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1

Radiation characteristics of electric furnace arcs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric arc furnace uses the energy radiated from high-power electric arcs to melt steel. A disadvantage of the process is that the intense radiation can erode the refractory lining of the furnace. Empirical work has shown that refractory erosion depends on arc power and voltage and their product has been used as an index of this erosion. However, no

Munroe

1982-01-01

2

Radiation characteristics of electric furnace arcs  

SciTech Connect

The electric arc furnace uses the energy radiated from high-power electric arcs to melt steel. A disadvantage of the process is that the intense radiation can erode the refractory lining of the furnace. Empirical work has shown that refractory erosion depends on arc power and voltage and their product has been used as an index of this erosion. However, no theoretical basis has hitherto been presented for the refractory erosion index. This paper considers the electric arc as an ideal cylindrical radiator and proposes a theoretical basis for the observed empirical relationship. A similar index of arc energy into the furnace hearth is also derived. Computer simulation results are presented for a typical 80-ton electric arc furnace.

Munroe, M.M.

1982-08-01

3

Heat transfer in boiler furnace, taking account of the scattering of radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of zonal calculation of the radiational heat transfer in scattering media is outlined. The influence of scattering of the radiation on the heattransfer coefficient in a furnace is considered.

Zhuravlev, Yu. A.; Spichak, I. V.; Protsailo, M. Ya.; Blokh, A. G.

1983-05-01

4

Soot processes in a methane-fueled furnace and their impact on radiation heat transfer to furnace walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soot process in a vertical methane-fueled furnace supplied with fuel through its primary inlet located at its bottom, and with air via two opposing horizontal air jets perpendicular to the direction of fuel supply, are studied numerically under different operating conditions. Results show that increasing the inlet temperature of fuel and\\/or air favors soot generation, hence enhances thermal radiation to

Salah-Addin B Al-Omari; Kazuhiko Kawajiri; Takashi Yonesawa

2001-01-01

5

Investigation of spectral radiation heat transfer and NO{sub x} emission in a glass furnace  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive radiation heat transfer model and a reduced NOx kinetics model were coupled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and then used to investigate the radiation heat transfer, pollutant formation and flow characteristics in a glass furnace. The radiation model solves the spectral radiative transport equation in the combustion space of emitting and absorbing media, i.e., CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and soot and emission/reflection from the furnace crown. The advanced numerical scheme for calculating the radiation heat transfer is extremely effective in conserving energy between radiation emission and absorption. A parametric study was conducted to investigate the impact of operating conditions on the furnace performance with emphasis on the investigation into the formation of NOx.

Golchert, B.; Zhou, C. Q.; Chang, S. L.; Petrick, M.

2000-08-02

6

Radiative heat transfer in PC (pulverized coal) furnaces burning deeply cleaned coals  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional spectral radiation transport model has been developed for assessing the impact of burning deeply cleaned coals on heat absorption patterns in pulverized coal (PC) furnaces. Spectroscopic data are used for calculating the absorption coefficients of participating gases. Mie theory is invoked for determining the extinction and scattering efficiencies of combustion particulates. The optical constants of char, ash and soot are obtained from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. 8 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

1990-05-01

7

Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 Hubei (China)

2011-02-15

8

New high temperature furnace for structure refinement by powder diffraction in controlled atmospheres using synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

A low thermal gradient furnace design is described which utilizes Debye{endash}Scherrer geometry for performing high temperature x-ray powder diffraction with synchrotron radiation at medium and high energies (35{endash}100 keV). The furnace has a maximum operating temperature of 1800 K with a variety of atmospheres including oxidizing, inert, and reducing. The capability for sample rotation, to ensure powder averaging, has been built into the design without compromising thermal stability or atmosphere control. The ability to perform high-resolution Rietveld refinement on data obtained at high temperatures has been demonstrated, and data collected on standard Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder is presented. Time-resolved data on the orthorhombic to rhombohedral solid state phase transformation of SrCO{sub 3} is demonstrated using image plates. Rietveld refinable spectra, collected in as little as 8 s, opens the possibility of performing time-resolved structural refinements of phase transformations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Margulies, L.; Kramer, M.J.; McCallum, R.W. [Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-3020 (United States); Kycia, S. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Haeffner, D.R.; Lang, J.C. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Goldman, A.I. [Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-3020 (United States)

1999-09-01

9

Measurements of the flame emissivity and radiative properties of particulate medium in pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnaces by image processing of visible radiation  

SciTech Connect

Due to the complicated processes for coal particles burning in industrial furnaces, their radiative properties, such as the absorption and scattering coefficients, which are essential to make reliable calculation of radiative transfer in combustion computation, are hard to be given exactly by the existing methods. In this paper, multiple color image detectors were used to capture approximately red, green, and blue monochromatic radiative intensity images in the visible wavelength region, and the flame emissivity and the radiative properties of the particulate media in three pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnaces were got from the flame images. It was shown that as the load increased, the flame emissivity and the radiative properties increased too; these radiative parameters had the largest values near the burner zone, and decreased along the combustion process. Compared with the combustion medium with a low-volatile anthracite coal burning in a 670 t/h boiler, the emissivity and the absorption coefficient of the medium with a high-volatile bituminous coal burning in a 1025 t/h boiler were smaller near the outlet zone, but were larger near the burner zone of the furnace, due to the significant contribution of soot to the radiation. This work will be of practical importance in modeling and calculating the radiative heat transfer in combustion processes, and improving the technology for in situ, multi-dimensional visualization of large-scale combustion processes in coal-fired furnaces of power plants. 18 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

Chun Lou; Huai-Chun Zhou; Peng-Feng Yu; Zhi-Wei Jiang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

2007-07-01

10

Concurrent Measurement of 2-D Temperature Distributions and Radiative Properties of Pulverized-coal-fired Flame in a 670 t/h Boiler Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both temperature distributions and radiative properties play important roles in boilers and furnaces. Based on radiative imaging models, the 2-D temperature distribution and radiative properties can be simultaneously reconstructed from the boundary radiative information detected by image detectors. In this paper, the 2-D temperature distributions and radiative properties of pulverized-coal-fired flame in three typical cross-sections of a 670 t/h boiler furnace were measured. At the same time, the particles in the three cross-sections of the furnace were sampled and then, the chemical compositions, shapes and size distributions of the particles were given. The experimental results showed that the measured 2-D temperature can be used in combustion diagnosis, and the radiative properties in the burner area of the furnace are larger than those in the outlet of the boiler furnace. The value of measured radiatvie properties is proportional with the carbon content in sampled particles. The radiative properties of smooth ash are smaller while those of porous char are larger.

Lou, Chun; Zhou, Huai-Chun

2007-06-01

11

Furnace Combustion and Radiation Characteristics of Methanol and a Methanol/Coal Slurry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental facility has been built to study the combustion of methanol and a slurry of methanol plus 5% coal in an environment similar to industrial and utility boilers. The furnace is a horizontal water cooled cylinder, 20 cm in diameter by one mete...

W. L. Grosshandler

1977-01-01

12

Prediction of a Turbulent Non-Premixed Natural Gas Flame in a Semi-Industrial Scale Furnace using a Radiative Flamelet Combustion Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixedness-reactedness flamelet combustion model coupled with a comprehensive radiation heat transfer model based on the\\u000a discrete transfer method of solution of the radiative transport equation is applied for the simulation of a 3 MW non-swirling\\u000a turbulent non-premixed natural gas flame in the experimental furnace at the International Flame Research Foundation. In the\\u000a calculation, turbulence is represented by the standard k????

T. Mahmud; S. K. Sangha

2010-01-01

13

Tube furnace  

DOEpatents

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA); Frohwein, Eugene J. (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Bowen, David W. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

14

Tube furnace  

DOEpatents

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

1990-12-31

15

Tube furnace  

DOEpatents

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

1990-01-01

16

Quartz Liner Tube Inside Tube Furnace  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the American Physical Society, gives a brief description of a furnace at Kansas State University that is used in semiconductor research. An image shows heat radiation from the quartz liner in this furnace, which is used in silicon-doping experiments.

