Science.gov

Sample records for radiation flux measurements

  1. Radiative flux measurements in the troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, F. P. J.; Gore, W. J. Y.; Giver, L. P. M.

    1982-01-01

    A new airborne radiometric system with a time resolution as high as 60 msec has been designed for measuring radiative fluxes in the atmosphere. To verify the instrument performance, the solar constant at the top of the atmosphere has been calculated using the radiative flux densities measured in the troposphere, and the result obtained has been found to agree with the standard value to within 4%. Total heating rates of 0.175 and 0.377 K/h have been determined for hazy and foggy atmospheres, respectively, and aerosol heating rates of 0.065 and 0.235 K/h have been deduced from the total heating rates.

  2. Design of a differential radiometer for atmospheric radiative flux measurements

    SciTech Connect

    LaDelfe, P.C.; Weber, P.G.; Rodriguez, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    The Hemispherical Optimized NEt Radiometer (HONER) is an instrument under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for deployment on an unmanned aerospace vehicle as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM/UAV) program. HONER is a differential radiometer which will measure the difference between the total upwelling and downwelling fluxes and is intended to provide a means of measuring the atmospheric radiative flux divergence. Unlike existing instruments which measure the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately, HONER will achieve an optical difference by chopping the two fluxes alternately onto a common pyroelectric detector. HONER will provide data resolved into two spectral bands; one covering the solar dominated region from less than 0.4 micrometer to approximately 4.5 micrometers and the other covering the region from approximately 4.5 micrometers to greater than 50 micrometers, dominated by thermal radiation. The means of separating the spectral regions guarantees seamless summation to calculate the total flux. The fields-of-view are near-hemispherical, upward and downward. The instrument can be converted, in flight, from the differential mode to absolute mode, measuring the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately and simultaneously. The instrument also features continuous calibration from on-board sources. We will describe the design and operation of the sensor head and the on-board reference sources as well as the means of deployment.

  3. Measuring Longwave Radiative Flux Divergence in an Urban Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soux, A.; Oke, T. R.; Nunez, M.; Wilson, M.

    2003-12-01

    There has been very little measurement of longwave radiation divergence since the urban studies of Fuggle, Oke and Nunez in the mid 1970's or the rural work of Funk in the early 1960's. Although radiative divergence has been widely ignored for sometime there is the belief that it may play an important role in balancing nocturnal energy budgets in a range of environments. For example, in urban environments surface temperature relates well to the energy balance whereas air temperature does not, even in non-turbulent conditions. This is probably due at least in part to the effects of longwave divergence. To help answer issues related to longwave divergence a new dual-channel infrared radiometer (DCIR) has been developed. The DCIR, as the name implies, measures the directional infrared radiation in two wavebands and can, through differencing of the signals and further signal processing, give a direct measurement of longwave radiative flux divergence. The DCIR was deployed for the first time as part of a larger study (BUBBLE) of the urban boundary layer of Basel, Switzerland. The objective is to further study the thermal regime of a city at the canyon scale. To this end, a street canyon was carefully selected, in the city of Basel. The canyon surface and air volume were instrumented, including turbulent and conductive fluxes, and standard meteorological variables in addition to radiation. A unique data set was obtained to allow the complete energy balance of the canyon system to be evaluated without the need to resort to using residuals to quantify the magnitude of the longwave radiative flux divergence. Measured values of longwave flux-divergence are converted to cooling rates to compare with measured air temperature cooling. Preliminary results show that at the onset of canyon air-volume cooling, measured cooling rates are slightly lower than radiative cooling rates. The differences are less than 0.5° C. This contrasts sharply with previously measured above roof level and rural differences of greater than 5° C. The difference between the rural and above-canyon case and the in-canyon case is most likely a result of differences in radiative environments and wind and temperature fields. The differences illustrate the strong role of urbanization on the surface energy budget.

  4. Comparison of measured and modeled radiation, heat and water vapor fluxes: FIFE pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, Blaine L.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Verma, Shashi B.; Starks, Patrick; Norman, John M.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using radio frequency receivers to collect data from automated weather stations to model fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and radiation using routine weather data collected by automated weather stations was tested and the estimated fluxes were compared with fluxes measured over wheat. The model Cupid was used to model the fluxes. Two or more automated weather stations, interrogated by radio frequency and other means, were utilized to examine some of the climatic variability of the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) site, to measure and model reflected and emitted radiation streams from various locations at the site and to compare modeled latent and sensible heat fluxes with measured values. Some bidirectional reflected and emitted radiation data were collected from 23 locations throughout the FIFE site. Analysis of these data along with analysis of the measured sensible and latent heat fluxes is just beginning.

  5. Radiative Flux Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Chuck

    2008-05-14

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  6. Direct Retrieval of Radiative Flux-Divergence and Radiative Forcing from Satellite Spectral Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, D.; Liou, K.; Yung, Y.; Tobin, D.; Berk, L.

    2005-12-01

    We explore the concept of a retrieval of the thermal infrared radiative flux divergence and cooling rate profile using top-of-atmosphere spectral radiance measurements and demonstrate that the retrieval of this quantity can be performed directly. We show that the inversion encountered in this problem is sensitive to the initial atmospheric state vector assumed a priori. However, the direct approach has specific advantageous in terms of accuracy and computational speed, as compared to the conventional indirect approach using the retrieved atmospheric state vector coupled with a line-by-line radiative transfer model in cooling rate calculations. Furthermore, we show that the spectrally-resolved radiative forcing at the tropopause can be derived directly from the retrieved flux-divergence profile. As a test case, we carried out retrieval in the strong cooling band associated with the 15 ?m band of CO2 employing the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS, 2002-present) on board the Aqua satellite, along with validation campaign data and underflight Scanning High-Resolution Interferometer (S-HIS) zenith and nadir spectra taken aboard a high-altitude aircraft. Retrieval sensitivity analyses have been performed for AIRS and the Infrared Interferometer Sounder (IRIS-D, 1970-1971) instruments. It is anticipated that the large changes in stratospheric temperature and CO2 values between the two missions would lead to detectable changes in the CO2 radiative forcing at the tropopause so long as the IRIS-D instrument could be appropriately characterized.

  7. Determination of solar proton fluxes and energies at high solar latitudes by UV radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, N.; Blum, P. W.; Ajello, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The latitudinal variation of the solar proton flux and energy causes a density increase at high solar latitudes of the neutral gas penetrating the heliosphere. Measurements of the neutral density by UV resonance radiation observations from interplanetary spacecraft thus permit deductions on the dependence of the solar proton flux on heliographic latitude. Using both the results of Mariner 10 measurements and of other off-ecliptic solar wind observations, the values of the solar proton fluxes and energies at polar heliographic latitudes are determined for several cases of interest. The Mariner 10 analysis, together with IPS results, indicate a significant decrease of the solar proton flux at polar latitudes.

  8. Measuring and modeling near surface reflected and emitted radiation fluxes at the FIFE site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, Blaine L.; Norman, John M.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth; Starks, Patrick; Vining, Roel; Hays, Cynthia

    1988-01-01

    Research was conducted during the four Intensive Field Campaigns (IFC) of the FIFE project in 1987. The research was done on a tall grass prairie with specific measurement sites on and near the Konza Prairie in Kansas. Measurements were made to help meet the following objectives: determination of the variability in reflected and emitted radiation fluxes in selected spectral wavebands as a function of topography and vegetative community; development of techniques to account for slope and sun angle effects on the radiation fluxes; estimation of shortwave albedo and net radiation fluxes using the reflected and emitted spectral measurements described; estimation of leaf and canopy spectral properties from calculated normalized differences coupled with off-nadir measurements using inversion techniques; estimation of plant water status at several locations with indices utilizing plant temperature and other environmental parameters; and determination of relationships between estimated plant water status and measured soil water content. Results are discussed.

  9. Comparison of measured and modeled radiation, heat and water vapor fluxes: FIFE pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, Blaine L.; Verma, Shashi B.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Starks, Patrick; Hays, Cynthia; Norman, John M.; Waltershea, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    The primary objectives of the 1985 study were to test the feasibility of using radio frequency receivers to collect data from automated weather stations and to evaluate the use of the data collected by the automated weather stations for modeling the fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and radiation over wheat. The model Cupid was used to calculate these fluxes which were compared with fluxes of these entities measured using micrometeorological techniques. The primary objectives of the 1986 study were to measure and model reflected and emitted radiation streams at a few locations within the First International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) site and to compare modeled and measured latent heat and sensible heat fluxes from the prairie vegetation.

  10. Differential radiometry for measuring the net radiative flux in the earth`s atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    La Delfe, P.C.; Love, S.P.; Weber, P.G.

    1996-11-01

    The Hemispheric Optimized NEt Radiometer (HONER) is very briefly described. HONER was developed to resolve technical issues impeding the accurate measurement of atmospheric radiative flux. HONER uses differential radiometry, chopping the signal from upwelling and downwelling fluxes onto a single AC detector system, allowing true optical differencing as well as measurements of the individual fluxes. Wavelength coverage encompasses ultraviolet to more than 50 micrometers. HONER has been used in a ground-based version and will be tested on the Perseus B Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle.

  11. Measuring and modeling near-surface reflected and emitted radiation fluxes at the FIFE site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, Blaine L.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Starks, Patrick J.; Vining, Roel C.; Hays, Cynthia J.; Mesarch, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information is presented pertaining to the measurement and estimation of reflected and emitted components of the radiation balance. Information is included about reflectance and transmittance of solar radiation from and through the leaves of some grass and forb prairie species, bidirectional reflectance from a prairie canopy is discussed and measured and estimated fluxes are described of incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation. Results of the study showed only very small differences in reflectances and transmittances for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of grass species in the visible and infrared wavebands, but some differences in the infrared wavebands were noted for the forbs. Reflectance from the prairie canopy changed as a function of solar and view zenith angles in the solar principal plane with definite asymmetry about nadir. The surface temperature of prairie canopies was found to vary by as much as 5 C depending on view zenith and azimuth position and on the solar azimuth. Aerodynamic temperature calculated from measured sensible heat fluxes ranged from 0 to 3 C higher than nadir-viewed temperatures. Models were developed to estimate incoming and reflected shortwave radiation from data collected with a Barnes Modular Multiband Radiometer. Several algorithms for estimating incoming longwave radiation were evaluated and compared to actual measures of that parameter. Net radiation was calculated using the estimated components of the shortwave radiation streams, determined from the algorithms developed, and from the longwave radiation streams provided by the Brunt, modified Deacon, and the Stefan-Boltzmann models. Estimates of net radiation were compared to measured values and found to be within the measurement error of the net radiometers used in the study.

  12. Measurements of x-ray spectral flux and intensity distribution of APS/CHESS undulator radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ilinski, P.; Yun, W.; Lai, B.; Gluskin, E.; Cai, Z.

    1994-09-01

    Absolute radiation flux and polarization measurements of the APS undulators may have to be made under high thermal loading conditions. A method that may circumvent the high-heat-load problem was tested during a recent APS/CHESS undulator run. The technique makes use of a Si(Li) energy-dispersive detector to measure 5--35 keV x-rays scattered from a well-defined He gas volume at controlled pressure.

  13. Double-cavity radiometer for high-flux density solar radiation measurements.

    PubMed

    Parretta, A; Antonini, A; Armani, M; Nenna, G; Flaminio, G; Pellegrino, M

    2007-04-20

    A radiometric method has been developed, suitable for both total power and flux density profile measurement of concentrated solar radiation. The high-flux density radiation is collected by a first optical cavity, integrated, and driven to a second optical cavity, where, attenuated, it is measured by a conventional radiometer operating under a stationary irradiation regime. The attenuation factor is regulated by properly selecting the aperture areas in the two cavities. The radiometer has been calibrated by a pulsed solar simulator at concentration levels of hundreds of suns. An optical model and a ray-tracing study have also been developed and validated, by which the potentialities of the radiometer have been largely explored. PMID:17415384

  14. Temperature and Radiative Heat Flux Measurements in Microgravity Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jerry C.; Greenberg, Paul S.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project is to provide detailed measurements and modeling analyses of local soot concentration, temperature and radiation heat flux distributions in laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames under normal (1-g) and reduced gravity (0-g) conditions. Results published to date by these co-PI's and their co-workers include: 1. thermophoretic sampling and size and morphological analyses of soot aggregates in laminar flames under normal and reduced gravity conditions; 2. full-field absorption imaging for soot volume fraction maps in laminar and turbulent flames under normal and reduced gravity conditions; 3. an accurate solver module for detailed radiation heat transfer in nongray nonhomogeneous media; 4. a complete model to include flame structure, soot formation and an energy equation to couple with radiation solver.

  15. Concept of an Innovative Photoluminescent Sensor for Radiative Heat Flux Measurement During Super-Orbital Re-Entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, L.; Trifoni, E.; De Filippis, F.; Marraffa, L.

    2014-06-01

    In this work is presented the idea, the physical principle, and a first layout of an innovative sensor capable to collect the VUV contribution to radiative heat flux both for onboard flight measurements and plasma wind tunnel tests.

  16. Significance of multidimensional radiative transfer effects measured in surface fluxes at an Antarctic coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Dan; Ricchiazzi, Paul; Payton, Allison; Gautier, Catherine

    2002-10-01

    At a coastal high-latitude site, multiple reflection of photons between the high albedo surface and an overlying cloud can enhance the downwelling shortwave flux out over the adjacent open water to a distance of several kilometers. This coastal albedo effect has been predicted by theoretical radiative transfer studies and has also been measured under ideal conditions. In this study, three multispectral solar ultraviolet radiometers were deployed in the vicinity of Palmer Station, Antarctica (64° 46'S, 64° 04'W) to determine the prevalence of the coastal albedo effect under the region's natural variability in cloud cover. One radiometer was deployed near the base of a glacier, and the other two radiometers were deployed on Janus Island and Outcast Island, islets ˜2.8 km (1.5 nautical miles) and 5.6 km (3 nautical miles) distant from Palmer Station, respectively. The radiometers were operated simultaneously for 16 days during late December 1999 and January 2000. Under all cloudy sky conditions sampled by this experiment the coastal albedo effect is seen in the data 60% of the time, in the form of a decreasing gradient in surface flux from Palmer Station through Janus and Outcast Islands. During the other 40% of the cloudy sky measurements, local cloud inhomogeneity obscured the coastal albedo effect. The effect is more apparent under overcast layers that appear spatially uniform and occurs 86% of the time under the low overcast decks sampled. The presence of stratus fractus of bad weather, under higher overcast layers, obscures the coastal albedo effect such that it occurs only 43% of the time. A wavelength dependence is noted in the data under optically thin cloud cover: the ratio of a flux measured at an islet to that measured at the station increases with wavelength. This wavelength dependence can be explained by plane-parallel radiative transfer theory.

  17. Surface Measurements of Solar Spectral Radiative Flux in the Cloud-Free Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilewskie, Peter; Goetz, A. F. H.; Bergstrom, R.; Beal, D.; Gore, Warren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies (Charlock, et al.; Kato, et. al) have indicated a potential discrepancy between measured solar irradiance in the cloud-free atmosphere and model derived downwelling solar irradiance. These conclusions were based primarily on broadband integrated solar flux. Extinction (both absorption and scattering) phenomena, however, typically have spectral characteristics that would be present in moderate resolution (e.g., 10 nm) spectra, indicating the need for such measurements to thoroughly investigate the cause of any discrepancies. The 1996 Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Intensive Observation Period (IOP), held simultaneously with the NASA Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) Program, provided an opportunity for two simultaneous but independent measurements of moderate resolution solar spectral downwelling irradiance at the surface. The instruments were the NASA Ames Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer and the Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc., FieldSpecT-FR. Spectral and band integrated quantities from both sets of measurements will be presented, along with estimates of the downwelling solar irradiance from band model and line by line calculations, in an effort to determine the compatibility between measured and calculated solar irradiance in the cloud-free atmosphere.

  18. Galileo Probe Measurements of Thermal and Solar Radiation Fluxes in the Jovian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Collard, A. D.; Fry, P. M.; Orton, G. S.; Lemmon, M. T.; Tomasko, M. G.; Freedman, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    The Galileo probe net flux radiometer (NFR) measured radiation fluxes in Jupiter's atmosphere from about 0.44 to 14 bars, using five spectral channels to separate solar and thermal components. Onboard calibration results confirm that the NFR responded to radiation approximately as expected. NFR channels also responded to a superimposed thermal perturbation, which can be approximately removed using blind channel measurements and physical constraints. Evidence for the expected NH3 cloud was seen in the spectral character of spin-induced modulations of the direct solar beam signals. These results are consistent with an overlying cloud of small NH3 ice particles (0.5-0.75 microns in radius) of optical depth 1.5-2 at 0.5 microns. Such a cloud would have so little effect on thermal fluxes that NFR thermal channels provide no additional constraints on its properties. However, evidence for heating near 0.45 bar in the NFR thermal channels would seem to require either an additional opacity source beyond this small-particle cloud, implying a heterogeneous cloud structure to avoid conflicts with solar modulation results, or a change in temperature lapse rate just above the probe measurements. The large thermal flux levels imply water vapor mixing ratios that are only 6% of solar at 10 bars, but possibly increasing with depth, and significantly subsaturated ammonia at pressures less than 3 bars. If deep NH3 mixing ratios at the probe entry site are 3-4 times ground-based inferences, as suggested by probe radio signal attenuation, then only half as much water is needed to match NFR observations. No evidence of a water cloud was seen near the 5-bar level. The 5-microns thermal channel detected the presumed NH4SH cloud base near 1.35 bars. Effects of this cloud were also seen in the solar channel upflux measurements but not in the solar net fluxes, implying that the cloud is a conservative scatterer of sunlight. The minor thermal signature of this cloud is compatible with particle radii near 3 gm, but it cannot rule out smaller particles. Deeper than about 3 bars, solar channels indicate unexpectedly large absorption of sunlight at wavelengths longer than 0.6 microns, which might be due to unaccounted-for absorption by NH3 between 0.65 and 1.5 microns.

  19. Galileo Probe Measurements of Thermal and Solar Radiation Fluxes in the Jovian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Collard, A. D.; Fry, P. M.; Orton, G. S.; Lemmon, M. T.; Tomasko, M. G.; Freedman, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    The Galileo probe net flux radiometer (NFR) measured radiation fluxes in Jupiter's atmosphere from about 0.44 to 14 bars, using five spectral channels to separate solar and thermal components. Onboard calibration results confirm that the NFR responded to radiation approximately as expected. NFR channels also responded to a superimposed thermal perturbation, which can be approximately removed using blind channel measurements and physical constraints. Evidence for the expected NH3 cloud was seen in the spectral character of spin-induced modulations of the direct solar beam signals. These results are consistent with an overlying cloud of small NH3 ice particles (0.5-0.75 microns in radius) of optical depth 1.5-2 at 0.5 microns. Such a cloud would have so little effect on thermal fluxes that NFR thermal channels provide no additional constraints on its properties. However, evidence for heating near 0.45 bar in the NFR thermal channels would seem to require either an additional opacity source beyond this small-particle cloud, implying a heterogeneous-cloud structure to avoid conflicts with solar modulation results, or a change in temperature lapse rate just above the probe measurements. The large thermal flux levels imply water vapor mixing ratios that are only 6% of solar at 10 bars, but possibly increasing with depth, and significantly subsaturated ammonia at pressures less than 3 bars. If deep NH3 mixing ratios at the probe entry site are 3-4 times ground-based inferences, as suggested by probe radio signal attenuation, then only half as much water is needed to match NFR observations. No evidence of a water cloud was seen near the 5-bar level. The 5 microns thermal channel detected the presumed NH4SH cloud base near 1.35 bars. Effects of this cloud were also seen in the solar channel upflux measurements but not in the solar net fluxes, implying that the cloud is a conservative scatterer of sunlight. The minor thermal signature of this cloud is compatible with particle radii near 3 microns, but it cannot rule out smaller particles. Deeper than about 3 bars, solar channels indicate unexpectedly large absorption of sunlight at wavelengths longer than 0.6 microns, which might be due to unaccounted-for absorption by NH3 between 0.65 and 1.5 microns.

  20. The Radiative Effects of Aerosol Layers on Solar Spectral Flux Measurements during ACE-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstrom, R.; Rabbette, M.; Pommier, J.; Pilewskie, P.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P.

    2002-12-01

    During the ACE-Asia campaign (March/April 2001) detailed moderate resolution solar spectral measurements were made to study the western Pacific radiative energy budget. The NASA Ames Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) were used to measure solar spectral irradiance covering a spectral range 350-1700 nm. The SSFR was flown on the CIRPAS Twin Otter and acquired over 200,000 upwelling and downwelling irradiance spectra. Most of the flights included several horizontal legs above and below various aerosol plumes. For two specific cases April 12th and April 17th the absorption and fractional absorption of the aerosol layers was computed. A K-distribution radiative model specifically designed to analyze the SSFR data is used to model the upwelling and downwelling spectral flux. The aerosol radiative properties are estimated from the comparison of the data with the model results. The aerosol forcing is then computed using the estimated values of the aerosol radiative properties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to characterize several thousand of the retrieved SSFR spectra and to determine the number of independent pieces of information that exist in the visible to near-infrared solar irradiance spectra. It was found in both the upwelling and downwelling cases that almost 100% of the spectral information (irradiance retrieved from 1350 wavelength channels) was contained in the first few extracted principal components which represent a few fundamental components. This analysis technique is used to quantify the variability in the data and more specifically to try and determine how much of the spectral variance is due to the presence of the aerosol layers.

  1. An Investigation of the Compatibility of Radiation and Convection Heat Flux Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    1996-01-01

    A method for determining time-resolved absorbed surface heat flux and surface temperature in radiation and convection environments is described. The method is useful for verification of aerodynamic, heat transfer and durability models. A practical heat flux gage fabrication procedure and a simple one-dimensional inverse heat conduction model and calculation procedure are incorporated in this method. The model provides an estimate of the temperature and heat flux gradient in the direction of heat transfer through the gage. This paper discusses several successful time-resolved tests of this method in hostile convective heating and cooling environments.

  2. Pulse flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Riggan, William C.

    1985-01-01

    A device for measuring particle flux comprises first and second photodiode detectors for receiving flux from a source and first and second outputs for producing first and second signals representing the flux incident to the detectors. The device is capable of reducing the first output signal by a portion of the second output signal, thereby enhancing the accuracy of the device. Devices in accordance with the invention may measure distinct components of flux from a single source or fluxes from several sources.

  3. Sensitivity and applications of a new method for the simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat flux in underhood applications—toward multiple versions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaled, M.; Shaer, A. Al; Ramadan, M.; Elmarakbi, A.; Harambat, F.; Peerhossaini, H.

    2014-03-01

    Convective and radiative heat fluxes enter simultaneously into most thermal engineering applications, especially in the vehicle underhood. However, separate measurements of these fluxes are needed for understanding and analyzing underhood aerothermal phenomena. In this context, a new experimental technique has been proposed (Khaled et al 2010 Meas. Sci. Technol. 21 025903) that allows the simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat fluxes. The technique uses a pair of fluxmeters with different radiative properties: the two fluxmeters measure the same convective flux but different radiative fluxes proportional to the fluxmeters’ emissivities. This permits the separate calculation of the convective and radiative fluxes. This paper presents a sensitivity and applicability analysis of the new technique, taking into account the effects of a number of parameters such as emissivities, the precision of emissivity estimation and the difference in convective heat fluxes due to fluxmeter position. Also, new applications of this novel technique are proposed as an alternative when the initial version becomes inaccurate.

  4. Validation of AERONET estimates of atmospheric solar fluxes and aerosol radiative forcing by ground-based broadband measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GarcíA, O. E.; DíAz, A. M.; Expósito, F. J.; DíAz, J. P.; Dubovik, O.; Dubuisson, P.; Roger, J.-C.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Derimian, Y.; Dutton, E. G.; Schafer, J. S.; Holben, B. N.; GarcíA, C. A.

    2008-11-01

    The AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) estimates of instantaneous solar broadband fluxes (F) at surface have been validated through comparison with ground-based measurements of broadband fluxes at Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) and by the Baseline Surface Radiation (BSRN) and the Solar Radiation Networks (SolRad-Net) during the period 1999-2005 and 1999-2006, respectively. The uncertainties in the calculated aerosol radiative forcing (ΔF) and radiative forcing efficiency (ΔFeff) at the bottom of the atmosphere were also assessed. The stations have been selected attempting to cover different aerosols influences and hence radiative properties: urban-industrial, biomass burning, mineral dust, background continental, maritime aerosols and free troposphere. The AERONET solar downward fluxes at surface agree with ground-based measurements in all situations, with a correlation higher than 99% whereas the relation of observed to modeled fluxes ranges from 0.98 to 1.02. Globally an overestimation of 9 ± 12 Wm-2 of solar measurements was found, whereas for MLO (clear atmosphere) the differences decrease noticeably up to 2 ± 10 Wm-2. The highest dispersion between AERONET estimates and measurements was observed in locations dominated by mineral dust and mixed aerosols types. In these locations, the F and ΔF uncertainties have shown a modest increase of the differences for high aerosol load, contrary to ΔFeff which are strongly affected by low aerosol load. Overall the discrepancies clustered within 9 ± 12 Wm-2 for ΔF and 28 ± 30 Wm-2 per unit of aerosol optical depth, τ, at 0.55 μm for ΔFeff, where the latter is given for τ(0.44 μm) ≥ 0.4. The error distributions have not shown any significant tendency with other aerosol radiative properties as well as size and shape particles.

  5. Measurement and Modeling of Vertically Resolved Aerosol Optical Properties and Radiative Fluxes Over the ARM SGP Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Arnott, P.; Bucholtz, A.; Colarco, P.; Covert, D.; Eilers, J.; Elleman, R.; Ferrare, R.; Flagan, R.; Jonsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    In order to meet one of its goals - to relate observations of radiative fluxes and radiances to the atmospheric composition - the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has pursued measurements and modeling activities that attempt to determine how aerosols impact atmospheric radiative transfer, both directly and indirectly. However, significant discrepancies between aerosol properties measured in situ or remotely remain. One of the objectives of the Aerosol Intensive Operational Period (TOP) conducted by ARM in May 2003 at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in north central Oklahoma was to examine and hopefully reduce these differences. The IOP involved airborne measurements from two airplanes over the heavily instrumented SGP site. We give an overview of airborne results obtained aboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft. The Twin Otter performed 16 research flights over the SGP site. The aircraft carried instrumentation to perform in-situ measurements of aerosol absorption, scattering, extinction and particle size. This included such novel techniques as the photoacoustic and cavity ring-down methods for in-situ absorption (675 nm) and extinction (675 and 1550 nm) and a new multiwavelength, filter-based absorption photometer (467, 530, 660 nm). A newly developed instrument measured cloud condensation nucleus concentration (CCN) concentrations at two supersaturation levels. Aerosol optical depth and extinction (354-2139 nm) were measured with the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking 14-channel sunphotometer. Furthermore, up-and downwelling solar (broadband and spectral) and infrared radiation were measured using seven individual radiometers. Three up-looking radiometers werer mounted on a newly developed stabilized platform, keeping the instruments level up to aircraft pitch and roll angles of approximately 10(exp 0). This resulted in unprecedented continuous vertical profiles of radiative fluxes, which we will compare to modeled fluxes using the aforementioned data as input.

  6. Measuring surface fluxes in CAPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.; D-Shah, T.; Nie, Dalin

    1992-01-01

    Two stations (site 1612 and site 2008) were operated by the University of Georgia group from 6 July 1991 to 18 August 1991. The following data were collected continuously: surface energy fluxes (i.e., net radiation, soil heat fluxes, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux), air temperature, vapor pressure, soil temperature (at 1 cm depth), and precipitation. Canopy reflectance and light interception data were taken three times at each site between 6 July and 18 August. Soil moisture content was measured twice at each site.

  7. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  8. Fast Longwave and Shortwave Radiative Flux (FLASHFlux) Products from CERES and MODIS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Kratz, David P.; McGarragh, Greg R.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Geier, Erika B.

    2006-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy Systems (CERES) project is currently producing world-class climatological data products derived from measurements taken aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts (Wielicki et al., 1996). While of exceptional fidelity, these data products require a considerable amount of processing to assure quality and verify accuracy and precision. Obtaining such high quality assurance, however, means that the CERES data is typically released more than six months after the acquisition of the initial measurements. For climate studies, such delays are of little consequence, especially considering the improved quality of the released data products. There are, however, many uses for the CERES data products on a near real-time basis. These include: CERES instrument calibration and subsystem quality checks, CLOUDSAT operations, seasonal predictions, agricultural and ocean assimilations, support of field campaigns, and outreach programs such as S'Cool. The FLASHflux project was envisioned as a conduit whereby CERES data could be provided to the community within a week of the initial measurements, with the trade-off that some degree of fidelity would be exacted to gain speed. In this paper, we will report on some very encouraging initial results from the FLASHflux project in which we compared the FLASHflux instantaneous surface fluxes to the CERES surface-only flux algorithm data products.

  9. Radiative Flux Changes by Aerosols from North America, Europe, and Africa over the Atlantic Ocean: Measurements and Calculations from TARFOX and ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Hignett, P.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Chien, A.; Bergstrom, R.; Durkee, P. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P. K.; Condon, Estelle (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Aerosol effects on atmospheric radiative fluxes provide a forcing function that is a major source of uncertainty in understanding the past climate and predicting climate change. To help reduce this uncertainty, the 1996 Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Experiment (TARFOX) and the 1997 second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) measured the properties and radiative effects of American, European, and African aerosols over the Atlantic. In TARFOX, radiative fluxes and microphysics of the American aerosol were measured from the UK C-130 while optical depth spectra, aerosol composition, and other properties were measured by the University of Washington C-131A and the CIRPAS Pelican. Closure studies show that the measured flux changes agree with those derived from the aerosol measurements using several modelling approaches. The best-fit midvisible single-scatter albedos (approx. 0.89 to 0.93) obtained from the TARFOX flux comparisons are in accord with values derived by independent techniques. In ACE-2 we measured optical depth and extinction spectra for both European urban-marine aerosols and free-tropospheric African dust aerosols, using sunphotometers on the R/V Vodyanitskiy and the Pelican. Preliminary values for the radiative flux sensitivities (Delta Flux / Delta Optical depth) computed for ACE-2 aerosols (boundary layer and African dust) over ocean are similar to those found in TARFOX. Combining a satellite-derived optical depth climatology with the aerosol optical model validated for flux sensitivities in TARFOX provides first-cut estimates of aerosol-induced flux changes over the Atlantic Ocean.

  10. Energy exchanges in a Central Business District - Interpretation of Eddy Covariance and radiation flux measurements (London UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

    2013-12-01

    Global urbanisation brings increasingly dense and complex urban structures. To manage cities sustainably and smartly, currently and into the future under changing climates, urban climate research needs to advance in areas such as Central Business Districts (CBD) where human interactions with the environment are particularly concentrated. Measurement and modelling approaches may be pushed to their limits in dense urban settings, but if urban climate research is to contribute to the challenges of real cities those limits have to be addressed. The climate of cities is strongly governed by surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy, moisture and momentum. Observations of the relevant fluxes provide important information for improvement and evaluation of modelling approaches. Due to the CBD's heterogeneity, a very careful analysis of observations is required to understand the relevant processes. Current approaches used to interpret observations and set them in a wider context may need to be adapted for use in these more complex areas. Here, we present long-term observations of the radiation balance components and turbulent fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat and momentum in the city centre of London. This is one of the first measurement studies in a CBD covering multiple years with analysis at temporal scales from days to seasons. Data gathered at two sites in close vicinity, but with different measurement heights, are analysed to investigate the influence of source area characteristics on long-term radiation and turbulent fluxes. Challenges of source area modelling and the critical aspect of siting in such a complex environment are considered. Outgoing long- and short-wave radiation are impacted by the anisotropic nature of the urban surface and the high reflectance materials increasingly being used as building materials. Results highlight the need to consider the source area of radiometers in terms of diffuse and direct irradiance. Sensible heat fluxes (QH) are positive all year round, even at night. QH systematically exceeds input from net all-wave radiation (Q*), probably sustained by a both storage and anthropogenic heat fluxes (QF). Model estimates suggest QF can exceed the Q* nearly all year round. The positive QH inhibits stable conditions, but the stability classification is determined predominantly by the pattern of friction velocity over the rough urban surface. Turbulent latent heat flux variations are controlled (beyond the available energy) by rainfall due to the small vegetation cover. The Bowen ratio is mostly larger than one. Analysis of the eddy covariance footprint surface controls for the different land cover types by flow patterns for measurements at the two heights suggests the spatial variations of the sensible heat flux observed are partly related to changes in surface roughness, even at the local scale. Where the source areas are most homogeneous, flow conditions are vertically consistent - even if initial morphometric parameters suggested the measurements may be below the blending height. Turbulence statistics and momentum flux patterns prove useful for the interpretation of turbulent heat exchanges observed.

  11. Apparatus for measuring high-flux heat transfer in radiatively heated compact exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Douglas A.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus is described which can deliver uniform heat flux densities of up to 80 W/sq cm over an area 7.8 cm x 15.2 cm for use in measuring the heat transfer and pressure drop in thin (6 mm or less), compact heat exchangers. Helium gas at flow rates of 0 to 40 kg/h and pressures to 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) is the working fluid. The instrumentation used in the apparatus and the methods for analyzing the data is described. The apparatus will be used initially to test the performance of prototype cooling jackets for the engine struts of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP).

  12. Measured and calculated clear-sky solar radiative fluxes during the Subsonic Aircraft Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS)

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, Francisco P. J.; Bush, Brett C.

    1999-11-27

    Modeled and measured surface insolations are compared with the purpose of evaluating the ability of a radiative transfer model to predict the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface under clear-sky conditions. Model uncertainties are estimated by performing sensitivity studies for variations in aerosol optical depth, aerosol optical properties, water vapor profiles, ozone content, solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere, and surface albedo. In this fashion, a range of possible calculated values is determined and compared to observations. Experimental errors are evaluated by comparison with independent, simultaneous measurements performed using two World Radiation Reference instrument arrays that were operational for a limited period during SUCCESS. Assuming a mineral aerosol, it is found that there is agreement between calculated and measured fluxes, with differences approximately equal to and within one standard deviation. Such agreement improves further if a layer containing a small amount of carbonaceous aerosol is added. The presence of carbonaceous aerosols is likely because occasional biomass burning activities took place during SUCCESS in the area around the experimental site (the clouds and radiation test bed operated by the Department of Energy in Oklahoma). (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union.

  13. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mace, Gerald

    2008-01-15

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  14. Flame Radiation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, R. W.; Humenik, F. M.; Neely, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    Spectral and total flame radiation measurements exhibited: (1) that radiant heat flux increases with vision combustor inlet air pressure; (2) the effect of fuel atomization characteristics on radiant heat flux; and (3) that a reduction in fuel hydrogen content produces a significant increase in radiant heat flux primarily at low combustor pressures.

  15. Measurements of net radiation, ground heat flux and surface temperature in an urban canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Gouveia, F J; Leach, M J; Shinn, J H

    2003-11-06

    The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect data to increase our knowledge of dispersion in urban areas. Air motions in and around urban areas are very complicated due to the influence of urban structures on both mechanical and thermal forcing. During JU2003, meteorological instruments were deployed at various locations throughout the urban area to characterize the processes that influence dispersion. Some of the instruments were deployed to characterize urban phenomena, such as boundary layer development. In addition, particular sites were chosen for more concentrated measurements to investigate physical processes in more detail. One such site was an urban street canyon on Park Avenue between Broadway and Robinson Avenues in downtown Oklahoma City. The urban canyon study was designed to examine the processes that control dispersion within, into and out of the urban canyon. Several towers were deployed in the Park Avenue block, with multiple levels on each tower for observing the wind using sonic anemometers. Infrared thermometers, net radiometers and ground heat flux plates were deployed on two of the towers midway in the canyon to study the thermodynamic effects and to estimate the surface energy balance. We present results from the surface energy balance observations.

  16. Estimating Clear-Sky Regional Surface Fluxes in the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site with Ground Measurements and Satellite Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, W.; Coulter, R. L.; Lesht, B. M.; Qiu, J.; Wesely, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    The authors compared methods for estimating surface fluxes under clear-sky conditions over a large heterogeneous area from a limited number of ground measurements and from satellite observations using data obtained from the southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site, an area of approximately 350 km 400 km located in Kansas and Oklahoma. In situ measurements from 10 energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) stations showed large spatial variations in latent and sensible heat fluxes across the site because of differences in vegetation and soil conditions. This variation was reproduced by a model for parameterization of subgrid- scale (PASS) surface fluxes that was developed previously and extended in the present study to include a distribution of soil moisture inferred from combined visible and thermal infrared remote sensing data. In the framework of the PASS model, the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index and surface temperature were used to derive essential surface parameters including surface albedo, surface conductance, soil heat flux ratio, surface roughness length, and soil moisture, which were then used to calculate a surface energy budget at satellite-pixel scales with pixel-specific surface meteorological conditions appropriately distributed from their mean values using a distribution algorithm. Although the derived soil moisture may be influenced by various uncertainty factors involved in the satellite data and the model, spatial variations of soil moisture derived from the multichannel data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers on the NOAA-14 satellite appeared to have some correlation (the correlation coefficient is as large as 0.6) with the amount of accumulated previous rainfall measured at the 58 Oklahoma Mesonet stations located within the CART area. Surface net radiation, soil heat flux, and latent and sensible heat fluxes calculated at a spatial resolution of 1 km (the size of a satellite pixel) were evaluated directly by comparing with flux measurements from the EBBR stations and indirectly by comparing air temperature and humidity inferred from calculated sensible and latent heat fluxes with corresponding values measured at 1.5 m above the 58 meteorological stations. In calculating regional fluxes, biases caused by the sampling uncertainty associated with point measurements may be corrected by application of the satellite data.

  17. Estimating clear-sky regional surface fluxes in the southern great plains atmospheric radiation measurement site with ground measurements and satellite observations.

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, W.; Coulter, R. L.; Lesht, B. M.; Qiu, J.; Wesely, M. L.; Environmental Research

    1998-01-01

    The authors compared methods for estimating surface fluxes under clear-sky conditions over a large heterogeneous area from a limited number of ground measurements and from satellite observations using data obtained from the southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site, an area of approximately 350 km x 400 km located in Kansas and Oklahoma. In situ measurements from 10 energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) stations showed large spatial variations in latent and sensible heat fluxes across the site because of differences in vegetation and soil conditions. This variation was reproduced by a model for parameterization of subgrid-scale (PASS) surface fluxes that was developed previously and extended in the present study to include a distribution of soil moisture inferred from combined visible and thermal infrared remote sensing data. In the framework of the PASS model, the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index and surface temperature were used to derive essential surface parameters including surface albedo. surface conductance, soil heat flux ratio. surface roughness length, and soil moisture, which were then used to calculate a surface energy budget at satellite-pixel scales with pixel-specific surface meteorological conditions appropriately distributed from their mean values using a distribution algorithm. Although the derived soil moisture may be influenced by various uncertainty factors involved in the satellite data and the model, spatial variations of soil moisture derived from the multichannel data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers or the NOAA-14 satellite appeared to have some correlation (the correlation coefficient is as large as 0.6) with the amount of accumulated previous rainfall measured at the 58 Oklahoma Mesonet stations located within the CART area. Surface net radiation, soil heat flux. and latent and sensible heat fluxes calculated at a spatial resolution of 1 km (the size of a satellite pixel) were evaluated directly by comparing with flux measurements from the EBBR stations and indirectly by comparing air temperature and humidity inferred from calculated sensible and latent heat fluxes with corresponding values measured at 1.5 m above the 58 meteorological stations. In calculating regional fluxes. biases caused by the sampling uncertainty associated with point measurements may be corrected by application of the satellite data.

  18. Simulation study of geometric shape factor approach to estimating earth emitted flux densities from wide field-of-view radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.; Green, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    A study was performed on the use of geometric shape factors to estimate earth-emitted flux densities from radiation measurements with wide field-of-view flat-plate radiometers on satellites. Sets of simulated irradiance measurements were computed for unrestricted and restricted field-of-view detectors. In these simulations, the earth radiation field was modeled using data from Nimbus 2 and 3. Geometric shape factors were derived and applied to these data to estimate flux densities on global and zonal scales. For measurements at a satellite altitude of 600 km, estimates of zonal flux density were in error 1.0 to 1.2%, and global flux density errors were less than 0.2%. Estimates with unrestricted field-of-view detectors were about the same for Lambertian and non-Lambertian radiation models, but were affected by satellite altitude. The opposite was found for the restricted field-of-view detectors.

  19. New two-dimensional space-resolving flux detection technique for measurement of hohlraum inner radiation in Shenguang-III prototype.

    PubMed

    Ren, Kuan; Liu, Shenye; Du, Huabing; Hou, Lifei; Jing, Longfei; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Zhiwen; Wei, Minxi; Deng, Keli; Yao, Li; Yang, Guohong; Li, Sanwei; Lan, Ke; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Xiaoli; Ding, Yongkun; Yi, Lin

    2015-10-01

    The space-resolving measurement of X-ray flux from a specific area (laser spot, re-emitting wall, or capsule) inside the hohlraum is an ongoing and critical problem in indirectly driven inertial-confinement fusion experiments. In this work, we developed a new two-dimensional space-resolving flux detection technique to measure the X-ray flux from specific areas inside the hohlraum by using the time- and space-resolving flux detector (SRFD). In two typical hohlraum experiments conducted at the Shenguang-III prototype laser facility, the X-ray flux and radiation temperature from an area 0.2 mm in diameter inside the hohlraum were measured through the laser entrance hole (LEH). The different flux intensities and radiation temperatures detected using the SRFD from the inner area of the LEH were compared with the result measured using the flat-response X-ray detector from the entire LEH. This comparison was also analyzed theoretically. The inner area detected using the SRFD was found to be the re-emitting wall area alone. This important improvement in space-resolving X-ray flux measurement will enhance the current X-ray flux space characterization techniques, thereby furthering the quantitative understanding of X-ray flux space behavior in the hohlraum. PMID:26520945

  20. New two-dimensional space-resolving flux detection technique for measurement of hohlraum inner radiation in Shenguang-III prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Kuan; Liu, Shenye Du, Huabing; Hou, Lifei; Jing, Longfei; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Zhiwen; Wei, Minxi; Deng, Keli; Yao, Li; Yang, Guohong; Li, Sanwei; Ding, Yongkun; Lan, Ke; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Xiaoli; Yi, Lin

    2015-10-15

    The space-resolving measurement of X-ray flux from a specific area (laser spot, re-emitting wall, or capsule) inside the hohlraum is an ongoing and critical problem in indirectly driven inertial-confinement fusion experiments. In this work, we developed a new two-dimensional space-resolving flux detection technique to measure the X-ray flux from specific areas inside the hohlraum by using the time- and space-resolving flux detector (SRFD). In two typical hohlraum experiments conducted at the Shenguang-III prototype laser facility, the X-ray flux and radiation temperature from an area 0.2 mm in diameter inside the hohlraum were measured through the laser entrance hole (LEH). The different flux intensities and radiation temperatures detected using the SRFD from the inner area of the LEH were compared with the result measured using the flat-response X-ray detector from the entire LEH. This comparison was also analyzed theoretically. The inner area detected using the SRFD was found to be the re-emitting wall area alone. This important improvement in space-resolving X-ray flux measurement will enhance the current X-ray flux space characterization techniques, thereby furthering the quantitative understanding of X-ray flux space behavior in the hohlraum.

  1. New two-dimensional space-resolving flux detection technique for measurement of hohlraum inner radiation in Shenguang-III prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Kuan; Liu, Shenye; Du, Huabing; Hou, Lifei; Jing, Longfei; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Zhiwen; Wei, Minxi; Deng, Keli; Yao, Li; Yang, Guohong; Li, Sanwei; Lan, Ke; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Xiaoli; Ding, Yongkun; Yi, Lin

    2015-10-01

    The space-resolving measurement of X-ray flux from a specific area (laser spot, re-emitting wall, or capsule) inside the hohlraum is an ongoing and critical problem in indirectly driven inertial-confinement fusion experiments. In this work, we developed a new two-dimensional space-resolving flux detection technique to measure the X-ray flux from specific areas inside the hohlraum by using the time- and space-resolving flux detector (SRFD). In two typical hohlraum experiments conducted at the Shenguang-III prototype laser facility, the X-ray flux and radiation temperature from an area 0.2 mm in diameter inside the hohlraum were measured through the laser entrance hole (LEH). The different flux intensities and radiation temperatures detected using the SRFD from the inner area of the LEH were compared with the result measured using the flat-response X-ray detector from the entire LEH. This comparison was also analyzed theoretically. The inner area detected using the SRFD was found to be the re-emitting wall area alone. This important improvement in space-resolving X-ray flux measurement will enhance the current X-ray flux space characterization techniques, thereby furthering the quantitative understanding of X-ray flux space behavior in the hohlraum.

  2. Adsorption calorimetry during metal vapor deposition on single crystal surfaces: Increased flux, reduced optical radiation, and real-time flux and reflectivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, Jason R. V.; James, Trevor E.; Hemmingson, Stephanie L.; Farmer, Jason A.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2013-12-15

    Thin films of metals and other materials are often grown by physical vapor deposition. To understand such processes, it is desirable to measure the adsorption energy of the deposited species as the film grows, especially when grown on single crystal substrates where the structure of the adsorbed species, evolving interface, and thin film are more homogeneous and well-defined in structure. Our group previously described in this journal an adsorption calorimeter capable of such measurements on single-crystal surfaces under the clean conditions of ultrahigh vacuum [J. T. Stuckless, N. A. Frei, and C. T. Campbell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2427 (1998)]. Here we describe several improvements to that original design that allow for heat measurements with ∼18-fold smaller standard deviation, greater absolute accuracy in energy calibration, and, most importantly, measurements of the adsorption of lower vapor-pressure materials which would have previously been impossible. These improvements are accomplished by: (1) using an electron beam evaporator instead of a Knudsen cell to generate the metal vapor at the source of the pulsed atomic beam, (2) changing the atomic beam design to decrease the relative amount of optical radiation that accompanies evaporation, (3) adding an off-axis quartz crystal microbalance for real-time measurement of the flux of the atomic beam during calorimetry experiments, and (4) adding capabilities for in situ relative diffuse optical reflectivity determinations (necessary for heat signal calibration). These improvements are not limited to adsorption calorimetry during metal deposition, but also could be applied to better study film growth of other elements and even molecular adsorbates.

  3. Development of a balloon-borne stabilized platform for measuring radiative flux profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, G.A.; Shaw, W.J.

    1993-03-01

    A stabilized platform has been developed to carry broadband short-wave and long-wave radiometric sensors on the tether line of a small tethered balloon that ascends through atmospheric depths of up to 1.5 km to obtain vertical profiles of radiative flux and flux divergence for evaluating atmospheric radiative transfer models. The Sky Platform was designed to keep the radiometers level despite unpredictable movements of the balloon and tether line occasioned by turbulence and wind shear. The automatic control loop drives motors, gears, and pulleys located on two of the vertices of the triangular frame to climb the harness lines to keep the platform level. Radiometric sensors, an electronic compass, and an on-board data acquisition system make up the remainder of the Sky Platform. Because knowledge of the dynamic response of the tether line-platform system is essential to properly close the automatic control loop on the Sky Platform, a Motion Sensing Platform (MSP) was developed to fly in place of the Sky Platform on the tether line to characterize the Sky Platform's operating environment. This unstabilized platform uses an array of nine solid-state linear accelerometers to measure the lateral and angular accelerations, velocities, and displacements that the Sky Platform will experience. This paper presents field performance tests of the Sky and Motion Sensing Platforms, as conducted at Richland, Washington, on February 17, 1993. The tests were performed primarily to characterize the stabilization system on the Sky Platform. Test flights were performed on this cold winter day from 1400 to 1800 Pacific Standard Time (PST). During this period, temperature profiles were near the dry adiabatic lapse rate. Flights were made through a jet wind speed profile having peak wind speeds of 7 m/s at a height of 100 m AGL. Wind directions were from the northwest. All flights were performed as continuous ascents, rather than ascending in discrete steps with halts at set altitudes.

  4. Development of a balloon-borne stabilized platform for measuring radiative flux profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, G.A.; Shaw, W.J.

    1993-03-01

    A stabilized platform has been developed to carry broadband short-wave and long-wave radiometric sensors on the tether line of a small tethered balloon that ascends through atmospheric depths of up to 1.5 km to obtain vertical profiles of radiative flux and flux divergence for evaluating atmospheric radiative transfer models. The Sky Platform was designed to keep the radiometers level despite unpredictable movements of the balloon and tether line occasioned by turbulence and wind shear. The automatic control loop drives motors, gears, and pulleys located on two of the vertices of the triangular frame to climb the harness lines to keep the platform level. Radiometric sensors, an electronic compass, and an on-board data acquisition system make up the remainder of the Sky Platform. Because knowledge of the dynamic response of the tether line-platform system is essential to properly close the automatic control loop on the Sky Platform, a Motion Sensing Platform (MSP) was developed to fly in place of the Sky Platform on the tether line to characterize the Sky Platform`s operating environment. This unstabilized platform uses an array of nine solid-state linear accelerometers to measure the lateral and angular accelerations, velocities, and displacements that the Sky Platform will experience. This paper presents field performance tests of the Sky and Motion Sensing Platforms, as conducted at Richland, Washington, on February 17, 1993. The tests were performed primarily to characterize the stabilization system on the Sky Platform. Test flights were performed on this cold winter day from 1400 to 1800 Pacific Standard Time (PST). During this period, temperature profiles were near the dry adiabatic lapse rate. Flights were made through a jet wind speed profile having peak wind speeds of 7 m/s at a height of 100 m AGL. Wind directions were from the northwest. All flights were performed as continuous ascents, rather than ascending in discrete steps with halts at set altitudes.

  5. Ionizing radiation fluxes and dose measurements during the Kosmos 1887 satellite flight.

    PubMed

    Charvat, J; Spurny, F; Kopecka, B; Votockova, I

    1990-01-01

    The results of dosimetric experiments performed during the flight of Kosmos 1887 biosatellite are presented. Two kinds of measurements were performed on the external surface of the satellite. First, the fluences and spectra of low energy charged particles were established. It was found that most of the particles registered by means of solid state nuclear track detectors are helium nuclei. Tracks of oxygen nuclei and some heavier charged particles were also observed. Thermoluminescent detectors were used to establish absorbed doses in open space on the satellite's surface and behind thin shielding. It was found that these doses were rather high; nevertheless, their decrease with shielding thickness is very rapid. Dosimetric and other consequences of the results obtained are analyzed and discussed. PMID:11537509

  6. Heat energy exchange across the sea surface of the Bering Sea and the northern North Pacific in summer: estimates from direct measurements of radiation fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otobe, H.; Nakai, T.; Hattori, A.

    1983-10-01

    Net heat flux across the sea surface in the Bering Sea and the northern North Pacific was estimated from observations during 21 days in the Bering Sea and 11 days in northern North Pacific during two summer cruises of the R.V. Hakuho Maru. Radiation fluxes were measured directly, and latent heat and sensible heat fluxes were calculated by an aerodynamic bulk method. There was little difference in the values of net flux between the two areas. The mean net radiation flux (0.22 ly min -) over the 32 days was in good agreement with other estimates in a region of the Bering Sea and at Station PAPA in the northern North Pacific. The mean values for latent heat flux (0.02 ly min -1) and sensible heat flux (0.00 ly min -1) were also identical with the estimates by Reed and in Budyko's Climatic Atlas. On the basis of these estimates and other data, the vertical thermal eddy diffusion coefficient at the top of the seasonal thermocline of the eastern Bering Sea was estimated to be between 0.12 and 3.1 cm 2s -1.

  7. Flux monitor diode radiation hardness testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, M. L.; Favalli, A.; Goda, J. M.; Ianakiev, K. D.; Moss, C. E.

    2011-10-01

    A flux monitor diode is being explored as an option for measurement of the output of an X-ray tube that is used for active transmission measurements on a pipe containing UF 6 gas. The measured flux can be used to correct for any instabilities in the X-ray tube or the high voltage power supply. For this measurement, we are using a silicon junction p-n photodiode, model AXUV100GX, developed by International Radiation Detectors, Inc. (IRD, Inc.). This diode has a silicon thickness of 104 μ and a thin (3-7 nm) silicon dioxide junction passivating, protective entrance window. These diodes have been extensively tested for radiation hardness in the UV range. However, we intend to operate mainly in the 10-40 keV X-ray region. We are performing radiation hardness testing over this energy range, with the energy spectrum that would pass through the diode during normal operation. A long-term measurement was performed at a high flux, which simulated over 80 years of operation. No significant degradation was seen over this time. Fluctuations were found to be within the 0.1% operationally acceptable error range. After irradiation, an I- V characterization showed a temporary irradiation effect which decayed over time. This effect is small because we operate the diode without external bias.

  8. An information theory approach for evaluating earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements - Nonuniform sampling of diurnal longwave flux variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim; Direskeneli, Haldun; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    1991-01-01

    Satellite measurements are subject to a wide range of uncertainties due to their temporal, spatial, and directional sampling characteristics. An information-theory approach is suggested to examine the nonuniform temporal sampling of ERB measurements. The information (i.e., its entropy or uncertainty) before and after the measurements is determined, and information gain (IG) is defined as a reduction in the uncertainties involved. A stochastic model for the diurnal outgoing flux variations that affect the ERB is developed. Using Gaussian distributions for the a priori and measured radiant exitance fields, the IG is obtained by computing the a posteriori covariance. The IG for the monthly outgoing flux measurements is examined for different orbital parameters and orbital tracks, using the Earth Observing System orbital parameters as specific examples. Variations in IG due to changes in the orbit's inclination angle and the initial ascending node local time are investigated.

  9. Pyrolytic graphite gauge for measuring heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, Robert C. (Inventor); Ewing, Mark E. (Inventor); Shipley, John L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A gauge for measuring heat flux, especially heat flux encountered in a high temperature environment, is provided. The gauge includes at least one thermocouple and an anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body that covers at least part of, and optionally encases the thermocouple. Heat flux is incident on the anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body by arranging the gauge so that the gauge surface on which convective and radiative fluxes are incident is perpendicular to the basal planes of the pyrolytic graphite. The conductivity of the pyrolytic graphite permits energy, transferred into the pyrolytic graphite body in the form of heat flux on the incident (or facing) surface, to be quickly distributed through the entire pyrolytic graphite body, resulting in small substantially instantaneous temperature gradients. Temperature changes to the body can thereby be measured by the thermocouple, and reduced to quantify the heat flux incident to the body.

  10. Radiation fluxes at the FIFE site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Blad, Blaine L.; Zara, Pedro; Vining, Roel; Hays, Cynthia J.; Mesarch, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) has been stated as 'the development of techniques that may be applied to satellite observations of the radiation reflected and emitted from the Earth to yield quantitative information concerning land surface climatological conditions'. The major field study, FIFE (the First ISLSCP Field Experiment), was conducted in 1987-89 to accomplish this objective. Four intensive field campaigns (IFC's) were carried out in 1987 and one in 1989. Factors contributing to observed reflected radiation from the FIFE site must be understood before the radiation observed by satellites can be used to quantify surface processes. Our last report (Walter-Shea et al., 1992b) focused on slope effects on incoming and outgoing shortwave radiation and net radiation from data collected in 1989. We report here on the final analysis of the slope data as well as results from thermal radiation studies conducted during the FIFE experiment. The specific areas reported are the following: (1) analysis of slope effects on measured reflectance values and estimates of surface albedo; (2) using remotely-measured surface temperatures as a means of estimating sensible heat flux from the Konza Prairie; (3) extracting canopy temperatures from remotely-measured composite surface temperatures; (4) modeling the measured composite temperature of partially vegetated surfaces; and (5) estimating gap distribution in partially vegetated surfaces from reflectance measurements.

  11. Short wave Aerosol Radiative Forcing estimates over a semi urban coastal environment in south-east India and validation with surface flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruna, K.; Lakshmi Kumar, T. V.; Krishna Murthy, B. V.; Babu, S. Suresh; Ratnam, M. Venkat; Rao, D. Narayana

    2016-01-01

    The short wave direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF) at a semi urban coastal location near Chennai (12.81 °N, 80.03 °E, ˜45 m amsl), a mega city on the east coast of India has been estimated for all the four seasons in the year 2013 using the SBDART (Santa Barbara Discrete ordinate Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model. As inputs to this model, measured aerosol parameters together with modeled aerosol and atmospheric parameters are used. The ARF in the atmosphere is found to be higher in the pre-monsoon and winter seasons compared to the other seasons whereas at the surface, it is found to be higher in the south-west (SW) monsoon and winter seasons. The estimated ARF values are compared with those reported over other locations in India. The effect of Relative Humidity on ARF has been investigated for the first time in the present study. It is found that the ARF increases with increasing RH in the SW monsoon and winter seasons. An unique feature of the present study is the comparison of the net surface short wave fluxes estimated from the model (SBDART) and measured fluxes using CNR 4 net radiometer. This comparison between the estimated and measured fluxes showed good agreement, providing a 'closure' for the estimates.

  12. New measurement of the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio up to 100 GeV in the cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Adriani, O; Barbarino, G C; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; De Pascale, M P; De Rosa, G; Fedele, D; Galper, A M; Grishantseva, L; Hofverberg, P; Leonov, A; Koldashov, S V; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Malvezzi, V; Marcelli, L; Menn, W; Mikhailov, V V; Minori, M; Mocchiutti, E; Nagni, M; Orsi, S; Osteria, G; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Y I; Taddei, E; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N; Zverev, V G

    2009-02-01

    A new measurement of the cosmic-ray antiproton-to-proton flux ratio between 1 and 100 GeV is presented. The results were obtained with the PAMELA experiment, which was launched into low-Earth orbit on-board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on June 15th 2006. During 500 days of data collection a total of about 1000 antiprotons have been identified, including 100 above an energy of 20 GeV. The high-energy results are a tenfold improvement in statistics with respect to all previously published data. The data follow the trend expected from secondary production calculations and significantly constrain contributions from exotic sources, e.g., dark matter particle annihilations. PMID:19257498

  13. Simulation study of a geometric shape factor technique for estimating earth-emitted radiant flux densities from wide-field-of-view radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.; Green, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    Geometric shape factors were computed and applied to satellite simulated irradiance measurements to estimate Earth emitted flux densities for global and zonal scales and for areas smaller than the detector field of view (FOV). Wide field of view flat plate detectors were emphasized, but spherical detectors were also studied. The radiation field was modeled after data from the Nimbus 2 and 3 satellites. At a satellite altitude of 600 km, zonal estimates were in error 1.0 to 1.2 percent and global estimates were in error less than 0.2 percent. Estimates with unrestricted field of view (UFOV) detectors were about the same for Lambertian and limb darkening radiation models. The opposite was found for restricted field of view detectors. The UFOV detectors are found to be poor estimators of flux density from the total FOV and are shown to be much better as estimators of flux density from a circle centered at the FOV with an area significantly smaller than that for the total FOV.

  14. Fundamentals of heat measurement. [heat flux transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerashchenko, O. A.

    1979-01-01

    Various methods and devices for obtaining experimental data on heat flux density over wide ranges of temperature and pressure are examined. Laboratory tests and device fabrication details are supplemented by theoretical analyses of heat-conduction and thermoelectric effects, providing design guidelines and information relevant to further research and development. A theory defining the measure of correspondence between transducer signal and the measured heat flux is established for individual (isolated) heat flux transducers subject to space and time-dependent loading. An analysis of the properties of stacked (series-connected) transducers of various types (sandwich-type, plane, and spiral) is used to derive a similarity theory providing general governing relationships. The transducers examined are used in 36 types of derivative devices involving direct heat loss measurements, heat conduction studies, radiation pyrometry, calorimetry in medicine and industry and nuclear reactor dosimetry.

  15. Beta ray flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Impink, Jr., Albert J.; Goldstein, Norman P.

    1990-01-01

    A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

  16. Focusing and photon flux measurements of the 2.88-nm radiation at the sample plane of the soft x-ray microscope, based on capillary discharge source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, M. Fahad; Jancarek, Alexandr; Nevrkla, Michal; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Limpouch, Jiri; Pina, Ladislav

    2015-05-01

    Feasibility measurements leading to the development of a Soft X-ray (SXR) microscopy setup, based on capillary discharge XUV source is presented. Here the Z-pinching plasma is acting as a source of XUV radiation, emitting incoherent radiation in the "water-window" (λ = 2.3 - 4.4 nm) region of interest (natural contrast between the carbon and oxygen edges).This soft X-ray microscopy setup will realize imaging of the biological objects with high spatial resolution. The 2.88 nm radiation line is filtered out from the water-window band, and is focused by an axi-symmetric ellipsoidal mirror, coated with nickle. The focussed spot size is measured and reported. Flux measurements for the available number of photons (photons/pulse) at the sample plane has been carried out with AXUV PIN diode at the sample plane (slightly out of focus). For imaging, a fresnel zone plate lens will be used as an objective. The overall compact transmission SXR microscopy setup design is presented.

  17. Aerosol-Induced Radiative Flux Changes Off the United States Mid-Atlantic Coast: Comparison of Values Calculated from Sunphotometer and In Situ Data with Those Measured by Airborne Pyranometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Hignett, P.; Kinne, S.; Wong, J.; Chien, A.; Bergstrom, R.; Durkee, P.; Hobbs, P. V.

