Sample records for radiation furnaces analise

  1. Radiation heat transfer within an optical fiber draw tower furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Issa, J.; Jaluria, Y.; Polymeropoulos, C.E.; Yin, Z. [Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Study of the thermal transport and material flow processes associated with the drawing of optical fiber in a graphite draw furnace requires modeling of the heat transfer from the furnace wall. Previous work has shown that accurate knowledge of the furnace heater element axial temperature distribution is essential for proper modeling of the radiative transfer process. The present work is aimed at providing this information, as well as generating a set of data for the study of radiation exchange in the furnace cavity. The experimental procedure involved measuring the centerline temperature distribution in graphite and fused silica rods inserted into an optical fiber draw tower furnace. The temperature measurements were then used along with a model for radiative-convective heat transfer in the furnace in order to obtain the furnace temperature profile. This is an inverse problem since the centerline temperature in the rod is known whereas the furnace thermal conditions are not. The results obtained showed that the furnace temperature distribution was independent of rod material and size. The shape of the computed temperature distributions suggest that they can be well represented by a Gaussian function.

  2. Research on the identification algorithm and simulation relating to the radiation coefficient of metallurgical reheating furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaling Luo; Zhuang Chen; Liping Wan

    2010-01-01

    The Reheating furnace is the major energy consumption item of equipment on a rolling steel production line within a metallurgical enterprise. Creating an optimized control system for the reheating furnace by using industrial controlled technology to control the temperature of the furnace, is the main method to promote reheating efficiency and reduce energy consumption of the furnace. The radiation coefficient

  3. A radiation furnace for zone-crystallisation experiments in space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Eyer; H. Zimmermann; R. Nitsche

    1976-01-01

    A highly efficient radiation furnace for space processing of materials was constructed. It consists of two elliptical mirrors with a common focus, joined together in a completely closed, rugby-ball-like arrangement which allows experiments in any atmosphere, and even in vacuum. Performance tests were carried out with a version with ellipsoidal axes a=100 and b=c=80 mm (effective solid angle = 3.76).

  4. Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, L.; Taylor, T.A.

    1986-04-15

    A furnace is described. An elongate, cylindrical, combustion chamber is disposed horizontally in combination with a blower conduit means for creating a forced draft therein. The furnace is provided with an elongate water jacket surrounding the combustion chamber. The water jacket has a cylindrical outer wall and a heat-conducting, concentric, inner common wall, which forms the outer wall of the combustion chamber. An elongate water compartment is located entirely outside of the water jacket. A first heat transfer means comprises a first set of elongate, parallel fire-tubes axially-disposed in the water jacket in heat exchange relation with the water therein. Second heat transfer means comprising a second set of elongate, parallel fire-tubes axially-disposed in the water compartment in heat exchange relation with the water. Flow of water is directed through the inlet means, the first and second heat transfer means and the outlet means in succession, first into the water compartment in direct heat exchange with the second set of fire-tubes therein and then into the water jacket in direct heat exchange with the first set of fire-tubes therein and in indirect heat exchange with the combustion chamber through the common wall. The flow of combustion gases goes from the combustion chamber through the first and second sets of fire-tubes in succession. Conduit means is in heat exchange relation with the inlet which are air-filled, and from a closed pipe system. The thermally insulating layer rests on the pipes with sides of the thermally insulating layer carrying the lateral reflectors. The thermally insulating layer is provided with a dust lining on a side of the thermally insulating layer facing away from the pipes. Combustion air supplied to the burner is preheated together with a heating medium conveyed in the pipes, the heating medium consisting of the waste gases and the system air.

  5. Radiative heat-transfer model in the interior of a pulverized coal furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Canadas; Luis Salvador; Pedro Ollero

    1990-01-01

    A practical mathematical model simulating radiative heat transfer in the furnace of a pulverized coal boiler is presented. The inclusion of this model in a pulverized coal combustion model allows for testing its validity and its sensitivity to furnace walls and particle emissivity values, by comparison with measurements in a 550 MW power plant boiler.

  6. A furnace for diffraction studies using synchrotron X-ray radiation B. Buras (*), B. Lebech and W. Kofoed

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    743 A furnace for diffraction studies using synchrotron X-ray radiation B. Buras (*), B. Lebech ainsi possibles. Divers détails de construction du four sont explicités. Abstract. 2014 A furnace for diffraction studies using synchrotron X-ray radiation is described. The furnace can be operated between

  7. High-speed furnace uses infrared radiation for controlled brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckles, P. N.

    1966-01-01

    Furnace produces controlled heat for brazing and heat treating metals over a wide range of temperatures by using a near-infrared heat source positioned at one focus of an ellipsoidal reflector mounted below a cylindrical quartz chamber. This furnace maintains a pure atmosphere, has rapid heatup and cooldown, and permits visual observation.

  8. Modeling Specular Exchange Between Concentric Cylinders in a Radiative Shielded Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schunk, Richard Gregory; Wessling, Francis C.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop and validate mathematical models to characterize the thermal performance of a radiative shielded furnace, the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Isothermal Diffusion Oven. The mathematical models are validated against experimental data obtained from testing the breadboard oven in a terrestrial laboratory environment. It is anticipated that the validation will produce math models capable of predicting the thermal performance of the furnace over a wide range of operating conditions, including those for which no experimental data is available. Of particular interest is the furnace core temperature versus heater power parametric and the transient thermal response of the furnace. Application to a microgravity environment is not considered, although it is conjectured that the removal of any gravity dependent terms from the math models developed for the terrestrial application should yield adequate results in a microgravity environment. The UAH Isothermal Diffusion Oven is designed to provide a thermal environment that is conducive to measuring the diffusion of high temperature liquid metals. In addition to achieving the temperatures required to melt a sample placed within the furnace, reducing or eliminating convective motions within the melt is an important design consideration [1]. Both of these influences are reflected in the design of the furnace. Reducing unwanted heat losses from the furnace is achieved through the use of low conductivity materials and reflective shielding. As evidenced by the highly conductive copper core used to house the sample within the furnace, convective motions can be greatly suppressed by providing an essentially uniform thermal environment. An oven of this design could ultimately be utilized in a microgravity environment, presumably as a experiment payload. Such an application precipitates other design requirements that limit the resources available to the furnace such as power, mass, volume, and possibly even time. Through the experimental and numerical results obtained, the power requirements and thermal response time of the breadboard furnace are quantified.

  9. Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Hemant; Zuidwijk, Thim; Geerlofs, Nico; Offerman, S. Erik [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Wattjes, Alix C. [Electronic and Mechanical Support Division (DEMO), Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Amirthalingam, Murugaiyan [Materials Innovation Institute, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other types of synchrotron radiation research. The furnace has a very low thermal gradient across the specimen (<0.2 degree sign C/mm). Accurate determination of the temperature can be carried out by welding a thermocouple to the specimen. The furnace can be rotated over an angle of 90 degree sign in order to determine the crystallographic orientation of each individual grain. It is possible to follow growth kinetics of all grains in the illuminated volume of the specimen. The specimen environment can be controlled varying from vacuum (up to 10{sup -5} mbar) to gas or air filled. The maximum temperature of operation is 1500 degree sign C, with the possibility of achieving high heating (up to 20 deg. C/s) and cooling rates (up to 30 deg. C/s without quenching gas). 3D maps of the microstructure of the specimen can be generated at elevated temperatures by bringing the high-resolution detector close to the specimen. We show an example of a simulation of the heat affected zone during the thermal cycle of a weld in a transformation-induced plasticity steel carried out using the furnace. The unique characteristics of the furnace open possibility of new fields in materials research using synchrotron radiation.

  10. Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hemant; Wattjes, Alix C; Amirthalingam, Murugaiyan; Zuidwijk, Thim; Geerlofs, Nico; Offerman, S Erik

    2009-12-01

    We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other types of synchrotron radiation research. The furnace has a very low thermal gradient across the specimen (<0.2 degrees C/mm). Accurate determination of the temperature can be carried out by welding a thermocouple to the specimen. The furnace can be rotated over an angle of 90 degrees in order to determine the crystallographic orientation of each individual grain. It is possible to follow growth kinetics of all grains in the illuminated volume of the specimen. The specimen environment can be controlled varying from vacuum (up to 10(-5) mbar) to gas or air filled. The maximum temperature of operation is 1500 degrees C, with the possibility of achieving high heating (up to 20 degrees C/s) and cooling rates (up to 30 degrees C/s without quenching gas). 3D maps of the microstructure of the specimen can be generated at elevated temperatures by bringing the high-resolution detector close to the specimen. We show an example of a simulation of the heat affected zone during the thermal cycle of a weld in a transformation-induced plasticity steel carried out using the furnace. The unique characteristics of the furnace open possibility of new fields in materials research using synchrotron radiation. PMID:20059134

  11. Thermal radiation modelling of DC smelting furnace freeboards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Reynolds

    2002-01-01

    The problem of radiation heat transfer in a system of large numbers of surface elements was considered. A numerical-mathematical model detailing the radiative exchange between surfaces in a generalised multiple-surface shape model was constructed, developed, and tested to a satisfactory degree of complexity, at which point it was incorporated into a general-purpose computer program.Predictions by the model were compared to

  12. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A

    2008-12-31

    The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

  13. A parametric study of radiative heat transfer in pulverised coal furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Marakis; C. Papapavlou; E. Kakaras

    2000-01-01

    The P-1 approximation and the Monte Carlo method are applied in cylindrical coal-fired furnaces. The absorption and scattering efficiencies and the phase function of coal, char and fly-ash particles are obtained from Lorenz-Mie theory and wavelength dependent optical properties based on measurements available in the literature. The influence of each kind of particle on the radiative heat transfer is investigated.

  14. The effects of unburned carbon on radiative heat transfer in a pilot pulverized coal furnace -- Numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhaohui; Xing Huawei; Zhou Yingbiao; Zheng Chuguang [National Lab. of Coal Combustion, Wuhan (China)

    1997-12-31

    This paper investigates the possible effect of residue char on the radiative heat transfer in a pilot furnace. Firstly, a program is constructed to incorporate radiative properties of particles in solving the radiative heat transfer, based on a computer code for predicting turbulent gas-solid flow and combustion. The radiative properties of single unburnt char are modeled by coated sphere model of Mie theory, while the local Planck average radiative properties of particle could be obtained by a scheme based on Lagrangian approach with particle turbulent dispersion, and the radiative heat transfer is solved by Discrete Transfer method. Then, comparisons are made among predicted results for a pilot-scale pulverized coal furnace by several particulate radiative properties models. It shows even for the pilot-scale furnace, the effect of particle concentration is more important than that of distinguishing between particles of char and ash. The residue carbon in ash has a tendency to enhance the radiative heat transfer for this case. The optimized burn-off rate to separate ash from char is near 0.65.

  15. Measurements of the flame emissivity and radiative properties of particulate medium in pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnaces by image processing of visible radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chun Lou; Huai-Chun Zhou; Peng-Feng Yu; Zhi-Wei Jiang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2007-07-01

    Due to the complicated processes for coal particles burning in industrial furnaces, their radiative properties, such as the absorption and scattering coefficients, which are essential to make reliable calculation of radiative transfer in combustion computation, are hard to be given exactly by the existing methods. In this paper, multiple color image detectors were used to capture approximately red, green, and blue monochromatic radiative intensity images in the visible wavelength region, and the flame emissivity and the radiative properties of the particulate media in three pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnaces were got from the flame images. It was shown that as the load increased, the flame emissivity and the radiative properties increased too; these radiative parameters had the largest values near the burner zone, and decreased along the combustion process. Compared with the combustion medium with a low-volatile anthracite coal burning in a 670 t/h boiler, the emissivity and the absorption coefficient of the medium with a high-volatile bituminous coal burning in a 1025 t/h boiler were smaller near the outlet zone, but were larger near the burner zone of the furnace, due to the significant contribution of soot to the radiation. This work will be of practical importance in modeling and calculating the radiative heat transfer in combustion processes, and improving the technology for in situ, multi-dimensional visualization of large-scale combustion processes in coal-fired furnaces of power plants. 18 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Calculation of radiation attenuation coefficients in Portland cements mixed with silica fume, blast furnace slag and natural zeolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?brahim Türkmen; Yüksel Özdemir; Murat Kurudirek; Faruk Demir; Önder Simsek; Ramazan Demirbo?a

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the radiation attenuation coefficients expressed as mass attenuation coefficients for Portland cement, zeolite, blast furnace slag, silica fume and their mixed types in function of the Photon energy over the energy range of 1keV to 2MeV. It was observed that different percentages of constituents in cement and cement mixed with different additives such as zeolite, silica fume

  17. Visualization of three-dimensional temperature distributions in a large-scale furnace via regularized reconstruction from radiative energy images: numerical studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huai-Chun Zhou; Shu-Dong Han; Feng Sheng; Chu-Guang Zheng

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the possibility of visualization of three-dimensional (3-D) temperature distributions in large-scale boiler furnaces from radiative energy images captured by multiple charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras mounted around the furnace is studied numerically. For the calculation of the radiative energy image formation, a fast algorithm proposed by the authors for pinhole imaging is used in this paper, which is

  18. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  19. Numerical investigation of the heating process inside an industrial furnace

    E-print Network

    Wolper, Pierre

    Numerical investigation of the heating process inside an industrial furnace Proposition: Combined are sufficient to describe the temperature raise of a furnace, their "simple integration" is often furnace taking into account convective, conductive and radiative heat transfer. The model

  20. Prediction of a Turbulent Non-Premixed Natural Gas Flame in a Semi-Industrial Scale Furnace using a Radiative Flamelet Combustion Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Mahmud; S. K. Sangha

    2010-01-01

    A mixedness-reactedness flamelet combustion model coupled with a comprehensive radiation heat transfer model based on the\\u000a discrete transfer method of solution of the radiative transport equation is applied for the simulation of a 3 MW non-swirling\\u000a turbulent non-premixed natural gas flame in the experimental furnace at the International Flame Research Foundation. In the\\u000a calculation, turbulence is represented by the standard k????

  1. Global heat transfer analysis in Czochralski silicon furnace with radiation on curved specular surfaces

    E-print Network

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    with coupled thermal radiation and heat conduction is inves- tigated in Czochralski silicon crystal growth temperature at melting point of silicon V pulling velocity Greek symbols e emissivity k thermal conductivity q radiation, and the surface of metal liquid is specular and curved. A perusal of the rel- evant literature

  2. Regularities of heat transfer in the gas layers of a steam boiler furnace flame. Part II. Gas layer radiation laws and the procedure for calculating heat transfer in furnaces, fire boxes, and combustion chambers developed on the basis of these laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, A. N.

    2014-10-01

    The article presents the results stemming from the scientific discovery of laws relating to radiation from the gas layers generated during flame combustion of fuel and when electric arc burns in electric-arc steel-melting furnaces. The procedure for calculating heat transfer in electric-arc and torch furnaces, fire-boxes, and combustion chambers elaborated on the basis of this discovery is described.

  3. Tube furnace

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA); Frohwein, Eugene J. (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Bowen, David W. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  4. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  5. Temperature uniformity in RTP furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Yates Sorrell; Mark J. Fordham; M. C. Ozturk; Jimmie J. Wortman

    1992-01-01

    The heat transfer to a wafer in a rapid thermal processing (RTP) furnace is simulated by an analytical\\/numerical model. The model includes radiation heat transfer to the wafer from the lamps, heat conduction within the wafer, and emission of radiation from the wafer. Geometric optics are used to predict the radiant heat flux distribution over the wafer. The predicted wafer

  6. High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

  7. Analise Matematica III Exame de 2a

    E-print Network

    Girão, Pedro M.

    An´alise Matem´atica III Exame de 2a ¯ ´Epoca - 29 de Fevereiro de 96 Civ., Inf., Mater., Mec., Min., Nav. e Ter. Dura¸c~ao: 3 horas Apresente os c´alculos 1. Considere a superf´icie S = {(x, y, z) IR3

  8. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R&D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  9. Combustion space modeling of an aluminum furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, Brian M. (ANL); Zhou, C.Q. (Purdue University Calumet, Hammond, IN); Quenette, Antoine (ANL).; Han, Quinyou (ORNL).; King, Paul E.

    2005-02-01

    Secondary aluminum production (melting from aluminum ingots, scraps, etc.) offers significant energy savings and environmental benefits over primary aluminum production since the former consumes only five percent of the energy used in the latter process. The industry, however, faces technical challenges of further improving furnace melting efficiency and has been lacking tools that can help understand combustion process in detail and that will facilitate furnace design. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has played increasingly important roles in evaluating industrial processes. As part of a larger program run by SECAT, a CFD model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to simulate fuel combustion, heat transfer (including thermal radiation), gaseous product flow (mainly CO2 and H2O), and production/transport of pollutant species/greenhouse gases in an aluminum furnace. Using this code, the surface heat fluxes are calculated and then transferred to a melt code. In order to have a high level of confidence in the computed results, the output from the code will be compared and validated against in-furnace measurements made in the Albany furnace. Once validated, the combustion code may be used to perform inexpensive parametric studies to investigate methods to optimize furnace performance. This paper will present results from the combustion modeling of an aluminum furnace as well as results from several parametric studies.

  10. Application of the Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases model (SLWSGG) to the calculation of radiative heat transfer in steel reheating furnaces firing on low heating value gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, P. D.; Danda, A.; Embouazza, M.; Gazdallah, M.; Evrard, P.; Feldheim, V.

    2012-06-01

    The Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (SLWSGG) model is applied to calculate the gaseous radiative properties of the aero- or oxy-combustion products of low heating value gases issued from steel making process such as Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as well as of high heating value gases such as Coke Oven Gas (COG) and conventional Natural Gas (NG). The comparison of total emissivities shows that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is in very good agreement with the Hottel and Sarofim's database. The 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is then integrated into AnsysFluent® Discrete Ordinates method under User Defined Function and CFD simulations are performed using these combined models. The simulations are done, with full combustion-radiation coupling, for steel reheating furnaces firing on three types of gases: BFG, COG and NG. The results are compared with the simulations realized with the 1-gray-gas WSGG model available in AnsysFluent®. The comparison shows that the 1-gray-gas WSGG model highly overestimates the steel discharging temperature as compared to the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model. Significant temperature differences are observed between the two radiative models, i.e. 116°C, 55°C and 67°C for the BFG, COG and NG cases, respectively. It can be concluded that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model should be used to calculate the radiation heat transfer in large industrial furnaces with more accuracy not only for low heating value gases such as BFG but also for high heating value gases such as COG and NG.

  11. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  12. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS EVERY TWENTY MINUTES TO DETERMINE SIZE AND TEXTURE OF BATCH AND OTHER VARIABLES. FAN IN FRONT COOLS WORKERS AS THEY CONDUCT REPAIRS. FURNACE TEMPERATURE AT 1572 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  13. General purpose rocket furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    A multipurpose furnace for space vehicles used for material processing experiments in an outer space environment is described. The furnace contains three separate cavities designed to process samples of the widest possible range of materials and thermal requirements. Each cavity contains three heating elements capable of independent function under the direction of an automatic and programmable control system. A heat removable mechanism is also provided for each cavity which operates in conjunction with the control system for establishing an isothermally heated cavity or a wide range of thermal gradients and cool down rates. A monitoring system compatible with the rocket telemetry provides furnace performance and sample growth rate data throughout the processing cycle.

  14. Heat transfer analysis of blast furnace stave

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijun Wu; Xun Xu; Weiguo Zhou; Yunlong Su; Xiaojing Li

    2008-01-01

    The three-dimensional mathematical model of temperature and thermal stress field of the blast furnace stave is built. The radiation heat transmitted from solid materials (coke and ore) to inner surface of the stave, which has been neglected by other studies, is taken into account. The cast steel stave is studied and the finite element method is used to perform the

  15. Franklin Furnace Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For those not in the know, the phrase "Franklin Furnace" might sound like a type of 19th century heating device. In fact, the Franklin Furnace organization has been dedicated to the proposition that avant-garde art is a very worthwhile endeavor, and their delightful website presents fine information about their work, and about the world of avant-garde art more generally. Based in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, the organization started their work in 1976, and their website offers a nice timeline and introductory essay that documents their own history. Moving along, visitors will definitely want to look over their "Archives" area, which contain a number of online exhibitions and video interview with artists who have worked with Franklin Furnace over the years. Finally, the site also contains a "Scholarly Stuff" section, which features essays on the Furnace and some of the interesting archival techniques they have used to preserve avant-garde art for future generations.

  16. High gradient directional solidification furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high gradient directional solidification furnace is disclosed which includes eight thermal zones throughout the length of the furnace. In the hot end of the furnace, furnace elements provide desired temperatures. These elements include Nichrome wire received in a grooved tube which is encapsulated y an outer alumina core. A booster heater is provided in the hot end of the furnace which includes toroidal tungsten/rhenium wire which has a capacity to put heat quickly into the furnace. An adiabatic zone is provided by an insulation barrier to separate the hot end of the furnace from the cold end. The old end of the furnace is defined by additional heating elements. A heat transfer plate provides a means by which heat may be extracted from the furnace and conducted away through liquid cooled jackets. By varying the input of heat via the booster heater and output of heat via the heat transfer plate, a desired thermal gradient profile may be provided.

  17. Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace in Red Room Within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  18. 34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace operator on platform measures temperature inside bottle car. Looking southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

  19. Improved graphite furnace atomizer

    DOEpatents

    Siemer, D.D.

    1983-05-18

    A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

  20. An improved gas extraction furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkin, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    Design of glass furnace for analysis of rocks to determine nature and amount of trapped gas is described. Furnace heats specimen in vacuum conditions by radio frequency induction. Diagram of apparatus to show construction and operation is provided.

  1. Comparing Residential Furnace Blowers for

    E-print Network

    LBNL 62344 Comparing Residential Furnace Blowers for Rating and Installed Performance I.S. Walker was to assess the performance of residential furnace blowers for both heating, cooling and air distribution of furnace blowers over a range of static pressure differences that included standard rating points

  2. Furnace with radiant burndown tube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Thekdi; K. H. Hemsath; J. G. Conybear; F. J. Vereecke; S. H. Verhoff

    1980-01-01

    Past attempts to capture the heat energy of combustible gases in the furnace chamber involved drastic structural changes in the furnace design; however, the incorporation of a radiant burndown tube that uses the combustible exhaust gas to provide additional heat to the furnace requires neither major structural modifications nor a cumbersome venting system. The tube has three functional ares -

  3. CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN REROLL BAY. CAKES FROM THE CASTING SHOP ARE BROUGHT UP TO ROLLING TEMPERATURE IN ONE OF TWO (#130 AND 146) GAS-FIRED FURNACES. A RADIO-CONTROLLED OVERHEAD CRANE TRANSFERS CAKES FROM FLATCARS TO THE ROLLER LINE LEADING INTO THE FURNACE. CAKES ARE HEATED AT 900-1000 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT FOR THREE TO FOUR HOURS. RATED FURNACE CAPACITY IS 100,000 LBS.\\HOUR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  4. Furnace Black Characterization

    E-print Network

    ;005F3 Furnace Process High Temperature Refractory Feedstock OilAir Natural Gas Reaction Zone Quench #12 - Filler "Bonding" ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 , , , ads ads ads G H T S H Enthalpy of Adsorption Adsorption Isotherm" diameter (TEM) - different Nitrogen adsorption · Special process to increase the amorphous carbon 2 2.5 3 3

  5. Residential Furnace Blower Performance

    E-print Network

    LBNL 61467 Residential Furnace Blower Performance I.S. Walker Environmental Energy Technologies blowers and the potential cost-effectiveness of setting performance standards and changing motor technologies. In this study, a testing program was undertaken at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

  6. Strengthen flame stability during the furnace`s load decrease

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhiguo; Sun Xuexin; Li Fujin; Qiu Jihua; Chen Gang [HuaZhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the result of the study of the coal combustion characteristic and flame stability during the load decrease of PCFF (corner burner arrangement). Considering the relation between flame stability and furnace load during the furnace load change, some method must be used to strengthen the pulverized coal ignition and combustion for the furnace to maintain the flame stability especially for the furnace which fires low rank anthracite. Experimental results show that when the furnace load decreased, the temperature distribution in furnace decreased and the flame stability in furnace had changed because of the load changing. This paper also introduces a new pulverized coal burner: Bluff-body with cavity burner. According to the result of application of this burner, this kind of pulverized coal burner can improve the coal ignition and combustion efficiency. Especially for low load operation of furnace the bluff-body with cavity burner has demonstrated its ability in strengthening coal ignition and improving the flame stability for furnace operation. Experimental results show that using bluff-body with cavity burner, the lowest load for furnace fired bituminous is 40% MCR and 50% MCr for low rank anthracite (V{sup r} < 12%, A{sup f} > 45%). This burner has simple structure and is very easy to set up for furnace.

  7. A Possible Macroscopic-Photo-Catalysis Mechanism in Solar Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tsohsiu; Qing, Cheng-Rui; Chen, Ying-Tian

    2011-05-01

    Based on the experimental results of Chen et al. to use the solar furnace and medium frequency induction furnace to extract boron impurity from metallurgical silicon, we propose a strong radiation catalysis mechanism to explain the difference of reaction rates in these two furnaces. The postulate assuming the photons striking on the material not only increase the thermal energy of the molecules of reactants but also lower down the energy barrier of the reaction to speed up the chemical reaction. It is believed the photon catalysis mechanism is universal in most of high temperature chemical reactions and looking forward to more evidences for the postulate proposed in this article.

  8. Tritium extraction furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of apparatus for heating an object such as a nuclear target bundle to release and recover hydrogen and contain the disposable residue for disposal. The apparatus comprises an inverted furnace, a sleeve/crucible assembly for holding and enclosing the bundle, conveying equipment for placing the sleeve onto the crucible and loading the bundle into the sleeve/crucible, a lift for raising the enclosed bundle into the furnace, and hydrogen recovery equipment including a trap and strippers, all housed in a containment having, negative internal pressure. The crucible/sleeve assembly has an internal volume that is sufficient to enclose and hold the bundle before heating; the crucible`s internal volume is sufficient by itself to hold and enclose the bundle`s volume after heating. The crucible can then be covered and disposed of, the sleeve, on the other hand, can be reused.

  9. Blast furnace stove control

    SciTech Connect

    Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

    1998-12-31

    This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

  10. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-09-30

    Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  11. Carbon-free induction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Masters, David R. (Knoxville, TN); Pfeiler, William A. (Norris, TN)

    1985-01-01

    An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  12. Water gas furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaro, C.

    1985-12-03

    A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

  13. Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour Katz

    2004-12-31

    The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

  14. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  15. Dynamic properties of blast furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Naboka; G. A. Polyanskii; A. P. Fomenko; N. V. Krutas

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the dynamic properties of the blast-furnace process in terms of the two control signals (change in the ore load and change in the blast parameters), as well as random perturbing signals that change the composition of the furnace gas as a function of the ratio of direct and indirect ferrousoxide (FeO) reduction and the

  16. Aerodynamic laser-heated contactless furnace for neutron scattering experiments at elevated temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Landron; Louis Hennet; Jean-Pierre Coutures; Tudor Jenkins; Chantal Alétru; Neville Greaves; Alan Soper; Gareth Derbyshire

    2000-01-01

    Conventional radiative furnaces require sample containment that encourages contamination at elevated temperatures and generally need windows which restrict the entrance and exit solid angles required for diffraction and scattering measurements. We describe a contactless windowless furnace based on aerodynamic levitation and laser heating which has been designed for high temperature neutron scattering experiments. Data from initial experiments are reported for

  17. Furnace with radiant burndown tube

    SciTech Connect

    Thekdi, A.C.; Hemsath, K.H.; Conybear, J.G.; Vereecke, F.J.; Verhoff, S.H.

    1980-07-29

    Past attempts to capture the heat energy of combustible gases in the furnace chamber involved drastic structural changes in the furnace design; however, the incorporation of a radiant burndown tube that uses the combustible exhaust gas to provide additional heat to the furnace requires neither major structural modifications nor a cumbersome venting system. The tube has three functional ares - the burner leg, the exhaust leg, and a tube portion located within the furnace chamber. The combustible gas passes through an inlet into the tube, where it is mixed with air and ignited; the combustion products exit via the exhaust leg. A typcial application for this radiant burndown tube is in a carburizing furnace; the endothermic gas that is normally burned off could supply over 250,000 Btu/hr.

  18. High pressure furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  19. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  20. Challenges in Melt Furnace Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belt, Cynthia

    2014-09-01

    Measurement is a critical part of running a cast house. Key performance indicators such as energy intensity, production (or melt rate), downtime (or OEE), and melt loss must all be understood and monitored on a weekly or monthly basis. Continuous process variables such as bath temperature, flue temperature, and furnace pressure should be used to control the furnace systems along with storing the values in databases for later analysis. While using measurement to track furnace performance over time is important, there is also a time and place for short-term tests.