2008-09-10

17

A Possible Macroscopic-Photo-Catalysis Mechanism in Solar Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the experimental results of Chen et al. to use the solar furnace and medium frequency induction furnace to extract boron impurity from metallurgical silicon, we propose a strong radiation catalysis mechanism to explain the difference of reaction rates in these two furnaces. The postulate assuming the photons striking on the material not only increase the thermal energy of

Tsohsiu Ho; Cheng-Rui Qing; Ying-Tian Chen

2011-01-01

18

Mathematical modeling of thermal operating regimes of electric resistance furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A physicomathematical model making it possible to calculate thermal regimes of electric resistance furnaces has been proposed. The model is suitable for description of linings and heated products of different types. It includes, as components, the following models: those of thermal-radiation transfer in the furnace’s workspace, of nonstationary heating of target products, of nonstationary heating of the furnace lining, and of external heat exchange of the furnace’s enclosing structures. The distinctive features of a numerical method for solution of the proposed model are discussed. An example of calculation of a chamber electric resistance furnace for the cases where it is lined with fireclay brick and lightweight fibrous materials is discussed. It is shown that replacement of the lining by a fibrous one improves the thermal operating efficiency for this type of furnace 2-2.5 times.

Grinchuk, P. S.

2010-03-01

19

Application of Surface Combustion Technology to Sintering Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infrared radiation burners and luminous wall burners are known as burners which provide a uniform high-temperature radiation surface. However, their application to industrial furnaces is extremely limited. Accordingly, a new type of surface combustion bur...

M. Ikeda M. Morita S. Kawakami T. Nishitani T. Ochiai

1990-01-01

20

Combustion space modeling of an aluminum furnace  

SciTech Connect

Secondary aluminum production (melting from aluminum ingots, scraps, etc.) offers significant energy savings and environmental benefits over primary aluminum production since the former consumes only five percent of the energy used in the latter process. The industry, however, faces technical challenges of further improving furnace melting efficiency and has been lacking tools that can help understand combustion process in detail and that will facilitate furnace design. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has played increasingly important roles in evaluating industrial processes. As part of a larger program run by SECAT, a CFD model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to simulate fuel combustion, heat transfer (including thermal radiation), gaseous product flow (mainly CO2 and H2O), and production/transport of pollutant species/greenhouse gases in an aluminum furnace. Using this code, the surface heat fluxes are calculated and then transferred to a melt code. In order to have a high level of confidence in the computed results, the output from the code will be compared and validated against in-furnace measurements made in the Albany furnace. Once validated, the combustion code may be used to perform inexpensive parametric studies to investigate methods to optimize furnace performance. This paper will present results from the combustion modeling of an aluminum furnace as well as results from several parametric studies.

Golchert, Brian M. (ANL); Zhou, C.Q. (Purdue University Calumet, Hammond, IN); Quenette, Antoine (ANL).; Han, Quinyou (ORNL).; King, Paul E.

2005-02-01

21

Application of the Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases model (SLWSGG) to the calculation of radiative heat transfer in steel reheating furnaces firing on low heating value gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (SLWSGG) model is applied to calculate the gaseous radiative properties of the aero- or oxy-combustion products of low heating value gases issued from steel making process such as Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as well as of high heating value gases such as Coke Oven Gas (COG) and conventional Natural Gas (NG). The comparison of total emissivities shows that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is in very good agreement with the Hottel and Sarofim's database. The 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is then integrated into AnsysFluent® Discrete Ordinates method under User Defined Function and CFD simulations are performed using these combined models. The simulations are done, with full combustion-radiation coupling, for steel reheating furnaces firing on three types of gases: BFG, COG and NG. The results are compared with the simulations realized with the 1-gray-gas WSGG model available in AnsysFluent®. The comparison shows that the 1-gray-gas WSGG model highly overestimates the steel discharging temperature as compared to the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model. Significant temperature differences are observed between the two radiative models, i.e. 116°C, 55°C and 67°C for the BFG, COG and NG cases, respectively. It can be concluded that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model should be used to calculate the radiation heat transfer in large industrial furnaces with more accuracy not only for low heating value gases such as BFG but also for high heating value gases such as COG and NG.

Nguyen, P. D.; Danda, A.; Embouazza, M.; Gazdallah, M.; Evrard, P.; Feldheim, V.

2012-06-01

22

Electromelt furnace evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electromelt furnace was designed, built and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high.

Reimann, G. A.; Welch, J. M.

1981-09-01

23

Electromelt furnace evaluation  

SciTech Connect

An electromelt furnace was designed, built, and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high.

Reimann, G.A.; Welch, J.M.

1981-09-01

24

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

25

A Furnace Temperature Regulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis.-By making the heating coil of an electric furnace one arm of a wheatstone bridge, and combining this with a galvanometer regulator, thus keeping constant the resistance of the coil, we can, regardless of variations in the current supply, and with no attention, maintain constant the temperature of furnaces not too directly influenced by the temperature of the room, or

Walter P. White; Leason H. Adams

1919-01-01

26

Salt Bath Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A salt bath furnace is basically a ceramic or metal container filled with molten salt into which work is immersed for either heating or cooling. The furnace contains salt such as nitrates, nitrites, caustic soda, chlorides, carbonates, and cyanide. Mixtures of salt are selected to give a specific temperature range and a desired treatment (or lack of treatment) to the

Gordon W. Anderson

1974-01-01

27

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME 2. HEAVY-OIL AND COAL-FIRED FURNACES AND THE EVALUATION OF RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes Phase II of a research program, the overall objective of which was to specify burner design criteria for minimum pollutant emissions from both pulverized-coal- and residual-fuel-oil-fired combustors. Phase II included both furnace investigations and the evalu...

28

Advanced steel reheat furnace  

SciTech Connect

Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1997-10-01

29

High-temperature carbon-furnace thermometer  

SciTech Connect

A thermometer for monitoring temperatures between 1500 and 2600/sup 0/K in industrial carbon furnaces is described. The instrument uses a calibrated broadband radiation sensor and incorporates features to minimize optical path attenuations which limit temperature measurement accuracy in practice. Errors can be substantially reduced to near instrument calibration uncertainty (+-1%) with an enclosed windowless optical path to a blackbody target.

Smith, D.D.

1982-01-01

30

Exothermic Furnace Module.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An exothermic furnace module is disclosed for processing materials in space which includes an insulated casing and a sample support, carried within the casing which supports a sample container. An exothermic heat source includes a plurality of segments of...

R. M. Poorman

1982-01-01

31

Franklin Furnace Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those not in the know, the phrase "Franklin Furnace" might sound like a type of 19th century heating device. In fact, the Franklin Furnace organization has been dedicated to the proposition that avant-garde art is a very worthwhile endeavor, and their delightful website presents fine information about their work, and about the world of avant-garde art more generally. Based in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, the organization started their work in 1976, and their website offers a nice timeline and introductory essay that documents their own history. Moving along, visitors will definitely want to look over their "Archives" area, which contain a number of online exhibitions and video interview with artists who have worked with Franklin Furnace over the years. Finally, the site also contains a "Scholarly Stuff" section, which features essays on the Furnace and some of the interesting archival techniques they have used to preserve avant-garde art for future generations.

32

High temperature furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

Borkowski, Casimer J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-08-03

33

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace in Red Room Within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

34

34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace operator on platform measures temperature inside bottle car. Looking southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

35

Improved graphite furnace atomizer  

DOEpatents

A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

Siemer, D.D.

1983-05-18

36

A Possible Macroscopic-Photo-Catalysis Mechanism in Solar Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the experimental results of Chen et al. to use the solar furnace and medium frequency induction furnace to extract boron impurity from metallurgical silicon, we propose a strong radiation catalysis mechanism to explain the difference of reaction rates in these two furnaces. The postulate assuming the photons striking on the material not only increase the thermal energy of the molecules of reactants but also lower down the energy barrier of the reaction to speed up the chemical reaction. It is believed the photon catalysis mechanism is universal in most of high temperature chemical reactions and looking forward to more evidences for the postulate proposed in this article.

Ho, Tsohsiu; Qing, Cheng-Rui; Chen, Ying-Tian

2011-05-01

37

Blast furnace reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vast a dvances h ave b een m ade in blast-furnace t echnology d uring t he p ast two decades through p lant t rials and plant d evelopments a ssisted by research to provide b etter u nderstanding of physical and chemical w orkings of the blast f urnace. T he f ields of research have i ncluded

E. T. Turkdogan

1978-01-01

38

Mathematical modeling of an aluminum casting furnace combustion chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model has been developed for the combustion chambers of aluminum casting furnaces by combining the fluid flow\\u000a code PHOENICS with a zone model for the radiative heat transfer analysis and a simplified flame model. It offers flexibility\\u000a in specifying the size and the combustion and heat transfer characteristics of the furnace. Thus, the model can be used to

T. Bourgeois; R. T. Bui; A. Charette; Y. S. Kocaefe

1989-01-01

39

Tritium extraction furnace  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of apparatus for heating an object such as a nuclear target bundle to release and recover hydrogen and contain the disposable residue for disposal. The apparatus comprises an inverted furnace, a sleeve/crucible assembly for holding and enclosing the bundle, conveying equipment for placing the sleeve onto the crucible and loading the bundle into the sleeve/crucible, a lift for raising the enclosed bundle into the furnace, and hydrogen recovery equipment including a trap and strippers, all housed in a containment having, negative internal pressure. The crucible/sleeve assembly has an internal volume that is sufficient to enclose and hold the bundle before heating; the crucible`s internal volume is sufficient by itself to hold and enclose the bundle`s volume after heating. The crucible can then be covered and disposed of, the sleeve, on the other hand, can be reused.