    2000-01-01

    The Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) measured a variety of aerosol radiative effects (including flux changes) while simultaneously measuring the chemical, physical, and optical properties of the responsible aerosol particles. Here we use TARFOX-determined aerosol and surface properties to compute shortwave radiative flux changes for a variety of aerosol situations, with midvisible optical depths ranging from 0.06 to 0.55. We calculate flux changes by several techniques with varying degrees of sophistication, in part to investigate the sensitivity of results to computational approach. We then compare computed flux changes to those determined from aircraft measurements. Calculations using several approaches yield downward and upward flux changes that agree with measurements. The agreement demonstrates closure (i.e. consistency) among the TARFOX-derived aerosol properties, modeling techniques, and radiative flux measurements. Agreement between calculated and measured downward flux changes is best when the aerosols are modeled as moderately absorbing (midvisible single-scattering albedos between about 0.89 and 0.93), in accord with independent measurements of the TARPOX aerosol. The calculated values for instantaneous daytime upwelling flux changes are in the range +14 to +48 W/sq m for midvisible optical depths between 0.2 and 0.55. These values are about 30 to 100 times the global-average direct forcing expected for the global-average sulfate aerosol optical depth of 0.04. The reasons for the larger flux changes in TARFOX include the relatively large optical depths and the focus on cloud-free, daytime conditions over the dark ocean surface. These are the conditions that produce major aerosol radiative forcing events and contribute to any global-average climate effect.

  18. Modified two-flux approximation for identification of radiative properties of absorbing and scattering media from directional-hemispherical measurements.

    PubMed

    Dombrovsky, Leonid; Randrianalisoa, Jaona; Baillis, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    A modified two-flux approximation is suggested for calculating the hemispherical transmittance and reflectance of a refracting, absorbing, and scattering medium in the case of collimated irradiation of the sample along the normal to the interface. The Fresnel reflection is taken into account in this approach. It is shown that the new approximation is rather accurate for the model transport scattering function. For an arbitrary scattering medium, the error of the modified two-flux approximation is estimated by comparison with the exact numerical calculations for the Henyey-Greenstein scattering function in a wide range of albedos and optical thicknesses. Possible applications of the derived analytical solution to identification problems are discussed. PMID:16478064

  19. Radiative convection with a fixed heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumaı̂tre, S.

    2001-10-01

    We have determined the marginal stability curve of convective instability in the usual Rayleigh-Bénard configuration with radiative transfer and a fixed total heat flux at the boundaries instead of a fixed temperature. In the Milne-Eddington approximation, radiative transfer introduces a new length scale and breaks the invariance of the Boussinesq equations under an arbitrary temperature shift, which occurs when the heat flux is fixed at the boundaries. The convergence to the limits where the non-radiative cases are expected is studied in this approximation. Then, using a second-order perturbative calculation, we show that the presence of radiation can change qualitatively the instability pattern: there is a range of optical parameters where the Cahn-Hillard equation is not anymore the one appropriate to describe the instability near the threshold.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems (CO2Flux) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, M

    2005-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) carbon dioxide flux (CO2 flux) measurement systems provide half-hour average fluxes of CO2, H2O (latent heat), and sensible heat. The fluxes are obtained by the eddy covariance technique, which computes the flux as the mean product of the vertical wind component with CO2 and H2O densities, or estimated virtual temperature. A three-dimensional sonic anemometer is used to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the virtual (sonic) temperature. An infrared gas analyzer is used to obtain the CO2 and H2O densities. A separate sub-system also collects half-hour average measures of meteorological and soil variables from separate 4-m towers.

  1. Latent Heat in Soil Heat Flux Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, the...

  2. Apparatus for measuring a flux of neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Stringer, James L.

    1977-01-01

    A flux of neutrons is measured by disposing a detector in the flux and applying electronic correlation techniques to discriminate between the electrical signals generated by the neutron detector and the unwanted interfering electrical signals generated by the incidence of a neutron flux upon the cables connecting the detector to the electronic measuring equipment at a remote location.

  3. Annual Cycles of Surface Shortwave Radiative Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilber, Anne C.; Smith, G. Louis; Gupta, Shashi K.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    The annual cycles of surface shortwave flux are investigated using the 8-yr dataset of the surface radiation budget (SRB) components for the period July 1983-June 1991. These components include the downward, upward, and net shortwave radiant fluxes at the earth's surface. The seasonal cycles are quantified in terms of principal components that describe the temporal variations and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) that describe the spatial patterns. The major part of the variation is simply due to the variation of the insolation at the top of the atmosphere, especially for the first term, which describes 92.4% of the variance for the downward shortwave flux. However, for the second term, which describes 4.1% of the variance, the effect of clouds is quite important and the effect of clouds dominates the third term, which describes 2.4% of the variance. To a large degree the second and third terms are due to the response of clouds to the annual cycle of solar forcing. For net shortwave flux at the surface, similar variances are described by each term. The regional values of the EOFs are related to climate classes, thereby defining the range of annual cycles of shortwave radiation for each climate class.

  4. Spectral estimates of net radiation and soil heat flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daughtry, C.S.T.; Kustas, W.P.; Moran, M.S.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.; Jackson, R. D.; Brown, P.W.; Nichols, W.D.; Gay, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional methods of measuring surface energy balance are point measurements and represent only a small area. Remote sensing offers a potential means of measuring outgoing fluxes over large areas at the spatial resolution of the sensor. The objective of this study was to estimate net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G) using remotely sensed multispectral data acquired from an aircraft over large agricultural fields. Ground-based instruments measured Rn and G at nine locations along the flight lines. Incoming fluxes were also measured by ground-based instruments. Outgoing fluxes were estimated using remotely sensed data. Remote Rn, estimated as the algebraic sum of incoming and outgoing fluxes, slightly underestimated Rn measured by the ground-based net radiometers. The mean absolute errors for remote Rn minus measured Rn were less than 7%. Remote G, estimated as a function of a spectral vegetation index and remote Rn, slightly overestimated measured G; however, the mean absolute error for remote G was 13%. Some of the differences between measured and remote values of Rn and G are associated with differences in instrument designs and measurement techniques. The root mean square error for available energy (Rn - G) was 12%. Thus, methods using both ground-based and remotely sensed data can provide reliable estimates of the available energy which can be partitioned into sensible and latent heat under nonadvective conditions. ?? 1990.

  5. Radiant Flux of Near Field in Temperature Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez-Romero, J. G.; Resendiz Barron, A. J.; Farias Arguello, J. O.

    2008-04-15

    In this work we present a calculation of the radiant flux exiting from an object which is at a constant temperature. The flux calculation is based in the propagation model of irradiance and it permit to predict the small variations in measurements of infrared radiation sources when the pyrometer is going far from the source, this variation is known as distance effect. The classical radiometry defines the quantity radiance, which is used in temperature measurements of objects through the infrared radiation they emit. Unfortunately the radiance does not permit to take into account the variations of the radiant flux measured by the pyrometer due to the wave propagation of the radiation given that the radiance definition is based in ray propagation, the geometrical model. Due to the anterior in this work we present a radiant flux calculation using wave model and considering the approximation of the near field or Fresnel approximation. We show experimental results that confirm our proposal.

  6. Non-contact heat flux measurement using a transparent sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel; Spuckler, Charles M.

    1993-01-01

    A working non-contact heat flux sensor was demonstrated using a transparent material (sapphire) and a multiwavelength pyrometer. The pyrometer is used to measure the temperatures of the two surfaces of the sensor from the spectrum of radiation originating from them. The heat conducted through the material is determined from the temperature difference of the two surfaces and the thermal conductivity of the material. The measured heat flux is equal to the incident heat flux within experimental error indicating that no calibration would be necessary. A steady state heat flux of 100 kW/sq m was easily achieved.

  7. Spatially averaged heat flux and convergence measurements at the ARM regional flux experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Porch, W.; Barnes, F.; Buchwald, M.; Clements, W.; Cooper, D.; Hoard, D. ); Doran, C.; Hubbe, J.; Shaw, W. ); Coulter, R.; Martin, T. ); Kunkel, K. )

    1991-01-01

    Cloud formation and its relation to climate change is the greatest weakness in current numerical climate models. Surface heat flux in some cases causes clouds to form and in other to dissipate and the differences between these cases are subtle enough to make parameterization difficult in a numerical model. One of the goals of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is to make long term measurements at representative sites to improve radiation and cloud formation parameterization. This paper compares spatially averaged optical measurements of heat flux and convergence with a goal of determining how point measurements of heat fluxes scale up to the larger scale used for climate modeling. It was found that the various optical techniques used in this paper compared well with each other and with independent measurements. These results add confidence that spatially averaging optical techniques can be applied to transform point measurements to the larger scales needed for mesoscale and climate modeling. 10 refs., 6 figs. (MHB)

  8. Measurement of Atomic-Oxygen Flux Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisashiba, Takuya; Kuroda, Kazutaka; Masui, Hirokazu; Iwata, Minoru; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Cho, Mengu

    Since material surfaces on the outside of spacecraft are exposed directly to the space environment, material having high tolerance to atomic oxygen, ultraviolet rays and radiation are preferred for long time spacecraft operation. In order to examine the influence of atomic oxygen (AO) on space grade materials, an atomic oxygen simulation chamber was developed. A system was developed that generates AO using a laser detonation method. A CO2 gas laser (5 J) irradiates the oxygen gas in a vacuum chamber (2 MPa) to dissociate the molecular oxygen into atomic. The velocity of AO can be controlled based on the timing between the laser and the gas pulse valve that injects oxygen gas into the chamber. The AO velocity generated by this system is measured using a QMASS (Quadruple Mass Spectrometer) and found to be 8 km/s. It was necessary to measure the AO flux distribution in the chamber at the location where the material samples are exposed to AO. The AO flux distribution was evaluated by measuring the mass gain on a QCM (QuartzCrystal Microbalance) coated with a silver film upon exposure to the AO.

  9. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  10. A new approach of surface flux measurements using DTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Emmerik, T. H. M.; Wenker, K. J. R.; Rimmer, A.; de Jong, S. A. P.; Lechinsky, Y.; van de Giesen, N. C.

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of surface fluxes is a difficult task, especially over lakes. Determining latent heat flux (evaporation), sensible heat flux and ground heat flux involves measurements and (or calculations) of net radiation, air temperature, water temperature, wind speed and relative humidity. This research presents a new method to measure surface fluxes by means of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS). From 0.5 m above lake level to 1.5 m under lake level DTS was applied to measure temperature. Using a PVC hyperboloid construction, a floating standalone measuring device was developed. This new setup distinguished itself by the open construction, so it is almost insensitive to direct radiation. While most of the lake ground heat changes occur very close to the lake surface, most measuring methods only obtain rough results. With this construction it was possible to create a spiral shaped fiber-optic cable setup, with which a vertical spatial resolution of 0.02 m and a temporal resolution of 1 min was obtained. The new method was tested in the deep Lake Kinneret (Israel) from 6 October, 2011 to 11 October, 2011and in the shallow Lake Binaba (Ghana) from 24 October, 2011 to 28 October, 2011. This study shows that with the developed method it is possible to capture the energy fluxes within the top water layer with a high resolution. When the old low resolution method was compared with the new high resolution method, it could be concluded that the impact of the surface fluxes in the upper layer is high on the energy balance on a daily scale. During the measuring period it was possible to use the temperature measured by the DTS to determine the sensible heat flux, the latent heat flux and the ground heat flux of both lakes.

  11. Flux gradient measurements from a catamaran buoy in SEMAPHORE

    SciTech Connect

    Katsaros, K.B.; Drennan, W.M.; Donelan, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    During the SEMAPHORE Structure des Echanges Mer Atmosphere Proprietes des Heterogeneities de L`Ocean leur Repartition (Structure of Exchanges with the Marine Atmosphere, Properties of Heterogeneities of the Ocean and their Repartition) experiment in the fall of 1993, a large catamaran buoy, the MENTOR, was set adrift in the Azores region. The purpose of the buoy was to provide measurements for testing flux-profile relations over the sea, and to measure the influence of sea state on the turbulent fluxes and atmospheric profiles and the effects of atmospheric and radiative fluxes on near surface temperature structure in the ocean. In addition, the buoy measurements were to provide an anchor point for calibrating mesoscale bulk surface flux estimates over the SEMAPHORE domain and to provide intercomparison data for dissipation estimates of fluxes from the R/V Le Suroit.

  12. Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part 1; Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Smith, N. M.; Kato, S.; Miller, W. F.; Gupta, S. K.; Minnis, P.; Wielicki, B. A.

    2003-01-01

    Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) investigates the critical role that clouds and aerosols play in modulating the radiative energy flow within the Earth-atmosphere system. CERES builds upon the foundation laid by previous missions, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, to provide highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes together with coincident cloud and aerosol properties inferred from high-resolution imager measurements. This paper describes the method used to construct empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) for estimating shortwave, longwave, and window TOA radiative fluxes from CERES radiance measurements on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. To construct the ADMs, multiangle CERES measurements are combined with coincident high-resolution Visible Infrared Scanner measurements and meteorological parameters from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts data assimilation product. The ADMs are stratified by scene types defined by parameters that have a strong influence on the angular dependence of Earth's radiation field at the TOA. Examples of how the new CERES ADMs depend upon the imager-based parameters are provided together with comparisons with existing models.

  13. Radiation measuring instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piltingsrud, H. V.

    1975-01-01

    Four radiation measuring instruments were developed. These are: (1) improved detector probe, (2) neutron spectrometer--dosimeter, (3) portable ultraviolet spectro-radiometer; and (4) pocket ionization chamber radiation dosimeter. A brief description of each of these devices is presented.

  14. Diamagnetic flux measurement in Aditya tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sameer; Jha, Ratneshwar; Lal, Praveen; Hansaliya, Chandresh; Gopalkrishna, M. V.; Kulkarni, Sanjay; Mishra, Kishore

    2010-12-15

    Measurements of diamagnetic flux in Aditya tokamak for different discharge conditions are reported for the first time. The measured diamagnetic flux in a typical discharge is less than 0.6 mWb and therefore it has required careful compensation for various kinds of pick-ups. The hardware and software compensations employed in this measurement are described. We introduce compensation of a pick-up due to plasma current of less than 20 kA in short duration discharges, in which plasma pressure gradient is supposed to be negligible. The flux measurement during radio frequency heating is also presented in order to validate compensation.

  15. Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part II; Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Loukachine, K.; Wielicki, B. A.; Young, D. F.

    2003-01-01

    Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) are estimated from empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) that convert instantaneous radiance measurements to TOA fluxes. This paper evaluates the accuracy of CERES TOA fluxes obtained from a new set of ADMs developed for the CERES instrument onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The uncertainty in regional monthly mean reflected shortwave (SW) and emitted longwave (LW) TOA fluxes is less than 0.5 W/sq m, based on comparisons with TOA fluxes evaluated by direct integration of the measured radiances. When stratified by viewing geometry, TOA fluxes from different angles are consistent to within 2% in the SW and 0.7% (or 2 W/sq m) in the LW. In contrast, TOA fluxes based on ADMs from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) applied to the same CERES radiance measurements show a 10% relative increase with viewing zenith angle in the SW and a 3.5% (9 W/sq m) decrease with viewing zenith angle in the LW. Based on multiangle CERES radiance measurements, 18 regional instantaneous TOA flux errors from the new CERES ADMs are estimated to be 10 W/sq m in the SW and, 3.5 W/sq m in the LW. The errors show little or no dependence on cloud phase, cloud optical depth, and cloud infrared emissivity. An analysis of cloud radiative forcing (CRF) sensitivity to differences between ERBE and CERES TRMM ADMs, scene identification, and directional models of albedo as a function of solar zenith angle shows that ADM and clear-sky scene identification differences can lead to an 8 W/sq m root-mean-square (rms) difference in 18 daily mean SW CRF and a 4 W/sq m rms difference in LW CRF. In contrast, monthly mean SW and LW CRF differences reach 3 W/sq m. CRF is found to be relatively insensitive to differences between the ERBE and CERES TRMM directional models.

  16. Accuracy of quantum sensors measuring yield photon flux and photosynthetic photon flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Tibbitts, T.; Sager, J.; Deitzer, G.; Bubenheim, D.; Koerner, G.; Bugbee, B.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Photosynthesis is fundamentally driven by photon flux rather than energy flux, but not all absorbed photons yield equal amounts of photosynthesis. Thus, two measures of photosynthetically active radiation have emerged: photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), which values all photons from 400 to 700 nm equally, and yield photon flux (YPF), which weights photons in the range from 360 to 760 nm according to plant photosynthetic response. We selected seven common radiation sources and measured YPF and PPF from each source with a spectroradiometer. We then compared these measurements with measurements from three quantum sensors designed to measure YPF, and from six quantum sensors designed to measure PPF. There were few differences among sensors within a group (usually <5%), but YPF values from sensors were consistently lower (3% to 20%) than YPF values calculated from spectroradiometric measurements. Quantum sensor measurements of PPF also were consistently lower than PPF values calculated from spectroradiometric measurements, but the differences were <7% for all sources, except red-light-emitting diodes. The sensors were most accurate for broad-band sources and least accurate for narrow-band sources. According to spectroradiometric measurements, YPF sensors were significantly less accurate (>9% difference) than PPF sensors under metal halide, high-pressure sodium, and low-pressure sodium lamps. Both sensor types were inaccurate (>18% error) under red-light-emitting diodes. Because both YPF and PPF sensors are imperfect integrators, and because spectroradiometers can measure photosynthetically active radiation much more accurately, researchers should consider developing calibration factors from spectroradiometric data for some specific radiation sources to improve the accuracy of integrating sensors.

  17. Accuracy of quantum sensors measuring yield photon flux and photosynthetic photon flux.

    PubMed

    Barnes, C; Tibbitts, T; Sager, J; Deitzer, G; Bubenheim, D; Koerner, G; Bugbee, B

    1993-12-01

    Photosynthesis is fundamentally driven by photon flux rather than energy flux, but not all absorbed photons yield equal amounts of photosynthesis. Thus, two measures of photosynthetically active radiation have emerged: photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), which values all photons from 400 to 700 nm equally, and yield photon flux (YPF), which weights photons in the range from 360 to 760 nm according to plant photosynthetic response. We selected seven common radiation sources and measured YPF and PPF from each source with a spectroradiometer. We then compared these measurements with measurements from three quantum sensors designed to measure YPF, and from six quantum sensors designed to measure PPF. There were few differences among sensors within a group (usually <5%), but YPF values from sensors were consistently lower (3% to 20%) than YPF values calculated from spectroradiometric measurements. Quantum sensor measurements of PPF also were consistently lower than PPF values calculated from spectroradiometric measurements, but the differences were <7% for all sources, except red-light-emitting diodes. The sensors were most accurate for broad-band sources and least accurate for narrow-band sources. According to spectroradiometric measurements, YPF sensors were significantly less accurate (>9% difference) than PPF sensors under metal halide, high-pressure sodium, and low-pressure sodium lamps. Both sensor types were inaccurate (>18% error) under red-light-emitting diodes. Because both YPF and PPF sensors are imperfect integrators, and because spectroradiometers can measure photosynthetically active radiation much more accurately, researchers should consider developing calibration factors from spectroradiometric data for some specific radiation sources to improve the accuracy of integrating sensors. PMID:11537894

  18. Earth Radiation Measurement Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis

    2000-01-01

    This document is the final report for NASA Grant NAG1-1959, 'Earth Radiation Measurement Science'. The purpose of this grant was to perform research in this area for the needs of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project and for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which are bing conducted by the Radiation and Aerosols Branch of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of Langley Research Center. Earth Radiation Measurement Science investigates the processes by which measurements are converted into data products. Under this grant, research was to be conducted for five tasks: (1) Point Response Function Measurements; (2) Temporal Sampling of Outgoing Longwave Radiation; (3) Spatial Averaging of Radiation Budget Data; (4) CERES Data Validation and Applications; and (5) ScaRaB Data Validation and Application.

  19. AmeriFlux Measurement Component (AMC) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Reichl, K.; Biraud, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    An AMC system was installed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s North Slope Alaska (NSA) Barrow site, also known as NSA C1 at the ARM Data Archive, in August 2012. A second AMC system was installed at the third ARM Mobile Facility deployment at Oliktok Point, also known as NSA M1. This in situ system consists of 12 combination soil temperature and volumetric water content (VWC) reflectometers and one set of upwelling and downwelling PAR sensors, all deployed within the fetch of the Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System. Soil temperature and VWC sensors placed at two depths (10 and 30 cm below the vegetation layer) at six locations (or microsites) allow soil property inhomogeneity to be monitored across a landscape. The soil VWC and temperature sensors used at NSA C1 are the Campbell Scientific CS650L and the sensors at NSA M1 use the Campbell Scientific CS655. The two sensors are nearly identical in function, and vendor specifications are based on the CS650 unless otherwise stated.

  20. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, DR

    2011-01-31

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.

  1. Maximum power flux of auroral kilometric radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, R.F.; Fainberg, J. )

    1991-08-01

    The maximum auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) power flux observed by distant satellites has been increased by more than a factor of 10 from previously reported values. This increase has been achieved by a new data selection criterion and a new analysis of antenna spin modulated signals received by the radio astronomy instrument on ISEE 3. The method relies on selecting AKR events containing signals in the highest-frequency channel (1980, kHz), followed by a careful analysis that effectively increased the instrumental dynamic range by more than 20 dB by making use of the spacecraft antenna gain diagram during a spacecraft rotation. This analysis has allowed the separation of real signals from those created in the receiver by overloading. Many signals having the appearance of AKR harmonic signals were shown to be of spurious origin. During one event, however, real second harmonic AKR signals were detected even though the spacecraft was at a great distance (17 R{sub E}) from Earth. During another event, when the spacecraft was at the orbital distance of the Moon and on the morning side of Earth, the power flux of fundamental AKR was greater than 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} W m{sup {minus}2} Hz{sup {minus}1} at 360 kHz normalized to a radial distance r of 25 R{sub E} assuming the power falls off as r{sup {minus}2}. A comparison of these intense signal levels with the most intense source region values (obtained by ISIS 1 and Viking) suggests that multiple sources were observed by ISEE 3.

  2. Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments: basics of the RayMan model.

    PubMed

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Rutz, Frank; Mayer, Helmut

    2010-03-01

    Short- and long-wave radiation flux densities absorbed by people have a significant influence on their energy balance. The heat effect of the absorbed radiation flux densities is parameterised by the mean radiant temperature. This paper presents the physical basis of the RayMan model, which simulates the short- and long-wave radiation flux densities from the three-dimensional surroundings in simple and complex environments. RayMan has the character of a freely available radiation and human-bioclimate model. The aim of the RayMan model is to calculate radiation flux densities, sunshine duration, shadow spaces and thermo-physiologically relevant assessment indices using only a limited number of meteorological and other input data. A comparison between measured and simulated values for global radiation and mean radiant temperature shows that the simulated data closely resemble measured data. PMID:19756771

  3. Radiation measurements aboard Spacelab 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Almasi, J.; Cassou, R.; Frank, A.; Henke, R. P.; Rowe, V.; Parnell, T. A.; Schopper, E.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation environment inside Spacelab 1 was measured by a set of passive radiation detectors distributed throughout the volume inside the module, in the access tunnel, and outside on the pallet. Measurements of the low linear energy transfer (LET) component obtained from the thermoluminescence detectors ranged from 102 to 190 millirads, yielding an average low LET dose rate of 11.2 millirads/day inside the module, about twice the low LET dose rate measured on previous flights of the Space Shuttle. Because of the higher inclination of the orbit (57 versus 28.5 deg for previous Shuttle flights), substantial fluxes of highly ionizing high charge and energy galactic cosmic ray particles were observed, yielding an overall average mission dose-equivalent of about 150 millirems, more than three times higher than that measured on previous Shuttle missions.

  4. Aerosol properties derived from spectral actinic flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, H.; Schmidt, K. S.; Pilewskie, P.; Cozic, J.; Wollny, A. G.; Brock, C. A.; Baynard, T.; Lack, D.; Parrish, D. D.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    2008-12-01

    Measurement of aerosol properties is very important for understanding climate change. Aerosol optical properties influence solar radiation throughout the troposphere. According to the Working Group I report of the intergovernmental panel for climate change [IPCC, 2007], aerosols have a direct radiative forcing of - 0.5±0.4 W/m2 with a medium to low level of scientific understanding. This relatively large uncertainty indicates the need for more frequent and precise measurements of aerosol properties. We will show how actinic flux measurements can be used to derive important optical aerosol parameters such as aerosol optical thickness and depth, surface albedo, angstrom exponent, radiative forcing by clouds and aerosols, aerosol extinction, and others. The instrument used for this study is a combination of two spectroradiometers measuring actinic flux in the ultraviolet and visible radiation range from 280 to 690 nm with a resolution of 1 nm. Actinic flux is measured as the radiation incident on a spherical surface with sensitivity independent of direction. In contrast, irradiance is measured as the radiation incident on a plane surface, which depends on the cosine of the incident angle. Our goal is to assess the capabilities of using spectral actinic flux measurements to derive various aerosol properties. Here we will compare 1) actinic flux measurements to irradiance measurements from the spectral solar flux radiometer (SSFR), 2) derived aerosol size distributions with measurements from a white light optical particle counter (WLOPC) and ultra high sensitivity aerosol size spectrometer (UHSAS), and 3) derived aerosol optical extinction with measurements from a cavity ringdown aerosol extinction spectrometer (CRD-AES). These comparisons will utilize data from three recent field campaigns over New England and the Atlantic Ocean (ICARTT 2004), Texas and the Gulf of Mexico during (TexAQS/GoMACCS 2006), and Alaska and the Arctic Ocean (ARCPAC 2008) when the instruments were installed on board the NOAA WP-3D aircraft. IPCC (2007), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

  5. Measuring Response Of Propellant To Oscillatory Heat Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, Leon D.; Schwartz, Ken; Burns, Shawn P.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for research in combustion of solid propellants measures oscillatory response of rate of burning to oscillating thermal radiation from modulated CO2 laser. Determines response to rate of burning to equivalent oscillation in pressure. Rod of propellant mounted in burner assembly including waveguide at one end and infrared window at other end. Microwave Doppler velocimeter measures motion of combustion front. Microwave, laser-current, and heat-flux signals processed into and recorded in forms useful in determining desired response of propellent.

  6. Experimental Flux Measurements on a Network Scale

    PubMed Central

    Schwender, Jrg

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic flux is a fundamental property of living organisms. In recent years, methods for measuring metabolic flux in plants on a network scale have evolved further. One major challenge in studying flux in plants is the complexity of the plants metabolism. In particular, in the presence of parallel pathways in multiple cellular compartments, the core of plant central metabolism constitutes a complex network. Hence, a common problem with the reliability of the contemporary results of 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis in plants is the substantial reduction in complexity that must be included in the simulated networks; this omission partly is due to limitations in computational simulations. Here, I discuss recent emerging strategies that will better address these shortcomings. PMID:22639602

  7. Experimental flux measurements on a network scale

    SciTech Connect

    Schwender, J.

    2011-10-11

    Metabolic flux is a fundamental property of living organisms. In recent years, methods for measuring metabolic flux in plants on a network scale have evolved further. One major challenge in studying flux in plants is the complexity of the plant's metabolism. In particular, in the presence of parallel pathways in multiple cellular compartments, the core of plant central metabolism constitutes a complex network. Hence, a common problem with the reliability of the contemporary results of {sup 13}C-Metabolic Flux Analysis in plants is the substantial reduction in complexity that must be included in the simulated networks; this omission partly is due to limitations in computational simulations. Here, I discuss recent emerging strategies that will better address these shortcomings.

  8. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration. The instruments used are: • a fast-response, three-dimensional (3D) wind sensor (sonic anemometer) to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the speed of sound (SOS) (used to derive the air temperature) • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain the water vapor density and the CO2 concentration, and • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain methane density and methane flux at one SGP EF and at the NSA CF. The ECOR systems are deployed at the locations where other methods for surface flux measurements (e.g., energy balance Bowen ratio [EBBR] systems) are difficult to employ, primarily at the north edge of a field of crops. A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system in SGP, NSA, Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes. The SEBS at one SGP and one NSA site also support upwelling and downwelling PAR measurements to qualify those two locations as Ameriflux sites.

  9. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Simpson, M.L.; McElhaney, S.A.

    1994-10-04

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination. 3 figs.

  10. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, John T.; Simpson, Marc L.; McElhaney, Stephanie A.

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination.

  11. ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ARM scientists focus on obtaining field measurements and developing models to better understand the processes that control solar and...

  12. Instruments for measuring radiant thermal fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerashenko, O. A.; Sazhina, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    An absolute two-sided radiometer, designed on the principle of replacing absorbed radiant energy with electrical energy, is described. The sensitive element of the detector is a thermoelectric transducer of thermal flux. The fabrication technology, methods of measurement, technical characteristics, and general operation of the instrument are presented.

  13. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    DOEpatents

    Zonca, Fulvio; Cohen, Samuel A.; Bennett, Timothy; Timberlake, John R.

    1993-01-01

    Invention comprises an instrument in which momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer--a capacitance-type pressure gauge. The transducer is protected from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering, and materials used in the target and pendulum are electrically insulating, rigid even at elevated temperatures, and have low thermal conductivity. The instrument enables measurement of small forces (10.sup.-5 to 10.sup.3 N) accompanied by high heat fluxes which are transmitted by energetic particles with 10's of eV of kinetic energy in a intense magnetic field and pulsed plasma environment.

  14. Flux limiters in the coupling of radiation and hydrodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaid, M.; Klar, A.; Dubroca, B.

    2004-07-01

    Two numerical approximations to radiative heat transfer problem based on asymptotic and entropy approaches are proposed for hydrodynamics radiation coupling. We compare the radiative fluxes between the two approaches and we show that the coupling based on the entropy approach is flux limited, while the other approach does not preserve this condition. Relaxation schemes are considered for the hydrodynamic part, and an iterative procedure is used for radiation. The new splitting algorithm avoids the use of Riemann solvers and Newton iterations. Numerical examples are carried out on two and three dimensional problems.

  15. Constraining isoprene emission factors using airborne flux measurements during CABERNET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Karl, T.; Jiang, X.; Avise, J. C.; Scott, K.; Jonsson, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    An aircraft flux study was conducted to assess biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from California ecosystems targeting oak woodlands and isoprene for most transects. The direct eddy covariance approach featured high speed proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry onboard a CIRPAS (Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies) Twin Otter aircraft during June 2011 as part of the CABERNET (California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects) project. Isoprene fluxes were calculated using wavelet analysis and scaled to surface fluxes using a divergence term obtained by measuring fluxes at multiple altitudes over homogenous oak terrain. By normalization of fluxes to standard temperature and photosynthetically active radiation levels using standard BVOC modeling equations, the resulting emission factors could be directly compared with those used by MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) and BEIGIS (Biogenic Emission Inventory Geographic Information System) models which are the most commonly used BVOC emission models for California. As expected, oak woodlands were found to be the dominant source of isoprene in all areas surrounding and in the Central Valley of California. The airborne fluxes averaged to 2 km spatial resolution matched remarkably well with current oak woodland distributions driving the models and hence the correspondence of modeled and aircraft derived emission factors was also good, although quantitative differences were encountered depending on the region and driving variables used. Fluxes measured from aircraft proved to be useful for the improvement of the accuracy of modeled predictions for isoprene and other important ozone and aerosol precursor compounds. These are the first regional isoprene flux measurements using direct eddy covariance on aircraft.

  16. Interactive Database of Pulsar Flux Density Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koralewska, O.; Krzeszowski, K.; Kijak, J.; Lewandowski, W.

    2012-12-01

    The number of astronomical observations is steadily growing, giving rise to the need of cataloguing the obtained results. There are a lot of databases, created to store different types of data and serve a variety of purposes, e. g. databases providing basic data for astronomical objects (SIMBAD Astronomical Database), databases devoted to one type of astronomical object (ATNF Pulsar Database) or to a set of values of the specific parameter (Lorimer 1995 - database of flux density measurements for 280 pulsars on the frequencies up to 1606 MHz), etc. We found that creating an online database of pulsar flux measurements, provided with facilities for plotting diagrams and histograms, calculating mean values for a chosen set of data, filtering parameter values and adding new measurements by the registered users, could be useful in further studies on pulsar spectra.

  17. Estimation of wet surface evaporation from sensible heat flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercauteren, Nikki; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Huwald, Hendrik; Parlange, Marc B.; Brutsaert, Wilfried

    2009-06-01

    A new method is proposed to estimate wet surface evaporation by means of measurements of sensible heat flux and of air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed at one level only. This formulation is made possible by the linearization of the Bowen ratio, a common assumption in other methods, such as Penman's model and its derivatives. The method will be useful in those cases where the sensible heat flux is more reliably acquired at field scales than the net radiation and the ground heat flux, which are needed in many operational methods because of energy budget considerations. Indeed, the ground heat flux is a notoriously difficult variable to measure on wet surfaces, such as lakes or wetlands, especially at the appropriate length scales, whereas sensible heat flux can be obtained from standard temperature variance methods or other instruments such as scintillometers. The proposed method was tested with field experimental data taken over Lake Geneva in Switzerland, where it showed excellent agreement with evaporation rates measured using eddy covariance techniques.

  18. Near-Core and In-Core Neutron Radiation Monitors for Real Time Neutron Flux Monitoring and Reactor Power Level Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas S. McGregor; Marvin L. Adams; Igor Carron; Paul Nelson

    2006-06-12

    MPFDs are a new class of detectors that utilize properties from existing radiation detector designs. A majority of these characteristics come from fission chamber designs. These include radiation hardness, gamma-ray background insensitivity, and large signal output.

  19. Radiation measuring system

    SciTech Connect

    Eldering, H.G.; Kliman, A.W.

    1984-02-07

    A system for measuring radiation in the laboratory or at a site to aid in determining whether to erect a solar energy installation at that site includes a positioner and a sensor. The sensor, which is mounted on the positioner, includes a rotating semispherical chopper and an integrating sphere for collecting radiation in three modes. A broad-band detector measures the irradiance from the integrating sphere to monitor for anomalies. A pair of monochromators simultaneously measure, one in the visible range and the other in the infrared range, the spectral irradiance from the integrating sphere. Processing electronics process the measured spectral irradiance from the monochromators and generate data signals for providing an absolute irradiance spectrum at the plane of the entrance aperture. The absolute irradiance spectrum is inputted to an X-Y plotter and a magnetic disc and tape. The system further includes internal reference sources providing continuous wavelength and irradiance calibration.

  20. Atmospheric radiative flux divergence from Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Louis G.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Crommelynk, D.; Rutan, David; Gupta, Shashi

    1990-01-01

    A major objective of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) is the computation of vertical profiles through the atmosphere of the divergence of radiation flux, with global coverage. This paper discusses the need for radiation divergence and presents some options for its inference from CERES measurements and other data from the Earth Observating System.

  1. Micrometeorological flux measurements at a coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Guozheng; Meixner, Franz X.; Bruse, Michael; Mamtimin, Buhalqem

    2014-05-01

    The eddy covariance (EC) technique is the only direct measurement of the momentum, heat, and trace gas (e.g. water vapor, CO2 and ozone) fluxes. The measurements are expected to be most accurate over flat terrain where there is an extended homogenous surface upwind from the tower, and when the environmental conditions are steady. Additionally, the one dimensional approach assumes that vertical turbulent exchange is the dominant flux, whereas advective influences should be negligible. The application of EC method under non-ideal conditions, for example in complex terrain, has yet to be fully explored. To explore the possibilities and limitations of EC technique under non-ideal conditions, an EC system was set up at Selles beach, Crete, Greece (35.33°N, 25.71°E) in the beginning of July 2012. The dominant wind direction was west, parallel to the coast. The EC system consisted of a sonic anemometer (CSAT3 Campbell Scientific), an infrared open-path CO2/H2O gas analyzer (LI-7500, Li-COR Biosciences) and a fast chemiluminescence ozone analyzer (enviscope GmbH). All the signals of these fast response instruments were sampled at 10 Hz and the measurement height was 3 m. Besides, another gradient system was setup. Air temperature, relative humidity (HYGROMER MP 103 A), and wind speed (WMT700 Vaisala) were measured every 10 seconds at 3 heights (0.7, 1.45, 3 m). Air intakes were set up at 0.7m and 3m. A pump drew the air through a flow system and a telflon valve alternately switched between the two heights every 30 seconds. H2O, CO2 (LI-840A, Li-COR Biosciences) and ozone mixing ratio s (model 205, 2BTechnologies) were measured every 10 seconds. Momentum, heat, CO2 and ozone fluxes were evaluated by both EC and gradient technique. For the calculation of turbulent fluxes, TK3 algorithm (Department of Micrometeorology, University Bayreuth, Germany) was applied. We will present the measured fluxes of the two systems and assess the data quality under such non-ideal condition.

  2. Measurement of the Meteoroid Flux at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domokos, Andrea; Bell, J. F., III; Brown, P.; Lemmon, M. T.; Suggs, R.; Vaubaillon, J.; Cooke, W.

    2007-12-01

    In the fall of 2005, a dedicated meteor observing campaign was carried out by the Panoramic Camera (Pancam) onboard the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit to determine the viability of using MER cameras as meteor detectors and to obtain the first experimental estimate of the meteoroid flux at Mars. Our observing targets included both the sporadic meteoroid background and two predicted martian meteor showers: one associated with comet 1P/Halley and a potential stream associated with 2001/R1 LONEOS. A total of 353 images covering 2.7 h of net exposure time were analyzed with no conclusive meteor detections. From these data, we estimate the upper limit to the background meteoroid flux at Mars to be < 4.4 x 10-6 meteoroids km-2hr-1 for meteoroids with mass larger than 4 g. The estimated flux to this same mass limit at the Earth is 10-6 meteoroids km-2hr-1(Grün et al. 1985). This result is qualitatively consistent, within error bounds, with theoretical models predicting martian fluxes of 50% that at Earth for meteoroids of mass 10-3-101 g (Adolfsson et al. 1996). Our analysis also suggests that the event reported as the first martian meteor (Selsis et al. 2005) is more likely to be a grazing cosmic ray impact, which we found to be a major source of confusion with potential meteors in all Pancam images. Domokos, A., Bell III, J.F., Brown, P., Lemmon, M.T., Suggs, R., Vaubaillon, J., 2007. Measurement of the Meteoroid Flux at Mars. Icarus, in press. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.04.017

  3. Observational biases in flux magnification measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, H.

    2016-02-01

    Flux magnification is an interesting complement to shear-based lensing measurements, especially at high redshift where sources are harder to resolve. One measures either changes in the source density (magnification bias) or in the shape of the flux distribution (e.g. magnitude shift). The interpretation of these measurements relies on theoretical estimates of how the observables change under magnification. Here, we present simulations to create multiband photometric mock catalogues of Lyman-break galaxies in a CFHTLenS (Canada France Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey)-like survey that include several observational effects that can change these relations, making simple theoretical estimates unusable. In particular, we show how the magnification bias can be affected by photometric noise, colour selection, and dust extinction. We find that a simple measurement of the slope of the number-counts is not sufficient for the precise interpretation of virtually all observations of magnification bias. We also explore how sensitive the shift in the mean magnitude of a source sample in different photometric bands is to magnification including the same observational effects. Again we find significant deviations from simple analytical estimates. We also discover a wavelength-dependence of the magnitude-shift effect when applied to a colour-selected noisy source sample. Such an effect can mimic the reddening by dust in the lens. It has to be disentangled from the dust extinction before the magnitude shift/colour-excess can be used to measure the distribution of either dark matter or extragalactic dust. Using simulations like the ones presented here these observational effects can be studied and eventually removed from observations making precise measurements of flux magnification possible.

  4. Analysis of Radiative Measurements During CLAMS Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Z.; Charlock, T.; Rutledge, K.; Smith Jr., W.; Cota, G.; Denn, F.; Madigan, J.

    2002-05-01

    The CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) is located at the Chesapeake Lighthouse, 25km due east of Virginia Beach. Intensive measurements of apparent and inherent optical properties of both the atmosphere and ocean were made around COVE during the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for satellites (CLAMS) field campaign in the summer of 2001. In this presentation, we analyse the broadband and spectral fluxes measured from COVE and from aircraft. We then investigate the influence of atmospheric and oceanic properties on these radiation fluxes. A coupled atmosphere-ocean radiative transfer model simulates the irradiances and the ocean surface albedo by using the measured properties of the atmosphere and the ocean as inputs. Finally, we compare the modeled radiation with satellite observations corresponding to the field campaign.

  5. Lab-scale study of radiative fluxes received from a fire front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérardin, J.; Marchand, A.; Trévisan, N.; Collin, A.; Acem, Z.; Boulet, P.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulations of radiation received from a fire front were carried out in a situation of laboratory-scale fire. The fire front was determined at different instants based on camera images taken during a real experiment, and predicted in using a “small world network” propagation model. The fluxes were computed using either a ray tracing method with EDStaR, or a home-made reciprocal Monte Carlo method. Results were compared with available flux measurements using radiative heat flux gauges.

  6. Defining Top-of-Atmosphere Flux Reference Level for Earth Radiation Budget Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Wielicki, B. A.

    2002-01-01

    To estimate the earth's radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from satellite-measured radiances, it is necessary to account for the finite geometry of the earth and recognize that the earth is a solid body surrounded by a translucent atmosphere of finite thickness that attenuates solar radiation differently at different heights. As a result, in order to account for all of the reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the planet by direct integration of satellite-measured radiances, the measurement viewing geometry must be defined at a reference level well above the earth s surface (e.g., 100 km). This ensures that all radiation contributions, including radiation escaping the planet along slant paths above the earth s tangent point, are accounted for. By using a field-of- view (FOV) reference level that is too low (such as the surface reference level), TOA fluxes for most scene types are systematically underestimated by 1-2 W/sq m. In addition, since TOA flux represents a flow of radiant energy per unit area, and varies with distance from the earth according to the inverse-square law, a reference level is also needed to define satellite-based TOA fluxes. From theoretical radiative transfer calculations using a model that accounts for spherical geometry, the optimal reference level for defining TOA fluxes in radiation budget studies for the earth is estimated to be approximately 20 km. At this reference level, there is no need to explicitly account for horizontal transmission of solar radiation through the atmosphere in the earth radiation budget calculation. In this context, therefore, the 20-km reference level corresponds to the effective radiative top of atmosphere for the planet. Although the optimal flux reference level depends slightly on scene type due to differences in effective transmission of solar radiation with cloud height, the difference in flux caused by neglecting the scene-type dependence is less than 0.1%. If an inappropriate TOA flux reference level is used to define satellite TOA fluxes, and horizontal transmission of solar radiation through the planet is not accounted for in the radiation budget equation, systematic errors in net flux of up to 8 W/sq m can result. Since climate models generally use a plane-parallel model approximation to estimate TOA fluxes and the earth radiation budget, they implicitly assume zero horizontal transmission of solar radiation in the radiation budget equation, and do not need to specify a flux reference level. By defining satellite-based TOA flux estimates at a 20-km flux reference level, comparisons with plane-parallel climate model calculations are simplified since there is no need to explicitly correct plane-parallel climate model fluxes for horizontal transmission of solar radiation through a finite earth.

  7. ACCURACY OF SOIL HEAT FLUX MEASUREMENTS MADE WITH FLUX PLATES OF CONTRASTING PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flux plate measurements of soil heat flux (G) may include significant errors unless the plates are carefully installed and known errors accounted for. The objective of this research was to quantify potential errors in G when using soil heat flux plates of contrasting designs. Five flux plates with...

  8. Cosmic matter flux may turn Hawking radiation off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Ellis, George F. R.

    2015-02-01

    An astrophysical (cosmological) black hole forming in a cosmological context will be subject to a flux of infalling matter and radiation, which will cause the outer apparent horizon (a marginal trapping surface) to be spacelike spacelike (Ellis et al., arXiv:1407.3577). As a consequence the radiation emitted close to the apparent horizon no longer arrives at infinity with a diverging redshift. Standard calculations of the emission of Hawking radiation then indicate that no blackbody radiation is emitted to infinity by the black hole in these circumstances, hence there will also then be no black hole evaporation process due to emission of such radiation as long as the matter flux is significant. The essential adiabatic condition (eikonal approximation) for black hole radiation gives a strong limit to the black holes that can emit Hawking radiation. We give the mass range for the black holes that can radiate, according to their cosmological redshift, for the special case of the cosmic blackbody radiation (CBR) influx (which exists everywhere in the universe). At a very late stage of black hole formation when the CBR influx decays away, the black hole horizon becomes first a slowly evolving horizon and then an isolated horizon; at that stage, black hole radiation will start. This study suggests that the primordial black hole evaporation scenario should be revised to take these considerations into account.

  9. Untangling Autophagy Measurements: All Fluxed Up

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Roberta A.; Andres, Allen M.; Sin, Jon; Taylor, David

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an important physiological process in the heart, and alterations in autophagic activity can exacerbate or mitigate injury during various pathological processes. Methods to assess autophagy have changed rapidly as the field of research has expanded. As with any new field, methods and standards for data analysis and interpretation evolve as investigators acquire experience and insight. The purpose of this review is to summarize current methods to measure autophagy, selective mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), and autophagic flux. We will examine several published studies where confusion arose in in data interpretation, in order to illustrate the challenges. Finally we will discuss methods to assess autophagy in vivo and in patients. PMID:25634973

  10. An intercomparison of surface energy flux measurement systems used during FIFE 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nie, D.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Fritschen, L. J.; Weaver, H. L.; Smith, E. A.; Verma, S. B.; Field, R. T.; Kustas, W. P.; Stewart, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    During FIFE 1987, surface energy fluxes were measured at 22 flux sites by nine groups of scientists using different measuring systems. A rover Bowen ratio station was taken to 20 of the flux stations to serve as a reference for estimating the instrument-related differences. The rover system was installed within a few meters from the host instrument of a site. Using linear regression analysis, net radiation, Bowen ratio, and latent heat fluxes were compared between the rover measurements and the host measurements. The average differences in net radiation, Bowen ratio, and latent heat flux from different types of instruments can be up to 10, 30, and 20 percent, respectively. The Didcot net radiometer gave higher net radiation while the Swissteco type showed lower values, as compared to the corrected radiation energy balance system (REBS) model. The four-way components method and the Thornthwaite type give similar values to the REBS. The surface energy radiation balance systems type Bowen ratio systems exhibit slightly lower Bowen ratios and thus higher latent heat fluxes, compared to the arid zone evapotranspiration systems. Eddy correlation systems showed slightly lower latent heat flux in comparison to the Bowen ratio systems. It is recommended that users of the flux data take these differences into account.

  11. Combining the effect of crops surface albedo variability on the radiative forcing together with crop GHG budgets calculated from in situ flux measurements in a life cycle assessment approach: methodology and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceschia, E.; Ferlicoq, M.; Brut, A.; Tallec, T.

    2013-12-01

    The carbon and GHG budgets (GHGB) of the 2 crop sites with contrasted management located in South West France was estimated over a complete rotation by combining a classical LCA approach with on site CO2 flux measurements. At both sites, carbon inputs (organic fertilization, seeds), carbon exports (harvest) and net ecosystem production (NEP), measured with the eddy covariance technique, were estimated. The variability of the different terms and their relative contributions to the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) were analyzed for all site-years, and the effect of management on NECB was assessed. To account for GHG fluxes that were not directly measured on site, we estimated the emissions caused by field operations (EFO) for each site using emission factors from the literature. The EFO were added to the NECB to calculate the total GHGB for a range of cropping systems and management regimes. N2O emissions were calculated following the IPCC (2007) guidelines or and CH4 emissions were assumed to be negligible. Albedo was calculated continuously using the short wave incident and reflected radiation measurements in the field from CNR1 sensors. Rapid changes in surface albedo typical from those ecosystems and resulting from management and crop phenology were analysed. The annual radiative forcing for each plot was estimated by calculating the difference between a mean annual albedo for each crop and a reference bare soil albedo value calculated over 5 years for each plot. To finalize the radiative forcing calculation, the method developed by Muñoz et al (2010) using up and down atmospheric transmittance had to be corrected so it would only account for up-going atmospheric transmittance. Annual differences in radiative forcing between crops were then converted in g C equivalent m-2 in order to add this effect to the GHG budget of each crop within a rotation. This methodology could be applied to all ICOS/NEON cropland sites. We found that the differences in radiative forcing between crops (ranging from -1800 to 750 g C-eq for rapeseed and sunflower, respectively) largely exceeded the NEP, the NECB and the GHGB of those crops. Also, as increasing the length of the vegetative period is considered as one of the main levers for improving the NECB and the GHGB of crop ecosystems, we tested the effect of adding intermediate crops on the NECB, GHGB and the radiative forcing resulting from changes in mean annual surface albedo. We showed that the NEP was improved and as a consequence NECB and GHGB too. Intermediate crops also increased the mean annual surface albedo and therefore caused a negative radiative forcing (cooling effect) expressed in g C equivalent m-2 (sink). The use of an intermediate crop could in some cases switch the crop from a positive NEP (source) to a negative one (sink) and the change in radiative forcing (up to -110 g C-eq m-2 yr-1) could overwhelm the NEP term and it improves the GHG budget.

  12. A note on vector flux models for radiation dose calculations.

    PubMed

    Kern, J W

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews and extends modelling of anisotropic fluxes for radiation belt protons to provide closed-form equations for vector proton fluxes and proton flux anisotropy in terms of standard omnidirectional flux models. These equations provide a flexible alternative to the data-based vector flux models currently available. At higher energies, anisotropy of trapped proton flux in the upper atmosphere depends strongly on the variation of atmospheric density with altitude. Calculations of proton flux anisotropies using present models require specification of the average atmospheric density along trapped particle trajectories and its variation with mirror point altitude. For an isothermal atmosphere, calculations show that in a dipole magnetic field, the scale height of this trajectory-averaged density closely approximates the scale height of the atmosphere at the mirror point of the trapped particle. However, for the earth's magnetic field, the altitudes of mirror points vary for protons drifting in longitude. This results in a small increase in longitude-averaged scale heights compared to the atmospheric scale heights at minimum mirror point altitudes. The trajectory-averaged scale heights are increased by about 10-20% over scale heights from standard atmosphere models for protons mirroring at altitudes less than 500 km in the South Atlantic Anomaly. Atmospheric losses of protons in the geomagnetic field minimum in the South Atlantic Anomaly control proton flux anisotropies of interest for radiation studies in low earth orbit. Standard atmosphere models provide corrections for diurnal, seasonal and solar activity-driven variations. Thus, determination of an "equilibrium" model of trapped proton fluxes of a given energy requires using a scale height that is time-averaged over the lifetime of the protons. The trajectory-averaged atmospheric densities calculated here lead to estimates for trapped proton lifetimes. These lifetimes provide appropriate time-averaging intervals for equilibrium models of trapped proton fluxes. PMID:11538012

  13. Dynamical flux of constituents in the mesopause region estimated from heat flux measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, A. Z.; Gardner, C. S.

    2007-12-01

    The vertical transport of constituents in the mesopause region due to dissipating waves is a significant transport process but the dynamical fluxes cannot be easily measured. We show that under fairly general conditions, constituent fluxes can be related to the heat flux in a simple way. This relation is verified by comparing the directly measured sodium flux and heat flux with a sodium wind/temperature lidar at Starfire Optical Range. The annual mean, as well as the seasonal variation of the sodium and heat fluxes are consistent with theory. The results suggest that for many constituents in the mesopause region, their vertical dynamical flux fluxes can be estimated from the measured heat flux, and the mean profiles of the temperature and constituent.

  14. Measuring fast calcium fluxes in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Golebiewska, Urszula; Scarlata, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes have multiple Ca(2+) fluxes of varying duration that work together to optimize function (1,2). Changes in Ca(2+) activity in response to extracellular agents is predominantly regulated by the phospholipase Cβ- Gα(q;) pathway localized on the plasma membrane which is stimulated by agents such as acetylcholine (3,4). We have recently found that plasma membrane protein domains called caveolae(5,6) can entrap activated Gα(q;)(7). This entrapment has the effect of stabilizing the activated state of Gα(q;) and resulting in prolonged Ca(2+) signals in cardiomyocytes and other cell types(8). We uncovered this surprising result by measuring dynamic calcium responses on a fast scale in living cardiomyocytes. Briefly, cells are loaded with a fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator. In our studies, we used Ca(2+) Green (Invitrogen, Inc.) which exhibits an increase in fluorescence emission intensity upon binding of calcium ions. The fluorescence intensity is then recorded for using a line-scan mode of a laser scanning confocal microscope. This method allows rapid acquisition of the time course of fluorescence intensity in pixels along a selected line, producing several hundreds of time traces on the microsecond time scale. These very fast traces are transferred into excel and then into Sigmaplot for analysis, and are compared to traces obtained for electronic noise, free dye, and other controls. To dissect Ca(2+) responses of different flux rates, we performed a histogram analysis that binned pixel intensities with time. Binning allows us to group over 500 traces of scans and visualize the compiled results spatially and temporally on a single plot. Thus, the slow Ca(2+) waves that are difficult to discern when the scans are overlaid due to different peak placement and noise, can be readily seen in the binned histograms. Very fast fluxes in the time scale of the measurement show a narrow distribution of intensities in the very short time bins whereas longer Ca(2+) waves show binned data with a broad distribution over longer time bins. These different time distributions allow us to dissect the timing of Ca(2+)fluxes in the cells, and to determine their impact on various cellular events. PMID:22143396

  15. ERRORS IN SOIL HEAT FLUX MEASUREMENT: EFFECTS OF FLUX PLATE DESIGN AND VARYING SOIL THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flux plate method is the most commonly employed method for measuring soil heat flux (G) in surface energy balance studies. Nonetheless, significant errors in G measured with flux plates can occur unless proper installation techniques are used and necessary corrections made. The objective of th...

  16. Flux measurements using the BATSE spectroscopic detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Bernard

    1993-11-01

    Among the Compton Gama-Ray Observatory instruments, the BATSE Spectroscopic Detectors (SD) have the distinction of being able to detect photons of energies less than about 20 keV. This is an interesting energy range for the examination of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXB's). In fact, Sco X-1, the prototype LMXB, is easily seen even in the raw BATSE spectroscopic data. The all-sky coverage afforded by these detectors offers a unique opportunity to monitor this source over time periods never before possible. The aim of this investigation was to test a number of ways in which both continous and discrete flux measurements can be obtained using the BATSE spectroscopic datasets. A instrumental description of a SD can be found in the Compton Workshop of Apr. 1989, this report will deal only with methods which can be used to analyze its datasets. Many of the items discussed below, particularly in regard to the earth occultation technique, have been developed, refined, and applied by the BATSE team to the reduction of BATSE LAD data. Code written as part of this project utilizes portions of that work. The following discussions will first address issues related to the reduction of SD datasets using the earth occultation technique. It will then discuss methods for the recovery of the flux history of strong sources while they are above the earth's limb. The report will conclude with recommended reduction procedures.

  17. Flux measurements using the BATSE spectroscopic detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnamara, Bernard

    1993-01-01

    Among the Compton Gama-Ray Observatory instruments, the BATSE Spectroscopic Detectors (SD) have the distinction of being able to detect photons of energies less than about 20 keV. This is an interesting energy range for the examination of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXB's). In fact, Sco X-1, the prototype LMXB, is easily seen even in the raw BATSE spectroscopic data. The all-sky coverage afforded by these detectors offers a unique opportunity to monitor this source over time periods never before possible. The aim of this investigation was to test a number of ways in which both continous and discrete flux measurements can be obtained using the BATSE spectroscopic datasets. A instrumental description of a SD can be found in the Compton Workshop of Apr. 1989, this report will deal only with methods which can be used to analyze its datasets. Many of the items discussed below, particularly in regard to the earth occultation technique, have been developed, refined, and applied by the BATSE team to the reduction of BATSE LAD data. Code written as part of this project utilizes portions of that work. The following discussions will first address issues related to the reduction of SD datasets using the earth occultation technique. It will then discuss methods for the recovery of the flux history of strong sources while they are above the earth's limb. The report will conclude with recommended reduction procedures.

  18. Radiation flux tables for ICRCCM using the GLA GCM radiation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HARSHVARDHAN

    1986-01-01

    Tabulated values of longwave and shortwave radiation fluxes and also cooling and heating rates in the atmosphere for standard atmospheric profiles are presented. The radiation codes used in the Goddard general circulation model were employed for the computations. These results were obtained for an international intercomparison projected called Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM).

  19. Estimation of rainfall interception in grassland using eddy flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, A.; Miyazawa, Y.; Inoue, A.

    2014-12-01

    Rainfall interception plays an important role in the water cycle in natural ecosystems. Interception by the forest canopies have been widely observed or estimated over various ecosystems, such as tropical rainforest, evergreen forest and deciduous forest. However interception by the short canopies, e.g. shrubby plant, grassland and crop, has been rarely observed since it has been difficult to obtain reliable precipitation measurements under the canopy. In this study, we estimated monthly and annual rainfall interception in grassland using evapotranspiration data of eddy flux measurements. Experiments were conducted in grassland (Italian ryegrass) from 2010 to 2012 growing season in Kumamoto, Japan. Evapotranspiration (latent heat flux) were observed throughout the year based on the eddy covariance technique. A three dimensional sonic anemometer and an open path CO2/H2O analyzer were used to calculate 30 min flux. Other meteorological factors, such as air temperature, humidity and solar radiation, were also observed. Rainfall interception was estimated as follows. 1) Using evapotranspiration data during dry period, environmental response of surface conductance (gc) was inversely calculated based on the big-leaf model. 2) Evapotranspiration without interception during precipitation period was estimated using above model and environmental response of gc. 3) Assuming that evaporation of intercepted rainfall is equal to the difference in evapotranspiration between above estimation and actual measurements, rainfall interception was estimated over experimental period. The account of rainfall interception in grassland using this technique will be presented at the meeting.

  20. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    DOEpatents

    Zonca, F.; Cohen, S.A.; Bennett, T.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1993-08-24

    An apparatus is described for measuring momentum flux from an intense plasma stream, comprising: refractory target means oriented normal to the flow of said plasma stream for bombardment by said plasma stream where said bombardment by said plasma stream applies a pressure to said target means, pendulum means for communicating a translational displacement of said target to a force transducer where said translational displacement of said target is transferred to said force transducer by an elongated member coupled to said target, where said member is suspended by a pendulum configuration means and where said force transducer is responsive to said translational displacement of said member, and force transducer means for outputting a signal representing pressure data corresponding to said displacement.

  1. Large Area Lunar Dust Flux Measurement Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Burchell, M.; Stansbery, Eugene; Lagakos, N.

    2009-01-01

    The instrument under development is designed to characterize the flux and size distribution of the lunar micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta environment. When deployed on the lunar surface, the data collected will benefit fundamental lunar science as well as enabling more reliable impact risk assessments for human lunar exploration activities. To perform this task, the instrument requirements are demanding. It must have as large a surface area as possible to sample the very sparse population of the larger potentially damage-inducing micrometeorites. It must also have very high sensitivity to enable it to measure the flux of small (<10 micron) micrometeorite and secondary ejecta dust particles. To be delivered to the lunar surface, it must also be very low mass, rugged and stow compactly. The instrument designed to meet these requirements is called FOMIS. It is a large-area thin film under tension (i.e. a drum) with multiple fiber optic displacement (FOD) sensors to monitor displacements of the film. This sensor was chosen since it can measure displacements over a wide dynamic range: 1 cm to sub-Angstrom. A prototype system was successfully demonstrated using the hypervelocity impact test facility at the University of Kent (Canterbury, UK). Based on these results, the prototype system can detect hypervelocity (approx.5 km/s) impacts by particles as small as 2 microns diameter. Additional tests using slow speeds find that it can detect secondary ejecta particles (which do not penetrate the film) with momentums as small as 15 pico-gram 100m/s, or nominally 5 microns diameter at 100 m/s.

  2. Saharan Airborne Dust Flux Measurements from the Fennec Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Phil; Parker, Doug; Ryder, Claire; Garcia-Carreras, Luis; Marsham, John; Dorsey, James; Brooks, Ian; Dean, Angela; Crosier, Jonathan; McQuaid, Jim; Washington, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The Fennec campaign of 2011involved deployment of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements BAe 146 (FAAM Bae 146) scientific research aircraft to Fuerteventura with research flights over the remote Saharan desert in Mali and Mauritania. The aims of the Fennec campaign were to characterise the dynamics, radiation and dust environment in this inaccessible region. The FAAM BAe 146 operated a suite of instruments which measured size distributions of dust including a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe, a Cloud Droplet Probe and a Cloud Imaging Probe (part of a Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer). These instruments were able to reliably generate particle size distributions over the approximate range 0.1 to 200 μm and for the first time were simultaneously operated at high temporal resolution of at least 10 Hz. Combining these dust measurements with the measured 3D wind vectors has allowed size resolved dust flux estimates to be derived using the eddy covariance method. To the authors' knowledge this is the first time such estimates have been successfully derived from aircraft data. Although the FAAM BAe 146 is capable of low level flying with straight and level runs at minimum altitudes of ~100 m (higher in poor visibility), this is still significantly higher than mast based flux measurements making comparison of the total flux with surface based observations difficult. However, these observations give useful measures of the size dependence of the particle flux and the spectral signature of the dynamics of vertical dust transport. The size resolved measurements show that dust mass flux includes significant contributions up to particle diameters ~100 μm. This is much larger than the limit seen by other studies and is even more surprising given that the measurements were made at heights so far above the saltation layer. Spectral analysis shows three distinct dynamical regimes. The first appears to be linked to chaotic turbulence with horizontal scales of ~100 m. The second seems to be linked to features on scales ~1 km, similar to the order of the boundary layer depth. Finally, in the third regime, the concentration and wind measurements have a very asymmetric cross correlation series in the along flight direction which may indicate a preferred orientation for turbulent eddies caused buy e.g. shear. These characteristics are linked to the weather conditions and dust uplift mechanisms for each case.