  1. Image Furnace for Low Yield Nuclear Weapons Effects Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Griff; Robert J. Heilferty; Willard L. Derksen

    1967-01-01

    The capability of the Naval Applied Science Laboratory for direct simulation of thermal effects due to nuclear weapons has been extended to low yield devices [as small as 10 kilotons (kt)] by the installation of a high performance servo-driven shutter in a carbon arc imaging furnace. The system can simulate thermal radiation pulses from atmospheric detonations with yields of from

  2. Furnace brazing under partial vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckown, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

  3. Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements 

    E-print Network

    Gandler, T.

    2010-01-01

    Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements Tim Gandler Energy Coordinator Baytown Olefins Plant, Baytown Tx 2010 Industrial Energy Technology Conference May, 2010 Page 2 ? Baytown Complex ? Steam Cracking to Olefins ? Furnace overview... & challenges in steam cracking ? Energy efficiency improvements Overview Baytown Olefins Plant Page 3 Baytown Complex ?One of world?s largest integrated, most technologically advanced petroleum/petrochemical complexes ?~3,400 acres along Houston Ship...

  4. High-frequency furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumbrunnen, A. D.

    1985-04-01

    An experimental furnace has been built for the purpose of evaluating a new technique for the high purity melting of certain metals and semiconductors. The melt is contained in a solidified skull of the same material being melted, thus avoiding crucible reactions that are a problem in conventional processing. A number of commercial applications of the invention are discussed, assuming that feasibility can be established. These include the melting and crystal growth of silicon, where the avoidance of crucible contamination would improve the energy conversion efficiency of solar cells; and the consolidation of titanium sponge and scrap, where energy savings and other process advantages would be realized. The production of ferrous and non-ferrous, specialty alloys is also discussed. Heating power is derived from the electrical, proximity effect which is used to concentrate a high-frequency (9.6 kHz) current in the melt zone. The power source is a conventional, 50 kW, solid-state inverter of the type used in induction heating practice. All heats were conducted on a cast iron workpiece in argon at atmospheric pressure. The melt temperature of the casting (2100 F) was not achieved in any test run; however, the ability of proximity effect to generate localized heating was clearly demonstrated.

  5. EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND NORTH SIDE OF SINGLE FURNACE, SOUTHWEST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  6. 8.EE Fixing the Furnace

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Ivan’s furnace has quit working during the coldest part of the year, and he is eager to get it fixed. He decides to call some mechanics and furnace spe...

  7. An analytical furnace model for optimizing aluminum melting furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tianxiang (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY); King, Paul E.; Hassan, Mohamed (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY); Kuwana, Kazunori (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY); Saito, Kozo (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY)

    2005-02-01

    An analytical furnace model, originally established by Essenhigh and Tsai, is developed and modified in this paper. The practical application of this modified model is to predict optimum furnace operating conditions, and has been verified by experimental tests conducted in the Experimental Research Furnace (ERF) at the Albany Research Center (ARC), U.S. Department of Energy. The development of the modified Essenhigh/Tsai model is based on melting and holding tests with two main assumptions: thermal conduction loss in aluminum melting process is the same as that in holding processes, and the heat loss through flue gases is lineally proportional to the melting rate. The former is reasonable because thermal conduction loss is small as compared with firing rate, while the latter is quite accurate as shown in the test results. Tests of aluminum melting were conducted in the ERF furnace where the combustion space volume was changed by varying the roof height. The relations between firing rate, heat absorption rate, melting rate, and energy efficiency were developed from the tests, and the optimum operating conditions under which maximum energy efficiency can be achieved were predicted. In addition, the effect of roof height on the energy efficiency was determined. This model could be a valuable tool in diagnostic analysis of day-to-day operations in aluminum melting.

  8. Waste Heat Recovery – Submerged Arc Furnaces (SAF) 

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, T.

    2008-01-01

    Submerged Arc Furnaces are used to produce high temperature alloys. These furnaces typically run at 3000°F using high voltage electricity along with metallurgical carbon to reduce metal oxides to pure elemental form. The process as currently...

  9. Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

  10. Stagewise gasification in a multiple hearth furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    The gasification of sewage sludge and\\/or the combustible fraction of refuse in a multiple-hearth furnace is discussed. The furnace has a drying zone at the top, a pyrolysis zone in the middle, and a gasification zone at the bottom. The charge is fed into the top of the furnace, air and steam are fed into the bottom, the fuel gas

  11. Arc furnace flicker measurements and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bhargava

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of arc flicker investigations and harmonic measurements taken on a 55 MW arc furnace in Southern California Edison's area. The arc furnace has been in operation since 1976 and has a 65 MVAR Static Var System (SVS) installed to improve the customer's power factor, reduce the voltage fluctuations and arc furnace flicker. Although the SVS

  12. An adaptive arc furnace model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tongxin Zheng; Elham B. Makram

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive arc furnace model. The integrated model is divided into three parts, the supply system model, the nonlinear load model and the controller model. First, the supply system is represented by a set of linear differential equations. Simulation is achieved by a numerical method and the measurements are taken as the control input. Secondly, based on

  13. Concrete linings of heating furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Zamyatin

    1993-01-01

    The metallurgical and machine-building industries have more than a thousand heating and heat-treatment furnaces lined with refractory parts. The life of the linings is up to 2 years including intermediate repairs of individual elements. The primary reason for the low life of linings is their insufficient structural strength and also failure of refractory parts in periodic sharp heating and cooling.

  14. Industrial furnace with improved heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

    1992-07-07

    This patent describes an industrial furnace for heating work which emits volatiles during heating. It comprises a generally cylindrical, closed end furnace section defining a sealable heat transfer chamber for heating work disposed therein; fan means for directing furnace atmosphere as a swirling wind mass about the interior of the furnace section over a portion thereof; heat means for heating the wind mass within the fan chamber; and an incineration track formed as a circumferentially extending groove about the exterior of the furnace section and in heat transfer relationship with and situated at least to extend about a portion of the fan chamber.

  15. Startup analysis of oil-fired furnace?–?the smoothing Monte Carlo model approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Liu; C. K. Choi; C. W. Leung

    2001-01-01

    A multi-dimensional mathematical thermal model of the oil-fired furnace has been developed. Radiation calculation of this\\u000a model is based on the Hottel's zone method incorporating with the statistical Monte Carlo method to determine the total exchange\\u000a areas. The whole furnace is divided into 4 gaseous zones and 18 surface zones. The Monte Carlo method integrated with the\\u000a least square smoothing

  16. Furnace for treating industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, T.D.

    1982-08-31

    A furnace for treating sewage sludge, ash from municipal incinerators or other industrial wastes by melting the waste with a high-temperature bed formed from a combustible carbonaceous material for the reuse of the resulting molten product, for example, as aggregate. A gas for combustion is supplied to the bed at an intermediate portion between its upper and lower portions while causing the resulting combustion gas to flow through the bed dividedly upward and downward.

  17. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Wittle, J. Kenneth (Chester Springs, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1996-01-01

    Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

  18. Furnace for processing scrap and waste products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. B. Kudzagov

    2006-01-01

    The company METPROMMASh has been developing and introducing metallurgical technologies and equipment for the nonferrous metals\\u000a sector for more than 10 years. A particular focus of the company has been the construction of furnaces for recycling aluminum-and\\u000a copper-bearing scrap and waste products. Furnaces made by METPROMMASh are currently being used by shops and factories that\\u000a recycle nonferrous metals, these furnaces

  19. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOEpatents

    Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

  20. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOEpatents

    Dosaj, Vishu D. (Midland, MI); May, James B. (Midland, MI)

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

  1. Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

    2004-01-24

    In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

  2. Scale modeling of aluminum melting furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Penmetsa, S.S. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Kentucky Lexington, KY); Li, T. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Kentucky Lexington, KY); King, Paul E.; Saito, K. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Kentucky Lexington, KY)

    2005-02-01

    Improving energy efficiency in secondary aluminum melting, done in large rectangular or round-top reverberatory furnaces, has been one of the major interests to the aluminum industry. To assist the industries in improving energy efficiency in aluminum melting, an experimental research furnace (ERF) with 907 kg capacity has been built at the Albany Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy as part of this multi-partner research program. To verify that the results from experiments conducted in the ERF furnace is validate for the operations of industrial furnaces, we use scale modeling technology to assist the validation. In this paper we present the results from our experiments in the model furnace, which was scale-down from the ERF furnace (as a prototype), and then compare them to the tests on the ERF furnace. The scaling laws which are applied to the thermal conduction loss through the walls of the model furnace were first developed, and the partial modeling relaxation technique was applied in the development of modeling to derive achievable scaling laws. Temperature distributions across the model furnace walls were measured and found to compare with the prototype favorably. Good agreement between the results obtained from the model experiments and from the ERF tests demonstrate that the scale modeling is expected to be a useful tool because the physical behavior of melting phenomena in the industrial furnaces can be explored by conducting experiments in a small, scaled-down furnace, and can be applied in the study of improving energy efficiency in aluminum melting.

  3. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    E-print Network

    Franco, Victor; Florida Solar Energy Center

    2008-01-01

    Furnace Air Handlers: A Status Report and Program Recommendations, Washington D.C.Furnace Fans and Motors: A Briefing Paper for CEE. Washington D.C.Furnace and Boiler Notice of Proposed Rule (NOPR). Washington, DC. :

  4. 50. Taken from highline; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Taken from high-line; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is main blast furnace gas line from "C" furnace dust catcher; levy, slag hauler, removing slag. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

  5. 3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT LOOKING NORTH. DOROTHY SIX IS THE CLOSEST FURNACE IN THE PHOTOGRAPH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Bottom electrodes of DC electric arc furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ya. Kaplun

    2009-01-01

    The design of dc electric arc furnaces (DCEAFs) is similar to that of three-phase arc steel-melting furnaces (ASFs) and differs from it only in the presence of one or more graphite roof electrodes (cathodes) and one or more bottom electrodes (anodes), which convey current to a metal to be melted. As compared to ASFs, DCEAFs have the following main advantages:

  8. Direct current, closed furnace silicon technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. D. Dosaj; J. B. May; A. N. Arvidson

    1994-01-01

    The dc closed furnace technology for smelting silicon offers technical operating challenges, as well as, economic opportunities for off-gas recovery, reduced electrode consumption, reduced reductant oxidation losses, reduced energy consumption, and improved silicon recovery. The 10 mva dc closed furnace is located in East Selkirk, Manitoba. Construction of this pilot plant was started in September 1990. Following successful commissioning of

  9. Gasification of phosphorus in the blast furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Polulyakh; A. L. Petelin; V. Ya. Dashevskii; A. Ya. Travyanov; Yu. S. Yusfin

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of phosphorus in blast-furnace smelting requires further study, in order to determine its distribution among the products. It is conventional to assume that practically all the phosphorus supplied to the blast furnace with the batch enters the hot metal [1]. However, in recent balance calculations, estimates have been obtained for the ratio of the quantity of phosphorus supplied

  10. SCALE MODELING OF ALUMINUM MELTING FURNACE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sita rama raju S Penmetsa

    2004-01-01

    Secondary (recycled) aluminum constitutes around 48% of the total aluminum used in the United States. Secondary aluminum melting is accomplished in large reverberatory furnaces, and improving its energy efficiency has been one of the major interests to aluminum industries. To assist the industries in improving energy efficiency in aluminum melting, an experimental research furnace (ERF), with 907 kg (2000 lbs)

  11. Zinc recovery from blast furnace flue dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Asadi Zeydabadi; D. Mowla; M. H. Shariat; J. Fathi Kalajahi

    1997-01-01

    Blast furnace flue dusts are a mixture of oxides expelled from the top of the blast furnace, whose major components are iron oxides. They also contain zinc, silicon, magnesium and other minor element oxides in lesser amounts. The direct recycling of flue dust is not usually possible since it contains some undesirable elements (zinc and alkaline metals) that can cause

  12. Existing and prospective blast-furnace conditions

    SciTech Connect

    I.G. Tovarovskii; V.I. Bol'shakov; V.P. Lyalyuk; A.E. Merkulov; D. V. Pinchuk [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy

    2009-07-15

    Blast-furnace conditions are investigated by means of a multizone model. The expected performance of prospective technologies is assessed, as well as the trends in blast-furnace processes. The model permits the identification of means of overcoming practical difficulties.

  13. Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System

    E-print Network

    Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of manufacturing furnace optimized re-design. The bottleneck in the production process is the cooling of heat treatment furnaces. These ovens are on an approximate 24-hour cycle, heating for 12 hours and cooling...

  14. ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. umber of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total oil furnaces tested by the EPA in Roanoke, V...

  15. An intelligent control system for industrial furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lou An; Jia Xueyan; Qiusi Xiong

    1990-01-01

    The principles of intelligent control and the design of an expert intelligent control system (EICS) are discussed. Based on these principles, a novel control system is proposed to deal with the process control of gas carburizing furnaces. Since no critical and accurate mathematical models of the controlled plants are required, this EICS can be directly applied to many industrial furnaces.

  16. AMTEC powered residential furnace and auxiliary power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Sievers

    1996-01-01

    Residential gas furnaces normally rely on utility grid electric power to operate the fans and\\/or the pumps used to circulate conditioned air or water and they are thus vulnerable to interruptions of utility grid service. Experience has shown that such interruptions can occur during the heating season, and can lead to serious consequences. A gas furnace coupled to an AMTEC

  17. Crystal growth furnace safety system validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowski, D. W.; Hartfield, R.; Bhavnani, S. H.; Belcher, V. M.

    1994-01-01

    The findings are reported regarding the safe operation of the NASA crystal growth furnace (CGF) and potential methods for detecting containment failures of the furnace. The main conclusions are summarized by ampoule leak detection, cartridge leak detection, and detection of hazardous species in the experiment apparatus container (EAC).

  18. Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System 

    E-print Network

    Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of manufacturing furnace optimized re-design. The bottleneck in the production process is the cooling of heat treatment furnaces. These ovens are on an approximate 24-hour cycle, heating for 12 hours and cooling...

  19. Developmental testing of a programmable multizone furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, E. Y.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A multizone furnace was evaluated for its potential utilization for process experimentation on board the Space Shuttle. A temperature gradient can be created through the use of a series of connected temperature zones and can be translated by the coordinated sequencing of zone temperatures. The Bridgman-Stockbarger thermal configuration for directional solidification was implemented so that neither the sample nor furnace was translated. The thermal behavior of the furnace was measured and characterized. Limitations due to both thermal and electronic (computer) factors are identified. The results indicate that the multizone design is limited to low temperature gradients because of the indirect furnace-to-sample thermal coupling needed to blend the discrete thermal zones. The multizone furnace design inherently consumes more power than a similar (two temperature) conventional Bridgman type directional solidification furnace because every zone must be capable of the high cooling rates needed to produce the maximum desired temperature drop. Typical achievable static temperature gradients for the furnace tested were between 6 and 75 C/in. The maximum gradient velocity was approximately 10 in./hr. Several aspects of the tested system could be improved, but the dependence of the multizone design on high heat loss will limit Space Shuttle applications in the form tested unless additional power is available. The multizone furnace offers great flexibility but requires a high level of operator understanding for full advantage to be obtained.

  20. A multi-zone muffle furnace design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Neil D.; Kisel, Martin

    1993-01-01

    A Multi-Zone Muffle-Tube Furnace was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of providing an in-house experience base with tubular furnaces for materials processing in microgravity. As such, it must not only provide the desired temperatures and controlled thermal gradients at several discrete zones along its length but must also be capable of sustaining the rigors of a Space Shuttle launch. The furnace is insulated to minimize radial and axial heat losses. It is contained in a water-cooled enclosure for purposes of dissipating un-wanted residual heat, keeping the outer surfaces of the furnace at a 'touch-safe' temperature, and providing a rugged housing. This report describes the salient features of the furnace, testing procedures and results, and concluding remarks evaluating the overall design.

  1. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01

    This study has been supported by a consortium of nine industrial and governmental sponsors. Work was initiated on May 1, 1985 and completed August 31, 1989. The central objective of this work was to develop, evaluate and apply a practical combustion model for utility boilers, industrial furnaces and gasifiers. Key accomplishments have included: Development of an advanced first-generation, computer model for combustion in three dimensional furnaces; development of a new first generation fouling and slagging submodel; detailed evaluation of an existing NO{sub x} submodel; development and evaluation of an improved radiation submodel; preparation and distribution of a three-volume final report: (a) Volume 1: General Technical Report; (b) Volume 2: PCGC-3 User's Manual; (c) Volume 3: Data Book for Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Combustion Models; and organization of a user's workshop on the three-dimensional code. The furnace computer model developed under this study requires further development before it can be applied generally to all applications; however, it can be used now by specialists for many specific applications, including non-combusting systems and combusting geseous systems. A new combustion center was organized and work was initiated to continue the important research effort initiated by this study. 212 refs., 72 figs., 38 tabs.

  2. Optimization of the thermogauge furnace for realizing high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.; Dong, W. [National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing (China)] [National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing (China); Liu, F. [AVIC China Precision Engineering Institute for Aircraft Industry, Beijing (China)] [AVIC China Precision Engineering Institute for Aircraft Industry, Beijing (China)

    2013-09-11

    The thermogauge furnace was commonly used in many NMIs as a blackbody source for calibration of the radiation thermometer. It can also be used for realizing the high temperature fixed point(HTFP). According to our experience, when realizing HTFP we need the furnace provide relative good temperature uniformity to avoid the possible damage to the HTFP. To improve temperature uniformity in the furnace, the furnace tube was machined near the tube ends with a help of a simulation analysis by 'ansys workbench'. Temperature distributions before and after optimization were measured and compared at 1300 °C, 1700°C, 2500 °C, which roughly correspond to Co-C(1324 °C), Pt-C(1738 °C) and Re-C(2474 °C), respectively. The results clearly indicate that through machining the tube the temperature uniformity of the Thermogage furnace can be remarkably improved. A Pt-C high temperature fixed point was realized in the modified Thermogauge furnace subsequently, the plateaus were compared with what obtained using old heater, and the results were presented in this paper.

  3. Design and construction of a compact vacuum furnace for scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chin C.; Wang, David T.; Choi, Won S.

    2006-12-01

    The design, construction, and measurement of a compact vacuum furnace are reported. This type of furnace has many scientific applications in material processing and growth research. One example is the fluxless bonding process, where elevated temperature is needed to melt the solder and vacuum environment is required to inhibit solder oxidation. The primary objective of the furnace design is to keep the vacuum enclosure cool using only natural convection while allowing the heating platform to reach high temperature. This characteristic is necessary to enable us to seal the vacuum chamber using O-rings. To achieve this, the platform was designed to be thermally isolated from the chamber enclosure. Heat losses from the platform by conduction, convection, and radiation were analyzed. The dominating loss was found to be caused by the blackbody radiation, which can thus be used to estimate the relationship between platform temperature and the drive power needed. With a graphite platform of 75×75×25mm3, only 270W of power is needed to drive the platform to 400°C. At this temperature, the temperature of the furnace enclosure is below 55°C, allowing O-rings to be used to seal the vacuum chamber. Using a mechanical pump, the furnace can be pumped down to 40mTorr, which is low enough for our fluxless bonding processes. With a temperature controller, the platform temperature can be controlled within 1%. The heat-up time to 400°C is only 7min.

  4. Steady State Heat Transfer of Ladle Furnace During Steel Production Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ünal Çamdali; Murat. Tunç

    2006-01-01

    The heat transfer analysis was performed for an industrial ladle furnace (LF) with a capacity of 55–57 t in Turkey. The heat losses by conduction, convection and radiation from outer and bottom surfaces, top and electrodes of LF were determined in detail. Finally, some suggestions about decreasing heat losses were presented.

  5. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

  6. 21. Photocopy of ca. 1951 view (when furnaces were still ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of ca. 1951 view (when furnaces were still in blast) looking north at central furnace complex with railroad cars of furnace charging materials in foreground and No. 2 Furnace at left. Photo marked on back 'David W. Corson from A. Devaney, N.Y.' - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  8. Combustion Air Preheat on Steam Cracker Furnaces 

    E-print Network

    Kenney, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    Beginning in 1978, Exxon has started up nine large new steam cracking furnaces with various levels of air preheat, and has seven more under construction. Sources of heat have included process streams, flue gas and gas turbine exhaust. Several...

  9. Optimized Utility Systems and Furnace Integration 

    E-print Network

    McMullan, A. S.; Spriggs, H. D.

    1987-01-01

    in different utility system designs. This paper presents a procedure, using Pinch Technology, for the simultaneous design of process and utility as an optimally integrated system. Also, the implications for furnace integration are discussed....

  10. Laboratory arc furnace features interchangeable hearths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. L.; Kruger, O. L.

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory arc furnace using rapidly interchangeable hearths gains considerable versatility in casting so that buttons or special shaped castings can be produced. It features a sight glass for observation.

  11. Blast furnace on-line simulation model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Saxén

    1990-01-01

    A mathematical model of the ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is presented. The model describes the steady-state operation of\\u000a the furnace in one spatial dimension using real process data sampled at the steelworks. The measurement data are reconciled\\u000a by an interface routine which yields boundary conditions obeying the conservation laws of atoms and energy. The simulation\\u000a model, which provides a picture

  12. Universal energy-efficient refining furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Sborshchikov; S. A. Krupennikov

    2009-01-01

    This article examines new designs of fluidized-bed furnaces that make it possible to solve a number of engineering problems.\\u000a Descriptions are given of the furnaces and their possible applications: recycling of small pieces of scrap and chips without\\u000a their preliminary processing (briquetting and the removal of oil and grinding debris from their surface); the production of\\u000a a synthetic glass-ceramic material

  13. Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1998-01-01

    Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

  14. Mathematical model of a tube furnace for catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, A.V.; Sul'zhik, N.I.; Kadygrob, L.A.; Gorlov, V.F.; Mishin, V.P.; Dugach, V.V.

    1981-02-01

    The tube furnace is a complex unit in which there are hundreds of reaction tubes and coils for heating the reaction mixture, gas, air, steam and water. Optimum design of such a unit can be done only with a mathematical model of it. A number of physicochemical processes occur in the reaction furnace: conversions of natural gas with heat supplied through the wall of the tube, combustion of fuel in the firebox, transfer of heat from the radiating walls or flame to the reaction tubes, heating of the vapor-gas mixture and other flows in the convective zone of the furnace. These processes are interrelated and there are some difficulties in writing a mathematical model for the furnace. We have adopted the following principle for construction of a model: individual processes are being modeled and the starting data for calculation of these are the results of modeling of other processes. Calculation is made by sequential approximations until material and thermal balances are observed for all processes, as is indicated on the calculation flowsheet. Thermal calculations were made by methods discussed in (2). Modeling the tube furnace on a computer makes it possible to determine its working characteristics and range of safe operation. Computer calculations permit the time required for design of furnaces to be reduced substantially and the quality of the design to be improved. Higher demands are beingmade on tube furnaces for catalytic conversion of natural gas both with regard to operating reliability and economy because of the sharp increase of the unit capacities of ammonia and methanol synthesis plants.

  15. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Surma, J.E.

    1996-11-12

    A radiometer is described with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. 5 figs.

  16. Composite Furnace Modules - Application in DC Furnaces for FeNi alloy production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frik Marx; Mike Shapiro; Isabel Geldenhuys; Nico Fowler; Neil B. Gray

    The arduous operating conditions in high intensity furnaces require specialized equipment incorpo- rated into the containment vessel to ensure viable, long term operation. This is particularly true for high temperature pyrometallurgical processes where the slag constituents are chemically aggressive to the conventional refractory materials utilized in the sidewall lining. Smelting of nickeliferous lateritic ores in an electric furnace is an

  17. Optical emission from a small scale model electric arc furnace in 250-600 nm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, A.; Niskanen, J.; Tikkala, H.; Aksela, H.

    2013-04-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy has been for long proposed for monitoring and studying industrial steel making processes. Whereas the radiative decay of thermal excitations is always taking place in high temperatures needed in steel production, one of the most promising environment for such studies are electric arc furnaces, creating plasma in excited electronic states that relax with intense characteristic emission in the optical regime. Unfortunately, large industrial scale electric arc furnaces also present a challenging environment for optical emission studies and application of the method is not straightforward. To study the usability of optical emission spectroscopy in real electric arc furnaces, we have developed a laboratory scale DC electric arc furnace presented in this paper. With the setup, optical emission spectra of Fe, Cr, Cr2O3, Ni, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, and MgO were recorded in the wavelength range 250-600 nm and the results were analyzed with the help of reference data. The work demonstrates that using characteristic optical emission, obtaining in situ chemical information from oscillating plasma of electric arc furnaces is indeed possible. In spite of complications, the method could possibly be applied to industrial scale steel making process in order to improve its efficiency.

  18. Optical emission from a small scale model electric arc furnace in 250-600 nm region.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, A; Niskanen, J; Tikkala, H; Aksela, H

    2013-04-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy has been for long proposed for monitoring and studying industrial steel making processes. Whereas the radiative decay of thermal excitations is always taking place in high temperatures needed in steel production, one of the most promising environment for such studies are electric arc furnaces, creating plasma in excited electronic states that relax with intense characteristic emission in the optical regime. Unfortunately, large industrial scale electric arc furnaces also present a challenging environment for optical emission studies and application of the method is not straightforward. To study the usability of optical emission spectroscopy in real electric arc furnaces, we have developed a laboratory scale DC electric arc furnace presented in this paper. With the setup, optical emission spectra of Fe, Cr, Cr2O3, Ni, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, and MgO were recorded in the wavelength range 250-600 nm and the results were analyzed with the help of reference data. The work demonstrates that using characteristic optical emission, obtaining in situ chemical information from oscillating plasma of electric arc furnaces is indeed possible. In spite of complications, the method could possibly be applied to industrial scale steel making process in order to improve its efficiency. PMID:23635185

  19. Energy efficient operation of aluminum furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    King, Paul E.; Golchert, B.M. (ANL); Li, T. (University of Kentucky); Hassan, M. (University of Kentucky); Han, Q. (ORNL)

    2005-01-01

    Secondary Aluminium melting offers significant energy savings over the production of Aluminium from raw resources since it takes approximately 5% of the energy to re-melt the Aluminium for product than it does to generate the same amount of Aluminium from raw material. However, the industry faces technical challenges for further improving the efficiency of the secondary Aluminium melting furnaces and lacks tools that can aid in helping to understand the intricate interactions of combustion and heat transfer. The U. S. Dept. of Energy, Albany Research Center (ARC), in cooperation with the Argonne and Oak Ridge National Labs, the University of Kentucky, and with industrial support through Secat, Inc. of Lexington, KY (representing 8 Aluminium re-melt companies) built and operates a test-bed reverberatory furnace to study efficiency issues in Aluminium melting. The experimental reverberatory furnace (ERF) is a one ton nominal capacity research furnace capable of melting 1000 lbs per hour with its twin 0.8 MMBtu/hr burners. Studies in the ERF include melt efficiency as a function of combustion space volume, power input and charge alloy. This paper details the experimental equipment, conditions, procedures, and measurements and includes results and discussions of melt efficiency studies. Specific results reported include an analysis of the efficiency of the furnace as a function of power input and the effect that changing combustion space volume has on melting efficiency. In conjunction with this, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate fuel combustion, heat transfer, gaseous product flow and the production/transport of pollutants and greenhouse gases in an Aluminium furnace. Data from the ERF is utilized for computational model validation in order to have a high degree of confidence in the model results. Once validated, the CFD code can then be used to perform parametric studies and to investigate methods to optimize operation in industrial furnaces. Finally, an analytic analysis of the efficiency of the furnace under varying conditions was conducted to determine overall efficiency characteristics of the furnace.

  20. Computational simulations and experimental validation of a furnace brazing process

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Gianoulakis, S.E.; Malizia, L.A.

    1998-12-31

    Modeling of a furnace brazing process is described. The computational tools predict the thermal response of loaded hardware in a hydrogen brazing furnace to programmed furnace profiles. Experiments were conducted to validate the model and resolve computational uncertainties. Critical boundary conditions that affect materials and processing response to the furnace environment were determined. {open_quotes}Global{close_quotes} and local issues (i.e., at the furnace/hardware and joint levels, respectively) are discussed. The ability to accurately simulate and control furnace conditions is examined.

  1. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L. [U.S. Steel, Clairton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  2. High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

  3. Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-09-23

    The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

  4. Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Andrew H. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace.

  5. Energy Assessment Protocol for Glass Furnaces

    E-print Network

    Plodinec, M. J.; Kauffman, B. M.; Norton, O. P.; Richards, C.; Connors, J.; Wishnick, D.