Heung, L.K.

1992-12-31

40

Blast furnace stove control  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

1998-12-31

41

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection  

SciTech Connect

Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

NONE

1998-09-30

42

Mathematical Modeling of Pottery Production in Different Industrial Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional process for pottery production was analyzed in this work by developing a fundamental mathematical model that simulates the operation of rustic pottery furnaces as employed by natives of villages in Michoacán, Mexico. The model describes radiative heat transfer and fluid flow promoted by natural convection, phenomena that determine the operation of these furnaces. An advanced radiation model called the “Discrete Ordinates Model” was implemented within a commercial computational fluid dynamics software. Process analysis was performed to determine the effect of the design variables on the quality of the pottery pieces and on energy efficiency. The variables explored were: (a) Geometric aspect ratio between diameter and height of the furnace ( D/H) and (b) Refractory thickness ( L). The model was validated using experimental temperature measurements from furnaces located in Santa Fe and Capula, Mexico. Good agreement was obtained between experimental and numerically calculated thermal histories. It was found that furnaces with high aspect ratio D/H and with thick refractory bricks promote thermal uniformity and energy savings. In general, any parameter that increases the conductive thermal resistance of the wall furnace isolates better, and helps energy savings. Operating conditions that provide the smallest thermal gradients and lowest energy consumption are given.

Ramírez Argáez, Marco Aurelio; Huacúz, Salvador Lucas; Trápaga, Gerardo

2008-10-01

43

HIGH TEMPERATURE MICROSCOPE AND FURNACE  

DOEpatents

A high-temperature microscope is offered. It has a reflecting optic situated above a molten specimen in a furnace and reflecting the image of the same downward through an inert optic member in the floor of the furnace, a plurality of spaced reflecting plane mirrors defining a reflecting path around the furnace, a standard microscope supported in the path of and forming the end terminus of the light path.

Olson, D.M.

1961-01-31

44

Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model  

SciTech Connect

The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

Seymour Katz

2004-12-31

45

Glass: Rotary Electric Glass Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Compared to conventional gas-fired furnaces, the new rotary electric furnace will increase energy efficiency while significantly reducing air emissions, product turnaround time, and labor costs. As this informative new fact sheet explains, the thousand different types of glass optical blanks produced for the photonics industry are used for lasers, telescopes, cameras, lights, and many other products.

Recca, L.

1999-01-29

46

Blast furnace injection symposium: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 14 papers related to blast furnace injection issues. Topics include coal quality, coal grinding, natural gas injection, stable operation of the blast furnace, oxygen enrichment, coal conveying, and performance at several steel companies. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1996-12-31

47

High pressure furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01

48

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01

49

High temperature furnace  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes, in combination, a high temperature furnace having an outer shell and adapted for being mounted in an upright position, a temperature resistant lining, comprising a dome constructed of refractory bricks and located at the upper end of the lining, a first layer of firebricks having sufficient strength to support the dome and having the dome resting thereon, a layer of insulating cement inside of and adjacent to the shell, layers of firebricks between the cement and the first layer of firebricks, a second layer of freestanding refractory bricks located inside of the first layer of firebricks for withstanding the high temperature, the second layer comprising replaceable bricks and extending vertically above the bottom of the dome to permit expansion without any upward thrust to the dome, and castable insulation filling spaces between the layer of insulating cement and the dome and the other layers of bricks.

Dach, M.M.

1987-01-20

50

A new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more NMIs are realizing their primary scale themselves with fixed-point blackbodies as their reference standard. However, commercially available fixed-point blackbody furnaces of sufficient quality are not always easy to obtain. CHINO Corp. and NMIJ, AIST jointly developed a new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace. The new furnace has such features as 1) improved temperature uniformity when compared to previous products, enabling better plateau quality, 2) adoption of the hybrid fixed-point cell structure with internal insulation to improve robustness and thereby to extend lifetime, 3) easily ejectable and replaceable heater unit and fixed-point cell design, leading to reduced maintenance cost, 4) interchangeability among multiple fixed points from In to Cu points. The replaceable cell feature facilitates long term maintenance of the scale through management of a group of fixed-point cells of the same type. The compact furnace is easily transportable and therefore can also function as a traveling standard for disseminating the radiation temperature scale, and for maintaining the scale at the secondary level and industrial calibration laboratories. It is expected that the furnace will play a key role of the traveling standard in the anticipated APMP supplementary comparison of the radiation thermometry scale.

Hiraka, K.; Yamada, Y.; Ishii, J.; Oikawa, H.; Shimizu, T.; Kadoya, S.; Kobayashi, T.

2013-09-01

51

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

1994-06-14

52

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

53

Apparatus for cooling a vacuum furnace  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for cooling a vacuum furnace, comprising: (a) first means for injecting a first cooling gas into the furnace, (b) second means for injecting a second cooling gas into the furnace, (c) means for cooling the first and second cooling gases before injection into the furnace, (d) means for sensing the rate of change of temperature in the furnace, the sensing means being connected to a control means, the control means being operatively connected to the first and second injecting means, the control means being adapted to select the first or second cooling gas for injection into the furnace, and (e) means for venting the first or second cooling gases out of the furnace, wherein both of the first and second cooling gases are directed through the cooling means, into the furnace, and out of the furnace, in a non-recirculating path.

Obman, H.J.; Brodbeck, H.D.

1987-02-17

54

Batch Preheat for glass and related furnace processing operations  

SciTech Connect

The objectives that our development work addressed are: (1) Establish through lab tests a salt eutectic with a melting point of about 250 F and a working range of 250 to 1800 F. (2) Establish the most economical material of construction for the screened salt eutectics identified in the first objective. (3) Establish the material of construction for the salt heater liner. Objectives 2 and 3 were determined through corrosion tests using selected metallurgical samples. Successful completion of the above-stated goals will be incorporated in a heat recovery design that can be used in high temperature processes and furnaces, typical of which is the glass melting process. The process design incorporates the following unit operations: a vertical batch heater (whereby the batch flows down through tubes in a shell and tube exchanger; a molten salt eutectic is circulated on the shell side); a molten salt heater utilizing furnace flue gas in a radiation type heater (molten salt is circulated in the annular space between the inner and outer shells of the vertical heater, and flue gas passes from the furnace exhaust through the inner shell of the heater); a cantilever type molten salt circulating pump; and a jacketed mixer/conveyor to drive off moisture from the batch prior to feeding the batch to the vertical batch heater. Historically, radiation heaters, when applied to glass or fiberglass furnace recuperation, have experienced failures due to uneven heat flux rates, which increases internal stresses and spot overheating conditions. Low heat transfer coefficients result in requirements for large heat transfer surface areas in gas to gas or gas to air exchangers. Fouling is another factor that results in lower unit availability and reduced performance. These factors are accommodated in this process by the incorporation of several design features. The salt heater will be a vertical double wall radiation design, similar to radiation air heaters used in high temperature heat recovery. The unit utilizes an inner shell that the furnace exhaust gas passes through: this provides essentially a self-cleaning surface. Utilization of radiation air heaters in fiberglass furnaces has demonstrated that the inner shell provides a surface from which molten ash can drain down. The molten salt eutectic will be pumped through the annulus between this inner wall and the outer wall of the unit. The annular space tempering via the molten salt will promote more uniform expansion for the unit, and thereby promote more uniform heat flux rates. Heat transfer would be via radiation mainly, with a minor convective contributor.

Energy & Environmental Resources, Inc

2002-08-12

55

Signal oscillation and overcorrection in the determination of aluminum using the transversely heated graphite furnace with Zeeman background correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In certain situations, oscillating atomic and background signals were observed using the transversely heated graphite furnace (Perkin-Elmer 4100ZL) in the presence of large amounts of refractory matrix. It was found that the oscillation was relatively independent of the analytical wavelength. The general occurrence of oscillation indicates that it probably results from radiation emitted from the furnace wall and the platform,

Shida Tang; Patrick J. Parsons; Walter Slavin

1997-01-01

56

8.EE Fixing the Furnace  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Ivan�s furnace has quit working during the coldest part of the year, and he is eager to get it fixed. He decides to call some mechanics and furnace spe...

