. In addition, staging has proved difficult to implement in a way that allows good combustion and emissions performance in a fully modulating system. In Phase 3 of the project, the RSB will be demonstrated as a very low emissions burner product suitable for continuous operation in a commercial installation. As such, the Phase 3 field demonstration will represent the first installation in which the RSB will be operated continuously with a sub-9 ppm guarantee.

Webb, A.; Sullivan, J.D.

1997-06-01

370

Preliminary investigation of changes in x-ray multilayer optics subjected to high radiation flux  

SciTech Connect

A variety of metal multilayers was exposed to high x-ray flux using Sandia National Laboratories' PROTO II machine in the gas puff mode. Fluxes incident on the multilayers above 700 MW/cm/sup 2/ in total radiation, in nominal 20 ns pulses, were realized. The neon hydrogen- and helium-like resonance lines were used to probe the x-ray reflectivity properties of the multilayers as they underwent change of state during the heating pulse. A fluorescer-fiber optic-streak camera system was used to monitor the changes in x-ray reflectivity as a function of time and irradiance. Preliminary results are presented for a W/C multilayer. Work in progress to model the experiment is discussed. 13 refs., 4 figs.

Hockaday, M.P.; Blake, R.L.; Grosso, J.S.; Selph, M.M.; Klein, M.M.; Matuska, W. Jr.; Palmer, M.A.; Liefeld, R.J.

1985-01-01

371

Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between -1 {le} cos {theta}{sub zenith} 0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22 {+-} 0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos {theta}{sub zenith} > 0.4 is measured to be (3.31 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.09 (sys.)) x 10{sup -10} {micro}/s/cm{sup 2}.

SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S.N.; Andersen, T.C.; Anthony, A.E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E.W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S.D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M.G.; Burritt, T.H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M.C.; Cleveland, B.T.; Cox-Mobrand, G.A.; Currat, C.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P.J.; Dosanjh, R.S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J.TM.; Grant, D.R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Harvey, P.J.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hemingway, R.J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N.A.; Klein, J.R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C.B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J.C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A.D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A.B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M.L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A.J.; Oblath, N.S.; Okada, C.E.; O?Keeffe, H.M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Oser, S.M.; Ott, R.A.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M.H.; Secrest, J.A.; Seibert, S.R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J.J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M.W.E.; Sonley, T.J.; Steiger, T.D.; Stonehill, L.C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R.G.; VanDevender, B.A.; Virtue, C.J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C.E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D.L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wilson, J.R.; Wouters, J.M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

2009-02-16

372

Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory  

E-print Network

Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between $-1 \\le \\cos{\\theta}_{\\rm zenith} \\le 0.4$ in a total exposure of 2.30\\times 10^{14}$ cm$^{2}$ s. The measured flux normalization is $1.22 \\pm 0.09$ times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle $\\cos{\\theta}_{\\rm zenith} > 0.4$ is measured to be $(3.31 \\pm 0.01 {\\rm (stat.)} \\pm 0.09 {\\rm (sys.)}) \\times 10^{-10}~\\mu$/s/cm$^{2}$.

SNO Collaboration

2009-02-16

373

A comparison of six methods for measuring soil-surface carbon dioxide fluxes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of soil-surface CO2 fluxes are important for characterizing the carbon budget of boreal forests because these fluxes can be the second largest component of the budget. Several methods for measuring soil-surface CO2 fluxes are available: (1) closed-dynamic-chamber systems, (2) closed-static-chamber systems, (3) open-chamber systems, and (4) eddy covariance systems. This paper presents a field comparison of six individual systems for measuring soil-surface CO2 fluxes with each of the four basic system types represented. A single system is used as a reference and compared to each of the other systems individually in black spruce (Picea mariana), jack pine (Pinus banksiana), or aspen (Populus tremuloides) forests. Fluxes vary from 1 to 10 ??mol CO2 m-2 s-1. Adjustment factors to bring all of the systems into agreement vary from 0.93 to 1.45 with an uncertainty of about 10-15%.

Norman, J.M.; Kucharik, C.J.; Gower, S.T.; Baldocchi, D.D.; Crill, P.M.; Rayment, M.; Savage, K.; Striegl, R.G.