    2005-01-01

    of the recommendations arising from use of the protocol are implemented, resulting in cost savings of greater than $200,000 per year. PROJECT OVERVIEW The glass industry is a major energy consumer. Depending on the market sector, a glass furnace heated by oxy...-fuel burners may use from 3.5 to 6 million Btu to melt and refine a ton of glass. The glass industry has generally aimed at achieving energy efficiency through furnace design (e.g., inclusion of heat recovery). However, little attention has been paid...

  6. Expediting issuance of cracking furnace permits

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, M.; Scappatura, G. [Texaco Chemical Co., Port Neches, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The construction of a new cracking furnace or the modification of an existing cracking furnace in an ethylene-producing facility requires a permit from regulatory agencies having jurisdiction in such matters. Seemingly endless amounts of data are required to support permit applications and many times the applications get mired in a bureaucratic maze which can overwhelm even the most persistent application. There are, however, some critical elements which can provide the necessary information to the agency permit engineer to allow issuance of permits in an expeditious manner.

  7. Acoustic Levitator With Furnace And Laser Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Stoneburner, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic-levitation apparatus incorporates electrical-resistance furnace for uniform heating up to temperature of about 1,000 degrees C. Additional local heating by pair of laser beams raise temperature of sample to more than 1,500 degrees C. High temperature single-mode acoustic levitator generates cylindrical-mode accoustic resonance levitating sample. Levitation chamber enclosed in electrical-resistance furnace. Infrared beams from Nd:YAG laser provide additional local heating of sample. Designed for use in containerless processing of materials in microgravity or in normal Earth gravity.

  8. Mullite corundum articles for electric furnace roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarova, T.I.; Sizov, V.I.

    1987-03-01

    Using a method developed by the Institute the authors produced an experimental batch of synthetic mullite-corundum refractories containing more than 72% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The properties of these refractories exceed similar properties for regularly produced articles close in composition, which enables them to recommend them for use in the roofs of arc electric steel-melting furnaces. The experimental batch of synthetic mullite-corundum articles is being sent for testing in DSP-100 furnaces at the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Combine.

  9. Improve alloy selection for ammonia furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, S.B. [Greene and Associates, Dallas, TX (United States); Schillmoller, C.M. [Schillmoller Associates, Belleair, FL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Significant improvements have occurred in the design and operation of ammonia furnaces. To raise production efficiencies, operating companies are running these units under more severe conditions to conserve energy costs. However, these adverse conditions can compromise the integrity of the primary reformer furnace tubes. Such conditions invite failure due to metal dusting. Advancements in alloys enable operators to fully optimize their operation. Improved tubing materials can be used on new facilities, but also incorporated in revamps on existing units to increase unit capacity and raise unit profitability. Tube failure in the waste heat boiler can be overcome by selecting the best-fit material for processing conditions.

  10. 4. CLOSEUP VIEW INTO A REHEATING FURNACE IN THE No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CLOSE-UP VIEW INTO A REHEATING FURNACE IN THE No. 2 FORGE SHOP. THE FURNACE IS MISSING ITS REFRACTORY BRICK LINING. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 2, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  11. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER FURNACE NO. 2 SHOWING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER FURNACE NO. 2 SHOWING STEEL AND REFRACTORY BRICK SUPPORT SYSTEM. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. 6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace from J.L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy, Ginn & Co. New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Blast Furnace Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

  13. Refractory lining of a furnace for pyrolysis of dichlorethane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Fedoruk; N. V. Pitak; V. S. Baksheeva

    1992-01-01

    Conclusions Compositions of thermal-insulation concrete mixtures from which various elements of the lining of a furnace for pyrolysis of dichlorethane were produced have been developed. Burner blocks for the gas burners of the furnace were produced by vibrocasting.

  14. Energy Recovery for Medium- and High-Temperature Industrial Furnaces

    E-print Network

    Krumm, E. D.

    1981-01-01

    The application of metallic heat exchangers on medium- and high-temperature industrial furnaces is examined. A thorough technical understanding of all furnace operating conditions and the duties imposed upon heat exchangers is identified as a key...

  15. INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG RUNNERS & GATES IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  16. DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE PIPE, CINDER NOTCH IN CENTER, SLAG RUNNER IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. 12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING BUILDINGS SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO LOCAL POWER GRID, PRIMARILY FOR ELECTRIC FURNACES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Bessemer Foundry, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  19. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURNACE NO. 1 (ca. 1910. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURNACE NO. 1 (ca. 1910. Nameplate reads: "Heroult Electric Furnace, Capacity 6 tons, Built by American Bridge Company, Pencoyd, PA, No. 33") - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

  20. Design and fabrication of a tin-sulfide annealing furnace

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

    2011-01-01

    A furnace was designed and its heat transfer properties were analyzed for use in annealing thin-film tins-ulfide solar cells. Tin sulfide has been explored as an earth abundant solar cell material, and the furnace was ...

  1. 70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE STOCKHOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  2. 59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED No. 3 IN FOREGROUND ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  4. 55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX WITH LADLE HOUSE AND IRON DESULPHERIZATION BUILDING ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  7. 14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; operator takes temperature of iron in trough during pout. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

  9. 22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL CONSTRUCTION. CONCRETE PAD AT LEFT IS SITE OF FORMER FURNACE USED TO HEAT URANIUM BILLETS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  10. Load characteristics and harmonic analysis of DC arc furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Jui Wu; Tsu-Hsun Fu; You-Jen Chen

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the load characteristics of a steel factory containing a DC arc furnace. In order to reduce the cost, the arc furnace works during the off-peak period. While the furnace is in operation, the variation of active power and reactive power is quite large. In order to understand the load characteristics, the statistics method is

  11. Power Usage and Electrical Circuit Analysis for Electric Arc Furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Trageser

    1980-01-01

    Power usage in ultrahigh-powered electric arc furnaces requires considerably more investigation into system parameters, furnace secondary circuit analysis, and operating characteristics than previously given to normal powered electric arc furnaces. The power input must be analyzed from the infinite electric utility bus to the arc at the electrode. All interested parties must participate in the analysis to assure a mutual

  12. Insulation of Pipe Bends Improves Efficiency of Hot Oil Furnaces 

    E-print Network

    Haseltine, D. M.; Laffitte, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    of the convective sections. Consultation with the furnace manufacturer then revealed that furnaces made in the 1960's tended to not insulate the pipe bends in the convective section. When insulation was added within the covers of the pipe bends on one furnace...

  13. Blast-furnace smelting with improved coke at OAO Zaporozhkoks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Fomenko; V. I. Naboka; N. V. Krutas; M. E. Sharapov; V. N. Rubchevskii; Yu. A. Chernyshov; A. I. Kompaniets; A. V. Podlubnyi; E. T. Kovalev; I. V. Shul’ga; Yu. S. Kaftan

    2009-01-01

    As an experiment, coke from batteries 5 and 6 at OAO Zaporozhkoks is used in blast furnace 5 at Zaporozhstal, in order to\\u000a determine the influence of coke quality on blast-furnace operation. This research is associated with the prospects for coal-dust\\u000a injection into the blast furnace at OAO Zaporozhstal.

  14. 57. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 TO THE LEFT OF THE FURNACES IS THE ORE BRIDGE, THE TURBO-GENERATOR BUILDING, AND THE WATER FILTER TANKS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  15. 56. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 TO THE LEFT OF THE FURNACES IS THE ORE BRIDGE, THE TURBO-GENERATOR BUILDING, AND THE WATER FILTER TANKS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 6. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 TO THE LEFT OF THE FURNACES ARE THE ORE BRIDGE, THE TURBO-GENERATOR BUILDING, AND THE WATER FILTER TANKS. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  17. OBJECT-ORIENTED FERROMANGANESE FURNACE MODEL Stein O. Wasb*

    E-print Network

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    OBJECT-ORIENTED FERROMANGANESE FURNACE MODEL Stein O. Wasbø* , Bjarne A. FossÀÀ and Ragnar Tronstad-7034 Trondheim, Norway, e-mail:Bjarne.Foss@itk.ntnu.no Abstract: The high-carbon ferromanganese furnace inside it. The furnace operation has been characterized by fluctuations in vital process variables. Many

  18. Harmonic and transient overvoltage analyses in arc furnace power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Mendis; D. A. Gonzalez

    1992-01-01

    The authors present guidelines for analyzing harmonics and transient overvoltages generated by arc furnaces. Computer simulation techniques for creating accurate models for the analysis of arc furnace power systems are also discussed. Simulation guidelines are outlined in detail to assist the power systems engineer in performing a complete and accurate study of arc furnace power systems. These guidelines can be

  19. 16 CFR Appendix G2 to Part 305 - Furnaces- Electric

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Furnaces- Electric G2 Appendix G2 to Part 305 Commercial...âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Appendix G2 to Part 305—Furnaces— Electric Furnace type Range of annual fuel utilization...

  20. Spatio-temporal modelling of corrosion in an industrial furnace

    E-print Network

    Little, John

    Spatio-temporal modelling of corrosion in an industrial furnace John Little, Michael Goldstein-scale industrial furnace subject to corrosion will be considered. A suitable Bayesian spatio-temporal dynamic of paper In Section 2, we introduce the motivating example - an industrial furnace used in the oil refining

  1. A high temperature furnace The Sample Environment Group

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    723 A high temperature furnace The Sample Environment Group Neutron Division, Rutherford Appleton A high temperature furnace has been developed which operates directly from the mains voltage (240 V). It is designed to accommodate large samples, and use low quality cooling water. The furnace uses a tantalum heat

  2. 18. Furnace D, looking north. At far left is the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Furnace D, looking north. At far left is the 'tripper' car, which distributed ore and limestone into trestle bins below. The 'larryman' then weighed and discharged these materials into skip cars, which carried them to the top of the furnace. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL NATURAL GAS FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives emissions data from residential natural-gas furnaces and compares selected data to emissions data from residential oil furnaces and woodstoves. atural-gas furnace emissions data are given for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons, aldehydes, volatile and sem...

  4. Gas-to-electric furnace conversion hikes production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pare; G. Eklund

    1978-01-01

    The natural gas shortage in 1974 caused a manufacturer of motor gear trains to convert its carburizing furnace from gas to electric heating elements. The results of this retrofitting included a 40% increase in plant production, more variability in the use of the furnace for both low and high temperature applications, greater furnace loading capacity, reduced overall-operating costs, and elimination

  5. Guniting the lining of heating furnaces of rolling mills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. A. Pirogov; A. V. Boltyanskii; R. A. Tarnopol'skaya; V. P. Dokuchits; N. I. Babanin; E. N. Buzhinskii

    1980-01-01

    Conclusions Guniting mass compositions and a procedure for guniting worn brickwork of continuous heating furnaces of rolling mills have been developed. At a number of metallurgical factories the worn brickwork of eight continuous heating furnaces of rolling mills have been repaired by guniting. The use of guniting enables the period between furnace lining repairs to be doubled (from 1 to

  6. Energy Savings in Electric Arc Furnace Melting

    E-print Network

    Lubbeck, W.

    1982-01-01

    Arc furnace melting which at one time was almost exclusively used to produce alloy steel and steel castings is now widely accepted in the industry as an efficient process to produce all types of steel and iron. Presently, about 28% of steel...

  7. NEW MOLTEN REFRACTORY PRODUCTS FOR GLASS FURNACES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meloyan; S. S. S

    1961-01-01

    The production and development of molten refractory products is ; described with special emphasis on alumina, kaolin, and zirconic concentrates as ; charge components. The refractory materials are called baddeleyite corundum or ; Bakor in short, as their crystalline phases represepent baddeleyite (ZrOâ) ; and corundum ( alpha -AlâOâ). The service life of Bakor in glass ; furnaces is 20--30

  8. Electrode mounting in DC arc furnace vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1986-01-01

    A vessel is described for a dc arc furnace having a bottom with a refractory lining, there being a cooled electric current feeding structure arranged outside of the vessel underneath the bottom, and further including a plurality of electrode pins, the improvement comprising a separate mounting facility for each pin, including in each instance: a bore in the lining; an

  9. Protecting brazing furnaces from air leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armenoff, C. T.; Mckown, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Inexpensive inert-atmosphere shielding protects vacuum brazing-furnace components that are likely to spring leak. Pipefittings, gages, and valves are encased in transparent plastic shroud inflated with argon. If leak develops, harmless argon will enter vacuum chamber, making it possible to finish ongoing brazing or heat treatment before shutting down for repair.

  10. Surrogate burns in deactivation furnace system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay K. Shah

    1999-01-01

    The deactivation furnace system at the Deseret Chemical Depot in Utah is designed for processing explosive components from munitions containing nerve and mustard agents. The system was installed during the period of 1989 through 1993. The Utah Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (UDSHW) required that trial burns be conducted using surrogate chemicals prior to introducing chemical agents into the

  11. Glassification of electric arc furnace dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Ek; J. E. Schlobohm

    1993-01-01

    The Glassification process is a unique system that treats hazardous materials such as electric arc furnace dust, slag, spent refractories, etc, and produces an inert, nontoxic marketable commodity. A wide variety of end products include: colored glasses; glass-ceramics that resemble natural rocks used for architectural purposes and decorative articles; roofing granules; abrasive grit; brick and tile colorants; and fillers. This

  12. Laser Vacuum Furnace for Zone Refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, D. B.; Zurburg, F. W.; Penn, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Laser beam scanned to produce moving melt zone. Experimental laser vacuum furnace scans crystalline wafer with high-power CO2-laser beam to generate precise melt zone with precise control of temperature gradients around zone. Intended for zone refining of silicon or other semiconductors in low gravity, apparatus used in normal gravity.

  13. Simulation of Arc Furnace Power Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger C. Dugan

    1980-01-01

    An electronic arc model has been developed which simplifies the study of harmonic phenomena in are furnace power systems on a transient network analyzer (TNA). The model helps insure the proper magnitude and phase relationship of the harmonies at each loading condition. The simulation procedures and arc model characteristics are described. Also, some examples of typical study results are given.

  14. AMTEC powered residential furnace and auxiliary power

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanenok, J.F. III; Sievers, R.K. [Advanced Modular Power Systems, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Residential gas furnaces normally rely on utility grid electric power to operate the fans and/or the pumps used to circulate conditioned air or water and they are thus vulnerable to interruptions of utility grid service. Experience has shown that such interruptions can occur during the heating season, and can lead to serious consequences. A gas furnace coupled to an AMTEC conversion system retains the potential to produce heat and electricity (gas lines are seldom interrupted during power outages), and can save approximately $47/heating season compared to a conventional gas furnace. The key to designing a power system is understanding, and predicting, the cell performance characteristics. The three main processes that must be understood and modeled to fully characterize an AMTEC cell are the electro-chemical, sodium vapor flow, and heat transfer. This paper will show the results of the most recent attempt to model the heat transfer in a multi-tube AMTEC cell and then discusses the conceptual design of a self-powered residential furnace.

  15. Energy Savings in Electric Arc Furnace Melting 

    E-print Network

    Lubbeck, W.

    1982-01-01

    Arc furnace melting which at one time was almost exclusively used to produce alloy steel and steel castings is now widely accepted in the industry as an efficient process to produce all types of steel and iron. Presently, about 28% of steel...

  16. Mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by blast furnace slag and steel furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng-gao Lu; Shi-qiang Bai; Hong-dan Shan

    2008-01-01

    We report the adsorption of phosphate and discuss the mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by burst furnace\\u000a slag (BFS) and steel furnace slag (SFS). The results show that the adsorption of phosphate on the slag was rapid and the majority\\u000a of adsorption was completed in 5?10 min. The adsorption capacity of phosphate by the slag was reduced dramatically

  17. Analise do Impacto da Rede Social na Marcac~ao de Fotos como Favoritas no Flickr1

    E-print Network

    Cirne, Walfredo

    An´alise do Impacto da Rede Social na Marcac¸~ao de Fotos como Favoritas no Flickr1 Luiz Alves favoritos. Neste trabalho analisamos o impacto da rede de contatos na avaliac¸~ao de fotos utilizando dados da rede social Flickr1 , um dos mais importantes sites de compartilhamento de fotos, que possui milh

  18. 6. Photocopied August 1978. LINEUP OF HORRY ROTARY FURNACES ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopied August 1978. LINE-UP OF HORRY ROTARY FURNACES ON THE SECOND FLOOR OF THE MICHIGAN LAKE SUPERIOR POWER COMPANY POWER HOUSE. THE HOPPERS WHICH FED THE RAW MATERIALS INTO THE FURNACES ARE SHOWN ABOVE THE FURNACES. AS THE 'SPOOL' OF THE FURNACE ROTATED PAST THE ELECTRODES PLATES WERE ADDED TO HOLD THE FINISHED PRODUCT AND THE DESCENDING RAW MATERIALS IN PLACE. THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION OF THE FURNACES SHOWN IN THIS PHOTO IS CLOCKWISE, (M). - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  19. Gas flow analysis in melting furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, L.I.; Bui, R.T.; Charette, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Chicoutimi, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Applied Science; Bourgeois, T. [Alcan International Limited, Jonquiere, Quebec (Canada). Arvida Research and Development Center

    1998-12-01

    The flow structure inside round furnaces with various numbers of burners, burner arrangement, and exit conditions has been studied experimentally with the purpose of improving the flow conditions and the resulting heat transfer. Small-scale transparent models were built according to the laws of geometric and dynamic similarity. Various visualization and experimental techniques were applied. The flow pattern in the near-surface regions was visualized by the fluorescent minituft and popcorn techniques; the flow structure in the bulk was analyzed by smoke injection and laser sheet illumination. For the study of the transient effects, high-speed video photography was applied. The effects of the various flow patterns, like axisymmetric and rotational flow, on the magnitude and uniformity of the residence time, as well as on the formation of stagnation zones, were discussed. Conclusions were drawn and have since been applied for the improvement of furnace performance.

  20. Metal sorption on blast-furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Dimitrova

    1996-01-01

    The removal of Cu, Ni and Zn-ions from water solution by ungranulated blast-furnace slag has been studied depending on contact time, initial ion concentration, pH and solution temperature. The polymineral composition and the slag specific properties determine its high sorption activity in metal salts solutions. In the range of the concentrations studied (10?4–10?3 M), the sorption data for Cu2+, Ni2+

  1. The information furnace: consolidated home control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diomidis D. Spinellis

    2003-01-01

    The Information Furnace is a basement-installed PC-type device that integrates existing consumer home-control, infotainment, security, and communication tech- nologies to transparently provide accessible and value-added services. A modern home contains a large number of sophisticated devices and technologies. Access to these devices is currently provided through a wide variety of disparate inter- faces. As a result, end-users face a bewildering

  2. MIMO furnace control with neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marzuki Khalid; Sigeru Omatu; Rubiyah Yusof

    1993-01-01

    The development of a multilayered neural network control scheme for a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) furnace is discussed. The scheme is based on the back-error-propagation algorithm and uses neural net emulators and controllers. The neural network models are trained using only the input-output characteristics of the plant without the need for using any initial conventional controller or knowledge regarding dynamics. The

  3. Mullite corundum articles for electric furnace roofs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Nazarova; V. I. Sizov

    1987-01-01

    Using a method developed by the Institute the authors produced an experimental batch of synthetic mullite-corundum refractories containing more than 72% AlâOâ. The properties of these refractories exceed similar properties for regularly produced articles close in composition, which enables them to recommend them for use in the roofs of arc electric steel-melting furnaces. The experimental batch of synthetic mullite-corundum articles

  4. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

  5. Radiators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    A heat-exchange radiator is connected to a fluid flow circuit by a connector which provides one member of an interengageable spigot and socket pair for push-fit, fluid-tight, engagement between the connector and the radiator, with latching formations at least one of which is resilient. Preferably the connector carries the spigot which tapers and engages with a socket of corresponding shape,

  6. Radiation 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    State. s. ABSTRACT This study is an attempt to find a tentative atmospheric index of human comfort and to show its applications for the area of College Station~ Texas. Temperature, relative humidity~ air move- ment, and global short-wave radiation... (direct plus diffuse) were combined into a single numerical expression for outdoor human comfort. The contribution of global short-wave radiation to the heat load on man also is evaluated in a single numerical expression, and expressed as an equivalent...

  7. Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to evaluate their utility in blast furnaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2012-05-01

    Torrefaction and burning characteristics of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, bagasse, and Madagascar almond were studied and compared with a high-volatile bituminous coal using a drop tube furnace to evaluate the potential of biomass consumed in blast furnaces. Torrefaction at 250 and 300°C for 1h duration was carried out. Analysis using the ash tracer method indicated that the extent of atomic carbon reduction in the biomasses was less than that of atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Torrefaction also lowered the sulfur content in bamboo and oil palm over 33%. An examination of the R-factor and burnout of the samples suggests that more volatiles were released and a higher burnout was achieved with raw and torrefied biomasses at 250°C than at 300°C; however, torrefaction at 300°C is a feasible operating condition to transform biomass into a solid fuel resembling a high-volatile bituminous coal used for blast furnaces. PMID:22386202

  8. Enhanced-Contrast Viewing of White-Hot Objects in Furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherow, William K.; Holmes, Richard R.; Kurtz, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus denoted a laser image contrast enhancement system (LICES) increases the contrast with which one can view a target glowing with blackbody radiation (a white-hot object) against a background of blackbody radiation in a furnace at a temperature as high as approximately 1,500 C. The apparatus utilizes a combination of narrowband illumination, along with band-pass filtering and polarization filtering to pass illumination reflected by the target while suppressing blackbody light from both the object and its background.

  9. Design and operation of an experimental reverberatory aluminum furnace

    SciTech Connect

    King, Paul E.; Hayes, M.C.; Li, T. (Univ. of Kentucky); Han, Q. (ORNL); Hassan, M. (Univ. of Kentucky); Golchert, B.M. (ANL)

    2005-01-01

    The U. S. Dept. of Energy, Albany Research Center, in cooperation with industrial support through Secat, Inc. has designed, built and is operating a test-bed reverberatory furnace. Studies in the Albany Research Center (ARC) experimental reverberatory furnace (ERF) include melt efficiency as a function of combustion space volume, power input and charge alloy. This paper details the furnace design, experimental equipment, conditions, procedure, and measurements and includes results and discussions of melt efficiency studies. Specific results reported include an analysis of the overall efficiency of the furnace as a function of power input and the effect of hanging the combustion space volume on the melting efficiency. An analytic analysis of the theoretical efficiency of the furnace is carried out to determine overall characteristics of the furnace. Experimental data is utilized to validate numerical (computational fluid dynamics) predictions.

  10. Sealed rotary hearth furnace with central bearing support

    DOEpatents

    Docherty, James P. (Carnegie, PA); Johnson, Beverly E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Beri, Joseph (Morgan, PA)

    1989-01-01

    The furnace has a hearth which rotates inside a stationary closed chamber and is supported therein on vertical cylindrical conduit which extends through the furnace floor and is supported by a single center bearing. The charge is deposited through the furnace roof on the rim of the hearth as it rotates and is moved toward the center of the hearth by rabbles. Externally generated hot gases are introduced into the furnace chamber below the hearth and rise through perforations in the hearth and up through the charge. Exhaust gases are withdrawn through the furnace roof. Treated charge drops from a center outlet on the hearth into the vertical cylindrical conduit which extends downwardly through the furnace floor to which it is also sealed.

  11. METHODS FOR MONITORING HEAT FLOW INTENSITY IN THE BLAST FURNACE WALL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Terpák; L. Pivka

    In this paper we present the main features of an online system for real-time monitoring of the bottom part of the blast furnace. Firstly, monitoring concerns the furnace walls and furnace bottom temperatures measure- ment and their visualization. Secondly, monitored are the heat flows of the furnace walls and furnace bottom. In the case of two measured temperatures, the heat

  12. The Conceptual Design of a Radiant Chamber and Preliminary Optimization of a Process Tubular Furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zdenek Jegla

    2006-01-01

    The design procedure of a process tubular furnace (or fired heater) can generally be divided into three design stages: the preliminary design of furnace, a detailed thermal and hydraulic simulation of the furnace, and final design solution, and the mechanical solution of the furnace (stress analysis, drawings preparation, etc.). The first design stage (the preliminary design of the furnace and

  13. In-service helium leak testing of vacuum furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Anis; Tripathi, S. K.; Sawant, P. S.; Mukharjee, D.; Shah, B. K.

    2012-11-01

    Helium leak detection of vacuum furnaces and equipments used for processing of nuclear material is generally carried out by utilizing vacuum spray technique. In this technique helium leak detector is connected to the furnace, back ground reading is noted and helium gas is sprayed on all the suspected joints. Any increase in back ground is noted as leak signal. Processing of Zirconium alloy cladded fuel pins is carried out in vacuum furnace of about 3 meter length and 500 mm inside diameter. Furnace is connected with two numbers of rotary vacuum pump and one number of diffusion pump for creating vacuum (1 × 10-6 torr) inside the furnace. It is desirable that furnace should have good vacuum and best possible leak tightness during dynamic and static vacuum. During dynamic vacuum at higher temperature although required vacuum is achieved the furnace may have fine leakage through which air may enter and cause oxidation of clad tube leading to change in its coloration. This change in coloration will cause rejection of fuel element. Such fine leakages may not be reflected in the dynamic vacuum of the system at high temperature. During trial run change in coloration of outside surface of clad tube was observed although dynamic vacuum of the furnace was in the range of 1×10-6 torr range. To eliminate such possibilities of oxidation due to fine leakages in the system, it was decided to carry out in-service leak testing of the furnace. Helium leak testing of the furnace was carried out by using vacuum spray method and leaks observed were repaired and furnace was retested to ensure the leak tightness. The in-service helium leak testing of the furnace helped in maintaining its leak tightness during service under dynamic vacuum and prevent oxidation of fuel element. This paper describes the techniques of in- service helium leak testing, it's importance for detection of fine leak under dynamic vacuum and discusses details of the testing method and result obtained.

  14. 5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, SHOWING INTERIOR ELECTRODES. THE RAW MATERIALS FOR CALCIUM CARBIDE PRODUCTION--LIMESTONE AND COKE--WERE FED BY HOPPERS PLACED BETWEEN THESE ELECTRODES INTO THE ELECTRIC ARC. THE REMOVABLE PLATES ON THE EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCE OF THE HORRY FURNACE ARE SHOWN ON THE FIRST THREE FURNACES. (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  15. Benefits of ceramic fiber for saving energy in reheat furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, A. (Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Refractory ceramic fiber products offer thermal insulation investment in reheat furnaces by helping to keep operating cost low and product quality high. These products are used in a range of applications that include: furnace linings; charge and discharge door insulation; skidpipe insulation; and furnace repair and maintenance. The many product forms (blankets, modules, boards, textiles, and coatings) provide several key benefits: faster cycling, energy savings and personnel protection.

  16. Calibration of high-heat-flux sensors in a solar furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestrín, J.; Rodríguez-Alonso, M.; Rodríguez, J.; Cañadas, I.; Barbero, F. J.; Langley, L. W.; Barnes, A.

    2006-12-01

    The most common sensors used for the measurement of high solar irradiance are the Gardon gauges, which are usually calibrated using a black body at a certain temperature as the radiant source. This calibration procedure is assumed to produce a systematic error when solar irradiance measurements are taken using these sensors. This paper demonstrates a calorimetric method for calibrating these high-heat-flux gauges in a solar furnace. This procedure has enabled these sensors to be calibrated under concentrated solar radiation at higher irradiances under non-laboratory conditions in the CIEMAT solar furnace at the Plataforma Solar de Almería. Working at higher irradiances has allowed the uncertainty in the calibration constant of these sensors to be reduced. This work experimentally confirms the predicted systematic errors committed when measuring high solar irradiances using Gardon sensors calibrated with a black body.

  17. Biological Kraft Chemical Recycle for Augmentation of Recovery Furnace Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart E. Strand

    2001-12-06

    The chemicals used in pulping of wood by the kraft process are recycled in the mill in the recovery furnace, which oxidizes organics while simultaneously reducing sulfate to sulfide. The recovery furnace is central to the economical operation of kraft pulp mills, but it also causes problems. The total pulp production of many mills is limited by the recovery furnace capacity, which cannot easily be increased. The furnace is one of the largest sources of air pollution (as reduced sulfur compounds) in the kraft pulp mill.

  18. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING QBOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING Q-BOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL GAS ARE BLOWN INTO THE FURNACE THROUGH THE TUYERES TO CHARGE 460,000 LBS. OF HOT METAL, 100,000 LBS. OF SCRAP WITH 30,000 LBS. OF LIME. BLOW TIME IS 16 MINUTES. THE TIME TO BLOW AND TAP THE FURNACES OF THE RESULTING 205,000 TONS OF STEEL AND SLAG IS 35 MINUTES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  19. Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace

    DOEpatents

    Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

  20. Moving-Gradient Furnace With Constant-Temperature Cold Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J.; Shaubach, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    Outer heat pipe helps in controlling temperature of cold zone of furnace. Part of heat-pipe furnace that includes cold zone surrounded by another heat pipe equipped with heater at one end and water cooling coil at other end. Temperature of heat pipe maintained at desired constant value by controlling water cooling. Serves as constant-temperature heat source or heat sink, as needed, for gradient of temperature as gradient region moved along furnace. Proposed moving-gradient heat-pipe furnace used in terrestrial or spaceborne experiments on directional solidification in growth of crystals.