57

An analytical furnace model for optimizing aluminum melting furnaces  

SciTech Connect

An analytical furnace model, originally established by Essenhigh and Tsai, is developed and modified in this paper. The practical application of this modified model is to predict optimum furnace operating conditions, and has been verified by experimental tests conducted in the Experimental Research Furnace (ERF) at the Albany Research Center (ARC), U.S. Department of Energy. The development of the modified Essenhigh/Tsai model is based on melting and holding tests with two main assumptions: thermal conduction loss in aluminum melting process is the same as that in holding processes, and the heat loss through flue gases is lineally proportional to the melting rate. The former is reasonable because thermal conduction loss is small as compared with firing rate, while the latter is quite accurate as shown in the test results. Tests of aluminum melting were conducted in the ERF furnace where the combustion space volume was changed by varying the roof height. The relations between firing rate, heat absorption rate, melting rate, and energy efficiency were developed from the tests, and the optimum operating conditions under which maximum energy efficiency can be achieved were predicted. In addition, the effect of roof height on the energy efficiency was determined. This model could be a valuable tool in diagnostic analysis of day-to-day operations in aluminum melting.

Li, Tianxiang (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY); King, Paul E.; Hassan, Mohamed (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY); Kuwana, Kazunori (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY); Saito, Kozo (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY)

2005-02-01

58

SCC of Stainless Steel Furnace Tubes in a Heating Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some furnace tubes made of the austenitic stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti for heating crude oil exhibited leakage and were on fire in a refinery. Corrosion failure analysis was conducted to explore the cause of failure. Macro- and microexamination indicated th...

Z. Y. Zhu X. Zhou J. Gu W. Ke

1994-01-01

59

A thermal system model for a radiant-tube continuous reheating furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermal system mathematical model developed for a gas-fired radiant-tube continuous reheating furnace is discussed. The mathematical model of the furnace integrates submodels for combustion and heat transfer within the radiant tube with models for the furnace enclosure. The transport processes occurring in the radiant tube are treated using a one-dimensional scheme, and the radiation exchange between the load, the radiant-tube surfaces, and the furnace refractories are analyzed using the radiosity method. The continuous furnace operation is simulated under steady-state conditions. Model simulations of load surface temperature variation compare well with measurements in an industrial galvannealing furnace. The scope and flexibility of the model are assessed by performing extensive parametric studies using furnace geometry, material properties, and operating conditions as input parameters in the model and predicting the thermal performance of the furnace. The various parameters studied include the effects of load and refractory emissivities, load velocities, properties of the stock material, and variations in the radiant-tube designs.

Ramamurthy, H.; Ramadhyani, S.; Viskanta, R.

1995-10-01

60

A heat transfer model for the analysis of transient heating of the slab in a direct-fired walking beam type reheating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical heat transfer model for the prediction of heat flux on the slab surface and temperature distribution in the slab has been developed by considering the thermal radiation in the furnace chamber and transient heat conduction governing equations in the slab, respectively. The furnace is modeled as radiating medium with spatially varying temperature and constant absorption coefficient. The steel

Man Young Kim

2007-01-01

61

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to

V. Dosaj; M. D. Brumels; C. M. Haines; J. B. May

1991-01-01

62

Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

63

Crystal growth furnace with trap doors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use

Emanual M. Sachs; Brian H. Mackintosh

1982-01-01

64

Vacuum furnaces for heat treatment of tool steels (from foreign technology)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1320°C is made of molybdenum plates covered with ins~ulating material of h-~h-purity ceramic fiber. The inner chamber may also be lined with an insulating layer of fibrous graphite material. Radiation screens are used in both cases. The heating elements of low-voltage graphite rods in the standard furnace are placed so as to ensure an even temperature throughout the furnace. Single-chamber

L. G. Satanovskii

1978-01-01

65

Industrial furnace with improved heat transfer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an industrial furnace for heating work which emits volatiles during heating. It comprises a generally cylindrical, closed end furnace section defining a sealable heat transfer chamber for heating work disposed therein; fan means for directing furnace atmosphere as a swirling wind mass about the interior of the furnace section over a portion thereof; heat means for heating the wind mass within the fan chamber; and an incineration track formed as a circumferentially extending groove about the exterior of the furnace section and in heat transfer relationship with and situated at least to extend about a portion of the fan chamber.

Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

1992-07-07

66

Direct current, closed furnace silicon technology  

SciTech Connect

The dc closed furnace technology for smelting silicon offers technical operating challenges, as well as, economic opportunities for off-gas recovery, reduced electrode consumption, reduced reductant oxidation losses, reduced energy consumption, and improved silicon recovery. The 10 mva dc closed furnace is located in East Selkirk, Manitoba. Construction of this pilot plant was started in September 1990. Following successful commissioning of the furnace in 1992, a number of smelting tests have been conducted aimed at optimization of the furnace operation and the raw material mix. The operation of a closed furnace is significantly different from an open furnace operation. The major difference being in the mechanical movement of the mix, off-gas recovery, and inability to observe the process. These differences made data collection and analysis critical in making operating decisions. This closed furnace was operated by computer control (state of the art in the smelling industry).

Dosaj, V.D. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States); May, J.B. [Dow Corning Corp., Freeland, MI (United States); Arvidson, A.N. [Meadow Materials, Manitoba (Canada)

1994-05-01

67

Closure assembly for a furnace  

SciTech Connect

A closure assembly for an access opening in a furnace wall is described; the assembly comprising: a door shell; means for pivoting the door shell to the furnace wall; at least one shoulder formed on the shell; a clip angle having one leg portion extending over a face of the shoulder; bolt means extending through the one leg portion and the shoulder for securing the clip angle to the shoulder; an anchor member secured to another leg portion of the clip angle; a plug member having a portion extending in the shell, a recessed portion for receiving the shoulder, and a portion adapted to extend in the access opening when the door is closed; at least one opening extending through the plug member for receiving the anchor member; a cup extending in the opening and adapted to receive a corresponding anchor member; and a castable material extending in the cup and over the anchor member to secure the plug member to the shell.

Barkley, J.D.

1989-01-10

68

Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Wittle, J. Kenneth (Chester Springs, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1996-01-01

69

(Acceptance testing of the 150-kW electron-beam furnace)  

SciTech Connect

The travelers observed the acceptance testing of the 150-kW electron-beam (EB) furnace constructed by Leybold (Hanau) Technologies prior to disassembly and shipping. The testing included: (1) operation of the mold withdrawal system (2) vacuum pumping and vacuum chamber leak-up rates, (3) power stability at full power, (4) x-radiation monitoring at full power, and (5) demonstration of system interlocks for loss of water cooling, loss of vacuum, loss of power, and emergency shutdown. Preliminary training was obtained in furnace operation, EB gun maintenance, and use of the programmable logic controller for beam manipulation. Additional information was obtained on water-cooling requirements and furnace platform construction necessary for the installation. The information gained and training received will greatly assist in minimizing the installation and startup operation costs of the furnace.

Ohriner, E.K.; Howell, C.R.

1990-09-18

70

Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

1992-12-29

71

Crystal growth furnace with trap doors  

DOEpatents

An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

Sachs, Emanual M. (Watertown, MA); Mackintosh, Brian H. (Lexington, MA)

1982-06-15

72

Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces  

SciTech Connect

In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

2004-01-24

73

VAPOR SHIELD FOR INDUCTION FURNACE  

DOEpatents

This patent relates to a water-cooled vapor shield for an inductlon furnace that will condense metallic vapors arising from the crucible and thus prevent their condensation on or near the induction coils, thereby eliminating possible corrosion or shorting out of the coils. This is accomplished by placing, about the top, of the crucible a disk, apron, and cooling jacket that separates the area of the coils from the interior of the cruclbIe and provides a cooled surface upon whlch the vapors may condense.

Reese, S.L.; Samoriga, S.A.

1958-03-11

74

Refractories for lining blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The authors develop and introduce a technology for the production of chamotte kaolin refractories with a porosity of not more than 12% and a mass proportion of not less than 42% A1/sub 2/O/sub 3/ on the basis of chamotte from high-grade Polozhe kaolin, and also additions to the batch of finely milled mullite-corundum chamotte. Using the new technology, a batch of goods designated ShPD-42 was produced for lining the shafts, bosh, and upper parts of blast furnaces of large capacity.