  3. Latent heat sink in soil heat flux measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, the...

  4. Horizontal Radiative Fluxes in Clouds at Absorbing Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, A.; Oreopoulos, L.; Davis, A. B.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the effect of horizontal fluxes on the accuracy of a conventional plane-parallel radiative transfer calculation for a single pixel, known as the Independent Pixel Approximation (IPA) at absorbing wavelengths. Vertically integrated horizontal fluxes can be represented as a sum of three components; each component is the IPA accuracy on a pixel-by-pixel basis for reflectance, transmittance and absorptance, respectively. We show that IPA accuracy for reflectance always improves with more absorption, while the IPA accuracy for transmittance is less sensitive to the changes in absorption: with respect to the non-absorbing case, it may first deteriorate for weak absorption and then improve again for strongly absorbing wavelengths. EPA accuracy for absorptance always deteriorates with more absorption. As a result, vertically integrated horizontal fluxes, as a sum of IPA accuracies for reflectance, transmittance and absorptance, increase with more absorption. Finally, the question of correlations between horizontal fluxes, IPA uncertainties and radiative smoothing is addressed using wavenumber spectra of radiation fields reflected from or transmitted through fractal clouds.

  5. Simple device measures solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Simple inexpensive thermometer, insolated from surroundings by transparent glass or plastic encasement, measures intensities of solar radiation, or radiation from other sources such as furnaces or ovens. Unit can be further modified to accomplish readings from remote locations.

  6. Comparison of the Radiative Two-Flux and Diffusion Approximations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuckler, Charles M.

    2006-01-01

    Approximate solutions are sometimes used to determine the heat transfer and temperatures in a semitransparent material in which conduction and thermal radiation are acting. A comparison of the Milne-Eddington two-flux approximation and the diffusion approximation for combined conduction and radiation heat transfer in a ceramic material was preformed to determine the accuracy of the diffusion solution. A plane gray semitransparent layer without a substrate and a non-gray semitransparent plane layer on an opaque substrate were considered. For the plane gray layer the material is semitransparent for all wavelengths and the scattering and absorption coefficients do not vary with wavelength. For the non-gray plane layer the material is semitransparent with constant absorption and scattering coefficients up to a specified wavelength. At higher wavelengths the non-gray plane layer is assumed to be opaque. The layers are heated on one side and cooled on the other by diffuse radiation and convection. The scattering and absorption coefficients were varied. The error in the diffusion approximation compared to the Milne-Eddington two flux approximation was obtained as a function of scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The percent difference in interface temperatures and heat flux through the layer obtained using the Milne-Eddington two-flux and diffusion approximations are presented as a function of scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The largest errors occur for high scattering and low absorption except for the back surface temperature of the plane gray layer where the error is also larger at low scattering and low absorption. It is shown that the accuracy of the diffusion approximation can be improved for some scattering and absorption conditions if a reflectance obtained from a Kubelka-Munk type two flux theory is used instead of a reflection obtained from the Fresnel equation. The Kubelka-Munk reflectance accounts for surface reflection and radiation scattered back by internal scattering sites while the Fresnel reflection only accounts for surface reflections.

  7. Measurement of local high-level, transient surface heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.

    1988-01-01

    This study is part of a continuing investigation to develop methods for measuring local transient surface heat flux. A method is presented for simultaneous measurements of dual heat fluxes at a surface location by considering the heat flux as a separate function of heat stored and heat conducted within a heat flux gage. Surface heat flux information is obtained from transient temperature measurements taken at points within the gage. Heat flux was determined over a range of 4 to 22 MW/sq m. It was concluded that the method is feasible. Possible applications are for heat flux measurements on the turbine blade surfaces of space shuttle main engine turbopumps and on the component surfaces of rocket and advanced gas turbine engines and for testing sensors in heat flux gage calibrators.

  8. New technique of the local heat flux measurement in combustion chambers of steam boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taler, Jan; Taler, Dawid; Sobota, Tomasz; Dzierwa, Piotr

    2011-12-01

    A new method for measurement of local heat flux to water-walls of steam boilers was developed. A flux meter tube was made from an eccentric tube of short length to which two longitudinal fins were attached. These two fins prevent the boiler setting from heating by a thermal radiation from the combustion chamber. The fins are not welded to the adjacent water-wall tubes, so that the temperature distribution in the heat flux meter is not influenced by neighbouring water-wall tubes. The thickness of the heat flux tube wall is larger on the fireside to obtain a greater distance between the thermocouples located inside the wall which increases the accuracy of heat flux determination. Based on the temperature measurements at selected points inside the heat flux meter, the heat flux absorbed by the water-wall, heat transfer coefficient on the inner tube surface and temperature of the water-steam mixture was determined.

  9. Prediction of MeV electron fluxes throughout the outer radiation belt using multivariate autoregressive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Kaori; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Spence, Harlan E.

    2015-12-01

    The Van Allen radiation belts surrounding the Earth are filled with MeV-energy electrons. This region poses ionizing radiation risks for spacecraft that operate within it, including those in geostationary orbit (GEO) and medium Earth orbit. To provide alerts of electron flux enhancements, 16 prediction models of the electron log-flux variation throughout the equatorial outer radiation belt as a function of the McIlwain L parameter were developed using the multivariate autoregressive model and Kalman filter. Measurements of omnidirectional 2.3 MeV electron flux from the Van Allen Probes mission as well as >2 MeV electrons from the GOES 15 spacecraft were used as the predictors. Model explanatory parameters were selected from solar wind parameters, the electron log-flux at GEO, and geomagnetic indices. For the innermost region of the outer radiation belt, the electron flux is best predicted by using the Dst index as the sole input parameter. For the central to outermost regions, at L ≧ 4.8 and L ≧ 5.6, the electron flux is predicted most accurately by including also the solar wind velocity and then the dynamic pressure, respectively. The Dst index is the best overall single parameter for predicting at 3 ≦ L ≦ 6, while for the GEO flux prediction, the KP index is better than Dst. A test calculation demonstrates that the model successfully predicts the timing and location of the flux maximum as much as 2 days in advance and that the electron flux decreases faster with time at higher L values, both model features consistent with the actually observed behavior.

  10. Kilometric radiation power flux dependence on area of discrete aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saflekos, N. A.; Burch, J. L.; Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.; Sheehan, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    Kilometer wavelength radiation, measured from distant positions over the North Pole and over the Earth's equator, was compared to the area of discrete aurora imaged by several low-altitude spacecraft. Through correlative studies of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) with about two thousand auroral images, a stereoscopic view of the average auroral acceleration region was obtained. A major result is that the total AKR power increases as the area of the discrete auroral oval increases. The implications are that the regions of parallel potentials or the auroral plasma cavities, in which AKR is generated, must possess the following attributes: (1) they are shallow in altitude and their radial position depends on wavelength, (2) they thread flux tubes of small cross section, (3) the generation mechanism in them reaches a saturation limit rapidly, and (4) their distribution over the discrete auroral oval is nearly uniform. The above statistical results are true for large samples collected over a long period of time (about six months). In the short term, AKR frequently exhibits temporal variations with scales as short as three minutes (the resolution of the averaged data used). These fluctuations are explainable by rapid quenchings as well as fast starts of the electron cyclotron maser mechanism. There were times when AKR was present at substantial power levels while optical emissions were below instrument thresholds. A recent theoretical result may account for this set of observations by predicting that suprathermal electrons, of energies as low as several hundred eV, can generate second harmonic AKR. The indirect observations of second harmonic AKR require that these electrons have mirror points high above the atmosphere so as to minimize auroral light emissions. The results provide evidence supporting the electron cyclotron maser mechanism.

  11. The Global Character of the Flux of Downward Longwave Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Wild, Martin; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Kato, Seiji; Henderson, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Four different types of estimates of the surface downwelling longwave radiative flux (DLR) are reviewed. One group of estimates synthesizes global cloud, aerosol, and other information in a radiation model that is used to calculate fluxes. Because these synthesis fluxes have been assessed against observations, the global-mean values of these fluxes are deemed to be the most credible of the four different categories reviewed. The global, annual mean DLR lies between approximately 344 and 350 W/sq m with an error of approximately +/-10 W/sq m that arises mostly from the uncertainty in atmospheric state that governs the estimation of the clear-sky emission. The authors conclude that the DLR derived from global climate models are biased low by approximately 10 W/sq m and even larger differences are found with respect to reanalysis climate data. The DLR inferred from a surface energy balance closure is also substantially smaller that the range found from synthesis products suggesting that current depictions of surface energy balance also require revision. The effect of clouds on the DLR, largely facilitated by the new cloud base information from the CloudSat radar, is estimated to lie in the range from 24 to 34 W/sq m for the global cloud radiative effect (all-sky minus clear-sky DLR). This effect is strongly modulated by the underlying water vapor that gives rise to a maximum sensitivity of the DLR to cloud occurring in the colder drier regions of the planet. The bottom of atmosphere (BOA) cloud effect directly contrast the effect of clouds on the top of atmosphere (TOA) fluxes that is maximum in regions of deepest and coldest clouds in the moist tropics.

  12. Measurement of aerosol particles, gases and flux radiation in the Pico de Orizaba National Park, and its relationship to air pollution transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, C.; Castro, T.; Muhlia, A.; Moya, M.; Martínez-Arroyo, A.; Báez, A.

    Continuous atmospheric measurements were carried out at the Pico de Orizaba National Park (PONP), Mexico, in order to evaluate the characteristics and sources of air quality. This action allowed one to identify specific threats for the effective protection of natural resources and biodiversity. Results show the presence of particles and polluted gases transported by winds from the urban zones nearby (cities of Mexico, Puebla and Tlaxcala), as well as their measurable influence on the optical properties of the park environment. Nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide show a daily pattern suggesting an influence of pollution generated by anthropogenic processes. Average concentration of SO 2 was higher than recorded at the southern part of Mexico City. Ozone concentrations ranging from 0.035 to 0.06 ppm suggest residual or background ozone character. Back trajectory analysis of air parcels arriving at the site confirm pollution caused by biomass burning and mass transport from urban zones. The SO 42-/TC ratio exhibited values (0.88±0.33) similar to urban areas. Ratios BC/TC and OC/BC for PONP are similar to those reported as influenced by burning emissions of fossil fuels. Typical rural aerosols were also found at the site, and sulfate and ammonium concentrations were correlated. The most predominating mode in surface particles size distribution was at 0.32 μm with no significant presence of coarse particles. Total carbon (OC+BC) content of fine particle mass (PM less than 1 μm) comprised, on average, 75%. Optical properties retrieved from photometric data show intermittent influence from urban pollution. Time periods with low absorbing particles, great visibility and abundance of small particles alternating with short times with bigger particles and high turbidity indicated by the optical depth.

  13. Flux limited Diffusion Theory of Microwave Background Radiation Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, A.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.

    1995-08-01

    A physically satisfactory treatment of the radiative transfer during the recombination epoch is complicated by the fact that the Universe has a quite rapid (Dz~400 at z_dec~1200) transition into the optically thin regime. We show here that all previous approaches (e.g. Peebles and Yu,1968 [1],Bond and Efstathiou,1987 [2],up to the most recent by Holtzmann,1992 [3] and Stompor,1994 [4]) are based on analytic expansions in powers of the mean free path which run into physical inconsistencies (the predicted radiation flux is larger than the product of speed of light and radiation density). To remedy to this situation, we apply to this problem the Covariant Flux-Limited Diffusion (CFLD) theory recently formulated by Bonanno and Romano (1993)[4]. Flux-limited diffusion theories are currently adopted in plasma physics, and offer a physical description free of the above mentioned inconsistency. We calculate the spectrum of the resulting perturbations for a few CDM models. Our physical treatment improves consistently on small (<=50') scales over previous treatments: the resulting spectra for the corresponding high wavenumbers are then substantially different from those found by the previous authors.

  14. Cosmic rays muon flux measurements at Belgrade shallow underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Veselinović, N. Dragić, A. Maletić, D. Joković, D. Savić, M. Banjanac, R. Udovičić, V. Aničin, I.

    2015-02-24

    The Belgrade underground laboratory is a shallow underground one, at 25 meters of water equivalent. It is dedicated to low-background spectroscopy and cosmic rays measurement. Its uniqueness is that it is composed of two parts, one above ground, the other bellow with identical sets of detectors and analyzing electronics thus creating opportunity to monitor simultaneously muon flux and ambient radiation. We investigate the possibility of utilizing measurements at the shallow depth for the study of muons, processes to which these muons are sensitive and processes induced by cosmic rays muons. For this purpose a series of simulations of muon generation and propagation is done, based on the CORSIKA air shower simulation package and GEANT4. Results show good agreement with other laboratories and cosmic rays stations.

  15. Measurement of Integrated Low Frequency Flux Noise in Superconducting Flux/Phase Qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Bo; Qiu Wei; Han Siyuan

    2008-11-07

    We measured the integrated low frequency flux noise ({approx}1 m{phi}{sub 0}) of an rf SQUID as a flux qubit by fitting the resonant peaks from photon assistant tunneling (PAT). The energy relaxation time Tl between the ground and first excited states in the same potential well, measured directly in time domain, is 3 ns. From these results we identified low frequency flux noise as the dominant source of decoherence. In addition, we found that the measured values of integrated flux noise in three qubits of various sizes differ more than an order of magnitude.

  16. An inter-comparison of surface energy flux measurement systems used during FIFE, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nie, D.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Fritschen, L. J.; Weaver, H.; Smith, E. A.; Verma, S. B.; Field, R. T.; Kustas, W.; Stewart, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    During the first International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Program Field Experiment (FIFE-87), surface energy fluxes were measured at 22 flux sites by nine groups of scientists using different measuring systems. A rover Bowen ratio station was taken to nearly all the flux stations to serve as a reference for estimating the instrument related differences. The rover system was installed within a few meters from the host instrument of a site. Net radiation, Bowen ratio, and latent heat fluxes were compared between the rover and the host for the stations visited. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between rover measurements and host measurements. These inter-comparisons are needed to examine the influence of instrumentation on measurement uncertainty. Highly significant effects of instrument type were detected from these comparisons. Instruments of the same type showed average differences of less than 5 percent for net radiation, 10 percent for Bowen ratio, and 6 percent for latent heat flux. The corresponding average differences for different types of instruments can be up to 10, 30, and 20 percent respectively. The Didcot net radiometer gave higher net radiation while the Swissteco type showed lower values, as compared to the corrected REBS model. The 4-way components methed and the Thornswaite type give similar values to the REBS. The SERBS type Bowen ratio systems exhibit slightly lower Bowen ratios and thus higher latent heat fluxes, compared to the AZET systems. Eddy correlation systems showed slightly lower latent heat flux in comparison to the Bowen ratio systems.

  17. Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    SciTech Connect

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

    2009-09-25

    Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

  18. Flux-based environmental management: the future of integrated passive flux measurements in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verreydt, Goedele; Struyf, Eric; Van Keer, Ilse; Meire, Patrick; Bronders, Jan; Seuntjens, Piet

    2014-05-01

    The measurement and interpretation of parameter mass fluxes and discharges is gaining more and more importance. Especially in the frame of soil and groundwater contamination, remediation and related environmental risks, water management and ecosystem management, the interpretation of mass fluxes is essential. Current legislation already includes a mass flux approach today (e.g. EU Water Framework Directive and Groundwater Daughter Directive). Environmental management actions regarding groundwater pollutions and ecosystem research and management are mostly driven by parameter concentrations. Since concentration estimates are highly uncertain and do not include the fluctuations caused by spatially and temporally varying conditions, decisions about these actions can be improved by also considering parameter mass fluxes (mass of parameter passing per unit time per unit area, or flow rate of these parameters per unit area) and parameter mass discharges (sum of all mass flux measures across an entire plume). The mass that effectively reaches a downgradient receptor, determines the actual situation and risks, and should therefore be monitored. It is essential to determine mass fluxes directly instead of estimating mass flux based on concentration data and estimates of groundwater velocity. The direct determination of contaminant mass fluxes in soil and groundwater systems is possible with the Passive Flux Meter (PFM) technology. The PFM is a recently developed passive sampling device that provides simultaneous in situ point measurements of a time-averaged contaminant mass flux and water flux. The device, with a suite of tracers, is placed in a monitoring well or borehole for a known exposure period, where it intercepts the groundwater flow and captures contaminants from it. The measurements of the contaminants and the remaining resident tracer can then be used to estimate groundwater and contaminant fluxes. Today, an increasing demand from different sectors for the combined determination of multiple parameter mass fluxes, has stimulated us to optimize the technology and develop an integrated flux measurement device which targets the combined mass flux determination of multiple parameter types. The principles of flux-based environmental management will be presented, with a special focus on the application and future of integrated passive flux measurements in groundwater.

  19. The Effect of Directional Radiation Models on the Interpretation of Earth Radiation Budget Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Richard N.

    1980-10-01

    A parameter estimation technique is presented to estimate the radiative flux density distribution over the earn from a set of radiometer measurements at satellite altitude. The technique analyzes measurements from a wide field of view, horizon to horizon. nadir pointing sensor with a mathematical technique to derive the radiative flux density estimates at the top of the atmosphere for resolution elements smaller than the sensor field of view. A computer simulation of the data analysis technique is presented for both earth-emitted and reflected radiation.The errors resulting from the assumed directional radiation model, spatial model and random measurement error have little effect an the global mean radiation. Zonal estimates were found to be more sensitive, to the spatial model than to the directional radiation model. Results from analysing medium field of view measurements showed a much greater sensitivity to the directional radiation model, even on a global scale.

  20. Soil Flux Chamber Measurements with Five Species CRDS and New Realtime Chamber Flux Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, N.; Alstad, K. P.; Arata, C.; Franz, P.

    2014-12-01

    Continuous soil flux chamber measurements remains a key tool for determining production and sequestration of direct and indirect greenhouse gases. The Picarro G2508 Cavity Ring-down Spectrometer has radically simplified soil flux studies by providing simultaneous measurements of five gases: CO2, CH4, N2O, NH3, and H2O, and by lending itself to field deployment. Successful use of the Picarro G2508 for continuous soil flux measurements in a variety of ecosystem types has already been demonstrated. Most recently, Picarro is developing a real-time processing software to simplify chamber measurements of soil flux with the G2508 CRDS. The new Realtime Chamber Flux Processor is designed to work with all chamber types and sizes, and provides real-time flux values of N2O, CO2 & CH4. The software features include chamber sequence table, flexible data tagging feature, ceiling concentration measurement shut-off parameter, user-defined run-time interval, temperature/pressure input for field monitoring and volumetric conversion, and manual flux measurement start/stop override. Realtime Chamber Flux Processor GUI interface is presented, and results from a variety of sampling designs are demonstrated to emphasize program flexibility and field capability.

  1. AmeriFlux Measurement Network: Science Team Research

    SciTech Connect

    Law, B E

    2012-12-12

    Research involves analysis and field direction of AmeriFlux operations, and the PI provides scientific leadership of the AmeriFlux network. Activities include the coordination and quality assurance of measurements across AmeriFlux network sites, synthesis of results across the network, organizing and supporting the annual Science Team Meeting, and communicating AmeriFlux results to the scientific community and other users. Objectives of measurement research include (i) coordination of flux and biometric measurement protocols (ii) timely data delivery to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC); and (iii) assurance of data quality of flux and ecosystem measurements contributed by AmeriFlux sites. Objectives of integration and synthesis activities include (i) integration of site data into network-wide synthesis products; and (ii) participation in the analysis, modeling and interpretation of network data products. Communications objectives include (i) organizing an annual meeting of AmeriFlux investigators for reporting annual flux measurements and exchanging scientific information on ecosystem carbon budgets; (ii) developing focused topics for analysis and publication; and (iii) developing data reporting protocols in support of AmeriFlux network goals.

  2. Effects of Clouds on Cross-Atmospheric Radiative Flux Divergence: Case Studies in Different Cloud Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghate, V. P.; Miller, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Clouds have a profound effect on the amount of radiation absorbed across the atmospheric column. The amount of absorption mainly depends on the location and type of the clouds, the albedo of the surface and profile of water vapor mixing ratio in the atmospheric column. In this study we have used the data collected during the deployment of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)'s first Mobile Facility (AMF#1) at the island of Graciosa in the North Atlantic and at the Niamey, Niger to assess the impact of different cloud types on the cross-atmospheric radiative flux divergence. The cloud structure was retrieved using the data collected by a vertically pointing w-band cloud radar, a micro-pulse lidar, laser ceilometer among other instruments. The profiles of temperature, moisture and winds were measured by balloon borne radiosondes. The radiation at the surface were measured by broadband radiometers, while the radiation at the top of the atmosphere were measured by the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) radiometers onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. Simulations of a 1-dimensional radiative transfer model called as Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) having representation of cloud and aerosol properties are made to assess the relative impact of different cloud types and water vapor on spectral bands both in the shortwave and longwave radiation spectrum. Results from four case-studies which had cloud free conditions, single layered stratocumulus clouds, broken shallow cumulus clouds and high level cirrus clouds respectively will be presented.

  3. Balloon-borne measurement of energetic electron fluxes inside thunderclouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabshahi, Shahab; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Dwyer, Joseph; Rassoul, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    High-energy radiation is routinely produced by thunderclouds and lightning. This radiation is in the form of x-rays and gamma-rays with timescales ranging from sub-microsecond (x-rays associated with lightning leaders), to sub-millisecond (Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes), to minute long glows (Gamma-ray Glows from thunderclouds seen on the ground and in or near the cloud by aircrafts and balloons). It is generally accepted that these emissions originate from bremsstrahlung interactions of relativistic runaway electrons with air, which can be accelerated in the thundercloud/lightning electric fields and gain up to multi-MeV energies. However, the exact physical details of the mechanism that produces these runaway electrons are still unknown. In order to better understand the source of energetic radiation inside thunderclouds, we have begun a campaign of balloon-borne instruments to directly measure the flux of energetic electrons inside thunderclouds. In the current configuration, each balloon carries Geiger counters to record the energetic particles. Geiger counters are well suited for directly measuring energetic electrons and positrons and have the advantage of being lightweight and dependable. We transmit data at 900MHz, ISM band, with 115.2 kb/s transmission rate. This would provide us a high resolution radiation profile over a relatively large distance. Due to the nature of the thunderstorm environment, the campaign has many design, communication, and safety challenges. In this presentation we will report on the status of the campaign and some of the physical insights gained from the data collected by our instruments. This work was supported in part by the NASA grant NNX12A002H and by DARPA grant HR0011-1-10-1-0061.

  4. Axially enhanced far field and radiation flux in a magnetoplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, H. M.; Ng, C. S.; Tong, S. S.

    1989-07-01

    Conditions for the existence of an inversely (distance)1/2-dependent far field along the direction of the external magnetic field in a cold magnetoplasma are studied and applied to classify the plasma parameter domains in the Clemmow-Mullaly-Allis diagram. Such an axially enhanced far-field flux from a dipole source is then evaluated explicitly and found to be confined within a finite cross-sectional area in most cases. Origin of the axial enhancement is explained and its relevance to energy conservation is discussed; in particular, the divergent radiation flux lines are described by z/r2⊥=const, where z and r⊥ are, respectively, the axial and the transverse coordinates. Attention is also drawn to the existence of an enhanced electric far field oscillating parallel to the magnetic field and at frequencies below the plasma frequency.

  5. Radiation flux enhancement and absorption in thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, V.; Lodenquai, J.; Mctavish, J.

    1984-03-01

    Flux enhancement of (solar) radiation in dielectric thin films with textured upper surfaces and diffuse, perfectly reflecting lower surfaces is investigated. In the case of a completely rough surface, considered as a set of randomly oriented smooth microscopic surfaces or facets, the flux enhancement is shown to be n-squared in the absence of absorption, where n is the refractive index of the film. In cases when the upper surface is not completely rough but may be approximated by a set of facets whose orientations follow a Gaussian distribution, the enhancement is studied numerically and is found to be generally less than n-squared. Absorption is examined, and a general expression for the absorption efficiency of the thin film is derived. Numerical results for efficiency versus absorption coefficient are presented. 8 references.

  6. Radiation flux enhancement and absorption in thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, V.; Lodenquai, J.; McTavish, J.

    1984-03-01

    Flux enhancement of (solar) radiation in dielectric thin films with textured upper surfaces ad diffuse, perfectly reflecting lower surfaces is investigated. In the case of a completely rough surface, considered as a set of randomly oriented smooth microscopic surfaces or facets, the flux enhancement is shown to be n/sup 2/ in the absence of absorption, where n is the refractive index of the film. In cases when the upper surface is not completely rough but may be approximated by a set of facets whose orientations follow a Gaussian distribution, the enhancement is studied numerically and is found to be generally less than n/sup 2/. Absorption is examined, and a general expression for the absorption efficiency of the thin film is derived. Numerical results for efficiency versus absorption coefficiet are presented.

  7. Comparison of surface fluxes and boundary-layer measurements at Arctic terrestrial sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grachev, Andrey; Uttal, Taneil; Persson, Ola; Stone, Robert; Crepinsek, Sara; Albee, Robert; Makshtas, Alexander; Kustov, Vasily; Repina, Irina; Artamonov, Arseniy

    2014-05-01

    Observational evidence suggests that atmospheric energy fluxes are a major contributor to the decrease of the Arctic pack ice, seasonal land snow cover and the warming of the surrounding land areas and permafrost layers. To better understand the atmosphere-surface exchange mechanisms, improve models, and to diagnose climate variability in the Arctic, accurate measurements are required of all components of the net surface energy budget and the carbon dioxide cycle over representative areas and over multiple years. This study analyzes and discusses variability of surface fluxes and basic meteorological parameters based on measurements made at several long-term research observatories near the coast of the Arctic Ocean located in USA (Barrow), Canada (Eureka), and Russia (Tiksi). Tower-based eddy covariance and solar radiation measurements provide a long-term near continuous temporal record of hourly average mass and energy fluxes respectively. The turbulent fluxes of the momentum, sensible heat, water vapor, and carbon dioxide are supported by additional atmospheric and surface/snow/permafrost measurements (mean wind speed, air temperature and humidity, upwelling and downwelling short-wave and long-wave atmospheric and surface radiation, snow depth, surface albedo, soil heat flux, active layer temperature profiles etc.) In this study we compare annual cycles of surface fluxes including solar radiation and other ancillary data to describe four seasons in the Arctic including spring onset of melt and fall onset of snow accumulation. Particular interest is a transition through freezing point, i.e. during transition from winter to spring and from summer to fall, when the carbon dioxide and/or water vapor turbulent fluxes change their direction. According to our data, in a summer period observed temporal variability of the carbon dioxide flux was generally in anti-phase with water vapor flux (downward CO2 flux and upward H2O flux). On average the turbulent flux of carbon dioxide was mostly negative (uptake by the surface) in summer indicating that the Arctic terrestrial sites are generally net sinks for atmospheric CO2 during the growing season when surface is extensively covered with vegetation. This study also shows that the sensible heat flux, water vapor, and carbon dioxide fluxes as well as air temperature exhibit clear diurnal cycles during the Arctic summer. During the Polar winter and cold seasons, the sensible heat flux, water vapor and carbon dioxide fluxes were small and mostly irregular when the ground is covered with snow and air temperatures are sufficiently below freezing. The work is supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) with award ARC 11-07428 and by the U.S. Civilian Research & Development Foundation (CRDF) with award RUG1-2976-ST-10.

  8. Photoabsorption cross section of CH3CN - Photodissociation rates by solar flux and interstellar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suto, M.; Lee, L. C.

    1985-12-01

    The photoabsorption cross section of CH2CN vapor was measured in the 106-180 nm region using synchrotron radiation as a light source. The cross section and the quantum yield for the production of CN (A, B-X) fluorescence were measured and were used to infer the photodissociation cross section of CH3CN. The cross sections were used to calculate the photodissociation rates of CH3CN by the solar flux and by the interstellar radiation. In both the stratosphere and the troposphere, the solar photodissociation of CH3CN is negligible in comparison with chemical degradation.

  9. Photoabsorption cross section of CH3CN - Photodissociation rates by solar flux and interstellar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suto, M.; Lee, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    The photoabsorption cross section of CH2CN vapor was measured in the 106-180 nm region using synchrotron radiation as a light source. The cross section and the quantum yield for the production of CN (A, B-X) fluorescence were measured and were used to infer the photodissociation cross section of CH3CN. The cross sections were used to calculate the photodissociation rates of CH3CN by the solar flux and by the interstellar radiation. In both the stratosphere and the troposphere, the solar photodissociation of CH3CN is negligible in comparison with chemical degradation.

  10. Measurements for the JASPER Program Flux Monitor Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Muckenthaler, F.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Hunter, H.T.; Hull, J.L.; Shono, A.

    1993-02-01

    The Flux Monitor Experiment was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) during the months of May and June 1992, as part of the continuing series of eight experiments planned for the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER) program that was started in 1986. This series of experiments was designed to examine shielding concerns and radiation transport effects pertaining to in-vessel flux monitoring systems (FMS) in current reactor shield designs proposed for both the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design and the Japanese loop-type design. The program is a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) and the Japanese Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). The Tower Shielding Reactor H (TSR-II) neutron source was altered by the spectrum modifier (SM) used previously in the Axial Shield Experiment, and part of the Japanese Removable Radial Shield (RRS) before reaching the axial shield. In the axial shield were placed six homogeneous boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) hexagons around a center hexagon of aluminum used to represent sodium. Shield designs to be studied were placed beyond the axial shield, each design forming a void directly behind the axial shield. Measurements were made in the void and behind each slab as successive slabs were added.

  11. Anthropogenic and Biogenic Features of Long-Term Measured CO Flux in North Downtown Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Park, Changhyoun; Schade, Gunnar W

    2016-01-01

    Long-term urban carbon cycle studies remain rare despite the importance of carbon for energy, air quality, and climate change. To study spatial and temporal variations of energy and carbon fluxes in a subtropical urban environment, eddy covariance flux measurements were conducted north of downtown Houston, TX, using a tall radio-tower installation. The results of the first 2 yr of measurements show that both concentrations and fluxes of CO display typical seasonal and diurnal variations in urban areas. The seasonal variation of net CO flux is driven by steady anthropogenic emissions dominated by car traffic and human respiration, moderated by the local deciduous tree foliage. Weekday-weekend differences were observed in carbon fluxes, but not concentrations, while diurnal changes were dominated by rush-hour peaks from traffic and vegetation influences. Interestingly, CO and CO concentrations, but not CO flux, exhibited long-term declines, especially comparing pre- and post-Hurricane Ike periods. A directional analysis of CO fluxes revealed that the highest fluxes typically occurred from northwest directions, most likely due to emissions from small industrial sources. Car traffic as carbon source was revealed via correlations of CO with CO during the morning rush hours, and of CO flux with traffic counts during winter time. The influence of urban vegetation on net CO fluxes was identified via correlations with daytime photosynthetically active radiation due to photosynthesis, and with nighttime temperatures due to ecosystem respiration. The study site is a net source of CO throughout all seasons. PMID:26828181

  12. Stormtime Dynamics of the Relativistic Electron Flux in Earth's Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliadis, D.

    2011-01-01

    A state-vector representation is a powerful technique for describing complex plasma systems. Its framework can be adapted for classification methods which can be used to analyze the system's history and for prediction methods which can serve to forecast its future activity. A state-vector description is developed for the electron flux dynamics in Earth's radiation belts, based on an 11-year (1993-2003) dataset of high-cadence flux measurements from a low-Earth (SAMPEX) orbit over a wide L range and at a fixed energy (2-6 MeV). A clustering algorithm is used to divide the state space into regions, or clusters of vectors, and it becomes evident that flux intensifications during storms correspond to characteristic transitions in state space following geoeffective interplanetary disturbances (such as interplanetary coronal mass ejections and high-speed streams). Examples are discussed to show that the classification is valid for medium-term (several-days) and long-term (solar-cycle-phase) timescales. The state-vector representation is then used as the basis of a predictive model of the flux distribution given upstream solar wind measurements. It is found that model accuracy of storm prediction is maximized if the model is tuned at a highly nonlinear regime. The relation to earlier state representations and models of the radiation belt flux is discussed.

  13. Scaling up flux measurements for the boreal forest using aircraft-tower combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, R. L.; MacPherson, J. I.; Mahrt, L.; Schuepp, P.; Pattey, E.; Neumann, H.; Baldocchi, D.; Wofsy, S.; Fitzjarrald, D.; McCaughey, H.; Joiner, D. W.

    1997-12-01

    Fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, sensible heat, and momentum obtained over the boreal forest from the Twin Otter aircraft and six tower-based systems are compared. These measurements were collected as part of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) during three intensive field campaigns between May 25 and September 17, 1994. The representativeness of the tower-based measurements collected during BOREAS is discussed. Even though the net radiation from aircraft- and tower-based systems agreed well, in general, the aircraft tended to observe larger latent heat and smaller sensible heat fluxes than the towers. The CO2 fluxes from the aircraft were substantially less than from the tower, while the differences were relatively small for the momentum fluxes. The relationships between aircraft and tower-based flux measurements obtained by making repeated runs past various towers are used to scale up tower-based fluxes to a 1616 km2 area near Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. It is demonstrated that except for a couple of cases primarily due to rapidly changing radiation conditions, this combination of measurements provides regional flux estimates of momentum, CO2, and sensible and latent heat similar to those obtained by flying a grid pattern over the area.

  14. Radiation thermometry: The measurement problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nutter, G. D.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the theory and techniques of radiometric thermometry is presented. The characteristics of thermal radiators (targets) are discussed along with surface roughness and oxidation effects, fresnel reflection and subsurface effects in dielectrics. The effects of the optical medium between the radiating target and the radiation thermometer are characterized including atmospheric effects, ambient temperature and dust environment effects and the influence of measurement windows. The optical and photodetection components of radiation thermometers are described and techniques for the correction of emissivity effects are addressed.

  15. Seasonal and Diurnal Fluxes of Radiation, Heat, Water Vapor, and Carbon Dioxide over a Suburban Area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriwaki, R.; Kanda, M.

    2004-11-01

    Based on 1 yr of field measurements, the diurnal, seasonal, and annual fluxes of energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) at a residential area of Tokyo, Japan, are described. The major findings are as follows. 1) The storage heat flux G in the daytime had little seasonal variation, irrespective of significant seasonal change of net all-wave radiation Rn. 2) The latent heat flux in the summer daytime was large despite the small areal fraction of natural coverage (trees and bare soil). The estimated local latent heat flux per unit natural coverage was 2 times the available energy (Rn - G), which indicates that the “oasis effect” was significant. 3) The CO2 flux was always upward throughout the year and the magnitude was larger in winter, mainly because of an increase of fossil fuel consumption. The annual total CO2 flux was 6 times the downward CO2 flux at a typical temperate deciduous forest.


  16. A comparison of small and larger mesoscale latent heat and radiative fluxes: December 6 case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gultepe, I.; Starr, David; Heymsfield, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the small amounts of water vapor, the potential for rapid changes, and the very cold temperatures in the upper troposphere, moisture measuring instruments face several problems related to calibration and response. Calculations of eddy moisture fluxes are, therefore, subject to significant uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to examine the importance of latent heat (moisture) fluxes due to small and larger mesoscale circulations in comparison to radiative fluxes within cirrus. Scale separation is made at about 1 km because of significant changes in the structures within cirrus. Only observations at warmer than -40 C are used in this study. The EG&G hygrometer that is used for measuring dewpoint temperature (Td) is believed to be fairly accurate down to -40 C. On the other hand, Lyman-Alpha (L-alpha) hygrometer measurements of moisture may include large drift errors. In order to compensate for these drift errors, the L-alpha hygrometer is often calibrated against the EG&G hygrometer. However, large errors ensue for Td measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. The cryogenic hygrometer frost point measurements may be used to calibrate L-alpha measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. In this study, however, measurements obtained by EG&G hygrometer and L-alpha measurements are used for the flux calculations.

  17. Acoustic radiation stress measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H., Jr.; Yost, William T.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrasonic radio frequency tone-bursts are launched into a sample of material tested. The amplitude of the tone-bursts and the slope of the resulting static displacement pulses are measured. These measurements are used to calculate the nonlinearities of the materials.

  18. In Situ Measurement of Energetic Electron Fluxes Inside Thunderclouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabshahi, S.; Vodopiyanov, I. B.; Dwyer, J. R.; Rassoul, H.

    2013-12-01

    It is now well established that high-energy radiation is routinely produced by thunderclouds and lightning. This radiation is in the form of x-rays and gamma-rays with timescales ranging from sub-microsecond (x-rays associated with lightning leaders), to sub-millisecond (Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes), to minute long glows (Gamma-ray Glows from thunderclouds seen on the ground and in or near the cloud by aircrafts and balloons). It is generally accepted that these emissions originate from bremsstrahlung interactions of relativistic runaway electrons with air, which can be accelerated in the thundercloud/lightning electric fields and gain up to multi-MeV energies. However, the exact physical details of the mechanism that produces these runaway electrons are still unknown. In order to better understand the source of energetic radiation inside thunderclouds, we have begun a campaign of balloon-borne instruments to directly measure the flux of energetic electrons inside thunderclouds. In the current configuration, each balloon carries Geiger counters to record the energetic particles. Geiger counters are well suited for directly measuring energetic electrons and positrons and have the advantage of being lightweight and dependable. Due to the nature of the thunderstorm environment, the campaign has many design, communication, and safety challenges. In this presentation we will report on the status of the campaign and some of the physical insights gained from the data collected by our instruments. This work was supported in part by the NASA grant NNX12A002H and by DARPA grant HR0011-1-10-1-0061.

  19. A benchmark analysis of radiation flux distribution for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of canine brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    Calculations of radiation flux and dose distributions for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of brain tumors are typically performed using sophisticated three-dimensional analytical models based on either a homogeneous approximation or a simplified few-region approximation to the actual highly-heterogeneous geometry of the irradiation volume. Such models should be validated by comparison with calculations using detailed models in which all significant macroscopic tissue heterogeneities and geometric structures are explicitly represented as faithfully as possible. This work describes a validation exercise for BNCT of canine brain tumors. Geometric measurements of the canine anatomical structures of interest for this work were performed by dissecting and examining two essentially identical Labrador Retriever heads. Chemical analyses of various tissue samples taken during the dissections were conducted to obtain measurements of elemental compositions for tissues of interest. The resulting geometry and tissue composition data were then used to construct a detailed heterogeneous calculational model of the Labrador Retriever head. Calculations of three-dimensional radiation flux distributions pertinent to BNCT were performed for the model using the TORT discrete-ordinates radiation transport code. The calculations were repeated for a corresponding volume-weighted homogeneous tissue model. Comparison of the results showed that the peak neutron and photon flux magnitudes were quite similar for the two models (within 5%), but that the spatial flux profiles were shifted in the heterogeneous model such that the fluxes in some locations away from the peak differed from the corresponding fluxes in the homogeneous model by as much as 10-20%. Differences of this magnitude can be therapeutically significant, emphasizing the need for proper validation of simplified treatment planning models.

  20. Calibration system for measuring the radon flux density.

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, A; Zhukovsky, M; Bastrikov, V

    2015-06-01

    The measurement of radon flux from soil surface is the useful tool for the assessment of radon-prone areas and monitoring of radon releases from uranium mining and milling residues. The accumulation chambers with hollow headspace and chambers with activated charcoal are the most used devices for these purposes. Systematic errors of the measurements strongly depend on the geometry of the chamber and diffusion coefficient of the radon in soil. The calibration system for the attestation of devices for radon flux measurements was constructed. The calibration measurements of accumulation chambers and chambers with activated charcoal were conducted. The good agreement between the results of 2D modelling of radon flux and measurements results was observed. It was demonstrated that reliable measurements of radon flux can be obtained by chambers with activated charcoal (equivalent volume ~75 l) or by accumulation chambers with hollow headspace of ~7-10 l and volume/surface ratio (height) of >15 cm. PMID:25977351

  1. First eddy covariance flux measurements by PTR-TOF

    PubMed Central

    Müller, M.; Graus, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Bamberger, I.; Kaser, L.; Titzmann, T.; Hörtnagl, L.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Karl, T.; Hansel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The recently developed PTR-TOF instrument was evaluated to measure methanol fluxes emitted from grass land using the eddy covariance method. The high time resolution of the PTR-TOF allowed storing full mass spectra up to m/z 315 with a frequency of 10 Hz. Three isobaric ions were found at a nominal mass of m/z 33 due to the high mass resolving power of the PTR-TOF. Only one of the three peaks contributed to eddy covariance fluxes. The exact mass of this peak agrees well with the exact mass of protonated methanol (m/z 33.0335). The eddy covariance methanol fluxes measured with PTR-TOF were compared to virtual disjunct eddy covariance methanol fluxes simultaneously measured with a conventional PTR-MS. The methanol fluxes from both instruments show excellent agreement. PMID:24465280

  2. Metabolic flux analysis using 13C peptide label measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    13C metabolic flux analysis (MFA) has become the experimental method of choice to investigate cellular metabolism. MFA has established flux maps of central metabolism for dozens of microbes, cell cultures, and plant seeds. Steady-state MFA utilizes isotopic labeling measurements of amino acids obtai...

  3. Optical flux lattices using multi-frequency radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juzeliunas, Gediminas; Andrijauskas, Tomas; Spielman, Ian

    2015-05-01

    Ultracold atomic gases are systems exhibiting various condensed matter phenomena. The ultracold atoms are neutral, so under usual circumstance they do not exhibit important magnetic phenomena, like the quantum Hall effect. Possible ways to create artificial magnetic field for ultracold atoms include rotation of an atomic cloud, laser-assisted tunnelling, shaking of optical lattices. Yet it is difficult to reach considerable magnetic fluxes required for achieving the fractional Hall effect. Here we theoretically analyse another way of creating a non-staggered magnetic flux for ultra-cold atoms by using a periodic sequence of short laser pulses providing a multi-frequency perturbation. In particular, we consider a possibility to create a square flux lattice for ultra-cold characterized by two internal states. The energies of the two internal states have opposite gradients in one spatial direction, while the driving consists of periodic in time pulses that couple the internal states and propagate in a direction perpendicular to the energy gradient. The time-depending perturbation effectively creates a square optical lattice affected by a non-staggered magnetic flux. The topological properties of such a lattice have been explored. This work was supported by European Social Fund under the Global Grant measure.

  4. FLUX MEASUREMENTS FROM A TALL TOWER IN A COMPLEX LANDSCAPE

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.; Weber, A.; Chiswell, S.; Parker, M.

    2010-07-22

    The accuracy and representativeness of flux measurements from a tall tower in a complex landscape was assessed by examining the vertical and sector variability of the ratio of wind speed to momentum flux and the ratio of vertical advective to eddy flux of heat. The 30-60 m ratios were consistent with theoretical predictions which indicate well mixed flux footprints. Some variation with sector was observed that were consistent with upstream roughness. Vertical advection was negligible compared with vertical flux except for a few sectors at night. This implies minor influence from internal boundary layers. Flux accuracy is a function of sector and stability but 30-60 m fluxes were found to be generally representative of the surrounding landscape. This paper will study flux data from a 300 m tower, with 4 levels of instruments, in a complex landscape. The surrounding landscape will be characterized in terms of the variation in the ratio of mean wind speed to momentum flux as a function of height and wind direction. The importance of local advection will be assessed by comparing vertical advection with eddy fluxes for momentum and heat.

  5. The Measurement of Sound Power Flux in Flow Ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HOLLAND, K. R.; DAVIES, P. O. A. L.

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the development of robust procedures yielding reliable estimates of the nett sound power flux associated with one-dimensional wave motion under strongly reactive conditions in flow ducts. In such reverberant situations, the measurements must be sufficiently precise to clearly identify the small fraction of the total fluctuating wave energy that is being propagated through the system [1-4]. An expansion chamber, together with its inlet and outlet pipes radiating into a semi-anechoic space, was chosen as a simple but sufficiently representative example of such systems. Various practical problems, such as those arising from low signal-to-noise ratios, or any inadequacies of microphone calibration were investigated in detail, along with various strategies for minimizing their influence on the realism and reliability of the associated measurements. The most effective procedures were identified by performing a sequence of comparisons between the resulting measurements and checking them against data generated with an existing and well-verified prediction code.

  6. Footprint prediction of scalar fluxes - Reliability and implications for airborne flux measurements over the FIFE site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuepp, P. H.; Desjardins, R. L.; Macpherson, J. I.; Leclerc, M. Y.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates of the location and extension of the upwind ground area that affects flux observations most directly are examined to determine the reliability of airborne versus near-ground flux measurements. The theoretical issues regarding the 'footprint' are examined, and specific observations are analyzed by studying the data over a grid regarding sensible heat, latent heat, CO2, and greenness. The grid is footprint-corrected to correlate better with independently observed surface characteristics, and an optimized footprint is developed that satisfies the relationships between the observed variables. Optimized mapping of the surface flux is given which demonstrates the importance of considering local advection to correlate airborne and ground-based flux observations. The technique is particularly applicable to situations in which significant variations in the surface flux density exist.

  7. Best Estimate Radiation Flux Value-Added Procedure. Algorithm Operational Details and Explanations

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Y.; Long, C. N.

    2002-10-01

    This document describes some specifics of the algorithm for best estimate evaluation of radiation fluxes at Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF). It uses the data available from the three co-located surface radiometer platforms at the SGP CF to automatically determine the best estimate of the irradiance measurements available. The Best Estimate Flux (BEFlux) value-added procedure (VAP) was previously named Best Estimate ShortWave (BESW) VAP, which included all of the broadband and spectral shortwave (SW) measurements for the SGP CF. In BESW, multiple measurements of the same quantities were handled simply by designating one as the primary measurement and using all others to merely fill in any gaps. Thus, this “BESW” is better termed “most continuous,” since no additional quality assessment was applied. We modified the algorithm in BESW to use the average of the closest two measurements as the best estimate when possible, if these measurements pass all quality assessment criteria. Furthermore, we included longwave (LW) fields in the best estimate evaluation to include all major components of the surface radiative energy budget, and renamed the VAP to Best Estimate Flux (BEFLUX1LONG).

  8. Best Estimate Radiation Flux Value-Added Procedure: Algorithm Operational Details and Explanations

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Y; Long, CN

    2002-10-01

    This document describes some specifics of the algorithm for best estimate evaluation of radiation fluxes at Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF). It uses the data available from the three co-located surface radiometer platforms at the SGP CF to automatically determine the best estimate of the irradiance measurements available. The Best Estimate Flux (BEFlux) value-added procedure (VAP) was previously named Best Estimate ShortWave (BESW) VAP, which included all of the broadband and spectral shortwave (SW) measurements for the SGP CF. In BESW, multiple measurements of the same quantities were handled simply by designating one as the primary measurement and using all others to merely fill in any gaps. Thus, this “BESW” is better termed “most continuous,” since no additional quality assessment was applied. We modified the algorithm in BESW to use the average of the closest two measurements as the best estimate when possible, if these measurements pass all quality assessment criteria. Furthermore, we included longwave (LW) fields in the best estimate evaluation to include all major components of the surface radiative energy budget, and renamed the VAP to Best Estimate Flux (BEFLUX1LONG).

  9. Sensitivity of shortwave radiative flux density, forcing, and heating rates to the aerosol vertical profile

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Hong; Schmid, Beat; Bucholtz, Anthony; Bergstrom, Robert

    2010-03-31

    The effect of the aerosol vertical distribution on the solar radiation profiles, for idealized and measured profiles of optical properties (extinction and single-scattering albedo (SSA)) during the May 2003 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerosol Intensive Observation Period (AIOP), has been investigated using the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model Shortwave (RRTM_SW) code. Calculated profiles of down-welling and up-welling solar fluxes during the AIOP have been compared with the data measured by up- and down-looking solar broadband radiometers aboard a profiling research aircraft. The measured profiles of aerosol extinction, SSA, and water vapor obtained from the same aircraft that carried the radiometers served as the inputs for the model calculations. It is noteworthy that for this study, the uplooking radiometers were mounted on a stabilized platform that kept the radiometers parallel with respect to the earth’s horizontal plane. The results indicate that the shape of the aerosol extinction profiles has very little impact on direct radiative forcings at the top of atmosphere and surface in a cloud-free sky. However, as long as the aerosol is not purely scattering, the shape of the extinction profiles is important for forcing profiles. Identical extinction profiles with different absorption profiles drastically influence the forcing and heating rate profiles. Using aircraft data from 19 AIOP profiles over the Southern Great Plains (SGP), we are able to achieve broadband down-welling solar flux closure within 0.8% (bias difference) or 1.8% (rms difference), well within the expected measurement uncertainty of 1 to 3%. The poorer agreement in up-welling flux (bias -3.7%, rms 10%) is attributed to the use of inaccurate surface albedo data. The sensitivity tests reveal the important role accurate, vertically resolved aerosol extinction data plays in tightening flux closure. This study also suggests that in the presence of a strongly absorbing substance, aircraft flux measurements from a stabilized platform have the potential to determine heating rate profiles. These measurement-based heating rate profiles provide useful data for heating rate closure studies and indirect estimates of single scattering albedo assumed in radiative transfer calculations.

  10. Measurements of EUV coronal holes and open magnetic flux

    SciTech Connect

    Lowder, C.; Qiu, J.; Leamon, R.; Liu, Y.

    2014-03-10

    Coronal holes are regions on the Sun's surface that map the footprints of open magnetic field lines. We have developed an automated routine to detect and track boundaries of long-lived coronal holes using full-disk extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images obtained by SOHO/EIT, SDO/AIA, and STEREO/EUVI. We measure coronal hole areas and magnetic flux in these holes, and compare the measurements with calculations by the potential field source surface (PFSS) model. It is shown that, from 1996 through 2010, the total area of coronal holes measured with EIT images varies between 5% and 17% of the total solar surface area, and the total unsigned open flux varies between (2-5)× 10{sup 22} Mx. The solar cycle dependence of these measurements is similar to the PFSS results, but the model yields larger hole areas and greater open flux than observed by EIT. The AIA/EUVI measurements from 2010-2013 show coronal hole area coverage of 5%-10% of the total surface area, with significant contribution from low latitudes, which is under-represented by EIT. AIA/EUVI have measured much enhanced open magnetic flux in the range of (2-4)× 10{sup 22} Mx, which is about twice the flux measured by EIT, and matches with the PFSS calculated open flux, with discrepancies in the location and strength of coronal holes. A detailed comparison between the three measurements (by EIT, AIA-EUVI, and PFSS) indicates that coronal holes in low latitudes contribute significantly to the total open magnetic flux. These low-latitude coronal holes are not well measured with either the He I 10830 line in previous studies, or EIT EUV images; neither are they well captured by the static PFSS model. The enhanced observations from AIA/EUVI allow a more accurate measure of these low-latitude coronal holes and their contribution to open magnetic flux.

  11. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  12. Energy dependence of relativistic electron flux variations in the outer radiation belt during geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ying; Xie, Lun; Li, Jinxing; Fu, Suiyan; Pu, Zuyin; Chen, Lunjin; Ni, Binbin; Li, Wen

    2015-04-01

    Geomagnetic storms can either increase or decrease relativistic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt, depending on the delicate competition between electron energization and loss processes. Despite the well-known "energy independent" prototype in which electron fluxes enhance after geomagnetic storms at all energies, we present observations of "energy dependent" events, i.e., post-storm electron fluxes at lower energies (0.3-2.5 MeV, measured by MEPED/POES) recover or even exceed the pre-storm level, while electron fluxes at higher energies (2.5-14 MeV, measured by PET/SAMPEX) do not restore. The statistical survey of 84 isolated storms demonstrates that geomagnetic storms preferentially decrease relativistic electron fluxes at higher energies while flux enhancements are more common at lower energies: ~ 82% (3%) storm events produce increased (decreased) flux for 0.3-2.5 MeV electrons, while ~ 37% (45%) storms lead to enhancements (reductions) of 2.5-14 MeV electron flux. Superposed epoch analysis suggests that "energy dependent" events preferentially occur during periods of high solar wind density along with high dynamic pressure. Previous statistical studies have shown that this kind of solar wind conditions account for significant enhancements of EMIC waves, which cause efficient precipitation of > 2 MeV electrons into atmosphere via pitch angle scattering. Two cases of "energy dependent" events are investigated in detail with evident observations of EMIC waves that can resonate effectively with >2 MeV electrons. Besides, we do not capture much differences in the chorus wave activity between those "energy dependent" and "energy independent" events. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that EMIC waves play a crucial role in the occurrences of those "energy dependent" events in the outer zone during geomagnetic storms.

  13. Solar cycle variations of trapped proton flux in the inner radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Murong; Zhang, Xianguo; Ni, Binbin; Song, Hongqiang; Zou, Hong; Sun, Yueqiang

    2014-12-01

    Trapped proton population in the inner radiation belt is highly dense, posing a potential danger to astronauts and man-made space assets traversing through this region. While being significantly stable within timescales up to hundreds of days, inner zone proton fluxes can exhibit considerable solar cycle variations, which has not been investigated comprehensively yet. To analyze the long-term variation of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), we adopt the proton flux data measured by NOAA 15 from 1999 through 2009 and perform statistical analyses on the basis of reasonable Gaussian fits. We report that the variation of the peak proton flux in the SAA is anticorrelated with that of F10.7 during a solar cycle. There also exists a phase lag of 685 days between the solar F10.7 flux and the proton flux. Similar features are seen for changes of the SAA distribution area, which in addition shows a rapid decrease during the solar maximum and a slow increase during the solar minimum. We also find that the region where the proton flux peaks drifts westward year by year with larger drift rates during the solar minimum. The peak region shifts southward during the solar maximum but in the opposite direction during the solar minimum with higher shift speed. Enhancements in solar wind dynamic pressure can favor the north-south drift of the SAA.

  14. A Preliminary Study of CO2 Flux Measurements by Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibert, Fabien; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Hilton, T.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Andrews, Arlyn; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

    2008-01-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the global carbon cycle requires quantification of terrestrial ecosystem CO2 fluxes at regional scales. In this paper, we analyze the potential of a Doppler DIAL system to make flux measurements of atmospheric CO2 using the eddy-covariance and boundary layer budget methods and present results from a ground based experiment. The goal of this study is to put CO2 flux point measurements in a mesoscale context. In June 2007, a field experiment combining a 2-m Doppler Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar (HDIAL) and in-situ sensors of a 447-m tall tower (WLEF) took place in Wisconsin. The HDIAL measures simultaneously: 1) CO2 mixing ratio, 2) atmosphere structure via aerosol backscatter and 3) radial velocity. We demonstrate how to synthesize these data into regional flux estimates. Lidar-inferred fluxes are compared with eddy-covariance fluxes obtained in-situ at 396m AGL from the tower. In cases where the lidar was not yet able to measure the fluxes with acceptable precision, we discuss possible modifications to improve system performance.

  15. Determining Maximum Glycolytic Capacity Using Extracellular Flux Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mookerjee, Shona A.; Nicholls, David G.; Brand, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of glycolytic rate and maximum glycolytic capacity using extracellular flux analysis can give crucial information about cell status and phenotype during normal operation, development of pathology, differentiation, and malignant transformation. They are also of great use when assessing the effects of chemical or drug treatments. Here, we experimentally define maximum glycolytic capacity, demonstrate how it differs from glycolytic rate, and provide a protocol for determining the basal glycolytic rate and maximum glycolytic capacity in cells using extracellular flux measurements. The results illustrate the power of extracellular flux analysis to describe the energetics of adherent cells in culture in a fully quantitative way. PMID:27031845

  16. Measurement of magnetic fluctuation-induced particle flux (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Yates, T. Y.

    2008-10-15

    Magnetic field fluctuation-induced particle transport has been directly measured in the high-temperature core of the MST reversed field pinch plasma. Measurement of radial particle transport is achieved by combining various interferometry techniques, including Faraday rotation, conventional interferometry, and differential interferometry. It is observed that electron convective particle flux and its divergence exhibit a significant increase during a sawtooth crash. In this paper, we describe the basic techniques employed to determine the particle flux.

  17. Measured and parameterized energy fluxes estimated for Atlantic transects of RV Polarstern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumke, Karl; Macke, Andreas; Kalisch, John; Kleta, Henry

    2013-04-01

    Even to date energy fluxes over the oceans are difficult to assess. As an example the relative paucity of evaporation observations and the uncertainties of currently employed empirical approaches lead to large uncertainties of evaporation products over the ocean (e.g. Large and Yeager, 2009). Within the frame of OCEANET (Macke et al., 2010) we performed such measurements on Atlantic transects between Bremerhaven (Germany) and Cape Town (South Africa) or Punta Arenas (Chile) onboard RV Polarstern during the recent years. The basic measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes are inertial-dissipation (e.g. Dupuis et al., 1997) flux estimates and measurements of the bulk variables. Turbulence measurements included a sonic anemometer and an infrared hygrometer, both mounted on the crow's nest. Mean meteorological sensors were those of the ship's operational measurement system. The global radiation and the down terrestrial radiation were measured on the OCEANET container placed on the monkey island. At least about 1000 time series of 1 h length were analyzed to derive bulk transfer coefficients for the fluxes of sensible and latent heat. The bulk transfer coefficients were applied to the ship's meteorological data to derive the heat fluxes at the sea surface. The reflected solar radiation was estimated from measured global radiation. The up terrestrial radiation was derived from the skin temperature according to the Stefan-Boltzmann law. Parameterized heat fluxes were compared to the widely used COARE-parameterization (Fairall et al., 2003), the agreement is excellent. Measured and parameterized heat and radiation fluxes gave the total energy budget at the air sea interface. As expected the mean total flux is positive, but there are also areas, where it is negative, indicating an energy loss of the ocean. It could be shown that the variations in the energy budget are mainly due to insolation and evaporation. A comparison between the mean values of measured and parameterized sensible and latent heat fluxes shows that the data are suitable to validate satellite derived fluxes at the sea surface and re-analysis data. References Dupuis, H., P. K. Taylor, A. Weill, and K. Katsaros, 1997: Inertial dissipation method applied to derive turbulent fluxes over the ocean during the surface of the ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 102 (C9), 21 115-21 129. Fairall, C. W., E. F. Bradley, J. E. Hare, A. A. Grachev, J. B. Edson, 2003: Bulk Parameterization of Air-Sea Fluxes: Updates and Verification for the COARE Algorithm. J. Climate, 16, 571-591. Large, W.G., and S.G. Yeager, 2009: The global climatology of an interannually varying air-sea flux data set. Climate Dynamics 33, 341-364. Macke, A., Kalisch, J., Zoll, Y., and Bumke, K., 2010: Radiative effects of the cloudy atmosphere from ground and satellite based observations, EPJ Web of Conferences, 5 9, 83-94

  18. The BESS-Polar Proton & Helium flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hams, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Itazaki, A.; Kim, K.C.; Kumazawal, T.; Lee, M.H.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Moiseev, A.A.; Meyers, Z.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, R.; Ormes, J.F.; Sakai, K.; Sasaki, M.; Seo, E.S.; Shikaze, Y.; Shinoda, R.; Streitmatter, R.E.; Suzuki, J.; Takasugi, Y.; Takeuchi, K.; Tanaka, K.; Thakur, N.; Yamagami, T.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshimura, K.

    The Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting Spectrometer (BESS) instrument pro-vides precise measurements of the elemental and isotopic composition of the light Galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) component. The ability to determine the charge sign of incident par-ticles enables the instrument to search for GCR antimatter, which is a major objective of the BESS program. Since 1993, the US-Japan BESS collaboration has conducted 11 successful balloon flights, nine northern-latitude flights of 1-day duration and most recently two long-duration balloon flights (8.5 days in 2004 & 24.5 days in 2007/2008), with the BESS-Polar instrument. The BESS-Polar instrument is the current effort of BESS program specifically designed for long-duration, low-geomagnetic cutoff Antarctic flights with significantly increased transparency for incident CR particle allowing to study anti/proton down to 100 MeV and a faster data acquisition enables processing of all CR events without event selection. The first BESS-Polar flight was launched on Dec 13, 2004 from Williams Field, near McMurdo Station in Antarctica. The instrument recorded data for 8.5 days, limited by the cryogenic life time of the superconducting magnet. During this flight the BESS-Polar instrument recorded 0.9 x 109 CR events. In this paper, we present the absolute proton and helium flux for the first BESS-Polar flight as well as the time variation of the fluxes due to solar activity.

  19. Development of a radiative flux evaluation program with a 3-D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okata, Megumi; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Barker, Howard W.; Donovan, David P.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we have developed a three-dimensional (3D) Monte Carlo radiative transfer code that can treat a broadband solar flux calculation implemented with k-distribution parameters [1]. We used this code for generating the radiative flux profile and heating rate profile in the atmosphere including broken clouds. In order to construct 3-D extinction coefficient fields, we tried following three methods: 1) Minimum cloud Information Deviation Profiling Method (MIDPM), 2) numerical simulations by a non-hydrostatic model with bin cloud microphysics model and 3) idealized stochastic clouds generated by randomized extinction coefficient distribution and regularly-distributed tiled clouds. Using these constructed 3-D cloud systems, we calculated the radiation field by our Monte Carlo radiative transfer code at wavelengths of 0.5, 1.6 and 2.1 microns. We then compared the results with Plane Parallel Approximation (PPA) and a reflectivity of 3-D with Independent Pixel Approximation (IPA). In the case of wavelength 0.5 microns, as expected, all the discrepancies between 3-D clouds and equivalent IPA clouds are smaller than the discrepancies between 3-D clouds and equivalent PPA clouds. At maximum the reflectivity difference for the PPA and IPA is about equal to fluxes of 30 Wm-2 and 10 Wm-2, respectively.