1997-01-01

374

Development of Test Method for Measuring Sintering Temperature of Mould Fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive sintering of mould fluxes can readily cause defects and sticker breakouts in continuously cast strands. Studying the sintering property is important to minimize problems related to sintering arising from the use of mould fluxes in continuous casting. An effective method of measuring the apparent sintering temperature has been developed in this study. The method is based on monitoring the

Qian WANG; Yong-jian LU; Sheng-ping HE; Li-juan WANG; KC Mills

2011-01-01

375

Field measurement of small ozone fluxes to snow, wet bare soil, and lake water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eddy-correlation measurements over snow, wet bare soil, and lake water indicate very small vertical ozone fluxes. Adjustments to the small vertical fluxes are needed to take into account the effect of mean Stefan flow associated with evaporation at the surface and the effects of correlation between density variations and vertical wind fluctuations. For snow, the residual resistance calculated for the

M. L. Wesely; D. R. Cook; R. M. Williams

1981-01-01

376

Measurement of wall radiation in the soft x-ray region of PDX  

SciTech Connect

A detector setup with three LN-cooled Si(Li) diodes is used to measure soft x-ray spectra (0.8 to 20 keV) emitted from the inside walls of the PDX vessel during the plasma discharge. This setup is part of a pulse-height-analysis system, which is used to measure the plasma and wall radiation simultaneously at five different radial positions. The wall and the plasma radiation are measured under different plasma conditions (e.g., OH and neutral beam heating). The wall radiation is increased very much during the neutral beam heating with an enhancement factor of at least 10 over OH wall radiation. Since we measure the plasma and the wall radiation at the same time, these measurements allow the conclusion that the wall radiation can be attributed essentially to fluorescence (line radiation, e.g., Ti-K/sub ..cap alpha../) and scattering (continuum part of the wall radiation spectrum). The fluorescence and the scattering are both caused by soft x-ray radiation flux coming from the plasma. There seems to be no need to invoke other, more exotic causes for the wall radiation (like charge particle bombardment of the wall).

Sesnic, S.; Tenney, F.H.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.; von Goeler, S.

1985-01-01

377

Absolute beam flux measurement at NDCX-I using gold-melting calorimetry technique  

SciTech Connect

We report on an alternative way to measure the absolute beam flux at the NDCX-I, LBNL linear accelerator. Up to date, the beam flux is determined from the analysis of the beam-induced optical emission from a ceramic scintilator (Al-Si). The new approach is based on calorimetric technique, where energy flux is deduced from the melting dynamics of a gold foil. We estimate an average 260 kW/cm2 beam flux over 5 {micro}s, which is consistent with values provided by the other methods. Described technique can be applied to various ion species and energies.

Ni, P.A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Lidia, S.M.; Welch, J.

2011-04-01

378

Enhancing the precision and accuracy within and among AmeriFlux site measurements  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report for AmeriFlux QA/QC at Oregon State University. The major objective of this project is to contribute to the AmeriFlux network by continuing to build consistency in AmeriFlux measurements by addressing objectives stated in the AmeriFlux strategic plan and self evaluation, the North American Carbon Program, and the US Carbon Cycle Science Program. The project directly contributes to NACP and CCSP goals to establish an integrated, near-real time network of observations to inform climate change science.

Law, Bev

2013-11-25

379

Measurement of advective soil gas flux: Results of field and laboratory experiments with CO2  

SciTech Connect

We modified our multi-channel, steady-state flow-through (SSFT), soil-CO2 flux monitoring system to include an array of inexpensive pyroelectric non-dispersive infrared detectors for full-range (0-100%) coverage of CO2 concentrations without dilution, and a larger-diameter vent tube. We then conducted field testing of this system from late July through mid-September 2010 at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) project site located in Bozeman, MT, and subsequently, laboratory testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, WA using a flux bucket filled with dry sand. In the field, an array of twenty-five SSFT and three non-steady-state (NSS) flux chambers was installed in a 10x4 m area, the long boundary of which was directly above a shallow (2-m depth) horizontal injection well located 0.5 m below the water table. Two additional chambers (one SSFT and one NSS) were installed 10 m from the well for background measurements. Volumetric soil moisture sensors were installed at each SSFT chamber to measure mean levels in the top 0.15 m of soil. A total flux of 52 kg CO2 d-1 was injected into the well for 27 d and the efflux from the soil was monitored by the chambers before, during, and for 27 d after the injection. Overall, the results were consistent with those from previous years, showing a radial efflux pattern centered on a known “hot spot”, rapid responses to changes in injection rate and wind power, evidence for movement of the CO2 plume during the injection, and nominal flux levels from the SSFT chambers that were up to 6-fold higher than those measured by adjacent NSS chambers. Soil moisture levels varied during the experiment from moderate to near saturation with the highest levels occurring consistently at the hot spot. The effects of wind on measured flux were complex and decreased as soil moisture content increased. In the laboratory, flux bucket testing with the SSFT chamber showed large measured-flux enhancement due to the Venturi effect on the chamber vent, but an overall decrease in measured flux when wind also reached the sand surface. Flux-bucket tests at a high flux (comparable to that at the hot spot) also showed that the measured flux levels increase linearly with the chamber-flushing rate until the actual level is reached. At the SSFT chamber-flushing rate used in the field experiment the measured flux in the laboratory was only about a third of the actual flux. The ratio of measured to actual flux increased logarithmically as flux decreased, and reached parity at low levels typical of diffusive flux systems. Taken together, our results suggest that values for advective CO2 flux measured by SSFT and NSS chamber systems are likely to be significantly lower than the actual values due to back pressure developed in the chamber that diverts flux from entering the chamber. Chamber designs that counteract the back pressure and also avoid large Venturi effects associated with vent tubes, such as the SSFT with a narrow vent tube operated at a high chamber-flushing rate, are likely to yield flux measurements closer to the true values.