Fedoruk, R.M.; Baksheeva, V.S.; Karyakina, E.L.; Khmelenko, T.P.; Pitak, N.V.

1986-01-01

75

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to the furnace. The off-gas from the furnace, consisting of by-product CO as well as volatiles from the feeds, pass through a venturi scrubber, where water is introduced to scrub out the fume from the furnace and cool the gas. The mixed scrubber water and off-gas pass into a centrifugal mist eliminator where the water and fume disengage from the gas. The fume slurry is passed through bag filters where the fume is separated from the water. The clean off-gas from the furnace was evaluated for its calorific value and evaluated for conversion to useful products. A number of silicon smelting tests were conducted during this program. Various levels of charcoal and coal mixtures were evaluated to determine the optimum mix. A low volatile coal was preferred over typical Blue Gem coal. The coal amount in the mix was maximized without compromising the smelting performance. A raw material mix consisting of 30% charcoal and 70% low volatile coal was determined to be an optimum mix for closed furnace operation. Silicon recoveries in the low nineties were demonstrated using this mix. Four quartz sources were also evaluated in the closed furnace. The closed furnace operation for silicon smelting was identified to offer significant advantages over an open furnace from the standpoint of reduced carbon oxidation losses, electrode consumption, electrical energy consumption and silicon yield improvement. Other advantages in addition to process off-gas recovery included improved safety from reduced heat and fume exposure, and improved pollution control to the environment. 1 ref.

Dosaj, V.; Brumels, M.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B. (Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States))

1991-01-01

76

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to the furnace. The off-gas from the furnace, consisting of by-product CO as well as volatiles from the feeds, pass through a venturi scrubber, where water is introduced to scrub out the fume from the furnace and cool the gas. The mixed scrubber water and off-gas pass into a centrifugal mist eliminator where the water and fume disengage from the gas. The fume slurry is passed through bag filters where the fume is separated from the water. The clean off-gas from the furnace was evaluated for its calorific value and evaluated for conversion to useful products. A number of silicon smelting tests were conducted during this program. Various levels of charcoal and coal mixtures were evaluated to determine the optimum mix. A low volatile coal was preferred over typical Blue Gem coal. The coal amount in the mix was maximized without compromising the smelting performance. A raw material mix consisting of 30% charcoal and 70% low volatile coal was determined to be an optimum mix for closed furnace operation. Silicon recoveries in the low nineties were demonstrated using this mix. Four quartz sources were also evaluated in the closed furnace. The closed furnace operation for silicon smelting was identified to offer significant advantages over an open furnace from the standpoint of reduced carbon oxidation losses, electrode consumption, electrical energy consumption and silicon yield improvement. Other advantages in addition to process off-gas recovery included improved safety from reduced heat and fume exposure, and improved pollution control to the environment. 1 ref.

Dosaj, V.; Brumels, M.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States)

1991-12-31

77

A recuperative gas fired forge furnace  

SciTech Connect

To overcome the heat deficit and oxidizing atmosphere problems and to reduce fuel consumption, a small gas forge furnace has been developed which incorporates recuperative heating; as the combustion air is drawn into the furnace it is preheated by passing it through a simple heat exchanger which is heated by the exhaust gases from the furnace. This recuperative heating principle is the same used by blast and open hearth furnaces but they typically employ complex heat exchangers, and extensive blowers and valving to direct the flow of the intake and exhaust gases. In the furnace described in this article a chimney is provided at the rear of the furnace and the air intake ducts pass through the chimney before reaching the venturi where the fuel gas is injected. Thermocouples were place in the air intake ducts and the temperature of the recuperated air was 1000 F. Based on data in the Mechanical Engineers Handbook (Industrial Heating Furnaces) fuel savings are directly related to the temperature of the preheated air. The theoretical saving in fuel with 800 F. combustion air is about 19%. The furnace is very quiet, since no blowers are used and the venturi is located in the center of a long tube. To control the furnace atmosphere and to help reduce heat loss, a close fitting swing away door has been incorporated, and the entire furnace is insulated with lightweight high performance ceramic insulation. The resulting furnace easily achieves forge welding temperatures, has an oxygen depleted atmosphere and has proven to be very effective and capable for small machine and hand forging operations. 6 figs.

Gunter, R.; Schuler, K.W.; Ward, R.L.

1989-01-01

78

50. Taken from highline; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. Taken from high-line; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is main blast furnace gas line from "C" furnace dust catcher; levy, slag hauler, removing slag. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

79

ELECTRODE EROSION IN SUBMERGED ARC FURNACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the electric arc in the consumption of electrodes in submerged arc furnaces has long been debated. The hostile environment in the furnace does not make direct measurement feasible, so simulation has been used to evaluate the arcs contribution to the erosion. Magnetofluiddynamic (MFD) electric arc simulations and a cathode \\/ anode sub-model developed in order to provide

G. Sævarsdóttir; H. Pálsson; M. Þ. Jónsson; J. A. Bakken

80

Combustion analysis of a vortex biomass furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vortex type biomass furnace was tested for converting corn cobs into thermal energy. The performance of the furnace was determined by a series of 13 tests. Two independent variables were studied: corn cob feeding rate, and air damper opening. Response surface method of analysis was used to statistically analyze the results of the test. The results showed that three

Wahby; M. F. I

1982-01-01

81

Glass Furnace Project: April-September 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Glass Furnace Project is to evaluate the use of joule-heated glass furnace, fitted with a Mound-developed offgas system, to reduce the volume of contaminated waste typical of that from nuclear power plants. As part of the project, sever...

K. Armstrong L. M. Klingler

1981-01-01

82

Blast furnace coal injection in China  

SciTech Connect

The development of blast furnace coal injection in China will be summarized. The improvements in the technical process for pneumatic conveying, injection feed control, distribution and combustion of pulverized coal will be covered. Ideas are also described concerning the use of oxy-coal technology in a blast furnace.

Zhou, J.G. (Ministry of Metallurgical Industry, Beijing (China). Central Iron and Steel Research Inst.)

1994-09-01

83

High temperature corrosion in aluminum reclamation furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar Turbines Incorporated, under contract to Gas Research Institute, has performed extensive materials testing in the stack of an aluminum furnace. A wide variety of stainless steels, superalloys, and advanced ceramics were tested under controlled conditions in the stack gases of an aluminum reclamation furnace and analyzed for resistance to those conditions. The materials selected for testing were chosen based

A. D. Russell; C. E. Smeltzer; M. E. Ward; C. J. Dobos; W. W. Liang

2008-01-01

84

Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors  

SciTech Connect

The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

2003-02-28

85

Cogeneration from glass furnace waste heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is disclosed an apparatus and method of recovering a portion of the waste heat produced in a high temperature industrial process, such as a glass melting furnace, where the furnace has at least a pair of regenerators which are alternately used to preheat the combustion air and serve as hot exhaust heat storage means. The hot exhaust gases from

Sturgill

1985-01-01

86

An intelligent ladle furnace control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an intelligent ladle furnace control system is presented. The main functions and system structure is introduced. The system applied combined artificial intelligent technology for ladle furnace heat balance calculation and steel temperature prediction, dynamic energy input optimization and intelligent electrode control. The application results achieved are given to demonstrate the capability or this intelligent control system

Sun Yanguang; Wang Daixian; Tao Baisheng; Yan Tao; Shi Yang; Fang Shubiao; Wang Yuanhou

2000-01-01

87

The d-c shaft furnace  

SciTech Connect

A recent projection of world steel production by process through the year 2000 illustrates a general consensus that electric arc furnace production will continue to increase and represent a greater proportion of total steel produced. State of the art technology is being applied to meet the increasing volume and quality demands with the continuing objectives being the production of high-quality product at the lowest possible cost. In this article, the integration of two state-of-the-art technologies into the d-c shaft furnace process is discussed: the direct current arc furnace; and scrap preheating. The d-c shaft furnace, with scrap preheating capability, provides the potential for not only major increases in production rate but also significant reductions in energy and electrode consumption in comparison with a conventional d-c furnace of similar physical and electrical characteristics.