  20. Heat flux measurement from vertical temperature profile and thermal infrared imagery in low-flux fumarolic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, Damien; Finizola, Anthony; Beauducel, François; Brothelande, Elodie; Allemand, Pascal; Delacourt, Christophe; Delcher, Eric; Peltier, Aline

    2014-05-01

    Hydrothermal systems are associated to most of the dormant volcanoes. Heat is transported by steam from the hot magma body in the connected porosity and the fissures of the rock to the surface. If the flux is low enough (<500 W/m²), the steam mainly condensates in the soil close to surface, and a significant proportion of the heat is transported to the surface by conduction, producing a gradient of temperature and a thermal anomaly detectable at the surface. Detecting and monitoring these fluxes is crucial for hazard management, since it reflects the state of the magma body in depth. In order to quantify this flux two methods are considered. First, a vertical profile of temperature is measured by a series of thermocouples, and the conducted flux is estimated thanks to the Fourier law. Secondly, a more recent method uses the thermal infrared imagery to monitor the surface temperature anomaly (STA) between the studied zone and an equivalent zone not affected by the geothermal flux. The heat flux from the soil to the atmosphere is computed as the sum of (1) the radiative flux, (2) the sensible flux and (3) the residual steam flux. These two methods are complementary and have an equivalent uncertainty of approximately 20%, which would allow to track the major changes in the hydrothermal system. However, the surface and sub-surface temperatures are strongly influenced by the climate. For instance, it has been widely demonstrated that the surface temperature dramatically decreases after a rainfall. In order to estimate the reliability of the measurements, a numerical model simulating the evolution of the subsurface temperature in low flux fumarolic zone has been built. In depth, the heat can be transported either by conduction, or by the rising steam, or by condensed water. In surface, both the radiative flux and the sensible flux (convection of the atmosphere) are taken into account. This model allows to estimate the changes of temperature due to a variation of solar illumination, wind, or rainfalls. It has been successfully tested during 5 months with a permanent station built on the Ty fault on La Soufrière volcano (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles). Results show that the diurnal cycle has a significant influence on the temperature up to ca. 30 cm depth, hindering the use of the thermal gradient in this zone, while the STA has a negligible variation. Rain has a more dramatic influence: the surface temperature and the STA are significantly affected, even for small rains. The model shows that the drop of temperature and the affected thickness are mainly controlled by the amount of rain, while the relaxation time is primarily a function of the heat flux. These results have strong implications in the interpretation and the reliability of the temperature surveys, and could be used to correct them from the climate fluctuations.

  1. Unmanned aerial vehicle measurements of volcanic carbon dioxide fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGonigle, A. J. S.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Tamburello, G.; Hodson, A. J.; Gurrieri, S.

    2008-03-01

    We report the first measurements of volcanic gases with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The data were collected at La Fossa crater, Vulcano, Italy, during April 2007, with a helicopter UAV of 3 kg payload, carrying an ultraviolet spectrometer for remotely sensing the SO2 flux (8.5 Mg d-1), and an infrared spectrometer, and electrochemical sensor assembly for measuring the plume CO2/SO2 ratio; by multiplying these data we compute a CO2 flux of 170 Mg d-1. Given the deeper exsolution of carbon dioxide from magma, and its lower solubility in hydrothermal systems, relative to SO2, the ability to remotely measure CO2 fluxes is significant, with promise to provide more profound geochemical insights, and earlier eruption forecasts, than possible with SO2 fluxes alone: the most ubiquitous current source of remotely sensed volcanic gas data.

  2. Error Evaluation of Methyl Bromide Aerodynamic Flux Measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Methyl bromide volatilization fluxes were calculated for a tarped and a nontarped field using 2 and 4 hour sampling periods. These field measurements were averaged in 8, 12, and 24 hour increments to simulate longer sampling periods. The daily flux profiles were progressively smoothed and the cumulative volatility losses increased by 20 to 30% with each longer sampling period. Error associated with the original flux measurements was determined from linear regressions of measured wind speed and air concentration as a function of height, and averaged approximately 50%. The high errors resulted from long application times, which resulted in a nonuniform source strength; and variable tarp permeability, which is influenced by temperature, moisture, and thickness. The increase in cumulative volatilization losses that resulted from longer sampling periods were within the experimental error of the flux determination method.

  3. A Comparison of Three Flux Measurement Systems during the DYNAMO Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, J. R.; de Szoeke, S. P.; Edson, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Three independent flux measurement systems were deployed on the RV Revelle during the DYNAMO field campaign. The PSD and University of Connecticut systems are well established and have been used for several years. OSU launched a new flux system to provide independent redundant measurements to compare with established NOAA/ESRL Physical Sciences Division (PSD) and University of Connecticut flux measurements. Each system measured high frequency ship motion and position, temperature, humidity, winds and solar/IR radiation. We compare and assess consistency of individual mean and high-frequency measurements from the 3 systems; we also compare bulk fluxes from the 3 systems using the COARE bulk algorithm. High-frequency data covariance fluxes are compared with bulk fluxes for the three systems. Air-sea heat, humidity, and momentum fluxes mediate solar energy absorbed by the upper ocean and heat the lower atmosphere, destabilizing it to convection. Thus air-sea fluxes may play an important role in the dynamics of the MJO atmospheric cold pool recovery time. Evaporativlely-driven cold pools inject cold dry air into the boundary layer from above resulting in an increase in convection and a distinct drop in potential temperature. Using a mixed-layer model for cold pools similar to that proposed by Jorgensen from COARE aircraft measurements, we formulate near-surface mixed layer heat and humidity budgets to assess cold pool recovery time. We see mixed layer temperature and humidity recover after flushing with cold air from downdrafts. We compare the estimate of the recovery timescale based on the measured surface fluxes with the actual recovery time as observed directly in the specific humidity and potential temperature time series.

  4. Airborne flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds over California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Karl, T.; Weber, R.; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, A. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-03-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a PTR-MS and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene, MVK + MAC, methanol, monoterpenes, and MBO over ∼10 000 km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions of isoprene. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate "instantaneous" fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Vertical flux divergence of isoprene is expected due to its relatively short lifetime and was measured directly using "racetrack" profiles at multiple altitudes. It was found to be linear and in the range 5% to 30% depending on the ratio of aircraft altitude to PBL height (z / zi). Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently at 400 ± 50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to Basal Emission Factor (BEF) landcover datasets used to drive biogenic VOC (BVOC) emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m-2 h-1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. While isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and coniferous forests were extremely low, high concentrations of methanol and monoterpenes were found above some of these regions. These observations demonstrate the ability to measure fluxes from specific sources by eddy covariance from an aircraft, and suggest the utility of measurements using fast response chemical sensors to constrain emission inventories and map out source distributions for a much broader array of trace gases than was observed in this study. This paper reports the first regional direct eddy covariance fluxes of isoprene. The emissions of VOCs measured from aircraft with 2 km spatial resolution can quantify the distribution of major sources providing the observations required for testing statewide emission inventories of these important trace gases. These measurements will be used in a future study to assess BVOC emission models and their driving variable datasets.

  5. The delta-Eddington approximation for radiative flux transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, J. H.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Weinman, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Simple approximations, like the Eddington, are often incapable of coping with the highly asymmetric phase functions typical of particulate scattering. A simple yet accurate method called the delta-Eddington approximation is proposed for determining monochromatic radiative fluxes in an absorbing-scattering atmosphere. In this method, the governing phase function is approximated by a Dirac delta function forward scatter peak and a two-term expansion of the phase function. The fraction of scattering into the truncated forward peak is taken proportional to the square of the phase function asymmetry factor, which distinguishes the delta-Eddington approximation from others of similar nature. The transmission, reflection, and absorption predicted by the delta-Eddington approximation are compared with doubling method calculations for realistic ranges of optical depth, single-scattering albedo, surface albedo, sun angle and asymmetry factor. The approximation is shown to provide an accurate and analytically simple parameterization of radiation to replace the empirism currently encountered in many general circulation and climate models.

  6. Estimating shortwave solar radiation using net radiation and meteorological measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shortwave radiation has a wide variety of uses in land-atmosphere interactions research. Actual evapotranspiration estimation that involves stomatal conductance models like Jarvis and Ball-Berry require shortwave radiation to estimate photon flux density. However, in most weather stations, shortwave...

  7. Fiber-optic sensor system for heat-flux measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yonghang; He, Jinglei; Zhao, Weizhong; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Kenneth T. V.; Pritchard, William D. N.

    2004-04-01

    Two different types of fiber-optic sensors were used in an experiment to measure the heat flux in a simulated refractory lining material. The results obtained with a sensor based on fluorescence lifetime detection and a sensor based on the peak wavelength shift of a fiber Bragg grating are presented and compared. Analysis of the results of the measurements taken indicates that these fiber-optic sensor systems are capable of performing multipoint temperature, and thus the heat flux, measurements. An approach is also presented for the measurement of the temperature dependence of the conductivity coefficient of the materials concerned, using the sensor systems detailed.

  8. Cosmic muon flux measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousis, L. N.; Guarnaccia, E.; Link, J. M.; Mariani, C.; Pelkey, R.

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ~ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC.

  9. Validation experiments to determine radiation partitioning of heat flux to an object in a fully turbulent fire.

    SciTech Connect

    Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Jernigan, Dann A.

    2006-06-01

    It is necessary to improve understanding and develop validation data of the heat flux incident to an object located within the fire plume for the validation of SIERRA/ FUEGO/SYRINX fire and SIERRA/CALORE. One key aspect of the validation data sets is the determination of the relative contribution of the radiative and convective heat fluxes. To meet this objective, a cylindrical calorimeter with sufficient instrumentation to measure total and radiative heat flux had been designed and fabricated. This calorimeter will be tested both in the controlled radiative environment of the Penlight facility and in a fire environment in the FLAME/Radiant Heat (FRH) facility. Validation experiments are specifically designed for direct comparison with the computational predictions. Making meaningful comparisons between the computational and experimental results requires careful characterization and control of the experimental features or parameters used as inputs into the computational model. Validation experiments must be designed to capture the essential physical phenomena, including all relevant initial and boundary conditions. A significant question of interest to modeling heat flux incident to an object in or near a fire is the contribution of the radiation and convection modes of heat transfer. The series of experiments documented in this test plan is designed to provide data on the radiation partitioning, defined as the fraction of the total heat flux that is due to radiation.

  10. Radiation measurements on the Mir Orbital Station.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; Atwell, W; Reitz, G; Beaujean, R; Heinrich, W

    2002-10-01

    Radiation measurements made onboard the MIR Orbital Station have spanned nearly a decade and covered two solar cycles, including one of the largest solar particle events, one of the largest magnetic storms, and a mean solar radio flux level reaching 250 x 10(4) Jansky that has been observed in the last 40 years. The cosmonaut absorbed dose rates varied from about 450 microGy day-1 during solar minimum to approximately half this value during the last solar maximum. There is a factor of about two in dose rate within a given module, and a similar variation from module to module. The average radiation quality factor during solar minimum, using the ICRP-26 definition, was about 2.4. The drift of the South Atlantic Anomaly was measured to be 6.0 +/- 0.5 degrees W, and 1.6 +/- 0.5 degrees N. These measurements are of direct applicability to the International Space Station. This paper represents a comprehensive review of Mir Space Station radiation data available from a variety of sources. PMID:12440430

  11. Radiation measurements on the Mir Orbital Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Atwell, W.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Heinrich, W.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation measurements made onboard the MIR Orbital Station have spanned nearly a decade and covered two solar cycles, including one of the largest solar particle events, one of the largest magnetic storms, and a mean solar radio flux level reaching 250 x 10(4) Jansky that has been observed in the last 40 years. The cosmonaut absorbed dose rates varied from about 450 microGy day-1 during solar minimum to approximately half this value during the last solar maximum. There is a factor of about two in dose rate within a given module, and a similar variation from module to module. The average radiation quality factor during solar minimum, using the ICRP-26 definition, was about 2.4. The drift of the South Atlantic Anomaly was measured to be 6.0 +/- 0.5 degrees W, and 1.6 +/- 0.5 degrees N. These measurements are of direct applicability to the International Space Station. This paper represents a comprehensive review of Mir Space Station radiation data available from a variety of sources. c2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Airborne Measurements of Methane Fluxes (AIRMETH) Arctic Campaign (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafimovich, A.; Metzger, S.; Hartmann, J.; Kohnert, K.; Sachs, T.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most pressing questions with regard to climate feedback processes in a warming Arctic is the regional-scale methane release from Arctic permafrost areas. The Airborne Measurements of Methane Fluxes (AIRMETH) campaign is designed to quantitatively and spatially explicitly address this question. Ground-based eddy covariance (EC) measurements provide continuous in-situ observations of the surface-atmosphere exchange of methane. However, these observations are rare in the Arctic permafrost zone and site selection is bound by logistical constraints among others. Consequently, these observations cover only small areas that are not necessarily representative of the region of interest. Airborne measurements can overcome this limitation by covering distances of hundreds of kilometers over time periods of a few hours. Here, we present the potential of environmental response functions (ERFs) for quantitatively linking methane flux observations in the atmospheric surface layer to meteorological and biophysical drivers in the flux footprints. For this purpose thousands of kilometers of AIRMETH data across the Alaskan North Slope are utilized, with the aim to extrapolate the airborne EC methane flux observations to the entire North Slope. The data were collected aboard the research aircraft POLAR 5, using its turbulence nose boom and fast response methane and meteorological sensors. After thorough data pre-processing, Reynolds averaging is used to derive spatially integrated fluxes. To increase spatial resolution and to derive ERFs, we then use wavelet transforms of the original high-frequency data. This enables much improved spatial discretization of the flux observations, and the quantification of continuous and biophysically relevant land cover properties in the flux footprint of each observation. A machine learning technique is then employed to extract and quantify the functional relationships between the methane flux observations and the meteorological and biophysical drivers in the flux footprints. Lastly, the resulting ERFs are used to extrapolate the methane release over spatio-temporally explicit grids of the Alaskan North Slope. Metzger et al. (2013) have demonstrated the efficacy of this technique for regionalizing airborne EC heat flux observations to within an accuracy of ≤18% and a precision of ≤5%. Here, we show for the first time results from applying the ERF procedure to airborne methane EC measurements, and report its potential for spatio-temporally explicit inventories of the regional-scale methane exchange. References: Metzger, S., Junkermann, W., Mauder, M., Butterbach-Bahl, K., Trancón y Widemann, B., Neidl, F., Schäfer, K., Wieneke, S., Zheng, X. H., Schmid, H. P., and Foken, T.: Spatially explicit regionalization of airborne flux measurements using environmental response functions, Biogeosciences, 10, 2193-2217, doi:10.5194/bg-10-2193-2013, 2013.

  13. Passive hyporheic flux meter - measuring nitrate flux to the reactive sites in the river bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Julia Vanessa; Borchardt, Dietrich; Rode, Michael; Annable, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Most European lowland rivers are afflicted by high nitrate loads, modified morphology and discharge regulations, resulting in restricted capacity to retain nitrate. In those nutrient saturated rivers, sediment bound denitrification is the only process by which nitrate is removed from the system. Despite the importance of the hyporheic zone in nutrient reduction we are lacking detailed information on the transport to and retention at those reactive sites. Passive flux meters have successfully been used to measure contaminant transport to aquifers (eg Cho and Annable 2007). Here we present how a modification of those samplers can be used to quantify nitrate flux to and intermediate storage patterns in the interstices of an agriculturally impacted river. Installed in the river bed sediments, water flux and nutrient quantities passing through the device are recorded. While the amount of water flux serves as an index for connectivity of the hyporheic zone (exchange surface-subsurface water) the nitrate flux through the device can be seen as the portion of nitrate subjected to denitrification. The generated data on solute behavior in hyporheic zones are the missing puzzle to in-stream nitrate dynamics. Complementing flume and tracer experiments our approach depicts how discharge, morphology and sediment characteristics control the denitrification rate via the connectivity of the hyporheic zone. Passive hyporheic flux meter are a novel method to directly asses the quantity of removed nitrate by an in situ experiment.

  14. Measurement and modelling of methane fluxes from UK peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, P. E.; Gray, A.

    2012-12-01

    Nearly 5000 chamber measurements of CH4 flux were collated from 21 sites across the UK, covering a range of soil and vegetation types, to derive a parsimonious model that explains as much of the variability as possible, with the least input requirements. Less than half of the observed variability in instantaneous fluxes could be explained by the independent variables measured. Measurement error is one reason for this, and here we analyse several of the uncertainties inherent in these measurements, including the choice of model used to calculate the flux. Other reasons include the stochastic nature of some of the transport processes and the poor correspondence between the independent variables measured and the actual variables influencing the processes underlying methane production, transport and oxidation. Alternative measurement methods are considered which may circumvent some of these problems. When temporal variation was removed, and the fluxes averaged at larger spatial scales, simple models explained up to ~75 % of the variance in CH4 fluxes. Soil carbon, peat depth, soil moisture and pH together provided the best sub-set of explanatory variables. To estimate the impact of changes in peatland water table on CH4 emissions in the UK, an emission factor of +0.4 g CH4 m-2 y-1 per cm increase in water table was derived from the data. As an alternative approach, vegetation species composition provides a long-term integrator of environmental conditions, which may correlate with methane flux. Here, we used a "weighted averaging" approach to predict methane flux from plant species composition at a range of sites in the UK, continental Europe and Canada. Species were classified into functional groups, defined by a number of qualitative traits considered relevant to methane dynamics. We compared the results based on this functional classification with those based on the original species composition data with a purely taxonomic classification.

  15. Flux and brightness calculations for various synchrotron radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.M.; Hulbert, S.L.

    1991-11-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) storage rings are powerful scientific and technological tools. The first generation of storage rings in the US., e.g., SURF (Washington, D.C.), Tantalus (Wisconsin), SSRL (Stanford), and CHESS (Cornell), revolutionized VUV, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray science. The second (present) generation of storage rings, e.g. the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings and Aladdin (Wisconsin), have sustained the revolution by providing higher stored currents and up to a factor of ten smaller electron beam sizes than the first generation sources. This has made possible a large number of experiments that could not performed using first generation sources. In addition, the NSLS XRAY ring design optimizes the performance of wigglers (high field periodic magnetic insertion devices). The third generation storage rings, e.g. ALS (Berkeley) and APS (Argonne), are being designed to optimize the performance of undulators (low field periodic magnetic insertion devices). These extremely high brightness sources will further revolutionize x-ray science by providing diffraction-limited x-ray beams. The output of undulators and wigglers is distinct from that of bending magnets in magnitude, spectral shape, and in spatial and angular size. Using published equations, we have developed computer programs to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness output bending magnets and selected wigglers and undulators of the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings, the Advanced Light Source (ALS), and the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Following is a summary of the equations used, the graphs and data produced, and the computer codes written. These codes, written in the C programming language, can be used to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness curves for bending magnets and insertion devices on any storage ring.

  16. Solar and thermal radiation in Jupiter's atmosphere: initial results of the Galileo probe net flux radiometer.

    PubMed

    Sromovsky, L A; Best, F A; Collard, A D; Fry, P M; Revercomb, H E; Freedman, R S; Orton, G S; Hayden, J L; Tomasko, M G; Lemmon, M T

    1996-05-10

    The Galileo probe net flux radiometer measured radiation within Jupiter's atmosphere over the 125-kilometer altitude range between pressures of 0.44 bar and 14 bars. Evidence for the expected ammonia cloud was seen in solar and thermal channels down to 0.5 to 0.6 bar. Between 0.6 and 10 bars large thermal fluxes imply very low gaseous opacities and provide no evidence for a deep water cloud. Near 8 bars the water vapor abundance appears to be about 10 percent of what would be expected for a solar abundance of oxygen. Below 8 bars, measurements suggest an increasing water abundance with depth or a deep cloud layer. Ammonia appears to follow a significantly subsaturated profile above 3 bars. Unexpectedly high absorption of sunlight was found at wavelengths greater than 600 nanometers. PMID:8629018

  17. A method for obtaining distributed surface flux measurements in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, M. H.; Pardyjak, E.; Nadeau, D. F.; Barrenetxea, G.; Brutsaert, W. H.; Parlange, M. B.

    2011-12-01

    Sonic anemometers and gas analyzers can be used to measure fluxes of momentum, heat, and moisture over flat terrain, and with the proper corrections, over sloping terrain as well. While this method of obtaining fluxes is currently the most accurate available, the instruments themselves are costly, making installation of many stations impossible for most campaign budgets. Small, commercial automatic weather stations (Sensorscope) are available at a fraction of the cost of sonic anemometers or gas analyzers. Sensorscope stations use slow-response instruments to measure standard meteorological variables, including wind speed and direction, air temperature, humidity, surface skin temperature, and incoming solar radiation. The method presented here makes use of one sonic anemometer and one gas analyzer along with a dozen Sensorscope stations installed throughout the Val Ferret catchment in southern Switzerland in the summers of 2009, 2010 and 2011. Daytime fluxes are calculated using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory in conjunction with the surface energy balance at each Sensorscope station as well as at the location of the sonic anemometer and gas analyzer, where a suite of additional slow-response instruments were co-located. Corrections related to slope angle were made for wind speeds and incoming shortwave radiation measured by the horizontally-mounted cup anemometers and incoming solar radiation sensors respectively. A temperature correction was also applied to account for daytime heating inside the radiation shield on the slow-response temperature/humidity sensors. With these corrections, we find a correlation coefficient of 0.77 between u* derived using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory and that of the sonic anemometer. Calculated versus measured heat fluxes also compare well and local patterns of latent heat flux and measured surface soil moisture are correlated.

  18. Field Comparison of Methods for Measuring Soil CO2 Flux

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of techniques are available for measurement of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) flux in the field, and each method has inherent advantages and disadvantages. On five dates in October, 2005 we measured soil CO2 emissions in a central Iowa soybean field using: i)eddy covariance, ii)a commercially a...

  19. Uncertainties Associated with Flux Measurements Due to Heterogeneous Contaminant Distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass flux and mass discharge measurements at contaminated sites have been applied to assist with remedial management, and can be divided into two broad categories: point-scale measurement techniques and pumping methods. Extrapolation across un-sampled space is necessary when usi...

  20. Arctic ocean radiative fluxes and cloud forcing estimated from the ISCCP C2 cloud dataset, 1983-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweiger, Axel J.; Key, Jeffrey R.

    1994-01-01

    Radiative fluxes and cloud forcings for the ocean areas of the Arctic are computed from the monthly cloud product of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for 1983-90. Spatially averaged short-wave fluxes are compared well with climatological values, while downwelling longwave fluxes are significantly lower. This is probably due to the fact that the ISCCP cloud amounts are underestimates. Top-of-the-atmosphere radiative fluxes are in excellent agreement with measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Computed cloud forcings indicate that clouds have a warming effect at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere during winter and a cooling effect during summer. The net radiative effect of clouds is larger at the surface during winter but greater at the top of the atmosphere during summer. Overall the net radiative effect of clouds at the top of the atmosphere is one of cooling. This is in contrast to a previous result from ERBE data showing arctic cloud forcings have a net warming effect. Sensitivities to errors in input parameters are generally greater during winter with cloud amount being the most important paarameter. During summer the surface radiation balance is most sensitive to errors in the measurements of surface reflectance. The results are encouraging, but the estimated error of 20 W/sq m in surface net radiative fluxes is too large, given that estimates of the net radiative warming effect due to a doubling of CO2 are on the order of 4 W/sq m. Because it is difficult to determine the accuracy of results with existing in situ observations, it is recommended that the development of improved algorithms for the retrieval of surface radiative properties be accompanied by the simultaneous assembly of validation datasets.

  1. Studies of the net surface radiative flux from satellite radiances during FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the net surface radiative flux from satellite radiances during First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) are presented. Topics covered include: radiative transfer model validation; calibration of VISSR and AVHRR solar channels; development and refinement of algorithms to estimate downward solar and terrestrial irradiances at the surface, including photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) and surface albedo; verification of these algorithms using in situ measurements; production of maps of shortwave irradiance, surface albedo, and related products; analysis of the temporal variability of shortwave irradiance over the FIFE site; development of a spectroscopy technique to estimate atmospheric total water vapor amount; and study of optimum linear combinations of visible and near-infrared reflectances for estimating the fraction of PAR absorbed by plants.

  2. Measurements of x-ray spectral flux of high brightness undulators by gas scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ilinski, P.; Yun, W.; Lai, B.; Gluskin, E.; Cai, Z. )

    1995-02-01

    Absolute radiation flux and polarization measurements of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) undulators may have to be made under high thermal loading conditions. A method that may circumvent the high-heat-load problem was tested during a recent APS/CHESS undulator run. The technique makes use of a Si(Li) energy-dispersive detector to measure 5--35 keV x rays scattered from a well-defined He gas volume at controlled pressure.

  3. Intercomparison of gas analyzers for methane flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapanala, S.; Rinne, J.; Vesala, T.

    2010-12-01

    Four gas analyzers, capable of measuring methane concentration at a response time necessary for eddy covariance flux measurements, were operated in parallel for about six months between March and August 2010. Their reliability, need of maintenance, user friendliness, data coverage, and data quality were evaluated. The primary aim of this campaign was to provide an instrumentation suggestion for the European Research Infrastructure ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System). The instruments used were TGA100A (Campbell Scientific Inc.), RMT-200 (Los Gatos Research Inc.) , G1301-f (Picarro Inc.), and LI-7700 (Li-Cor Inc.). The last one, LI-7700, was a prototype of a later commercialized open path analyzer. The other instruments were closed path analyzers. The measurement site is an oligotrophic open fen Siikaneva, located in southern Finland. The site provides spatially quite uniform methane flux within the footprint. The methane flux rises in the spring, peaks in early August and falls down during the autumn. This provides excellent opportunity to study the performance of the analyzers at different CH4 flux levels from near zero up to about 5 mg m-2 h-1. The preliminary results show great similarity among the instruments in both concentrations and fluxes. Detailed numbers of the measurement characteristics will be provided later. The reliability and need of maintenance are difficult to evaluate quantitatively during that short period.

  4. Critical Considerations for Accurate Soil CO2 Flux Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Furtaw, M.; Madsen, R.; Welles, J.; Demetriades-Shah, T.; Anderson, D.; Garcia, R.; McDermitt, D.

    2005-12-01

    Soil respiration is a significant component of the carbon balance for an ecosystem, but the environmental (soil moisture, rain event, temperature etc.) and biological (photosynthesis, LAI etc.) factors that contribute to soil respiration remain poorly understood. This limits our ability to understand the carbon budget at the ecosystem level making it difficult to predict the impacts of climate change. Two important reasons for this poor understanding have been the difficulty in making accurate soil respiration measurements and the lack of continuous and long-term soil respiration data at sufficiently fine temporal and spatial scales. To meet these needs, we have developed a new automated multiplexing system, the LI-8100M, for obtaining reliable soil CO2 flux data at high spatial and temporal resolution. The system has the capability to continuously measure the soil CO2 flux at up to 16 locations. Soil CO2 flux is driven primarily by the CO2 diffusion gradient across the soil surface. Ideally, the flux measurement should be made without affecting the diffusion gradient and without having any chamber-induced pressure perturbation. In a closed-chamber system the slope of dCO2/dt is required to compute the flux. To obtain the slope of dCO2/dt, the chamber CO2 concentration must be allowed to rise. Consequently, soil CO2 flux will be affected because of the decreased CO2 diffusion gradient. To minimize the impact of decreased CO2 diffusion gradient on CO2 flux measurement in LI-8100M, the chamber CO2 concentration versus time is fitted with an exponential function. Soil CO2 flux is then estimated by calculating the initial slope from the exponential function at time zero when the chamber touches the soil, and that is when the chamber CO2 concentration is equal to the ambient. Our results show that the flux estimated from a linear function, the widely used method, could underestimate CO2 flux by more than 10% as compared with that from the exponential function. An improperly designed chamber may have the problem of chamber-induced pressure perturbation during the measurement under windy conditions, due to the Venturi effect. This could lead to magnitude high overestimation of the flux. We present a new vent chamber design capable of maintaining pressure equilibrium between the inside and outside of the chamber under both calm and windy conditions. Field data demonstrate that our new vent design can effectively maintain the chamber pressure equilibrium under both calm and windy conditions, so the measured flux rate represents that occurring outside the chamber. Lastly, we will present the spatial variability of CO2 flux from agricultural fields and natural ecosystems obtained with our new LI-8100M system and discuss the number of measurements needed to have reliable mean flux rates.

  5. FT-IR measurements of emissivity and temperature during high flux solar processing

    SciTech Connect

    Markham, J.R.; Smith, W.W.; Haigis, J.R.

    1996-02-01

    The experimental capability to generate and utilize concentrated solar flux has been demonstrated at a number of facilities in the US. To advance this research area, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has designed and constructed a versatile High Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF). Research is ongoing in areas of material processing, high temperature and UV enhanced detoxification, chemical synthesis, high flux optics, solar pumped lasers, and high heating rate processes. Surface modifications via concentrated solar flux, however, are currently performed without the means to accurately monitor the temperature of the surface of interest. Thermoelectric and pyrometric devices are not accurate due to limitations in surface contact and knowledge of surface emissivity, respectively, as well as interference contributed by the solar flux. In this article, the authors present a noncontact optical technique that simultaneously measures the directional spectral emissivity, and temperature of the surface during solar processing. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer is coupled to a processing chamber at NREL`s HFSF with a fiber-optic radiation transfer assembly. The system measures directional emission and hemispherical-directional reflectance in a spectral region that lacks contribution from solar flux. From these radiative property measurements during solar processing, the spectral emittance and temperature at the measurement point can be obtained. The methodology, validation measurements, and in-situ measurements during solar processing of materials are presented. Knowledge of surface temperature during solar processing is an important parameter for process control. Based on validation measurements for spectral emittance, the temperature error associated with the novel instrument is less than {+-} 5% for surfaces of mid-range emittance.

  6. Sampling errors in the vertical fluxes of potential temperature and moisture measured by aircraft during FIFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Robert L.

    1992-11-01

    The First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) was carried out over a 15 × 15 km area in central Kansas [Sellers et al., this issue]. The site size was constrained by land use characteristics, topography, and, importantly, the ability to field a reasonable network of surface observations of plant physiology, soil moisture, and radiative characteristics as well as surface observations of meteorological observations, including vertical fluxes of sensible heat and moisture. As described by Kelly [this issue], aircraft flying within the atmospheric boundary layer over the FIFE site played an important role: they provided direct measurements of the vertical fluxes of sensible heat and moisture above the FIFE site. Potential temperature flux and sensible heat flux differ by the constant ρdcp, where ρd is the dry air density (which is nearly constant in the atmospheric boundary layer) and cp is the specific heat of dry air at constant pressure.

  7. Radiation measurement on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Akopova, A B; Manaseryan, M M; Melkonyan, A A; Tatikyan, S Sh; Potapov, Yu

    2005-02-01

    The results of an investigation of radiation environment on board the ISS with apogee/perigee of 420/380 km and inclination 51.6 degrees are presented. For measurement of important characteristics of cosmic rays (particles fluxes, LET spectrum, equivalent doses and heavy ions with Z > or = 2) a nuclear photographic emulsion as a controllable threshold detector was used. The use of this detector permits a registration of the LET spectrum of charged particles within wide range of dE/dx and during the last years it has already been successfully used on board the MIR station, Space Shuttles and "Kosmos" spacecrafts. An integral LET spectrum was measured in the range 0.5-2.2 x 10(3) keV/micrometers and the value of equivalent dose 360 microSv/day was estimated. The flux of biologically dangerous heavy particles with Z > or = 2 was measured (3.85 x 10(3) particles/cm2). PMID:15856556

  8. Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. C. (Editor)

    1963-01-01

    The overall objectives of the Symposium were to afford (1) an opportunity for workers in the field to describe the equipment and procedures currently in use for measuring thermal radiation properties of solids, (2) an opportunity for constructive criticism of the material presented, and (3) an open forum for discussion of mutual problems. It was also the hope of the sponsors that the published proceedings of the Symposium would serve as a valuable reference on measurement techniques for evaluating thermal radiation properties of solids, partic.ularly for those with limited experience in the field. Because of the strong dependence of emitted flux upon temperature, the program committee thought it advisable to devote the first session to a discussion of the problems of temperature measurement. All of the papers in Session I were presented at the request of and upon topics suggested by the Committee. Because of time and space limitations, it, was impossible to consider all temperature measurement problems that might arise--the objective was rather to call to the attention of the reader some of the problems that might be encountered, and to provide references that might provide solutions.

  9. Radiation budget measurement/model interface research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    The NIMBUS 6 data were analyzed to form an up to date climatology of the Earth radiation budget as a basis for numerical model definition studies. Global maps depicting infrared emitted flux, net flux and albedo from processed NIMBUS 6 data for July, 1977, are presented. Zonal averages of net radiation flux for April, May, and June and zonal mean emitted flux and net flux for the December to January period are also presented. The development of two models is reported. The first is a statistical dynamical model with vertical and horizontal resolution. The second model is a two level global linear balance model. The results of time integration of the model up to 120 days, to simulate the January circulation, are discussed. Average zonal wind, meridonal wind component, vertical velocity, and moisture budget are among the parameters addressed.

  10. Calorimeter probes for measuring high thermal flux. [in arc jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    Expendable, slug-type calorimeter probes were developed for measuring high heat-flux levels of 10-30 kW/sq cm in electric-arc jet facilities. The probes were constructed with thin tungsten caps mounted on Teflon bodies. The temperature of the back surface of the tungsten cap is measured, and its time rate of change gives the steady-state absorbed heat flux as the calorimeter probe heats to destruction when inserted into the arc jet. Design, construction, test, and performance data are presented.

  11. On the Measurement of Soil Heat Flux to Improve Estimates of Energy Balance Closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, J. M.

    2001-12-01

    Measurements of soil heat flux (G) are required to test for energy balance closure at many fluxnet locations. Data quality is often evaluated by comparing total available energy, composed of net radiation (Rn) and G, to the sum of latent (LE) and sensible (H) heat fluxes as measured by eddy covariance. Unfortunately, G often receives minimal attention during an experiment because other flux terms (e.g., Rn and LE) are larger or require more complex instrumentation. However, G at certain time periods can account for 10 to 30 percent of Rn, especially beneath short vegetation. Thus, errors in G can confound energy closure tests and lead to erroneous conclusions about of eddy covariance performance. Research was conducted to evaluate difference methods for automating and improving measurements of G. Automated soil heat capacity sensors were combined with heat flux plates to measure conduction and changes in heat storage at different position in the soil profile. The heat capacity sensors were also used to measure soil water content and soil temperature. Data were collected beneath turfgrass, a tallgrass prairie and a juniperous forest. Field results and numerical models were used to study the best sensor configuration and data analysis algorithms. Practical guidelines for measuring and calculating soil heat flux will be presented.

  12. Methane gas flux measurements in the northern Alaskan coastal tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikawa, H.; Oechel, W. C.; Murphy, P.; Wilkman, E.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are the largest source of CH4 globally. Ongoing climate changes will subject to change CH4 emission through hydrological and climatological processes. The changes are particularly prominent in the Arctic ecosystem which is responsible for more than 10 % of the global CH4 emission from wetlands. However, whether CH4 emission in response to predicted environments will increase or decrease is not well-known. Uncertainty in understanding CH4 emission is also attributed to the fact that majority of CH4 flux measurements were conducted with chamber methods that potentially overestimate CH4 flux due to the artificial disturbance. Therefore, it is important to examine how CH4 flux responds to environmental processes with the least disturbance. In this study, CH4 flux from the wet coastal tundra in Alaska was measured with the eddy covariance technique using the open path gas analyzer (LI-7700, Li-Cor) that has recently become available commercially. The study site was located at the long-term CO2 flux monitoring site (CMDL) in Barrow Alaska, and the methane sensor was installed in June, 2012. Preliminary results show that a large efflux of CH4 of 165 mgCH4m-2day-1 on average within several days from June 30 to July 9, while CO2 flux was nearly balanced. The magnitude of the efflux is about few orders higher than CH4 flux observed in the vicinity of the measurement sites [Rhew et al., 2007; Zona et al., 2009; Sturtevant et al., 2011]. The development of the data collection for a longer term as well as further correlation analysis with environmental data has been undergoing. Acknowledgement: We acknowledge CARVE, DOE and UMIAQ for supporting our research.

  13. Densitometric tomography using the measurement of muon flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hivert, F.; Busto, J.; Brunner, J.; Salin, P.; Gaffet, S.

    2013-12-01

    The knowledge of the subsurface properties is essentially obtained by geophysical methods, e.g. seismic imaging, electric prospection or gravimetry. The present work develops a recent method to investigate the in situ density of rocks using atmospheric the muon flux measurement , its attenuation depending on the rock density and thickness. This new geophysical technique have been mainly applied in volcanology (Lesparre N., 2011) using scintillator detectors. The present project (T2DM2) aims to realize underground muons flux measurements in order to characterizing the rock massif density variations above the LSBB underground research facility in Rustrel (France). The muon flux will be measure with a new Muon telescope instrumentation using Micromegas detectors in Time Projection Chambers (TPC) configuration. The first step of the work presented considers the muon flux simulation using the Gaisser model, for the interactions between muons and atmospheric particles, and the MUSIC code (Kudryavtsev V. A., 2008) for the muons/rock interactions. The results show that the muon flux attenuation caused by density variations are enough significant to be observed until around 500 m depth and for period of time in the order of one month. Such a duration scale and depth of investigation is compatible with the duration of the water transfer processes involved within the Karst unsaturated zone where LSBB is located. Our work now concentrates on the optimization of the spatial distribution of detectors that will be deployed in future.

  14. Measuring diffuse neutrino fluxes with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Marek

    2005-05-01

    In this paper the sensitivity of a future kilometre-sized neutrino detector to detect and measure the diffuse flux of high energy neutrinos is evaluated. Event rates in established detection channels, such as muon events from charged current νμ interactions or cascade events from νe and ντ interaction, are calculated using a detailed Monte Carlo simulation. Neutrino fluxes as expected from prompt charm decay in the atmosphere or from astrophysical sources such as Active Galactic Nuclei are modelled assuming power laws. The ability to measure the normalization and slope of these spectra is then analysed. It is found that the cascade channel generally has a high sensitivity for the detection and characterization of the diffuse flux, when compared to what is expected for the upgoing- and downgoing-muon channels. A flux at the level of the Waxman Bahcall upper bound should be detectable in all channels separately while a combination of the information of the different channels will allow detection of a flux more than one order of magnitude lower. Neutrinos from the prompt decay of charmed mesons in the atmosphere should be detectable in future measurements for all but the lowest predictions.

  15. High heat flux measurements and experimental calibrations/characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, Carl T.

    1992-01-01

    Recent progress in techniques employed in the measurement of very high heat-transfer rates in reentry-type facilities at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is described. These advances include thermal analyses applied to transducer concepts used to make these measurements; improved heat-flux sensor fabrication methods, equipment, and procedures for determining the experimental time response of individual sensors; performance of absolute heat-flux calibrations at levels above 2,000 Btu/cu ft-sec (2.27 kW/cu cm); and innovative methods of performing in-situ run-to-run characterizations of heat-flux probes installed in the test facility. Graphical illustrations of the results of extensive thermal analyses of the null-point calorimeter and coaxial surface thermocouple concepts with application to measurements in aerothermal test environments are presented. Results of time response experiments and absolute calibrations of null-point calorimeters and coaxial thermocouples performed in the laboratory at intermediate to high heat-flux levels are shown. Typical AEDC high-enthalpy arc heater heat-flux data recently obtained with a Calspan-fabricated null-point probe model are included.

  16. TRAPPED PROTON FLUXES AT LOW EARTH ORBITS MEASURED BY THE PAMELA EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Adriani, O.; Bongi, M.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Bruno, A.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Carbone, R.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bottai, S.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; De Donato, C.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Felice, V. Di; Castellini, G.; and others

    2015-01-20

    We report an accurate measurement of the geomagnetically trapped proton fluxes for kinetic energy above ∼70 MeV performed by the PAMELA mission at low Earth orbits (350 ÷ 610 km). Data were analyzed in the frame of the adiabatic theory of charged particle motion in the geomagnetic field. Flux properties were investigated in detail, providing a full characterization of the particle radiation in the South Atlantic Anomaly region, including locations, energy spectra, and pitch angle distributions. PAMELA results significantly improve the description of the Earth's radiation environment at low altitudes, placing important constraints on the trapping and interaction processes, and can be used to validate current trapped particle radiation models.

  17. Comparison of Different Global Information Sources Used in Surface Radiative Flux Calculation: Radiative Properties of the Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Yuanchong; Rossow, William B.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Direct estimates of surface radiative fluxes that resolve regional and weather-scale variabilty over the whole globe with reasonable accuracy have only become possible with the advent of extensive global, mostly satellite, datasets within the past couple of decades. The accuracy of these fluxes, estimated to be about 10-15 W per square meter is largely limited by the accuracy of the input datasets. The leading uncertainties in the surface fluxes are no longer predominantly induced by clouds but are now as much associated with uncertainties in the surface and near-surface atmospheric properties. This study presents a fuller, more quantitative evaluation of the uncertainties for the surface albedo and emissivity and surface skin temperatures by comparing the main available global datasets from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer product, the NASA Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Surface Radiation Budget project, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, NOAA/NASA Pathfinder Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer project, NOAA Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Image project. The datasets are, in practice, treated as an ensemble of realizations of the actual climate such that their differences represent an estimate of the uncertainty in their measurements because we do not possess global truth datasets for these quantities. The results are globally representative and may be taken as a generalization of our previous ISCCP-based uncertainty estimates for the input datasets. Surface properties have the primary role in determining the surface upward shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) flux. From this study, the following conclusions are obtained. Although land surface albedos in the near near-infrared remain poorly constrained (highly uncertain), they do not cause too much error in total surface SW fluxes; the more subtle regional and seasonal variations associated with vegetation and snow are still on doubt. The uncertainty of the broadband black-sky SW albedo for land surface from this study is about 7%, which can easily induce 5-10 W per square meter uncertainty in (upwelling) surface SW flux estimates. Even though available surface (broadband) LW emissivity datasets differ significantly (3%-5% uncertainty), this disagreement is confined to wavelengths greater than 20 micrometers so that there is little practical effect (1-3 W per square meters) on the surface upwelling LW fluxes. The surface skin temperature is one of two leading factors that cause problems with surface LW fluxes. Even though the differences among the various datasets are generally only 2-4 K, this can easily cause 10-15 W per square meter uncertainty in calculated surface (upwelling) LW fluxes. Significant improvements could be obtained for surface LW flux calculations by improving the retrievals of (in order of decreasing importance): (1) surface skin temperature, (2) surface air and near-surface-layer temperature, (3) column precipitable water amount and (4) broadband emissivity. And for surface SW fluxes, improvements could be obtained (excluding improved cloud treatment) by improving the retrievals of (1) aerosols (from our sensitivity studies but not discussed in this work), and (2) surface (black-sky) albedo, of which, NIR part of the spectrum has much larger uncertainty.

  18. Direct Measurement of Turbulent Particle and Gas Fluxes by Eddy Covariance Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, F.; Griessbaum, F.; Tsukamoto, O.; Uematsu, M.

    2010-12-01

    Direct Measurement of Turbulent Particle and Gas Fluxes by Eddy Covariance Technique Fumiyoshi KONDO (The University of Tokyo) Frank GRIESSBAUM (Universität Münster) Osamu TSUKAMOTO (Okayama University) Mitsuo UEMATSU (The University of Tokyo) The oceans play major key roles in global energy transport, element cycles, and atmospheric radiation balance. The study of the processes at the interface of ocean and atmosphere is essential to develop profound understanding of the mechanisms driving ocean-atmosphere interaction and climate. Eddy covariance technique is the only direct measurement of air-sea particle and gas fluxes. This technique has little assumption (constant flux layer and steady state), and may evaluate small spatial and temporal particle and gas fluxes. For these reasons, we hope that the eddy covariance technique investigates uncertain processes that control the air-sea particle (aerosol) and gas (CO2) fluxes. The understanding of processes controlling both the CO2 uptake to the ocean and the oceans as major source of aerosols is vital for quantifying the role of the global oceans in the climate system. We developed the simultaneous measurement system of turbulent particle and gas fluxes by eddy covariance technique and installed with ship motion correction system on the top of the foremast of R/V Hakuho-Maru and Mirai. The turbulent flux system on the top of the foremast consisted of a sonic anemometer-thermometer (Gill, HS-50), an infrared CO2/H2O gas analyzer (LI-COR, LI-7500), a water-based condensation particle counter (TSI, WCPC3785), and Fog Monitor (Droplet Measurement, FM-100). The ship motion correction system consisted of a three-axis accelerometer and a three-axis rate gyro (Systron Donner, MotionPak II). The sonic anemometer measures three-dimensional wind components relative to the ship including apparent wind velocity due to the ship motion. Then, the ship motion correction system measures the ship motions by time integral of accelerometer and rate gyro. The turbulent flux system on the top of the foremast is capable to simultaneously measure the turbulent flux of the CO2 and H2O gases, fine aerosols (5 nm - 3 μm diameters), and fog water droplets (2 μm - 50 μm diameters). Analog and digital output signals from both systems are sampled at 10 Hz by a PC-based data logging systems. In this study, we will present the direct flux measurement system and discuss results of air-sea particle and CO2 fluxes directly evaluated by the eddy covariance technique over the open ocean.

  19. Low Permafrost Methane Emissions from Arctic Airborne Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, T.; Serafimovich, A.; Metzger, S.; Kohnert, K.; Hartmann, J.

    2014-12-01

    One of the most pressing questions with regard to climate feedback processes in a warming Arctic is the regional-scale greenhouse gas release from Arctic permafrost areas. Ground-based eddy covariance (EC) measurements provide continuous in-situ observations of the surface-atmosphere exchange of energy and matter. However, these observations are rare in the Arctic permafrost zone and site selection is bound by logistical constraints among others. Consequently, these observations cover only small areas that are not necessarily representative of the region of interest. Airborne measurements can overcome this limitation by covering distances of hundreds of kilometers over time periods of a few hours. The Airborne Measurements of Methane Fluxes (AIRMETH) campaigns are designed to quantitatively and spatially explicitly address this question. During the AIRMETH-2012 and AIRMETH-2013 campaigns aboard the research aircraft POLAR 5 we measured turbulent exchange of energy, methane, and (in 2013) carbon dioxide along thousands of kilometers covering the North Slope of Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta, Canada. Time-frequency (wavelet) analysis, footprint modeling, and machine learning techniques are used to (i) determine spatially resolved turbulence statistics, fluxes, and contributions of biophysical surface properties, and (ii) extract regionally valid functional relationships between environmental drivers and the observed fluxes. These environmental response functions (ERF) are used to explain spatial flux patterns and - if drivers are available in temporal resolution - allow for spatio-temporal scaling of the observations. This presentation will focus on 2012 methane fluxes on the North Slope of Alaska and the relevant processes on the regional scale and provide an updated 100 m resolution methane flux map of the North Slope of Alaska.

  20. A mobile detector for measurements of the atmospheric muon flux in underground sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrica, Bogdan; Margineanu, Romul; Stoica, Sabin; Petcu, Mirel; Brancus, Iliana; Jipa, Alexandru; Lazanu, Ionel; Sima, Octavian; Haungs, Andreas; Rebel, Heinigerd; Petre, Marian; Toma, Gabriel; Saftoiu, Alexandra; Stanca, Denis; Apostu, Ana; Gomoiu, Claudia

    2011-10-01

    Muons comprise an important contribution of the natural radiation dose in air (approx. 30 nSv/h of a total dose rate of 65-130 nSv/h), as well as in underground sites even when the flux and relative contribution are significantly reduced. The flux of muons observed underground can be used as an estimator for the depth in mwe (meter water equivalent) of the underground site. The water equivalent depth is important information to devise physics experiments feasible for a specific site. A mobile detector for performing measurements of the muon flux was developed in IFIN-HH, Bucharest. Consisting of two scintillator plates (approx. 0.9 m2) which measure in coincidence, the detector is installed on a van which facilitates measurements at different locations at the surface or underground. The detector was used to determine muon fluxes at different sites in Romania. In particular, data were taken and the values of meter water equivalents were assessed for several locations at the salt mine in Slanic-Prahova, Romania. The measurements have been performed in two different galleries of the Slanic mine at different depths. In order to test the stability of the method, also measurements of the muon flux at the surface at different elevations were performed. The results were compared with predictions of Monte-Carlo simulations using the CORSIKA and MUSIC codes.

  1. Jupiter's radiation belts. [electron and proton flux computations for radio generations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, K. G.; White, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Fluxes of electrons and protons in Jupiter's radiation belts are calculated with the source (radial diffusion inward from the solar wind) and the loss (synchroton radiation). The calculations are tested against the measured radio-wave wavelength distribution, the radio-wave distribution with distance from Jupiter, and the degree of polarization of the radio waves. The Fokker-Planck equation is solved by using the method of Farley and Walt (1971) with the fixed flux at the outer boundary and the zero flux at Jupiter's surface. It is found, in agreement with Brice and McDonough (1973), Jacques and Davis (1973), and Birmingham et al. (1974), that the usual magnetic and electric diffusions, which vary as L to the 10th power and L to the 6th power, respectively, are insufficient to furnish the required electrons and that the diffusion driven by ionospheric winds of Brice and McDonough is strong enough to furnish Jupiter's belts. An additional loss mechanism close to Jupiter is required to remove the electrons, particularly those at low energies.

  2. Multiple-Point Mass Flux Measurement System Using Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.; Clem, Michelle M.

    2009-01-01

    A multiple-point Rayleigh scattering diagnostic is being developed to provide mass flux measurements in gas flows. Spectroscopic Rayleigh scattering is an established flow diagnostic that has the ability to provide simultaneous density, temperature, and velocity measurements. Rayleigh scattered light from a focused 18 Watt continuous-wave laser beam is directly imaged through a solid Fabry-Perot etalon onto a CCD detector which permits spectral analysis of the light. The spatial resolution of the measurements is governed by the locations of interference fringes, which can be changed by altering the etalon characteristics. A prototype system has been used to acquire data in a Mach 0.56 flow to demonstrate feasibility of using this system to provide mass flux measurements. Estimates of measurement uncertainty and recommendations for system improvements are presented

  3. Direct measurements of flux tube inclinations in solar plages.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernasconi, P. N.; Keller, C. U.; Povel, H. P.; Stenflo, J. O.

    1995-10-01

    Observations of the full Stokes vector in three spectral lines indicate that flux tubes in solar plages have an average inclination in the photosphere of 14^o^ with respect to the local vertical. Most flux tubes are inclined in the eastwards direction, i.e., opposite to the solar rotation. We have recorded the Stokes vector of the FeI 5247.1A, FeI 5250.2A, and FeI 5250.7A lines in nine different plages with the polarization-free 20cm Zeiss coronagraph at the Arosa Astrophysical Observatory of ETH Zuerich. The telescope has been modified for solar disk observations. The chosen spectral lines are particularly sensitive to magnetic field strength and temperature. To determine the field strength and geometry of the flux tubes in the observed plages we use an inversion code that numerically solves the radiative transfer equations and derives the emergent Stokes profiles for one-dimensional model atmospheres consisting of a flux tube and its surrounding non-magnetic atmosphere. Our results confirm earlier indirect estimates of the inclination of the magnetic fields in plages.

  4. IMPROVING EMISSION INVENTORIES USING DIRECT FLUX MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project uses a novel approach to measure real-world pollutant fluxes on an extended spatial and temporal scale, and to infer from those the source-specific pollutant emissions needed for a comparison to and an improvement of current emissions inventories. Air pollutants a...

  5. Evapotranspiration: Mass balance measurements compared with flux estimation methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) may be measured by mass balance methods and estimated by flux sensing methods. The mass balance methods are typically restricted in terms of the area that can be represented (e.g., surface area of weighing lysimeter (LYS) or equivalent representative area of neutron probe (NP...

  6. Some Recent Secondary Production Measurements for Neutrino Flux Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Geoffrey B.

    2011-12-01

    Recent measurements of meson production in proton-nucleus interactions have made possible reliable neutrino flux determinations at modern neutrino experiments. This article discusses preliminary results from the HARP, MIP, and E910 are discussed along with some of their implications for the MINOS, K2K, and MiniBooNE neutrino experiments.

  7. Airborne flux measurements of Biogenic Isoprene over California

    SciTech Connect

    Misztal, P.; Karl, Thomas G.; Weber, Robin; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2014-10-10

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a PTR-MS and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene, MVK+MAC, methanol, monoterpenes, and MBO over ~10,000-km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions of isoprene. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate "instantaneous" fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Vertical flux divergence of isoprene is expected due to its relatively short lifetime and was measured directly using "racetrack" profiles at multiple altitudes. It was found to be linear and in the range 5% to 30% depending on the ratio of aircraft altitude to PBL height (z/zi). Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently 1 at 400 m ±50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to Basal Emission Factor (BEF) landcover datasets used to drive biogenic VOC (BVOC) emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m-2 h-1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. While isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and coniferous forests were extremely low, high concentrations of methanol and monoterpenes were found above some of these regions. These observations demonstrate the ability to measure fluxes from specific sources by eddy covariance from an aircraft, and suggest the utility of measurements using fast response chemical sensors to constrain emission inventories and map out source distributions for a much broader array of trace gases than was observed in this study. This paper reports the first regional direct eddy covariance fluxes of isoprene. The emissions of VOCs measured from aircraft with 2 km spatial resolution can quantify the distribution of major sources providing the observations required for testing statewide emission inventories of these important trace gases. These measurements will be used in a future study to assess BVOC emission models and their driving variable datasets.

  8. Surface radiative fluxes over the pan-Arctic land region: Variability and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaogang; Wild, Martin; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2010-11-01

    Surface radiative fluxes are a key driver of the land surface hydrological cycle, but because in situ measurements are sparse, relatively little attention has been focused on their space-time variations. Recent satellite data and atmospheric model reanalysis products have resulted in data sets that predict most or all terms in the surface energy budget and offer the opportunity to investigate variations in surface radiative fluxes. This study contributes the NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS), which is intended to improve estimates of the terrestrial energy budget components for the hydrologic and ecological communities. We analyzed surface downward shortwave (DSW) and longwave radiation (DLW) and albedo over the pan-Arctic domain from (1) the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) 40-Year Reanalysis (ERA-40), (2) the ECMWF Interim Reanalysis (ERA-Interim), (3) the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project-Flux Data (ISCCP-FD), and (4) a Temperature Index (TIND) scheme for the period from 1984 to 2006. As compared with in situ measurements, the reanalysis products provide better estimates of the DSW diurnal cycle than do the satellite product and temperature index scheme simulation. At the regional scale, all data sets have similar temporal patterns except for DLW in ISCCP and snow season albedo. In terms of dominant spatial variability, all data sets show large variability in the pan-Arctic. In addition, DSW and DLW show a similar latitudinal gradient. However, the difference in albedo suggests a need of improvement for the reanalysis products. For a small number of stations with relatively long records, we analyzed long-term trends in DSW and found a turning point between 1985 and 1990. Before that, a dimming period exists, whereas brightening occurred thereafter.

  9. Infrared Camera Diagnostic for Heat Flux Measurements on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mastrovito; R. Maingi; H.W. Kugel; A.L. Roquemore

    2003-03-25

    An infrared imaging system has been installed on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to measure the surface temperatures on the lower divertor and center stack. The imaging system is based on an Indigo Alpha 160 x 128 microbolometer camera with 12 bits/pixel operating in the 7-13 {micro}m range with a 30 Hz frame rate and a dynamic temperature range of 0-700 degrees C. From these data and knowledge of graphite thermal properties, the heat flux is derived with a classic one-dimensional conduction model. Preliminary results of heat flux scaling are reported.

  10. A Novel Detector for High Neutron Flux Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Singo, T. D.; Wyngaardt, S. M.; Papka, P.; Dobson, R. T.

    2010-01-05

    Measuring alpha particles from a neutron induced break-up reaction with a mass spectrometer can be an excellent tool for detecting neutrons in a high neutron flux environment. Break-up reactions of {sup 6}Li and {sup 12}C can be used in the detection of slow and fast neutrons, respectively. A high neutron flux detection system that integrates the neutron energy sensitive material and helium mass spectrometer has been developed. The description of the detector configuration is given and it is soon to be tested at iThemba LABS, South Africa.

  11. Advances in Air-Sea Flux Measurement by Eddy Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomquist, Byron W.; Huebert, Barry J.; Fairall, Christopher W.; Bariteau, Ludovic; Edson, James B.; Hare, Jeffrey E.; McGillis, Wade R.

    2014-09-01

    Eddy-correlation measurements of the oceanic flux are useful for the development and validation of air-sea gas exchange models and for analysis of the marine carbon cycle. Results from more than a decade of published work and from two recent field programs illustrate the principal interferences from water vapour and motion, demonstrating experimental approaches for improving measurement precision and accuracy. Water vapour cross-sensitivity is the greatest source of error for flux measurements using infrared gas analyzers, often leading to a ten-fold bias in the measured flux. Much of this error is not related to optical contamination, as previously supposed. While various correction schemes have been demonstrated, the use of an air dryer and closed-path analyzer is the most effective way to eliminate this interference. This approach also obviates density corrections described by Webb et al. (Q J R Meteorol 106:85-100, 1980). Signal lag and frequency response are a concern with closed-path systems, but periodic gas pulses at the inlet tip provide for precise determination of lag time and frequency attenuation. Flux attenuation corrections are shown to be 5 % for a cavity ring-down analyzer (CRDS) and dryer with a 60-m inlet line. The estimated flux detection limit for the CRDS analyzer and dryer is a factor of ten better than for IRGAs sampling moist air. While ship-motion interference is apparent with all analyzers tested in this study, decorrelation or regression methods are effective in removing most of this bias from IRGA measurements and may also be applicable to the CRDS.

  12. Distributed Temperature Sensing as a tool for measuring soil heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, J.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Van De Giesen, N.; Selker, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    Soil heat flux is an important component of the surface energy balance. It is typically measured at a point using heat flux plates. Spatial patterns as well as temporal variability can be measured using Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS), in which fiber-optic cable is used as an environmental temperature sensor. Previous research has demonstrated that DTS can be used to monitor soil moisture patterns and soil thermal profiles. By using a custom-built mole-plow, fiber optic cables were installed at three depths within the top 15 centimeters of a grass plot in Delft, The Netherlands. DTS was used to measure temperatures along the cable with a spatial resolution of 1 meter and a temporal resolution 5 minutes along a cable of 84 meters length. In this cable the response of soil temperature to the diurnal cycle of net radiation was measured over three months (Passive DTS). By inverse modeling of the diffusion equation, thermal properties of the soil are determined from which soil heat flux is calculated. During several more intensive campaigns, active heating experiments (Active DTS) were also carried out. In this case, a controlled electrical pulse was applied to the stainless steel armoring on the cable. The thermal response of the cable is measured for pulses of different input power, and this is related to the thermal properties of the surrounding soil. Net radiation, thermal conductivity and sensible heat flux were also measured to quantify the surface energy balance during the intensive campaigns. Results will be presented to illustrate that DTS (Active and/or Passive) is a promising and relatively inexpensive tool to measure large scale spatial patterns in temperature, soil moisture and soil heat flux at high spatial and temporal resolution.

  13. Automatic magnetic flux measurement of micro plastic-magnetic rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingdong; Lin, Mingxing; Song, Aiwei

    2015-07-01

    Micro plastic-magnetic rotors of various sizes and shapes are widely used in industry, their magnetic flux measurement is one of the most important links in the production process, and therefore some technologies should be adopted to improve the measurement precision and efficiency. In this paper, the automatic measurement principle of micro plastic-magnetic rotors is proposed and the integration time constant and the integrator drift’s suppression and compensation in the measurement circuit are analyzed. Two other factors influencing the measurement precision are also analyzed, including the relative angles between the rotor magnetic poles and the measurement coil, and the starting point of the rotors in the coil where the measurement begins. An instrument is designed to measure the magnetic flux of the rotors. Measurement results show that the measurement error is within  ±1%, which meets the basic requirements in industry application, and the measurement efficiency is increased by 10 times, which can cut down labor cost and management cost when compared with manual measurement.

  14. Modeling variabilty in radiative fluxes on snow surfaces beneath coniferous canopies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Absorption, scattering and emission of solar and thermal radiation by coniferous canopies can have a large influence on the surface energy balance of snow in forests. The high variability of radiative fluxes in sparse or discontinuous forests cannot be captured by simple two-stream canopy radiation...

  15. Thermal Accommodation Coefficients Based on Heat-Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallis, Michael A.; Trott, Wayne M.; Torczynski, John R.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2006-11-01

    A new method to determine the thermal accommodation coefficient of gases on solid surfaces based on heat-flux measurements is presented. An experimental chamber and supporting diagnostics have been developed that allow accurate heat-flux measurements between two parallel plates. The heat flux is inferred from temperature-difference measurements across the plates using precision thermistors, where the plate temperatures are set with two carefully controlled thermal baths. The resulting heat flux is used in a recently derived semi-empirical formula to determine the thermal accommodation coefficient. This formula has the advantage of eliminating the ˜8% discrepancy between molecular simulations and the predictions of the more approximate Sherman-Lees formula used in most studies. Nitrogen, argon, and helium on stainless steel with various finishes and on other silicon-based surfaces are examined. The thermal accommodation coefficients thus determined indicate that the Maxwell gas-surface interaction model can adequately represent all of the experimental observations. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. CO2-flux measurements above the Baltic Sea at two heights: flux gradients in the surface layer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammert, A.; Ament, F.

    2015-11-01

    The estimation of CO2 exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere is essential to understand the global carbon cycle. The eddy-covariance technique offers a very direct approach to observe these fluxes. The turbulent CO2 flux is measured, as well as the sensible and latent heat flux and the momentum flux, a few meters above the ocean in the atmosphere. Assuming a constant-flux layer in the near-surface part of the atmospheric boundary layer, this flux equals the exchange flux between ocean and atmosphere. The purpose of this paper is the comparison of long-term flux measurements at two different heights above the Baltic Sea to investigate this assumption. The results are based on a 1.5-year record of quality-controlled eddy-covariance measurements. Concerning the flux of momentum and of sensible and latent heat, the constant-flux layer theory can be confirmed because flux differences between the two heights are insignificantly small more than 95 % of the time. In contrast, significant differences, which are larger than the measurement error, occur in the CO2 flux about 35 % of the time. Data used for this paper are published at http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.808714.