Amonette, James E.; Barr, Jonathan L.; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Dobeck, Laura M.; Barr, Jamie L.; Shaw, Joseph A.

2013-10-01

380

Quantifying particle size and turbulent scale dependence of dust flux in the Sahara using aircraft measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

first size-resolved airborne measurements of dust fluxes and the first dust flux measurements from the central Sahara are presented and compared with a parameterization by Kok (2011a). High-frequency measurements of dust size distribution were obtained from 0.16 to 300 µm diameter, and eddy covariance fluxes were derived. This is more than an order of magnitude larger size range than previous flux estimates. Links to surface emission are provided by analysis of particle drift velocities. Number flux is described by a -2 power law between 1 and 144 µm diameter, significantly larger than the 12 µm upper limit suggested by Kok (2011a). For small particles, the deviation from a power law varies with terrain type and the large size cutoff is correlated with atmospheric vertical turbulent kinetic energy, suggesting control by vertical transport rather than emission processes. The measured mass flux mode is in the range 30-100 µm. The turbulent scales important for dust flux are from 0.1 km to 1-10 km. The upper scale increases during the morning as boundary layer depth and eddy size increase. All locations where large dust fluxes were measured had large topographical variations. These features are often linked with highly erodible surface features, such as wadis or dunes. We also hypothesize that upslope flow and flow separation over such features enhance the dust flux by transporting large particles out of the saltation layer. The tendency to locate surface flux measurements in open, flat terrain means these favored dust sources have been neglected in previous studies.

Rosenberg, Philip D.; Parker, Douglas J.; Ryder, Claire L.; Marsham, John H.; Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Dorsey, James R.; Brooks, Ian M.; Dean, Angela R.; Crosier, Jonathon; McQuaid, James B.; Washington, Richard

2014-06-01

381

Correcting airborne flux measurements for aircraft speed variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airplane aerodynamic characteristics correlate aircraft speed with vertical wind velocity, making the time average inappropriate for estimating the ensemble average in airborne eddy-correlation flux computations. The space average, the proper form, is implemented as a time integral by a transformation of variables, which can be interpreted as a ground-speed correction to the time average. The mathematical forms are presented, and the importance of the speed correction is illustrated with airborne data. The computed correction is found to be highly variable, depending on both the turbulent flow encountered and the aircraft used. In general, the speed connection becomes more important as airplane size is reduced. For a small, single-engine Long-EZ airplane, used as an example, the straight time average erred, half the time, by 12%, 10%, 20%, and 15%, respectively, for computed fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture, and CO2. For a much heavier Twin Otter airplane, also used as an example, the straight time average erred, half the time by only 1%. These errors increased with decreasing altitude for the Long-EZ and with increasing altitude for the Twin Otter.

Crawford, Timothy L.; McMillen, Robert T.; Dobosy, Ronald J.; MacPherson, Ian

1993-11-01

382

Measurement of magnetic helicity flux into the solar corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a new methodology which can determine magnetic helicity flux across the photosphere based on the magnetograph observation, In order to derive the helicity flux, first the velocity tangential to the solar surface is constructed by applying a correlation tracking technique on the magnetic observation, and secondly the velocity component across the photosphere is derived from the condition that the magnetic evolution must be consistent with the induction equation, Through this procedure, we can determine the helicity flow across the photosphere as a function of time and space, Based on this new method, we analyzed magnetic helicity of the active regions NOAA 9026 and 9077. using the data taken by SOHO/MDI and the vector magnetograph at NAOJ/Tokyo. As a result, it was revealed that positive and negative helicity is supplied in each region simultaneously. In particular, temporary activation of the helicity injection of the both signs was observed prior to X-class flare events in the GOES classification. The investigation on the helicity distribution suggests some relationship between flare onset and the increase of complexity in the helicity structure.

Kusano, K.; Maeshiro, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Sakurai, T.