Haissig, M. (Fuchs Systems Inc., Salisbury, NC (United States))

1994-05-01

88

Shougang No. 2 blast furnace enlargement  

SciTech Connect

Shougang is expanding to become a 10 million ton/year steel plant in 1995. In 1990, the capacity of Shougang No. 2 blast furnace was enlarged from 1,327 to 1,726 cu meters. The project consisted of building a new furnace on the old site while maintaining the operation of the old furnace. The project was completed in 188 calendar days, 3 days ahead of schedule. Shougang has a large, comprehensive technical force that includes design, construction and production. Most of the equipment and instrumentation, both mechanical and electrical, were fabricated by Shougang personnel. The future increase in capacity of No. 1, 3 and 4 blast furnaces will exceed that of No. 2 furnace.

Wang, Z.Z. (Shougang Iron and Steel Corp., Beijing (China))

1994-09-01

89

Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

This study has been supported by a consortium of nine industrial and governmental sponsors. Work was initiated on May 1, 1985 and completed August 31, 1989. The central objective of this work was to develop, evaluate and apply a practical combustion model for utility boilers, industrial furnaces and gasifiers. Key accomplishments have included: Development of an advanced first-generation, computer model for combustion in three dimensional furnaces; development of a new first generation fouling and slagging submodel; detailed evaluation of an existing NO{sub x} submodel; development and evaluation of an improved radiation submodel; preparation and distribution of a three-volume final report: (a) Volume 1: General Technical Report; (b) Volume 2: PCGC-3 User's Manual; (c) Volume 3: Data Book for Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Combustion Models; and organization of a user's workshop on the three-dimensional code. The furnace computer model developed under this study requires further development before it can be applied generally to all applications; however, it can be used now by specialists for many specific applications, including non-combusting systems and combusting geseous systems. A new combustion center was organized and work was initiated to continue the important research effort initiated by this study. 212 refs., 72 figs., 38 tabs.

Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.

1989-08-01

90

WEST (FRONT) OF FURNACE COMPLEX, INCLUDING STACKS, WITH CHARGING BRIDGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WEST (FRONT) OF FURNACE COMPLEX, INCLUDING STACKS, WITH CHARGING BRIDGE AND TRESSLE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

91

Optimization of the thermogauge furnace for realizing high temperature fixed points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermogauge furnace was commonly used in many NMIs as a blackbody source for calibration of the radiation thermometer. It can also be used for realizing the high temperature fixed point(HTFP). According to our experience, when realizing HTFP we need the furnace provide relative good temperature uniformity to avoid the possible damage to the HTFP. To improve temperature uniformity in the furnace, the furnace tube was machined near the tube ends with a help of a simulation analysis by "ansys workbench". Temperature distributions before and after optimization were measured and compared at 1300 °C, 1700°C, 2500 °C, which roughly correspond to Co-C(1324 °C), Pt-C(1738 °C) and Re-C(2474 °C), respectively. The results clearly indicate that through machining the tube the temperature uniformity of the Thermogage furnace can be remarkably improved. A Pt-C high temperature fixed point was realized in the modified Thermogauge furnace subsequently, the plateaus were compared with what obtained using old heater, and the results were presented in this paper.

Wang, T.; Dong, W.; Liu, F.

2013-09-01

92

Sintering UO2 and oxidation of UO2 with microwave radiation  

SciTech Connect

An improved method for preparing nuclear fuel pellets and recycling uranium dioxide utilizing microwave radiation wherein microwave induction furnaces replace conventional refractory-type sintering and shaker-air furnaces.

Holaday, V.D.; Thornton, T.A.

1983-06-21

93

Partnering and the WCI blast furnace reline  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, WCI Steel entered into a partnership agreement to perform a blast furnace reline. The reline included a complete rebrick from the tuyere breast to the furnace top including the tapholes. Also included was the replacement of the Paul Wurth top equipment from the receiving hoppers through the gearbox and distribution chute, a skip incline replacement, and installation of tilting runners and a casthouse roof. The bustle pipe and hot blast main were repaired. One stove was also replaced. The reline was accomplished in 36 days, wind to wind, which allowed for 29 days of construction inside the blast furnace proper.

Musolf, D.W. [WCI Steel, Inc., Warren, OH (United States)

1997-11-01

94

Standard operating procedure: Gas atmosphere MELCO brazing furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrogen and argon gas atmosphere furnace facility using electric furnaces is located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). This furnace system was acquired to handle smaller jobs with a more rapid response time than was possible with the larger furnaces. Accelerator- and experimental-related components best assembled by atmosphere brazing techniques are routinely processed by this facility

Waller

1988-01-01

95

Protection of arc furnace supply systems from switching surges  

Microsoft Academic Search

An arc furnace supply system consists of one or several furnace transformers connected to a larger supply transformer through cables and overhead lines. In a conventional arc furnace, controlled arc between three phase electrodes heats a scrap material to the melting temperature. Due to the nature of the metallurgical processes involved, arc furnace transformers are very frequently energized and de-energized

Oguz A. Soysal

1999-01-01

96

20. Detail, Furnace A, shows the drill used to tap ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Detail, Furnace A, shows the drill used to tap the furnace (at center left) and the 'mud gun' used to close it up with a clay plug (at lower right). Metal chute at center (next to drill) was used to clean out furnace prior to its abandonment. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

97

Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide  

SciTech Connect

A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

2012-03-13

98

Uranium casting furnace automatic temperature control development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of an automatic molten uranium temperature control system for use on batch-type induction casting furnaces is described. Implementation of a two-color optical pyrometer, development of an optical scanner for the pyrometer, determination of fur...

R. F. Lind

1992-01-01

99

Temperature measurement in fire test furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of errors associated with temperature measurement in fire endurance test furnaces has shown that conventionally used thermocouples are subject to large time constant errors in the first 20 minutes of a standard test.

Vytenis Babrauskas; Robert Brady Williamson

1978-01-01

100

BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

Unknown

1999-10-01

101

Low Cost Oxygen for Blast Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A low cost process is examined which provides oxygen enrichment of blast air for blast furnaces to increase steel production without increasing the steelmaking or final finishing facilities. The proposed process is designed to separate the oxygen from nit...

R. Jablin

1980-01-01

102

Materials Evaluations in an Experimental Blast Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven evaluation tests with blast furnace iron-bearing burden materials are described. The effects of pellet strength, fines in the burden, decreasing slag volume, pellet size, eliminating stone with superfluxed sinter, and eliminating stone by prefluxing...

P. L. Woolf

1984-01-01

103

A consortium approach to glass furnace modeling.  

SciTech Connect

Using computational fluid dynamics to model a glass furnace is a difficult task for any one glass company, laboratory, or university to accomplish. The task of building a computational model of the furnace requires knowledge and experience in modeling two dissimilar regimes (the combustion space and the liquid glass bath), along with the skill necessary to couple these two regimes. Also, a detailed set of experimental data is needed in order to evaluate the output of the code to ensure that the code is providing proper results. Since all these diverse skills are not present in any one research institution, a consortium was formed between Argonne National Laboratory, Purdue University, Mississippi State University, and five glass companies in order to marshal these skills into one three-year program. The objective of this program is to develop a fully coupled, validated simulation of a glass melting furnace that may be used by industry to optimize the performance of existing furnaces.

Chang, S.-L.; Golchert, B.; Petrick, M.

1999-04-20

104

Creating successful blast furnace refractory systems  

SciTech Connect

Successful lifetimes of the refractories utilized in the blast furnace are dependent on a variety of external factors such as operation, geometry, cooling capability, configuration and arrangement, as well as refractory properties. These external factors, as well as the properties required to withstand the main mechanisms of wear, combine to create the successful refractory system. These significant factors and properties are reviewed with the intention of providing guidelines required for successful refractory performance in the blast furnace.

Dzermejko, A.J. [UCAR Carbon Co., Inc., Columbia, TN (United States)

1995-07-01

105

Optical emission from a small scale model electric arc furnace in 250-600 nm region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical emission spectroscopy has been for long proposed for monitoring and studying industrial steel making processes. Whereas the radiative decay of thermal excitations is always taking place in high temperatures needed in steel production, one of the most promising environment for such studies are electric arc furnaces, creating plasma in excited electronic states that relax with intense characteristic emission in the optical regime. Unfortunately, large industrial scale electric arc furnaces also present a challenging environment for optical emission studies and application of the method is not straightforward. To study the usability of optical emission spectroscopy in real electric arc furnaces, we have developed a laboratory scale DC electric arc furnace presented in this paper. With the setup, optical emission spectra of Fe, Cr, Cr2O3, Ni, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, and MgO were recorded in the wavelength range 250-600 nm and the results were analyzed with the help of reference data. The work demonstrates that using characteristic optical emission, obtaining in situ chemical information from oscillating plasma of electric arc furnaces is indeed possible. In spite of complications, the method could possibly be applied to industrial scale steel making process in order to improve its efficiency.