  17. CO2-flux measurements above the Baltic Sea at two heights: flux gradients in the surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammert, A.; Ament, F.

    2015-07-01

    The estimation of CO2 exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere is essential to understand the global carbon cycle. The eddy-covariance technique offers a very direct approach to observe these fluxes. The turbulent CO2 flux is measured as well as the sensible and latent heat flux and the momentum flux, a few meters above the ocean in the atmosphere. Assuming a constant-flux layer in the near surface part of the atmospheric boundary, this flux equals the exchange flux between ocean and atmosphere. The goal of this paper is the comparison of long-term flux measurements at two different heights above the Baltic Sea due to this assumption. The results are based on an one-and-a-half year record of quality controlled eddy covariance measurements. Concerning the flux of momentum and of sensible and latent heat, the constant-flux layer theory can be validated because flux gradients between the two heights are more than 95 % of the time insignificantly small. In contrast, significant gradients, which are larger than the measurement error, occur for the CO2 flux in nearly 35 % of the time. Data, used for this paper are published at http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.808714.

  18. Radiation measurement for plant ecophysiology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hamlyn G; Archer, Nicole; Rotenberg, Eyal; Casa, Raffaele

    2003-03-01

    The principles of radiation physics for plant ecophysiological studies are outlined with an emphasis on choosing appropriate sensors for specific purposes such as for studies of photosynthesis, UV-B damage or canopy energy balance. Remote sensing, both from the ground and from aircraft or satellites, is increasingly being used as a tool for the study of plant canopies. Therefore, relevant terminology and applications are discussed, including the use of remote sensing for the determination of canopy structural properties and the use of thermal remote sensing for the measurement of canopy temperature, for example, in energy balance studies. PMID:12598559

  19. An evaluation of RAMS radiation schemes by field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, S; Doran, J C

    1994-02-01

    At present, two radiation schemes are used in RAMS: the Mahrer and Pielke (M-P) scheme and the Chen and Cotton (C-C) scheme. The M-P scheme requires little computational expense, but does not include the radiative effects of liquid water or ice; the C-C scheme accounts for the radiative effects of liquid water and ice but is fairly expensive computationally. For simulations with clouds, the C-C scheme is obviously a better choice, but for clear sky conditions, RAMS users face a decision regarding which radiation scheme to use. It has been noted that the choice of radiation scheme may result in significantly different results for the same case. To examine the differences in the radiative fluxes and the boundary-layer structure corresponding to the two radiation schemes in RAMS we have carried out a study where Rams was used to simulate the same case with two different radiation schemes. The modeled radiative fluxes by the two schemes were then compared with the field measurements. A description of the observations and the case study, a comparison and discussion of the results, and a summary and conclusions follow.

  20. Radiation-induced swelling and softening in magnesium aluminate spinel irradiated with high-flux Cu - ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. G.; Ohmura, T.; Takeda, Y.; Matsuoka, S.; Kishimoto, N.

    2004-03-01

    Magnesium aluminate spinel of single crystal was irradiated with 60 keV Cu - at a flux up to 6.2 × 10 18 ions/m 2 s, to a total fluence of 3 × 10 20 ions/m 2, in order to study changes in hardness and step-height swelling by high-flux implantation. Hardness determined by nano-indentation measurements steeply decreased with implantation. There is a strong negative correlation between flux dependences of the hardness and the step-height swelling: the former decreases as the latter increases. The Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS)/channeling measurements showed that the spinel is not completely amorphized over the flux range in this study, and the radiation-induced softening observed is not due to amorphization. Results of optical absorbance suggested that radiation-induced point defects and their clusters on the anion sublattices of the spinel played an important role in the radiation-induced swelling under high-flux ion implantation.

  1. Measurements of solar flux density distribution on a plane receiver due to a flat heliostat

    SciTech Connect

    Elsayed, M.M.; Fathalah, K.A.; Al-Rabghi, O.M.

    1995-06-01

    An experimental facility is designed and manufactured to measure the solar flux density distribution on a central flat receiver due to a single flat heliostat. The tracking mechanism of the heliostat is controlled by two stepping motors, one for tilt angle control and the other for azimuth angle control. A x-y traversing mechanism is also designed and mounted on a vertical central receiver plane, where the solar flux density is to be measured. A miniature solar sensor is mounted on the platform of the traversing mechanism, where it is used to measure the solar flux density distribution on the receiver surface. The sensor is connected to a data acquisition card in a host computer. The two stepping motors of the heliostat tracking mechanism and the two stepping motors of the traversing mechanism are all connected to a controller card in the same host computer. A software `TOWER` is prepared to let the heliostat track the sun, move the platform of the traversing mechanism to the points of a preselected grid, and to measure the solar flux density distribution on the receiver plane. Measurements are carried out using rectangular flat mirrors of different dimensions at several distances from the central receiver. Two types of images were identified on the receiver plane - namely, apparent (or visible) and mirror-reflected radiation images. Comparison between measurements and a mathematical model validates the mathematical model. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Satellite Measurements of Solar-Induced Fluorescence Help to Constrain CO2 Fluxes in Atmospheric Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiga, Y. P.; Tadic, J.; Yadav, V.; Qui, X.; Berry, J. A.; Joiner, J.; Michalak, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    We examine the ability of satellite-based measurements of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) from GOME-2 to help explain the variability in atmospheric CO2 observations over North America. This work presents the first application where remotely sensed SIF measurements have been incorporated into a CO2 flux inversion. We utilize a geostatistical inverse modelling (GIM) framework to examine if SIF provides additional information over traditional vegetation indices in explaining the spatiotemporal patterns of CO2 flux, and if so, what is the influence of SIF on the resulting flux estimates. Results show that at the 16 day scale, SIF offers substantial information, beyond that of Leaf Area Index (LAI), fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and enhanced vegetation index (EVI), for constraining inverse-modeling estimates of CO2 flux. Inverse-modeling estimates of CO2 flux that incorporate SIF show an increase in CO2 uptake in the midwest US (temperate savanna, grasslands, and cropland) and a reduction in uptake in Canada (boreal forests) and the pacific northwest US (temperate coniferous forests) with differences occurring primarily during the peak of the growing season. These results confirm previous results from site-level studies showing an apparent increase in estimated GPP over U.S. cropland regions when using SIF to inform estimates. Additionally, this work highlights the utility of combining satellite measurements of SIF with atmospheric CO2 observations to improve our understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle.

  3. Time and Space Resolved Heat Flux Measurements During Nucleate Boiling with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yerramilli, Vamsee K.; Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Kim, Jungho

    2005-01-01

    The lack of temporally and spatially resolved measurements under nucleate bubbles has complicated efforts to fully explain pool-boiling phenomena. The objective of this current work was to acquire time and space resolved temperature distributions under nucleating bubbles on a constant heat flux surface using a microheater array with 100x 100 square microns resolution, then numerically determine the wall to liquid heat flux. This data was then correlated with high speed (greater than l000Hz) visual recordings of The bubble growth and departure from the heater surface acquired from below and from the side of the heater. The data indicate that microlayer evaporation and contact line heat transfer are not major heat transfer mechanisms for bubble growth. The dominant heat transfer mechanism appears to be transient conduction into the liquid as the liquid rewets the wall during the bubble departure process.

  4. Airborne flux measurements of biogenic isoprene over California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Karl, T.; Weber, R.; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, A. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-10-01

    Biogenic isoprene fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene over 7400 km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes of isoprene over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate instantaneous isoprene fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently at 400 m ± 50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence determined in the racetrack-stacked profiles. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to basal emission factor (BEF) land-cover data sets used to drive BVOC emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m-2 h-1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. Even though the isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and coniferous forests were extremely low, observations at the Walnut Grove tower south of Sacramento demonstrate that isoprene oxidation products from the high emitting regions in the surrounding oak woodlands accumulate at night in the residual layer above the valley and mix down into the valley in the morning. Thus, the isoprene emissions surrounding the valley have relevance for the regional photochemistry that is not immediately apparent solely from the direct emission flux distribution. This paper reports the first regional observations of fluxes from specific sources by eddy covariance from an aircraft which can finally constrain statewide isoprene emission inventories used for ozone simulations by state agencies. While previously there was no available means to constrain the biogenic models, our results provide a good understanding of what the major sources of isoprene are in California, their magnitude, and how they are distributed. This data set on isoprene fluxes will be particularly useful for evaluating potential model alternatives which will be dealt with in a separate paper to assess isoprene emission models and their driving variable data sets.

  5. Novel Sensor for the In Situ Measurement of Uranium Fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, Kirk

    2015-02-10

    The goal of this project was to develop a sensor that incorporates the field-tested concepts of the passive flux meter to provide direct in situ measures of flux for uranium and groundwater in porous media. Measurable contaminant fluxes [J] are essentially the product of concentration [C] and groundwater flux or specific discharge [q ]. The sensor measures [J] and [q] by changes in contaminant and tracer amounts respectively on a sorbent. By using measurement rather than inference from static parameters, the sensor can directly advance conceptual and computational models for field scale simulations. The sensor was deployed in conjunction with DOE in obtaining field-scale quantification of subsurface processes affecting uranium transport (e.g., advection) and transformation (e.g., uranium attenuation) at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. Project results have expanded our current understanding of how field-scale spatial variations in fluxes of uranium, groundwater and salient electron donor/acceptors are coupled to spatial variations in measured microbial biomass/community composition, effective field-scale uranium mass balances, attenuation, and stability. The coupling between uranium, various nutrients and micro flora can be used to estimate field-scale rates of uranium attenuation and field-scale transitions in microbial communities. This research focuses on uranium (VI), but the sensor principles and design are applicable to field-scale fate and transport of other radionuclides. Laboratory studies focused on sorbent selection and calibration, along with sensor development and validation under controlled conditions. Field studies were conducted at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. These studies were closely coordinated with existing SBR (formerly ERSP) projects to complement data collection. Small field tests were conducted during the first two years that focused on evaluating field-scale deployment procedures and validating sensor performance under controlled field conditions. In the third and fourth year a suite of larger field studies were conducted. For these studies, the uranium flux sensor was used with uranium speciation measurements and molecular-biological tools to characterize microbial community and active biomass at synonymous wells distributed in a large grid. These field efforts quantified spatial changes in uranium flux and field-scale rates of uranium attenuation (ambient and stimulated), uranium stability, and quantitatively assessed how fluxes and effective reaction rates were coupled to spatial variations in microbial community and active biomass. Analyses of data from these field experiments were used to generate estimates of Monod kinetic parameters that are ‘effective’ in nature and optimal for modeling uranium fate and transport at the field-scale. This project provided the opportunity to develop the first sensor that provides direct measures of both uranium (VI) and groundwater flux. A multidisciplinary team was assembled to include two geochemists, a microbiologist, and two quantitative contaminant hydrologists. Now that the project is complete, the sensor can be deployed at DOE sites to evaluate field-scale uranium attenuation, source behavior, the efficacy of remediation, and off-site risk. Because the sensor requires no power, it can be deployed at remote sites for periods of days to months. The fundamental science derived from this project can be used to advance the development of predictive models for various transport and attenuation processes in aquifers. Proper development of these models is critical for long-term stewardship of contaminated sites in the context of predicting uranium source behavior, remediation performance, and off-site risk.

  6. Measurement of a surface heat flux and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. M.; Antoine, G. J.; Diller, T. E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Heat Flux Microsensor is a new sensor which was recently patented by Virginia Tech and is just starting to be marketed by Vatell Corp. The sensor is made using the thin-film microfabrication techniques directly on the material that is to be measured. It consists of several thin-film layers forming a differential thermopile across a thermal resistance layer. The measured heat flux q is proportional to the temperature difference across the resistance layer q= k(sub g)/delta(sub g) x (t(sub 1) - T(sub 2)), where k(sub g) is the thermal conductivity and delta (sub g) is the thickness of the thermal resistance layer. Because the gages are sputter coated directly onto the surface, their total thickness is less than 2 micrometers, which is two orders of magnitude thinner than previous gages. The resulting temperature difference across the thermal resistance layer (delta is less than 1 micrometer) is very small even at high heat fluxes. To generate a measurable signal many thermocouple pairs are put in series to form a differential thermopile. The combination of series thermocouple junctions and thin-film design creates a gage with very attractive characteristics. It is not only physically non-intrusive to the flow, but also causes minimal disruption of the surface temperature. Because it is so thin, the response time is less than 20 microsec. Consequently, the frequency response is flat from 0 to over 50 kHz. Moreover, the signal of the Heat Flux Microsensor is directly proportional to the heat flux. Therefore, it can easily be used in both steady and transient flows, and it measures both the steady and unsteady components of the surface heat flux. A version of the Heat Flux Microsensor has been developed to meet the harsh demands of combustion environments. These gages use platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium as the thermoelectric materials. The thermal resistance layer is silicon monoxide and a protective coating of Al2O3 is deposited on top of the sensor. The superimposed thin-film pattern of all six layers is presented. The large pads are for connection with pins used to bring the signal out the back of the ceramic. In addition to the heat flux measurement, the surface temperature is measured with a platinum resistance layer (RTS). The resistance of this layer increases with increasing temperature. Therefore, these gages simultaneously measure the surface temperature and heat flux. The demonstrated applications include rocket nozzles, SCRAM jet engines, gas turbine engines, boiling heat transfer, flame experiments, basic fluid heat transfer, hypersonic flight, and shock tube testing. The laboratory involves using one of these sensors in a small combustion flame. The sensor is made on a 2.5 cm diameter piece of aluminum nitride ceramic.

  7. Automation of soil flux chamber measurements: potentials and pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görres, C.-M.; Kammann, C.; Ceulemans, R.

    2015-09-01

    Recent technological advances have enabled the wider application of automated chambers for soil greenhouse gas (GHG) flux measurements, several of them commercially available. However, only few studies addressed the difficulties and challenges associated with operating these systems. In this contribution we compared two commercial soil GHG chamber systems-the LI-8100A Automated Soil CO2 Flux System and the Greenhouse Gas Monitoring System AGPS. From April 2014 until August 2014, the two systems monitored in parallel soil respiration (SR) fluxes at a recently harvested poplar plantation, which provided a bare field situation directly after the harvest as well as a closed canopy later on. For the bare field situation (15 April-30 June 2014), the cumulated average SR obtained from the unfiltered datasets of the LI-8100A and the AGPS were 520 and 433 g CO2 m-2, respectively. For the closed canopy phase (01 July-31 August 2014), which was characterized by a higher soil moisture content, the cumulated average SR estimates were not significantly different with 507 and 501 g CO2 m-2 for the AGPS and the LI-8100A, respectively. Flux quality control and filtering did not significantly alter the results obtained by the LI-8100A, whereas the AGPS SR estimates were reduced by at least 20 %. The main reasons for the observed differences in the performance of the two systems were (i) a lower data coverage provided by the AGPS due to technical problems; (ii) incomplete headspace mixing in the AGPS chambers; (iii) lateral soil CO2 diffusion below the collars during AGPS chamber measurements; (iv) increased root growth within the LI-8100A collars; and (v) a possible overestimation of nighttime SR fluxes by the LI-8100A. In contrast to the LI-8100A, the AGPS had the gas sample inlets installed inside the collars and not the chambers. This unique design feature enabled for the first time the detection of disturbed chamber measurements during nights with a stratified atmosphere, resulting in unbiased nighttime SR estimates. Thus besides providing high temporal frequency flux data, automated chamber systems offer another possibility to greatly improve our understanding of SR fluxes.

  8. Automation of soil flux chamber measurements: potentials and pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Kammann, Claudia; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2016-03-01

    Recent technological advances have enabled the wider application of automated chambers for soil greenhouse gas (GHG) flux measurements, several of them commercially available. However, few studies addressed the challenges associated with operating these systems. In this contribution we compared two commercial soil GHG chamber systems - the LI-8100A Automated Soil CO2 Flux System and the greenhouse gas monitoring system AGPS. From April until August 2014, the two systems monitored in parallel soil respiration (SR) fluxes at a recently harvested poplar (Populus) plantation, which provided a bare field situation directly after the harvest as well as a closed canopy later on. For the bare field situation (15 April-30 June 2014), the cumulated average SR obtained from the unfiltered data sets of the LI-8100A and the AGPS were 520 and 433 g CO2 m-2 respectively. For the closed canopy phase (1 July-31 August 2014), which was characterized by a higher soil moisture content, the cumulated average SR estimates were not significantly different with 507 and 501 g CO2 m-2 for the AGPS and the LI-8100A respectively. Flux quality control and filtering did not significantly alter the results obtained by the LI-8100A, whereas the AGPS SR estimates were reduced by at least 20 %. The main reasons for the observed differences in the performance of the two systems were (i) a lower data coverage provided by the AGPS due to technical problems; (ii) incomplete headspace mixing in the AGPS chambers; (iii) lateral soil CO2 diffusion below the collars during AGPS chamber measurements; and (iv) a possible overestimation of nighttime SR fluxes by the LI-8100A. Additionally, increased root growth was observed within the LI-8100A collars but not within the AGPS collars, which might have also contributed to the observed differences. In contrast to the LI-8100A, the AGPS had the gas sample inlets installed inside the collars and not the chambers. This unique design feature enabled for the first time the detection of disturbed chamber measurements during nights with a stratified atmosphere, resulting in unbiased nighttime SR estimates. Thus besides providing high temporal frequency flux data, automated chamber systems offer another possibility to greatly improve our understanding of SR fluxes.

  9. First flux surface measurements on W7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Thomas Sunn; Otte, Matthias; Biedermann, Christoph; Bozhenkov, Sergey; Braeuer, Torsten; Lazerson, Samuel; W7-X Team

    2015-11-01

    Wendelstein 7-X is rapidly approaching first plasma operation. The full operational B-field of 2.5 T has been reached using the 70 superconducting coils. The first flux surface measurements have recently been successfully performed. This talk will describe the W7-X flux surface measurement system, and show and analyze the first results from this diagnostic, which, at the time of writing this abstract, can be summarized as follows: Confirmation of the existence of nested, closed flux surfaces, first measurements of iota, and detection of the expected internal 5/6 island chain of the OP1.1 configuration. The data obtained so far agree with expectations, and provide a first confirmation of the accuracy of the coil geometry and assembly, as well as diagnostic installation. They also confirm that, with respect to the magnetic topology, plasma operation can start. Plans for, and potentially first results of, measurements of any remnant field errors, will be reported separately at this meeting.

  10. Uncertainty Analysis of Vertical Wind Motion Measurement for Airborne Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garman, K. E.; Hill, K. A.; Wyss, P. J.; Carlsen, M. S.; Zimmerman, J. R.; Stirm, B. H.; Carney, T. Q.; Santini, R. E.; Shepson, P. B.

    2004-12-01

    Measurement of atmosphere-surface exchange is a fundamental part of a more quantitative understanding of climate change. Among the impacts are changes in the fluxes of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) and net ecosystem exchange of carbon, in forest ecosystems. Flux measurements are most frequently conducted on a local scale using flux measurement towers, where the measurement of vertical air motion is correlated with the concentration of the scalar to be studied. To expand the understanding of fluxes to a regional scale, and enable the scaling-up of fluxes to ecosystem levels, we need complementary approaches to the flux-tower model. We are thus engaged in the development of a flexible and low cost aircraft platform for flux measurements, using both eddy covariance, for water vapor and CO2, and Disjunct Eddy Accumulation (DEA), for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The most challenging aspect of airborne flux measurements is the measurement of vertical scale turbulence. The uncertainties inherent in the measurement of vertical air motion depend on the ability to sense the rotational and translation motion of the aircraft, and the sensed wind, on a 10Hz time scale. We approach this using a combination of a pressure sphere probe for wind measurements, and an integrated Inertial Navigation/Global Positioning System (INS/GPS) to measure the aircraft translation and rotation. This paper summarizes the results of a series of low-speed wind tunnel tests and in-flight calibration maneuvers to determine the uncertainties in vertical wind measurement. The paper summarizes the airspeeds and flight regimes at which different error sources are dominant or negligible. Finally, an error propagation is developed and discussed. This process will lead us to the ability to conduct reliable flux measurements from a low cost aircraft, for a variety of studies of air-surface exchange of gases.

  11. Electron Flux of Radiation Belts Animation - Duration: 31 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows meridional (from north-south) plane projections of the REPT-A and REPT-B electron flux values. The animation first shows the expected two-belt Van Allen zone structure; from Se...

  12. Photocatalytic Active Radiation Measurements and Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Underwood, Lauren W.

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic materials are being used to purify air, to kill microbes, and to keep surfaces clean. A wide variety of materials are being developed, many of which have different abilities to absorb various wavelengths of light. Material variability, combined with both spectral illumination intensity and spectral distribution variability, will produce a wide range of performance results. The proposed technology estimates photocatalytic active radiation (PcAR), a unit of radiation that normalizes the amount of light based on its spectral distribution and on the ability of the material to absorb that radiation. Photocatalytic reactions depend upon the number of electron-hole pairs generated at the photocatalytic surface. The number of electron-hole pairs produced depends on the number of photons per unit area per second striking the surface that can be absorbed and whose energy exceeds the bandgap of the photocatalytic material. A convenient parameter to describe the number of useful photons is the number of moles of photons striking the surface per unit area per second. The unit of micro-einsteins (or micromoles) of photons per m2 per sec is commonly used for photochemical and photoelectric-like phenomena. This type of parameter is used in photochemistry, such as in the conversion of light energy for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic response correlates with the number of photons rather than by energy because, in this photochemical process, each molecule is activated by the absorption of one photon. In photosynthesis, the number of photons absorbed in the 400 700 nm spectral range is estimated and is referred to as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). PAR is defined in terms of the photosynthetic photon flux density measured in micro-einsteins of photons per m2 per sec. PcAR is an equivalent, similarly modeled parameter that has been defined for the photocatalytic processes. Two methods to measure the PcAR level are being proposed. In the first method, a calibrated spectrometer with a cosine receptor is used to measure the spectral irradiance. This measurement, in conjunction with the photocatalytic response as a function of wavelength, is used to estimate the PcAR. The photocatalytic response function is determined by measuring photocatalytic reactivity as a function of wavelength. In the second method, simple shaped photocatalytic response functions can be simulated with a broad-band detector with a cosine receptor appropriately filtered to represent the spectral response of the photocatalytic material. This second method can be less expensive than using a calibrated spectrometer.

  13. Effects of Radiative Diffusion on Thin Flux Tubes in Turbulent Solar-like Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. A.; Fan, Y.

    2015-05-01

    We study the combined effects of convection and radiative diffusion on the evolution of thin magnetic flux tubes in the solar interior. Radiative diffusion is the primary supplier of heat to convective motions in the lower convection zone, and it results in a heat input per unit volume of magnetic flux tubes that has been ignored by many previous thin flux tube studies. We use a thin flux tube model subject to convection taken from a rotating spherical shell of turbulent, solar-like convection as described by Weber, Fan, and Miesch ( Astrophys. J. 741, 11, 2011; Solar Phys. 287, 239, 2013), now taking into account the influence of radiative heating on 1022 Mx flux tubes, corresponding to flux tubes of large active regions. Our simulations show that flux tubes of ≤ 60 kG that are subject to solar-like convective flows do not anchor in the overshoot region, but rather drift upward because of the increased buoyancy of the flux tube earlier in its evolution, which results from including radiative diffusion. Flux tubes of magnetic field strengths ranging from 15 kG to 100 kG have rise times of ≤ 0.2 years and exhibit a Joy's Law tilt-angle trend. Our results suggest that radiative heating is an effective mechanism by which flux tubes can escape from the stably stratified overshoot region. Moreover, flux tubes do not necessarily need to be anchored in the overshoot region to produce emergence properties similar to those of active regions on the Sun.

  14. Simulation of high-energy radiation belt electron fluxes using NARMAX-VERB coupled codes

    PubMed Central

    Pakhotin, I P; Drozdov, A Y; Shprits, Y Y; Boynton, R J; Subbotin, D A; Balikhin, M A

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a fusion of data-driven and physics-driven methodologies of energetic electron flux forecasting in the outer radiation belt. Data-driven NARMAX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Averages with eXogenous inputs) model predictions for geosynchronous orbit fluxes have been used as an outer boundary condition to drive the physics-based Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code, to simulate energetic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt environment. The coupled system has been tested for three extended time periods totalling several weeks of observations. The time periods involved periods of quiet, moderate, and strong geomagnetic activity and captured a range of dynamics typical of the radiation belts. The model has successfully simulated energetic electron fluxes for various magnetospheric conditions. Physical mechanisms that may be responsible for the discrepancies between the model results and observations are discussed. PMID:26167432

  15. An efficient computational approach for evaluating radiation flux for laser driven inertial confinement fusion targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haiyan; Huang, Yunbao; Jiang, Shaoen; Jing, Longfei; Ding, Yongkun

    2015-08-01

    Radiation flux computation on the target is very important for laser driven Inertial Confinement Fusion, and view-factor based equation models (MacFarlane, 2003; Srivastava et al., 2000) are often used to compute this radiation flux on the capsule or samples inside the hohlraum. However, the equation models do not lead to sparse matrices and may involve an intensive solution process when discrete mesh elements become smaller and the number of equations increases. An efficient approach for the computation of radiation flux is proposed in this paper, in which, (1) symmetric and positive definite properties are achieved by transformation, and (2) an efficient Cholesky factorization algorithm is applied to significantly accelerate such equations models solving process. Finally, two targets on a laser facility built in China are considered to validate the computing efficiency of present approach. The results show that the radiation flux computation can be accelerated by a factor of 2.

  16. Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing: Calculations and Measurements from the Tropospheric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Hignett, P.; Stowe, L. L.; Livingston, J. M.; Kinne, S.; Wong, J.; Chan, K. Roland (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Radiative forcing is defined as the change in the net (downwelling minus upwelling) radiative flux at a given level in the atmosphere. This net flux is the radiative power density available to drive climatic processes in the earth-atmosphere system below that level. Recent research shows that radiative forcing by aerosol particles is a major source of uncertainty in climate predictions. To reduce those uncertainties, TARFOX was designed to determine direct (cloud-free) radiative forcing by the aerosols in one of the world's major industrial pollution plumes--that flowing from the east coast of the US over the Atlantic Ocean. TARFOX measured a variety of aerosol radiative effects (including direct forcing) while simultaneously measuring the chemical, physical, and optical properties of the aerosol particles causing those effects. The resulting data sets permit a wide variety of tests of the consistency, or closure, among the measurements and the models that link them. Because climate predictions use the same or similar model components, closure tests help to assess and reduce prediction uncertainties. In this work we use the TARFOX-determined aerosol, gas, and surface properties to compute radiative forcing for a variety of aerosol episodes, with inadvisable optical depths ranging from 0.07 to 0.6. We calculate forcing by several techniques with varying degrees of sophistication, in part to test the range of applicability of simplified techniques--which are often the only ones feasible in climate predictions by general circulation models (GCMs). We then compare computed forcing to that determined from: (1) Upwelling and downwelling fluxes (0.3-0.7 mm and 0.7-3.0 mm) measured by radiometers on the UK MRF C-130. and (2) Daily average cloud-free absorbed solar and emitted thermal radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere derived from the AVHRR radiometer on the NOAA- 14 satellite. The calculations and measurements all yield aerosol direct radiative forcing in the range -50 to -190 W sq m per unit inadvisable optical depth. The magnitudes are about 15 to 100 times larger than the global-average direct forcing expected for the global-average sulfate aerosol optical depth of 0.04. The reasons for the larger forcing in TARFOX include the relatively large optical depths and the focus on cloud-free, daytime conditions over the dark ocean surface. These are the conditions that produce the actual major radiative forcing events that contribute to any global-average climate effect. Detailed comparisons of calculated and measured forcings for specific events are used for more refined tests of closure.

  17. Flux measurements of energy and trace gases in urban Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boedeker, I.; Schade, G. W.; Adams, S.; Park, C.

    2008-12-01

    We describe the setup and some first year results of a new flux measurements tower in an urban area. An existing radio communications tower 4 km north of downtown Houston was equipped with micrometeorological instrumentation and trace gas sampling lines in spring 2007. Wind speed, temperature and relative humidity are recorded at five levels between 12 and 60 m above ground; 3-D wind speed measurements, solar and net radiances, and trace gas sampling are established from the 60 m level. A closed path IRGA is used for CO2 and water vapor fluxes, and independent instrumentation for criteria pollutant and VOC fluxes. Two CSI data loggers and software control the measurements, and EdiRe software is used to analyze turbulence data and compute fluxes. A project description is provided at http://atmo.tamu.edu/yellowcabtower. Surface properties as calculated from the gradient measurements show the site to be surprisingly uniform, with displacement heights between 5 and 9 m and roughness lengths between 0.4 and 0.7 m, despite urban heterogeneity. The latter is investigated through visible/near IR orthoimagery and LIDAR data, which are incorporated into a local GIS. Net radiation was also only marginally affected by surface heterogeneity. At this urban location it is balanced by roughly equal amounts of sensible heat, latent heat, and storage fluxes. Latent heat flux, however, is smaller outside the growing season, with an equivalent increase in winter storage fluxes, as expected. Significant differences are also observed with direction during summer, showing decreased Bowen ratios and lower CO2 emissions from sectors with a larger urban tree canopy cover in the footprint. The largely mature, dominantly oak urban canopy cover alleviates approximately 100 W m- 2 during typical summer days. On the other hand, anthropogenic CO2 emissions dominate over photosynthetic uptake all year round. Measured carbon fluxes peak during morning rush-hour traffic, especially when increasing stretches of the main commuter road fall into the footprint. Outside the rush hour, daytime carbon fluxes typically ranged from 0.4 to 1.6 g C m-2 h-1. A seasonal comparison shows that up to 75% of midday anthropogenic carbon flux is removed via photosynthesis in the dominant wind sector, S, which bears typical tree canopy covers of 25-50% on pervious surfaces.

  18. Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements

    PubMed Central

    Dye, Stephen T.; Guillian, Eugene H.

    2008-01-01

    Uranium and thorium within the Earth produce a major portion of terrestrial heat along with a measurable flux of electron antineutrinos. These elements are key components in geophysical and geochemical models. Their quantity and distribution drive the dynamics, define the thermal history, and are a consequence of the differentiation of the Earth. Knowledge of uranium and thorium concentrations in geological reservoirs relies largely on geochemical model calculations. This article describes the methods and criteria to experimentally determine average concentrations of uranium and thorium in the continental crust and in the mantle by using site-specific measurements of the terrestrial antineutrino flux. Optimal, model-independent determinations involve significant exposures of antineutrino detectors remote from nuclear reactors at both a midcontinental and a midoceanic site. This would require major, new antineutrino detection projects. The results of such projects could yield a greatly improved understanding of the deep interior of the Earth. PMID:18172211

  19. Turbulent heat flux measurements in a transitional boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, K. H.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Reshotko, E.

    1992-01-01

    During an experimental investigation of the transitional boundary layer over a heated flat plate, an unexpected result was encountered for the turbulent heat flux (bar-v't'). This quantity, representing the correlation between the fluctuating normal velocity and the temperature, was measured to be negative near the wall under certain conditions. The result was unexpected as it implied a counter-gradient heat transfer by the turbulent fluctuations. Possible reasons for this anomalous result were further investigated. The possible causes considered for this negative bar-v't' were: (1) plausible measurement error and peculiarity of the flow facility, (2) large probe size effect, (3) 'streaky structure' in the near wall boundary layer, and (4) contributions from other terms usually assumed negligible in the energy equation including the Reynolds heat flux in the streamwise direction (bar-u't'). Even though the energy balance has remained inconclusive, none of the items (1) to (3) appear to be contributing directly to the anomaly.

  20. An Alpha-Gamma Counter for Absolute Neutron Flux Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, A.; Greene, G.; Dewey, M.; Gilliam, D.; Nico, J.; Laptev, A.

    2012-03-01

    An alpha-gamma counter was used to measure the absolute neutron flux of a monochromatic cold neutron beam to sub-0.1,% precision. Simultaneously, the counter was used to calibrate a thin neutron flux monitor based on neutron absorption on ^6Li to the same precision. This monitor was used in the most precise beam-based measurement of the neutron lifetime, where the limiting systematic effect was the uncertainty in the neutron counting efficiency (0.3,%). The counter uses a thick target of ^10B-enriched boron carbide to completely absorb the beam. The rate of absorbed neutrons is determined by counting 478 keV gamma rays from neutron capture on ^10B with calibrated high-purity germanium detectors. The calibration results and the implications for the neutron lifetime will be discussed.

  1. Creation of a child universe by the shell radiating negative energy flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishima, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiromi; Yoshino, Noriaki

    1997-08-01

    One possibility for the creation of a child universe by producing a false vacuum bubble in the laboratory is discussed. We obtain a simple equation of motion of the spherically symmetric thin shell of radiating out-going null energy flux. Analysing the equation, we show that the shell radiates negative energy flux and the false vacuum bubble becomes a child universe in the case of a certain kind of surface stress tensor.

  2. Effects of high altitude clouds on the earth's infrared radiation flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W.-C.; Kaplan, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    Attention is given to the results of a study of cirrus cloud properties which employed the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences' general circulation model and concentrated on the effects of the nonblackness of high clouds on the IR radiation flux. Although the thermal radiation flux is very sensitive to the treatment of cirrus optical properties in the IR, a more realistic assessment will depend on better parameterizations for cirrus cloud formation, persistence, and dissipation.

  3. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-12-19

    Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

  4. Multiyear measurements of ebullitive methane flux from three subarctic lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wik, Martin; Crill, Patrick M.; Varner, Ruth K.; Bastviken, David

    2013-07-01

    Ebullition (bubbling) from small lakes and ponds at high latitudes is an important yet unconstrained source of atmospheric methane (CH4). Small water bodies are most abundant in permanently frozen peatlands, and it is speculated that their emissions will increase as the permafrost thaws. We made 6806 measurements of CH4 ebullition during four consecutive summers using a total of 40 bubble traps that were systematically distributed across the depth zones of three lakes in a sporadic permafrost landscape in northernmost Sweden. We identified significant spatial and temporal variations in ebullition and observed a large spread in the bubbles' CH4 concentration, ranging from 0.04% to 98.6%. Ebullition followed lake temperatures, and releases were significantly larger during periods with decreasing atmospheric pressure. Although shallow zone ebullition dominated the seasonal bubble CH4 flux, we found a shift in the depth dependency towards higher fluxes from intermediate and deep zones in early fall. The average daily flux of 13.4 mg CH4 m-2 was lower than those measured in most other high-latitude lakes. Locally, however, our study lakes are a substantial CH4 source; we estimate that 350 kg of CH4 is released via ebullition during summer (June-September), which is approximately 40% of total whole year emissions from the nearby peatland. In order to capture the large variability and to accurately scale lake CH4 ebullition temporally and spatially, frequent measurements over long time periods are critical.

  5. Intercomparisons of Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Active Cavity Radiometers' Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, D. K.; Lee, R. B.

    2006-05-01

    This paper intercompares the radiative flux values determined by four nonscanning active cavity radiometers of the ERBS (Earth Radiation Budget Satellite) spacecraft launched on October 5, 1984 in a non-sun- synchronous trajectory. Two are the total radiometers: the medium field-of-view total (MFOV-T) and the wide field-of-view total (WFOV-T) which measure the radiation fields in the spectral band of 0.2 - 50 μm and other two are the shortwave radiometers: the medium field-of-view shortwave (MFOV- SW) and the wide field-of- view shortwave (WFOV-SW) which measure the Earth's reflected radiation in the wavelength region of 0.2 - 5.0 μm. The WFOV (FOV: 142.8°) sees the entire Earth's disk while the MFOV (FOV: 88.4°) sees 10° diameter geocentric latitudinal regions. These radiometers were calibrated continuously by observing the in-flight internal black bodies and the Sun every two weeks. The resulting gains and offsets values found to be very stable and accurate within 0.1%. In this paper, we compare the results obtained by MFOV radiometers with the WFOV measurements, which are widely used by the climate scientists throughout the world. We report the results covering the period from January 1985 through December 1990. The MFOV radiometers degradation was found to be less than 0.5% due to exposure to direct solar radiation. The WFOV radiometers degraded approximately 5% during the same period because of considerably greater solar exposure. In addition, the WFOV measurements were affected by the decreasing spacecraft-earth distance while the MFOV measurements were not affected. The measurements were not corrected for the significant measurements variations caused by the varying inverse spacecraft-earth distance. Therefore, the MFOV measurements represent a better data set to analyze long- term climate variations in the Tropics. The 1985-1999 WFOV measurements were reduced and were made available for climate studies. We believe that the raw 1990-1999 ERBS MFOV radiometric measurements should be reduced and made available for long-term climate studies as well as the 1999-2005 measurements.

  6. A new disjunct eddy-covariance system for BVOC flux measurements - validation on CO2 and H2O fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghi, R.; Durand, P.; Jambert, C.; Jarnot, C.; Delon, C.; Serça, D.; Striebig, N.; Ferlicoq, M.; Keravec, P.

    2012-12-01

    The disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) method is an interesting alternative to the conventional eddy covariance (EC) method because it allows the estimation of turbulent fluxes of species for which fast sensors are not available. We have developed and validated a new disjunct sampling system (called MEDEE). This system is built with chemically inert materials. Air samples are taken quickly and alternately in two cylindrical reservoirs, the internal pressures of which are regulated by a moving piston. The MEDEE system was designed to be operated either on the ground or aboard an aircraft. It is also compatible with most analysers since it transfers the air samples at a regulated pressure. To validate the system, DEC and EC measurements of CO2 and latent heat fluxes were performed concurrently during a field campaign. EC fluxes were first compared to simulated DEC (SDEC) fluxes and then to actual DEC fluxes. Both the simulated and actual DEC fluxes showed a good agreement with EC fluxes in terms of correlation. The determination coefficients (R2) were 0.93 and 0.91 for DEC and SDEC latent heat fluxes, respectively. For DEC and SDEC CO2 fluxes R2 was 0.69 in both cases. The conditions of low fluxes experienced during the campaign impaired the comparison of the different techniques especially for CO2 flux measurements. Linear regression analysis showed an 14% underestimation of DEC fluxes for both CO2 and latent heat compared to EC fluxes. A first field campaign, focusing on biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, was carried out to measure isoprene fluxes above a downy oak (Quercus Pubescens) forest in the south-east of France. The measured standard emission rate was in the lower range of reported values in earlier studies. Further analysis will be conducted through ground-based and airborne campaigns in the coming years.

  7. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; Holst, T.; Hörtnagl, L.; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Neftel, A.; McKinney, K.; Munger, J. W.; Pallardy, S. G.; Schade, G. W.; Seco, R.; Schoon, N.

    2015-01-01

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model, and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land-atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on the production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, and stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem-level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; they are however neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow taking full advantage of the rich information content of micrometeorological flux measurements.

  8. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; Holst, T.; Hörtnagl, L.; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Neftel, A.; McKinney, K.; Munger, J. W.; Pallardy, S. G.; Schade, G. W.; Seco, R.; Schoon, N.

    2015-07-01

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land-atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be taken of the rich information content of micrometeorological flux measurements.

  9. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux. Synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; et al

    2015-07-09

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis ofmore » the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be taken of the rich information content of micrometeorological flux measurements.« less

  10. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; Holst, T.; Hörtnagl, L.; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Neftel, A.; McKinney, K.; Munger, J. W.; Pallardy, S. G.; Schade, G. W.; Seco, R.; Schoon, N.

    2015-01-01

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model, and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on the production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, and stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem-level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; they are however neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow taking full advantage of the rich information content of micrometeorological flux measurements. PMID:25983744

  11. A Push-Pull Test to Measure Volatilization Fluxes of Organic Pollutants without Flux Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. C.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    Volatilization of organic contaminants is a potentially significant removal mechanism from wetlands, but field measurements are scarce and the physiochemical controls on volatilization from wetland soils remain poorly understood. It has been established that volatilization rates of certain pollutants are enhanced by vegetation and are strongly correlated with evapotranspiration (ET). These observations rely on flux chambers measurements, which are characterized by significant uncertainty due the chamber's effects on the meteorological variables around the plant and consequent impact on the biophysical processes governing ET and plant uptake of soil contaminants. Here we present data from a mesocosm study using a modified single-well push-pull test to measure in-situ volatilization rates from inundated soils vegetated with the wetland macrophytes Scirpus acutus and Typha latifolia, as well as from unplanted soil. This new method uses a test solution containing the volatile tracers sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), helium (He), and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) to estimate first-order volatilization rates and examine the relationship between physiochemical properties and volatilization rates. The test also yields an estimate for the volume of subsurface gas bubbles, which is used to derive a retardation factor for the effect of interphase partitioning on the estimation of kinetic parameters. We evaluate models to partition observed fluxes into different pathways for plant-mediated volatilization: transpirational uptake and consequent volatilization, and gas-phase diffusion through porous root aerenchyma. Those models are then used to scale tracer-derived volatilization fluxes to priority organic pollutants including benzene, trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. We also discuss the implementation of this method at field scales to estimate volatilization as a component of phytoremediation applications.

  12. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux. Synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; Holst, T.; Hörtnagl, L.; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Neftel, A.; McKinney, K.; Munger, J. W.; Pallardy, S. G.; Schade, G. W.; Seco, R.; Schoon, N.

    2015-07-09

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be taken of the rich information content of micrometeorological flux measurements.

  13. Measurement of Radiation Belt Partcles by MDS-1 Onboard SEDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Koshiishi, H.; Goka, T.

    The Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment (SEDA) is on board the Mission Demonstration Test Satellite-1 (MDS-1) to measure the radiation environment, which was launched into geo-stationary transfer orbit (GTO) on February 4, 2002 with an apogee of about 35,700km, a perigee of about 500 km and an inclination of about 28.5 degrees. SEDA consists of the four instruments. Standard Dose Monitor monitors the electron and proton flux. Dosimeter measures the integrated radiation dose at fifty-six points of the satellite. Heavy Ion Telescope monitors the flux of heavy ions from He to Fe. Magnetometer measures the magnetic field in the magnetosphere. In this paper are described first results and comparison with the ISO standard model for the space environment

  14. Exploiting Diurnal Variations to Evaluate the ISCCP-FD Flux Calculations and Radiative-Flux-Analysis-Processed Surface Observations from BSRN, ARM and SURFRAD

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuanchong; Long, Charles N.; Rossow, William B.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.

    2010-08-06

    Based on monthly-3-hourly and 3-hourly mean surface radiative fluxes and their associated meteorological parameters for 2004 from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project-FD (ISCCP-FD) and the Radiative Flux Analysis method-Produced Surface Observations (RFA-PSO) for 15 high-quality-controlled surface stations, operated by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration?s Surface Radiation budget network (SURFRAD), this work, goes beyond the previous validation for FD against surface observation by introducing the Meteorological Similarity Comparison Method (MSCM) to make a more precise, mutual evaluation of both FD and PSO products. The comparison results in substantial uncertainty reduction and provides reasonable physical explanations for the flux differences. This approach compares fluxes for cases where the atmospheric and surface physical properties (specifically, the input parameters for radiative transfer model) are as close as possible to the values determined at the observational sites by matching the RFA-produced cloud fraction (CF) and/or optical thickness (Tau), etc., or alternatively, by directly changing the model input variables for FD to match PSO values, and using such-produced matched sub-datasets to make more accurate comparisons based on more similar meteorological environments between FD and PSO. The crucial part is the availability of flux-associated meteorological parameters from RFA-PSO, which was only recently made available that makes this work possible. For surface downwelling shortwave(SW) flux (SWdn) and its two components, diffuse (Dif) and direct (Dir), uncertainty for monthly mean is 15, 15 and 17 W/m2, respectively, smaller than the separately estimated uncertainty values from both FD and PSO. When applying MSCM by reducing their CF difference, the differences can be reduced by a factor of 2. The strength of MSCM is particularly shown in the comparisons of diurnal variations. For clear sky, reducing the FD values of aerosol optical depth (AOD) by 50% to approximately match the PSO values brings all downward SW flux components into substantial agreement. For cloudy scenes, when both CF and Tau are matched to within 0.1 0.25 and ~10, respectively, the majority of the SW flux components have nearly-perfect agreement between FD and PSO. The best restriction differences are not zero indicates the influence of other parameters that are not accounted for yet. For longwave (LW) fluxes, general evaluation also confirms uncertainty values for FD and PSO less than separately estimated. When applying MSCM to CF and surface air temperature, the agreement is substantially improved. For downwelling LW diurnal variation comparison, FD shows good agreement with PSO for both RFA-defined or true clear sky but overestimates the amplitude for cloudy sky by 3-7 W/m2, which may be caused by different sensitivities to cirrus clouds. For upwelling LW diurnal cycle, the situation is reversed; FD now underestimates the diurnal amplitude for all and clear sky but generally agrees for overcast (CF > 0.7). The combined effect of downwelling and upwelling LW fluxes results in FD?s underestimates of the diurnal variation of the net-LW-loss for all the scenes by up to 10 W/m2, although the daily mean net loss is more accurate. Therefore, in terms of amplitude and phase, both FD and PSO seem to have caught correct diurnal variations.

  15. Development of Aerosol Models for Radiative Flux Calculations at ARM Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Ogren, John A.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; McComiskey, Allison C.

    2006-09-30

    The direct radiative forcing (DRF) of aerosols, the change in net radiative flux due to aerosols in non-cloudy conditions, is an essential quantity for understanding the human impact on climate change. Our work has addressed several key issues that determine the accuracy, and identify the uncertainty, with which aerosol DRF can be modeled. These issues include the accuracy of several radiative transfer models when compared to measurements and to each other in a highly controlled closure study using data from the ARM 2003 Aerosol IOP. The primary focus of our work has been to determine an accurate approach to assigning aerosol properties appropriate for modeling over averaged periods of time and space that represent the observed regional variability of these properties. We have also undertaken a comprehensive analysis of the aerosol properties that contribute most to uncertainty in modeling aerosol DRF, and under what conditions they contribute the most uncertainty. Quantification of these issues enables the community to better state accuracies of radiative forcing calculations and to concentrate efforts in areas that will decrease uncertainties in these calculations in the future.

  16. Integral measurements of neutron and gamma-ray leakage fluxes from the Little Boy replica

    SciTech Connect

    Muckenthaler, F.J.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents integral measurements of neutron and gamma-ray leakage fluxes from a critical mockup of the Hiroshima bomb Little Boy at Los Alamos National Laobratory with detector systems developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Bonner ball detectors were used to map the neutron fluxes in the horizontal midplane at various distances from the mockup and for selected polar angles, keeping the source-detector separation constant. Gamma-ray energy deposition measurements were made with thermoluminescent detectors at several locations on the iron shell of the source mockup. The measurements were performed as part of a larger progam to provide benchmark data for testing the methods used to calculate the radiation released from the Little Boy bomb over Hiroshima. 3 references, 10 figures.

  17. Energy budget components, ammonia concentration and flux measurements on an agricultural landscape near Bjerringbro, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogány, Andrea; Weidinger, Tamás.; Bienkowski, Jerzy; Bordás, Árpád.; Bozóki, Zoltán.; Eredics, Attila; Hensen, Arjan; Janku, Krzysztof; Kiss, Győző; Kraai, Aline; Istenes, Zoltán.; Mohácsi, Árpád.; Szabó, Gábor; Schelde, Kirsten; Theobald, Mark

    2010-05-01

    As a part of the NitroEurope common field experiment, energy budget components and ammonia concentrations were measured by various methods on an agricultural field near Bjerringbro, Denmark in April 2009. Several sources of ammonia (pig farms, nearby fertilized fields) were present in the landscape and the field itself was also fertilized with pig slurry during the campaign. Turbulent fluxes were calculated using micrometeorological measurement data (standard meteorological parameters, radiation and surface energy budget components) as well as three different methods: (i) the gradient, (ii) the Bowen ratio and (iii) the eddy covariance method using 15 min average time. Results obtained using different methodologies for flux calculations and local effects on energy budget closure were compared. Instrumentation used for measuring ammonia concentrations included two wet-chemical (AMANDA) instruments and two photoacoustic instruments (a mid-IR CO2 laser based Nitolux and a self-developed near-IR diode laser based WaSul instrument). The WaSul instrument was operated in gradient configuration, which also enables the calculation of ammonia fluxes. The instruments were placed at different points of the field to gain more information on the spatial concentration distribution. Ammonia concentration data measured by the different instruments and wind speed and direction data were used to estimate the location of ammonia sources within the landscape. After fertilization of the field ammonia emission fluxes were calculated from the gradient data.

  18. Effect of radiator position and mass flux on the dryer room heat transfer rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmanto, M.; Sulistyowati, E. D.; Okariawan, I. D. K.

    A room radiator as usually used in cold countries, is actually able to be used as a heat source to dry goods, especially in the rainy season where the sun seldom shines due to much rain and cloud. Experiments to investigate effects of radiator position and mass flux on heat transfer rate were performed. This study is to determine the best position of the radiator and the optimum mass flux. The radiator used was a finned radiator made of copper pipes and aluminum fins with an overall dimension of 220 mm × 50 mm × 310 mm. The prototype room was constructed using plywood and wood frame with an overall size of 1000 mm × 1000 mm × 1000 mm. The working fluid was heated water flowing inside the radiator and air circulating naturally inside the prototype room. The nominal mass fluxes employed were 800, 900 and 1000 kg/m2 s. The water was kept at 80 °C at the radiator entrance, while the initial air temperature inside the prototype room was 30 °C. Three positions of the radiator were examined. The results show that the effect of the mass flux on the forced and free convection heat transfer rate is insignificant but the radiator position strongly affects the heat transfer rate for both forced and free convection.

  19. Water Use Patterns of Four Tropical Bamboo Species Assessed with Sap Flux Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Tingting; Fang, Dongming; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae) that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea, and G. apus) with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1) a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs), the stem heat balance (SHB) method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2) an in situ calibration of TDPs with the SHB method for the four bamboo species, and (3) field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula, and Hevea brasiliensis) during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the SHB method is well suited for bamboos but that TDPs need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed. PMID:26779233

  20. Water Use Patterns of Four Tropical Bamboo Species Assessed with Sap Flux Measurements.

    PubMed

    Mei, Tingting; Fang, Dongming; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae) that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea, and G. apus) with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1) a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs), the stem heat balance (SHB) method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2) an in situ calibration of TDPs with the SHB method for the four bamboo species, and (3) field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula, and Hevea brasiliensis) during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the SHB method is well suited for bamboos but that TDPs need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed. PMID:26779233

  1. Momentum Flux Measuring Instrument for Neutral and Charged Particle Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schafer, Charles F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An instrument to measure the momentum flux (total pressure) of plasma and neutral particle jets onto a surface has been developed. While this instrument was developed for magnetized plasmas, the concept works for non-magnetized plasmas as well. We have measured forces as small as 10(exp -4) Newtons on a surface immersed in the plasma where small forces are due to ionic and neutral particles with kinetic energies on the order of a few eV impacting the surface. This instrument, a force sensor, uses a target plate (surface) that is immersed in the plasma and connected to one end of an alumina rod while the opposite end of the alumina rod is mechanically connected to a titanium beam on which four strain gauges are mounted. The force on the target generates torque causing strain in the beam. The resulting strain measurements can be correlated to a force on the target plate. The alumina rod electrically and thermally isolates the target plate from the strain gauge beam and allows the strain gauges to be located out of the plasma flow while also serving as a moment arm of several inches to increase the strain in the beam at the strain gauge location. These force measurements correspond directly to momentum flux and may be used with known plasma conditions to place boundaries on the kinetic energies of the plasma and neutral particles. The force measurements may also be used to infer thrust produced by a plasma propulsive device. Stainless steel, titanium, molybdenum, and aluminum flat target plates have been used. Momentum flux measurements of H2, D2, He, and Ar plasmas produced in a magnetized plasma device have been performed.

  2. Tools for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer: Streamer and FluxNet. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Jeffrey R.; Schweiger, Axel J.

    1998-01-01

    Two tools for the solution of radiative transfer problems are presented. Streamer is a highly flexible medium spectral resolution radiative transfer model based on the plane-parallel theory of radiative transfer. Capable of computing either fluxes or radiances, it is suitable for studying radiative processes at the surface or within the atmosphere and for the development of remote-sensing algorithms. FluxNet is a fast neural network-based implementation of Streamer for computing surface fluxes. It allows for a sophisticated treatment of radiative processes in the analysis of large data sets and potential integration into geophysical models where computational efficiency is an issue. Documentation and tools for the development of alternative versions of Fluxnet are available. Collectively, Streamer and FluxNet solve a wide variety of problems related to radiative transfer: Streamer provides the detail and sophistication needed to perform basic research on most aspects of complex radiative processes while the efficiency and simplicity of FluxNet make it ideal for operational use.

  3. Annual cycle of radiation fluxes over the Arctic ocean: Sensitivity to cloud optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, J.A. ); Ebert, E.E. )

    1992-11-01

    The relationship between cloud optical properties and the radiative fluxes over the Arctic Ocean is explored by conducting a series of modeling experiments. The annual cycle of arctic cloud optical properties that are required to reproduce both the outgoing radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere as determined from satellite observations and the available determinations of surface radiative fluxes are derived. Existing data on cloud fraction and cloud microphysical properties are utilized. Four types of cloud are considered: low stratus clouds, midlevel clouds, citrus clouds, and wintertime ice crystal precipitation. Internally consistent annual cycles of surface temperature, surface albedo, cloud fraction and cloud optical properties, components of surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes, and cloud radiative forcing are presented. The modeled total cloud optical depth (weighted by cloud fraction) ranges from a low value in winter of 2 to a high summertime value of 8. Infrared emmissivities for liquid water clouds are shown to be substantially less than unity during the cold half of the year. Values of modeled surface cloud radiative forcing are positive except for two weeks in midsummer; over the course of the year clouds have a net warming effect on the surface in the Arctic. Total cloud radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere is determined to be positive only briefly in early autumn. Surface longwave fluxes are shown to be very sensitive to the presence of lower-tropospheric ice crystal precipitation during the cold half of the year.

  4. Eddy covariance measurements in screenhouses: turbulence characteristics and flux gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicken, U.; Cohen, S.; Tanny, J.

    2012-04-01

    Shading banana and other orchard crops with screens is popular in arid and semi-arid regions for decreasing water use and increasing fruit quality. However, crop water use within this unique environment is much less studied than for canopies in the open. Previous studies of our research group have established the use of the Eddy Covariance (EC) technique for reliable evapotranspiration and sensible heat flux measurements within screenhouses. These studies focused on operating conditions of the system. The present paper is a comprehensive study which examined the performance of the EC system in different types of screenhouses (shading and insect-proof), different crops (banana and pepper) at different development stages (small and large plants) and different climatic regions in Israel. The main goal was to establish guidelines for optimal application of the EC technique in screenhouses. The research consisted of 6 field campaigns: in 3 campaigns two EC systems were simultaneously deployed either vertically or horizontally, and in 3 other campaigns a single EC system was deployed at one measurement height. EC systems were deployed at different normalized system heights, Zs, which define the relative measurement heights within the air gap between the canopy top and the horizontal screened roof. System performance was examined using quality tests like energy balance closure, flux variance similarity, friction velocity, footprint modeling, energy spectrum, turbulence intensity and vertical and horizontal flux gradient analyses. Resulting energy balance closure slopes averaged 0.81±0.08 and 0.91±0.08 for the smaller and larger plants, respectively. Turbulent flows were found to be marginally developed within the air gap between the top of the plants and the horizontal screened roof. Turbulence intensity, flux variance similarity test, energy spectrum decay rate and friction velocity were essentially independent of the measurement height and were within the common range for flows in the open. Insect proof screenhouses were found to inhibit turbulence development. Considering common dimensions of commercial screenhouses, a footprint model, originally derived for canopies in the open, suggested that the normalized EC system height for which 90% of the measurements are within the available fetch is within the range 0.04 < Zs < 0.29. Vertical gradients of water vapor, sensible heat and CO2 fluxes were within the range of expected deviations (up to 26% difference between two vertically deployed EC systems) and were not correlated with advection effects. Hence, it is suggested that these gradients originated either due to non perfect energy balance closure or limitations of raw data corrections. We conclude that there is a constant flux layer in the screenhouse environment. The horizontal gradient of the vertical latent heat flux, measured in one campaign, was very small, suggesting that measurements were done in a position where the surface layer was already in equilibrium with the vegetation below.

  5. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Radiation Quantities

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, N.O.

    1955-01-25

    This patent application describes a compact dosimeter for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation by the use of solutions which undergo a visible color change upon exposure to a predetermined quantity of radiation.

  6. Optimizing laboratory-based radon flux measurements for sediments.

    PubMed

    Chanyotha, Supitcha; Kranrod, Chutima; Kritsananuwat, Rawiwan; Lane-Smith, Derek; Burnett, William C

    2016-07-01

    Radon flux via diffusion from sediments and other materials may be determined in the laboratory by circulating air through the sample and a radon detector in a closed loop. However, this approach is complicated by the necessity of having to determine the total air volume in the system and accounting for any small air leaks that can arise if using extended measurement periods. We designed a simple open-loop configuration that includes a measured mass of wet sediment and water inside a gas-tight reaction flask connected to a drying system and a radon-in-air analyzer. Ambient air flows through two charcoal columns before entering the reaction vessel to eliminate incoming radon. After traveling through the reaction flask, the air passes the drier and the radon analyzer and is then vented. After some time, the radon activity will reach a steady state depending upon the airflow rate. With this approach, the radon flux via diffusion is simply the product of the steady-state radon activity (Bq/m(3)) multiplied by the airflow rate (mL/min). We demonstrated that this setup could produce good results for materials that produce relatively high radon fluxes. We also show that a modified closed system approach, including radon removal of the incoming air by charcoal filtration in a bypass, can produce very good results including samples with very low emission rates. PMID:27064564

  7. A measurement of the antiproton flux in the cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, A.; Schindler, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    A balloon-borne instrument has been used to detect cosmic-ray antiprotons. These are identified topologically by the appearance of annihilation prongs in a thick lead-plate spark chamber. The initial recording of the data is enriched in potential antimatter events by a selective trigger. After a small subtraction for background, 14 identified antiprotons yield a flux of 1.7 plus or minus 0.00005 antiproton/(sq m ster sec MeV) between 130 and 320 MeV at the top of the atmosphere. When combined with higher energy antiproton flux measurements, this result indicates that the antiprotons have a spectrum whose shape is the same as that of the protons, but with a magnitude reduced by a factor of 1/3000.

  8. Momentum Flux Measurements Using an Impact Thrust Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Breizman, Boris; Bengtson, Roger

    2004-01-01

    A device has been developed to measure the force caused by a beam of charged and neutral particles impacting a target plate. This device, an impact thrust stand, was developed to allow thrusters, during early stages of development, to be quickly and easily exhausted and compared to other thrusters. Since some thruster concepts are tested using laboratory equipment that is heavy and cumbersome, measuring the momentum flux of the particles in the plume can be much simpler than placing the entire thruster on a thrust stand. Conservation of momentum requires the momentum flux measured in the plume to be related to the thrust produced by the thruster. The impact thrust stand was designed to be placed in the plume of an electric thruster and has been tested and compared to the thrust measured from a Hall thruster placed on a pendulum thrust stand. Force measurements taken at several axial locations in the magnetic nozzle region of the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket will be presented.

  9. Multi-element silicon detector for x-ray flux measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.C.; Goulding, F.S.; Sommer, H.A.; Walton, J.T.; Hughes, E.B.; Rolfe, J.; Zeman, H.D.

    1981-10-01

    A 30-element Si(Li) detector has been fabricated to measure the one-dimensional flux profile of 33 KeV x-rays from a synchrotron radiation beam. The device, which is fabricated from a single 39 mm x 15 mm silicon wafer, is a linear array of 0.9 mm x 7 mm elements with a 1 mm center-to-center spacing. It is 5 mm thick and when operated at room temperature has an average leakage current of 10 nA/element. The x-ray flux in each element is determined by measuring the current with a high quality operational amplifier followed by a current digitizer. This detector is being used to study the use of synchrotron radiation for non-invasive imaging of coronary arteries. The experiment uses the difference in the transmitted flux of a monochromatized x-ray beam above and below the iodine K-edge. Measurements have been made on plastic phantoms and on excised animal hearts with iodinated arteries. The images obtained indicate that a 256-element device with similar properties, but with 0.6 mm element spacing, will make a very effective detector for high-speed medical imaging.

  10. Actinic flux measurements and photolysis frequencies enhancements near clouds during DC3 and TORERO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Schmidt, S.; Kindel, B. C.; Hair, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Spectrally resolved up and down-welling actinic flux was measured from aircraft during the Deep Convective Clouds & Chemistry Experiment (DC3) and Tropical Ocean Troposphere Exchange of reactive halogen species and oxygenated VOC (TORERO) field campaigns. The measurements were made on the NASA DC-8 and NSF/NCAR G-V aircraft with the Charged coupled device Actinic Flux Spectroradiometer (CAFS)and the HIAPER Airborne Radiation Package (HARP), respectively. Improvements in this instrumentation and the data analysis provide for fast, accurate measurements from the aircraft. Photolysis frequencies calculated from the actinic flux show significant enhancements above clouds. The upwelling signal is enhanced by the high reflectivity of the cloud below. The downwelling is also enhanced due to backscatter of reflected light from the cloud top. Under specific conditions, including high sun and highly reflective clouds, upwelling actinic radiation may exceed the downwelling even with clear skies above. These conditions may have occurred during TORERO and DC3 resulting in regions of highly active photochemistry.

  11. Magnetic flux emergence in granular convection: radiative MHD simulations and observational signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; Schüssler, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.