  1. Allowable gas temperature at outlet from furnace subject to slagging

    SciTech Connect

    A.N. Alekhnovich; N.V. Artem'eva; V.V. Bogomolov [Ural Thermotechnical Laboratory, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-03-15

    The paper is devoted to substantiation and prediction of the allowable gas temperature at the outlet from a furnace subject to slagging. The non-optimality of values recommended by effective methodical instructions regarding the design of furnace devices is demonstrated. Utilizing knowledge gained from temperature measurements in boilers, and the situation regarding the slagging of heating surfaces located at the outlet from the furnace, new, frequently higher values are proposed. A method for evaluating the allowable gas temperature at the outlet from a furnace subject to slagging is suggested on the basis of data regarding the chemical composition of the mineral portion of coals.

  2. Exothermic furnace module development. [space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darnell, R. R.; Poorman, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    An exothermic furnace module was developed to rapidly heat and cool a 0.820-in. (2.1 cm) diameter by 2.75-in. (7.0 cm) long TZM molybdenum alloy crucible. The crucible contains copper, oxygen, and carbon for processing in a low-g environment. Peak temperatures of 1270 C were obtainable 3.5 min after start of ignition, and cooling below 950 C some 4.5 min later. These time-temperature relationships were conditioned for a foam-copper experiment, Space Processing Applications Rocket experiment 77-9, in a sounding rocket having a low-g period of 5 min.

  3. Post combustion trials at Dofasco's KOBM furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Farrand, B.L.; Wood, J.E.; Goetz, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    Post combustion trials were conducted at Dofasco's 300 tonne KOBM furnace as part of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. The purpose of the project work was to measure the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) of the post combustion reaction in a full size steelmaking vessel. A method of calculating PCR and HTE using off gas analysis and gas temperature was developed. The PCR and HTE were determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE.

  4. GOI characterization of 300-mm furnace tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautz, Karl E.

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this characterization was to gain an initial understand of the gate oxide integrity (GOI) differences on wafers processed in the 300mm furnace tools at SC300, a joint venture between Motorola and Infineon Technologies for 300mm wafer, process and equipment development, compared to similarly processed 200mm wafers at Motorola. Measurements were done using mercury probe tools located at different sites to characterize the various gate oxide films and thicknesses. Separately, a study was done on defectivity levels of the Epi-layered 300mm wafers used in this study.

  5. Protection from heat radiation in open-hearth shops

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomenko, D.I.; Duganov, G.V.; Ilyushchenko, V.I.; Markin, A.D.

    1988-05-01

    Heat radiation studies in open-hearth shops during operations related to servicing the tap hole and cold-charging the furnace were conducted with consideration of the following factors: the capacity of the furnaces; the campaign of the furnace relative to the projected campaign for different furnace capacities; and the variety of manual tasks performed during a shift. Measurements of the thermal radiation were generalized and represented in the form of a nomogram. The results of thermal diagnosis of work stations on the rear platforms of open-hearth furnaces and the cabin of the cold-charging cranes led to the development and introduction of measures to protect workers from heat radiation and improve their working conditions.

  6. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  7. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  8. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  9. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  10. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

  11. Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Seedhouse

    \\u000a It is more than forty years since astronauts ventured beyond Earth’s protective magnetic shield and travelled to the Moon.\\u000a Although the Apollo missions subjected astronauts to space radiation, the short duration minimized the risk, but an ECM will\\u000a subject astronauts to much longer exposure. In fact, astronauts will be in deep space for so long, they will run the risk

  12. Forced air furnace control system and method of operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. E. J. Hilt; J. W. E. Locke

    1993-01-01

    Forced air furnace apparatus is described for heating a building airspace with hot air, including the combination of a furnace having a combustion chamber for combusting fuel to produce hot combustion products which contain CO gas, heat exchanger means in the combustion chamber for normally separating the combustion products from a first air flow path and for transferring heat from

  13. Power quality analysis and improvement of DC arc furnace load

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsu-Hsun Fu; Chi-Jui Wu

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the power quality problems of a DC arc furnace load are investigated. An 18-pulse converter is used to provide the DC currents to the furnace. The power quality problems concerned are the harmonics and voltage flicker (voltage fluctuation). Field measurement is used to reveal the harmonic distributions of the rectifiers under balanced and unbalanced conditions. The effect

  14. Inexpensive high-temperature furnace for thermocouple calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, C. M.; Hoff, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    New furnace calibrates unknown thermocouple by comparing its electrical output to a reference thermocouple /previously calibrated by optical pyrometry/, as both are heated simultaneously. Thermocouples may be radioactive, thus heat source must be accessible by remote manipulation and inspection measurements. Advantages of furnace operation are cited.

  15. 12. INTERIOR VIEW OF SINGLE BAY SLOTTED TYPE FURNACE (LEFT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW OF SINGLE BAY SLOTTED TYPE FURNACE (LEFT) AND CHAMBERSBURG DROP HAMMER OPERATED BY JEFF HOHMAN (RIGHT); THE FURNACE IS USED TO PRE-HEAT THE STEEL PRIOR TO FORGING, TOOL IS POST HOLE DIGGER WITH TAMPING BAR - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  16. Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Li, X. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1999-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

  17. Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ensar Oguz

    2004-01-01

    Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential

  18. 11. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES No. 1 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES No. 1 AND No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  19. Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas cleaning plants in foreground on the left and the right side of the furnace building. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  20. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SEED ON THE LEFT, THE #1 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SHED ON THE RIGHT, AND THE STOVES, BOILERS, AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT IN THE CENTER. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. Recycle of modified fly ash from furnace sorbent injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Kresovich; R. D. Stern; E. A. Stokes; C. C. Clark; R. S. Dahlin

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses recycle of modified fly ash from furnace sorbent injection.According to the authors, significant cost savings can be realized by use of a recycle process in conjunction with furnace sorbent injection. The largest savings appear to result from the replacement of an expensive sorbent with a less costly feedstock (e.g., replacing hydrated lime with coarse limestone). However, recycle

  2. BLAST FURNACE CAST HOUSE EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study describes the state-of-the-art of controlling fumes escaping from blast furnace cast houses. Background information is based on: a study of existing literature; visits to blast furnaces in the U.S., Japan, and Europe; meetings with an ad hoc group of experienced blast f...

  3. EMISSIONS FROM OUTDOOR WOOD-BURNING RESIDENTIAL HOT WATER FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of measurements of emissions from a single-pass and a double-pass furnace at average heat outputs of 15,000 and 30,000 Btu/hr (4.4 and 8.8 kW) while burning typical oak cordwood fuel. One furnace was also tested once at each heat output while fitted with ...

  4. 3. Copy of Drawing, 'United States Steel Central Furnaces and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Copy of Drawing, 'United States Steel Central Furnaces and Docks, General Plan, 4-26-62, Rev. 12-15-69.' Drawing courtesy of United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. A Rowland Circle, multielement graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl A. Wagner; James D. Batchelor; Bradley T. Jones

    1998-01-01

    A simultaneous, multielement atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a graphite furnace atomizer was constructed and evaluated. The optical arrangement employs a concave grating to combine the spectral output from a deuterium lamp and four hollow cathode lamps that are placed on the perimeter of a Rowland Circle. A graphite furnace atomizer is positioned on the circle at the point of convergence

  6. In-furnace SOâ control for pulverized-coal boilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    The injection of Ca-based alkaline sorbent materials directly into the furnace of coal-fired utility boilers to reduce SOâ emissions is the subject of research and development in a number of countries. EPRI have a test programme on the fundamental process chemistry and process optimisation. This will provide technical data for the design and operation of prototype furnace sorbent injection systems

  7. Experimenting with concentrated sunlight using the DLR solar furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Neumann; U. Groer

    1996-01-01

    The high flux solar furnace that is operated by the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) at Cologne was inaugurated in June 1994 and we are now able to look back onto one year of successful operation. The solar furnace project was founded by the government of the State Northrhine Westfalia within the Study Group AG Solar. The optical

  8. Flicker study using a novel arc furnace model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omer Ozgun; Ali Abur

    2002-01-01

    Voltage flicker and harmonics are the types of power-quality problems that are introduced to the power system as a result of arc furnace operation. Utilities are concerned about these effects and try to take precautions to minimize them. Therefore, an accurate model of an arc furnace is needed to test and verify proposed solutions to this end. In this paper,

  9. Blast-furnace performance with coal-dust injection

    SciTech Connect

    G.G. Vasyura [OAO Alchevskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat, Alchevsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    For the blast furnace shop at OAO Alchevskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (AMK) the injection of pulverized fuel is promising. Preliminary steps toward its introduction are underway, including analytical research. In this context, blast furnace performance when using pulverized coal is calculated in this study.

  10. Effect of different arc furnace models on voltage distortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tongxin Zheng; Elham B. Makram; Adly A. Girgis

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, different arc furnace methods are reviewed for the purpose of harmonic analysis. In general, these models may be classified into time domain method and frequency domain method. The difference between these two methods is discussed and evaluated. In this paper, six typical arc furnace models from the time domain and frequency domain methods are selected to study

  11. Specific optimal control of an aluminum casting furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Bui; A. Meghlaoui; R. Ouellet

    1995-01-01

    A general structure of the specific optimal control has been previously formulated and used to solve the fuel optimal problem of an aluminum casting furnace. Proportional, integral, and derivative (P, I, D) closed-loop control were applied to a 10-order nonlinear model of the furnace. This paper analyzes the resulting control actions and the dynamic response to a step change in

  12. C AND M BOTTOM LOADING FURNACE TEST DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonds, D

    2005-08-01

    The test was performed to determine the response of the HBL Phase III Glovebox during C&M Bottom Loading Furnace operations. In addition the data maybe used to benchmark a heat transfer model of the HBL Phase III Glovebox and Furnace.

  13. Heat Recovery From Arc Furnaces Using Water Cooled Panels 

    E-print Network

    Darby, D. F.

    1987-01-01

    with two additional 13MVA arc furnaces. A waste heat recovery system was installed on all six of the arc furnaces which, with modifications to the existing heat-vent systems, enabled a 41,000 square foot building addition to be heated without any increase...

  14. 25. View looking southwest from furnaces shows the ore end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. View looking southwest from furnaces shows the ore end limestone storage bins. Ore and limestone were carried by conveyor, seen at far left, to the tripper car, which in turn distributed them into the trestle bins. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  15. 42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. 41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. 8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS, CUPOLA TENDER RICHARD SLAUGHTER SUPERVISING THE POUR. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. Minerals and iron-making reactions in blast furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gupta; R. Sakurovs; M. Grigore; H. Sun; T. Cham; T. Hilding; M. Hallin; B. Lindblom; V. Sahajwalla

    2008-01-01

    Coke is central to blast furnace operation, but because it is the most expensive raw material used, there is continuing pressure to minimize its use. Consequently, it has become increasingly pertinent to measure and predict the factors affecting coke performance more accurately. Coke performance is affected both by its properties and blast furnace operation. Recently, the importance of the minerals

  20. Glass furnace processing of Rocky Flats Plant wastes: An evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Klingler; P. L. Abellera

    1988-01-01

    This report evaluates the use of a joule-heated glass furnace to treat four Rocky Flats Plant waste streams. These streams are extremely large, are primarily water soluble inorganic salts, and can be contaminated with hazardous organic material, toxics, andor radioactivity. It runs closely simulating actual process type runs, the glass furnace effectively treated these wastes by degrading the salts to

  1. Effect of Combustion Air Preheat on a Forged Furnace Productivity 

    E-print Network

    Ward, M. E.; Bohn, J.; Davis, S. R.; Knowles, D.

    1984-01-01

    A basic thermal analysis of a gas fired forge furnace can determine the fuel savings from exhaust energy recovery/combustion air preheat on a furnace operating at a single condition, for example, high fire. What this analysis is not able...

  2. 4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  3. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    DOEpatents

    Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  4. 19. MOLTEN IRON FLOWS INTO A 'BOTTLE' AT FURNACE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. MOLTEN IRON FLOWS INTO A 'BOTTLE' AT FURNACE NO. 1. THE IRON WILL BE TRANSPORTED BY RAIL TO THE OPEN HEARTH OR BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES, WHERE IT IS A MAJOR COMPONENT IN THE PRODUCTION OF STEEL. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. COMPUTER-ASSISTED FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of furnace atomic absorption instrumentation with a turnkey chromatography data system is described. A simple addition of relays to the furnace power supply allows for automatic start-up of A/D conversion and spectrophotometer zeroing at the proper time. Manipulations inv...

  6. 40 CFR 458.10 - Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory. 458...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Furnace Process Subcategory §...

  7. 40 CFR 458.10 - Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory. 458...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Furnace Process Subcategory §...

  8. A controlled atmosphere tube furnace was designed for thermal CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, M.; Bhatti, J. A.; Hussain, F.; Imran, M.; Khawaja, I. U.; Chaudhary, K. A.; Ahmad, S. A.

    2013-06-01

    High quality materials were used for the fabrication of hi-tech tube furnace. The furnace was especially suitable for thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). High density alumina tube was used for the fabrication of furnace. The tube furnace was found to have three different temperature zones with maximum temperature at central zone was found to be 650°C. The flexible heating tape with capacity of 760°C was wrapped on the tube. To minimize the heat losses, asbestos and glass wool were used on heating tape. The temperature of the tube furnace was controlled by a digital temperature controller had accuracy of ±1°C. Methanol was taken as the representative of hydrocarbon sources, to give thin film of carbon. The a-C: H structure was investigated by conventional techniques using optical microscopy, FT-IR and SEM.

  9. 29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange furnace and clarifier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range furnace and clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the concentration, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the continous flue leaving this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifier lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  10. 28. RW Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange Furnace and Clarifier position. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. RW Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range Furnace and Clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the clarification, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the Continuous flue leading from this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation, two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifiers, lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  11. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-12-01

    The effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming generated in crucible has been studied with a specific goal to understand the impact of increased water content on foaming in oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass foams were generated in a fused-quartz crucible located in a quartz window furnace equipped with video recording. The present study showed that humidity in the furnace atmosphere destabilizes foam, while other gases have little effect on foam stability. This study suggests that the higher foaming in oxy-fired furnace compared to air-fired is caused by the effect of water on early sulfate decomposition, promoting more efficient refining gas generation from sulfate (known as “dilution effect”).

  12. Partial SOP for Tube Anneal Furnace, EML: 9/04 Instructions for temp controller for Anneal furnace

    E-print Network

    Reif, Rafael

    Partial SOP for Tube Anneal Furnace, EML: 9/04 Instructions for temp controller for Anneal furnace at the Temp controller unit for the next couple of steps, press and hold the RUN button until both the RUN ARROW twice to display set point 8. Use UP/DOWN ARROW to set desired temp 9. Press AUTO/MANUAL until

  13. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Rigby, Wayne [Specialty Vacuum, Placitas, New Mexico 87043 (United States); Wallace, John [Casting Analysis Corporation, Weyers Cave, Virginia 24468 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 Degree-Sign C) and high ({approx}800 Degree-Sign C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 Degree-Sign C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 Degree-Sign C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 Degree-Sign C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

  14. Fibonacci lattices application for furnace processes control

    SciTech Connect

    Khavkin, Y. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Maktin, G.M. [A.O. NIVA, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Universal structures formed during the fuel oxidizer and combustion mixing process are characterized by the Fibonacci gold ratio. This paper will demonstrate how the gold ratio can be used for control action in combustion. The combustion character in furnace apparatuses is in large part dependent on a reagent motion regime. In general, there are three such regimes: lamina (L), lamina-preturbulent or quasi-periodic (LPT) and turbulent-mixing (TM). Compound structures are absent from the L-regime and are characterized by a low Reynolds number Re. As Re increases the periodic regime remains consistent but one frequency process appears. The LPT and TM regimes are independent of material physical carriers and are characterized by the universal relationship of the oscillate frequencies, the so-called ``golden sections`` F*{sup n}, where F* is the gold ratio (F* = 1.618...) and n is the integer such that the degree of mixing is in proportion to n.

  15. Ceramic coating used on MWC furnace walls

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, P.R. [Southeastern Public Service Authority, Portsmouth, VA (United States); Zvosec, C. [CETEK, Transfer, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fire-side corrosion of Municipal Waste Combustor (MWC) furnace walls has been a significant problem for these units. This corrosion can take place quite rapidly. Within less than a year major tube failures have occurred. The corrosion mechanisms and history of various units have been well documented previously. The commonly used answer to this corrosion is use of Inconel 625 weld overlay. It is often applied after erection of units, because the corrosion or its location is unforeseen. Two major problems with the Inconel 625 weld overlay is its high initial cost and the subsequent maintenance due to imperfections in the overlay during its application. Now, a thin, ceramic coating has proven its ability to protect the carbon steel tubes and survive the furnace environment. As of April, 1995, it will have about 10 months of service at the SPSA operated MWC plant. Its cost is a fraction of Inconel 625 weld overlay. Since it forms a continuous coating there are very few imperfections in the coating. One key feature of the ceramic coating is its thermal expansion rate is similar to carbon steel. This eliminates flaking of the ceramic coating. A brief review of the SPSA/NNSY Steam/Power Plant operating characteristics is presented. Maps showing loss of metal (based on ultrasonic testing) in a number of units are presented. Then physical and chemical properties of the ceramic coating are discussed. The costs of various alternatives are compared. This ceramic coating will prove to save MWCs millions of dollars. It can be used to go over poor Inconel overlay work.

  16. Stabilizing distressed glass furnace melter crowns

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Before the advent of pump casting, hot patching a melter or regenerator crown was extremely time and labor intensive. During these installations, known to many as the bucket brigade, the slurry was mixed on floor level and hauled in 50--65 lb batches up to 100 ft to the top of the crown. Today, in a single shift, a crew of seven can accomplish what took two days and a crew of {approximately}25 in the past. The first application of pump-casting zircon patch occurred on the AZS crown of an insulation-wool-glass furnace. For this application, 23 in. of insulating firebrick had to be removed to gain access to the fused AZS surface. The zircon patch was applied by pumping the mix from floor level up {approximately}60 ft to the crown by means of a concrete pump. Postmortems were performed on samples from two of the gas-fired TV-panel-glass furnaces. These postmortems were performed to determine if alterations occurred on the hot face of exposed zircon patch and, if so, how much alteration did occur. There was no destructive alteration because of alkali penetration into the patch. In fact, only trace amounts of lead, barium and strontium were detected, no further than 1 in. from the hot face. There was slight loss of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} on the hot face because of migration of phosphate toward the cold face, but it did not decrease the integrity of the patch. The dissociation of zircon was <3% baddelyite detected, all within an in. of the hot face.

  17. Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

    2014-09-01

    Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

  18. Holden gas-fired furnace baseline data. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherspoon, K.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Holden gas-fired furnace is used in the enriched uranium recovery process to dry and combust small batches of combustibles. The ash is further processed. The furnace operates by allowing a short natural gas flame to burn over the face of a wall of porous fire brick on two sides of the furnace. Each firing wall uses two main burners and a pilot burner to heat the porous fire brick to a luminous glow. Regulators and orifice valves are used to provide a minimum gas pressure of 4 in. water column at a rate of approximately 1,450 scf/h to the burners. The gas flow rate was calculated by determining the gas flow appropriate for the instrumentation in the gas line. Observed flame length and vendor literature were used to calculate pilot burner gas consumption. Air for combustion, purging, and cooling is supplied by a single blower. Rough calculations of the air-flow distribution in piping entering the furnace show that air flow to the burners approximately agrees with the calculated natural gas flow. A simple on/off control loop is used to maintain a temperature of 1,000 F in the furnace chamber. Hoods and glove boxes provide contamination control during furnace loading and unloading and ash handling. Fan EF-120 exhausts the hoods, glove boxes, and furnace through filters to Stack 33. A review of the furnace safety shows that safety is ensured by design, interlocks, procedure, and a safety system. Recommendations for safety improvements include installation of both a timed ignition system and a combustible-gas monitor near the furnace. Contamination control in the area could be improved by redesigning the loading hood face and replacing worn gaskets throughout the system. 33 refs., 16 figs.

  19. Automatic Control System of Car-Bottom Reheating Furnace 

    E-print Network

    Xueqiao, M.; Weilian, X.; Hongchen, Z.

    1985-01-01

    AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF CAR-BOTTOM REHEATING FURNACE Mei Xueqiao Xu Weili~n Zhang Hongchen No.2 Machine-building Plant China North Industries baotou,Inner Mongolia,China Corp~ratio~ (NORINCO) ABSTRACT ge size are euiqqed...-20% compared with same kind ces. Modification for thermal control ~ystem of reheating furnace No.4 At the basis of the modification of fur nace No.7 we modified the thermal control sYftem of reheating furnace No.4 in 1984.This furnaFe is a car...

  20. Firing of boilers and furnaces with non-fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Case studies were carried out at 10 sites using wood or straw fired furnaces on horticultural and agricultural applications (greenhouse, livestock housing or domestic heating, grain drying). Furnace reliability was good. Refuelling was the limiting factor for unattended operation and to extend this time, burning of wood, automatic firing, and use in conjunction with conventional oil fired heating equipment was practiced. Straw fuel was usually kept dry, with typical moisture contents of 13-15%. Wood moisture contents were greater than 20%. Combustion efficiencies mainly of the order of 40-60% were measured with simple furnaces. With automatic fired plant, mean combustion efficiencies of 71-73% were achieved.

  1. Correction-free pyrometry in radiant wall furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Andrew S. W. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A specular, spherical, or near-spherical target is located within a furnace having inner walls and a viewing window. A pyrometer located outside the furnace 'views' the target through pyrometer optics and the window, and it is positioned so that its detector sees only the image of the viewing window on the target. Since this image is free of any image of the furnace walls, it is free from wall radiance, and correction-free target radiance is obtained. The pyrometer location is determined through a nonparaxial optical analysis employing differential optical ray tracing methods to derive a series of exact relations for the image location.

  2. Modeling the DC electric arc furnace based on chaos theory and neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fenghua Wang; Zhijian Jin; Zishu Zhu; Xusheng Wang

    2005-01-01

    DC electric arc furnace is an important nonlinear time-varying load in power system. Due to the adverse effects produced by the operation of arc furnace, it is important to build a practical model to described the behavior of electric arc furnace. The electrical fluctuations in the arc furnace voltage have proven to be chaotic in nature. Therefore, this paper deals

  3. Modeling and emulation of a furnace in IC fab based on colored-timed Petri net

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng-Ya Lin; Han-Pang Huang

    1998-01-01

    In integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing, the wafer processing takes more time in furnaces than other equipment. How to effectively integrate furnaces with other automated machines is very important. In particular, using the real furnace for testing not only introduces trouble but also wastes time. This paper aims to model and construct an emulation environment for the furnace. The colored timed

  4. Latest Evolution in Blast Furnace Hearth thermo-Mechanical Stress Modelling Jrme BRULIN, Frdric ROULET (1)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Latest Evolution in Blast Furnace Hearth thermo-Mechanical Stress Modelling Jérôme BRULIN.blond@univ-orleans.fr; alain.gasser@univ-orleans.fr Keywords: blast-furnace, modeling, hearth, ceramic cup Abstract Saint-Gobain has a long experience in the design and supply of blast furnace hearth linings. The Blast Furnace

  5. 7. NO. 2 CONTINUOUS SLAB REHEATING FURNACE OF THE 160' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NO. 2 CONTINUOUS SLAB REHEATING FURNACE OF THE 160' PLATE MILL. INTERIOR REFRACTORY LINING VISIBLE BECAUSE OF DEMOLITION. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 160" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 47. No. 4 hot blast stove, furnace "A", showing checkerwork ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. No. 4 hot blast stove, furnace "A", showing checkerwork askew after collapse of support posts. Note pattern of checkerwork refractories. looking west - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

  7. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. 1920) AND DC MOTORS (which raise and lower the bus bars) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

  8. 38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, LANCES, AND FUME HOODS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  9. Operating experience with 100% pellet burden on Amanda blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, D.E.; Minakawa, T. (Armco Steel Co., Middletown, OH (United States). Ironmaking Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    A number of significant changes in operations at the Ashland Works of the Armco Steel Company occurred in 1992 which directly impacted the Amanda Blast Furnace operation. These changes included the shutdown of the hot strip mill which resulted in coke oven gas enrichment of the Amanda stoves and an increase of 75 C in hot blast temperature, transition to 100% continuous cast operation which resulted in increased variation of the hot metal demand, and the July idling of the sinter plant. Historically, the Amanda Blast Furnace burden was 30% fluxed sinter and 70% acid pellet. It was anticipated that the change to 100% pellet burden would require changes in charging practice and alter furnace performance. The paper gives a general furnace description and then describes the burden characteristics, operating practice with 30% sinter/70% acid pellet burden, preparations for the 100% acid pellet burden operation, the 100% acid pellet operation, and the 100% fluxed pellet burden operation.

  10. 17. HIGHWAY 190 ROAD VIEW AT FURNACE CREEK INN. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. HIGHWAY 190 ROAD VIEW AT FURNACE CREEK INN. NOTE ABANDONED GAS STATION ON LEFT AND ROAD TO BADWATER AT LEFT IN BACKGROUND. LOOKING WSW. - Death Valley National Park Roads, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  11. POURING IRON FROM ELECTRIC FURNACE INTO BULL LADLE AFTER MAGNESIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    POURING IRON FROM ELECTRIC FURNACE INTO BULL LADLE AFTER MAGNESIUM HAD BEEN ADDED TO GENERATE DUCTILE IRON WHEN IT COOLS IN THE MOLD. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  12. 39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod or poker at right was used to unplug iron notch. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. 38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ladle car on floor of casting shed. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING NO. 1 FURNACE. TO RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING NO. 1 FURNACE. TO RIGHT ARE D.C. MOTORS (which raise and lower the bus bars) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

  15. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. 1920) AND DETAIL OF CABLES AND BUS BARS (which convey power to electrodes) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

  16. MINERGY CORPORATION GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents performance and economic data for a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program demonstration of the Minergy Corporation (Minergy) Glass Furnace Technology (GFT). The demonstration evaluated the techno...

  17. Partial reline of Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrance, K.F. II [Inland Steel Flat Products Co., East Chicago, IN (United States); Johansson, J.; Carter, W.L. [Inland Steel Co., East Chicago, IN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The background for the decision to partially reline No. 7 blast furnace that would achieve the same results as a complete reline is discussed. This approach was designed to reduce actual downtime on the furnace at a critical production period. Areas of work included the hearth, stack, stoves, gas cleaning and furnace top. Highlights of the project execution were: schedules; blowdown; salamander tap; quench; dig out/descale; scaffolding used; and brick installation. The furnace was blown-in 29 days after the blowdown and producing in excess of 9,000 tons/day after 12 days of operation. Inland has adopted a new definition for establishing campaign life based on refractory wear that includes a hearth monitoring system.

  18. Inland Steel's No. 7 blast furnace third reline

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrance, K.F. II (Inland Steel Flat Products Co., East Chicago, IN (United States)); Johansson, J.; Carter, W.L. (Inland Steel Co., East Chicago, IN (United States))

    1994-09-01

    The background information, investigation and benchmarking that led to a decision by Inland Steel to partially reline No. 7 blast furnace is covered. This approach reduced actual downtime on the furnace and extended the current campaign. This alternative allowed for the rebalancing of the physical plant of No. 7 blast furnace. Areas of scope covered are hearth, stack, stoves, gas cleaning and furnace top. Included are highlights of the execution of the project including schedules, blowdown, salamander tap, quench, dig out/descale, scaffolding used and brick installation. A summary of the actual results of the work is presented along with information on production planned, blow-in and the first 20 days of production.

  19. 24. LOOKING SOUTH AT CLEAN BLAST FURNACE GAS PIPE LEADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. LOOKING SOUTH AT CLEAN BLAST FURNACE GAS PIPE LEADING INTO THE EASTERN WALL OF THE CENTRAL BOILER HOUSE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Fuel & Utilities Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 19. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING PLATFORM AT UPPER LEFT HOLDING PULLEY SYSTEM AND ELECTRIC MOTOR TO ACTIVATE DOORS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  1. ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES FOR IRON PRIOR TO FILLING MOBILE LADLES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  2. SITE - DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY - MINERGY CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) was developed by Minergy Corporation (Minergy), of Waukesha, Wisconsin. Minergy originally developed vitrification technologies to process wastewater sludge into glass aggregate that could be sold as a commercial product. Minergy modified a st...