Mäkinen, A.; Niskanen, J.; Tikkala, H.; Aksela, H.

2013-04-01

106

Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals

Shan-Wen Du; Wei-Hsin Chen; John A. Lucas

2010-01-01

107

Standard operating procedure: Gas atmosphere MELCO brazing furnace  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogen and argon gas atmosphere furnace facility using electric furnaces is located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). This furnace system was acquired to handle smaller jobs with a more rapid response time than was possible with the larger furnaces. Accelerator- and experimental-related components best assembled by atmosphere brazing techniques are routinely processed by this facility in addition to special heat treatment and bakeout heats. The detailed operation sequence and description of the MELCO furnace system are covered by this report. This document is to augment LA-10231-SOP, which describes the operation of the large furnace systems. 6 figs.

Waller, C.R.

1988-08-01

108

Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces  

DOEpatents

A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace. 5 figs.

Gorin, A.H.; Holcombe, C.E.

1994-07-26

109

Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

Brand, L.; Rose, W.

2012-10-01

110

High temperature furnace application of cryopumps  

SciTech Connect

The need to provide a water-free and low oxygen content insulating material for a long life thermal device made necessary a super clean vacuum furnace. The high throughput, large water capacity, and cleanliness of the cryopump seemed to make it an ideal choice for this application. The basic incompatibilities of a high temperature, 720/sup 0/C, furnace and the low temperature, 12/sup 0/K, cryopump were thoroughly investigated. After all the development pains, the performance of the completed system has been extensively investigated and is excellent. Cost comparisons are made with a duplicate diffusion pumped system.

McClellan, G.B.

1980-01-01

111

Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces  

DOEpatents

A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace.

Gorin, Andrew H. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01

112

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPENHEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPEN-HEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 AND CAST HOUSE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

113

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSEUP, IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSE-UP, IRON NOTCH IN CENTER. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

114

Energy Transfer in the Hearths of Submerged-Arc Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation on the transfer of energy by conduction in the hearths of submerged-arc furnaces is reported, the object being the development of a useful control parameter as an aid in the improvement of furnace performance. Preliminary investigations, ...

T. R. Curr P. L. van der Merwe G. A. Oosthuizen H. J. Griessel G. Salgado

1984-01-01

115

33. BOILER HOUSE FURNACE AND BOILER Close view of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. BOILER HOUSE - FURNACE AND BOILER Close view of the Dorward Engineering Company furnace and boiler which provided steam to the cooking retorts in the adjacent room. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

116

General view from north to south, showing brass melter, furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view from north to south, showing brass melter, furnace and crane. - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Foundry, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

117

46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...voltage stabilizer, specimen holder, specimen insertion device, and three thermocouples (a furnace thermocouple to measure furnace temperature, a surface thermocouple to measure temperature at the surface of a specimen, and a specimen...

2011-10-01

118

46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...voltage stabilizer, specimen holder, specimen insertion device, and three thermocouples (a furnace thermocouple to measure furnace temperature, a surface thermocouple to measure temperature at the surface of a specimen, and a specimen...

2012-10-01

119

INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER FURNACE NO. 2 SHOWING STEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT UNDER FURNACE NO. 2 SHOWING STEEL AND REFRACTORY BRICK SUPPORT SYSTEM. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

120

4. CLOSEUP VIEW INTO A REHEATING FURNACE IN THE No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. CLOSE-UP VIEW INTO A REHEATING FURNACE IN THE No. 2 FORGE SHOP. THE FURNACE IS MISSING ITS REFRACTORY BRICK LINING. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 2, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

121

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE SIZE FRACTIONS FROM GLASS MELTING FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this research was to identify the size fraction distribution of the various chemical constituents of glass furnace emissions. This would assist researchers in identifying emissions characteristic of glass furnaces; thus, providing design requirements for control te...

122

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RETECH'S PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE - VOLUME I  

EPA Science Inventory

A demonstration of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) was conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The furnace uses heat gen...

123

22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL CONSTRUCTION. CONCRETE PAD AT LEFT IS SITE OF FORMER FURNACE USED TO HEAT URANIUM BILLETS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

124

13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

125

12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

126

15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

127

14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

128

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF STEELMAKING FURNACE DUST DISPOSAL METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to examine the nature of steelmaking furnace residues and disposal techniques, and to assess potential problems associated with residue disposal, a potential multimedia environmental problem. Solubilization tests of 18 furnace residue samples s...

129

3. INSIDE BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT REGENERATIVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. INSIDE BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT REGENERATIVE BATCH FURNACES ON LEFT AND 5 TON CAPACITY CHARGING MACHINE ON RIGHT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

130

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE PIPE, CINDER NOTCH IN CENTER, SLAG RUNNER IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

131

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG RUNNERS & GATES IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

132

SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING BUILDINGS SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO LOCAL POWER GRID, PRIMARILY FOR ELECTRIC FURNACES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Bessemer Foundry, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

133

VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2 AND CARPENTRY SHOP, LOOKING WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2 AND CARPENTRY SHOP, LOOKING WEST - Chambers Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

134

INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE BUILDING, SHOWING PINCONNECTED FINK ROOF TRUSSES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE BUILDING, SHOWING PIN-CONNECTED FINK ROOF TRUSSES - Chambers Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 1, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

135

GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF BOTH FURNACE STACKS LOOKING SOUTHWEST (STACK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF BOTH FURNACE STACKS LOOKING SOUTHWEST (STACK NO. 1 TO LEFT, NO. 2 TO RIGHT) - Greenwood Furnace, East of McAlevy's Fort on State Route 305, McAlevys Fort, Huntingdon County, PA

136

Power Usage and Electrical Circuit Analysis for Electric Arc Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power usage in ultrahigh-powered electric arc furnaces requires considerably more investigation into system parameters, furnace secondary circuit analysis, and operating characteristics than previously given to normal powered electric arc furnaces. The power input must be analyzed from the infinite electric utility bus to the arc at the electrode. All interested parties must participate in the analysis to assure a mutual

J. J. Trageser

1980-01-01

137

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE)/ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT, WITH SINTERING PLANT CONVEYORS & TRANSFER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

138

6. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 TO THE LEFT OF THE FURNACES ARE THE ORE BRIDGE, THE TURBO-GENERATOR BUILDING, AND THE WATER FILTER TANKS. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

139

Thermal Energy Storage in Forced-Air Electric Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data are presented for heat storage in forced-air electric furnaces using magnesite as the heat storage material. Charge and discharge data for temperature and flow, obtained in the laboratory, are compared with models used for the design of the furnace. Experience with the furnace operating in homes for a heating season and being charged during the off peak is

W. Bruce H. Cooke; R. H. Stephen Hardy; Michael T. Sulatisky

1980-01-01

140

Standard Operating Procedure: Gas Atmosphere MELCO Brazing Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hydrogen and argon gas atmosphere furnace facility using electric furnaces is located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). This furnace system was acquired to handle smaller jobs with a more rapid response time than was possible wi...

C. R. Waller

1988-01-01

141

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Performance Improvement of Copper Melting Furnace using Air Preheater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is to improve the performance of copper melting furnace using air preheater at a copper cable manufacturing factory. Before installation of the air preheater, the thermal efficiency of the copper furnace is approximately 47.11% where heat loss in the exhaust gas is nearly half of the energy input of copper melting furnace. After installation of

Tawatchai Sittisradoo; Sompong Putivisutisak

142

Holden gas-fired furnace baseline data. Revision 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Holden gas-fired furnace is used in the enriched uranium recovery process to dry and combust small batches of combustibles. The ash is further processed. The furnace operates by allowing a short natural gas flame to burn over the face of a wall of porous fire brick on two sides of the furnace. Each firing wall uses two main burners

Weatherspoon

1996-01-01

143

One-dimensional code to predict the thermal behavior of the UTSI MHD radiant furnace  

SciTech Connect

An analytical model of the thermal behavior of the radiant furnace components installed in the CFFF has been developed. Efforts have been primarily directed towards obtaining a representative global evaluation of the heat recovery of the major downstream components. An overall review of the heat transfer code developed specifically for the DOE CFFF downstream components is presented. The basic methods by which the gas state, transport properties, and the thermal radiative and convective properties are calculated are delineated. Since the thermal behavior of the furnace is radiation dominated, a greater emphasis was placed on this mode of heat transfer. The heat transfer model employs a single zone approximation to the physical problem. The results of the code show good agreement with the experimental data. A more rigorous approach to the problem requires the use of a multi-zone analysis which is presently under consideration. 21 references. (WHK)

Galanga, F.L.