    2007-05-01

    Aims:We study the emergence of magnetic flux from the near-surface layers of the solar convection zone into the photosphere. Methods: To model magnetic flux emergence, we carried out a set of numerical radiative magnetohydrodynamics simulations. Our simulations take into account the effects of compressibility, energy exchange via radiative transfer, and partial ionization in the equation of state. All these physical ingredients are essential for a proper treatment of the problem. Furthermore, the inclusion of radiative transfer allows us to directly compare the simulation results with actual observations of emerging flux. Results: We find that the interaction between the magnetic flux tube and the external flow field has an important influence on the emergent morphology of the magnetic field. Depending on the initial properties of the flux tube (e.g. field strength, twist, entropy etc.), the emergence process can also modify the local granulation pattern. The emergence of magnetic flux tubes with a flux of 1019 Mx disturbs the granulation and leads to the transient appearance of a dark lane, which is coincident with upflowing material. These results are consistent with observed properties of emerging magnetic flux. Movies are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. An EOF Iteration Approach for Obtaining Homogeneous Radiative Fluxes from Satellites Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Banglin; Pinker, Rachel T.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Conventional observations of climate parameters are sparse in space and/or in time and the representativeness of such information needs to be optimized. Observations from satellites provide improved spatial coverage than point observations however they pose new challenges for obtaining homogeneous coverage. Surface radiative fluxes, the forcing functions of the hydrologic cycle and biogeophysical processes, are now becoming available from global scale satellite observations. They are derived from independent satellite platforms and sensors that differ in temporal and spatial resolution and in the size of the footprint from which information is derived. Data gaps, degraded spatial resolution near boundaries of geostationary satellites, and different viewing geometries in areas of satellite overlap, could result in biased estimates of radiative fluxes. In this study, discussed will be issues related to the sources of inhomogeneity in surface radiative fluxes as derived from satellites; development of an approach to obtain homogeneous data sets; and application of the methodology to the widely used International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data that currently serve as a source of information for deriving estimates of surface and top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes. Introduced is an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) iteration scheme for homogenizing the fluxes. The scheme is evaluated in several ways including comparison of the inferred radiative fluxes against ground observations, both before and after the EOF approach is applied. On the average, the latter reduces the rms error by about 2-3 W/m2.

  13. Assessment of CO2 flux measurements in different soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Szlavecz, K.; Musaloiu, R.; Cupchup, J.; Pitz, S.

    2008-12-01

    Accurate measurements of soil CO2 efflux are extraordinarily challenging due to the very properties of CO2 transport in a porous medium of soil. The most commonly used method today is the chamber method, which provides direct measurements of CO2 efflux at the soil surface, but it can not measure the soil CO2 flux continuously. In order to develop new measurement methods in soil CO2 efflux, small solid-state CO2 sensors have been used to continuously to monitor soil CO2 profiles by burying these sensors at different soil depths. Using this method we compared soil CO2 efflux of four different soil types: forests soil, grassland soil (collected in Maryland) commercial potting soil and pure sand as control. CO2 concentration varied between 500 ppm in sand and 8000 ppm in forest soil at depth 12 cm. CO2 flux had the following order: Forest (0.3~0.4 mg CO2 m-2 s-1), potting soil (0.1~0.14 mg CO2 m-2 s-1 ), grassland (0.03~0.05 mg CO2 m-2 s-1), sand ( 0 mg CO2 m-2 s-1 ). Exponential relationship between temperature and CO2 flux was established for forest soil and potting soil only. Leaf litter, often thick layer in many terrestrial ecosystems and a significant source of CO2 production, is not part of the of the diffusivity models. We are currently conducting experiments which include the effect of leaf litter and soil invertebrates into soil respiration.

  14. Martian Radiation Environment: Model Calculations and Recent Measurements with "MARIE"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saganti, P. B.; Cucinotta, F. A.; zeitlin, C. J.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Galactic Cosmic Ray spectra in Mars orbit were generated with the recently expanded HZETRN (High Z and Energy Transport) and QMSFRG (Quantum Multiple-Scattering theory of nuclear Fragmentation) model calculations. These model calculations are compared with the first eighteen months of measured data from the MARIE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft that is currently in Martian orbit. The dose rates observed by the MARIE instrument are within 10% of the model calculated predictions. Model calculations are compared with the MARIE measurements of dose, dose-equivalent values, along with the available particle flux distribution. Model calculated particle flux includes GCR elemental composition of atomic number, Z = 1-28 and mass number, A = 1-58. Particle flux calculations specific for the current MARIE mapping period are reviewed and presented.

  15. Progress on a Rayleigh Scattering Mass Flux Measurement Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke-Fagan, Amy F.; Clem, Michelle M.; Elam, Kristie A.; Hirt, Stefanie M.

    2010-01-01

    A Rayleigh scattering diagnostic has been developed to provide mass flux measurements in wind tunnel flows. Spectroscopic molecular Rayleigh scattering is an established flow diagnostic tool that has the ability to provide simultaneous density and velocity measurements in gaseous flows. Rayleigh scattered light from a focused 10 Watt continuous-wave laser beam is collected and fiber-optically transmitted to a solid Fabry-Perot etalon for spectral analysis. The circular interference pattern that contains the spectral information that is needed to determine the flow properties is imaged onto a CCD detector. Baseline measurements of density and velocity in the test section of the 15 cm x 15 cm Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center are presented as well as velocity measurements within a supersonic combustion ramjet engine isolator model installed in the tunnel test section.

  16. Solar UV-A and UV-B radiation fluxes at two Alpine stations at different altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumthaler, M.; Ambach, W.; Rehwald, W.

    1992-03-01

    Daily totals of UV-A and UV-B radiation fluxes and global radiation were measured since 1981 at Jungfraujoch (3576 m) a.s.l.) and in Innsbruck (577 m a.s.l.) in their seasonal course. The altitude effect of annual totals yields 19%/1000 m (UV-B), 11%/1000 m (UV-A) and 9%/1000 m (global radiation) with reference to Innsbruck station. The ratio of the daily totals of UV-B/global radiation shows a significant seasonal course with the maximum in summer, whereas the ratio of the daily totals of UV-A/global radiation shows no significant seasonal variation. The biological effective doses of erythema reaction, delayed tanning and immediate tanning by UV-A and UV-B radiant exposure are reported in the seasonal course at Jungfraujoch and in Innsbruck.

  17. Intercomparison of surface energy flux measurement systems used during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ziwei; Liu, Shaomin; Li, Xin; Shi, Shengjin; Wang, Jiemin; Zhu, Zhongli; Xu, Tongren; Wang, Weizhen; Ma, Mingguo

    2013-12-01

    among instruments is very important for the Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces of The Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER-MUSOEXE), particularly in regard to radiation and turbulent flux measurements. Before HiWATER-MUSOEXE was conducted, 20 eddy covariance (EC) system sets, 18 radiometer sets, and seven large aperture scintillometers (LASs) sets were intercompared over the Gobi desert between 14 and 24 May 2012. For radiometers, the four-component radiation measurements exhibited good agreement—the average root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean relative error (MRE) for the net radiation were 10.38 W m-2 and 1.24%, respectively. With regard to the EC systems, the best consistency for sensible heat fluxes was found among CSAT3 sonic anemometers and Li7500A/Li7500/EC150 combinations (average RMSE, 12.30 W m-2 and MRE, -1.36%), followed by Gill sonic anemometers and Li7500A/Li7500 combinations when a proper angle of attack correction method was applied (average RMSE, 16.75 W m-2 and MRE, -5.52%). The sensible heat flux measured using different LASs agreed well with high correlation coefficients—the average RMSE and MRE values were 10.26 W m-2 and 5.48% for boundary layer scintillometer (BLS) 900, 16.32 W m-2 and 10.47% for BLS450, and 14.38 W m-2 and -3.72% for ZZLAS, respectively. The EC and LAS measurements were compared and agreed well over homogeneous underlying surfaces, which also indicated that the EC and LAS measurements would be comparable in the follow-up experiment. The intercomparison results can be used to determine instrument placement and are very helpful for subsequent data analysis.

  18. SIERRA-Flux: Measuring Regional Surface Fluxes of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Water Vapor from an Unmanned Aircraft System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fladeland; Yates, Emma Louise; Bui, Thaopaul Van; Dean-Day, Jonathan; Kolyer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Eddy-Covariance Method for quantifying surface-atmosphere fluxes is a foundational technique for measuring net ecosystem exchange and validating regional-to-global carbon cycle models. While towers or ships are the most frequent platform for measuring surface-atmosphere exchange, experiments using aircraft for flux measurements have yielded contributions to several large-scale studies including BOREAS, SMACEX, RECAB by providing local-to-regional coverage beyond towers. The low-altitude flight requirements make airborne flux measurements particularly dangerous and well suited for unmanned aircraft.

  19. Radiation Belt Electron Pitch Angle Measurements from the GOES Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onsager, T. G.; Green, J. C.; Singer, H. J.

    2004-12-01

    Radiation belt electron pitch angle distributions provide important information regarding the source and loss processes that control the electron flux levels. As the flux levels vary, it is important to understand the extent to which the distinctive pitch angle distributions are formed through specific source and loss processes versus adiabatic drifts. In addition, pitch angle information is critical when mapping electron fluxes from one location to another. In this presentation, we give an analysis of the pitch angle distribution of >2 MeV electrons measured at geosynchronous orbit by the GOES satellites. Although the current GOES satellites are three-axis stabilized during normal operation, extensive data coverage is available during on-orbit storage of the satellites when they were spinning. During these times, well resolved pitch angle distributions have been obtained using the simultaneous electron and magnetic field measurements. These measurements are available from late 1998 to the present, allowing us to characterize the radiation belt electron pitch angle distributions as a function of local time, flux level, and geomagnetic activity during key phases of the current solar cycle.

  20. On gravitational radiation and the energy flux of matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maluf, J. W.; Faria, F. F.

    2004-10-01

    A suitable derivative of Einstein's equations in the framework of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR) yields a continuity equation for the gravitational energy-momentum. In particular, the time derivative of the total gravitational energy is given by the sum of the total fluxes of gravitational and matter fields energy. We carry out a detailed analysis of the continuity equation in the context of Bondi and Vaidya's metrics. In the former space-time the flux of gravitational energy is given by the well known expression in terms of the square of the news function. It is known that the energy definition in the realm of the TEGR yields the ADM (Arnowitt-Deser-Misner) energy for appropriate boundary conditions. Here we show that the same energy definition also describes the Bondi energy. The analysis of the continuity equation in Vaidya's space-time shows that the variation of the total gravitational energy is determined by the energy flux of matter only.

  1. An Ensemble Forecast for Geosynchronous Radiation Belt Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S. G.; Young, S. L.; Ling, A.; Perry, K. L.; Li, X.

    2010-12-01

    Steven Nelson1, 2, Shawn Young1, Kara Perry1, 3, Alan Ling1, 4, Xinlin Li5 1. Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Division 2. University of New Mexico 3. Institute of Scientific Research, Boston College 4. Atmosphere and Environmental Research Inc. 5. University of Colorado An ensemble model composed of three functional forecasting models has been developed to forecast >2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous (GEO) orbit. The REFM model is based on a statistical link between electron flux and solar wind speed using empirically derived linear filter coefficients, the Li model solves a radial diffusion equation with a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the solar wind velocity and interplanetary magnetic field, and the fluxpred model is a multi-layer feed-forward neural network with electron flux and Kp as input. A multivariate regression is done on these three independent forecasting methods to produce significantly better predictive results than any of the individual models alone. We will discuss our regression technique, our efforts to optimize it, and we will discuss our calculation of forecast probability.

  2. First air-sea flux mooring measurements in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, E. W.; Josey, S. A.; Verein, R.

    2012-08-01

    The Southern Ocean is a key component of the global climate system: insulating the Antarctic polar region from the subtropics, transferring climate signals throughout the world's oceans and forming the southern component of the global overturning circulation. However, the air-sea fluxes that drive these processes are severely under-observed due to the harsh and remote location. This paucity of reference observations has resulted in large uncertainties in ship-based, numerical weather prediction, satellite and derived flux products. Here, we report observations from the Southern Ocean Flux Station (SOFS); the first successful air-sea flux mooring deployment in this ocean. The mooring was deployed at 47°S, 142°E for March 2010 to March 2011 and returned measurements of near surface meteorological variables and radiative components of the heat exchange. These observations enable the first accurate quantification of the annual cycle of net air-sea heat exchange and wind stress from a Southern Ocean location. They reveal a high degree of variability in the net heat flux with extreme turbulent heat loss events, reaching -470 Wm-2 in the daily mean, associated with cold air flowing from higher southern latitudes. The observed annual mean net air-sea heat flux is a small net ocean heat loss of -10 Wm-2, with seasonal extrema of 139 Wm-2 in January and -79 Wm-2 in July. The novel observations made with the SOFS mooring provide a key point of reference for addressing the high level of uncertainty that currently exists in Southern Ocean air-sea flux datasets.

  3. System having unmodulated flux locked loop for measuring magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2006-08-15

    A system (10) for measuring magnetic fields, wherein the system (10) comprises an unmodulated or direct-feedback flux locked loop (12) connected by first and second unbalanced RF coaxial transmission lines (16a, 16b) to a superconducting quantum interference device (14). The FLL (12) operates for the most part in a room-temperature or non-cryogenic environment, while the SQUID (14) operates in a cryogenic environment, with the first and second lines (16a, 16b) extending between these two operating environments.

  4. Wind tunnel measurements of pollutant turbulent fluxes in urban intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentieri, Matteo; Hayden, Paul; Robins, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    Wind tunnel experiments have been carried out at the EnFlo laboratory to measure mean and turbulent tracer fluxes in geometries of real street canyon intersections. The work was part of the major DAPPLE project, focussing on the area surrounding the intersection between Marylebone Road and Gloucester Place in Central London, UK. Understanding flow and dispersion in urban streets is a very important issue for air quality management and planning, and turbulent mass exchange processes are important phenomena that are very often neglected in urban modelling studies. The adopted methodology involved the combined use of laser Doppler anemometry and tracer concentration measurements. This methodology was applied to quantify the mean and turbulent flow and dispersion fields within several street canyon intersections. Vertical profiles of turbulent tracer flux were also measured. The technique, despite a number of limitations, proved reliable and allowed tracer balance calculations to be undertaken in the selected street canyon intersections. The experience gained in this work will enable much more precise studies in the future as issues affecting the accuracy of the experimental technique have been identified and resolved.

  5. Measurement of autophagy flux in the nervous system in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, K; Valenzuela, V; Matus, S; Nassif, M; Oñate, M; Fuentealba, Y; Encina, G; Irrazabal, T; Parsons, G; Court, F A; Schneider, B L; Armentano, D; Hetz, C

    2013-01-01

    Accurate methods to measure autophagic activity in vivo in neurons are not available, and most of the studies are based on correlative and static measurements of autophagy markers, leading to conflicting interpretations. Autophagy is an essential homeostatic process involved in the degradation of diverse cellular components including organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy impairment is emerging as a relevant factor driving neurodegeneration in many diseases. Moreover, strategies to modulate autophagy have been shown to provide protection against neurodegeneration. Here we describe a novel and simple strategy to express an autophagy flux reporter in the nervous system of adult animals by the intraventricular delivery of adeno-associated viruses (AAV) into newborn mice. Using this approach we efficiently expressed a monomeric tandem mCherry-GFP-LC3 construct in neurons of the peripheral and central nervous system, allowing the measurement of autophagy activity in pharmacological and disease settings. PMID:24232093

  6. The AmeriFlux Network of Long-Term CO{sub 2} Flux Measurement Stations: Methodology and Intercomparability

    SciTech Connect

    Hollinger, D. Y.; Evans, R. S.

    2003-05-20

    A portable flux measurement system has been used within the AmeriFlux network of CO{sub 2} flux measurement stations to enhance the comparability of data collected across the network. No systematic biases were observed in a comparison between portable system and site H, LE, or CO{sub 2} flux values although there were biases observed between the portable system and site measurement of air temperature and PPFD. Analysis suggests that if values from two stations differ by greater than 26% for H, 35% for LE, and 32% for CO{sub 2} flux they are likely to be significant. Methods for improving the intercomparability of the network are also discussed.

  7. Responses of relativistic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt to geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ying; Xie, Lun; Pu, Zuyin; Fu, Suiyan; Chen, Lunjin; Ni, Binbin; Li, Wen; Li, Jinxing; Guo, Ruilong; Parks, G. K.

    2015-11-01

    Geomagnetic storms can either increase or decrease relativistic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt. A statistical survey of 84 isolated storms demonstrates that geomagnetic storms preferentially decrease relativistic electron fluxes at higher energies, while flux enhancements are more common at lower energies. In about 87% of the storms, 0.3-2.5 MeV electron fluxes show an increase, whereas 2.5-14 MeV electron fluxes increase in only 35% of the storms. Superposed epoch analyses suggest that such "energy-dependent" responses of electrons preferably occur during conditions of high solar wind density which is favorable to generate magnetospheric electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, and these events are associated with relatively weaker chorus activities. We have examined one of the cases where observed EMIC waves can resonate effectively with >2.5 MeV electrons and scatter them into the atmosphere. The correlation study further illustrates that electron flux dropouts during storm main phases do not correlate well with the flux buildup during storm recovery phases. We suggest that a combination of efficient EMIC-induced scattering and weaker chorus-driven acceleration provides a viable candidate for the energy-dependent responses of outer radiation belt relativistic electrons to geomagnetic storms. These results are of great interest to both understanding of the radiation belt dynamics and applications in space weather.

  8. Automated Soil Flux Chamber Measurements with Five Species Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and New Realtime Soil Flux Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alstad, Karrin; Saad, Nabil; Tan, Sze

    2015-04-01

    Continuous soil flux chamber measurements remains a key tool for determining production and sequestration of direct and indirect greenhouse gases. Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy has radically simplified soil flux studies by providing simultaneous measurements of five gases: CO2, CH4, N2O, NH3, and H2O in one analyzer (Picarro G2508) and by lending itself to field deployment. Successful use of the Picarro G2508 for continuous soil flux measurements in a variety of ecosystem types has already been demonstrated. Most recently, we have developed a real-time processing software to simplify chamber measurements and calculations of soil flux with the G2508 CRDS analyzer. The new Realtime Soil Flux Processor is designed to work with all chamber types and sizes, and provides a multi-option for real-time flux curve mathematical fitting and generation of flux values of N2O, CO2 & CH4 in addition to NH3 and H2O. The software features include: Sequence table Flexible data tagging feature Ceiling concentration shut-off parameter Set run-time interval Temperature/pressure input for field monitoring and volumetric conversion Manual start/stop override The Realtime Soil Flux Processor GUI interface and functionalities are presented, and results from a variety of sampling designs are demonstrated to emphasize program flexibility and field capability.

  9. Standardization of flux chamber and wind tunnel flux measurements for quantifying emissions from area sources at animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of wind tunnels and flux chambers have been used to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3) at animal feeding operations (AFO). However, there has been little regard to the extreme variation and inaccuracy caused by inappropriate air velocity or sweep air flow...

  10. Numerical study of the effects of boundary conditions on the measurement and calibration of gardon type heat flux sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krane, M.; Dybbs, A.

    1987-01-01

    To monitor the high-intensity heat flux conditions that occur in the space shuttle main engine (SSME), it is necessary to use specifically designed heat flux sensors. These sensors, which are of the Gardon-type, are exposed on the measuring face to high-intensity radiative and convective heat fluxes and on the other face to convective cooling. To improve the calibration and measurement accuracy of these gauges, researchers are studing the effect that the thermal boundary conditions have on gauge performance. In particular, they are studying how convective cooling effects the field inside the sensor and the measured heat flux. The first phase of this study involves a numerical study of these effects. Subsequent phases will involve experimental verification. A computer model of the heat transfer around a Garden-type heat flux sensor was developed. Two specific geometries are being considered are: (1) heat flux sensor mounted on a flat-plate; and (2) heat flux sensor mounted at the stagnation point of a circular cylinder. Both of these configurations are representative of the use of heat flux sensors in the components of the SSME. The purpose of the analysis is to obtain a temperature distribution as a function of the boundary conditions.

  11. PREMAR-3F Momte Carlo simulations of fluorescence and Cherenkov photon flux radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostadinov, I.; Pagnutti, S.; Giovanelli, G.

    Different approaches are deployed for discovering of relativistic particles and further revealing of their physical properties. Recently a noticeable interest is devoted to detecting of Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays (EECRs with E >3x1019 eV) and the High Energy Cosmic Neutrino. The characteristic UV fluorescence emissions and Cherenkov radiation produced as a result of particles-atmosphere interactions provide opportunity to retrieve EECRs physical parameters. A number of ground based facilities are already in operative mode for measuring of abovementioned optical phenomena. However, these facilities are limited to the probed atmospheric volume in comparison to similar scientific equipment proposed to be installed on space platforms. The correct interpretation of these down-looking space-borne measurements requires not only assessment of all factors, e.g. blue jets, airglow, lightning, city and night-sky light, etc., appearing short-lived or continuous atmospheric spectral noise, but to estimate incoming to the instrumental input fluorescence and Cherenkov photon flux. For this purpose PREMAR-3F code, performing Monte-Carlo simulations of the radiative transfer, proves to be very useful. In the code, the observed area can be splitted into sub-areas each with its specific atmospheric model, landscape, sea surface roughness, clouds cover, albedo, spectral noise sources, etc. It provides possibility to evaluate spectral SNR under large variety of scenarios which appear within instrumental FoV. A very useful tool of PREMAR-3F code is the possibility, starting from a reference environment, to evaluate in a unique run, differential effects due to small perturbations, which can be introduced upon given physical parameters. We show and discuss simulations of UV fluorescence and Cherenkov 300-400nm photon flux under single and multi scattering approaches have been performed in attempt to evaluate the detection limit of Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) and to estimate the effects of the known atmospheric optical phenomena under different scenarios.

  12. Heat flux measurements for use in physiological and clothing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermann, R.; Psikuta, A.; Rossi, R. M.

    2014-08-01

    Scientists use passive heat flow meters to measure body heat exchanges with the environment. In recent years, several such sensors have been developed and concerns about their proper calibration have been addressed. However, calibration methods have differed in the geometry of the heated device as well as in the heat transfer mechanism. Therefore, a comparison of calibration methods is needed in order to understand the obtained differences in calibration lines. We chose three commercially available heat flux sensors and placed them on four different heated devices: a hot plate, double hot plate, nude cylinder and a cylinder covered with a spacer material. We found differences between the calibration line of the manufacturer and our own measurements, especially when forced convection was involved as the main heat transfer mechanism. The results showed clearly that the calibration method should be chosen according to the intended purpose of use. In addition, we recommend use a thin, light heat flux sensor with good thermal conduction in human subject studies.

  13. Heat flux measurements for use in physiological and clothing research.

    PubMed

    Niedermann, R; Psikuta, A; Rossi, R M

    2014-08-01

    Scientists use passive heat flow meters to measure body heat exchanges with the environment. In recent years, several such sensors have been developed and concerns about their proper calibration have been addressed. However, calibration methods have differed in the geometry of the heated device as well as in the heat transfer mechanism. Therefore, a comparison of calibration methods is needed in order to understand the obtained differences in calibration lines. We chose three commercially available heat flux sensors and placed them on four different heated devices: a hot plate, double hot plate, nude cylinder and a cylinder covered with a spacer material. We found differences between the calibration line of the manufacturer and our own measurements, especially when forced convection was involved as the main heat transfer mechanism. The results showed clearly that the calibration method should be chosen according to the intended purpose of use. In addition, we recommend use a thin, light heat flux sensor with good thermal conduction in human subject studies. PMID:23824222

  14. Measurement of geothermal flux through poorly consolidated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Munroe, R.J.; Lachenbruch, A.H.

    1968-01-01

    In many regions, crystalline rocks are covered by hundreds of meters of unconsolidated and poorly consolidated sediments. Estimates of heat flux within these sediments using standard continental techniques (temperature and conductivity measurements at intervals of 10 to 30 meters) are unreliable, mainly because of the difficulty in obtaining and preserving representative lengths of core. However, it is sometimes feasible to use what amounts to an oceanographic technique by making closely spaced temperature and conductivity measurements within short cored intervals. This is demonstrated in a borehole at Menlo Park, California (37??27???N, 122??10???W, elevation 16 meters), where heat flows determined over 12 separate 1-meter intervls al lie within 10% of their mean value; 2.2 ??cal/cm2 sec. ?? 1968.

  15. Effects of Magnetic Flux Circulation on Radiation Belt and Ring Current Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, E. J.; Fok, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    The orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) determines the location of the dayside merging line and the magnetic flux circulation patterns. Magnetic flux circulation determines the amount of energy which enters the magnetosphere and ionosphere. We use the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) code to simulate both idealized and real solar wind cases. We use several satellites to validate the LFM simulation results for the real solar wind case studies. With these cases, we examine the magnetic flux circulation under differing IMF orientations. We also use the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) and Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model to examine the inner magnetospheric response to the orientation of the IMF. We will present the different magnetic flux circulation patterns and the resulting effects on the radiation belt and ring current population.

  16. Radiation dose measurements in coronary CT angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sabarudin, Akmal; Sun, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is associated with high radiation dose and this has raised serious concerns in the literature. Awareness of various parameters for dose estimates and measurements of coronary CT angiography plays an important role in increasing our understanding of the radiation exposure to patients, thus, contributing to the implementation of dose-saving strategies. This article provides an overview of the radiation dose quantity and its measurement during coronary CT angiography procedures. PMID:24392190

  17. Energy, Water and CO2 turbulent fluxes measurements over a large reservoir in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potes, Miguel; Salgado, Rui; João Costa, Maria; Rodrigues, Carlos; Serrano, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Exchanges of energy, water, CO2 and momentum were measured between water and air with the new IRGASON eddy-covariance system installed in a floating platform in Alqueva reservoir, southeast of Portugal, with a surface area of 250 km2 and a total capacity of 4150 hm3. This new system is composed with a 3D sonic anemometer and an open-path CO2/ H2O gas analyser. The measurements were performed during the ALqueva hydro-meteorological EXperiment, ALEX 2014, between June and September 2014. ALEX 2014 (http://www.alex2014.cge.uevora.pt) was an integrated field campaign with measurements of chemical, physical and biological parameters at different experimental sites in the reservoir and in its surrounding area. Together with the turbulent fluxes also radiative fluxes, both short and long wave, were measured in the platform in order to assess the radiative balance, and also water temperature profiles were continuously recorded. The estimation of the eddy-covariance evaporation is compared with results obtained from a vat installed in a small island nearby. Thus, with detailed information of the Lake-Atmosphere interactions, it is possible to determine the energy and mass balance of the reservoir.

  18. Measuring Radiation Damage from Heavy Energetic Ions in Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Kostin, M., PI-MSU; Ronningen, R., PI-MSU; Ahle, L., PI-LLNL; Gabriel, T., Scientific Investigation and Development; Mansur, L., PI-ORNL; Leonard, K., ORNL; Mokhov, N., FNAL; Niita, K., RIST, Japan

    2009-02-21

    An intense beam of 122 MeV/u (9.3 GeV) 76Ge ions was stopped in aluminum samples at the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at NSCL, MSU. Attempts were made at ORNL to measure changes in material properties by measuring changes in electrical resistivity and microhardness, and by transmission electron microscopy characterization, for defect density caused by radiation damage, as a function of depth and integrated ion flux. These measurements are relevant for estimating damage to components at a rare isotope beam facility.

  19. Comparison of buried soil sensors, surface chambers and above ground measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) flux is an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Accurate measurements of soil CO2 flux aids determinations of carbon budgets. In this study, we investigated soil CO2 fluxes with time and depth and above ground CO2 fluxes in a bare field. CO2 concentrations w...

  20. Local Heat Flux Measurements with Single Element Coaxial Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregg; Protz, Christopher; Bullard, Brad; Hulka, James

    2006-01-01

    To support the mission for the NASA Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a program in 2005 to improve the capability to predict local thermal compatibility and heat transfer in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. The ultimate objective was to predict and hence reduce the local peak heat flux due to injector design, resulting in a significant improvement in overall engine reliability and durability. Such analyses are applicable to combustion devices in booster, upper stage, and in-space engines, as well as for small thrusters with few elements in the injector. In this program, single element and three-element injectors were hot-fire tested with liquid oxygen and ambient temperature gaseous hydrogen propellants at The Pennsylvania State University Cryogenic Combustor Laboratory from May to August 2005. Local heat fluxes were measured in a 1-inch internal diameter heat sink combustion chamber using Medtherm coaxial thermocouples and Gardon heat flux gauges. Injectors were tested with shear coaxial and swirl coaxial elements, including recessed, flush and scarfed oxidizer post configurations, and concentric and non-concentric fuel annuli. This paper includes general descriptions of the experimental hardware, instrumentation, and results of the hot-fire testing for three of the single element injectors - recessed-post shear coaxial with concentric fuel, flush-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel, and scarfed-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel. Detailed geometry and test results will be published elsewhere to provide well-defined data sets for injector development and model validatation.

  1. Method for radiation detection and measurement

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.D.

    1993-12-21

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength. 9 figures.

  2. Measurement of Turbulent Water Vapor Fluxes from Lightweight Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. M.; Ramanathan, V.; Nguyen, H.; Lehmann*, K.

    2010-12-01

    Scientists at the Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate (C4) at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have successfully used Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) for measurements of radiation fluxes, aerosol concentrations and cloud microphysical properties. Building on this success, a payload to measure water vapor fluxes using the eddy covariance (EC) technique has been recently developed and tested. To our knowledge this is the first UAS turbulent flux system to incorporate high-frequency water vapor measurements. The driving aim of the water vapor flux system’s development is to investigate ‘atmospheric rivers’ in the north-western Pacific Ocean, these can lead to sporadic yet extreme rainfall and flooding events upon landfall in California. Such a flux system may also be used to investigate other weather events (e.g. the formation of hurricanes) and offers a powerful aerosol-cloud-radiative forcing investigative tool when combined with the existing aerosol/radiation and cloud microphysics UAS payloads. The atmospheric vertical wind component (w) is derived by this system at up to 100Hz using data from a GPS/Inertial Measurement Unit (GPS/IMU) combined with a fast-response gust probe mounted on the UAV. Measurements of w are then combined with equally high frequency water vapor data (collected using a Campbell Scientific Krypton Hygrometer) to calculate latent heat fluxes (λE). Two test flights were conducted at the NASA Dryden test facility on 27th May 2010, located in the Mojave Desert. Horizontal flight legs were recorded at four altitudes between 1000-2500 masl within the convective boundary layer. Preliminary data analysis indicates averaged spectral data follow the theoretical -5/3 slope , and extrapolation of the flux profile to the surface resulted in λE of 1.6 W m-2; in good agreement with 1.0 W m-2 λE measured by NOAA from a surface tower using standard flux techniques. The system performance during the Dryden test, as well as subsequent wind tunnel investigations and the outcomes from test flights planned for September 2010 at a marine location are discussed. Acknowledgments We would like to acknowledge the significant contributions to this system made by the late Katrin Lehmann whose life was tragically cut short by a hiking accident. Katrin was responsible for the initial design, construction and programming of the UAS elements, and in doing so laid solid foundations for the system. We are indebted to NOAA, for funding this project through the research grant NOAA NA17RJ1231. Thank you also to Mike Marston of NASA, the BAE systems crew Phillip Corcoran and Rafael Gaytan, and Mike Rizen of UCSD Physics workshop for their mission roles. We would also like to thank NSF for long term support of the C4 UAS Program.

  3. "Influence Method" applied to measure a moderated neutron flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, I. J.; Mayer, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    The "Influence Method" is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector, in the count rate of another detector when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency. The method and its detailed mathematical description were recently published (Rios and Mayer, 2015 [1]). In this article we apply it to the measurement of the moderated neutron flux produced by an 241AmBe neutron source surrounded by a light water sphere, employing a pair of 3He detectors. For this purpose, the method is extended for its application where particles arriving at the detector obey a Poisson distribution and also, for the case when efficiency is not constant over the energy spectrum of interest. Experimental distributions and derived parameters are compared with theoretical predictions of the method and implications concerning the potential application to the absolute calibration of neutron sources are considered.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  5. Radiative flux emitted by a burning PMMA slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parent, G.; Acem, Z.; Collin, A.; Berfroi, R.; Boulet, P.; Pizzo, Y.; Mindykowski, P.; Kaiss, A.; Porterie, B.

    2012-11-01

    The degradation of a PMMA sample has been studied based on experimental results obtained for the radiation emission by a burning slab. Observations of the infrared emission perpendicular to the plate, in the range where the optically thin flame is weakly emitting, indicate a plate temperature close to 680 K which is an indication on the surface temperature during the degradation process. Observations from the side allow a flame characterization without the plate emission superimposition. This is a promising way for evaluating data regarding the flame characteristics: temperature, gaz concentration and soot volumetric fraction.

  6. Estimation of surface heat and moisture fluxes over a prairie grassland. I - In situ energy budget measurements incorporating a cooled mirror dew point hygrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Crosson, William L.; Tanner, Bertrand D.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is focused on in situ measurements taken during FIFE required to support the development and validation of a biosphere model. Seasonal time series of surface flux measurements obtained from two surface radiation and energy budget stations utilized to support the FIFE surface flux measurement subprogram are examined. Data collection and processing procedures are discussed along with the measurement analysis for the complete 1987 test period.

  7. Radiation: Physical Characterization and Environmental Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP4, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Production of Neutrons from Interactions of GCR-Like Particles; Solar Particle Event Dose Distributions, Parameterization of Dose-Time Profiles; Assessment of Nuclear Events in the Body Produced by Neutrons and High-Energy Charged Particles; Ground-Based Simulations of Cosmic Ray Heavy Ion Interactions in Spacecraft and Planetary Habitat Shielding Materials; Radiation Measurements in Space Missions; Radiation Measurements in Civil Aircraft; Analysis of the Pre-Flight and Post-Flight Calibration Procedures Performed on the Liulin Space Radiation Dosimeter; and Radiation Environment Monitoring for Astronauts.

  8. Convenient integrating sphere scanner for accurate luminous flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, S.; Lindemann, M.; Jordan, W.; Binder, U.; Anokhin, M.

    2009-08-01

    Measurement results and applications of a recently developed device for the measurement of the spatial uniformity of integrating spheres are presented. Due to the complexity of their implementation, sphere scanners are mainly used by national metrology institutes to increase the accuracy of relative and absolute luminous flux measurements (Ohno et al 1997 J. IES 26 107-14, Ohno and Daubach 2001 J. IES 30 105-15, Ohno 1998 Metrologia 35 473-8, Hovila et al 2004 Metrologia 41 407-13). The major drawback of traditional scanners for integrating spheres is the necessity of a complex and time-consuming sphere modification, as the lamp holder has to be replaced by a new scanner holder with additional cables for power supply and for communication with the stepping motor control unit (Ohno et al 1997 J. IES 26 107-14). Therefore, with traditional scanners the relative spatial sphere responsivity already changes due to the installation of a special scanner holder. The new scanner simply substitutes the lamp under test: it can be screwed into an E27 lamp socket, as it needs only two electrical contacts. Two wires are simultaneously used for the power supply of the stepping motor control unit, the scanner light source (LED) and for the signal transmission of commands and results. The benefits of scanner-assisted measurements are shown for spotlight lamp calibrations.

  9. Measurements of the total ion flux from vacuum arc cathodespots

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu; Savkin,Konstantin P.; Brown, Ian G.; Nikolaev, Alexey G.

    2005-05-25

    The ion flux from vacuum arc cathode spots was measured in two vacuum arc systems. The first was a vacuum arc ion source which was modified allowing us to collect ions from arc plasma streaming through an anode mesh. The second discharge system essentially consisted of a cathode placed near the center of a spherically shaped mesh anode. In both systems, the ion current streaming through the mesh was measured by a biased collector. The mesh anodes had geometric transmittances of 60 percent and 72 percent, respectively, which were taken into account as correction factors. The ion current from different cathode materials was measured for 50-500 A of arc current. The ion current normalized by the arc current was found to depend on the cathode material, with values in the range from 5 percent to 19 percent. The normalized ion current is generally greater for elements of low cohesive energy. The ion erosion rates were determined from values of ion current and ion charge states, which were previously measured in the same ion source. The absolute ion erosion rates range from 16-173 mu g/C.

  10. Radiation Environment Variations at Mars - Model Calculations and Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saganti, Premkumar; Cucinotta, Francis

    Variations in the space radiation environment due to changes in the GCR (Galactic Cosmic Ray) from the past (#23) solar cycle to the current one (#24) has been intriguing in many ways, with an unprecedented long duration of the recent solar minimum condition and a very low peak activity of the current solar maximum. Model calculated radiation data and assessment of variations in the particle flux - protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions of the GCR environment is essential for understanding radiation risk and for any future intended long-duration human exploration missions. During the past solar cycle, we have had most active and higher solar maximum (2001-2003) condition. In the beginning of the current solar cycle (#24), we experienced a very long duration of solar minimum (2009-2011) condition with a lower peak activity (2013-2014). At Mars, radiation measurements in orbit were obtained (onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft) during the past (#23) solar maximum condition. Radiation measurements on the surface of Mars are being currently measured (onboard the Mars Science Laboratory, 2012 - Curiosity) during the current (#24) solar peak activity (August 2012 - present). We present our model calculated radiation environment at Mars during solar maxima for solar cycles #23 and #24. We compare our earlier model calculations (Cucinotta et al., J. Radiat. Res., 43, S35-S39, 2002; Saganti et al., J. Radiat. Res., 43, S119-S124, 2002; and Saganti et al., Space Science Reviews, 110, 143-156, 2004) with the most recent radiation measurements on the surface of Mars (2012 - present).

  11. Reentrant albedo proton fluxes measured by the PAMELA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; Donato, C. De; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Di Felice, V.; Formato, V.; Galper, A. M.; Karelin, A. V.; Koldashov, S. V.; Koldobskiy, S.; Krutkov, S. Y.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Leonov, A.; Malakhov, V.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mayorov, A. G.; Menn, W.; Mergé, M.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sarkar, R.; Scotti, V.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Y. I.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Voronov, S. A.; Yurkin, Y. T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.

    2015-05-01

    We present a precise measurement of downward going albedo proton fluxes for kinetic energy above ˜70 MeV performed by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) experiment at an altitude between 350 and 610 km. On the basis of a trajectory tracing simulation, the analyzed protons were classified into quasi-trapped, concentrating in the magnetic equatorial region, and untrapped spreading over all latitudes, including both short-lived (precipitating) and long-lived (pseudotrapped) components. In addition, features of the penumbra region around the geomagnetic cutoff were investigated in detail. PAMELA results significantly improve the characterization of the high-energy albedo proton populations at low-Earth orbits.

  12. Measurement of particulate matter emission fluxes from a beef cattle feedlot using Flux-gradient technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data on air emissions from open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas using the flux-gradient technique, a widely-used micrometeorological method for gaseous emissions from open sources. V...

  13. Characterization of Liulin MDU measurements in near Earth radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachev, Tsvetan

    Comprehensive study of the dose, flux and spectra data obtained by Liulin MDU measurements on spacecrafts (4 different experiments) and aircrafts since 2001 is performed with the aid to understand how well these parameters can characterize the near Earth radiation environment. It is found that the most informative is the form of the spectrum of the deposited energy. Different places of the maximums can be analyzed as difference in the energy and type of the incoming radiation. Spectra, which contain only one maximum in the second channel corresponding to 150 keV energy depositions, are obtained inside of pure GCR component from relativistic protons or their secondaries. Protons spectra inside of the south-east part of inner radiation belt do have maximums, which are moved toward higher energy depositions of about 1 MeV, because lower incident energy (60 MeV and lower) of the incoming protons. Spectra generated by high energy electrons in the other radiation belt have a wide maximum in the first 6 channels. Mixed radiation by protons and electrons and/or bremsstrahlung is characterized by spectra with 2 maximums. Dose to flux ratio known also as specific dose is another high information parameter, which is giving trough the Heffner's formulas the exact incident energy of the particles. New space research projects are also shortly presented.

  14. Measurement and Applications of Radiation Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dakang; Garrett, Joseph; Murray, Joseph; Munday, Jeremy; Munday Lab Team

    Light reflected off a material or absorbed within it exerts radiation pressure through the transfer of momentum. Measuring and utilizing radiation pressure have aroused growing interest in a wide spectrum of research fields. Micromechanical transducers and oscillators are good candidates for measuring radiation pressure, but accompanying photothermal effects often obscure the measurement. In this work, we investigate the accurate measurement of the radiation force on microcantilevers in ambient conditions and ways to separate radiation pressure and photothermal effects. Further, we investigate an optically broadband switchable device based on polymer dispersed liquid crystal which has potential applications in solar sails and maneuvering spacecraft without moving parts. The authors would like to thank NASA Early Career Faculty Award and NASA Smallsat Technology Partnership Award for their funding support.

  15. An information theory approach for evaluating earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements - Nonuniform sampling of reflected shortwave radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Direskeneli, Haldun; Halyo, Nesim

    1992-01-01

    An information theory approach to examine the temporal nonuniform sampling characteristics of shortwave (SW) flux for earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements is suggested. The information gain is computed by computing the information content before and after the measurements. A stochastic diurnal model for the SW flux is developed, and measurements for different orbital parameters are examined. The methodology is applied to specific NASA Polar platform and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) orbital parameters. The information theory approach, coupled with the developed SW diurnal model, is found to be promising for measurements involving nonuniform orbital sampling characteristics.

  16. Critical radiation fluxes and luminosities of black holes and relativistic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Frederick K.; Miller, M. Coleman

    1995-01-01

    The critial luminosity at which the outward force of radiation balances the inward force of gravity plays an important role in many astrophysical systems. We present expressions for the radiation force on particles with arbitrary cross sections and analyze the radiation field produced by radiating matter, such as a disk, ring, boundary layer, or stellar surface, that rotates slowly around a slowly rotating gravitating mass. We then use these results to investigate the critical radiation flux and, where possible, the critical luminosity of such a system in genral relativity. We demonstrate that if the radiation source is axisymmetric and emission is back-front symmetric with repect to the local direction of motion of the radiating matter, as seen in the comoving frame, then the radial component of the radiation flux and the diagonal components of the radiation stress-energy tensor outside the source are the same, to first order in the rotation rates, as they would be if the radiation source and gravitating mass were not rotating. We argue that the critical radiation flux for matter at rest in the locally nonrotating frame is often satisfactory as an astrophysical benchmark flux and show that if this benchmark is adopted, many of the complications potentially introduced by rotation of the radiation source and the gravitating mass are avoided. We show that if the radiation field in the absence of rotation would be spherically symmetric and the opacity is independent of frequency and direction, one can define a critical luminosity for the system that is independent of frequency and direction, one can define a critical luminosity for the system that is independent of the spectrum and angular size of the radiation source and is unaffected by rotation of the source and mass and orbital motion of the matter, to first order. Finally, we analyze the conditions under which the maximum possible luminosity of a star or black hole powered by steady spherically symmetric radial accretion is the same in general relativity as in the Newtonian limit.

  17. Yeast dynamic metabolic flux measurement in nutrient-rich media by HPLC and accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Benjamin J; Navid, Ali; Turteltaub, Kenneth W; Bench, Graham

    2010-12-01

    Metabolic flux, the flow of metabolites through networks of enzymes, represents the dynamic productive output of cells. Improved understanding of intracellular metabolic fluxes will enable targeted manipulation of metabolic pathways of medical and industrial importance to a greater degree than is currently possible. Flux balance analysis (FBA) is a constraint-based approach to modeling metabolic fluxes, but its utility is limited by a lack of experimental measurements. Incorporation of experimentally measured fluxes as system constraints will significantly improve the overall accuracy of FBA. We applied a novel, two-tiered approach in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to measure nutrient consumption rates (extracellular fluxes) and a targeted intracellular flux using a (14)C-labeled precursor with HPLC separation and flux quantitation by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The use of AMS to trace the intracellular fate of (14)C-glutamine allowed the calculation of intracellular metabolic flux through this pathway, with glutathione as the metabolic end point. Measured flux values provided global constraints for the yeast FBA model which reduced model uncertainty by more than 20%, proving the importance of additional constraints in improving the accuracy of model predictions and demonstrating the use of AMS to measure intracellular metabolic fluxes. Our results highlight the need to use intracellular fluxes to constrain the models. We show that inclusion of just one such measurement alone can reduce the average variability of model predicted fluxes by 10%. PMID:21062031

  18. Using passive capillary lysimeter water flux measurements to improve flow predictions in variably saturated soils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Passive capillary lysimeters (PCLs) are uniquely suited for measuring water fluxes in variably-saturated soils. The objective of this work was to compare PCL flux measurements with simulated fluxes obtained with a calibrated unsaturated flow model. The Richards equation-based model was calibrated us...

  19. Standardization of flux chambers and wind tunnels for area source emission measurements at animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers and practitioners have used many varied designs of wind tunnels and flux chambers to measure the flux of volatile organic compounds, odor, and ammonia from area sources at animal feeding operations. The measured fluxes are used to estimate emission factors or compare treatments. We sho...

  20. Careful Measurements and Energy Balance Closure - The Case of Soil Heat Flux

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An area of persistent concern in micrometeorological measurements is the failure to close the energy balance at surface flux stations. While most attention has focused on corrections associated with the eddy fluxes, none of the energy balance terms are measured without error. The flux plate method i...

  1. Unfolding first and second order diffracted radiation when using synchrotron radiation sources - A technique. [irradiance measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saloman, E. B.

    1975-01-01

    A technique is presented of using a single calibrated XUV detector for radiometric measurements of synchrotron radiation after the radiation passes through a monochromator that produces a mixture of first- and second-order diffracted radiation. Irradiance measurements are made with the synchrotron source operating at two different energies for the orbiting electrons. The known change in the spectral distribution produced by the electron energy change is used to calculate the flux in both first and second order. The dependence of the precision of these determinations on the two detected currents and on the detector calibration at both first- and second-order wavelengths is calculated. Experimental results using the National Bureau of Standards synchrotron (SURF-I) are presented, and anticipated results for the new NBS electron storage ring (SURF-II) are calculated.

  2. Water flux measurement and prediction in young cashew trees using sap flow data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguntunde, Philip G.; van de Giesen, Nick

    2005-10-01

    Measurements of sap flow, meteorological parameters, soil water content and tension were made for 4 months in a young cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) plantation during the 2002 rainy season in Ejura, Ghana. This experiment was part of a sustainable water management project in West Africa. The Granier system was used to measure half-hourly whole-tree sap flow. Weather variables were observed with an automatic weather station, whereas soil moisture and tension were measured with a Delta-T profile probe and tensiometers respectively. Clearness index (CI), a measure of the sky condition, was significantly correlated with tree transpiration (r2 = 0.73) and potential evaporation (r2 = 0.86). Both diurnal and daily stomata conductance were poorly correlated with the climatic variables. Estimated daily canopy conductance gc ranged from 4.0 to 21.2 mm s-1, with a mean value of 8.0 +/- 3.3 mm s-1. Water flux variation was related to a range of environmental variables: soil water content, air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity and vapour pressure deficit. Linear and non-linear regression models, as well as a modified Priestley-Taylor formula, were fitted with transpiration, and the well-correlated variables, using half-hourly measurements. Measured and predicted transpiration using these regression models were in good agreement, with r2 ranging from 0.71 to 0.84. The computed measure of accuracy indicated that a non-linear model is better than its corresponding linear one. Furthermore, solar radiation, CI, clouds and rain were found to influence tree water flux.

  3. Determination of Top-of-Atmosphere Longwave Radiative Fluxes: A Comparison Between Two Approaches Using ScaRaB Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ting; Rossow, William B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Two conceptually different approaches (broadband-based ERBE and narrowband-based ISCCP approaches), used to derive the TOA longwave radiative fluxes, are compared using the ScaRaB simultaneous narrowband and broadband measurements. This study directly shows that the ERBE MLE-derived cloud covers implicitly contain some information on the cloud optical properties. A spurious view-zenith-angle dependence of the MLE scene identification scheme is confirmed by this study. Except for very thin cirrus clouds, differences between the ERBE and ISCCP approaches are in general < 10 W/sq m for the TOA LW radiative fluxes. For clear pixels, the model calculated (ISCCP approach) TOA LW radiances are systematically smaller than the observations. Though the bias is found to be correlated on the column precipitable water amount, the exact source of this discrepancy remains undetermined and merits further study. Compared with the radiative transfer model used in this study, the ERBE LW ADMs are too weakly limb-darkened for optically thin clouds, but too strongly limb-darkened for optically thick clouds, indicating that more accurate instantaneous TOA LW flux estimations from the ERBE approach would require additional cloud classes based on cloud height and optical thickness.

  4. UV RADIATION MEASUREMENTS/ATMOSPHERIC CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an ecosystem stressor and poses a human health risk, the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has undertaken a research program to measure the intensity of UV-B radiation at various locations throughout the U.S. In Septem...

  5. Vacuum photoelectronic devices for measuring pulsed radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovskii, A. G.; Veretennikov, A. I.; Kozlov, O. V.

    The design of these devices is discussed, and data are presented on their characteristics. These vacuum photoelectronic devices comprise photocells, photomultipliers, and electrooptical transducers designed for measuring pulsed radiation of nanosecond and subnanosecond duration. The fluctuation characteristics of the devices are examined, and their use in detectors of pulsed luminous and ionizing radiation is considered.

  6. A multigrid Newton-Krylov method for flux-limited radiation diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, W.J.; Knoll, D.A.; Olson, G.L.

    1998-09-01

    The authors focus on the integration of radiation diffusion including flux-limited diffusion coefficients. The nonlinear integration is accomplished with a Newton-Krylov method preconditioned with a multigrid Picard linearization of the governing equations. They investigate the efficiency of the linear and nonlinear iterative techniques.

  7. Boundary Heat Fluxes for Spectral Radiation from a Uniform Temperature Rectangular Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The effect of spectral behavior is analytically shown for radiation in a 2D rectangular geometry. The solution provides exact boundary heat flux values that can be used for comparison with values obtained from general computer programs. The spectral solution presented can be easily evaluated by numerical integration for complex variations of the spectral absorption coefficient with wavelength.

  8. Mathematical modeling for the forest fuel layer ignition caused by focused solar radiation flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovskiy, Nikolay V.

    2015-11-01

    Forest fuel layer ignition conditions analysis by focused flow of sunlight is lead. Scenarios of simulation corresponds to occurrence of forest fire as result of focused flux of sunlight influence on forest fuel layer. Scenarios calculations taking into account various intensity of radiation are lead. Recommendations on the further development of this component of determined model are submitted.

  9. Solar Modulation of Inner Trapped Belt Radiation Flux as a Function of Atmospheric Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lodhi, M. A. K.

    2005-01-01

    No simple algorithm seems to exist for calculating proton fluxes and lifetimes in the Earth's inner, trapped radiation belt throughout the solar cycle. Most models of the inner trapped belt in use depend upon AP8 which only describes the radiation environment at solar maximum and solar minimum in Cycle 20. One exception is NOAAPRO which incorporates flight data from the TIROS/NOAA polar orbiting spacecraft. The present study discloses yet another, simple formulation for approximating proton fluxes at any time in a given solar cycle, in particular between solar maximum and solar minimum. It is derived from AP8 using a regression algorithm technique from nuclear physics. From flux and its time integral fluence, one can then approximate dose rate and its time integral dose.

  10. Controls on the seasonality of photosynthesis across the Amazon basin -A cross-site analysis of eddy flux tower measurements from the Brasil flux network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Saleska, S. R.; Da Rocha, H. R.

    2009-04-01

    The Amazon Basin is categorized as a terrestrial biogeochemical "hotspot" where climate change and deforestation can trigger substantial changes on atmospheric CO. However, model skill at predicting seasonality of photosynthetic metabolism and ecosystem productivity in the Amazon is limited. To enhance our understanding of these processes, we investigated the seasonal and spatial patterns of Amazonian forest photosynthetic activity by integrating data from a network of ground-based eddy flux towers in Brazil established as part of the ‘Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia' project. We present the results of a simple model of leaf-flush for two central Amazon BrasilFlux sites, based on the eddy covariance estimates of canopy photosynthetic capacity (Pc) and measured canopy structure parameters. We found that in contrast to studies of Amazon evapotranspiration, which is highly correlated with available energy, Amazon ecosystem photosynthetic flux surprisingly showed no simple relationship with measures of available energy. We hypothesize that the seasonality of Amazon photosynthesis is controlled by the interaction of adaptive mechanisms (which biologically determine photosynthetic capacity through leaf flush and litter fall seasonality) and sunlight availability (which determines the fraction of photosynthetic capacity utilized). Equatorial climates advantage vegetation that can grow leaves in the dry season, when surface solar radiation peaks, but southerly sites may not because of reduced seasonality in surface radiation.

  11. Seasonal Characteristics of Surface Meteorological and Radiative Fluxes on the East Rongbuk Glacier in Mt. Qomolangma (the Mt. Everest) Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Zhang, T.; Qin, D.; Kang, S.; Qin, X.; Liu, H.

    2008-12-01

    Ground-based measurements are essential for understanding alpine glacier dynamics, especially in remote regions where in-situ measurements are extremely limited. The meteorological and radiative fluxes were measured over the accumulation area on the East Rongbuk Glacier, Mt. Qomolangma (the Mt. Everest) at elevation of 6,560 m a.s.l. Measurements were conducted using an automatic weather station (AWS) from May 1 through July 22, 2005 (spring-summer period) and from October 2 of 2007 through January 20 of 2008 (autumn-winter period). Surface meteorological and radiative characteristics were strongly controlled by two major synoptic circulation regimes: the southwesterly Indian monsoon regime in summer and the westerlies in winter. At the AWS site on the East Rongbuk Glacier, north or northwest winds prevail with higher wind speed (up to 35 ms-1 in January) in winter and south or southeast winds predominate after the onset of the southwesterly Indian monsoon with relatively low wind speed in summer. Intensity of incoming shortwave radiation is extremely high due to its high elevation and high reflective surrounding surface. The striking feature is that the observed 10-minute mean incoming shortwave radiative fluxes around local noon were frequently higher than the solar constant at the top of the atmosphere from May through July, 2005. The observed higher-than-solar-constant values are mainly due to the impact of local convective broken clouds and high surface reflectivity over the surrounding terrains. We estimated that horizontal component of received diffusive solar radiation from surrounding terrains ranged from 140 to 310 Wm-2, accounting for about 10 to 25% of the observed incoming shortwave radiation under clear sky conditions. This value could be even higher under overcast cloudy days. The mean surface albedo ranged from 0.72 during summer- spring period and 0.69 during the autumn-winter period. The atmospheric incoming longwave radiation was strongly controlled by cloud conditions and atmospheric moisture content. Overall impact of clouds on net radiation balance is negative in Mt. Qomolangma region. The daily mean net all-wave radiation was positive during the entire spring-summer period and mostly positive during the autumn-winter period except a few overcast cloudy days. On monthly basis, net all-wave radiation was always positive.

  12. Solar-Radiation Measuring Equipment and Glossary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, E. A.; Patel, A. M.; Greenbaum, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    1976 listing of commercially available solar-radiation measuring equipment is presented in 50-page report. Sensor type, response time, cost data, and comments concerning specifications and intended usage are listed for 145 instruments from 38 manufactures.

  13. A Summary of Mass Flux Measurements in Solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallock, R. B.; Ray, M. W.; Vekhov, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we provide a summary and brief review of some of the work done with solid 4He at the University of Massachusetts Amherst below a sample pressure of 28 bar. The motivation for the work has been to attempt to pass 4He atoms through solid 4He without directly applying mechanical pressure to the solid itself. The specific technique chosen is limited to pressures near the melting curve and was initially designed to provide a yes/no answer to the question of whether or not it might be possible to observe such a mass flux. The thermo-mechanical effect and direct mass injection have been separately used to create chemical potential differences between two reservoirs of superfluid 4He connected to each other through superfluid-filled Vycor rods in series with solid 4He, which is in the hcp region of the phase diagram. The thermo-mechanical effect is a more versatile approach. And, in a particular symmetric application it is designed to provide a mass flux with little or no net increase in the density of the solid. Our observations, off but near the melting curve, have included: (1) the presence of an increasing DC flux of atoms through the solid-filled cell with decreasing temperature below ≈650 mK and no flux above this temperature; (2) the presence of a flux minimum and flux instability in the vicinity of 75-80 mK, with a flux increase at lower temperatures; (3) the temperature dependence of the flux above 100 mK and the dependence of the flux on the net driving chemical potential difference provide interesting insights on the possible mechanism that leads to the flux above 100 mK. The most recent data suggest that whatever is responsible for the flux in solid 4He, at least for T>100 mK, may be an example of a Bosonic Luttinger liquid.

  14. Techniques for radiation measurements: microdosimetry and dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Waker, A J

    2006-01-01

    Experimental microdosimetry is concerned with the determination of radiation quality and how this can be specified in terms of the distribution of energy deposition arising from the interaction of a radiation field with a particular target site. This paper discusses various techniques that have been developed to measure radiation energy deposition over the three orders of magnitude of site-size; nanometer, micrometer and millimetre, which radiation biology suggests is required to fully account for radiation quality. Inevitably, much of the discussion will concern the use of tissue-equivalent proportional counters and variants of this device, but other technologies that have been studied, or are under development, for their potential in experimental microdosimetry are also covered. Through an examination of some of the quantities used in radiation metrology and dosimetry the natural link with microdosimetric techniques will be shown and the particular benefits of using microdosimetric methods for dosimetry illustrated. PMID:17223638

  15. Satellite interferometric measurements of auroral kilometric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumback, M. M.; Gurnett, D. A.; Calvert, W.; Shawhan, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    The first satellite interferometric measurements of auroral kilometric radiation were performed by cross-correlating the waveforms detected by the ISEE 1 and ISEE 2 spacecraft. High correlations were found for all projected baselines, with little or no tendency to decrease even for the longest baselines. For incoherent radiation, the correlation as a function of the baseline is the Fourier transform of the source brightness distribution, implying an average source region diameter for all of the bursts analyzed of less than about 10 km. For such small source diameters, the required growth rates are too large to be explained by existing incoherent theories, strongly indicating that the radiation must be coherent. For coherent radiation, an upper limit to the source region diameter can be inferred instead from the angular width of the radiation pattern. The angular width of the radiation pattern must be at least 2.5 deg, implying that the diameter of the source must be less than about 20 km.

  16. Trace element measurements using white synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Pounds, J.G.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.

    1986-11-10

    Synchrotron radiation, when used for x-ray fluorescence (XRF) has several advantages over conventional x-ray sources. Our group at Brookhaven National Laboratory is developing the equipment and expertise to make XRF measurements with synchrotron radiation. The apparatus is briefly described, along with the alignment techniques. Some minimum detectable limits for trace elements in thin biological standards measured with white light irradiations are presented.

  17. Aeolian sediment fluxes measured over various plant/soil complexes in the Chihuahuan desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergametti, G.; Gillette, D. A.

    2010-09-01

    Measurements of horizontal flux of sediment were performed over the period 1998-2005 at different vegetated areas within the Jornada Long Term Ecological Research site. Sediment trap samples were collected during successive nominal 3-month periods at 15 sites: three independent sites at each of the five dominant plant/soil complexes encountered in this part of the Chihuahuan desert (mesquite, creosote, tarbush, grama grass, and playa grass). Mesquite vegetated areas have significantly higher sediment fluxes than the four other plant/soil complexes. The other types of vegetation complexes yield sediment fluxes that cannot be statistically distinguished from each other. An analysis of the temporal variability of the sediment fluxes indicates that only the annual sediment fluxes from mesquite sites are correlated with the annual occurrence of high wind speeds. Examination of the vertical profile of the fluxes of sediment and the fast response Sensit measurements confirms that a local saltation mechanism is responsible for sediment fluxes measured at mesquite sites. However, the local saltation mechanism cannot explain sediment fluxes measured on nonmesquite sites. Sediment fluxes at nonmesquite sites are only rarely carried in from upwind sources. Additionally, our data for sediment flux showed that off-site (drifting in) flux of sediment cannot explain the differences of mesquite and nonmesquite sediment fluxes. We suggest dust devils to be the mechanism that causes sediment emissions at both nonmesquite and mesquite lands, but their effect is trivial compared to the fluxes caused by mesoscale meteorological winds at the mesquite sites.

  18. Eddy covariance and lysimeter measurements of moisture fluxes over supraglacial debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Supraglacial debris covers have the potential to evaporate large quantities of water derived from either sub-debris ice melt or precipitation. Currently, knowledge of evaporation and condensation rates in supraglacial debris is limited due to the difficulty of making direct measurements. This paper presents eddy covariance and lysimeter measurements of moisture fluxes made over a 0.2 m debris layer at Miage debris covered glacier, Italian Alps, during the 2013 ablation season. The meteorological data are complimented by reflectometer measurements of volumetric water fraction in the saturated and vadose zones of the debris layer. The lysimeters were designed specifically to mimic the debris cover and were embedded within the debris matrix, level with the surface. Over the ablation season, the latent heat flux is dominated by evaporation, and the flux magnitude closely follows the daily cycle of daytime solar heating and night time radiative cooling of debris. Mean flux values are of the order of 1 kg m-2 day-1, but often higher for short periods following rainfall. Condensation rates are relatively small and restricted to night time and humid conditions when the debris-atmosphere vapour pressure gradient reverses due to relatively warm air overlying cold debris. The reflectometer measurements provide evidence of vertical water movement through capillary rise in the upper part of the fine-grained debris layer, just above the saturated horizon, and demonstrate how debris bulk water content increases after rainfall. The latent heat flux responds directly to changes in wind speed, indicating that atmospheric turbulence can penetrate porous upper debris layers to the saturated horizon. Hence, vertical sorting of debris sediments and antecedent rainfall are important in determining evaporation rates, in addition to current meteorological conditions. Comparison of lysimeter measurements with rainfall data provides an estimate that between 45% and 89% of rainfall is evaporated directly back to the atmosphere. Rainfall evaporation rates increase with debris impermeability and temperature, with highest rates occurring when a shower falls on hot debris. If these point measurements are representative of larger scales, evaporation rates of the order of 1000 tonnes km-2 day-1 are implied, with higher rates following rainfall. This has important implications for downstream runoff, sub-debris ice melt rates (due to consumption of evaporative latent heat energy) and, possibly, convective atmospheric processes.