  3. Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and Repossessed Uranium in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  4. Electric furnaces. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning electric furnaces and devices to improve safety and efficiency. Arc melting furnaces and vertical lifted portable furnaces are among those described. Patents describing online monitoring and control of electric furnaces are included. Devices that exhaust gases and fumes and recycle furnace dust are also mentioned. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. MUZO flight experience with the programmable multizone furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockowandt, Christian; Loth, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The Multi-Zone (MUZO) furnace has been developed for growing germanium (Ge) crystals under microgravity in a Get Away Special (GAS) payload. The MUZO furnace was launched with STS-47 Endeavour in September 1992. The payload worked as planned during the flight and a Ge sample was successfully processed. The experiment has given valuable scientific information. The design and functionality of the payload together with flight experience is reported.

  6. Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

    2006-05-12

    Residential two-stage gas furnaces account for almost a quarter of the total number of models listed in the March 2005 GAMA directory of equipment certified for sale in the United States. Two-stage furnaces are expanding their presence in the market mostly because they meet consumer expectations for improved comfort. Currently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure serves as the method for reporting furnace total fuel and electricity consumption under laboratory conditions. In 2006, American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) proposed an update to its test procedure which corrects some of the discrepancies found in the DOE test procedure and provides an improved methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The objectives of this paper are to explore the differences in the methods for calculating two-stage residential gas furnace energy consumption in the DOE test procedure and in the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure and to compare test results to research results from field tests. Overall, the DOE test procedure shows a reduction in the total site energy consumption of about 3 percent for two-stage compared to single-stage furnaces at the same efficiency level. In contrast, the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure shows almost no difference in the total site energy consumption. The 2006 ASHRAE test procedure appears to provide a better methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The results indicate that, although two-stage technology by itself does not save site energy, the combination of two-stage furnaces with BPM motors provides electricity savings, which are confirmed by field studies.

  7. A FEASIBILITY STUDY OF RECYCLING OF MANGANESE FURNACE DUST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Shen; G. Zhang; M. Dell' Amico; P. Brown; O. Ostrovski

    This paper presents results of a feasibility study of recycling manganese furnace dust generated in production of ferromanganese and silicomanganese at Tasmanian Electrometallurgical Company, Australia. Dried man- ganese furnace dust contains about 20 wt% of carbon, in average 33.4 wt% of manganese and 1.3 wt% of zinc. Manganese in the dust is in the form of MnO, Mn 3 O

  8. Caustic roasting and leaching of electric arc furnace dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Xia; C. A. Pickles

    1999-01-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is produced when iron and steel scrap is remelted in an electric arc furnace. There are still significant problems associated with the pyrometallurgical and\\/or hydrometallurgical processes for the treatment of this dust. In the present research, the dust was roasted with caustic soda at low temperatures. It was found that the zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) in

  9. Mechanism of failure of heat exchangers in cement furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Tylkin; B. N. Bogomolov; A. M. Sharkova

    1977-01-01

    Conclusions 1.Failure of heat exchangers made of steels Kh23N18 and Kh24N12SL results from carburizing and sulfur-alkali corrosion in the presence of compounds of vanadium forming a low-melting eutectic preferentially in austenite grain boundaries.2.The corrosion rate of heat exchangers in mazout furnaces is three times the corrosion rate of heat exchangers in gas furnaces.3.In heat exchangers that increase the gas flow

  10. Development Of A Magnetic Directional-Solidification Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Bill R.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1996-01-01

    Report describes development of directional-solidification furnace in which axial magnetic field is imposed by surrounding ring permanent magnets and/or electromagnets and pole pieces. Furnace provides controlled axial temperature gradients in multiple zones, through which ampoule containing sample of material to be solidified is translated at controlled speed by low-vibration, lead-screw, stepping-motor-driven mechanism. Intended for use in low-gravity (spaceflight) experiments on melt growth of high-purity semiconductor crystals.

  11. Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces

    DOEpatents

    Mee, David K. (Knoxville, TN); Stephens, Albert E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1981-01-01

    The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

  12. Modelling of multiphase flow in ironmaking blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, X.F.; Yu, A.B.; Burgess, J.M.; Pinson, D.; Chew, S.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School for Material Science and Engineering

    2009-01-15

    A mathematical model for the four-phase (gas, powder, liquid, and solids) flow in a two-dimensional ironmaking blast furnace is presented by extending the existing two-fluid flow models. The model describes the motion of gas, solid, and powder phases, based on the continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the flow of liquids, such as metal and slag in a blast furnace. The model results demonstrate a solid stagnant zone and dense powder hold-up region, as well as a dense liquid flow region that exists in the lower part of a blast furnace, which are consistent with the experimental observations reported in the literature. The simulation is extended to investigate the effects of packing properties and operational conditions on the flow and the volume fraction distribution of each phase in a blast furnace. It is found that solid movement has a significant effect on powder holdup distribution. Small solid particles and low porosity distribution are predicted to affect the fluid flow considerably, and this can cause deterioration in bed permeability. The dynamic powder holdup in a furnace increases significantly with the increase of powder diameter. The findings should be useful to better understand and control blast furnace operations.

  13. High Temperature Calibration Furnace System user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The High Temperature Calibration Furnace System (HTCFS) was developed by Summitec Corporation. It is a high precision instrument providing a constant temperature which can be used to calibrate high temperature thermocouples. Incorporating the many recent technological advances from the fields of optical fiber thermometry, material science, computer systems interfacing, and process control, the engineers at Summitec Corporation have been able to create a system that can reach a steady operating temperature of 1700 C. The precision for the system requires the measurement of temperature to be within 1 C in two hours and within 2 C in 24 hours. As documented, the experimental result shows that this system has been able to stay within .5 C in 5 hours. No other systems commercially available have been able to achieve such high temperature precision. This manual provides an overview of the system design, instructions for instrument setup, and operation procedures. Also included are a vendor list and the source codes for the custom-designed software.

  14. Triple-activated blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, W.J. [Geochemical Corporation, Ridgewood, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The current shortage of portland cement in the world will require the use of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) to fill demands in many industrialized countries. Therefore, an extensive series of triple-activated slag experiments have been undertaken to optimize an economical combination of mechanical properties for alkali-activated slags. Na{sub 2}OSiO{sub 2} (N Grade), Ca(OH){sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} have been added as activators in 5 to 10, 0 to 5 and 0 to 5 weight percentages of water and slag in a mix with a water:cement ratio of 1:1. Silica Fume and Sika 10 superplasticizer have been added as 1 and 10 weight percent of slag. Set times, initial hardening times and compressive strengths at percentages of the mix to identify more refined formulations. Finally, the resulting aggregate to develop a triple-activated slag formulation with the ultimate objective of contributing toward satisfying the world shortage of high performance concrete.

  15. Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part III. Control of furnace atmosphere composition with a zirconia oxygen sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Stickels; C. M. Mack; J. A. Pieprzak

    1980-01-01

    Gas carburizing experiments were conducted in a batch-type sealed-quench furnace using furnace atmospheres produced by the reaction of propane and air within the furnace. The air-propane ratio of the inlet gases was automatically controlled to maintain a constant oxygen potential, as measured by a zirconia oxygen sensor, within the furnace. The results of carburizing trials at 843 and 927 °C

  16. Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part III. Control of furnace atmosphere composition with a zirconia oxygen sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Stickels; C. M. Mack; J. A. Pieprzak

    1980-01-01

    Gas carburizing experiments were conducted in a batch-type sealed-quench furnace using furnace atmospheres produced by the\\u000a reaction of propane and air within the furnace. The air-propane ratio of the inlet gases was automatically controlled to maintain\\u000a a constant oxygen potential, as measured by a zirconia oxygen sensor, within the furnace. The results of carburizing trials\\u000a at 843 and 927 ?C

  17. Collection and conversion of silicon furnace waste gas into higher value products: Phase 3, 6 MW pilot plant dc closed furnace technology. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dosaj

    1995-01-01

    The construction and operation of a 6 MW, closed dc furnace for smelting silicon was the primary focus of Phase 3. A 6 MW, dc closed furnace pilot plant was built in East Selkirk, Manitoba, Canada. The furnace is equipped with world`s most modern automatic control system used to control and monitor the process variables and operational data. This control

  18. Modeling and control of an electric arc furnace using a feedforward artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, P. E.; Nyman, M. D.

    1996-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the electric arc furnace is chaotic in nature and hence standard control techniques are not effective. However, human (heuristic) control is used every day on electric arc furnaces. A furnace operator assesses the performance of the furnace and makes judgments based on past experience and intuition. In order to improve the effectiveness of this control, a qualitative understanding of the operating conditions of the furnace is required. Artificial neural networks are capable of learning the system dynamics of the electric arc furnace. This article describes a feedforward neural network trained to model arc furnace electrical wave forms taken from an experimental arc furnace. The output of this model is then used in estimating the future state of the furnace for control purposes.

  19. Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, V N; Papandreou, A; Kanellopoulou, D; Stournaras, C J

    2013-11-15

    In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in an increase of mechanical strength. Moreover, leaching tests performed according to the Europeans standards on the EAFD-block samples showed that the quantities of heavy metals leached from crushed blocks were within the regulatory limits. Thus the EAFD-blocks can be regarded as material of no environmental concern. PMID:24012962

  20. Fireside carburization of stainless steel furnace tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Mirabal, E.; Molina, C. [PDVSA-Refineria Isla, Curayao (Netherlands); Mayorga, A.; Hau, J.L. [PDVSA-Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1999-11-01

    Most heavy Venezuelan crudes are recognized for having a high total acid number (TAN) that is usually associated with a high tendency to produce naphthenic acid corrosion. To resist this type of corrosion in vacuum heaters, 9Cr-1Mo steel and stainless steels containing molybdenum are usually recommended. In 1993 the original 5Cr-1/2Mo roof tubes of the furnace in a vacuum unit were replaced by stainless steel 316Ti to minimize tube replacement and increase heater reliability. Unexpectedly, some of the new tubes failed after only three years of service, and just one year after undergoing the last turnaround inspection. The damage occurred in the form of deep holes and perforations, starting from the outside tube surface on the fireside. Coke build-up occurred due to severe operating conditions, overheating the tubes on the fireside, above 675 C (1250 F). Metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) examination revealed internal and external carburization of the material due to the presence of coke and combustion ashes, respectively. The increase in the skin metal temperature facilitated the diffusion of carbon from these carbon-rich deposits into the low carbon content material (0.023 O/O).Depletion of chromium at the grain boundaries due to the massive formation of chromium carbides, resulted in a severe intergranular corrosion attack by molten salts rich in vanadium and sulfur due to asphalt burning. Normal operating practice demands the use of steam for the heater tubes to control coke build-up. This practice had been first reduced and then eliminated, during the past two years prior to the failure, because of economic incentives. This paper describes the root cause analysis conducted to account for these premature tube failures.

  1. Portland cement-blast furnace slag blends in oilwell cementing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.T.; DiLullo, G.; Hibbeler, J. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Recent investigations of blast furnace slag cementing technologies. have been expanded to include Portland cement/blast furnace slag blends. Mixtures of Portland cement and blast furnace slag, while having a long history of use in the construction industry, have not been used extensively in oilwell cementing applications. Test results indicate that blending blast furnace slag with Portland cement produces a high quality well cementing material. Presented are the design guidelines and laboratory test data relative to mixtures of blast furnace slag and Portland cements. Case histories delineating the use of blast furnace slag - Portland cement blends infield applications are also included.

  2. Coal burnout in the IFRF No. 1 Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, T.F.; Phelan, W.J.; Bortz, S.

    1986-11-01

    A coal combustion model is used to match burnout measurements for four coals of different rank in a one-dimensional furnace and is then combined with a flow and heat transfer model to predict burnout in the IFRF No. 1 furnace. The coals show a continuous decrease in high temperature volatility and char reactivity with rank. Predicted and measured flame temperatures are shown to depend on the high temperature volatility and the char reactivity, varying by 300/sup 0/C for the coals. For the residence time available in the flame, a proportion of fine coal is burned; the low reactivity of the high rank coals is partially compensated by a grinding characteristic giving more fine coals. Final burnout levels are shown to depend principally on the char reactivity as well as the furnace cooling, as this determines furnace temperatures. The sensitivity to volatility, grind, the flow model, and uncertainties in the combustion model are quantified. It is shown that the furnace cooling must be reduced to obtain acceptable levels of burnout for the two coals of lowest volatility.

  3. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous...Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn...

  4. Solar furnace satellite for large diameter crystal growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overfelt, Tony; Wells, Mark; Blake, John

    1993-01-01

    Investigators worldwide are preparing experiments to test the influence of low gravity found in space on the growth of many crystalline materials. However, power limitations prevent existing space crystal growth furnaces from being able to process samples any larger than about 2 cm, and in addition, the background microgravity levels found on the Space Shuttle are not low enough to significantly benefit samples much larger than 2 cm. This paper describes a novel concept of a free-flying platform utilizing well-established solar furnace technology to enable materials processing in space experiments on large-diameter crystals. The conceptual design of this Solar Furnace Satellite is described along with its operational scenario and the anticipated g levels.

  5. New temperature and metals emissions monitoring technologies for furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Woskov, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Rhee, D.Y.; Thomas, P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center; Surma, J.E. [Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States); Titus, C.H. [T and R Associates, Wayne, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    New technologies have been successfully tested for continuous real time monitoring of temperature and hazardous metals emission in a DC graphite electrode arc furnace that is being evaluated for mixed waste processing. An active millimeter-wave pyrometer with rotatable graphite waveguide/mirror optics inside the furnace has proven to be a robust, spatially resolved temperature monitor of the molten slag and refractory surfaces even during waste feeding operations when dense smoke is present. The active probe beam provides additional information on surface emissivities. A microwave plasma torch constructed of refractory materials has been implemented as part of the furnace exhaust duct up stream of the scrubbers to sample high temperature, >500 C, undiluted exhaust gases. It has proven to be a robust gas excitation device for sensitive in situ atomic emission spectroscopy (in the part per billion range) of metals entrained in the exhaust emissions.

  6. Application of effective thermal insulating materials in firing furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kryzhanovskii, K.S.; Chernyl, V.I.; Dunaevskii, O.M.; Korzh, A.I.; Sedoi, N.I.

    1986-07-01

    It was established that the application of thermal insulation in high-heat thermal units makes it possible to save up to 2 tons of standard fuel per year. A survey of the furnace installations of the porcelain and faience field and the thermal balance calculations showed that the walls and the roof of the firing zone of the furnances form the main sources of heat losses. Basalt sheets were introduced for thermal insulation of the roof. The use of BTK-1 basalt sheet as a supplementary thermal insulation makes it possible to reduce heat loss through the furnace roof by 13% as compared to the conventional method of thermal insulation of the tunnel furnace using diatomite chips.

  7. Semicoke production and quality at Chinese vertical SJ furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    V.M. Strakhov; I.V. Surovtseva; A.V. D'yachenko; V.M. Men'shenin [Kuznetsk Center, Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15

    In Russia there has been little interest on the thermal processing of non-sintering coal. However it may be used to obtain many special types of coke and semicoke that are necessary for processes other than blast furnace smelting and employing small metallurgical coke fractions that do not meet the relevant quality requirements. China has recently made great progress in developing the thermal processing of coal (mainly energy coal) to obtain a highly effective product, semicoke, primarily used in metallurgy and adsorption process. The article considers the operation of a Chinese semicoking plant equipped with vertical SJ furnaces. The plant is in the Shenmu district of Shanxi province (Inner Mongolia). The enterprise includes two furnaces of total output of about 100,000 t/yr of semicoke.

  8. VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER STATION IN THE CASTING SHOP. (OTHER UNITS MELT BRASS ALLOYS.) THIS IS THE SOUTHERNMOST FURNACE OF THE FOUR PRESENTLY IN SITU. THE CURRENT CASTING SHOP WAS CONSTRUCTED DURING THE EARLY 1970'S, REPLACING THE ORIGINAL PRE-WWI FACILITY. STATIONS #02,03, AND 04 EACH CONSIST OF A HOLDER FLANKED BY A PAIR OF 800 KW ELECTRIC MELTERS. THE HOLDER IS RATED AT 85,000 LBS. SHAKER BOXES, LOCATED AT THE REAR OF EACH MELTER SUPPLY THE MIXTURE OF INGREDIENTS REQUIRED FOR EACH PARTICULAR ALLOY. ONE MEMBER OF THE THREE-MAN CASTING TEAMS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SHAKING METAL INTO THE MELTERS. IN THE LOWER RIGHT ARE SHOWN THE MOLD STORAGE AREA AND THE FURNACE BUILDERS' AREA FOR CHIPPING AND REBRICKING OFF-LINE UNITS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  9. VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER STATION IN THE CASTING SHOP. (OTHER UNITS MELT BRASS ALLOYS.) THIS IS THE SOUTHERNMOST FURNACE OF THE FOUR PRESENTLY IN SITU. THE CURRENT CASTING SHOP WAS CONSTRUCTED DURING THE EARLY 1970'S, REPLACING THE ORIGINAL PRE-WWI FACILITY. STATIONS #02, 03, AND 04 EACH CONSIST OF A HOLDER FLANKED BY A PAIR OF 800 KW ELECTRIC MELTERS. THE HOLDER IS REHEATED AT 85,000 LBS. SHAKER BOX, LOCATED AT THE REAR OF EACH MELTER SUPPLY THE MIXTURE OF INGREDIENTS REQUIRED FOR EACH PARTICULAR ALLOY. ONE MEMBER OF THE THREE-MAN CASTING TEAMS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SHAKING METAL INTO THE MELTERS. IN THE LOWER RIGHT ARE SHOWN THE MOLD STORAGE AREA AND THE FURNACE BUILDERS' AREA FOR CHIPPING AND REBRICKING OFF-LINE UNITS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  10. DC Arc Plasma Furnace Melting of Waste Incinerator Fly Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingzhou; Meng, Yuedong; Shi, Jiabiao; Kuang, Jing'an; Ni, Guohua; Liu, Wei; Jiang, Yiman

    2009-02-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was melted using a set of direct current (DC) arc plasma furnace system for the first time in China. At a feed-rate of flying ash of 80 kg/h, the temperature at the gas outlet was above 1300°C. Dioxins in the off-gas were recorded as 0.029 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (international toxic equivalent, I-TEQ), well below 0.5 ngTEQ/Nm3 (toxic equivalent, TEQ), while those in the melted product (slag) were 0.00035 ng/g I-TEQ. Molten slag from the furnace showed excellent resistance against the leaching of heavy metals. These results prove that the plasma furnace is effective for the detoxification and stabilization of MSWI fly ash.

  11. Single Wafer Furnace and Its Thermal Processing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Woo Sik; Fukada, Takashi; Kuribayashi, Hiromitsu; Kitayama, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Enjoji, Keiichi; Sunohara, Kiyoshi

    2000-07-01

    A resistively heated, vacuum and atmospheric pressure compatible, single wafer furnace (SWF) system is proposed to improve operational flexibility of conventional furnaces and productivity of single wafer rapid thermal processing (RTP) systems. The design concept and hardware configuration of the SWF system are described. The temperature measurement/control techniques and thermal characteristics of the SWF system are described. Typical process results in TiSi formation, implant anneal and thin oxide formation using the SWF system are reported. Due to the vertically stacked, dual chamber configuration and steady state temperature control, very flexible operation with a high throughput at a minimal power consumption (<3.5 kW per process chamber at 1150°C) was realized. Many thermal processes used in furnaces and RTP systems can easily be converted to SWF processes without decreasing cost performance and/or deteriorating process results by using the SWF system.

  12. Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Florida Solar Energy Center; Franco, Victor; Franco, Victor; Lutz, Jim; Lekov, Alex; Gu, Lixing

    2008-05-16

    Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces is unregulated, tested at laboratory conditions using the DOE test procedure, and is reported in the GAMA directory as varying from 76 kWh/year to 1,953 kWh/year. Furnace blowers account for about 80percent of the total furnace electricity consumption and are primarily used to distribute warm air throughout the home during furnace operation as well as distribute cold air during air conditioning operation. Yet the furnace test procedure does not provide a means to calculate the electricity consumption during cooling operation or standby, which account for a large fraction of the total electricity consumption. Furthermore, blower electricity consumption is strongly affected by static pressure. Field data shows that static pressure in the house distribution ducts varies widely and that the static pressure used in the test procedure as well as the calculated fan power is not representative of actual field installations. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important to address electricity consumption of furnaces and air conditioners. This paper compares the potential regional and national energy savings of two-stage brushless permanent magnet (BPM) blower motors (the blower design option with the most potential savings that is currently available in the market) to single-stage permanent split capacitor (PSC) blower motors (the most common blower design option). Computer models were used to generate the heating and cooling loads for typical homes in 16 different climates which represent houses throughout the United States. The results show that the potential savings of using BPM motors vary by region and house characteristics, and are very strongly tied to improving house distribution ducts. Savings decrease dramatically with increased duct pressure. Cold climate locations will see savings even in the high static pressure duct situations, while warm climate locations will see less savings overall and negative savings in the high static pressure duct situations. Moderate climate locations will see little or no savings.

  13. Numerical model for the Programmable Multirole Furnace (PMZF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, M.; Panzarella, C. H.; Destro-Sidik, K. E.; Krolikowski, C. R.; Licht, B. W.

    1993-01-01

    The present account of the Programmable Multizone Furnace numerical model uses various examples to illustrate the ways in which the model serves as an optimization, test, prediction, and visualization tool; a numerical PID-control algorithm obtains the desired sample temperature distributions and allows the model to solve an inverse heat transfer problem where the desired sample temperature profile is the input and the required heater power distribution is the output of numerical simulations. Parametric studies show how the total power consumption of the furnace is affected by such design variables as the conductivity.

  14. Visualization of flow structure in a vortex furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anufriev, I. S.; Krasinsky, D. V.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Sharypov, O. V.

    2014-10-01

    The spatial structure of a swirling flow in a model vortex furnace with distributed input of fuel-air-mixture jets has been studied. The results of experimental and numerical investigations of a three-dimensional (3D) field of time-averaged velocities in an isothermal laboratory model of a vortex furnace have been used to image the structure of flow. Vortex structures have been identified using ?2 and Q criteria, as well as the concept of "minimum total pressure." The vortex core of the flow has a V-shaped 3D structure.

  15. Dross treatment in a rotary arc furnace with graphite electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouet, Michel G.; Handfield, My; Meunier, Jean; Laflamme, Claude B.

    1994-05-01

    Aluminum baths are always covered with a layer of dross resulting from the aluminum surface oxidation. This dross represents 1-10% of the melt and may contain up to 75wt.% aluminum. Since aluminum production is highly energy intensive, dross recycling is very attractive from both energy and economic standpoints. The conventional recycling process using salt rotary furnaces is thermally inefficient and environmentally unacceptable because of the production of salt slags. Hydro-Quebec has developed a new technology using a rotary arc furnace with graphite electrodes. This process provides aluminum recovery rates of 80-90%, using a highly energy efficient, environmentally sound production method.

  16. DUCT RETROFIT STRATEGY TO COMPLEMENT A MODULATING FURNACE.

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2002-10-02

    Some recent work (Walker 2001, Andrews 2002) has indicated that installing a modulating furnace in a conventional duct system may, in many cases, result in a significant degradation in thermal distribution efficiency. The fundamental mechanism was pointed out nearly two decades ago (Andrews and Krajewski 1985). The problem occurs in duct systems that are less-than-perfectly insulated (e.g., R-4 duct wrap) and are located outside the conditioned space. It stems from the fact that when the airflow rate is reduced, as it will be when the modulating furnace reduces its heat output rate, the supply air will have a longer residence time in the ducts and will therefore lose a greater percentage of its heat by conduction than it did at the higher airflow rate. The impact of duct leakage, on the other hand, is not expected to change very much under furnace modulation. The pressures in the duct system will be reduced when the airflow rate is reduced, thus reducing the leakage per unit time. This is balanced by the fact that the operating time will increase in order to meet the same heating load as with the conventional furnace operating at higher output and airflow rates. The balance would be exact if the exponent in the pressure vs. airflow equation were the same as that in the pressure vs. duct leakage equation. Since the pressure-airflow exponent is usually {approx}0.5 and the pressure-leakage exponent is usually {approx}0.6, the leakage loss as a fraction of the load should be slightly lower for the modulating furnace. The difference, however, is expected to be small, determined as it is by a function with an exponent equal to the difference between the above two exponents, or {approx}0.1. The negative impact of increased thermal conduction losses from the duct system may be partially offset by improved efficiency of the modulating furnace itself. Also, the modulating furnace will cycle on and off less often than a single-capacity model, and this may add a small amount (probably in the range 1%-3%) to the thermal distribution efficiency. Nevertheless, the effect of furnace modulation on thermal distribution efficiency, both as calculated and as measured in the laboratory, is quite significant. Although exact quantification of the impact will depend on factors such as climate and the location of the ducts within the structure, impacts in the 15%-25% range are to be expected for ducts located outside the conditioned space, as most residential duct systems are. This is too large a handicap to ignore.

  17. Pore Formation and Mobility Furnace within the MSG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Dr. Richard Grugel, a materials scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight in Huntsville, Ala., examines the furnace used to conduct his Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation -- one of the first two materials science experiments to be conducted on the International Space Station. This experiment studies materials processes similar to those used to make components used in jet engines. Grugel's furnace was installed in the Microgravity Science Glovebox through the circular port on the side. In space, crewmembers are able to change out samples using the gloves on the front of the facility's work area.

  18. Heat Recovery From Arc Furnaces Using Water Cooled Panels

    E-print Network

    Darby, D. F.

    . The refractories above the slag line take a lot of punishment because they are directly ex posed to the full "heat flux", which can range as high as 250,000 BTU!sq.ft.!hour (Figure 1). I-I..----l'..'------?..-llu' I- SLAG L1NI is l...--------''''--------i:o: ..GUll NO I This exposure, along with damage that may be caused by charging heavy scrap into the furnace, causes rapid deterioration of the refractories. Many furnaces must be shut down every 100 to 150 heats to reline the areas above the slag line...

  19. Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Meng, Yuedong; Yu, Xinyao; Chen, Longwei; Jiang, Yiman; Ni, Guohua; Chen, Mingzhou

    2009-04-01

    In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V/1000 A DC as an example, the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat loss of the furnace were analyzed based on the energy conservation law, so as to achieve the total heat information and energy balance during plasma processing, and to provide a theoretical basis for an optimized design of the structure and to improve energy efficiency.

  20. 76 FR 61999 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and Boilers (Standby Mode and...Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and Boilers. This correction...Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Telephone...Avenue, SW., Washington, DC, 20585- 0121....

  1. 78 FR 7681 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...of Energy (DOE) proposes to revise its test procedure for residential furnaces and...standard incorporated by reference in the DOE test procedure. DATES: Meeting: DOE...

  2. 75 FR 64621 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its test procedures for residential furnaces and...Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007). These test procedure amendments are primarily...

  3. 77 FR 28673 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans...of Energy (DOE) proposes to establish test procedures for residential products...

  4. 78 FR 41265 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...proposed rulemaking (NOPR) to amend its test procedure for residential furnaces and...today's action. This final rule amends that test procedure by adopting new equations...

  5. 78 FR 19606 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans...of Energy (DOE) proposes to establish test procedures for electrically-powered devices...as ``furnace fans.'' DOE proposes a test procedure that would be applicable to...

  6. Rebuilding and modernization of blast furnace B'' at Cockerill-Sambre Ougree

    SciTech Connect

    Neuville, J.; Lecomte, P.; Massin, J.P.; Drimmer, D. (Cockerill-Sambre, Liege (Belgium))

    1993-01-01

    Blown in for the first time in 1962, the B blast furnace of Cockerill-Sambre was relined for the fourth time in 1989. The furnace produced 8,649,000 tons during the last campaign (1980 - 1989). Gunning repairs were carried out in 1985 and 1987. The blast furnace was blow down on June 30 and the burden level was lowered to the tuyere level. Afterwards a salamander of 350 tons was cast in open ladles. The relining of the blast furnace was performed on schedule and the furnace was blown in on the 4th of December 1989. The paper describes the relining goals and the main modifications. The specifications of the blast furnace are listed. Then the paper describes the modifications to the following systems: the charging computer system; the cooling system; the refractory materials; the hot stoves; blast furnace gas system; instrumentation and regulation; the blast furnace computer system; the pollution control equipment; and the cast floor.