383

Impact of the summer 2004 Alaska fires on top of the atmosphere clear-sky radiation fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we estimate the radiative impact of wildfires in Alaska during the record wildfire season of 2004 by integrating model simulations and satellite observations of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes and aerosol optical depth. We compare results for the summer of 2004 to results for the summer of 2000 when fire activity in the boreal

G. G. Pfister; P. G. Hess; L. K. Emmons; P. J. Rasch; F. M. Vitt

2008-01-01

384

Concentrated solar-flux measurements at the IEA-SSPS solar-central-receiver power plant, Tabernas - Almeria (Spain). Final report. Technical report No. 2/82  

SciTech Connect

A flux analyzing system (F.A.S.) was installed at the central receiver system of the SSPS project to determine the relative flux distribution of the heliostat field and to measure the entire optical solar flux reflected from the heliostat field into the receiver cavity. The functional principles of the F.A.S. are described. The raw data and the evaluation of the measurements of the entire heliostat field are given, and an approach to determine the actual fluxes which hit the receiver tube bundle is presented. A method is described to qualify the performance of each heliostat using a computer code. The data of the measurements of the direct radiation are presented. (LEW)

von Tobel, G.; Schelders, C.; Real, M.

1982-01-01

385

Solar Radiation and Cloud Radiative Forcing in the Pacific Warm Pool Estimated Using TOGA COARE Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy budget of the tropical western Pacific (TWP) is particularly important because this is one of the most energetic convection regions on the Earth. Nearly half of the solar radiation incident at the top of atmosphere is absorbed at the surface and only about 22% absorbed in the atmosphere. A large portion of the excess heat absorbed at the surface is transferred to the atmosphere through evaporation, which provides energy and water for convection and precipitation. The western equatorial Pacific is characterized by the highest sea surface temperature (SST) and heaviest rainfall in the world ocean. A small variation of SST associated with the eastward shift of the warm pool during El-Nino/Souther Oscillation changes the atmospheric circulation pattern and affects the global climate. In a study of the TWP surface heat and momentum fluxes during the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) Intensive observing period (IOP) from November 1992 to February have found that the solar radiation is the most important component of the surface energy budget, which undergoes significant temporal and spatial variation. The variations are influenced by the two 40-50 days Madden Julian Oscillations (MJOs) which propagated eastward from the Indian Ocean to the Central Pacific during the IOP. The TWP surface solar radiation during the COARE IOP was investigated by a number of studies. In addition, the effects of clouds on the solar heating of the atmosphere in the TWP was studied using energy budget analysis. In this study, we present some results of the TWP surface solar shortwave or SW radiation budget and the effect of clouds on the atmospheric solar heating using the surface radiation measurements and Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 4 radiance measurements during COARE IOP.

Chou, Ming-Dah; Chou, Shu-Hsien; Zhao, Wenzhong

1999-01-01

386

A framework to utilize turbulent flux measurements for mesoscale models and remote sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorologically measured fluxes of energy and matter between the surface and the atmosphere originate from a source area of certain extent, located in the upwind sector of the device. The spatial representativeness of such measurements is strongly influenced by the heterogeneity of the landscape. The footprint concept is capable of linking observed data with spatial heterogeneity. This study aims at upscaling eddy covariance derived fluxes to a grid size of 1 km edge length, which is typical for mesoscale models or low resolution remote sensing data. Here an upscaling strategy is presented, utilizing footprint modelling and SVAT modelling as well as observations from a target land-use area. The general idea of this scheme is to model fluxes from adjacent land-use types and combine them with the measured flux data to yield a grid representative flux according to the land-use distribution within the grid cell. The performance of the upscaling routine is evaluated with real datasets, which are considered to be land-use specific fluxes in a grid cell. The measurements above rye and maize fields stem from the LITFASS experiment 2003 in Lindenberg, Germany and the respective modelled timeseries were derived by the SVAT model SEWAB. Contributions from each land-use type to the observations are estimated using a forward lagrangian stochastic model. A representation error is defined as the error in flux estimates made when accepting the measurements unchanged as grid representative flux and ignoring flux contributions from other land-use types within the respective grid cell. Results show that this representation error can be reduced up to 56 % when applying the spatial integration. This shows the potential for further application of this strategy, although the absolute differences between flux observations from rye and maize were so small, that the spatial integration would be rejected in a real situation. Corresponding thresholds for this decision have been estimated as a minimum mean absolute deviation in modelled timeseries of the different land-use types with 35 W m-2 for the sensible heat flux and 50 W m-2 for the latent heat flux. Finally, a quality lagging scheme to classify the data with respect to representativeness for a given grid cell is proposed, based on an overall flux error estimate. This enables the data user to infer the uncertainty of mesoscale models and remote sensing products with respect to ground observations. Major uncertainty sources remaining are the lack of an adequate method for energy balance closure correction as well as model structure and parameter estimation, when applying the model for surfaces without flux measurements.

Babel, W.; Huneke, S.; Foken, T.

2011-05-01