  19. Sensitivity of modelled sulfate radiative forcing to DMS concentration and air-sea flux formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesdal, J.-E.; Christian, J. R.; Monahan, A. H.; von Salzen, K.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we use an atmospheric general circulation model with explicit aerosol chemistry (CanAM4.1) and several climatologies of surface ocean DMS concentration to assess uncertainties about the climate impact of ocean DMS efflux. Despite substantial variation in the spatial pattern and seasonal evolution of simulated DMS fluxes, the global mean radiative forcing is approximately linearly proportional to the global mean surface flux of DMS; the spatial and temporal distribution of ocean DMS efflux has only a minor effect on the global radiation balance. The effect of the spatial structure, however, generates statistically significant changes in the global mean concentrations of some aerosol species. The effect of seasonality on net radiative forcing is larger than that of spatial distribution, and is significant at global scale.

  20. Radiative flux and forcing parameterization error in aerosol-free clear skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincus, Robert; Mlawer, Eli J.; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Baek, Sunghye; Brath, Manfred; Buehler, Stefan A.; Cady-Pereira, Karen E.; Cole, Jason N. S.; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Kelley, Maxwell; Li, Jiangnan; Manners, James; Paynter, David J.; Roehrig, Romain; Sekiguchi, Miho; Schwarzkopf, Daniel M.

    2015-07-01

    This article reports on the accuracy in aerosol- and cloud-free conditions of the radiation parameterizations used in climate models. Accuracy is assessed relative to observationally validated reference models for fluxes under present-day conditions and forcing (flux changes) from quadrupled concentrations of carbon dioxide. Agreement among reference models is typically within 1 W/m2, while parameterized calculations are roughly half as accurate in the longwave and even less accurate, and more variable, in the shortwave. Absorption of shortwave radiation is underestimated by most parameterizations in the present day and has relatively large errors in forcing. Error in present-day conditions is essentially unrelated to error in forcing calculations. Recent revisions to parameterizations have reduced error in most cases. A dependence on atmospheric conditions, including integrated water vapor, means that global estimates of parameterization error relevant for the radiative forcing of climate change will require much more ambitious calculations.

  1. Two-Flux Green's Function Analysis for Transient Spectral Radiation in a Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Robert

    1996-01-01

    An analysis is developed for obtaining transient temperatures in a two-layer semitransparent composite with spectrally dependent properties. Each external boundary of the composite is subjected to radiation and convection. The two-flux radiative transfer equations are solved by deriving a Green's function. This yields the local radiative heat source needed to numerically solve the transient energy equation. An advantage of the two-flux method is that isotropic scattering is included without added complexity. The layer refractive indices are larger than one. This produces internal reflections at the boundaries and the internal interface; the reflections are assumed diffuse. Spectral results using the Green's function method are verified by comparing with numerical solutions using the exact radiative transfer equations. Transient temperature distributions are given to illustrate the effect of radiative heating on one side of a composite with external convective cooling. The protection of a material from incident radiation is illustrated by adding scattering to the layer adjacent to the radiative source.

  2. Effect of spectrally varying albedo of vegetation surfaces on shortwave radiation fluxes and aerosol direct radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Martins, J. V.; Yu, H.

    2012-12-01

    This study develops an algorithm for representing detailed spectral features of vegetation albedo based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observations at 7 discrete channels, referred to as the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Albedo (MEVA) algorithm. The MEVA algorithm empirically fills spectral gaps around the vegetation red edge near 0.7 ?m and vegetation water absorption features at 1.48 and 1.92 ?m which cannot be adequately captured by the MODIS 7 channels. We then assess the effects of applying MEVA in comparison to four other traditional approaches to calculate solar fluxes and aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) based on the MODIS discrete reflectance bands. By comparing the DRF results obtained through the MEVA method with the results obtained through the other four traditional approaches, we show that filling the spectral gap of the MODIS measurements around 0.7 ?m based on the general spectral behavior of healthy green vegetation leads to significant improvement in the instantaneous aerosol DRF at TOA (up to 3.02 W m-2 difference or 48% fraction of the aerosol DRF, -6.28 W m-2, calculated for high spectral resolution surface reflectance from 0.3 to 2.5 ?m for deciduous vegetation surface). The corrections of the spectral gaps in the vegetation spectrum in the near infrared, again missed by the MODIS reflectances, also contributes to improving TOA DRF calculations but to a much lower extent (less than 0.27 W m-2, or about 4% of the instantaneous DRF). Compared to traditional approaches, MEVA also improves the accuracy of the outgoing solar flux between 0.3 to 2.5 ?m at TOA by over 60 W m-2 (for aspen 3 surface) and aerosol DRF by over 10 W m-2 (for dry grass). Specifically, for Amazon vegetation types, MEVA can improve the accuracy of daily averaged aerosol radiative forcing in the spectral range of 0.3 to 2.5 ?m at equator at the equinox by 3.7 W m-2. These improvements indicate that MEVA can contribute to regional climate studies over vegetated areas and can help to improve remote sensing-based studies of climate processes and climate change.

  3. Effect of Spectrally Varying Albedo of Vegetation Surfaces on Shortwave Radiation Fluxes and Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, L.; Martins, J. V.; Yu, H.

    2012-01-01

    This study develops an algorithm for representing detailed spectral features of vegetation albedo based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observations at 7 discrete channels, referred to as the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Albedo (MEVA) algorithm. The MEVA algorithm empirically fills spectral gaps around the vegetation red edge near 0.7 micrometers and vegetation water absorption features at 1.48 and 1.92 micrometers which cannot be adequately captured by the MODIS 7 channels. We then assess the effects of applying MEVA in comparison to four other traditional approaches to calculate solar fluxes and aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) based on the MODIS discrete reflectance bands. By comparing the DRF results obtained through the MEVA method with the results obtained through the other four traditional approaches, we show that filling the spectral gap of the MODIS measurements around 0.7 micrometers based on the general spectral behavior of healthy green vegetation leads to significant improvement in the instantaneous aerosol DRF at TOA (up to 3.02Wm(exp -2) difference or 48% fraction of the aerosol DRF, .6.28Wm(exp -2), calculated for high spectral resolution surface reflectance from 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers for deciduous vegetation surface). The corrections of the spectral gaps in the vegetation spectrum in the near infrared, again missed by the MODIS reflectances, also contributes to improving TOA DRF calculations but to a much lower extent (less than 0.27Wm(exp -2), or about 4% of the instantaneous DRF). Compared to traditional approaches, MEVA also improves the accuracy of the outgoing solar flux between 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers at TOA by over 60Wm(exp -2) (for aspen 3 surface) and aerosol DRF by over 10Wm(exp -2) (for dry grass). Specifically, for Amazon vegetation types, MEVA can improve the accuracy of daily averaged aerosol radiative forcing in the spectral range of 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers at equator at the equinox by 3.7Wm(exp -2). These improvements indicate that MEVA can contribute to regional climate studies over vegetated areas and can help to improve remote sensing-based studies of climate processes and climate change.

  4. MEASURING TEMPORAL PHOTON BUNCHING IN BLACKBODY RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, P. K.; Poh, H. S.; Kurtsiefer, C.; Yeo, G. H.; Chan, A. H. E-mail: phyck@nus.edu.sg

    2014-07-01

    Light from thermal blackbody radiators such as stars exhibits photon bunching behavior at sufficiently short timescales. However, with available detector bandwidths, this bunching signal is difficult to observe directly. We present an experimental technique to increase the photon bunching signal in blackbody radiation via spectral filtering of the light source. Our measurements reveal strong temporal photon bunching from blackbody radiation, including the Sun. This technique allows for an absolute measurement of the photon bunching signature g {sup (2)}(0), and thereby a direct statement on the statistical nature of a light source. Such filtering techniques may help revive the interest in intensity interferometry as a tool in astronomy.

  5. Calculations of automatic chamber flux measurements of methane and carbon dioxide using short time series of concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirk, N.; Mastepanov, M.; Parmentier, F.-J. W.; Lund, M.; Crill, P.; Christensen, T. R.

    2015-09-01

    The closed chamber technique is widely used to measure the exchange of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from terrestrial ecosystems. There is, however, large uncertainty about which model should be used to calculate the gas flux from the measured gas concentrations. Due to experimental uncertainties the robust linear regression model (first order polynomial) is often applied, even though theoretical considerations of the technique suggest the application of other, curvilinear models. High-resolution automatic chamber systems which sample gas concentrations several hundred times per flux measurement make it possible to resolve the curvilinear behavior and study the information imposed by the natural variability of the temporal concentration changes. We used more than 50 000 such flux measurements of CH4 and CO2 from five field sites located in peat forming wetlands to calculate fluxes with different models. The flux differences from independent linear estimates are generally found to be smaller than the local flux variability on the plot scale. The curvilinear behavior of the gas concentrations within the chamber is strongly influenced by wind driven chamber leakage, and less so by changing gas concentration gradients in the soil during chamber closure. Such physical processes affect both gas species equally, which makes it possible to isolate biochemical processes affecting the gases differently, such as photosynthesis limitation by chamber headspace CO2 concentrations under high levels of incoming solar radiation. We assess the possibility to exploit this effect for a partitioning of the net CO2 flux into photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration and argue that high-resolution automatic chamber measurements could be used for purposes beyond the estimation of the net gas flux.

  6. Plasma Lens for High Flux X-Ray Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shlyaptsev, V N; Toor, A; Tatchyn, R O

    2001-12-17

    We have developed the Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) to provide a database of reaction violence from thermal explosion for explosives of interest. Such data are needed to develop, calibrate, and validate predictive capability for thermal explosions using simulation computer codes. A cylinder of explosive 25, 50 or 100 mm in diameter, is confined in a steel cylinder with heavy end caps, and heated under controlled conditions until reaction. Reaction violence is quantified through non-contact micropower impulse radar measurements of the cylinder wall velocity and by strain gauge data at reaction onset. Here we describe the test concept, design and diagnostic recording, and report results with HMX- and RDX-based energetic materials.

  7. Estimating Energy Expenditure Using Heat Flux Measured at Single Body Site

    PubMed Central

    Lyden, Kate; Swibas, Tracy; Catenacci, Victoria; Guo, Ruixin; Szuminsky, Neil; Melanson, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The Personal Calorie Monitor (PCM) is a portable direct calorimeter that estimates energy expenditure (EE) from measured heat flux (i.e. the sum of conductive, convective, radiative, and evaporative). Purpose The primary aim of this study was to compare EE estimated from measures of heat flux to indirect calorimetry in a thermoneutral environment (26°C). A secondary aim was to determine if exposure to ambient temperature below thermoneutral (19°C) influences the accuracy of the PCM. Methods 34 Adults (mean±SD, age = 28±5 y, body mass index = 22.9±2.6 kg.m2) were studied for 5 h in a whole-room indirect calorimeter (IC) in thermoneutral and cool conditions. Participants wore the PCM on their upper arm and completed two, 20-minute treadmill-walking bouts (0% grade, 3 mph). The remaining time was spent sedentary (e.g., watching television, using a computer). Results In thermoneutral, EE (mean (95% CI)) measured by IC and PCM was 560.0 (526.5, 593.5) and 623.3 (535.5, 711.1) kcals, respectively. In cool, EE measured by IC and PCM was 572.5 (540.9, 604.0) and 745.5 (668.1, 822.8) kcals, respectively. Under thermoneutral conditions, mean PCM minute-by-minute EE tracked closely with IC, resulting in a small, non-significant bias (63 kcals (−5.8, 132.4)). During cool conditions, mean PCM minute-by-minute EE did not track IC, resulting in a large bias (173.0 (93.9, 252.1)) (p<0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated the validity of using measured heat flux to estimate EE. However, accuracy may be impaired in cool conditions, possibly due to excess heat loss from the exposed limbs. PMID:24811326

  8. A highly portable, rapidly deployable system for eddy covariance measurements of CO2 fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Billesbach, David P.; Fischer, Marc L.; Torn, Margaret S.; Berry, Joe A.

    2001-09-19

    To facilitate the study of flux heterogeneity within a region, the authors have designed, built, and field-tested a highly portable, rapidly deployable, eddy covariance CO{sub 2} flux measurement system. The system is built from off-the-shelf parts and was assembled at a minimal cost. The unique combination of features of this system allow for a very rapid deployment with a minimal number of field personnel. The system is capable of making high precision, unattended measurements of turbulent CO{sub 2} fluxes, latent heat (LE) fluxes, sensible heat fluxes (H), and momentum transfer fluxes. In addition, many of the meteorological and ecosystem variables necessary for quality control of the fluxes and for running ecosystem models are measured. A side-by-side field comparison of the system at a pair of established AmeriFlux sites has verified that, for single measurements, the system is capable of CO{sub 2} flux accuracy of about {+-} 1.2 {micro}mole/m{sup 2}/sec, LE flux accuracy of about {+-} 15 Watts/m{sup 2}, H flux accuracy of about {+-} 7 Watts/m{sup 2}, and momentum transfer flux accuracy of about {+-} 11 gm-m/sec/sec. System deployment time is between 2 and 4 hours by a single person. The system was measured to draw between 30 and 35 Watts of power and may be run from available line power, storage batteries, or solar panels.

  9. Measurements of Urban Area-Wide CO2 and CH4 Fluxes as part of the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepson, P.; Callahan, B.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Davis, K. J.; Hardesty, R.; Iraci, L. T.; Gurney, K. R.; Karion, A.; Lauvaux, T.; McGowan, L. E.; Miles, N. L.; Moser, B.; Newberger, T.; Possolo, A.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Richardson, S.; Samarov, D. V.; Sarmiento, D.; Stirm, B.; Sweeney, C.; Turnbull, J. C.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) was created in order to develop and evaluate methods for the measurement of greenhouse gas emission fluxes from urban environments. Such methods are important for a variety of reasons, including that more than half the global population now resides in cities, and because it is likely that many CO2 emissions reductions strategies will be implemented on local, largely urban, scales. INFLUX is using Indianapolis as a test case for measurements of urban scale greenhouse gas fluxes, because it is a fairly isolated urban environment with tractable meteorology, and a well-developed emission inventory (Vulcan/Hestia). INFLUX aims to quantify and reduce the uncertainty limits for such flux determinations, and to define the uncertainties for individual and combined approaches. The project currently combines a network of towers (currently 10 with 12 possible by the end of 2012) at which CO, CO2 and CH4 are measured, along with periodic flask sampling for 14CO2 and ~50 other trace gases and isotopes. Aircraft-based measurements of CO2, CH4 and H2O, along with flask samples for a variety of gases including 14CO2 are conducted from a light twin aircraft that enables flux measurements using the on-board turbulence/wind measurements via mass balance or eddy covariance methods. As of August of 2012 INFLUX has a Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) Fourier Transform Spectrometer at a downwind site, measuring column total CO2, CH4, H2O (and other greenhouse gases). The data from these tower, TCCON and aircraft measurements are then used in an inverse-modeling approach, using the Weather Research and Forecast model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LDPM) to yield estimates of the urban area flux at 1 km2 resolution. When aggregated these fluxes can be compared to estimates derived from aircraft mass-balance estimates, and the 14CO2 and CO data are used to extract the fossil fuel component of the CO2 flux. Measurement data using the range of approaches are then compared to the Hestia emissions model estimates, as well as to improve the Vulcan approaches. In the near future, we will add eddy covariance fluxes from several towers, and some limited eddy covariance flux measurements from the aircraft. Doppler lidar will be added at one site, to better constrain the boundary layer height, critically important to all flux measurement approaches. Here we discuss how the suite of measurement approaches are used to minimize and define the emissions uncertainties. We also will discuss our work on apportionment of fluxes of both CO2 and CH4 to individual point sources, and, where possible, compare to reported emission rates. Finally, we will discuss lessons learned, and how the INFLUX approaches might be best applied to megacities.

  10. RECONCILING MODELS OF LUMINOUS BLAZARS WITH MAGNETIC FLUXES DETERMINED BY RADIO CORE-SHIFT MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Sikora, Marek

    2014-11-20

    Estimates of magnetic field strength in relativistic jets of active galactic nuclei, obtained by measuring the frequency-dependent radio core location, imply that the total magnetic fluxes in those jets are consistent with the predictions of the magnetically arrested disk (MAD) scenario of jet formation. On the other hand, the magnetic field strength determines the luminosity of the synchrotron radiation, which forms the low-energy bump of the observed blazar spectral energy distribution (SED). The SEDs of the most powerful blazars are strongly dominated by the high-energy bump, which is most likely due to the external radiation Compton mechanism. This high Compton dominance may be difficult to reconcile with the MAD scenario, unless (1) the geometry of external radiation sources (broad-line region, hot-dust torus) is quasi-spherical rather than flat, or (2) most gamma-ray radiation is produced in jet regions of low magnetization, e.g., in magnetic reconnection layers or in fast jet spines.

  11. Inversion of Multi-Angle Radiation Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, B.; Alexandrov, M. Lacis, A.; Carlson, B.

    2005-03-18

    Our need to reconcile models and measurements in an efficient manner that allows for the operational retrieval of particle sizes for a two layer cloud led us to develop a new method for calculating the Green's functions for radiative transfer. The method uses the fact that doubling/adding codes can be easily used to calculate internal radiation fields at arbitrarily high resolution. We have also determined that the adjoint downwelling and upwelling vector radiation fields are simply related to the usual downwelling and upwelling vector radiation fields so that the entire Green's function can be determined from a single calculation. The Green's functions have then been used to calculate the particle sizes in a two layer cloud that are consistent with both the reflectance and polarization measurements. This approach may be of use in other applications where adjoint calculations are used, particularly if multiangle measurements are being analyzed.

  12. Wide Range Neutron Flux Measuring Channel for Aerospace Application

    SciTech Connect

    Cibils, R. M.; Busto, A.; Gonella, J. L.; Martinez, R.; Chielens, A. J.; Otero, J. M.; Nunez, M.; Tropea, S. E.

    2008-01-21

    The use of classical techniques for neutron flux measurements in nuclear reactors involves the switching between several detection chains as the power grows up to 10 decades. In space applications where mass and size constraints are of key significance, such volume of hardware represents a clear disadvantage. Instead of requiring different instruments for each reactor operating range (start-up, ramping-up, and nominal power), a single instrument chain should be desirable. A Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) system, combining a classic pulse Counting Channel with a Campbell's theorem based Fluctuation Channel can be implemented for the monitoring and control of a space nuclear reactor. Such an instrument will allow for a reduction in the complexity of space-based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. In this presentation we will discuss the criteria and tradeoffs involved in the development of such a system. We will focus particularly on the characteristics of the System On Chip (SOC) and the DSP board used to implement this instrument.

  13. The magnetic, basal, and radiative-equilibrium components in Mount Wilson Ca II H + K fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Dobson, Andrea K.; Radick, Richard R.

    1989-01-01

    Mount Wilson Ca II H + K flux measurements of cool dwarf stars are analyzed and compared with stellar Mg II h + k fluxes, variability amplitudes, rotation rates, and solar data. It is concluded that the Mount Wilson Ca II H + K fluxes comprise three principal parts: (1) a photospheric contribution in the line wings, (2) a basal chromospheric component that appears to be unrelated to stellar magnetic activity and is, therefore, possibly nonmagnetic in origin, and (3) a chromospheric component which is associated with magnetically active regions and the (quiet and active) network. The basal chromosphere appears to cover the entire surface of magnetically inactive stars. The basal Ca II H + K flux density for solar-type stars equals the average emission observed in the centers of solar supergranulation cells, where the magnetic flux density is small.

  14. Long-term measurements of CO2 flux and evapotranspiration in a Chihuahuan desert grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We measured CO2 and evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes above a Chihuahuan desert grassland from 1996 through 2001. Averaged across six years, this ecosystem was a source (positive flux)of CO2 in every month. Over that period, sustained periods of carbon uptake (negative flux)were rare. Averaged across a...

  15. Mass Flux Measurements of Arsenic in Groundwater (Battelle Conference)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentration trends of arsenic are typically used to evaluate the performance of remediation efforts designed to mitigate arsenic contamination in groundwater. A complementary approach would be to track changes in mass flux of the contaminant through the subsurface, for exampl...

  16. Energy, water and carbon dioxide fluxes measurements over a burned forest site near Yakutsk, Eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwahana, G.; Lopez, L.; Hirano, T.; Machimura, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Fukuda, M.

    2002-12-01

    Micrometeorological measurements were made over a site which had been burned previous year by wild fire. Study area is located on the right bank of Lena Liver, 25km northwest of Yakutsk, Eastern Siberia. Wild fires burned over this area in places during late summer of 2001. The observation site was formally a mature larch stand with a mean crown height of about 18m. The fire front had passed this site in the middle of September 2001 and surface litter and moss layer with mean depth of approximately 10cm was thoroughly burned. Loosing main roots after the fire, almost all of trees in the area with diameter of 100m were fallen by winds and remained trees were cut down by the first day of the measurements. The observation period was from 25th July till 3rd September. The result of all energy balance components and CO2 flux measurements will be shown as a preliminary report. A quick vegetation recovery caused daytime absorption of CO2 Offsetting night time emission. The trend of CO2 and water vapor fluxes associated well with rain events indicates some vegetation activities. Impacts of the wild fire on radiation environment and active layer thermal regime of the active layer at this observation site are discussed.

  17. Surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility deployment in Niamey, Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, S. A.; Kassianov, E. I.; Barnard, J.; Flynn, C.; Ackerman, T. P.

    2009-07-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed to Niamey, Niger, during 2006. Niamey, which is located in sub-Saharan Africa, is affected by both dust and biomass burning emissions. Column aerosol optical properties were derived from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, measurements and the vertical distribution of aerosol extinction was derived from a micropulse lidar during the two observed dry seasons (January-April and October-December). Mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) at 500 nm during January-April were 0.53 ± 0.4 and 0.94 ± 0.05, while during October-December mean AOD and SSA were 0.33 ± 0.25 and 0.99 ± 0.01. Aerosol extinction profiles peaked near 500 m during the January-April period and near 100 m during the October-December period. Broadband shortwave surface fluxes and heating rate profiles were calculated using retrieved aerosol properties. Comparisons for noncloudy periods indicated that the remote sensing retrievals provided a reasonable estimation of the aerosol optical properties, with mean differences between calculated and observed fluxes of less than 5 W m-2 and RMS differences less than 25 W m-2. Sensitivity tests showed that the observed fluxes could be matched with variations of <10% in the inputs to the radiative transfer model. The calculated 24-h averaged SW instantaneous surface aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) was -21.1 ± 14.3 W m-2 and was estimated to account for 80% of the total radiative forcing at the surface. The ARF was larger during January-April (-28.5 ± 13.5 W m-2) than October-December (-11.9 ± 8.9 W m-2).

  18. Radiation Transmission Measurements for a Lightweight Fabric

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H; Singh, M S; DeMeo, R F

    2003-01-17

    Radiation Shield Technologies has developed a lightweight fabric, shown in Fig. 1, with radiation shielding properties for X ray, gamma ray and beta particle emissions in the range of energies relevant to clinical and Homeland Security applications. Detailed measurements were done to measure the shielding properties of this material against the spectra of standard radionuclides and x-ray generators. The mass attenuation coefficients were calculated using LLNL cross section data, a 3-D photon transport code, elemental weight fractions and the measured density of the fabric.

  19. Bayesian calibration of reactor neutron flux spectrum using activation detectors measurements: Application to CALIBAN reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cartier, J.; Casoli, P.; Chappert, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present calibration methods in order to estimate reactor neutron flux spectrum and its uncertainties by using integral activation measurements. These techniques are performed using Bayesian and MCMC framework. These methods are applied to integral activation experiments in the cavity of the CALIBAN reactor. We estimate the neutron flux and its related uncertainties. The originality of this work is that these uncertainties take into account measurements uncertainties, cross-sections uncertainties and model error. In particular, our results give a very good approximation of the total flux and indicate that neutron flux from MCNP simulation for energies above about 5 MeV seems to overestimate the 'real flux'. (authors)

  20. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, June 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-07-03

    ARM Intensive Operational Period Scheduled to Validate New NASA Satellite--Beginning in July, all three ARM sites (Southern Great Plains [SGP], North Slope of Alaska, and Tropical Western Pacific; Figure 1) will participate in the AIRS Validation IOP. This three-month intensive operational period (IOP) will validate data collected by the satellite-based Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) recently launched into space. On May 4, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched Aqua, the second spacecraft in the Earth Observing System (EOS) series. The EOS satellites monitor Earth systems including land surfaces, oceans, the atmosphere, and ice cover. The first EOS satellite, named Terra, was launched in December 1999. The second EOS satellite is named Aqua because its primary focus is understanding Earth's water cycle through observation of atmospheric moisture, clouds, temperature, ocean surface, precipitation, and soil moisture. One of the instruments aboard Aqua is the AIRS, built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA agency. The AIRS Validation IOP complements the ARM mission to improve understanding of the interactions of clouds and atmospheric moisture with solar radiation and their influence on weather and climate. In support of satellite validation IOP, ARM will launch dedicated radiosondes at all three ARM sites while the Aqua satellite with the AIRS instrument is orbiting overhead. These radiosonde launches will occur 45 minutes and 5 minutes before selected satellite overpasses. In addition, visiting scientists from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will launch special radiosondes to measure ozone and humidity over the SGP site. All launches will generate ground-truth data to validate satellite data collected simultaneously. Data gathered daily by ARM meteorological and solar radiation instruments will complete the validation data sets. Data from Aqua-based instruments, including AIRS, will aid in weather forecasting, climate modeling, and greenhouse gas studies. These instruments will provide more accurate, detailed global observations of weather and atmospheric parameters that will, in turn, improve the accuracy and quality of weather forecasts. A satellite-based instrument is cost-effective because it can provide continuous global measurements, eliminating isolated yet costly weather balloon releases. Aqua, launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California (Figure 2), carries six state-of-the-art instruments that measure various water vapor parameters: (1) AIRS, which measures atmospheric temperature and humidity, land and sea surface temperatures, cloud properties, and radiative energy flux; (2) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, which measures atmospheric temperature and humidity during both cloudy and cloud-free periods; (3) Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer, which measures cloud properties, radiative energy flux, precipitation rates, land surface wetness, sea ice, snow cover, sea surface temperature, and wind fields; (4) Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System, which measures radiative energy flux; (5) Humidity Sounder for Brazil, which measures atmospheric humidity by using a passive scanning microwave radiometer; and (6) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, which measures cloud properties, radiative energy flux, aerosol properties, land cover and land use change, vegetation dynamics, land surface temperature, fire occurrence, volcanic effects, sea surface temperature, ocean color, snow cover, atmospheric temperature and humidity, and sea ice. The data-gathering capabilities of the Aqua instruments will provide an unprecedented view of atmosphere-land interactions (Figure 3). The availability of more frequent, more accurate global measurements of important atmospheric parameters will both improve our capabilities for short-term weather forecasting and lead to a better understanding of climate variability and climate change. Simultaneous measurements of many parameters will allow scientists to study complicated forcings and feedbacks of the atmosphere, which can be integrated into climate models.

  1. Radiation budget measurement/model interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Ciesielski, P.; Randel, D.; Stevens, D.

    1983-01-01

    This final report includes research results from the period February, 1981 through November, 1982. Two new results combine to form the final portion of this work. They are the work by Hanna (1982) and Stevens to successfully test and demonstrate a low-order spectral climate model and the work by Ciesielski et al. (1983) to combine and test the new radiation budget results from NIMBUS-7 with earlier satellite measurements. Together, the two related activities set the stage for future research on radiation budget measurement/model interfacing. Such combination of results will lead to new applications of satellite data to climate problems. The objectives of this research under the present contract are therefore satisfied. Additional research reported herein includes the compilation and documentation of the radiation budget data set a Colorado State University and the definition of climate-related experiments suggested after lengthy analysis of the satellite radiation budget experiments.

  2. Measurement of Emission from a Radiative Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visco, A.; Drake, R. P.; Grosskopf, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    Radiative shocks are shock waves whose structure has been altered by radiation transport from the shock-heated matter. Such shocks are present in numerous astrophysical systems, including supernova remnants, supernovae, and accretion disks. Recent experiments have used the Omega laser to study radiative shock systems that are optically thin upstream and optically thick downstream. In these systems, a radiative precursor and high density cooling layer are formed in response to radiation lost in the upstream region. A thin slab of low-Z material is driven into a 1.1 atm. cylinder of high-Z gas at speeds > 100 km/s, producing strong radiative effects.. Measurements of radiative emission from the shocked region and the precursor region have been made using a streaked optical pyrometer. From these measurements, the temperature of the system can be inferred. Details of the experiment and results will be discussed. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, by the National Laser User Facility Program in NNSA-DS and by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC. The corresponding grant numbers are DE-FG52-09NA29548, DE-FG52-09NA29034, and DE-FC52-08NA28616.

  3. Measurements of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, John D.; Craven, John D.; Frank, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    The imaging instrumentation on the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite has been used to measure the intensity of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation on two great circles about the sky. It is found that the isotropic component of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation (possibly of extragalactic origin) has an intensity of 530 + or - 80 units (a unit is 1 photon per sq cm s A sr) at a wavelength of 150 nm. The Galactic component of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation has a dependence on Galactic latitude which requires strongly forward scattering particles if it is produced by dust above the Galactic plane.

  4. Radiation Promptly Alters Cancer Live Cell Metabolic Fluxes: An In Vitro Demonstration.

    PubMed

    Campos, David; Peeters, Wenny; Nickel, Kwangok; Burkel, Brian; Bussink, Johan; Kimple, Randall J; van der Kogel, Albert; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Kissick, Michael W

    2016-05-01

    Quantitative data is presented that shows significant changes in cellular metabolism in a head and neck cancer cell line 30 min after irradiation. A head and neck cancer cell line (UM-SCC-22B) and a comparable normal cell line, normal oral keratinocyte (NOK) were each separately exposed to 10 Gy and treated with a control drug for disrupting metabolism (potassium cyanide; KCN). The metabolic changes were measured live by fluorescence lifetime imaging of the intrinsically fluorescent intermediate metabolite nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence; this method is sensitive to the ratio of bound to free NADH. The results indicated a prompt shift in metabolic signature in the cancer cell line, but not in the normal cell line. Control KCN treatment demonstrated expected metabolic fluxes due to mitochondrial disruption. The detected radiation shift in the cancer cells was blunted in the presence of both a radical scavenger and a HIF-1α inhibitor. The HIF-1α abundance as detected by immunohistochemical staining also increased substantially for these cancer cells, but not for the normal cells. This type of live-cell metabolic monitoring could be helpful for future real-time studies and in designing adaptive radiotherapy approaches. PMID:27128739

  5. The validation of the GEWEX SRB surface longwave flux data products using BSRN measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Cox, Stephen J.; Mikovitz, J. Colleen

    2015-01-01

    The longwave downward fluxes at the Earth's surface are a significant part of the products of the NASA GEWEX SRB (Surface Radiation Budget) project which has produced and archived a 24.5-year continuous record from July 1983 to December 2007 of global shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation fluxes at TOA and the surface from satellite measurements. The data are generated on a system of grid boxes ranging from 1° latitude by 1° longitude at lower latitudes to 1° latitude by 120° longitude next to the poles. The LW datasets, which are available as 3-hourly, 3-hourly-monthly, daily and monthly means, are produced from two sets of algorithms, the GEWEX LW (GLW) algorithm which is designated as primary and the Langley Parameterized LW (LPLA) algorithm which is designated as quality-check. The inputs of the latest versions, GLW (V3.1) and LPLA (V3.0), include the Geostationary Satellite system (GEOS) Version 4.0.3 meteorological information and cloud properties derived from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) DX data. In this paper, we compare the LW downward fluxes at the Earth's surface from both algorithms against over 4000 site-months of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) data from among the 59 BSRN sites. The comparisons are made for the 3-hourly, daily and monthly means each for the entire record, and on a month-by-month basis as well as a site-by-site basis. It is found that the overall daily mean bias/RMS for the GLW (V3.1) and LPLA (V3.0) algorithms are, respectively, 1.1/22.1 and 4.6/22.8 W m-2, their monthly counterparts are, respectively, 0.9/11.1 and 4.5/12.9 W m-2. Anomaly time series for a subset of more continuous BSRN measurement data sets show a standard deviation of 2.3 W m-2 and a correlation of 0.82 indicating the accurate replication of month-to-month variability. Clusters of similar surface types are analyzed showing that the uncertainties are largest over the polar regions. Finally, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) two-sample test and Cramér-von Mises (CvM) two-sample test are used to show that the GLW is able to replicate the cumulative frequency distribution of the measurements at the 0.01 significance level.

  6. Relationships Among Canopy Scale Energy Fluxes and Isoprene Flux Using Eddy Covariance Measurements Over Multiple Growing Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressley, S. N.; Lamb, B. K.; Westberg, H.

    2003-12-01

    Isoprene is one of the most abundant biogenic trace gases in the troposphere. Biogenic trace gases affect tropospheric chemistry by forming gaseous and particulate secondary products in conjunction with anthropogenic emissions that contribute to the degradation of air quality. Our understanding of the impact isoprene has on tropospheric photochemistry is hampered by our limited knowledge of the biosphere-atmosphere exchange process, and thus the inability to accurately quantify the biogenic emission inventory. Isoprene emissions are regulated by many environmental variables; the most important variables are known to be temperature and light. The research summarized here seeks to improve our understanding of biogenic emissions from forest ecosystems as a basis for advancing our ability to describe the role of biogenics in regional and global atmospheric chemical cycles. Biogenic emission models, such as BEIS (Biogenic Emission Inventory System) rely on above canopy environmental parameters and below canopy scaling factors to estimate canopy scale biogenic hydrocarbon fluxes. This type of model can predict biogenic emissions well, however, the required input is extensive, and for regional applications, it can be cumbersome. Based on the assumption that isoprene emission rates are enzymatic (a function of temperature, light, and historical temperature), we propose that sensible heat flux can be a surrogate for above canopy temperature and light when estimating isoprene fluxes at the canopy scale. In addition, sensible heat flux may be a better indicator of the canopy interaction with incoming energy, as opposed to scaling above canopy parameters. Thus, the use of surface energy fluxes such as sensible heat flux is an attempt to combine the biological (enzymatic) and meteorological processes that affect the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of isoprene. Since surface energy budgets are an integral part of mesoscale meteorological models, this could potentially be a useful tool for including biogenic emissions into regional atmospheric models. Long-term measurements of isoprene flux have been collected above a northern hardwood forest at the AmeriFlux site located at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) as part of the Program for Research on Oxidants: Photochemistry, Emissions, and Transport (PROPHET). Measurements have been made every summer since 1998 using eddy covariance techniques, and the data are now available for determining the relationship between isoprene flux and surface energy fluxes. Using this long-term dataset we hope to improve our understanding of isoprene emissions and, thus, improve our ability to include isoprene emissions in regional and global atmospheric chemistry models.

  7. Fluxes of Submicron Organic Aerosol above London Measured by Eddy Covariance using the Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, G. J.; di Marco, C. F.; Farmer, D.; Kimmel, J. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Nemitz, E.

    2009-12-01

    Urban centres are large sources of sub-micron particles. The myriad of emission sources combined with the complex interaction between regional aerosol and the particulate and gaseous photochemistry make for a complex system. It is evident that particulate emissions from cities will affect the regional atmosphere as well as the environment within the urban area. Aerosol particles have been associated with respiratory and cardio-vascular disease and are also linked with the climate through scattering of radiation and indirect effects such as cloud formation. The Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) provides a powerful tool to elucidate the sources and processing of organic aerosol in the urban atmosphere. Normally this is done through concentration measurements, by statistical analysis of the organic mass spectra, e.g. using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Recently the quadrupole based AMS (Q-AMS) has been used for the micrometeorological measurement of organic aerosol fluxes above several cities, based on high frequency measurements of individual masses (m/z) representative of different organic mass fractions. While providing a major step forward towards quantification of urban organic aerosol emissions and processing, the interpretation of Q-AMS flux data requires assumptions to scale up signals on individual m/z to total organic mass fluxes. In this paper we present chemically-speciated and size-segregated number aerosol fluxes measured using the next generation eddy covariance flux system based on the Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS, now capable of recording fast-response eddy-covariance time-series of all m/z simultaneously. This allows organic mass fluxes to be calculated more quantitatively and provides 'flux mass spectra' in addition to concentration mass spectra, which produces novel information on the local emission and processing of organic aerosols in the urban environment, while concentration analysis includes the regional background. The measurements were made from the 190 m tall BT Tower in central London, UK, during the REPARTEE-2/CityFlux experiment in autumn 2007 and are interpreted in conjunction with simultaneous measurements of fluxes of CO and CO2 as well as size-segregated particle number fluxes between 60 and 1000 nm using an ultra-high sensitivity aerosol spectrometer, UHSAS (Particle Measurement Systems, now Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, US).

  8. MSL-RAD radiation environment measurements.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingnan; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Hassler, Donald M; Ehresmann, Bent; Köhler, Jan; Böhm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Brinza, David; Burmeister, Sönke; Cucinotta, Francis; Martin, Cesar; Posner, Arik; Rafkin, Scot; Reitz, Guenther

    2015-09-01

    In this study, results are presented from the on-board radiation assessment detector (RAD) of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). RAD is designed to measure the energetic particle radiation environment, which consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) as well as secondary particles created by nuclear interactions of primary particles in the shielding (during cruise) or Martian soil and atmosphere (surface measurements). During the cruise, RAD collected data on space radiation from inside the craft, thus allowing for a reasonable estimation of what a human crew travelling to/from Mars might be exposed to. On the surface of Mars, RAD is shielded by the atmosphere (from above) and the planet itself (from below). RAD measures the first detailed radiation data from the surface of another planet, and they are highly relevant for planning future crewed missions. The results for radiation dose and dose equivalent (a quantity most directly related to human health risk) are presented during the cruise phase, as well as on the Martian surface. Dose and dose equivalent are dominated by the continuous GCR radiation, but several SEP events were also detected and are discussed here. PMID:25969529

  9. Simultaneous measurements of oxygen and carbon dioxide fluxes to assess productivity in phytoplankton cultures.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Alina A; Van Voorhies, Wayne A

    2012-12-01

    We validate a method that simultaneously measures O(2) and CO(2) fluxes by sampling headspace air in phytoplankton cultures. Fluxes were strongly correlated to traditional productivity measures, except for a taxon with unique C metabolism. The method provides accurate, real-time, non-destructive measurements and is recommended for laboratory studies of phytoplankton physiology. PMID:23022444

  10. Method for measuring dose-equivalent in a neutron flux with an unknown energy spectra and means for carrying out that method

    DOEpatents

    Distenfeld, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    A method for measuring the dose-equivalent for exposure to an unknown and/or time varing neutron flux which comprises simultaneously exposing a plurality of neutron detecting elements of different types to a neutron flux and combining the measured responses of the various detecting elements by means of a function, whose value is an approximate measure of the dose-equivalent, which is substantially independent of the energy spectra of the flux. Also, a personnel neutron dosimeter, which is useful in carrying out the above method, comprising a plurality of various neutron detecting elements in a single housing suitable for personnel to wear while working in a radiation area.

  11. Results and interpretation of measurements of the light flux in the near-surface layer of the Venusian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golovin, Y. M.; Moshkin, B. Y.; Ekonomov, A. P. E.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics of the field of radiation in the near surface layer of the atmosphere and on the surface of Venus are reported. Optical measurements made during the landing of the descent vehicles are described. The relief of the surface and the amount of dust on it are examined. The spectral relationship of the albedo of the soil and the light flux incident on the surface is discussed.

  12. A model of the Starfish flux in the inner radiation zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teague, M. J.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    A model of the Starfish electrons injected into the radiation belt in July 1962 was determined for epoch September 1964. This model distinguishes between artificial and natural electrons and provides the artificial unidirectional electron flux as a function of equatorial pitch angle, energy, and L value. The model is based primarily upon data from the OGO-1, OGO-3, OGO-5, 1963-38C, and the OV3-3 satellites. Decay times for the Starfish electrons are given as a function of energy and L value. These decay times represent the best compromise between a number of independently determined values. The times at which the artificial Starfish flux component had become insignificant in comparison to the natural flux component are determined as functions of energy and L value. These times are determined by two separate methods, and averaged values are presented. It is shown that Starfish electrons, by the present time, have become insignificant for all energies and L values.

  13. Influence of total ozone content and cloudiness on scattered UV radiation fluxes on the Earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ippolitov, Ivan I.; Kabanov, Mikhail V.; Teodorovich, Z. S.; Poddubny, V. V.; Ravodina, O. V.

    1999-11-01

    Correlation between total ozone content and scattered UV fluxes (A and B portions) measured in Tomsk (56.6N, 85E) during 1994 - 1998 has been investigated. It was shown that for the data corresponding to cloudless days the regression curve may be satisfactorily described both by exponential and linear dependence. With the cloudy days included the correlation decreases. There is no correlation between UV-A and UV-B fluxes when taking into account the observations at any cloudiness.

  14. Assessment of radiative feedback in climate models using satellite observations of annual flux variation.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Yoko; Manabe, Syukuro

    2013-05-01

    In the climate system, two types of radiative feedback are in operation. The feedback of the first kind involves the radiative damping of the vertically uniform temperature perturbation of the troposphere and Earth's surface that approximately follows the Stefan-Boltzmann law of blackbody radiation. The second kind involves the change in the vertical lapse rate of temperature, water vapor, and clouds in the troposphere and albedo of the Earth's surface. Using satellite observations of the annual variation of the outgoing flux of longwave radiation and that of reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, this study estimates the so-called "gain factor," which characterizes the strength of radiative feedback of the second kind that operates on the annually varying, global-scale perturbation of temperature at the Earth's surface. The gain factor is computed not only for all sky but also for clear sky. The gain factor of so-called "cloud radiative forcing" is then computed as the difference between the two. The gain factors thus obtained are compared with those obtained from 35 models that were used for the fourth and fifth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment. Here, we show that the gain factors obtained from satellite observations of cloud radiative forcing are effective for identifying systematic biases of the feedback processes that control the sensitivity of simulated climate, providing useful information for validating and improving a climate model. PMID:23613585

  15. Optical design of a high radiative flux solar furnace for Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Riveros-Rosas, D.; Perez-Rabago, C.A.; Arancibia-Bulnes, C.A.; Jaramillo, O.A.; Estrada, C.A.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, M.

    2010-05-15

    In the present work, the optical design of a new high radiative flux solar furnace is described. Several optical configurations for the concentrator of the system have been considered. Ray tracing simulations were carried out in order to determine the concentrated radiative flux distributions in the focal zone of the system, for comparing the different proposals. The best configuration was chosen in terms of maximum peak concentration, but also in terms of economical and other practical considerations. It consists of an arrangement of 409 first surface spherical facets with hexagonal shape, mounted on a spherical frame. The individual orientation of the facets is corrected in order to compensate for aberrations. The design considers an intercepted power of 30 kW and a target peak concentration above 10,000 suns. The effect of optical errors was also considered in the simulations. (author)

  16. Comparison of eddy covariance and modified Bowen ratio methods for measuring gas fluxes and implications for measuring fluxes of persistent organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolinius, Damien Johann; Jahnke, Annika; MacLeod, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Semi-volatile persistent organic pollutants (POPs) cycle between the atmosphere and terrestrial surfaces; however measuring fluxes of POPs between the atmosphere and other media is challenging. Sampling times of hours to days are required to accurately measure trace concentrations of POPs in the atmosphere, which rules out the use of eddy covariance techniques that are used to measure gas fluxes of major air pollutants. An alternative, the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) method, has been used instead. In this study we used data from FLUXNET for CO2 and water vapor (H2O) to compare fluxes measured by eddy covariance to fluxes measured with the MBR method using vertical concentration gradients in air derived from averaged data that simulate the long sampling times typically required to measure POPs. When concentration gradients are strong and fluxes are unidirectional, the MBR method and the eddy covariance method agree within a factor of 3 for CO2, and within a factor of 10 for H2O. To remain within the range of applicability of the MBR method, field studies should be carried out under conditions such that the direction of net flux does not change during the sampling period. If that condition is met, then the performance of the MBR method is neither strongly affected by the length of sample duration nor the use of a fixed value for the transfer coefficient.

  17. Comparison of eddy covariance and modified Bowen ratio methods for measuring gas fluxes and implications for measuring fluxes of persistent organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolinius, D. J.; Jahnke, A.; MacLeod, M.

    2015-11-01

    Semi-volatile persistent organic pollutants (POPs) cycle between the atmosphere and terrestrial surfaces, however measuring fluxes of POPs between the atmosphere and other media is challenging. Sampling times of hours to days are required to accurately measure trace concentrations of POPs in the atmosphere, which rules out the use of eddy covariance techniques that are used to measure gas fluxes of major air pollutants. An alternative, the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) method, has been used instead. In this study we used data from FLUXNET for CO2 and water vapor (H2O) to compare fluxes measured by eddy covariance to fluxes measured with the MBR method using vertical concentration gradients in air derived from averaged data that simulates the long sampling times typically required to measure POPs. When concentration gradients are strong and fluxes are unidirectional, the MBR method and the eddy covariance method agree within a factor of 3 for CO2, and within a factor of 10 for H2O. To remain within the range of applicability of the MBR method field, studies should be carried out under conditions such that the direction of net flux does not change during the sampling period. If that condition is met then the performance of the MBR method is not strongly affected by the length of sample duration nor the use of a fixed value for the transfer coefficient.

  18. Fast and Accurate Shortwave Radiative Flux Calculations for Climate Models Using Principal Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopparla, P.; Natraj, V.; Spurr, R. J.; Shia, R.; Yung, Y. L.

    2013-12-01

    Radiative transfer (RT) computations are an essential component of climate models, being used for calculating the Earth's energy budget. In particular, RT models are required for the generation of top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes in the longwave and shortwave spectral regions, especially for aerosol-laden scenarios (Randles et al. [2013]). However, full treatment of RT processes is computationally expensive, prompting usage of 2-stream approximations in operational climate models. Natraj et al. [2005, 2010] and Spurr and Natraj [2013] demonstrated the ability of a technique using principal component analysis (PCA) to speed up RT simulations. In the PCA method for RT performance enhancement, empirical orthogonal functions are developed for binned sets of inherent optical properties that possess some redundancy; costly multiple-scattering RT calculations are only done for those (few) optical states corresponding to the most important principal components, and correction factors are applied to approximate radiation fields. Here, we extend the PCA method to a broadband spectral region covering the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared, including gaseous absorbing regions and intermediate continua. Top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes are calculated for several scenarios with varying aerosol type, optical depth, extinction profile and solar zenith angle and comparisons made between our model and 2-stream methods (such as those used in climate models). We show that very accurate radiative forcing estimates can be obtained, accounting for multiple scattering by aerosol, at speeds comparable to 2-stream models.

  19. Measurement of photon flux with a miniature gas ionization chamber in a Material Testing Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourmentel, D.; Filliatre, P.; Villard, J. F.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Carcreff, H.

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTR) are crucial for the design of the experimental devices and the prediction of the temperature of the hosted samples. Nuclear heating in MTR materials (except fuel) is mainly due to the energy deposition by the photon flux. Therefore, the photon flux is a key input parameter for the computer codes which simulate nuclear heating and temperature reached by samples/devices under irradiation. In the Jules Horowitz MTR under construction at the CEA Cadarache, the maximal expected nuclear heating levels will be about 15 to 18 W g-1 and it will be necessary to assess this parameter with the best accuracy. An experiment was performed at the OSIRIS reactor to combine neutron flux, photon flux and nuclear heating measurements to improve the knowledge of the nuclear heating in MTR. There are few appropriate sensors for selective measurement of the photon flux in MTR even if studies and developments are ongoing. An experiment, called CARMEN-1, was conducted at the OSIRIS MTR and we used in particular a gas ionization chamber based on miniature fission chamber design to measure the photon flux. In this paper, we detail Monte-Carlo simulations to analyze the photon fluxes with ionization chamber measurements and we compare the photon flux calculations to the nuclear heating measurements. These results show a good accordance between photon flux measurements and nuclear heating measurement and allow improving the knowledge of these parameters.

  20. Radiation detectors for occupational safety measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaase, Heinrich; Chen, Mai; Grothmann, Knut

    1995-09-01

    The effective radiant exposures for artificial and natural UV-sources are determined by temporal integration over an 8 h working day. Therefore the spectrally weighted integration of the spectral irradiance from the radiation source in the plane of the exposure is to measure. Such measaurements are made with two different detector systems: measurements of UV radiation according to the integral method should be possible according to a quasi partial filtering method using different individually filtered photodiodes. A spectroradiometer for UV radiation analysis was tested due to its application in field measurements for meteorology, medicin, and occupational safety. The optical part of this compact instrument consists of a cosentrance optic, a monochromator and detector system. A comparison with commercial instruments is described.

  1. Relevance of decadal variations in surface radiative fluxes for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that radiative fluxes incident at Earth's surface are not stable over time but undergo significant changes on decadal timescales. This is not only found in the thermal spectral range, where an increase in the downwelling flux is expected due to the increasing greenhouse effect, but also in the solar spectral range. Observations suggest that surface solar radiation, after a period of decline from the 1950s to the 1980s ("global dimming"), reversed into a "brightening" since the mid-1980s at widespread locations, often in line with changes in anthropogenic air pollution. These decadal variations observed in both solar and thermal surface radiative fluxes have the potential to affect various aspects of climate change. Discussed here are specifically the evidence for potential effects on global warming, as seen in asymmetries in hemispheric warming rates as well as in differences in the decadal warming rates over land and oceans. These variations in observed warming rates fit well to our conceptual understanding of how aerosol and greenhouse gas-induced changes in the surface radiative fluxes should affect global warming. Specifically, on the Northern Hemisphere, the suppression of warming from the 1950s to the 1980s fits to the concurrent dimming and increasing air pollution, while the accelerated warming from the 1980s to 2000 matches with the brightening and associated reduction in pollution levels. The suppression of warming from the 1950s to the 1980s is even somewhat stronger over oceans than over land, in line with the conceptual idea that aerosol-induced dimming and brightening tendencies may be enhanced through cloud aerosol interactions particularly over the pristine ocean areas. On the Southern Hemisphere, the absence of significant pollution levels as well as trend reversals therein, fit to the observed stable warming rates over the entire 1950 to 2000 period.

  2. High Time Resolution Measurements of Methane Fluxes From Enteric Fermentation in Cattle Rumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerchinger, C. R.; Herndon, S.; Fortner, E.; Roscioli, J. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Knighton, W. B.; Molina, L. T.; Zavala, M.; Castelán, O.; Ku Vera, J.; Castillo, E.

    2013-12-01

    Methane accounts for roughly 20% of the global radiative climate forcing in the last two and a half centuries. Methane emissions arise from a number of anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In some areas enteric fermentation in livestock produces over 90% of agricultural methane. In the spring of 2013, as a part of the Short Lived Climate Forcer-Mexico field campaign, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory in partnership with the Molina Center for the Environment studied methane production associated with enteric fermentation in the rumen of cattle. A variety of different breeds and stocks being raised in two agricultural and veterinary research facilities located in different areas of Mexico were examined. Methane fluxes were quantified using two methods: 1) an atmospherically stable gaseous tracer release was collocated with small herds in a pasture, allowing tracer ratio flux measurements; 2) respiratory CO2 was measured in tandem with methane in the breath of individual animals allowing methane production to be related to metabolism. The use of an extensive suite of very high time response instruments allows for differentiation of individual methane producing rumination events and respiratory CO2 from possible background interferences. The results of these studies will be presented and compared to data from traditional chamber experiments.

  3. Remote Measurement of Heat Flux from Power Plant Cooling Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.; Kurzeja, R.; Villa-Aleman, E.; Bollinger, J.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have demonstrated a correlation between the rate of heat loss q″ from an experimental fluid to the air above and the standard deviation σ of the thermal variability in images of the fluid surface. These experimental results imply that q″ can be derived directly from thermal imagery by computing σ. This paper analyses thermal imagery collected over two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the same relationship exists. Turbulent boundary layer theory predicts a linear relationship between q″ and σ when both forced (wind driven) and free (buoyancy driven) convection are present. Datasets derived from ground- and helicopter-based imagery collections had correlation coefficients between σ and q″ of 0.45 and 0.76, respectively. Values of q″ computed from a function of σ and friction velocity u* derived from turbulent boundary layer theory had higher correlations with measured values of q″ (0.84 and 0.89). This research may be applicable to the problem of calculating losses of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere during high-latitude cold-air outbreaks because it does not require the information typically needed to compute sensible, evaporative, and thermal radiation energy losses to the atmosphere.

  4. A state-space model of radiation belt electron flux dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigler, E. J.; Baker, D. N.

    2008-11-01

    A state-space model was optimized from data and used to characterize the linear dynamics governing variations observed in 2-6 MeV electron flux across a range of magnetic L shells. A correction term exploits correlated structure in previous one-step prediction errors, or innovations, to improve the current forecast. More importantly, this correction term helps reduce parameter estimation bias that arises when relevant inputs are ignored, or higher-order linear and nonlinear dynamical terms are left out of the model while it is being trained. Analyses of the L-dependent response functions, one-step predictions, and prediction error statistics, lead to several conclusions: (1) the direct effects of first-order solar wind perturbations only penetrate to L~4RE, while linear feedback, which dominates flux dynamics throughout the radiation belts, accounts for over 80% of the observed variability below this location; (2) electron flux diffuses upward above L~5RE, and downward below L~5RE, except below L~1.75RE, where the estimated model parameters are considered suboptimal anyway; (3) corrections to model output required above L~4RE suggest that modified or additional solar wind drivers may be required for a more complete physical description of solar wind-radiation belt coupling; while (4) corrections to model output required below L~4RE indicate episodic reconfigurations of the global electron radiation belt state, a type of variation that will never be captured with linear dynamics alone.

  5. Airborne eddy correlation gas flux measurements - Design criteria for optical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, John A.; Sachse, Glen W.; Anderson, Bruce E.

    1993-01-01

    Although several methods exist for the determination of the flux of an atmospheric species, the airborne eddy correlation method has the advantage of providing direct flux measurements that are representative of regional spatial domains. The design criteria pertinent to the construction of chemical instrumentation suitable for use in airborne eddy correlation flux measurements are discussed. A brief overview of the advantages and limitations of the current instrumentation used to obtain flux measurements for CO, CH4, O3, CO2, and water vapor are given. The intended height of the measurement within the convective boundary layer is also shown to be an important design criteria. The sensitivity, or resolution, which is required in the measurement of a scalar species to obtain an adequate species flux measurement is discussed. The relationship between the species flux resolution and the more commonly stated instrumental resolution is developed and it is shown that the standard error of the flux estimate is a complicated function of the atmospheric variability and the averaging time that is used. The use of the recently proposed intermittent sampling method to determine the species flux is examined. The application of this technique may provide an opportunity to expand the suite of trace gases for which direct flux measurements are possible.

  6. Effect of electron flux on radiation damage in GaAs solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, R. Y.; Kamath, G. S.; Knechtli, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of electron flux and temperature on radiation damage in GaAs solar cells. The defect levels and the power ratio of the GaAs solar cells under various irradiation conditions are compared. In a 200 C continuous annealing experiment, the GaAs solar cells which were irradiated at a flux of 2 x 10 to the 9th e/sq cm s suffered less power degradation than the cells which were irradiated at the same temperature at a higher flux of 4 x 10 to the 10th e/sq cm s. After the continuous annealing experiment, a single-step post annealing at 200 C was performed for 40 hr on these irradiated cells. An additional improvement in power recovery was observed only on those cells irradiated at the high flux of 4 x 10 to the 10th e/sq cm s. DLTS data indicate that the defect density decreases with lower electron flux. Both of these observations strongly suggest that the continuous annealing in GaAs cells can be effective at temperatures as low as 150 C, or even less in a space environment such as geosynchronous orbit.

  7. Use of CMOS imagers to measure high fluxes of charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servoli, L.; Tucceri, P.

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of high flux charged particle beams, specifically at medical accelerators and with small fields, poses several challenges. In this work we propose a single particle counting method based on CMOS imagers optimized for visible light collection, exploiting their very high spatial segmentation (> 3 106 pixels/cm2) and almost full efficiency detection capability. An algorithm to measure the charged particle flux with a precision of ~ 1% for fluxes up to 40 MHz/cm2 has been developed, using a non-linear calibration algorithm, and several CMOS imagers with different characteristics have been compared to find their limits on flux measurement.

  8. Radiation measurements from polar and geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1973-01-01

    During the 1960's, radiation budget measurements from satellites have allowed quantitative study of the global energetics of our atmosphere-ocean system. A continuing program is planned, including independent measurement of the solar constant. Thus far, the measurements returned from two basically different types of satellite experiments are in agreement on the long term global scales where they are most comparable. This fact, together with independent estimates of the accuracy of measurement from each system, shows that the energy exchange between earth and space is now measured better than it can be calculated. Examples of application of the radiation budget data were shown. They can be related to the age-old problem of climate change, to the basic question of the thermal forcing of our circulation systems, and to the contemporary problems of local area energetics and computer modeling of the atmosphere.

  9. Determination of TFTR far-field neutron detector efficiencies by local neutron flux spectrum measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassby, D. L.; Ascione, G.; Kugel, H. W.; Roquemore, A. L.; Barcelo, T. W.; Kumar, A.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron detectors have often been located on the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR) test cell floor 3 m or more from the vacuum vessel for ease of detector access, to reduce radiation damage, minimize count saturation problems, and to avoid high magnetic fields. These detectors include Si surface-barrier diodes, fission chambers, natural diamond detectors, and T2 production in a moderated 3He cell. To evaluate the performance of these detectors during deuterium-tritium (D-T) operation, we determined the neutron flux spectrum incident on the principal detector enclosure using nuclide sample sets containing Al, Ti, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni, Zr, Nb, In, and Au activation foils. Foils were installed and then removed after ample exposure to TFTR D-T neutrons. High efficiency, high purity Ge detectors were used for gamma spectroscopy of the irradiated foils. The incident neutron fluence and spectral distribution were unfolded from the measured results, and used to derive absolute detector efficiencies.

  10. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide fluxes on the Bakchar bog in warm season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Oleg A.; Maksyutov, Shamil S.; Davydov, Denis K.; Fofonov, Aleksander V.; Glagolev, Mikhail V.

    2015-11-01

    Data terrain-atmosphere fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide overseen for measurement campaign Plotnikovo-2014 on the bog's Flux-NIES automatic complex (N56°51.29' E82° 50.91') in the warn season. Six vegetative groups on the bog's surface were taken in comparison. Improvement precise method used to determinate the sensitivity for the gases analyzers and calculating of the CO2 and CH4 fluxes measured by automated chamber-based technique.

  11. Calculation of thermal fluxes of plasma torch reradiation under the action of laser radiation on a condensed target

    SciTech Connect

    Rudenko, V. V.

    2010-12-15

    The problem of laser deposition with allowance for thermal radiation transport inside and outside the laser torch is considered in a multigroup approximation. The energy fluxes of laser torch thermal radiation onto a target in the far and near zones are calculated as functions of time and the character of the exposure. It is shown that absorption of thermal fluxes in the substrate and target in the course of laser deposition results in their substantial heating. The possibility of diagnosing thermal radiation fluxes from the laser torch by using photodetectors is demonstrated.

  12. Radiation measurements aboard the fourth Gemini flight.

    PubMed

    Janni, J F; Schneider, M F

    1967-01-01

    Two special tissue-equivalent ionization chambers and 5 highly sensitive passive dosimetry packages were flown aboard the recent Gemini 4 flight for the purpose of obtaining precise values of instantaneous dose rate, accumulated dose. and shielding effectiveness. This experiment marked the first time that well-defined tissue dose and radiation survey measurements have been carried out in manned spaceflight operations. Since all measurements were accomplished under normal spacecraft environmental conditions, the biological dose resulted primarily from trapped inner Van Allen Belt radiation encountered by the spacecraft in the South Atlantic Anomaly. The experiment determined the particle type, ionizing and penetrating power, and variation with time and position within the Gemini spacecraft. Measured dose rates ranged from 100 mrad/hr for passes penetrating deeply into the South Atlantic Anomaly to less than 0.1 mrad/hr from lower latitude cosmic radiation. The accumulated tissue dose measured by the active ionization chambers, shielded by 0.4 gm/cm2 for the 4-day mission, was 82 mrad. Since the 5 passive dosimetry packages were each located in different positions within the spacecraft, the total mission surface dose measured by these detectors varied from 73 to 27 mrad, depending upon location and shielding. The particles within the spacecraft were recorded in nuclear emulsion, which established that over 90% of the tissue dose was attributable to penetrating protons. This experiment indicates that the radiation environment under shielded conditions at Gemini altitudes was not hazardous. PMID:11973852

  13. Measurement of Global Radiation using Photovoltaic Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veroustraete, Frank; Bronders, Jan; Lefevre, Filip; Mensink, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    The Vito Unit - Environmental and Spatial Aspects (RMA) - for many of its models makes use of global solar radiation. From this viewpoint and also from the notion that this variable is seldom measured or available at the local scale and at high multi-temporal frequencies, it can be stated that many models are fed with low quality estimates of global solar radiation at the local to regional scales. A project was initiated called SUNSPIDER with the following objective. To make use of photovoltaic solar panels to measure solar radiation at the highest spatio-temporal resolution, from the local to the regional scales and from minutes to years. To integrate the measured solar fields in different application fields like, plant systems and agriculture, agro-meteorology and hydrology and last but not least solar energy applications. In Belgium about 250.000 PV installations have been built leading to about 6% electric power supply from photovoltaics on a yearly basis. Last year in June, the supply reached a peak of more than 20% of the total power input on the Belgian grid. A database of Belgian residential solar panel sites will be compiled. The database will serve as an input to an inverted PV model to be able to perform radiation calculations specifically for each of the validated panel sites based on minutely logged power data. Data acquisition for these sites will start each time a site is validated and hence imported in the database. Keywords: Photovoltaic Panels; PV modelling; Global Radiation.