  7. Melting temperature distribution characteristic of ash deposits of black liquor coal slurry on furnace wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ze-quan LAN; Xin-yu CAO; Jun-hu ZHOU; Jian-zhong LIU; Ke-fa CEN

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the distribution characteristic of melting temperature of ash deposits deposited on different locations of furnace wall, comparison test on two combustion work conditions was made in trial furnace of black liquor coal slurry. Analysis was made on melting temperature, chemical composition, and mineral phase of ash deposits on furnace wall along journey of fume. The result shows that

  8. Comparison of some active devices for the compensation of DC arc furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Carpinelli; A. Russo

    2003-01-01

    DC arc furnaces are more and more applied in large industrial systems. They represent a source of perturbations for the feeding system, in dependence on the available short-circuit power at the point of common coupling and on the arc furnace rating. This work deals with the problem of the compensation of perturbations caused by the DC arc furnaces operation; in

  9. AC and DC arc furnaces: a comparison on some power quality aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Carpinelli; M. DiManno; P. Verde; E. Tironi; D. Zaninelli

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with a comparison between AC and DC arc furnaces taking into account power quality indices. The study is performed using computer simulation based on the ATP program, assuming as reference a real AC arc furnace plant. Flicker phenomenon, harmonic and interharmonic distortion are evaluated for both DC and AC arc furnaces

  10. Twin-electrode DC smelting furnaces—Theory and photographic testwork

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. G. Reynolds; R. T. Jones

    2006-01-01

    Use of twin-electrode DC arc furnaces for the purposes of smelting is a growing trend in the research being performed at Mintek. Even though twin-electrode furnaces add complexity to aspects of the mechanical design of the furnace roof and electrode mechanisms (as well as power supply configurations and control systems), the design and operational advantages gained in moving to dual

  11. Modelling of a DC arc furnace for optimal integration with the supply system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bekker; P. H. Swart; C. F. Landy; D. A. Marshall

    1995-01-01

    DC are furnaces have gained increasing favour with steel makers all over the world. DC arc furnaces have advantages over their conventional AC counterparts because of their greater supply-friendly nature. Although DC are furnaces still generate flicker, the stochastic component in their harmonics arc reduced and their demands on the supply network are much more compatible with the supply than

  12. Compensation of waveform distortions and voltage fluctuations of DC arc furnaces: the decoupled compensator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Carpinelli; F. lacovone; A. Russo

    2002-01-01

    DC arc furnaces are more and more applied in large industrial power systems. They represent a source of perturbations for the feeding system, in dependence on the available short-circuit power at the point of common coupling and on the arc furnace rating. This paper deals with the problem of the compensation of perturbations due to DC arc furnaces behavior; in

  13. Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-Making Plantation. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Rita G.

    The rhythmic noises of the turning water wheel and the roar of the furnace blast never stopped at Hopewell Furnace (Pennsylvania) during its years of operation (1771-1883). As long as the furnace was in blast, the ironworkers' jobs were safe. In case of trouble, they could escape to the woods, fields, and creeks of rural Pennsylvania. Now a…

  14. Preliminary control system design and analysis for the Space Station Furnace Facility thermal control system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Jackson

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) thermal control system (TCS) preliminary control system design and analysis. The SSFF provides the necessary core systems to operate various materials processing furnaces. The TCS is defined as one of the core systems, and its function is to collect excess heat from furnaces and to provide precise cold temperature control of

  15. Design and construction of a compact vacuum furnace for scientific research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chin C. Lee; David T. Wang; Won S. Choi

    2006-01-01

    The design, construction, and measurement of a compact vacuum furnace are reported. This type of furnace has many scientific applications in material processing and growth research. One example is the fluxless bonding process, where elevated temperature is needed to melt the solder and vacuum environment is required to inhibit solder oxidation. The primary objective of the furnace design is to

  16. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "A2-WetOxBond" furnace in TRL.

    E-print Network

    Reif, Rafael

    STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "A2-WetOxBond" furnace in TRL. INTRODUCTION Tube "A2-WetOxBond" is an Atmospheric furnace designed to grow thermal SiO2 in the temperature range of 800- 1050C, on Silicon wafers up the furnace of Oxygen. The wafer handling is manual: the quartz boat is introduced in the flat zone

  17. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "B3-DryOx" furnace in TRL.

    E-print Network

    Reif, Rafael

    STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "B3-DryOx" furnace in TRL. INTRODUCTION Tube "B3-DryOx" is an Atmospheric furnace designed to for wafers bonding , dry oxidation and annealing of thick films deposited is manual: the quartz boat is introduced in the flat zone and extracted from the furnace with the help

  18. Thermomechanical Modelling of a Blast Furnace Hearth J. Brulin1,2

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Thermomechanical Modelling of a Blast Furnace Hearth J. Brulin1,2 , A. Rekik1 , E. Blond1 , L Abstract The goal of this work is to develop a thermo-mechanical model of a blast furnace hearth able-situ instrumentation results. 1. Introduction The blast furnace (BF) hearth is the most critical part within the whole

  19. Simultaneous data reconciliation and parameter estimation. Application to a basic oxygen furnace.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Simultaneous data reconciliation and parameter estimation. Application to a basic oxygen furnace may impact final product quality. This is particularly true for the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) where-to-batch variation. This is particularly true for the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) where the information collected

  20. Application of flash-assist rapid thermal processing subsequent to low-temperature furnace anneals

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Application of flash-assist rapid thermal processing subsequent to low-temperature furnace anneals and then implanted with 1 keV, 1 1015 cm-2 B. Low-temperature furnace anneals are performed at 500 °C for 30 minV. Implants were per- formed at a standard tilt of 7° and twist of 27°. Low- temperature furnace anneals were

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ll of... - Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging 3 Table...3 to Subpart LL of Part 63—Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging Number of furnaces Emission limit (lb/ton of anode)...

  2. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ll of... - Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging 3 Table...3 to Subpart LL of Part 63—Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging Number of furnaces Emission limit (lb/ton of anode)...

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ll of... - Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging 3 Table...3 to Subpart LL of Part 63—Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging Number of furnaces Emission limit (lb/ton of anode)...

  4. 16 CFR Appendix G1 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Furnaces-Gas G1 Appendix G1 to Part 305 Commercial...âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Appendix G1 to Part 305—Furnaces—Gas Furnace type Range of annual fuel utilization...

  5. A predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Chen

    2001-01-01

    Silicon content in pig iron has long been used as one of the most important indices to represent the thermal state of a blast furnace. In this paper, a predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis is presented. The qualitative trend of the process in blast furnace is predicted through causal analysis and qualitative

  6. Laser and furnace annealed Au, Ag and Al ohmic contacts on n+ -GaAs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    967 Laser and furnace annealed Au, Ag and Al ohmic contacts on n+ -GaAs P. Sircar Department-germanium films were evaporated. Samples from each of these three types of contacts were furnace and laser surface morphology and somewhat smaller resistance than its furnace annealed counterpart. In case

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ll of... - Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging 3 Table...3 to Subpart LL of Part 63—Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging Number of furnaces Emission limit (lb/ton of anode)...

  8. The measurement of carbon in soils using a microprocessor?controlled resistance furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Merry; L. R. Spouncer

    1988-01-01

    The determination of carbon in soils using the Leco CR?12 resistance furnace has been investigated. The microprocessor? controlled furnace, and aspects of its use and performance, are described with particular attention to the routine analysis of soil materials. Some of the effects of furnace temperature, sample weight, fine grinding, ‘comparator’ setting and nature of the carbon on carbon determination and

  9. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ll of... - Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging 3 Table...3 to Subpart LL of Part 63—Anode Bake Furnace Limits for Emission Averaging Number of furnaces Emission limit (lb/ton of anode)...

  10. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "A1-GateOx" furnace in TRL.

    E-print Network

    Reif, Rafael

    STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "A1-GateOx" furnace in TRL. INTRODUCTION Tube "A1-GateOx" is an Atmospheric furnace designed to grow thermal SiO2 in the temperature range of 800- 1050C, on Silicon wafers up), to clear the furnace of Oxygen. The wafer handling is manual: the quartz boat is introduced in the flat

  11. Field measurements of interactions between furnaces and forced air distribution systems

    E-print Network

    LBNL 40587 Field measurements of interactions between furnaces and forced air distribution systems Vol. 104 Part 1 Field measurements of interactions between furnaces and forced air distribution performance of these furnaces and their interactions with their forced-air distribution systems

  12. DC FURNACE CONTAINMENT VESSEL DESIGN USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Henning; M. Shapiro; L. A. le Grange

    Effective pyrometallurgical process vessel design requires accurate assessment of the heat fluxes through the walls of the furnace. This is particularly important for freeze lining operation which is designed to protect refractory materials exposed to chemically corrosive molten contents, or facilitate high temperature operation when the refractory materials are used at conditions close to their service limits. Numerical modelling of

  13. Power line carrier interference caused by DC electric arc furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Franklin; Shih-Min Hsu

    2003-01-01

    Alabama Power Company has experienced problems with power line carrier equipment used on high voltage transmission systems resulting from the operation of DC electric arc furnaces. Problems experienced include tuning equipment and communication equipment failures, as well as false signal reception and signal interference. This paper describes the nature and causes of the problems, and discusses results from field measurements

  14. Analysis of interharmonics in DC arc furnace installations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Mattavelli; L. Fellin; P. Bordignon; M. Perna

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with interharmonic disturbances encountered during the operation of a DC arc furnace installation. The main cause of the flicker-like disturbances has been identified in a strong harmonic interaction between AC and DC sides of the thyristor converters. In order to analyze the effects of the various system parameters, the frequency response of the entire system has been

  15. Modelling of an ilmenite-smelting DC arc furnace process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan H. Zietsman; P. Chris Pistorius

    2006-01-01

    Ilmenite smelters must be operated with the slag bath contained in a freeze lining of solidified slag to prevent refractory damage and ensure feasible furnace life. This makes the process an interesting and challenging one to operate and control.The study focused on interactions between the freeze lining and slag bath. A mathematical model was developed to describe heat transfer, solidification

  16. Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Zhao; Yuedong Meng; Xinyao Yu; Longwei Chen; Yiman Jiang; Guohua Ni; Mingzhou Chen

    2009-01-01

    In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V\\/1000 A DC as an example, the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat

  17. METALLURGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MEFOS 3 MW DC ARC FURNACE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ye; J. Alexis; E. Burström

    2004-01-01

    Over the past twenty years the 3 MW DC arc furnace at MEFOS has been frequently used for development of new processes. These processes include recovery of valuable metals from slag, sludge and dust from steel and other metallurgical industry, treatment of ashes from power plant and incinerators, smelting reduction of minerals and zinc recovery from EAF dust. The process

  18. Analysis of flicker generation in DC arc furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Mattavelli; M. Perna

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method to evaluate instantaneous flicker sensation due to sinusoidal perturbation of arc parameters in DC electrical arc furnaces (EAF) including most of the important design and control parameters. The method is based on the modeling in the frequency domain of the linearized dynamic behavior of the main components of DC EAF, such as the AC\\/DC

  19. Analysis of electrically induced flows in DC electric arc furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. N. Mondal; H. Kurimoto; T. Morisue

    1996-01-01

    Limitations of natural resources and environmental pollution problems have forced people to consider seriously about recycling of materials. As a means of recycling, DC arc furnaces can be used to recycle scrap materials and already some industries have started to use them in small scale production. An in depth understanding of the process involved is essential for optimal design and

  20. 20. TAKING A CAST AT BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. WORKERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. TAKING A CAST AT BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. WORKERS, LIKE THE ONE STANDING ON THE BRIDGE ABOVE THE 'BOTTLE' INTO WHICH THE HOT IRON FLOWS, ARE PROTECTED BY HEAVY FIREPROOF GARMENTS. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. TRACES Centre Thermo GFS35 Graphite Furnace Spectrometer

    E-print Network

    Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto

    on 3. Check the Furnace A/S system a. Ensure that there is sufficient water(3/4 full) in the bottle b. Cuvette type v. `Calibration' tab: 1. Calibration Model: a. Linear b. Segmented #12;c. Quadratic 2. Purge (2-3X) ii. Fill syringe with water be removing the plunger 13. Align the Probe a. Edit i. GFTV 1

  2. Numerical Simulation and Chaotic Analysis of an Aluminum Holding Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji-min; Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Lan, Shen; Chen, Tao; Li, Jie; Yan, Hong-jie; Zhou, Jie-min; Tian, Rui-jiao; Tu, Yan-wu; Li, Wen-ke

    2014-12-01

    To achieve high heat efficiency, low pollutant emission and homogeneous melt temperature during thermal process of secondary aluminum, taking into account the features of aluminum alloying process, a CFD process model was developed and integrated with heat load and aluminum temperature control model. This paper presented numerical simulation of aluminum holding furnaces using the customized code based on FLUENT packages. Thermal behaviors of aluminum holding furnaces were investigated by probing into main physical fields such as flue gas temperature, velocity, and concentration, and combustion instability of aluminum holding process was represented by chaos theory. The results show that aluminum temperature uniform coefficient firstly decreases during heating phase, then increases and reduces alternately during holding phase, lastly rises during standing phase. Correlation dimension drops with fuel velocity. Maximal Lyapunov exponent reaches to a maximum when air-fuel ratio is close to 1. It would be a clear comprehension about each phase of aluminum holding furnaces to find new technology, retrofit furnace design, and optimize parameters combination.

  3. Blast furnace slags as sorbents of phosphate from water solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Kostura; Hana Kulveitová; Juraj Leško

    2005-01-01

    The paper is focused on the sorption of phosphorus from aqueous solutions by crystalline and amorphous blast furnace slags. Slag sorption kinetics were measured, adsorption tests were carried out and the effect of acidification on the sorption properties of slags was studied. The kinetic measurements confirmed that the sorption of phosphorus on crystalline as well as amorphous slags can be

  4. Phosphate removal using blast furnace slags and opoka-mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Johansson; Jon Petter Gustafsson

    2000-01-01

    The abiotic sorption efficiency of on-site wastewater treatment systems can be improved by using a strongly sorbing filter material that, if it retains phosphorus (P) in a plant available way, can be used as fertiliser when P saturation is achieved. Two materials, blast furnace slag and the siliceous sedimentary rock opoka, have shown a high P sorption capacity and were

  5. Fire-resistant geopolymer produced by granulated blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. Cheng; J. P. Chiu

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes research into the use of granulated blast furnace slag as an active filler in the making of geopolymers. During this work it was found that geopolymer setting time correlates well with temperature, potassium hydroxide concentration, metakaolinite and sodium silicate addition. The physical and mechanical properties of the geopolymer also correlated well with the concentration of alkaline solution

  6. Single taphole blast furnace casthouse performance optimizing cost and availability

    SciTech Connect

    Fowles, R.D.; Searls, J.B.; Peay, W.R. [Geneva Steel, Provo, UT (United States); Brenneman, R.G.

    1995-12-01

    The No. 2 blast furnace is a single taphole furnace with a convection air-cooled iron trough. The iron runner system is designed to fill four 90 ton open-top ladles per cast, which are transported by locomotive to the steel shop. The slag runner system is capable of filling three 800 ft{sup 3} slag pots per cast. The No. 2 blast furnace was blown in from mini-reline with this new casthouse configuration in early December 1991. It was operated for nearly three years until it was banked for planned stove repairs and a trough rebuild in late September 1994. During this period, the furnace produced just over 2.5 million tons of hot metal across the original trough refractory lining system, with 13 intermediate hot patch castable repairs. The entire casthouse refractory usage (main trough, runner systems, and covers) during this campaign was 1.06 pounds per net ton of hot metal. Investigation of the lining during demolition indicated that the trough lining campaign could have been extended to at least 3.0 million tons. This paper will discuss how operating practices, mechanical design, refractory design, maintenance philosophy, and attention to detail synergistically contributed to the long campaign life and low refractory consumption rate.

  7. Durability of Portland blast-furnace slag cement concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Osborne

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of studies carried out at the Building Research Establishment in the UK, on the performance and long-term durability of concrete where ground glassy blast-furnace slag (granulated and pelletized) has been used as a cementitious material. Using data from tests on site structures and laboratory and exposure site studies, comparisons are made of the properties and

  8. GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE IN THE RIGHT; THE CENTRAL COMPLEX WITH STOVES IN THE CENTER. ELECTRICAL POWER HOUSE IS ON THE LEFT BEYOND THE CONVEYOR LIFT. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1996-01-01

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy.

  10. 12. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND PARTS HEATING FURNACE. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND PARTS HEATING FURNACE. THE METALS WERE HEATED PRIOR TO BEING PRESSED. THE ARM IS DRAPED WITH FIRE RESISTANT MATERIAL. (2/9/79) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. Measurement of Electrical Parameters in High-Current Arc Furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lorenzo; M. Lage; J. Bullon; J. Rivas; A. Fondado; A. Torres; J. Farina; J. J. Rodriguez-Andina

    2007-01-01

    The correct measurement of electrical parameters is a fundamental requirement for the accomplishment of suitable regulatory and protective actions in electric arc furnaces. The Spanish ferroalloy company Ferroatlantica has devoted many efforts during the last years to the development and improvement of an efficient silicon production technology, based on the so-called ELSA electrodes. Previous works concentrate on the electrical characterization

  12. INVESTIGATION OF REFRACTORY CONCRETE FAILURE IN FURNACES OF METALS INDUSTRY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Andreev; S. Sinnema; M. Hogenboom

    Refractory ceramics is a diverse class of materials used to insulate industrial furnaces and protect them from liquid metals, slags and hot gases. Concretes (based on calcium-aluminates cement binders) make up approximately 40% of all refractories used in the steel and aluminium industry. As an element of a structure consisting of concrete\\/ceramic layers and the steel shell these materials are

  13. CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

  14. Coke mineral transformations in the experimental blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Kelli Kazuberns; Sushil Gupta; Mihaela Grigore; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Mats Hallin; Bo Lindblom; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD)

    2008-09-15

    Blast furnace efficiency may be improved by optimizing coke reactivity. Some but not all forms of mineral matter in the coke modify its reactivity, but changes in mineral matter that occur within coke while in the blast furnace have not been fully quantified. To determine changes in mineral matter forms in the blast furnace, coke samples from a dissection study in the LKAB experimental blast furnace (EBF) were characterized using SEM/EDS analysis, EPMA (microprobe), and low-temperature ashing/quantitative XRD analysis. Variations in alkali concentration, particularly potassium, dominated the compositional changes. At high concentrations of potassium, the mineral matter was largely potassium-bearing but even more potassium was diffused throughout the coke and not associated with mineral matter. There was little difference in potassium concentration between the core and surface of the coke pieces, suggesting that potassium diffused rapidly through the whole coke. Iron, calcium, silicon, and aluminum concentrations were relatively constant in comparison, although the mineralogy of all elements changed significantly with changing temperature. 23 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Coke quality for blast furnaces with coal-dust fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Y.A. Zolotukhin; N.S. Andreichikov [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    Recently, plans have been developed for the introduction of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at various Russian metallurgical enterprises. The main incentive for switching to PCI is the recent price rises for Russian natural gas. The paper discusses the quality of coke for PCI into blast furnaces.

  16. Hybrid optimization setpoint strategy for slab reheating furnace temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongjie Wang; Tianyou Chai; Shouping Guan; Cheng Shao

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigated a hybrid optimization setpoint strategy for slab reheating furnace temperature. Due to the complexity of the process dynamics, the strategy is divided into two parts: steady state zone temperature optimization and its dynamic compensation. Simplex method is adopted in solving the optimization problem and PID regulation and expert experiences are applied to dynamic compensation procedure, the PID

  17. RECYCLE OF MODIFIED FLY ASH FROM FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses technical and economic studies to assess the impact of recycle on the furnace sorbent injection process. Levelized costs of various recycle schemes were compared to baseline (non-recycle) costs using the EPA LIMB Cost Model and the LIMB Recycle Model. Laborato...

  18. Ash melting treatment by rotating type surface melting furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sei-ichi Abe; Fumiaki Kambayashi; Masaharu Okada

    1996-01-01

    Results of melting treatment of fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are described, and safety and an effective use of slag discharged from the melting treatment are studied. The fly ash has an average particle size of 22 ?m and a melting fluidity point of 1280–1330°C and was able to be melted by using a Kubota melting furnace without

  19. 32. INTERIOR BOILER HOUSE Above the two furnaces, one ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. INTERIOR - BOILER HOUSE Above the two furnaces, one of the boilers can be seen to the upper left. The large pipes in the foreground are all that remain of the distribution system. Most of the pipe and tubing have been stripped from the room and sold for scrap. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  20. Residential Heat Storage Furnaces for Load Management - Design and Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. S. Hardy; M. T. Sulatlsky; W. B. H. Cooke

    1980-01-01

    The use of thermal energy storage, or off-peak electric heating, to level the electric system load and improve the system load factor is described. A general introduction to the economic benefits of off-peak heating is given along with details of a heat storage furnace and controller designed for residential home heating on the Canadian Prairies.

  1. A Geologic Guide to the Cooper Furnace Day Use Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crews, Patty

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the day use area adjoining the Allatoona Dam on the Etowah River north of Atlanta and the geology of the three physiographic provinces which converge there. Included are a generalized geologic map of the area and maps of the visitor center, picnic areas, the abandoned pig iron furnace, the scenic overlooks, and the…

  2. SIDE VIEW OF #61 HOLDING FURNACE AT #02 STATION. CASTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SIDE VIEW OF #61 HOLDING FURNACE AT #02 STATION. CASTER JIM DURFEE IS POURING BRASS ALLOY INTO MOLDS. ALSO SHOWN IS THE FLAME-RETARDANT ROPE THAT HAS REPLACED ASBESTOS FOR PACKING AROUND THE MOLDS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. FRACTIONAL EFFICIENCY OF AN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE BAGHOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the performance of a fabric filter system controlling emissions from either one or two 30-ton electric arc furnaces producing a high-strength, low-alloy specialty steel. The evaluation involved measuring the system's total mass collect...

  4. NOX EMISSIONS MODELING IN BIOMASS COMBUSTION GRATE FURNACES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Albrecht; R. J. M. Bastiaans; J. A. van Oijen; L. P. H. de Goey

    A new flamelet combustion model is developed for the modeling of NOx emissions in biomass grate furnaces. The model describes the combustion chemistry using premixed flamelets. The chemical system is mapped on two controlling variables: the mixture fraction and a reaction progress variable. The species mass fractions and temperature are tabulated as functions of the controlling variables in a pre-processing

  5. APPLICABILITY OF NOX COMBUSTION MODIFICATIONS TO CYCLONE BOILERS (FURNACES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclone furnaces are a significant source of stationary NOx emissions. It was estimated that 0.76 x 10 to the 6th power tonnes of NOx (over 6% of stationary source NOx) were emitted from all cyclone-coal-fired utility boilers in 1973. This represents from 19% to 22% of the total ...

  6. STATCOM for compensation of large electric arc furnace installations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Schauder

    1999-01-01

    High power electronic equipment, developed for the compensation of utility power transmission systems, has been successfully applied to the problem of flicker compensation in a large industrial arc furnace. Whereas conventional flicker compensation methods, using thyristor valves in conjunction with passive components, have generally failed to reduce flicker substantially the new STATCOM-based compensator provides a dramatic reduction in flicker, as

  7. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND MACHINERY AND ARTIFACTS INCLUDING A STEAM ENGINE HUB MADE AT THE BRIERFIELD ROLLING MILL (INSCRIBED C.C. HUCKABEE AND DATED 1863) AND OTHER STEAM ENGINES. - Iron & Steel Museum of Alabama, 12632 Confederate Pkwy., Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  8. A New Static Var Compensator for an Arc Furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Cox; A. Mirbod

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an electronic compensator that can compensate the reactive current drawn by an arc furnace. Consisting of three independent single-phase pulse-width modulated (PWM) inverters, the proposed compensator responds quickly to any sudden load changes and compensates both the fundamental displacement current and the harmonic distortion current drawn by the load. Unlike conventional static var compensators,

  9. COMBUSTION ENGINEERING'S FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION PROGRAMS FOR SO2 CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses three Combustion Engineering programs relating to the furnace sorbent injection process, a low-cost method for controlling sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from tangentially fired, coal burning boilers. The programs are: (1) pilot-scale investigations in the lab...

  10. Control of flame configuration and combustion performance in industrial furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Presser; Y. Goldman; J. B. Greenberg; Y. M. Timnat

    1980-01-01

    The influence of geometric and kinematic factors on combustion performance is studied in a liquid fuelled furnace, experimentally and theoretically. By varying the spray axial location, it is possible to produce a more uniform air\\/fuel distribution with an apparent shortening and widening of the flame shape. Increasing the swirl number enhances turbulent mixing, creating a shorter flame in the combustion

  11. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: BABCOCK AND WILCOX CYCLONE FURNACE VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology is a treatment process for contaminated soils. he process was evaluated to determine its ability to destroy semivolatile organics and to isolate metals and simulated radionuclides into a non-leachable slag materi...

  12. No Furnaces but Heat Aplenty in ‘Passive Houses’

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ELISABETH ROSENTHAL

    This highly cogent feature from the The New York Time Europe, from December 28, 2008, describes the super efficient features of passive houses. These carefully engineered structures allow inhabitants to maintain comfortable temperatures inside and produce hot water in very cold climates without the need of a furnace.

  13. Assessment of melt desulfurization in a ladle-furnace unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Gizatulin; O. I. Nokhrina; I. D. Rozhikhina; V. I. Dmitrienko

    2011-01-01

    We will estimate the distribution of sulfur and its final concentration in melt that is in equilibrium with slag, by simulation of the reducing properties of metal and slag during ladle treatment [1, 2]. In ladle–furnace treatment of steel, the addition of reducing agent (silicon) to the ladle reduces the oxida? tion of the slag. The added silicon also reduces

  14. Desulfurization of steel outside the furnace with deoxidized converter slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Mel'nik; O. V. Nosochenko; N. N. Kulik; V. I. Ganoshenko; I. L. Buzun

    1985-01-01

    The sulfur content of steel has a significant effect on the quality of metal, especially its ductility properties. An increase in the sulfur content of the charge materials used in converter steelmaking is requiring the use of new methods of desulfurizing the metal. This includes methods used outside the furnace. The well-known methods of desulfurizing metal with synthetic and self-fusing

  15. MULTIMEDIA ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRIC SUBMERGED ARC FURNACES PRODUCING FERROALLOYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of sampling and analysis at five ferroalloy plants to determine the amounts of particulates and organics generated during manufacture of several products, the effect of furnace type on the amounts generated, and the amounts of these materials escaping to ...

  16. Better VPS Fabrication of Crucibles and Furnace Cartridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Zimmerman, Frank R.; O'Dell, J. Scott; McKechnie, Timothy N.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental investigation has shown that by (1) vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) of suitable refractory metal alloys on graphite mandrels, and then (2) heat-treating the VPS alloy deposits under suitable conditions, it is possible to fabricate improved crucibles and furnace cartridges that could be used at maximum temperatures between 1,400 and 1,600 C and that could withstand chemical attack by the materials to be heated in the crucibles and cartridges. Taken by itself, the basic concept of fabricating furnace cartridges by VPS of refractory materials onto graphite mandrels is not new; taken by itself, the basic concept of heat treatment of VPS deposits for use as other than furnace cartridges is also not new; however, prior to this investigation, experimental crucibles and furnace cartridges fabricated by VPS had not been heat treated and had been found to be relatively weak and brittle. Accordingly, the investigation was directed toward determining whether certain combinations of (1) refractory alloy compositions, (2) VPS parameters, and (3) heat-treatment parameters could result in VPS-fabricated components with increased ductility.

  17. Sandjet- A New Alternative for Cleaning Furnace Tubes 

    E-print Network

    Pollock, C. B.

    1981-01-01

    Energy management in modern refineries is becoming more difficult as the real cost of in-house and purchased fuel escalates and the quality of feed stocks decreases. Furnace tube maintenance has been made more complex by the presence of not only...

  18. REACTIVATION OF GRANULAR CARBON IN AN INFRARED TRAVELING BELT FURNACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An all-electrical Shirco carbon regeneration furnace and its air pollution control system have been evaluated for cost and process effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The granular activated carbon used for the Shirco...

  19. APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: BABCOCK AND WILCOX CYCLONE FURNACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils contaminated with heavy metals, radionuclides, and organics. oth the technical and economic aspects of...

  20. Fluidized bed furnace and method of emptying the same

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Barnert; H. Schmitz

    1985-01-01

    A fluidized bed furnace for coating fuel particles for nuclear reactors, particularly high temperature reactors, can be emptied without cooling down the reaction tube by substituting an inert gas for the coating gas and then lowering the inner tube through which this gas is fed so as to clear a passage in the surrounding outer gas feed tube through which

  1. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF SPIN FORM FURNACE FOR STAINLESS STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF SPIN FORM FURNACE FOR STAINLESS STEEL FABRICATION. STAINLESS STEEL WAS MACHINED IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING, BEGINNING IN 1957. (4/24/78) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. 19. VIEW OF THE BAKEOUT FURNACE, WHERE PARTS WERE HEATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF THE BAKE-OUT FURNACE, WHERE PARTS WERE HEATED UNDER A VACUUM TO HEAT TREAT OR TO BAKE OUT ANY IMPURITIES. (9/19/72) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  3. On the distribution and bonding environment of Zn and Fe in glasses containing electric arc furnace dust: A ?-XAFS and ?-XRF study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Pinakidou; M. Katsikini; E. C. Paloura; P. Kavouras; Th. Kehagias; Ph. Komninou; Th. Karakostas; A. Erko

    2007-01-01

    We apply synchrotron radiation assisted X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF), SR-XRF mapping as well as micro- and conventional X-ray absorption fine structure (?-XAFS and XAFS) spectroscopies in order to study the bonding environment of Fe and Zn in vitrified samples that contain electric arc furnace dust from metal processing industries. The samples are studied in the as-cast state as well as after

  4. Utilization of computational fluid dynamics technique in low NOx burner/furnace retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, S.M.; Seltzer, A.H.; Ma, J.; Steitz, T.H.; Grusha, J.; Cole, R.W.

    1999-07-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique has been utilized to provide design guidance for retrofitting low NOx combustion systems and incorporating associated furnace modifications into existing utility boilers. The CFD program utilized is FW-FIRES (Fossil fuel, Water-walled Furnace Integrated Reaction and Emission Simulation) which simulates furnace combustion, heat transfer and pollutant formation based on fundamental principals of mass, momentum and energy conservations. The program models the gas flow field as a three-dimensional turbulent reacting continuum and the particle flow as a series of discrete particle trajectories through the gas continuum. Chemical reaction, heat transfer, and pollutant formation mechanisms are incorporated in the program. FW-FIRES furnace simulation of low NOx combustion system retrofits has been performed for various furnace configurations including front wall-fired, front and real wall-fired, and tangentially-fired furnaces, to determine the effects of burner/furnace modifications on the NOx emission, furnace exit gas temperature, furnace heat absorption, unburned carbon, and furnace wall corrosion. For front wall-fired, and front and real wall-fired furnaces, the NOx emission requirement is met by the use of Foster Wheeler lox NOx burners and overfire air (OFA) staging. Studies of burner and OFA quantify and spacing are conducted to limit NOx emission and unburned carbon to acceptable levels. A major concern in once-through supercritical units with OFA is furnace wall corrosion which is caused by high furnace wall metal temperature and corrosive hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) created in a reducing atmosphere from part of coal sulfur. The FW-FIRES code is used to minimize this corrosion potential by selecting the proper location and quantity of boundary air. A simulation of tangentially-fired unit, which has been retrofitted with low NOx burners, is used to study the effect of the burner tilt on the furnace exit gas temperature. This paper details the basis and results of several CFD analyses conducted for potential retrofit programs.

  5. Automatic temperature measurement for casting furnaces using an immersion thermocouple

    SciTech Connect

    Mee, D.K.

    1983-08-12

    Thermocouple fixturing and immersion thermocouple assemblies have been developed to provide a temperature measurement of molten metal in vacuum casting furnaces. The previous thermocouple temperature measurement was inadequate because of sheath breakage and sheath erosion problems. A fixture was developed which uses a welded-metal bellows to retract and insert thermocouples, thus eliminating breakage problems caused during furnace loading. Sheath erosion problems were eliminated by developing a disposable-sheath thermocouple design in which an outer sheath could be replaced periodically. Tests show that the fixture lifetime is > 450 cycles and that the disposable-sheath thermocouple will operate for more than 200 cycles, with not more than +-3.6/sup 0/C drift. Total system error does not exceed +-10/sup 0/C during steady state at 1340/sup 0/C.

  6. Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

  7. System design description for the whole element furnace testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, G.A. [Fluor Daniel Northwest (United States); Marschman, S.C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); MacFarlan, P.J. [Duke Engineering and Services Hanford, WA (United States); King, D.A. [SGN Eurisys Services Corp. (United States)

    1998-05-01

    This document provides a detailed description of the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Whole Element Furnace Testing System located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory G-Cell (327 Building). Equipment specifications, system schematics, general operating modes, maintenance and calibration requirements, and other supporting information are provided in this document. This system was developed for performing cold vacuum drying and hot vacuum drying testing of whole N-Reactor fuel elements, which were sampled from the 105-K East and K West Basins. The proposed drying processes are intended to allow dry storage of the SNF for long periods of time. The furnace testing system is used to evaluate these processes by simulating drying sequences with a single fuel element and measuring key system parameters such as internal pressures, temperatures, moisture levels, and off-gas composition.

  8. Design of a High Thermal Gradient Bridgman Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeCroy, J. E.; Popok, D. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) is a Bridgman-Stockbarger microgravity processing facility, designed and manifested to first fly aboard the second United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2) Space Shuttle mission. The AADSF was principally designed to produce high axial thermal gradients, and is particularly suitable for metals solidification experiments, including non-dilute alloys. To accommodate a wider range of experimental conditions, the AADSF is equipped with a reconfigurable gradient zone. The overall design of the AADSF and the relationship between gradient zone design and furnace performance are described. Parametric thermal analysis was performed and used to select gradient zone design features that fulfill the high thermal gradient requirements of the USMP-2 experiment. The thermal model and analytical procedure, and parametric results leading to the first flight gradient zone configuration, are presented. Performance for the USMP-2 flight experiment is also predicted, and analysis results are compared to test data.

  9. Microstructural changes on the reduction of imperial smelting furnace sinters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, F. T.; Hayes, P. C.

    1993-02-01

    The reduction reactions of Imperial Smelting Furnace (ISF) sinter microstructure were investigated in simulated zinc blast furnace conditions. Initial and partially reduced samples were examined using optical, electron-probe microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize the struc-tural and compositional changes occurring during the reduction reaction. The reaction mecha-nisms and reduction sequences for the various oxide phases within the sinter structure during reduction of ISF sinters under the system studied are discussed. The reduction of sinters resulted in the structural modification of zincite, franklinite, slag phases, and the formation of new oxide and metallic phases. The rate and sequence of these complex phase transformations were found to be dependent upon reduction time, temperature, and the reacting gas composition.

  10. Characterization of the structure of PM-16E furnace black

    SciTech Connect

    Varlakov, V.P.; Fialkov, A.S.; Smirnov, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the structure of PM-16E furnace black in the initial and graphitized states has been carried out with the aid of phase-contact electron microscopy with direct resolution of the carbon layers (002). A two-stage mechanism of the formation of furnace black has been confirmed. In the first stage there is a free-radical mechanism of the formation of the particles of carbon black. In the second stage the orientated deposition of pyrolysis products takes place on the particles and their aggregates in the form of planar carbon layers. The structure of graphitized carbon black is represented in the form of a hollow polyhedron the faces of which consist of packets of continuous closed carbon layers.

  11. DC Arc Plasma Furnace Melting of Waste Incinerator Fly Ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingzhou Chen; Yuedong Meng; Jiabiao Shi; Jing'an Kuang; Guohua Ni; Wei Liu; Yiman Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was melted using a set of direct current (DC) arc plasma furnace system for the first time in China. At a feed-rate of flying ash of 80 kg\\/h, the temperature at the gas outlet was above 1300°C. Dioxins in the off-gas were recorded as 0.029 ng I-TEQ\\/Nm3 (international toxic equivalent, I-TEQ), well below

  12. Plumbrook Hypersonic Tunnel Facility Graphite Furnace Degradation Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1999-01-01

    A recent rebuild revealed extensive degradation to the large graphite induction furnace in the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF). This damage to the graphite blocks and insulating felt is examined and modeled with thermochemical equilibrium codes. The primary reactions appear to be with water vapor and the nitrogen purge gas. Based on these conclusions, several changes are recommended. An inert purge gas (e.g. argon or helium) and controlling and monitoring water vapor to about 10 ppm should decrease the damage substantially.

  13. Phosphorus Purifing Effect of Blast Furnace Slags in Sewage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Huang; Haihong Xu

    2009-01-01

    The paper focus on purifying phosphorus by batch and column experiment and researching phosphorus removal theory of blast furnace slags. The content includes the following main parts: experiment method and procedure, results and discussion and conclusion. The results indicated: the phosphorus removal rate of solution containing 10 mg\\/L P is above 85% with 2.5 g BF slags, at 25°C. The

  14. Phosphorus removal by electric arc furnace steel slag and serpentinite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandra Drizo; Christiane Forget; Robert P. Chapuis; Yves Comeau

    2006-01-01

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag and serpentinite were tested in columns either alone or mixed with limestone to determine their capacity to remove phosphorus (P) from a solution containing initially 20mg P\\/L (for 114 days) than 400mg P\\/L (for 21 days). EAF steel slag was nearly 100% efficient due to specific P adsorption onto metal hydroxides and precipitation of

  15. Sliding mode thermal control system for space station furnace facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Jackson; Yuri B. Shtessel

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the decoupled control of the nonlinear, multi-input-multi-output, highly coupled space station furnace facility (SSFF) thermal control system. Sliding mode control theory, a subset of variable-structure control theory, is employed to increase the performance, robustness, and reliability of the SSFF's currently designed control system. This paper presents the nonlinear thermal control system description and develops the sliding mode

  16. Crystallization mechanism and properties of a blast furnace slag glass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Fredericci; E. D. Zanotto; E. C. Ziemath

    2000-01-01

    The complex crystallization process of a Brazilian blast-furnace slag glass was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction (SAD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Three crystalline phases (merwinite, melilite and larnite) were identified after heat treatment between Tg (742°C) and the DSC crystallization peak (T=1000°C). Merwinite was identified

  17. Recovery of silica gel from blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizia Seggiani; Sandra Vitolo

    2003-01-01

    This work concerns a process for the recovery of silica gel from blast furnace slag. It consists of a leaching of the slag with H2SO4, separation of gypsum, precipitation of silica gel from the filtrate at pH 3.2, followed by the washing of the raw precipitate. The effect of the slag particle-size, the leaching time and the washing extent on

  18. Hydration of alkali-activated ground granulated blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Song; D. Sohn; H. M. Jennings; T. O. Mason

    2000-01-01

    The hydration of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) at 25 °C in controlled pH environments was investigated during 28 days of hydration. GGBFS was activated by NaOH, and it was found that the rate of reaction depends on the pH of the starting solution. The main product was identified as C-S-H, and, in the pastes with high pH, hydrotalcite

  19. Activation of blast furnace slag by a new method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bellmann; J. Stark

    2009-01-01

    Blast furnace slag is used as supplementary cementing material for the production of blended cement and slag cement. Its latently hydraulic properties can be activated by several methods. Most applications employ the use of high pH values in the pore solution (>13.0) to accelerate the corrosion of the glass network of the slag.It is shown in this work that activation

  20. Hydration of mechanically activated granulated blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh Kumar; Sanjay Kumar; S. Badjena; S. P. Mehrotra

    2005-01-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) is known to possess latent hydraulic activity, i.e., it shows cementitious properties when in contact with water over a long period of time. Results are presented in this article\\u000a to show that, in sharp contrast to published literature on the hydration of neat GGBFS, the complete hydration of slag is\\u000a possible in a short

  1. Autogenous shrinkage of concrete containing granulated blast-furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Lee; H. K. Lee; S. H. Lee; G. Y. Kim

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results and prediction model for the autogenous shrinkage of concrete made with various water-to-cementitious materials ratios (w\\/cm) ranging from 0.27 to 0.42 and granulated blast-furnace slag (BFS) in the range of 0% to 50% by mass of the total cementitious materials. Test results showed that BFS concrete exhibited greater autogenous shrinkage than ordinary concrete with

  2. Blast furnace slag as phosphorus sorbents — column studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Johansson

    1999-01-01

    Filter substrates that efficiently remove phosphorus (P) from wastewater can be used to optimise the nutrient removal by on-site wastewater treatment systems. A number of filter substrates have been investigated and the industrial by-product blast furnace slag has attracted attention as a promising substrate. To further evaluate the sorption and attenuation of PO43?, a column experiment was carried out under

  3. Hydrothermal solidification of blast furnace slag by formation of tobermorite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenzi Jing; F. Jin; T. Hashida; N. Yamasaki; H. Ishida

    2007-01-01

    Blast furnace water-cooled slag (BFWS) has been solidified using a hydrothermal processing method, in which the BFWS could\\u000a be solidified in an autoclave under saturated steam pressure (1.56 MPa) at 200 ?C for 12 h by the additions of quartz or coal\\u000a flyash. The tensile strength development was shown to depend on the formation of tobermorite and the packing state of the\\u000a formed

  4. Solar cells from high-purity arc-furnace silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Amick; J. P. Dismukes; R. W. Francis; L. P. Hunt; K. Larsen; K. Matthei; P. S. Ravishankar; A. Schei; M. Schneider; R. Sylvain

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented from a joint Elkem and Exxon research and development program having the goal of producing high efficiency solar cells from single crystalline ingot grown from low-cost, solar-grade silicon produced by the carbothermic reduction of pure silica in an arc furnace. Sources of Si0â were investigated from a purity standpoint, and then added together with Cblack\\/sucrose pellets to

  5. Investigations of voltage flicker in electric arc furnace power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Mendis; M. T. Bishop; J. F. Witte

    1996-01-01

    Operation of rapidly varying loads such as AC and DC arc furnaces in large industrial power systems will cause voltage flicker on the utility system. System planning will help in determining the available short-circuit duty at the point-of-common-coupling to keep the voltage flicker within acceptable limits. Perceptible flicker limit curves are useful in determining the amount of flicker in a

  6. Sorption of heavy metals on blast furnace sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. López-Delgado; C. Pérez; F. A. López

    1998-01-01

    An investigation into the use of sludge, a by-product of the steel industry, as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents was carried out. Gases produced in the blast furnace were washed and led towards a Dorr thickener where the sludge was obtained as a suspension. The sorption of Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ on

  7. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, B.L.

    1996-11-19

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer is disclosed comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. 5 figs.

  8. High volume gas carburizing furnace: Advanced design and practical results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Italo Montevecchi

    1980-01-01

    This article describes a hybrid or mixed continuous batch type furnace designed for high volume carburizing of tapered roller\\u000a bearings. Close control of the carburizing process was required to insure reproducible deep case depths of about 2.5 mm. Control\\u000a of the operating conditions by microprocessor is described and an appendix presents the development of the mathematical modeling\\u000a of the process

  9. A rotary arc furnace for aluminum dross processing

    SciTech Connect

    Drouet, M.G.; Meunier, J.; Laflamme, C.B.; Handfield, M.D.; Biscaro, A.; Lemire, C. [Hydro-Quebec, Shawinigan, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Dross, a major by-product of all processes involving molten aluminum, forms at the surface of the molten metal as the latter reacts with the furnace atmosphere. It generally represents 1 to 5 wt% of the melt, depending on the process, and contains on average about 50% free aluminum dispersed in an oxide layer. Since aluminum production is highly energy-intensive, dross recycling is very attractive from both the energy and the economic standpoints. The conventional recycling process using salt rotary furnaces is thermally inefficient and environmentally unacceptable because of the salt slags produced. Hydro-Quebec has developed and patented a new salt-free technology using a rotary furnace heated by an electric arc between two graphite electrodes, called DROSCAR{reg_sign}. A 600-kW pilot plant in operation at LTEE is in use to demonstrate the process. This process provides aluminum recovery rates for over 90%, using a highly energy efficient, environmentally sound production method. In 1994, 400 tons of aluminum dross were treated in this facility and several tests on various types of dross have also been conducted in early 1995. A report on the results will be presented.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from joss paper furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Jung, Ray-Chen; Wang, Ya-Fen; Hsieh, Lien-Te

    The emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified for two joss paper furnaces burning two kinds of joss papers (recycled paper made and virgin bamboo made). A cyclone and a wet scrubber were installed in series on one of the two furnaces. Particulate and gaseous PAHs were collected with a sampling system meeting the criteria of U.S. EPA Modified Method 5. Twenty-one species of PAH were analyzed by GC/MS. Individual PAH emission factors vary from less than 1 mg kg -1 fuel to several tens of mg kg -1 fuel. The total (sum of 21 compounds) and the carcinogenic PAH (benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3,-cd]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene) emission factors were not statistically different for the two furnaces and averaged 71.0 and 3.2 mg kg -1, respectively. The PAH profiles showed a predominance of naphthalene (58.1%), phenanthrene (11.7%) and fluorene (7.5%). Of the two joss papers examined, bamboo-made joss paper showed less emission in both particulate and gaseous PAHs. For particulate and gaseous PAHs, the removal efficiencies of total PAHs by the air pollution control devices were 42.5% and 11.7%, respectively. PAH emission factors in high airflow conditions were generally lower than those in low airflow condition.

  11. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  12. Adapting TPV for Use in a Standard Home Heating Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Randolph S.; Fraas, Lewis M.

    2007-02-01

    A novel TPV configuration will be presented that can fit into a standard home furnace cabinet. This system incorporates an externally faceted glass cylinder with a dichroic filter deposited on its outer surface and a GaSb IR cell array bonded to the outer surface on top of the filter. This cylindrical array is then surrounded with an envelope containing a low boiling point liquid for evaporative cooling. The liquid is in direct contact with the backside of the cell array. An air-cooled condenser is then mounted above the photovoltaic converter array. Evaporative cooling potentially allows a heat removal rate of 20 W/cm2. Additional novel features of this design are described. The goal is to design a cost-effective retrofit forced-air warm air furnace that can work either as a self-powered furnace or as a Combined Heat and Power appliance. In order to achieve low cost, the design point for the GaSb cell electric power density is 2.5 W/cm2.

  13. Apparatus for producing blast furnace coke by coal compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Brayton, W.E.; Fun, F.; Hendrickson, L.G.; Shoenberger, R.W.

    1981-03-24

    The method of producing blast furnace coke by (1) compacting a finely divided coal wherein at least about 60% by weight of the coal has a diameter of less than about 1/8 inch to form a coal compact, which compact immediately after removal from the compacting means comprises at least about 20% by weight of particles having a particle size of less than 1/4 inch in diameter; (2) breaking the thus formed compact such that the bulk density is sufficiently increased to be capable of conversion into coke suitable for use in large blast furnaces upon carbonization thereof; and (3) carbonizing the broken compact to thereby produce blast furnace coke having a minimum hardness of about 68 and a minimum stability of about 55. The compacting is preferably performed at a pressure equivalent to that achieved by passing the finely divided coal between rolls at a pressure applied to the coal of between about 20 and about 60 tons per lineal inch. Also preferably in the breaking step at least about 95% of the compacted coal is reduced to particle sizes rangi from about one inch to less than about 100 mesh. The invention also includes a system comprising a coal blender, a coal compactor, apparatus for breaking the formed coal compact, and a coking oven and apparatus for charging the broken compact into the oven.

  14. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  15. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the previous semi-annual technical progress report (April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001). During the current reporting period, additional balance of plant impact information was determined for one of the two tests. These additional balance-of-plant results are presented and discussed in this report. There was no other technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed.

  16. Time and Temperature Test Results for PFP Thermal Stabilization Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    COMPTON, J.A.

    2000-08-09

    The national standard for plutonium storage acceptability (standard DOE-STD-3013-99, generally known as ''the 3013 standard'') has been revised to clarify the requirement for processes that will produce acceptable storage materials. The 3013 standard (Reference 1) now states that ''Oxides shall be stabilized by heating the material in an oxidizing atmosphere to a Material Temperature of at least 950 C (1742 F) for not less than 2 hours.'' The process currently in use for producing stable oxides for storage at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) heats a furnace atmosphere to 1000 C and holds it there for 2 hours. The temperature of the material being stabilized is not measured directly during this process. The Plutonium Process Support Laboratories (PPSL) were requested to demonstrate that the process currently in use at PFP is an acceptable method of producing stable plutonium dioxide consistently. A spare furnace identical to the production furnaces was set up and tested under varying conditions with non-radioactive surrogate materials. Reference 2 was issued to guide the testing program. The process currently in use at the PFP for stabilizing plutonium-bearing powders was shown to heat all the material in the furnace to at least 950 C for at least 2 hours. The current process will work for (1) relatively pure plutonium dioxide, (2) dioxide powders mixed with up to 20 weight percent magnesium oxide, and (3) dioxide powders with up to 11 weight percent magnesium oxide and 20 weight percent magnesium nitrate hexahydrate. Time and temperature data were also consistent with a successful demonstration for a mixture containing 10 weight percent each of sodium and potassium chloride; however, the molten chloride salts destroyed the thermocouples in the powder and temperature data were unavailable for part of that run. These results assume that the current operating limits of no more than 2500 grams per furnace charge and a powder height of no more than 1.5 inches remain in effect, although deeper powder beds (up to 2 inches) also yielded temperatures of greater than 950 C for longer than 2 hours.

  17. Optimization of anthracite calcination process in a vertical electric arc furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Perron, J. [Alcan International Ltd., Jonquiere, Quebec (Canada); Bouvette, J.F. [Alcan Smelters and Chemicals, Jonquiere, Quebec (Canada); Dupuis, M. [GeniSim, Jonquiere, Quebec (Canada)

    1996-10-01

    Anthracite is used for cathode block manufacturing must be calcined prior to its use to eliminate volatile matter and reduce its electrical resistivity. Anthracite calcination in vertical electric arc furnaces is widely used in the industry. It is well known that this technology leads to a radial temperature gradient in the furnace which results in non-homogeneous calcined anthracite properties. Also, operation experience has shown that production of calcination furnaces can be difficult to stabilize if process changes occur, which may lead to variable quality of the calcined material. To optimize the calcination process, an improved control strategy and a mathematical model of Elkem-type electric arc furnace were developed. Using these, it was successfully demonstrated that temperature gradient in the furnace can be reduced and that furnace productivity can be substantially increased.

  18. Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed in situ from air and hydrocarbon gases

    SciTech Connect

    Stickels, C.A.; Mack, C.M.; Piepzak, J.A.

    1982-06-01

    Tests with air/hydrocarbon atmospheres in a Lindberg carburizing furnace using small steel stampings indicate that 1) butane-air blends, introduced directly into the furnace, form atmospheres suitable for carburizing, 2) the atmosphere's carbon potential is easily controlled by automatically regulating the inlet butane/air ratio to maintain a constant oxygen potential, 3) the free methane contents of butane-air and propane-air atmospheres are similar, but lower than that found in methane-air blends, 4) atmosphere CO contents are somewhat below equilibrium values because of hydrogen dilution caused by sooting in the furnace vestibule, and 5) at a given carbon potential, the amount of carburizing is the same for atmospheres formed from air and either methane, propane, or butane. In situ generation of furnace atmospheres for carburizing and neutral hardening from hydrocarbons and air introduced directly into the treatment furnace should result in substantial savings in the cost of furnace operation.

  19. Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements forResidential Gas Furnaces in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James E.; McNeil, Michael; Lutz, Jim

    2006-05-26

    This paper presents analysis of the life-cycle costs for individual households and the aggregate energy and economic impacts from potential energy efficiency improvements in U.S. residential furnaces. Most homes in the US are heated by a central furnace attached to ducts for distributing heated air and fueled by natural gas. Electricity consumption by a furnace blower is significant, comparable to the annual electricity consumption of a major appliance. Since the same blower unit is also used during the summer to circulate cooled air in centrally air conditioned homes, electricity savings occur year round. Estimates are provided of the potential electricity savings from more efficient fans and motors. Current regulations require new residential gas-fired furnaces (not including mobile home furnaces) to meet or exceed 78 percent annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE), but in fact nearly all furnaces sold are at 80 percent AFUE or higher. The possibilities for higher fuel efficiency fall into two groups: more efficient non-condensing furnaces (81 percent AFUE) and condensing furnaces (90-96 percent AFUE). There are also options to increase the efficiency of the furnace blower. This paper reports the projected national energy and economic impacts of requiring higher efficiency furnaces in the future. Energy savings vary with climate, with the result that condensing furnaces offer larger energy savings in colder climates. The range of impacts for a statistical sample of households and the percent of households with net savings in life cycle cost are shown. Gas furnaces are somewhat unusual in that the technology does not easily permit incremental change to the AFUE above 80 percent. Achieving significant energy savings requires use of condensing technology, which yields a large efficiency gain (to 90 percent or higher AFUE), but has a higher cost. With respect to electricity efficiency design options, the ECM has a negative effect on the average LCC. The current extra cost of this technology more than offsets the sizable electricity savings.

  20. Chaos control in DC arc furnaces powered by parallel DC-DC buck converters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gherman Lucian; Rusu Anghel Stela; Topor Marcel; Sergiu Mezinescu

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of chaos based control of the DC arc furnace operation. The chaos models for DC arc furnace have been proposed in several papers(1,2,3), but until now there is no reference to a control strategy concerning chaotic voltage variation in DC arc furnace operation. There is some practical application of chaos suppression for DC-DC converters. However the

  1. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow

    DOEpatents

    Pollock, G.G.

    1997-01-28

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

  2. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow

    DOEpatents

    Pollock, George G. (San Ramon, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

  3. Mathematical simulation of working processes in the furnace of a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoinishnikov, V. A.; Larkov, A. V.

    2009-01-01

    A software system developed for simulating and calculating boiler furnaces with circulating fluidized beds is described. The main principles on which the system is constructed are outlined, and the physical and mathematical models of processes in circulating fluidized bed furnaces are described together with the calculation algorithm. Results from a study of analyzing the effect the grinding fineness of initial fuel particles has on the processes in a circulating fluidized bed furnace are presented.

  4. Exergy analysis and efficiency evaluation for an aluminium melting furnace in a die casting plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Lee

    2003-01-01

    An aluminium melting furnace efficiency in a die casting plant was investigated using energy and exergy methods. Energy efficiency and exergy efficiency values were evaluated for the natural gas-fired furnace, and the efficiency improvement was analyzed before and after two new regenerative burners were installed on the furnace.\\u000aThe research analyzed and compared the environmental impacts attributable to the melting

  5. Analysis of candidate silicon carbide recuperator materials exposed to industrial furnace environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I. Federer; T. N. Tiegs; D. M. Kotchick; D. Petrak

    1985-01-01

    Several SiC ceramics were exposed to the combustion environment in six industrial furnaces to determine their corrosion resistance. The matrials were sintered-..cap alpha.. (Hexoloy SA), Sintride, recrystallized (NC-400), CVD SiC coated NC-400, siliconized (NC-430), reaction sintered (SC-X and KT), and SiâNâ-bounded (C\\/75 and CN-178). Tubes of these materials were exposed in two aluminum remelt furnaces, a forge furnace, a steel

  6. Prediction of the furnace heat absorption by utilizing thermomechanical analysis for various kinds of coal firing

    SciTech Connect

    Ishinomori, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kiga, T.; Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S.K.

    1999-07-01

    In order to predict the furnace heat absorption, which is sensitive to coal properties, an attempt to make a model universally applicable for any kind of pulverized coal fired boiler is in progress. First of all, the heat absorption rates on to furnace wall were surveyed for 600MWe pulverized coal fired boiler, and they were ranked into four levels by indicating a furnace heat absorption index (FHAI). Some ash composition is relatively well related to the FHAI, while a new index from thermomechanical analysis (TMA) offers a good prediction of the furnace heat absorption.

  7. Design, construction, and performance testing of an isothermal naphthalene heat pipe furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeehoon; Yuan, Yuan; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana-Andrea; Kang, Hwankook

    2014-09-01

    In this work, an isothermal naphthalene heat pipe furnace was developed to achieve uniformly radiant heating at temperature up to 300 °C. The startup, stability, and thermography tests were carried out to evaluate the uniform temperature zone of the furnace. The temperature variance of the uniform temperature zone was observed to be within ±1 °C along the axis of the furnace. To illustrate its capabilities, the furnace was used to successfully sinter thin layers of copper nanoparticle on microporous copper wicks and form biporous wicks, materials of high interest to advanced heat pipe technologies.

  8. Theoretical and experimental foundations for preparing coke for blast-furnace smelting

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Podkorytov; A.M. Kuznetsov; E.N. Dymchenko; V.P. Padalka; S.L. Yaroshevskii; A.V. Kuzin [Enakievo Metallurgical Plant, Enakievo (Ukraine)

    2009-05-15

    This article examines the preparation of coke for blast-furnace smelting by a method that most fully meets the requirements of blast-furnace technology: screening of the -36 mm fraction, the separation of nut coke of the 15-36 mm fraction, and its charging into the furnace in a mixture with the iron-ore-bearing charge components. An analysis is made of trial use of coke of the Premium class on blast furnace No. 5 at the Enakievo Metallurgical Plant. Use of this coke makes it possible to reduce the consumption of skip coke by 3.2-4.1%.