  14. MEASURING CO2 FLUX OVER NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS RANGELANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of rangelands in regulating atmospheric CO2 levels is a critical issue in global climate change research. Rangelands are complex systems occupying more than 40% of the land area in the world and USA. We studied the effects of seasonal grazing on CO2 flux on small plots located on a silty ra...

  15. Estimation of sensible heat flux using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) and ATSR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Li; Su, Zhongbo; van den Hurk, Bart; Menenti, Massimo; Moene, Arnold; De Bruin, Henk A. R.; Yrisarry, J. Javier Baselga; Ibanez, Manuel; Cuesta, Antonio

    This paper describes a modified version of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) as regards the use of radiometric data from space and presents the results of a large area validation study on estimated sensible heat flux, extended over several months. The improvements were made possible by the characteristics of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR-2) on board the European Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) and relate to: (a) the use of bi-angular radiometric data in two thermal infrared channels to estimate column atmospheric water vapor; (b) the use of bi-angular radiometric data in four spectral channels in the 550-1600 nm spectral regions to estimate aerosols optical depth; (c) determination of bottom of atmosphere (BOA) spectral reflectance using column water vapor, aerosols optical depth and a two-stream radiative transfer scheme to relate BOA spectral reflectance to top of atmosphere spectral radiance; (d) direct and inverse modeling of radiative transfer in a vegetation canopy to relate BOA spectral reflectance to canopy properties, such as spectrally integrated hemispherical reflectance (albedo). A parameterization of the aerodynamic resistance for heat transfer (in term of kB-1) was applied for the first time at large spatial scales. For such large area analyses SEBS requires wind speed, potential temperature and humidity of air at an appropriate reference height. The latter was taken as being the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the data used were fields generated by an advanced numerical weather prediction model, i.e. regional atmospheric climate model (RACMO), integrated over the PBL. Validation of estimated sensible heat flux H obtained with the ATSR radiometric data was done using long-range, line-averaged measurements of H done with large aperture scintillometers (LAS) located at three sites in Spain and operated continuously between April and September 1999. The root mean square deviation of SEBS H estimates from LAS H measurements was 25.5 W m -2.

  16. Eddy covariance flux measurements of gaseous elemental mercury using cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Ashley M; Moore, Christopher W; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Kljun, Natascha; Obrist, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    A newly developed pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system for measuring atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations at high temporal resolution (25 Hz) was used to successfully conduct the first eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of GEM. GEM is the main gaseous atmospheric form, and quantification of bidirectional exchange between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere is important because gas exchange is important on a global scale. For example, surface GEM emissions from natural sources, legacy emissions, and re-emission of previously deposited anthropogenic pollution may exceed direct primary anthropogenic emissions. Using the EC technique for flux measurements requires subsecond measurements, which so far has not been feasible because of the slow time response of available instrumentation. The CRDS system measured GEM fluxes, which were compared to fluxes measured with the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) and a dynamic flux chamber (DFC). Measurements took place near Reno, NV, in September and October 2012 encompassing natural, low-mercury (Hg) background soils and Hg-enriched soils. During nine days of measurements with deployment of Hg-enriched soil in boxes within 60 m upwind of the EC tower, the covariance of GEM concentration and vertical wind speed was measured, showing that EC fluxes over an Hg-enriched area were detectable. During three separate days of flux measurements over background soils (without Hg-enriched soils), no covariance was detected, indicating fluxes below the detection limit. When fluxes were measurable, they strongly correlated with wind direction; the highest fluxes occurred when winds originated from the Hg-enriched area. Comparisons among the three methods showed good agreement in direction (e.g., emission or deposition) and magnitude, especially when measured fluxes originated within the Hg-enriched soil area. EC fluxes averaged 849 ng m(-2) h(-1), compared to DFC fluxes of 1105 ng m(-2) h(-1) and MBR fluxes of 1309 ng m(-2) h(-1). This study demonstrated that a CRDS system can be used to measure GEM fluxes over Hg-enriched areas, with a conservative detection limit estimate of 32 ng m(-2) h(-1). PMID:25608027

  17. Next-Generation Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Calculation from the CERES Instruments: Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, W.; Corbett, J.; Eitzen, Z.; Liang, L.

    2015-01-01

    The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes are critical components to advancing our understanding of the Earth's radiative energy balance, radiative effects of clouds and aerosols, and climate feedback. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments provide broadband shortwave and longwave radiance measurements. These radiances are converted to fluxes by using scene-type-dependent angular distribution models (ADMs). This paper describes the next-generation ADMs that are developed for Terra and Aqua using all available CERES rotating azimuth plane radiance measurements. Coincident cloud and aerosol retrievals, and radiance measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and meteorological parameters from Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) data assimilation version 5.4.1 are used to define scene type. CERES radiance measurements are stratified by scene type and by other parameters that are important for determining the anisotropy of the given scene type. Anisotropic factors are then defined either for discrete intervals of relevant parameters or as a continuous functions of combined parameters, depending on the scene type. Significant differences between the ADMs described in this paper and the existing ADMs are over clear-sky scene types and polar scene types. Over clear ocean, we developed a set of shortwave (SW) ADMs that explicitly account for aerosols. Over clear land, the SW ADMs are developed for every 1 latitude1 longitude region for every calendar month using a kernel-based bidirectional reflectance model. Over clear Antarctic scenes, SW ADMs are developed by accounting the effects of sastrugi on anisotropy. Over sea ice, a sea-ice brightness index is used to classify the scene type. Under cloudy conditions over all surface types, the longwave (LW) and window (WN) ADMs are developed by combining surface and cloud-top temperature, surface and cloud emissivity, cloud fraction, and precipitable water. Compared to the existing ADMs, the new ADMs change the monthly mean instantaneous fluxes by up to 5Wm(exp -2) on a regional scale of 1 deg. latitude x 1 deg. longitude, but the flux changes are less than 0.5Wm(exp -2) on a global scale.

  18. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; et al

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the backgroundmore » fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.« less

  19. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yen, Y. -R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  20. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yeh, M.; Yen, Y.-R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. The general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  1. Influence of the radiation pressure on the planetary exospheres: density profiles, escape flux and atmospheric stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beth, A.; Garnier, P.; Toublanc, D.; Dandouras, I.; Mazelle, C.

    2015-10-01

    The uppermost layer of the atmosphere, the exosphere,is not well-known in its global structure since the densities are very low compared to instrument detection capabilities. Because of rare collisions and high Knudsen numbers, the motion of light species (H,H2, ...)in the corona is essentially determined by the external forces : the gravitation from the planet, the radiation pressure, as well the stellar gravity. In this work, we calculate rigorously and analytically,based on the Hamiltonian mechanics and Liouville theorem, the impact of the radiation pressure and gravitation from the planet on the structure of the exosphere. This approach was partially used by Bishop and Chamberlain (1989) but only in the 2D case : we extend it to the 3D case. Assuming a collisionless exosphere and a constant radiation pressure near the planet, we determine the density profiles for ballistic particles (the main contribution for densities in the lower exosphere) for light species as a function of the angle with respect to the Sun direction. We also obtain an analytical formula for the escape flux at the subsolar point, which can be compared with the Jeans' escape flux. Finally, we study the effect of the radiation pressure on the zero velocity curves, position of the Roche lobe and Hill's region for the well-known Three-Body problem especially for Hot Jupiters and discuss about the validity of our model. The goal is to bring some constraints on modelling of exoplanet atmospheres.

  2. Calculating the detection limits of chamber-based greenhouse gas flux measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chamber-based measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from soil is a common technique. However, when changes in chamber headspace gas concentrations are small over time, determination of the flux can be problematic. Several factors contribute to the reliability of measured fluxes, including: samplin...

  3. Water flux and drainage from soil measured with automated passive capillary wick samplers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various soil water samplers are used to monitor measure and estimate drainage water, fluxes and solute transport in the soil vadose zone. Passive capillary samplers (PCAPs) have shown potential to provide better measurements and estimates of soil water drainage and fluxes than other lysimeters.Twelv...

  4. LEAF, BRANCH, STAND & LANDSCAPE SCALE MEASUREMENTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND FLUXES FROM U.S. WOODLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural volatile organic compounds (VOC) fluxes were measured in three U.S. woodlands in summer 1993. Fluxes from individual leaves and branches were estimated with enclosure techniques and used to initialize and evaluate VOC emission model estimates. Ambient measurements were us...

  5. Measurements and Phenomenological Modeling of Magnetic FluxBuildup in Spheromak Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Romero-Talamas, C A; Hooper, E B; Jayakumar, R; McLean, H S; Wood, R D; Moller, J M

    2007-12-14

    Internal magnetic field measurements and high-speed imaging at the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [E. B. Hooper, L. D. Pearlstein, R. H. Bulmer, Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)] are used to study spheromak formation and field buildup. The measurements are analyzed in the context of a phenomenological model of magnetic helicity based on the topological constraint of minimum helicity in the open flux before reconnecting and linking closed flux. Two stages are analyzed: (1) the initial spheromak formation, i. e. when all flux surfaces are initially open and reconnect to form open and closed flux surfaces, and (2) the stepwise increase of closed flux when operating the gun on a new mode that can apply a train of high-current pulses to the plasma. In the first stage, large kinks in the open flux surfaces are observed in the high-speed images taken shortly after plasma breakdown, and coincide with large magnetic asymmetries recorded in a fixed insertable magnetic probe that spans the flux conserver radius. Closed flux (in the toroidal average sense) appears shortly after this. This stage is also investigated using resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In the second stage, a time lag in response between open and closed flux surfaces after each current pulse is interpreted as the time for the open flux to build helicity, before transferring it through reconnection to the closed flux. Large asymmetries are seen during these events, which then relax to a slowly decaying spheromak before the next pulse.

  6. Symposium on Radiation Measurements and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehe, David K.

    2015-06-01

    On June 9-12, 2014, the Symposium on Radiation Measurements and Applications (SORMA XV) took place at the University of Michigan campus. This was the 15th in the long-running series traditionally held every four years in Ann Arbor, and marked its 50th anniversary since inception. Attendance peaked again at nearly 500 conferees, with 135 students in attendance.

  7. A bottom-up perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of global eddy covariance flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Amelynck, Crist; Ammann, Christof; Arneth, Almut; Bamberger, Ines; Goldstein, Allen; Hansel, Armin; Heinesch, Bernhard; Holst, Thomas; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Karl, Thomas; Neftel, Albrecht; McKinney, Karena; Munger, William; Schade, Gunnar; Schoon, Niels

    2014-05-01

    Methanol (CH3OH) is, after methane, the second most abundant VOC in the troposphere and globally represents nearly 20% of the total biospheric VOC emissions. With typical concentrations of 1-10 ppb in the continental boundary layer, methanol plays a crucial role in atmospheric chemistry, which needs to be evaluated in the light of ongoing changes in land use and climate. Previous global methanol budgets have approached the net land flux by summing up the various emission terms (namely primary biogenic and anthropogenic emissions, plant decay and biomass burning) and by subtracting dry and wet deposition, resulting in a net land flux in the range of 75-245 Tg y-1. The data underlying these budget calculations largely stem from small-scale leaf gas exchange measurements and while recently column-integrated remotely sensed methanol concentrations have become available for constraining budget calculations, there have been few attempts to contrast model calculations with direct net ecosystem-scale methanol flux measurements. Here we use eddy covariance methanol flux measurements from 8 sites in Europe and North America to study the magnitude of and controls on the diurnal and seasonal variability in the net ecosystem methanol flux. In correspondence with leaf-level literature, our data show that methanol emission and its strong environmental and biotic control (by temperature and stomatal conductance) prevailed at the more productive (agricultural) sites and at a perturbed forest site. In contrast, at more natural, less productive sites substantial deposition of methanol occurred, in particular during periods of surface wetness. These deposition processes are poorly represented by currently available temperature/light and/or production-driven modelling algorithms. A new framework for modelling the bi-directional land-atmosphere methanol exchange is proposed which accounts for the production of methanol in leaves, the regulation of leaf methanol emission by stomatal conductance and the bi-directional methanol exchange within plant canopies as governed by surface wetness and ambient methanol concentrations.

  8. CR-39 detector based thermal neutron flux measurements, in the photo neutron project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mameli, A.; Greco, F.; Fidanzio, A.; Fusco, V.; Cilla, S.; D'Onofrio, G.; Grimaldi, L.; Augelli, B. G.; Giannini, G.; Bevilacqua, R.; Totaro, P.; Tommasino, L.; Azario, L.; Piermattei, A.

    2008-08-01

    PhoNeS (photo neutron source) is a project aimed at the production and moderation of neutrons by exploiting high energy linear accelerators, currently used in radiotherapy. A feasibility study has been carried out with the scope in mind to use the high energy photon beams from these accelerators for the production of neutrons suitable for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Within these investigations, it was necessary to carry out preliminary measurements of the thermal neutron component of neutron spectra, produced by the photo-conversion of X-ray radiotherapy beams supplied by three LinAcs: 15 MV, 18 MV and 23 MV. To this end, a simple passive thermal neutron detector has been used which consists of a CR-39 track detector facing a new type of boron-loaded radiator. Once calibrated, this passive detector has been used for the measurement of both the thermal neutron component and the cadmium ratio of different neutron spectra. In addition, bubble detectors with a response highly sensitive to thermal neutrons have also been used. Both thermal neutron detectors are simple to use, very compact and totally insensitive to low-ionizing radiation such as electrons and X-rays. The resultant thermal neutron flux was above 10 6 n/cm 2s and the cadmium ratio was no greater than 15 for the first attempt of photo-conversion of X-ray radiotherapy beams.

  9. Identifying and Managing Data Validity Challenges with Automated Data Checks in the AmeriFlux Flux Measurement Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, C.; Pastorello, G.; Papale, D.; Trotta, C.; Ribeca, A.; Canfora, E.; Faybishenko, B.; Samak, T.; Gunter, D.; Hollowgrass, R.; Agarwal, D.

    2014-12-01

    AmeriFlux is a network of sites managed by independent investigators measuring carbon, water and heat fluxes. Individual investigators perform many data validity checks. Network-level data validity checks are also being applied to increase network-wide data consistency. A number of different types or errors occur in flux data, and while corrections have been developed to address some types of errors, other error types can be difficult to detect. To identify errors rapidly and consistently, we have developed automated data validity checks that rely on theoretical limits or relationships for specific measured variables. We present an example of a data validity check that is being developed for the friction velocity u*. The friction velocity is a crucial variable used to identify when low turbulent mixing in the atmospheric boundary layer invalidates eddy covariance measurements of fluxes. It is measured via sonic anemometer and is related to the wind speed WS, the measurement height relative to the canopy height, and the surface roughness, through the log law. Comparing independent measurements of WS and u* can help identify issues related to the sensor but doesn't take into consideration changes in the canopy (e.g. due to leaf emergence). The u* data check proposed relies on recent work comparing multiple methods for determining the aerodynamic roughness length z0 and zero plane displacement d (Graf, A., A. van de Boer, A. Moene & H. Vereecken, 2014, Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 151, 373-387). These methods, each of which is most robust across a different atmospheric stability range, yield multiple estimates for z0 and d at daily resolution. We use these multiple estimates for z0 and d, as well as half-hourly wind speeds and Obukhov length scales and their uncertainties to generate a predicted u* and a tolerance around this predicted value. In testing, this check correctly identified as invalid u* data known to be erroneous but did not flag data that could look anomalous but instead reflect real changes in the vegetation canopy. This and other validity checks both manual and automated are serving to increase accuracy and inter-comparability of all data within the AmeriFlux and FLUXNET networks preceding the upcoming release of a new global data set of fluxes.

  10. Control of the energetic proton flux in the inner radiation belt by artificial means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, X.; Papadopoulos, K.; Sharma, A. S.

    2009-07-01

    Earth's inner radiation belt located inside L = 2 is dominated by a relatively stable flux of trapped protons with energy from a few to over 100 MeV. Radiation effects in spacecraft electronics caused by the inner radiation belt protons are the major cause of performance anomalies and lifetime of Low Earth Orbit satellites. For electronic components with large feature size, of the order of a micron, anomalies occur mainly when crossing the South Atlantic Anomaly. However, current and future commercial electronic systems are incorporating components with submicron size features. Such systems cannot function in the presence of the trapped 30-100 MeV protons, as hardening against such high-energy protons is essentially impractical. The paper discusses the basic physics of the interaction of high-energy protons with low-frequency Shear Alfven Wave (SAW) under conditions prevailing in the radiation belts. Such waves are observed mainly in the outer belt, and it is believed that they are excited by an Alfven Ion Cyclotron instability driven by anisotropic equatorially trapped energetic protons. The paper derives the bounce and drift-averaged diffusion coefficients and uses them to determine the proton lifetime as a function of the spectrum and amplitude of the volume-averaged SAW resonant with the trapped energetic protons. The theory is applied to the outer and inner radiation belts. It is found that the resonant interaction of observed SAW with nT amplitude in the outer belt results in low flux of trapped protons by restricting their lifetime to periods shorter than days. A similar analysis for the inner radiation belt indicates that broadband SAW in the 1-10 Hz frequency range and average amplitude of 25 pT would reduce the trapped energetic proton flux by more than an order of magnitude within 2 to 3 years. In the absence of naturally occurring SAW waves, such reduction can be achieved by injecting such waves from ground-based transmitters. The analysis indicates that such reduction requires injection of less than 10 kW of SAW power. Increasing the power will result in the further decrease of the trapped flux. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of techniques that can inject such waves using ground-based transmitters.

  11. Flux measurements in a nuclear research reactor by using an aluminum nitride detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, B. S.; Yoo, D. S.; Hwang, I. K.; Chung, C. E.; Holcomb, D. E.

    2007-08-01

    A small polycrystalline aluminium nitride detector with a thickness of 381 μm was used to measure a 200,000 Ci Co 60 source and to measure the flux in a research reactor where the neutron flux is about 10 14/cm 2 s, which is nearly the same order as in the commercial power plant. If the applied voltage is greater than or equal to 2000 V and if the measurements are done in a short period of time so that the heat energy does not build up in the aluminium nitride, then the measured electric current is linearly proportional to the input flux. It is assumed of course that the energy spectrum of the input flux remains constant. This linearity relation is illustrated by the results of a measurement in which the reactor power has been controlled so that the flux becomes a step function.

  12. SkyLine and SkyGas: Novel automated technologies for automatic GHG flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ineson, Philip; Stockdale, James

    2014-05-01

    1. Concerns for the future of the Earth's climate centre around the anthropogenically-driven continuing increases in atmospheric concentrations of the major 'greenhouse gases' (GHGs) which include CO2, CH4 and N2O. A major component of the global budgets for all three of these gases is the flux between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. 2. Currently, these fluxes are poorly quantified, largely due to technical limitations associated with making these flux measurements. Whilst eddy covariance systems have greatly improved such measurements at the ecosystem scale, flux measurements at the plot scale are commonly made using labour intensive traditional 'cover box' approaches; technical limitations have frequently been a bottle-neck in producing adequate and appropriate GHG flux data necessary for making land management decisions. For example, there are almost no night time flux data for N2O fluxes, and frequently such data are only measured over bare soil patches. 3. We have been addressing the design of novel field equipment for the automation of GHG flux measurements at the chamber and plot scale and will present here some of the technical solutions we have developed. These solutions include the development of the SkyLine and SkyGas approaches which resolve many of the common problems associated with making high frequency, sufficiently replicated GHG flux measurements under field conditions. 4. Unlike most other automated systems, these technologies 'fly' a single chamber to the measurement site, rather than have multiple replicated chambers and analysers. We will present data showing how such systems can deliver high time and spatial resolution flux data, with a minimum of operator intervention and, potentially, at relatively low per plot cost. We will also show how such measurements can be extended to monitoring fluxes from freshwater features in the landscape.

  13. Area-Averaged Surface Fluxes Over the Litfass Region Based on Eddy-Covariance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyrich, Frank; Leps, Jens-Peter; Mauder, Matthias; Bange, Jens; Foken, Thomas; Huneke, Sven; Lohse, Horst; Lüdi, Andreas; Meijninger, Wouter M. L.; Mironov, Dmitrii; Weisensee, Ulrich; Zittel, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Micrometeorological measurements (including eddy-covariance measurements of the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat) were performed during the LITFASS-2003 experiment at 13 field sites over different types of land use (forest, lake, grassland, various agricultural crops) in a 20 × 20 km2 area around the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg (MOL) of the German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD). Significant differences in the energy fluxes could be found between the major land surface types (forest, farmland, water), but also between the different agricultural crops (cereals, rape, maize). Flux ratios between the different surfaces changed during the course of the experiment as a result of increased water temperature of the lake, changing soil moisture, and of the vegetation development at the farmland sites. The measurements over grass performed at the boundary-layer field site Falkenberg of the MOL were shown to be quite representative for the farmland part of the area. Measurements from the 13 sites were composed into a time series of the area-averaged surface flux by taking into account the data quality of the single flux values from the different sites and the relative occurrence of each surface type in the area. Such composite fluxes could be determined for about 80% of the whole measurement time during the LITFASS-2003 experiment. Comparison of these aggregated surface fluxes with area-averaged fluxes from long-range scintillometer measurements and from airborne measurements showed good agreement.

  14. Comparison of Two Chamber Methods for Measuring Soil Trace-gas Fluxes in Bioenergy Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, B. E.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from soils are often measured using trace-gas flux chamber techniques without a standardized protocol, raising concerns about measurement accuracy and consistency. To address this, we compared measurements from non-steady-state non-through-flow (NTF) chambers with a non-steady-state through-flow (TF) chamber system in three bioenergy cropping systems located in Wisconsin. Additionally, we investigated the effects of NTF flux calculation method and deployment time on flux measurements. In all cropping systems, when NTF chambers were deployed for 60 min and a linear (LR) flux calculation was used, soil CO2 and N2O fluxes were, on average, 18% and 12% lower, respectively, than fluxes measured with a 15 min deployment. Fluxes calculated with the HMR method, a hybrid of non-linear and linear approaches, showed no deployment time effects for CO2 and N2O and produced 27-32% higher CO2 fluxes and 28-33% higher N2O fluxes in all crops than the LR approach with 60 min deployment. Across all crops, CO2 fluxes measured with the TF chamber system were higher by 24.4 to 84.9 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, than fluxes measured with NTF chambers using either flux calculation method. These results suggest NTF chamber deployment time should be shortened if the LR approach is used though detection limits should be considered, and the HMR approach may be more appropriate when long deployment times are necessary. Significant differences in absolute flux values with different chamber types highlight the need for significant effort in determining the accuracy of methods or alternative flux measurement technologies. N2O fluxes with chamber deployment time for (a) all crops (switchgrass, corn, hybrid poplar) using both linear (LR) and HMR flux calculation methods, (b) each crop individually using LR approach, and (c) each crop individually using HMR approach. Given are seasonal (May-August) means + standard error. Letters indicate significant differences among deployment times (p<0.05, Tukey-Kramer test). Because there were no significant crop x deployment time interactions, significance letters are not shown in (b) and (c).

  15. Radiation belt electron flux variability during three CIR-driven geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, M. M.; Horne, R. B.; Meredith, N. P.; Glauert, S. A.

    2009-07-01

    Coronal holes produce high speed solar wind streams (HSS) that subsequently interact with the slower downstream solar wind forming co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs). The CIR/HSS combination drives geomagnetic storms that have a weak to moderate signature in Dst. We simulate the behavior of relativistic (976 keV) electrons in the outer radiation belt and the slot region (2[less-than-or-equals, slant]L[less-than-or-equals, slant]7) during three CIR-driven storms associated with three consecutive rotations of a coronal hole that occurred just after solar maximum during June-August 1991. We use a 1d radial diffusion model (RADICAL) with losses due to pitch-angle scattering by plasmaspheric hiss. The losses are expressed through the electron lifetime calculated using the PADIE code driven by a global Kp-dependent model of plasmaspheric hiss intensity and fpe/fce. The outer boundary condition is time and energy-dependent and derived from observations. The model reproduces the observed flux at L=5 to within about a factor of 3 suggesting that flux levels are well-described by radial diffusion to and from the outer boundary. At L=3.5 and 4, the model overestimates the flux decay rates. This results in the observed flux exceeding the model flux, by up to a factor of 5 at L=4 and by up to a factor of 8 at L=3.5, by the end of the recovery phase. Comparison with model results from a geomagnetically quieter interval suggest that the underestimation in flux may be due to the lack of representation of local wave acceleration in the model.

  16. Calculations of automatic chamber flux measurements of methane and carbon dioxide using short time series of concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirk, Norbert; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Lund, Magnus; Crill, Patrick; Christensen, Torben R.

    2016-02-01

    The closed chamber technique is widely used to measure the exchange of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from terrestrial ecosystems. There is, however, large uncertainty about which model should be used to calculate the gas flux from the measured gas concentrations. Due to experimental uncertainties the simple linear regression model (first-order polynomial) is often applied, even though theoretical considerations of the technique suggest the application of other, curvilinear models. High-resolution automatic chamber systems which sample gas concentrations several hundred times per flux measurement make it possible to resolve the curvilinear behavior and study the information imposed by the natural variability of the temporal concentration changes. We used more than 50 000 such flux measurements of CH4 and CO2 from five field sites located in peat-forming wetlands ranging from 56 to 78° N to quantify the typical differences between flux estimates of different models. In addition, we aimed to assess the curvilinearity of the concentration time series and test the general applicability of curvilinear models. Despite significant episodic differences between the calculated flux estimates, the overall differences are generally found to be smaller than the local flux variability on the plot scale. The curvilinear behavior of the gas concentrations within the chamber is strongly influenced by wind-driven chamber leakage, and less so by changing gas concentration gradients in the soil during chamber closure. Such physical processes affect both gas species equally, which makes it possible to isolate biochemical processes affecting the gases differently, such as photosynthesis limitation by chamber headspace CO2 concentrations under high levels of incoming solar radiation. We assess the possibility to exploit this effect for a partitioning of the net CO2 flux into photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration as an example of how high-resolution automatic chamber measurements could be used for purposes beyond the estimation of the net gas flux. This shows that while linear and curvilinear calculation schemes can provide similar net fluxes, only curvilinear models open additional possibilities for high-resolution automatic chamber measurements.

  17. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING RADIATION

    DOEpatents

    Reeder, S.D.

    1962-04-17

    A chemical dosimeter for measuring the progress of a radiation-induced oxidation-reduction reaction is described. The dosimeter comprises a container filled with an aqueous chemical oxidation-reduction system which reacts quantitatively to the radiation. An anode of the group consisting of antimony and tungsten and a cathode of the group consisting of gold and platnium are inserted into the system. Means are provided to stir the system and a potential sensing device is connected across the anode and cathode to detect voltage changes. (AEC)

  18. Experimental Measurements of Temperature and Heat Flux in a High Temperature Black Body Cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelmessih, Amanie N.

    1998-01-01

    During hypersonic flight, high temperatures and high heat fluxes are generated. The Flight Loads Laboratory (FLL) at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is equipped to calibrate high heat fluxes up to 1100 kW/sq m. There are numerous uncertainties associated with these heat flux calibrations, as the process is transient, there are expected to be interactions between transient conduction, natural and forced convection, radiation, and possibly an insignificant degree of oxidation of the graphite cavity. Better understanding, of these mechanisms during the calibration process, will provide more reliable heat transfer data during either ground testing or flight testing of hypersonic vehicles.

  19. On the Relationship Between High Speed Solar Wind Streams and Radiation Belt Electron Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua

    2011-01-01

    Both past and recent research results indicate that solar wind speed has a close connection to radiation belt electron fluxes [e.g., Paulikas and Blake, 1979; Reeves et aI., 2011]: a higher solar wind speed is often associated with a higher level of radiation electron fluxes. But the relationship can be very complex [Reeves et aI., 2011]. The study presented here provides further corroboration of this viewpoint by emphasizing the importance of a global perspective and time history. We find that all the events during years 2010 and 2011 where the >0.8 MeV integral electron flux exceeds 10(exp 5) particles/sq cm/sr/s (pfu) at GEO orbit are associated with the high speed streams (HSS) following the onset of the Stream Interaction Region (SIR), with most of them belonging to the long-lasting Corotating Interaction Region (CIR). Our preliminary results indicate that during HSS events, a maximum speed of 700 km/s and above is a sufficient but not necessary condition for the > 0.8 MeV electron flux to reach 10(exp 5) pfu. But in the exception cases of HSS events where the electron flux level exceeds the 10(exp 5) pfu value but the maximum solar wind speed is less than 700 km/s, a prior impact can be noted either from a CME or a transient SIR within 3-4 days before the arrival of the HSS - stressing the importance of time history. Through superposed epoch analysis and studies providing comparisons with the CME events and the HSS events where the flux level fails to reach the 10(exp 5) pfu, we will present the quantitative assessment of behaviors and relationships of various quantities, such as the time it takes to reach the flux threshold value from the stream interface and its dependence on different physical parameters (e.g., duration of the HSS event, its maximum or average of the solar wind speed, IMF Bz, Kp). The ultimate goal is to apply what is derived to space weather forecasting.

  20. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-03-16

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

  1. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Robert V.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infra-red sensing devices.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, October 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2000-11-09

    Energy Balance Bowen Ratio System--Estimates of surface energy fluxes are a primary product of the data collection systems at the ARM SGP CART site. Surface fluxes tell researchers a great deal about the effects of interactions between the sun's energy and Earth. Surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat can be estimated by measuring temperature and relative humidity gradients across a vertical distance. Sensible heat is what we feel coming from a warm sidewalk or a metal car door; it can be measured with a thermometer. Latent heat, on the other hand, is released or absorbed during transformations such as the freezing of water into ice or the evaporation of morning dew from a lawn. Such a transformation is referred to as a ''phase change,'' the conversion of a substance among its solid, liquid, and vapor phases. Phase change is an important aspect of our climate. Earth's water cycle abounds with phase changes: rain falls and evaporates, changing from liquid to vapor; the water vapor in the air condenses to form clouds, changing from a gas into a liquid cloud droplet, and eventually falls to Earth's surface as rain or snow; snow falls and melts to liquid or sublimes directly to water vapor. This cyclic process has no end. Surface vegetation and land use play extremely important roles in surface energy fluxes. Plants absorb and reflect solar radiation and also take up water and expel water vapor. The type of plant material, its stage of growth, and its color determine whether and to what extent the surface and air can couple and exchange energy.

  3. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

  4. Parameterizing daytime downward longwave radiation in two Korean regional flux monitoring network sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Minha

    2013-01-01

    Daytime downward longwave radiation (Rld) in clear sky and all sky conditions was estimated by various well-known physical or empirical models at two Korean regional flux monitoring network (KoFlux) sites which have not been included in previously published studies for Rld models' performance. The Brunt (1932) model performed the best clear sky Rld estimations at the KoFlux sites. The Maykut and Church (1973) model performed the best all sky Rld estimations at the KoFlux sites where the bias and root mean square error (RMSE) were 3.4 and 26.6 W m-2 at the Gwangneung site and 0.3 and 32.4 W m-2 at the Haenam site, respectively. Newly proposed global Rld model by Abramowitz et al. (2012) showed reasonable Rld estimations for the all sky conditions. While selected Rld models showed the reliable estimations under clear and all sky conditions, the systematic and random errors were still observed in this study. These errors were mostly caused by relatively simple estimations of the cloud cover fraction. More validation and calibration efforts should be conducted in a range of field conditions including different climatic regions and land cover types for better understanding of the model performance with uncertainties.

  5. The effect of cumulus cloud field anisotropy on solar radiative fluxes and atmospheric heating rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkelman, Laura M.

    The effect of fair-weather cumulus cloud field anisotropy on domain average surface fluxes and atmospheric heating profiles was studied. Causes of anisotropy were investigated using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model. Cloud formation under a variety of environmental conditions was simulated and the degree of anisotropy in the output fields was calculated. Wind shear was found to be the single greatest factor in the development of both vertically tilted and horizontally stretched cloud structures. A stochastic field generation algorithm was used to produce twenty three-dimensional liquid water content fields based on the statistical properties of the LES cloud scenes. Progressively greater degrees of tilt and stretching were imposed on each of these scenes, so that an ensemble of scenes were produced for each level of distortion. The resulting scenes were used as input to a three-dimensional Monte Carlo model. Domain-average transmission, reflection, and absorption of broadband solar radiation were computed for each scene along with the average heating rate profile. Both tilt and horizontal stretching were found to significantly affect calculated fluxes, with the amount and sign of flux differences depending strongly on sun position relative to cloud distortion geometry. For nearly all solar geometries, domain-averaged fluxes and atmospheric heating rate profiles calculated using the Independent Pixel Approximation differed substantially from the corresponding three-dimensional Monte Carlo results.

  6. Preliminary results of radiation measurements on EURECA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    The eleven-month duration of the EURECA mission allows long-term radiation effects to be studied similarly to those of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Basic data can be generated for projections to crew doses and electronic and computer reliability on spacecraft missions. A radiation experiment has been designed for EURECA which uses passive integrating detectors to measure average radiation levels. The components include a Trackoscope, which employs fourteen plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) stacks to measure the angular dependence of high LET (greater than or equal to 6 keV/micro m) radiation. Also included are TLD's for total absorbed doses, thermal/resonance neutron detectors (TRND's) for low energy neutron fluences and a thick PNTD stack for depth dependence measurements. LET spectra are derived from the PNTD measurements. Preliminary TLD results from seven levels within the detector array show that integrated does inside the flight canister varied from 18.8 +/- 0.6 cGy to 38.9 +/- 1.2 cGy. The TLD's oriented toward the least shielded direction averaged 53% higher in dose than those oriented away from the least shielded direction (minimum shielding toward the least shielded direction varied from 1.13 to 7.9 g/cm(exp 2), Al equivalent). The maximum dose rate on EURECA (1.16 mGy/day) was 37% of the maximum measured on LDEF and dose rates at all depths were less than measured on LDEF. The shielding external to the flight canister covered a greater solid angle about the canister than the LDEF experiments.

  7. A Strategy to Assess Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing of Climate Using Satellite Radiation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have a complex internal chemical composition and optical properties. Therefore it is difficult to model their impact on redistribution and absorption of solar radiation, and the consequent impact on atmospheric dynamics and climate. The use in climate models of isolated aerosol parameters retrieved from satellite data (e.g. optical thickness) may result in inconsistent calculations, if the model assumptions differ from these of the satellite retrieval schemes. Here we suggest a strategy to assess the direct impact of aerosol on the radiation budget at the top and bottom of the atmosphere using satellite and ground based measurements of the spectral solar radiation scattered by the aerosol. This method ensures consistent use of the satellite data and increases its accuracy. For Kaufman and Tanre: Strategy for aerosol direct forcing anthropogenic aerosol in the fine mode (e.g. biomass burning smoke and urban pollution) consistent use of satellite derived optical thickness can yield the aerosol impact on the spectral solar flux with accuracy an order of magnitude better than the optical thickness itself. For example, a simulated monthly average smoke optical thickness of 0.5 at 0.55 microns (forcing of 40-50 W/sq m) derived with an error of 20%, while the forcing can be measured directly with an error of only 0-2 W/sq m. Another example, the effect of large dust particles on reflection of solar flux can be derived three times better than retrievals of optical thickness. Since aerosol impacts not only the top of the atmosphere but also the surface irradiation, a combination of satellite and ground based measurements of the spectral flux, can be the most direct mechanism to evaluate the aerosol effect on climate and assimilate it in climate models. The strategy is applied to measurements from SCAR-B and the Tarfox experiments. In SCAR-B aircraft spectral data are used to derive the 24 hour radiative forcing of smoke at the top of the atmosphere of (Delta)F(sub 24hr)/(Delta)tau = - 25 +/- 5 W/sq m. Ground based data give forcing at the surface of (Delta)F(sub 24hr)/(Delta)taur = -80 +/- 5 W/sq m. In TARFOX a mixture of maritime and regional pollution aerosol resulted in a varied forcing at the top of the atmosphere, (Delta)F(sub 24hr)/(Delta)tau, between -26 W/sq 2 and -50 W/sq m depending on mixture of coarse and accumulation modes, for Angstrom exponents of 1.0 and 0.2 respectively.

  8. Decoupled cantilever arms for highly versatile and sensitive temperature and heat flux measurements.

    PubMed

    Burg, Brian R; Tong, Jonathan K; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Chen, Gang

    2012-10-01

    Microfabricated cantilever beams have been used in microelectromechanical systems for a variety of sensor and actuator applications. Bimorph cantilevers accurately measure temperature change and heat flux with resolutions several orders of magnitude higher than those of conventional sensors such as thermocouples, semiconductor diodes, as well as resistance and infrared thermometers. The use of traditional cantilevers, however, entails a series of important measurement limitations, because their interactions with the sample and surroundings often create parasitic deflection forces and the typical metal layer degrades the thermal sensitivity of the cantilever. The paper introduces a design to address these issues by decoupling the sample and detector section of the cantilever, along with a thermomechanical model, the fabrication, system integration, and characterization. The custom-designed bi-arm cantilever is over one order of magnitude more sensitive than current commercial cantilevers due to the significantly reduced thermal conductance of the cantilever sample arm. The rigid and immobile sample section offers measurement versatility ranging from photothermal absorption, near-field thermal radiation down to contact, conduction, and material thermal characterization measurements in nearly identical configurations. PMID:23126793

  9. On Using CO2 Concentration Measurements at Mountain top and Valley Locations in Regional Flux Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wekker, S. F.; Song, G.; Stephens, B. B.

    2007-12-01

    Data from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON) are used to investigate atmospheric controls on temporal and spatial variability of CO2 in mountainous terrain and the usefulness of mountain top and valley measurement for the estimation of regional CO2 fluxes. Rocky RACCOON consists of four sites installed in fall of 2005 and spring of 2006: Niwot Ridge, near Ward, Colorado; Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, Colorado; Fraser Experimental Forest, near Fraser Colorado; and Hidden Peak, near Snowbird, Utah. The network uses the NCAR-developed Autonomous Inexpensive Robust CO2 Analyzer. These units measure CO2 concentrations at three levels on a tower, producing individual measurements every 2.5 minutes precise to 0.1 ppm CO2 and closely tied to the WMO CO2 scale. Three of the sites are located on a mountain top while one site is located in a valley. Initial analyses show interesting relationships between CO2 concentration and atmospheric parameters, such as wind speed and direction, temperature, and incoming solar radiation. The nature of these relationships is further investigated with an atmospheric mesoscale model. Idealized and realistic simulations are able to capture the observed behavior of spatial and temporal CO2 variability and reveal the responsible physical processes. The implications of the results and the value of the measurements for providing information on local to regional scale respiration and photosynthesis rates in the Rockies are discussed.

  10. Combined FTIR-micrometeorological techniques for long term measurements of greenhouse gas fluxes from agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, A. K.; Griffith, D.; Harvey, M.; Naylor, T.; Smith, M.

    2009-04-01

    The exchange of trace gases between the biosphere and the atmosphere affects the atmospheric concentrations of gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen dioxide and others. The quantification of the exchange between a biogenic system and the atmosphere is necessary for the evaluation of the impact of these interactions. This is of special interest for agricultural systems which can be sources or sinks of trace gases, and the measurement of the fluxes is necessary when evaluating both the environmental impact of agricultural activities and the impact of atmospheric pollution on agricultural production and sustainability. With the exception of CO2, micrometeorological measurements of the fluxes of greenhouse gases from agricultural activities are still mostly possible only in campaign mode due to the complexity and logistical requirements of the existing measurement techniques. This limitation precludes studies of fluxes which run for longer periods, for example over full seasonal or growing cycles for both animal- and crop-based agriculture. We have developed an instrument system for long-term flux measurements through a combination of micrometeorological flux measurement techniques such as Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) and Flux-Gradient (FG) with the high precision multi-species detection capabilities of FTIR spectroscopy. The combined technique is capable of simultaneous flux measurements of N2O, CH4 and CO2 at paddock to regional scales continuously, over longer terms (months, seasonal cycles, years). The system was tested on a 3 weeks field campaign in NSW, Australia on a flat, homogeneous circular grass paddock with grazing cattle. The flux of the atmospheric trace gas CO2 was measured with three different micrometeorological techniques: Relaxed Eddy Accumulation, Flux-Gradient, and Eddy Correlation. Simultaneously, fluxes of CH4 and N2O were measured by REA and FG technique.

  11. Prediction of high-energy radiation belt electron fluxes using a combined VERB-NARMAX model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhotin, I. P.; Balikhin, M. A.; Shprits, Y.; Subbotin, D.; Boynton, R.

    2013-12-01

    This study is concerned with the modelling and forecasting of energetic electron fluxes that endanger satellites in space. By combining data-driven predictions from the NARMAX methodology with the physics-based VERB code, it becomes possible to predict electron fluxes with a high level of accuracy and across a radial distance from inside the local acceleration region to out beyond geosynchronous orbit. The model coupling also makes is possible to avoid accounting for seed electron variations at the outer boundary. Conversely, combining a convection code with the VERB and NARMAX models has the potential to provide even greater accuracy in forecasting that is not limited to geostationary orbit but makes predictions across the entire outer radiation belt region.

  12. Radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Baker, John; Collins, Leland F.; Kuklo, Thomas C.; Micali, James V.

    1992-01-01

    A radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system for measuring the average power of a beam such as a laser beam, including a calorimeter configured to operate over a wide range of coolant flow rates and being cooled by continuously flowing coolant for absorbing light from a laser beam to convert the laser beam energy into heat. The system further includes a flow meter for measuring the coolant flow in the calorimeter and a pair of thermistors for measuring the temperature difference between the coolant inputs and outputs to the calorimeter. The system also includes a microprocessor for processing the measured coolant flow rate and the measured temperature difference to determine the average power of the laser beam.

  13. A Comparison of EAST Shock-Tube Radiation Measurements with a New Air Radiation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Christopher O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between the recent EAST shock tube radiation measurements (Grinstead et al., AIAA 2008-1244) and the HARA radiation model. The equilibrium and nonequilibrium radiation measurements are studied for conditions relevant to lunar-return shock-layers; specifically shock velocities ranging from 9 to 11 kilometers per second at initial pressures of 0.1 and 0.3 Torr. The simulated shock-tube flow is assumed one-dimensional and is calculated using the LAURA code, while a detailed nonequilibrium radiation prediction is obtained in an uncoupled manner from the HARA code. The measured and predicted intensities are separated into several spectral ranges to isolate significant spectral features, mainly strong atomic line multiplets. The equations and physical data required for the prediction of these strong atomic lines are reviewed and their uncertainties identified. The 700-1020 nm wavelength range, which accounts for roughly 30% of the radiative flux to a peak-heating lunar return shock-layer, is studied in detail and the measurements and predictions are shown to agree within 15% in equilibrium. The plus or minus 1.5% uncertainty on the measured shock velocity is shown to cause up to a plus or minus 30% difference in the predicted radiation. This band of predictions contains the measured values in almost all cases. For the highly nonequilibrium 0.1 Torr cases, the nonequilibrium radiation peaks are under-predicted by about half. This under-prediction is considered acceptable when compared to the order-of-magnitude over-prediction obtained using a Boltzmann population of electronic states. The reasonable comparison in the nonequilibrium regions provides validation for both the non-Boltzmann modeling in HARA and the thermochemical nonequilibrium modeling in LAURA. The N2 (+)(1-) and N2(2+) molecular band systems are studied in the 290 480 nm wavelength range for both equilibrium and nonequilibrium regimes. The non-Boltzmann rate models for these systems, which have significant uncertainties, are tuned to improve the comparison with measurements.

  14. A technique for determining the spatial and temporal distributions of surface fluxes of heat and moisture over the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, J. C.; Hubbe, J. M.; Liljegren, J. C.; Shaw, W. J.; Collatz, G. J.; Cook, D. R.; Hart, R. L.

    1998-03-01

    Land surface parameterization schemes such as the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB2) have found considerable use in climate simulation models, where they provide lower boundary conditions in the form of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. A methodology is described to apply models of this type at high resolution, using data from the Department of Energy's Cloud and Radiation Testbed in Oklahoma and Kansas, to determine the spatial variations of heat fluxes over the domain and to determine area-weighted flux averages for use in single-column model studies. Data from a dense array of meteorological instruments are interpolated to provide the wind, temperature, vapor pressure, radiation, and precipitation values needed by SiB2. The state of the vegetation is characterized through the use of the normalized difference vegetation index determined from satellites. The performance of the SiB2 model is evaluated by comparing its predictions with flux data from seven Bowen ratio stations over a 6-month period. No tuning of the model parameters for individual sites was allowed during the simulation period. Although there is significant scatter in the results, the performance of the model was generally good, accounting for over 60% of the variance in sensible heat fluxes and over 80% of the variance in latent heat fluxes. The model was therefore used to prepare "flux maps" for the study area. These maps show large contrasts in sensible and latent heat fluxes associated primarily with differences in vegetation cover and soil moisture over the site. The differences in vegetation, in turn, result from the planting of large areas with winter wheat, which leaves some regions nearly devoid of actively growing vegetation in midsummer, while other areas are still covered with thriving crops or naturally occurring vegetation. Implications for determining large-area averages of fluxes from a limited number of measurement sites are discussed.

  15. On the importance of nearbed sediment flux measurements for estimating sediment transport in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogston, Andrea S.; Sternberg, Richard W.

    1995-11-01

    Previous sediment studies in the surf zone typically have computed suspended sediment flux profiles by pairing a single current meter measurement at an elevation of 20 cm or more with measurements of suspended sediment concentration from sensor arrays located at 4-50 cm elevation. This note reports the results of a field experiment in which small impellor current meters were paired with OBS sensors at common elevations of 4, 9 and 19 cm from the bed and across the inner surf zone to obtain concurrent velocity and concentration profiles. The objectives of this experiment were to measure suspended sediment flux profiles within 20 cm of the seabed to determine the magnitude of flux very close to the seabed in comparison to measurements at higher elevation; and to evaluate the errors associated with estimating sediment flux using current meter measurements at only one elevation compared to flux estimates based on velocity profile measurements. Results show that the total sediment flux at z = 4 cm was greater than the flux higher in the water column ( z = 9 and 19 cm) by a factor of at least 2. The flux profiles computed using a single impellor current meter at z = 19 cm and OBS sensors at z = 4, 9 and 19 cm typically were between 0.5 and 2.0 times the flux profiles computed using paired instruments. In one case the estimate of flux direction from the single current meter data predicted transport in the wrong cross shore direction. These results highlight the importance of nearbed measurements of concentration and velocity in estimating sediment transport in the surf zone.

  16. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S.N.; Andersen, T.C.; Anthony, A.E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E.W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S.D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M.G.; Burritt, T.H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M.C.; Cleveland, B.T.; Cox-Mobrand, G.A.; Currat, C.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P.J.; Dosanjh, R.S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J.TM.; Grant, D.R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Harvey, P.J.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hemingway, R.J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M.A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N.A.; Klein, J.R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C.B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J.C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A.D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A.B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M.L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A.J.; Oblath, N.S.; Okada, C.E.; O?Keeffe, H.M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Oser, S.M.; Ott, R.A.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M.H.; Secrest, J.A.; Seibert, S.R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J.J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M.W.E.; Sonley, T.J.; Steiger, T.D.; Stonehill, L.C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R.G.; VanDevender, B.A.; Virtue, C.J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C.E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D.L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wilson, J.R.; Wouters, J.M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2009-02-16

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between -1 {le} cos {theta}{sub zenith} 0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22 {+-} 0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos {theta}{sub zenith} > 0.4 is measured to be (3.31 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.09 (sys.)) x 10{sup -10} {micro}/s/cm{sup 2}.

  17. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Andersen, T. C.; Anthony, A. E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M. C.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P. J.; Dosanjh, R. S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J. TM.; Grant, D. R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Harvey, P. J.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hemingway, R. J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Klein, J. R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J. C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A. D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A. J.; Oblath, N. S.; Okada, C. E.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G. D.; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W. E.; Sonley, T. J.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R. G.; VanDevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C. E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D. L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2009-07-10

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between -1 {le} cos {theta}{sub zenith} 0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22 {+-} 0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos {theta}{sub zenith} > 0.4 is measured to be (3.31 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.09 (sys.)) x 10{sup -10} {micro}/s/cm{sup 2}.

  18. Diurnal Variations of Energetic Particle Radiation Dose Measured by the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafkin, Scot; Zeitlin, Cary; Ehresmann, Bent; Köhler, Jan; Guo, Jingnan; Kahanpää, Henrik; Hassler, Don; -Gomez, Javier E.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Brinza, David; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckhard; Burmeister, Sonka; Martin, Cesar; Müller-Mellin, Robert; Appel, Jan; Posner, Arik; Reitz, Gunter; Kharytonov, Aliksandr; Cucinotta, Francis

    2013-04-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity has collected data on the interplanetary radiation environment during cruise from Earth to Mars and at the surface of Mars since its landing in August 2012. RAD's particle detection capabilities are achieved with a solid-state detector (SSD) stack (A, B, C), a CsI(Tl) scintillator (D), and a plastic scintillator (E) for neutron detection. The D and E detectors are surrounded by an anticoincidence shield (F), also made of plastic scintillator. All scintillators are optically coupled to silicon diodes which convert scintillation light to electrons. RAD is capable of measuring both Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) thought to be produced by supernovae outside the heliosphere and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). GCRs are relativistic particles (100 MeV/nuc to >10 GeV/nuc) composed of roughly 89% protons, 10% alpha particles (He), and 1% heavier nuclei [1]. Because of their high energies and continuous nature, GCRs are the dominant source of background radiation at the Martian surface, and are responsible for the production of secondary particles (notably neutrons) via complex interactions in the atmosphere and regolith. SEPs are produced by coronal mass ejections. These intermittent storms are most likely to occur near solar maximum and typical fluxes are dominated by protons with energies lower than 100 MeV/nuc. Unlike the GCR flux, the SEP flux can vary by five or more orders of magnitude over timescales of a day. Even under a constant flux of energetic particle radiation at the top of the atmosphere, the radiation dose at the surface should vary as a function of surface elevation [2]. This variation is directly related to the change in the shielding provided by the total atmospheric mass column, which is to a very good approximation directly related to surface pressure. Thus, the flux of primary energetic particles should increase with altitude, all other things being equal. At present, MSL has been at a nearly constant altitude of ~-4.4 km MOLA so that no elevation-induced changes are expected and none have been observed. However, any process that changes the column mass of atmosphere should change the dose at the surface. On Mars there are two major processes that substantially change column atmospheric mass. The first is the seasonal condensation cycle during which ~25% of the dominant atmospheric constituent (CO2) condenses onto the winter pole. This seasonal signal is very strong and has been observed by surface pressure measurements from the Viking Landers up through MSL [3,4]. The second major process is related to the thermal tide. The direct heating of the Martian atmosphere by the Sun produces global scale waves that redistribute mass [5]. The two most dominant tidal modes are the diurnal and semidiurnal tide. Together, the thermal tide can produce a variation of 10-15% over a Martian day (sol). Here, we report on the dose measured by the RAD E detector and the variation of this dose over the diurnal cycle. Further, we show that the variation in the E dose rate is very likely due to the variation of column mass, as measured by the pressure sensor on the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS), driven by the thermal tide. While changes in dose were expected from changes in altitude or season, the discovery of a diurnal variation was not anticipated, although it should have been reasonably expected in hindsight.

  19. A comparison of six methods for measuring soil-surface carbon dioxide fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, J.M.; Kucharik, C.J.; Gower, S.T.; Baldocchi, D.D.; Crill, P.M.; Rayment, M.; Savage, K.; Striegl, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of soil-surface CO2 fluxes are important for characterizing the carbon budget of boreal forests because these fluxes can be the second largest component of the budget. Several methods for measuring soil-surface CO2 fluxes are available: (1) closed-dynamic-chamber systems, (2) closed-static-chamber systems, (3) open-chamber systems, and (4) eddy covariance systems. This paper presents a field comparison of six individual systems for measuring soil-surface CO2 fluxes with each of the four basic system types represented. A single system is used as a reference and compared to each of the other systems individually in black spruce (Picea mariana), jack pine (Pinus banksiana), or aspen (Populus tremuloides) forests. Fluxes vary from 1 to 10 ??mol CO2 m-2 s-1. Adjustment factors to bring all of the systems into agreement vary from 0.93 to 1.45 with an uncertainty of about 10-15%.

  20. Automatic actinometric system for diffuse radiation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litwiniuk, Agnieszka; Zajkowski, Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Actinometric station is using for measuring solar of radiation. The results are helpful in determining the optimal position of solar panels relative to the Sun, especially in today's world, when the energy coming from the Sun and other alternative sources of energy become more and more popular. Polish climate does not provide as much energy as in countries in southern Europe, but it is possible to increase the amount of energy produced by appropriate arrangement of photovoltaic panels. There is the possibility of forecasting the amount of produced energy, the cost-effectiveness and profitability of photovoltaic installations. This implies considerable development opportunities for domestic photovoltaic power plants. This article presents description of actinometric system for diffuse radiation measurement, which is equipped with pyranometer - thermopile temperature sensor, amplifier AD620, AD Converter ADS1110, microcontroller Atmega 16, SD card, GPS module and LCD screen.

  1. Flux enhancement of the outer radiation belt electrons after the arrival of stream interaction regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Kataoka, Ryuho

    2008-03-01

    The Earth's outer radiation belt electrons increase when the magnetosphere is surrounded by the high-speed solar wind stream, while the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is also known as an important factor for the flux enhancement. In order to distinguish the two different kinds of solar wind parameter dependence statistically, we investigate the response of the outer belt to stream interaction regions (SIRs). A total of 179 SIR events are identified for the time period from 1994 to 2005. We classify the SIR events into two groups according to the so-called "spring-toward fall-away" rule: IMF sector polarity after the stream interface is toward in spring or away in fall (group A) and vice versa (group B). According to the Russell-McPherron effect, groups A and B have a significant negative and positive offset of the IMF Bz after the stream interface, respectively. Comparing groups A and B by superposing about the stream interface, only IMF Bz dependence can be obtained because the other solar wind parameters change in the same manner. As a result, the greatest flux enhancement is found in the highest-speed streams with a southward offset of the IMF Bz, indicating that only the solar wind speed by itself is not a sufficient condition for the large flux enhancement. It is also found that the large flux enhancement tends to be associated with weak geomagnetic activities with minimum Dst of about -50 nT on average, implying that the existence of intense magnetic storms is not essential for the flux enhancement.

  2. Cumulative ultraviolet radiation flux in adulthood and risk of incident skin cancers in women

    PubMed Central

    Wu, S; Han, J; Vleugels, R A; Puett, R; Laden, F; Hunter, D J; Qureshi, A A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Solar ultraviolet (UV) exposure estimated based on residential history has been used as a sun exposure indicator in previous case–control and descriptive studies. However, the associations of cumulative UV exposure based on residential history with different skin cancers, including melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), have not been evaluated simultaneously in prospective studies. Methods: We conducted a cohort study among 108 578 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1976–2006) to evaluate the relative risks of skin cancers with cumulative UV flux based on residential history in adulthood. Results: Risk of SCC and BCC was significantly lower for women in lower quintiles vs the highest quintile of cumulative UV flux (both P for trend <0.0001). The association between cumulative UV flux and risk of melanoma did not reach statistical significance. However, risk of melanoma appeared to be lower among women in lower quintiles vs the highest quintile of cumulative UV flux in lag analyses with 2–10 years between exposure and outcome. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios per 200 × 10−4 Robertson–Berger units increase in cumulative UV flux were 0.979 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.933, 1.028) for melanoma, 1.072 (95% CI: 1.041, 1.103) for SCC, and 1.043 (95% CI: 1.034, 1.052) for BCC. Conclusions: Associations with cumulative UV exposure in adulthood among women differed for melanoma, SCC, and BCC, suggesting a potential variable role of UV radiation in adulthood in the carcinogenesis of the three major skin cancers. PMID:24595003

  3. Joint assimilation of eddy covariance flux measurements and FAPAR products over temperate forests within a process-oriented biosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacour, C.; Peylin, P.; MacBean, N.; Rayner, P. J.; Delage, F.; Chevallier, F.; Weiss, M.; Demarty, J.; Santaren, D.; Baret, F.; Berveiller, D.; Dufrêne, E.; Prunet, P.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the benefits of assimilating in situ and satellite data of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) relative to eddy covariance flux measurements for the optimization of parameters of the ORCHIDEE (Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystem) biosphere model. We focus on model parameters related to carbon fixation, respiration, and phenology. The study relies on two sites—Fontainebleau (deciduous broadleaf forest) and Puechabon (Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forest)—where measurements of net carbon exchange (NEE) and latent heat (LE) fluxes are available at the same time as FAPAR products derived from ground measurements or derived from spaceborne observations at high (SPOT (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre)) and medium (MERIS (MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer)) spatial resolutions. We compare the different FAPAR products, analyze their consistency with the in situ fluxes, and then evaluate the potential benefits of jointly assimilating flux and FAPAR data. The assimilation of FAPAR data leads to a degradation of the model-data agreement with respect to NEE at the two sites. It is caused by the change in leaf area required to fit the magnitude of the various FAPAR products. Assimilating daily NEE and LE fluxes, however, has a marginal impact on the simulated FAPAR. The results suggest that the main advantage of including FAPAR data is the ability to constrain the timing of leaf onset and senescence for deciduous ecosystems, which is best achieved by normalizing FAPAR time series. The joint assimilation of flux and FAPAR data leads to a model-data improvement across all variables similar to when each data stream is used independently, corresponding, however, to different and likely improved parameter values.

  4. Increasing fluxes of S5 1044+71 measured with RATAN-600 radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushkin, S. T.; Mingaliev, M. G.; Sotnikova, Yu. V.; Erkenov, A.; Udovitskij, R. Yu.; Mufakharov, T. V.

    2014-02-01

    We report about the growing fluxes of the quasar S5 1044+71, identified with the FERMI source 2FGL J1048.3+714, since detection of the high state in the rest of January 2014 (ATEL #5792). We continue measurements and again detect the increase of the flux densities at frequencies 8.2-21.7 GHz in February.

  5. An assessment of corrections for eddy covariance measured turbulent fluxes over snow in mountain environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snow-covered complex terrain is an extremely important runoff generating landscape in high altitude and latitude environments, yet is often considered non-viable for eddy covariance measurements of turbulent fluxes. Turbulent flux data are useful for evaluating the coupled snow cover mass and energ...

  6. How representative are instantaneous evaporative fraction measurements for daytime fluxes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    peng, jian; borsche, michael; loew, alexander

    2013-04-01

    Sun synchronous optical remote sensing is a promising technique to provide instantaneous ET (Evapotranspiration) estimates during satellite overpass. The common approach to extrapolate the instantaneous estimates to values for daily or longer periods relies on the assumption that the EF (Evaporative Fraction, defined as the ratio of latent heat flux to surface available energy) remains nearly constant during daytime. However, there is still no consensus on the validity of the self preservation of EF. To address this question, long term time series of data from a global network of EC (Eddy Covariance) stations (FLUXNET) were analyzed across a wide range of ecosystems and climates. It is found that the EF in different time periods of daytime under clear skies are in good agreement with daytime EF except the period of 8:00-9:00h and 16:00-17:00h. In 11:00-14:00h, the minimum R2 value is higher than 0.75, and the maximum RMSD is less than 0.087. These statistics indicate that EF during these time periods is closer to daytime EF. The best correlation between instantaneous EF and daytime EF appears at midday (12:00-13:00h). The possible reason for such result is that energy fluxes change at a slower rate compared to early morning and late afternoon. However, the EF exhibited more unstable under partly cloudy situations compared with clear skies. The variability of EF increased with the increase in cloudiness. For total cloud cover the R2 values between instantaneous EF in different time periods and daytime EF obviously went down as compared to clear skies. Poorer RMSD were also obtained at the same time. This is because cloudiness could induce a decrease in the available energy and the latent heat flux, which further causes the increase in both instantaneous EF and daytime EF. But these increases are probably in different degrees. Thus the EF constant hypothesis might only be true for clear skies. Nonetheless, the above results provide a basis for remote sensing-based estimation of EF based on sun synchronous satellite observations. The midday overpass satellites (e.g. MODIS and AVHRR) are supposed to give better results than other overpass time platforms. The important conclusion from the present study is that the EF constant assumption is valid over a wide range of ecosystems and climates.

  7. Comparison of sea surface flux measured by instrumented aircraft and ship during SOFIA and SEMAPHORE experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Pierre; Dupuis, HLNe; Lambert, Dominique; BNech, Bruno; Druilhet, Aim; Katsaros, Kristina; Taylor, Peter K.; Weill, Alain

    1998-10-01

    Two major campaigns (Surface of the Oceans, Fluxes and Interactions with the Atmosphere (SOFIA) and Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphre, Proprits des Htrognits Ocaniques: Recherche Exprimentale (SEMAPHORE)) devoted to the study of ocean-atmosphere interaction were conducted in 1992 and 1993, respectively, in the Azores region. Among the various platforms deployed, instrumented aircraft and ship allowed the measurement of the turbulent flux of sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum. From coordinated missions we can evaluate the sea surface fluxes from (1) bulk relations and mean measurements performed aboard the ship in the atmospheric surface layer and (2) turbulence measurements aboard aircraft, which allowed the flux profiles to be estimated through the whole atmospheric boundary layer and therefore to be extrapolated toward the sea surface level. Continuous ship fluxes were calculated with bulk