  9. Modeling energy consumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S. homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James; Dunham-Whitehead, Camilla; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James

    2004-02-01

    In 2001, DOE initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is their cost-effectiveness to consumers. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This report describes calculation of equipment energy consumption (fuel and electricity) based on estimated conditions in a sample of homes that are representative of expected furnace and boiler installations. To represent actual houses with furnaces and boilers in the United States, we used a set of houses from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey of 1997 conducted by the Energy Information Administration. Our calculation methodology estimates the energy consumption of alternative (more-efficient) furnaces, if they were to be used in each house in place of the existing equipment. We developed the method of calculation described in this report for non-weatherized gas furnaces. We generalized the energy consumption calculation for this product class to the other furnace product classes. Fuel consumption calculations for boilers are similar to those for the other furnace product classes. The electricity calculations for boilers are simpler than for furnaces, because boilers do not provide thermal distribution for space cooling as furnaces often do.

  10. Design, construction, and performance testing of an isothermal naphthalene heat pipe furnace.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeehoon; Yuan, Yuan; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana-Andrea; Kang, Hwankook

    2014-09-01

    In this work, an isothermal naphthalene heat pipe furnace was developed to achieve uniformly radiant heating at temperature up to 300?°C. The startup, stability, and thermography tests were carried out to evaluate the uniform temperature zone of the furnace. The temperature variance of the uniform temperature zone was observed to be within ±1?°C along the axis of the furnace. To illustrate its capabilities, the furnace was used to successfully sinter thin layers of copper nanoparticle on microporous copper wicks and form biporous wicks, materials of high interest to advanced heat pipe technologies. PMID:25273770

  11. Rohm and Haas: Furnace Replacement Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Rohm and Haas's Deer Park, Texas, chemical plant reduced natural gas usage and energy costs by replacing inefficient furnace equipment.

  12. Application of high performance industrial furnace to heat treatment technology and its possibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimoto, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Hitoshi

    1999-07-01

    Gas firing heat treatment furnaces in which the protective gas must be sent for the purpose of non-decarburization and non-oxidation or carburizing are heated up indirectly by means of radiant tube burners, and regenerative burners are applied to the radiant tube combustion for High Performance Heat Treatment Furnace. As the result of regenerative burner application, the surface temperature distribution at the radiant tube is unified low in comparison with conventional radiant tube burners. This means that the radiant tube burner can be applied to high temperature heat treatment furnaces (e.g., brazing furnace, sintering furnace) in place of the electric heating. As regards the direct firing heat treatment furnace, the agitating effect of the regenerative burner combustion by the high-cycle switched operation and the high nozzle speed of the combustion air, can make the furnace compact and simple even at the lower furnace temperature. And the development of the gas-rich firing for the regenerative burner can extend the application range of High Performance Heat Treatment Furnace to the field of the non-oxidation treatment. (e.g., copper bright annealing etc.)

  13. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

  14. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

  15. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

  16. Modeling of pulverized coal combustion processes in a vortex furnace of improved design. Part 1: Flow aerodynamics in a vortex furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasinsky, D. V.; Salomatov, V. V.; Anufriev, I. S.; Sharypov, O. V.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Anikin, Yu. A.

    2015-02-01

    Some results of the complex experimental and numerical study of aerodynamics and transfer processes in a vortex furnace, whose design was improved via the distributed tangential injection of fuel-air flows through the upper and lower burners, were presented. The experimental study of the aerodynamic characteristics of a spatial turbulent flow was performed on the isothermal laboratory model (at a scale of 1 : 20) of an improved vortex furnace using a laser Doppler measurement system. The comparison of experimental data with the results of the numerical modeling of an isothermal flow for the same laboratory furnace model demonstrated their agreement to be acceptable for engineering practice.

  17. Vitrification of fly ash by swirling-flow furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tadashi [Kobe Steel Ltd., Nishi, Kobe (Japan). Engineering and Machinery Div.] [Kobe Steel Ltd., Nishi, Kobe (Japan). Engineering and Machinery Div.

    1996-12-31

    According to the amendment of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law of 1992, fly ash is regulated as Specially controlled waste and wide attention is now being paid to the melting and vitrification treatment of fly ash, which can reduce overall volume, detoxify and recover sources. Kobe Steel has demonstrated its operation using a swirling-flow furnace and has perfected a vitrification technique. The demonstration test has confirmed stable melting, high decomposition ratio of dioxins and the soundness of the slag. Kobe Steel has successfully developed a new technique for heightening the quality of slag and a new process for the heavy metals recovery from collected dust.

  18. Variation in coke properties within the blast-furnace shop

    SciTech Connect

    E.N. Stepanov; I.I. Mel'nikov; V.P. Gridasov; A.A. Stepanova [OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), Magnitogorsk, (Russian Federation)

    2009-04-15

    In active production at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), samples of melt materials were taken during shutdown and during planned repairs at furnaces 1 and 8. In particular, coke was taken from the tuyere zone at different distances from the tuyere tip. The mass of the point samples was 2-15 kg, depending on the sampling zone. The material extracted from each zone underwent magnetic separation and screening by size class. The resulting coke sample was averaged out and divided into parts: one for determining the granulometric composition and mechanical strength; and the other for technical analysis and determination of the physicochemical properties of the coke.

  19. Graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Graphite Electrode DC Arc Furnace (DC Arc) is a high-temperature thermal process, which has been adapted from a commercial technology, for the treatment of mixed waste. A DC Arc Furnace heats waste to a temperature such that the waste is converted into a molten form that cools into a stable glassy and/or crystalline waste form. Hazardous organics are destroyed through combustion or pyrolysis during the process and the majority of the hazardous metals and radioactive components are incorporated in the molten phase. The DC Arc Furnace chamber temperature is approximately 593--704 C and melt temperatures are as high as 1,500 C. The DC Arc system has an air pollution control system (APCS) to remove particulate and volatiles from the offgas. The advantage of the DC Arc is that it is a single, high-temperature thermal process that minimizes the need for multiple treatment systems and for extensive sorting/segregating of large volumes of waste. The DC Arc has the potential to treat a wide range of wastes, minimize the need for sorting, reduce the final waste volumes, produce a leach resistant waste form, and destroy organic contaminants. Although the DC arc plasma furnace exhibits great promise for treating the types of mixed waste that are commonly present at many DOE sites, several data and technology deficiencies were identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) regarding this thermal waste processing technique. The technology deficiencies that have been addressed by the current studies include: establishing the partitioning behavior of radionuclides, surrogates, and hazardous metals among the product streams (metal, slag, and offgas) as a function of operating parameters, including melt temperature, plenum atmosphere, organic loading, chloride concentration, and particle size; demonstrating the efficacy of waste product removal systems for slag and metal phases; determining component durability through test runs of extended duration, evaluating the effect of feed composition variations on process operating conditions and slag product performance; and collecting mass balance and operating data to support equipment and instrument design.

  20. Post combustion trials at Dofasco`s KOBM furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Farrand, B.L.; Wood, J.E.; Goetz, F.J.

    1992-12-31

    Post combustion trials were conducted at Dofasco`s 300 tonne KOBM furnace as part of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. The purpose of the project work was to measure the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) of the post combustion reaction in a full size steelmaking vessel. A method of calculating PCR and HTE using off gas analysis and gas temperature was developed. The PCR and HTE were determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE.

  1. Production of blast furnace coke via novel briquetting system

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore, F.W.; Wasson, G.E.

    1982-12-07

    A method of making high strength coke briquettes suitable for use as blast furnace coke comprising, (A) providing coal, (B) heating the coal at a temperature at or above the softening point of the coal to form partially carbonized char, (C) cooling the partially carbonized char below the softening point of the coal, (D) mixing the cooled partially carbonized char and tar to form a mixture of tar and partially carbonized char, (E) briquetting the mixture of tar and partially carbonized char to form briquettes of tar and partially carbonized char, (F) calcinating the briquettes to form high strength briquettes.

  2. Marble-type glass based on blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkisov, P.D.; Smirnov, V.G.; Trifonova, T.E.; Sergeev, Yu.N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the recovery and use of blast furnace wastes as coloring agents in the manufacture of imitation marble glass. The slags consist of a series of metal oxides each of which is tested for the color it generates when reacted and annealed with the molten glass. Comparative tests were also run against non-waste coloring agents and it was found that the waste-derived colorants were equal or superior both in process behavior and in generating the appropriate optical properties in the finished glass.

  3. The Universal Multizone Crystallizator (UMC) Furnace: An International Cooperative Agreement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watring, D. A.; Su, C.-H.; Gillies, D.; Roosz, T.; Babcsan, N.

    1996-01-01

    The Universal Multizone Crystallizator (UMC) is a special apparatus for crystal growth under terrestrial and microgravity conditions. The use of twenty-five zones allows the UMC to be used for several normal freezing growth techniques. The thermal profile is electronically translated along the stationary sample by systematically reducing the power to the control zones. Elimination of mechanical translation devices increases the systems reliability while simultaneously reducing the size and weight. This paper addresses the UMC furnace design, sample cartridge and typical thermal profiles and corresponding power requirements necessary for the dynamic gradient freeze crystal growth technique. Results from physical vapor transport and traveling heater method crystal growth experiments are also discussed.

  4. Innovative Technologies for a Space Station Microgravity Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, B.; Crouch, M.; Farmer, J.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several Innovations were developed for a high gradient directional solidification vacuum furnace with quench capability, called the Quench Module Insert. The QMI hot zone employs advanced heater elements in a multiple zone configuration and uses a novel instrumentation approach for temperature control. A fiber interface material provides a low friction, high heat extraction interface between a reconfigurable cold zone and the science sample. The quench utilizes a metal phase change to provide rapid, resource efficient quenching of science samples. This paper provides conceptual details and performance data on these innovations.

  5. A study of slag freezing in metallurgical furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, Fernando

    Many smelting and slag-cleaning furnaces operate with cooling systems designed to freeze a slag layer over the refractory to protect it. The fluid flow and heat transfer conditions associated with the freeze layer and mushy zones are poorly understood. This study was conducted to understand the chill layer formation and heat transfer that is required to design cooling systems in pyrometallurgical operations where a slag layer is required to protect the furnace wall. The freeze layer formation and heat transfer in mushy zones were experimentally study at room temperature in a 2-dimensional square cavity differentially heated, using an aqueous solution of calcium chloride to simulate the slag. Reasonable similarity with conditions encountered with copper and nickel smelting systems was achieved (Pr ? 50 and Ra ? 108, in the laminar-turbulent transition). Measurements of velocities were made with the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. The freeze layer development was tracked using a digital camera. Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of the mean flow using a finite control volume technique with a fixed domain method were also made of the unsteady fluid flow and heat transfer problem. It was found that the macro solidification process is well described using an improved model for high molecular viscosity in the mushy zone. Solid front growth, isothermal profiles, velocity profiles and heat transfer through the walls showed good agreement between the PIV and DNS results. Experimental and numerical velocity profiles close to the freeze layer show a parabolic behaviour in the vertical velocity profile which is completely different from the calculation of heat transfer using a sharp interface model. The reason for this is attributed to the effects of the mushy zone with a high viscosity and high shear stresses acting on that area. In Part III of this Thesis, effects of slag viscosity temperature relationship were analysed with a two-dimensional mathematical model of an electric smelting furnace. The model was focused on the fluid dynamics of the molten slag and the effects over the formation of magnetite-rich slag layer over the walls. The results of the previous experimental and mathematical work, Part I and II, were used to describe mathematically the freeze layer formation on the furnace walls using a fixed-grid model from a highly viscous liquid. Chemical composition of the slag was taken into account through the effect of the viscous activation energy as well the solidus and liquidus temperatures. The results show that the flow pattern is strongly affected in the areas of high viscosity. The results are discussed in terms of heat flux over the refractories and their effects on cooling system design.

  6. Slip-Free Rapid Thermal Processing in Single Wafer Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Woo Sik; Fukada, Takashi; Kitayama, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Enjoji, Keiichi; Sunohara, Kiyoshi

    2000-06-01

    Defect generation phenomena in Si wafers during atmospheric pressure rapid thermal processing (RTP) in a single wafer furnace (SWF) are investigated as a function of temperature, process time, wafer handling method and speed. The size, shape and spatial distribution of crystal defects generated during RTP were characterized using an optical microscope and X-ray topography. The wafer handling method and speed are found to be very important in controlling defect generation during RTP under given process conditions. Highly reproducible slip-free RTP results were achieved in 200-mm-diameter Si wafers processed at 1100°C for 60 s (up to 5 times) by optimizing the wafer handling method and speed.

  7. Producing pins for the spirals of tubular furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pogodin, N.M.; Buneev, B.G.; Cherpillo, E.P.; Izmailov, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    At the All-Union Scientific-Research and Design Institute for Chemical and Petroleum Apparatus Building Technology a progressive method for producing the pins for the spirals of tubular furnaces with the use of high-production equipment built into the production line and maximum mechanization of the operations performed has been developed. Points out that in developing the method the possibility was provided for producing the pins from noncold drawn bars, shearing the blanks for the pins and machining the bevels on them by a continuous method, operation of the equipment for the basic operations automatically or semiautomatically, and providing the maximum tool life for the purpose of reducing auxiliary work for sharpening and replacing it and adjusting the equipment. Notes that the introduction of the method developed for producing pins for the spirals of tubular furnaces in Staraya Russa Chemical Machinery Plant has made it possible to significantly increase their production. The annual saving from the introduction of this progressive method of production of pins is about 110,000 rubles with costs for its introduction of 15,000 rubles.

  8. Collection and conversion of silicon furnace waste gas into higher value products: Phase 3, 6 MW pilot plant dc closed furnace technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dosaj, V.D.

    1995-01-01

    The construction and operation of a 6 MW, closed dc furnace for smelting silicon was the primary focus of Phase 3. A 6 MW, dc closed furnace pilot plant was built in East Selkirk, Manitoba, Canada. The furnace is equipped with world`s most modern automatic control system used to control and monitor the process variables and operational data. This control system is suitable for commercial applications and could be used with either closed or open dc furnaces for smelting silicon or ferrosilicon. The construction was started in September 1990, and the facility was operational within 18 months. Following successful commissioning of the pilot plant in June 1992, twelve smelting test campaigns were conducted through November 1994.

  9. Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part I. The effect of air-propane ratio on furnace atmosphere composition and the amount of carburizing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Stickels; C. M. Mack; M. Brachaczek

    1980-01-01

    Gas carburizing experiments were conducted in a batch-type sealed quenched furnace at 843 and 927 °C using furnace atmospheres produced by reacting propane and air within the furnace chamber. With low, constant gas flow rates it is shown that the amount of carburizing varies regularly with air-propane ratio. Furnace atmosphere composition was monitored as a function of temperature and air-propane

  10. Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part I. The effect of air-propane ratio on furnace atmosphere composition and the amount of carburizing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Stickels; C. M. Mack; M. Brachaczek

    1980-01-01

    Gas carburizing experiments were conducted in a batch-type sealed quenched furnace at 843 and 927 ?C using furnace atmospheres\\u000a produced by reacting propane and air within the furnace chamber. With low, constant gas flow rates it is shown that the amount\\u000a of carburizing varies regularly with air-propane ratio. Furnace atmosphere composition was monitored as a function of temperature\\u000a and air-propane

  11. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the seventh reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO3 removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the previous report (April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002). During the current period, there was no technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed. The project period of performance was extended to allow the conduct of testing of another SO{sub 3} control technology, the sodium bisulfite injection process. However, these additional tests have not yet been conducted.

  12. Generation of voltage fluctuations in power systems with DC arc furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Stade; H. Schau; M. Malsch; J. Hunermund; S. Prinz

    1998-01-01

    There is an increasing use of high-power DC arc furnaces for scrap melting all over the world. Onsite measurements in several steel plants with these furnaces have shown that flicker relevant voltage fluctuations cannot be prevented. The first reason is the time-varying need of reactive power. Also dynamic compensators like TCRs are often not able to avoid considerable flicker, particularly

  13. Load characteristics analysis of AC and DC arc furnaces using various power definitions and statistic method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsu-Hsun Fu; Chi-Jui Wu

    2002-01-01

    Various power definitions and statistics are used to investigate the load characteristics of AC and DC electric arc furnaces, which occupy a major percentage of the Taiwan power system. It is very important to note their effects on power quality. It is also desirable to have an alternative way to study their load behaviors. Since AC and DC arc furnaces

  14. Reduction of undesired harmonic components in a steel industrial plant with DC electric arc furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arash Dehestani Kolagar; Abbas Shoulaie

    2011-01-01

    An electric arc furnace is a nonlinear, time varying load with stochastic behavior, which gives rise to harmonics, interharminics and voltage flicker. Since a power system has finite impedance, the current distortion caused by a DC electric arc furnace load creates a corresponding voltage distortion in the supply lines. The current and voltage harmonic distortion causes several problems in electrical

  15. An analysis of the work and technical and economic characteristics of forward-current furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. N. Kiselev; N. A. Pankova

    1983-01-01

    analyze their efficiency. The question of the economies in production space and the possibilities of rapidly exchanging the glass when dc furnaces are used have been considered previously in [2]. In the present article we analyze the technical and economic factors and the thermal efficiency of f.c. furnaces; a comparison is made between them and the corresponding factors of normal

  16. 75 FR 41102 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Furnace Fans: Reopening of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ...Framework Document for Furnace Fans, Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-STD-0011...SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Please...SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Telephone...SW., Washington, DC, 20585- 0121. Telephone...energy use standards for furnace fans on June 3,...

  17. Multipurpose electric furnace system. [for use in Apollo-Soyuz Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazelsky, R.; Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Johnson, R. A.; Mchugh, J. P.; Foust, H. C.; Piotrowski, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    A multipurpose electric furnace system of advanced design for space applications was developed and tested. This system is intended for use in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Program. It consists of the furnace, control package and a helium package for rapid cooldown.

  18. Design and application research on DCS used for large glass furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingyu Yang; Xianghua Yao; Ren Shi

    2004-01-01

    Large glass furnace is a complex control object with the characters of process complexity and many control parameters. How to improve its integrative control level is the key problem of control system design. A suit of distributed control system used for large glass furnace is presented in this paper. System structure and reliability design methods are issued. The control strategy

  19. A control system for dc arc furnaces for power quality improvements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Lazaroiu; D. Zaninelli

    2010-01-01

    The dc arc furnaces are highly disturbing loads for transmission and distribution networks. The present paper proposes and implements an ac–dc converter control system for power quality improvements taking into account both flicker levels and harmonics at the point of common coupling. Different set of parameters for the proportional–integral controller are investigated for optimizing the dc arc furnace power quality

  20. Space Station Furnace Facility. Experiment/Facility Requirements Document (E/FRD), volume 2, appendix 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kephart, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The function of the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is to support materials research into the crystal growth and solidification processes of electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics. To support this broad base of research requirements, the SSFF will employ a variety of furnace modules operated, regulated, and supported by a core of common subsystems. Furnace modules may be reconfigured or specifically developed to provide unique solidifcation conditions for each set of experiments. The SSFF modular approach permits the addition of new or scaled-up furnace modules to support the evolution of the facility as new science requirements are identified. The SSFF Core is of modular design to permit augmentation for enhanced capabilities. The fully integrated configuration of the SSFF will consist of three racks with the capability of supporting up to two furnace modules per rack. The initial configuration of the SSFF will consist of two of the three racks and one furnace module. This Experiment/Facility Requirements Document (E/FRD) describes the integrated facility requirements for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Integrated Configuration-1 (IC1) mission. The IC1 SSFF will consist of two racks: the Core Rack, with the centralized subsystem equipment, and the Experiment Rack-1, with Furnace Module-1 and the distributed subsystem equipment to support the furnace.

  1. Load Characteristics Analysis of AC and DC Arc Furnaces Using Various Power Definitions and Statistic Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H. Fu; C. J. Wu

    2002-01-01

    Various power definitions and statistics are used to investigate the load characteristics of ac and dc electric arc furnaces, which occupy a major percentage of the Taiwan power system. It is very important to note their effect on power quality. It is also desired to have an alternative way to study their load behaviors. Since ac and dc arc furnaces

  2. Development and study of out-of-furnace treatment of steel using DC arc heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protasov, A. V.; Bershitskii, I. M.

    2012-12-01

    The results of pilot studies performed to design dc ladle-furnace units are presented. The design, equipment composition, and technical characteristics of 15-t dc ladle-furnace units, which are intended for complex treatment of steel at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum and were designed by VNIIMETMASh, TsNIIChERMET, VNIIETO, and some other enterprises, are described.

  3. Predicting the performance of submerged arc furnace with varied raw material combinations using artificial neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veerendra Singh; Vilas Tathavadkar; S. Mohan Rao; K. S. Raju

    2007-01-01

    Raw materials play a vital role in the ferrochrome production using submerged arc furnace route. Optimized combination of different raw materials can improve the performance of furnace and minimize the power consumption. This process carries numerous process complexities as well as feed variation, which make it difficult to model mathematically. Artificial neural network known as a black box approach is

  4. Dynamic structures in variance based data reconciliation adjustments for a chromite smelting furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Eksteen; S. J. Frank; M. A. Reuter

    2002-01-01

    The characterisation of furnace product materials is discussed in relation to their impact on the material balance reconciliation. It was found that the melts from open arc furnaces, as used in the chromite smelting industry, is not as homogenous as assumed. It was found that, for silicon in the ferrochrome melt, the spatial composition variance could be related to the

  5. High temperature furnaces for small and large angle neutron scattering of disordered materials

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    725 High temperature furnaces for small and large angle neutron scattering of disordered materials and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments respectively. They are vacuum furnaces with a thin of the neutron scattering pattern. It also requests measure- ments at very high k values k= 4;sin 0, 2 0 being (1

  6. Evaluation of PFP Furnace Systems for Thermal Stabilization of Washed High Chloride Plutonium Oxide Items

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Christopher M.; Elmore, Monte R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2002-12-17

    High chloride content plutonium (HCP) oxides are impure plutonium oxide scrap which contains NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and/or CaCl2 salts at potentially high concentrations and must be stabilized at 950 C per the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000. The chlorides pose challenges to stabilization because volatile chloride salts and decomposition products can corrode furnace heating elements and downstream ventilation components. A high-temperature furnace (same make and model as used at the RMC at Plutonium Finishing Plant) and the associated offgas system were set up at PNNL to identify system vulnerabilities and to investigate alternative materials and operating conditions that would mitigate any corrosion and plugging of furnace and offgas components. The key areas of interest for this testing were the furnace heating elements, the offgas line located inside the furnace, the offgas line between the furnace and the filter/knockout pot, the filter/knockout pot, the sample boat, and corrosion coupons to evaluate alternative materials of construction. The evaluation was conducted by charging the furnace with CeO2 that had been impregnated with a mixture of chloride salts (selected to represent the expected residual chloride salt level in washed high chloride items) and heated in the furnace in accordance with the temperature ramp rates and hold times used at PFP.

  7. Hydrometallurgical process for zinc recovery from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Oustadakis; P. E. Tsakiridis; A. Katsiapi; S. Agatzini-Leonardou

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is the first of a series of two articles dealing with the development of an integrated process for the recovery of zinc from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), a hazardous industrial waste generated in the collection of particulate material during steelmaking process via electric arc furnace. Part I presents the EAFD characterization and its leaching process by

  8. A mathematical model of slagging of the furnace of the pulverized-coal-firing boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernetskii, M. Yu.; Alekhnovich, A. N.; Dekterev, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    The mathematical model of furnace slagging integrated into the Sigma-Flow program system of computational hydrodynamics has been developed; this system makes it possible to calculate aerodynamics, processes of heat-and-mass exchange, and combustion processes in complex technological facilities, including pulverized-coal-firing furnaces.

  9. A thermodynamic analysis of a steel production step carried out in the ladle furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ünal Çamdali; Murat Tunç; Feridun Dikeç

    2001-01-01

    In this study, analysis of the second law of thermodynamics is applied to the ladle furnace in an important alloyed and special steel production company in Turkey. Taking liquid steel and stack gas temperatures and production time of liquid steel in the ladle furnace into consideration, actual work, irreversibility and exergy efficiency have been calculated. In general, exergy efficiency is

  10. DESTRUCTION AND REMOVAL OF POHCS (PRINCPAL ORGANIC HAZARDOUS CONSTITUENTS) IN IRON MAKING BLAST FURNACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    At least one steel company utilizes organic waste liquids as a heat and carbon content source to partially replace the coke that is used to charge the blast furnaces. The waste liquids fed to the blast furnace are likely to contain hazardous constituents. Temperature and residenc...

  11. A new time domain voltage source model for an arc furnace using EMTP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Varadan; E. B. Makram; A. A. Girgis

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a new time domain Controlled Voltage Source (CVS) model for an arc furnace using the Electro Magnetic Transients Program (EMTP). The developed model is based on a piece wise linear approximation of the v-i characteristic of the arc furnace load. In addition to this, the novelty of this simulation technique lies in the fact that the active

  12. The Diffusion of Innovation among Steel Firms: The Basic Oxygen Furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Oster

    1982-01-01

    The major innovation in the steel industry in the post-World War II period has been the replacement of the open hearth furnace by the basic oxygen furnace. This article examines the diffusion of this important innovation at a more micro level than previous studies by focusing on plant behavior. Wide differences in the characteristics of the plants owned by a

  13. Environmental stresses and strains in an extreme situation: the repair of electrometallurgy furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Charuel; M. Mercier-Gallay; M. Stoklov; S. Romazini; A. Perdrix

    1993-01-01

    Summary Whenever a continuous casting furnace breaks down, the emergency intervention necessary to repair it has to be carried out under exceptional environmental conditions caused mainly by heat, as the furnace must be stopped for the shortest possible time. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the stresses and strains to which boilermakers are subjected during the replacement of an

  14. Numerical Simulation of Furnace Slag Waste Heat Recovery in Fluidized Bed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baojin Yang; Jianxiang Guo; Fang Liu; Yuanyuan Du

    2010-01-01

    Furnace slag is discharged at the temperature of about 1500 K, it is obviously significative to recover the waste heat for energy saving. In this paper, a new-style fluidized bed is adopted to recover the waste heat after the liquid furnace slag has been granulated into particles for power generation. Considering the complexity of the flow field and the temperature

  15. Investigation of crown refractories after service in two-tank and open-hearth furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Aleinikov; V. I. Evtifeev; V. D. Khelemendik; G. I. Antonov; P. L. Podpalov; P. D. Pyatikop; A. S. Kulikova; R. S. Naumova

    1979-01-01

    As the workers became familiar with the furnace, its technicoeconomic indices improved. The stability of the furnace increased by 38.2% in 1974 and 34.2% in 1975 over 1973 (the first year of operation), while the output increased and the oxygen consumption decreased. The time between repairs increased, but the standstills for repairs to masonry and hearth increased. The improvement of

  16. Computational model for estimation of refractory wear and skull deposition in blast furnace hearth wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhinav Mithal; Toma Hentea

    2010-01-01

    Knowing how much refractory remains in the hearth is critical to the assessing when a blast furnace hearth needs to be relined. In this work a computational model coupled with a finite state machine and a neural network pattern recognition block has been developed for the blast furnace hearth to determine the thickness of two refractory layers and formation of

  17. Heat transfer to walls of a circulating fluidized-bed furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Nag

    1996-01-01

    A critical review of information on heat transfer between the furnace and enclosing walls of a circulating fluidized-bed boiler is presented. A good understanding of the heat transfer process was impeded for some time by a lack of detailed information about the hydrodynamics of fast fluidization. With improvement in the understanding of the furnace hydrodynamics a clearer picture of the

  18. Neural networks for the identification and control of blast furnace hot metal quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. R Radhakrishnan; A. R Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    The operation and control of blast furnaces poses a great challenge because of the difficult measurement and control problems associated with the unit. The measurement of hot metal composition with respect to silica and sulfur are critical to the economic operation of blast furnaces. The measurement of the compositions require spectrographic techniques which can be performed only off line. An

  19. A state space condition monitoring model for furnace erosion prediction and replacement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Christer; W. Wang; J. M. Sharp

    1997-01-01

    The paper develops a replacement action decision aid for a key furnace component subject to condition monitoring. A state space model is used to predict the erosion condition of the inductors in an induction furnace in which a measure of the conductance ratio (CR) is used to indirectly assess the relative condition of the inductors, and to guide replacement decisions.

  20. Identification and modelling of a three phase arc furnace for voltage disturbance simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Collantes-Bellido; T. Gomez

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a new arc furnace model which copes with the two main voltage disturbances normally associated with arc furnaces: voltage fluctuations and harmonics. The model is based on the stochastic nature of the electric arc current-voltage characteristic. The model has been estimated from measurements made in two actual electric plants. Although a single-phase model has been normally proposed,