1984-03-01

144

Assessment of Atmospheric Emissions from Quenching of Blast Furnace Slag with Blast Furnace Blowdown Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of 15 emission measurements made on a laboratory scale facility simulating typical plant slag quenching practice. The measurements were made to determine if a potential alternative to treatment prior to discharge of blast furnace ...

G. Annamraju W. Kemner P. J. Schworer

1984-01-01

145

Phase chemical composition of slag from a direct nickel flash furnace and associated slag cleaning furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the recovery of base metals from the Bushveld Igneous Complex ores, South Africa, a two-stage process is used to ensure complete recovery of nickel from the ore. A nickel flash smelting furnace is initially used to obtain the valuable metal but the loss of nickel in the slag amounts to about 4 % and thus an electric slag-cleaning furnace has to be subsequently used to reduce the loss of the valuable metal to less than 0.5 % nickel oxide in the slag. The Fe2 + /Fe3 + ratio and mineralogy in the two different furnaces differ and can be used as a tool to determine the efficiency of the nickel recovered in the two-stage process. By means of XRD, SEM/EDS and Mössbauer spectroscopy the Fe2 + /Fe3 + ratio and the amount of magnetite was determined in each furnace, which was then used as an indicator of the effectiveness of the whole process.

Waanders, F. B.; Nell, J.

2013-04-01

146

Use of Waste Oil in Blast Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project dealt with investigating the conditions under which waste oil could be used instead of heavy fuel oil to fire blast furnaces so as to permit cost savings. When using waste oil, the pumps in the feed line that were used to build up the supply p...

K. Goebel

1983-01-01

147

Method of loading and unloading a furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of loading and unloading semiconductor wafer boats from a furnace having a processing tube provided with an opening through which the boats are transported, and having a door which is moveable by a control means for sealingly closing the opening when the wafers are being processed. The method comprises: (a) placing at least one of the

R. E. Aldridge; R. Elloway; W. O. Fritz; R. D. Goff; M. J. Herera

1987-01-01

148

SITE DEMONSTRATION OF MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The final report for this project has been published. (EPA/540/R-03/500) March 2004. This SITE project demonstration of the Minergy Corporation (Minergy) Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) evaluated the technology's ability to reduce polychlorinated biphenyl PCB and metal concentrati...

149

High Temperature Furnace Application of Cryopumps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need to provide a water-free and low oxygen content insulating material for a long life thermal device made necessary a super clean vacuum furnace. The high throughput, large water capacity, and cleanliness of the cryopump seemed to make it an ideal c...

G. B. McClellan

1980-01-01

150

Flame Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) is one of the most widespread traditional analytical techniques for trace element determination, but it often suffers from poor sensitivity due to the low nebulization efficiency and the short residence time of free atoms in the flame. On the basis of conventional FAAS, flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (FF-AAS) is developed with a tube (flame

Peng Wu; Shaopan He; Bin Luo; Xiandeng Hou

2009-01-01

151

Expanding Blast Furnace Slag Without Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansion of blast furnace slag causes emissions of hydrogen sulfide, creating an air pollution problem common throughout the steel industry. This paper describes a new process, called pelletizing which eliminates the air pollution problem while at the same time producing a superior slag product.

Richard Jablin

1972-01-01

152

Simulation of the thermal state of graphitized electrodes in an arc furnace with allowance for evaporation cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model is developed for the thermal state of a graphitized electrode in an arc furnace with allowance for the Joule heat release, the arc and electrode radiation, free convection, and evaporation water cooling. A computer program is created, and the thermal state of the graphitized electrode is studied numerically.

Mokhov, V. A.; Yachikov, I. M.

2013-06-01

153

Stable operation for No. 1 blast furnace at Baosteel  

SciTech Connect

Until Sept. 1994, No. 1 blast furnace in Baoshan Steel (Group) Co. had been operating successfully with high productivity. At present, it still keeps its strong potential for production capacity. The philosophy and methodology of the efficient blast furnace operation will be described. The most important aspect for stable operation and long campaign life of a blast furnace is reasonable gas flow distribution in the furnace. The topics to be discussed include: introduction to ironmaking in Baosteel; operational results; experience of stable operation, philosophy, gas distribution control, stabilization raw material property, furnace maintenance and supervision system.

Cai, X.; Lu, S. [Baoshan Steel Corp., Shanghai (China)

1995-07-01

154

Gas flow analysis in melting furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The flow structure inside round furnaces with various numbers of burners, burner arrangement, and exit conditions has been studied experimentally with the purpose of improving the flow conditions and the resulting heat transfer. Small-scale transparent models were built according to the laws of geometric and dynamic similarity. Various visualization and experimental techniques were applied. The flow pattern in the near-surface regions was visualized by the fluorescent minituft and popcorn techniques; the flow structure in the bulk was analyzed by smoke injection and laser sheet illumination. For the study of the transient effects, high-speed video photography was applied. The effects of the various flow patterns, like axisymmetric and rotational flow, on the magnitude and uniformity of the residence time, as well as on the formation of stagnation zones, were discussed. Conclusions were drawn and have since been applied for the improvement of furnace performance.

Kiss, L.I.; Bui, R.T.; Charette, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Chicoutimi, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Applied Science; Bourgeois, T. [Alcan International Limited, Jonquiere, Quebec (Canada). Arvida Research and Development Center

1998-12-01

155

Glass Furnace Combustion and Melting Research Facility.  

SciTech Connect

The need for a Combustion and Melting Research Facility focused on the solution of glass manufacturing problems common to all segments of the glass industry was given high priority in the earliest version of the Glass Industry Technology Roadmap (Eisenhauer et al., 1997). Visteon Glass Systems and, later, PPG Industries proposed to meet this requirement, in partnership with the DOE/OIT Glass Program and Sandia National Laboratories, by designing and building a research furnace equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostics in the DOE Combustion Research Facility located at the Sandia site in Livermore, CA. Input on the configuration and objectives of the facility was sought from the entire industry by a variety of routes: (1) through a survey distributed to industry leaders by GMIC, (2) by conducting an open workshop following the OIT Glass Industry Project Review in September 1999, (3) from discussions with numerous glass engineers, scientists, and executives, and (4) during visits to glass manufacturing plants and research centers. The recommendations from industry were that the melting tank be made large enough to reproduce the essential processes and features of industrial furnaces yet flexible enough to be operated in as many as possible of the configurations found in industry as well as in ways never before attempted in practice. Realization of these objectives, while still providing access to the glass bath and combustion space for optical diagnostics and measurements using conventional probes, was the principal challenge in the development of the tank furnace design. The present report describes a facility having the requirements identified as important by members of the glass industry and equipped to do the work that the industry recommended should be the focus of research. The intent is that the laboratory would be available to U.S. glass manufacturers for collaboration with Sandia scientists and engineers on both precompetitive basic research and the solution of proprietary glass production problems. As a consequence of the substantial increase in scale and scope of the initial furnace concept in response to industry recommendations, constraints on funding of industrial programs by DOE, and reorientation of the Department's priorities, the OIT Glass Program is unable to provide the support for construction of such a facility. However, it is the present investigators' hope that a group of industry partners will emerge to carry the project forward, taking advantage of the detailed furnace design presented in this report. The engineering, including complete construction drawings, bill of materials, and equipment specifications, is complete. The project is ready to begin construction as soon as the quotations are updated. The design of the research melter closely follows the most advanced industrial practice, firing by natural gas with oxygen. The melting area is 13 ft x 6 ft, with a glass depth of 3 ft and an average height in the combustion space of 3 ft. The maximum pull rate is 25 tons/day, ranging from 100% batch to 100% cullet, continuously fed, with variable batch composition, particle size distribution, and raft configuration. The tank is equipped with bubblers to control glass circulation. The furnace can be fired in three modes: (1) using a single large burner mounted on the front wall, (2) by six burners in a staggered/opposed arrangement, three in each breast wall, and (3) by down-fired burners mounted in the crown in any combination with the front wall or breast-wall-mounted burners. Horizontal slots are provided between the tank blocks and tuck stones and between the breast wall and skewback blocks, running the entire length of the furnace on both sides, to permit access to the combustion space and the surface of the glass for optical measurements and sampling probes. Vertical slots in the breast walls provide additional access for measurements and sampling. The furnace and tank are to be fully instrumented with standard measuring equipment, such as flow meters, thermocouples, continuous gas composition

Connors, John J. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); McConnell, John F. (JFM Consulting, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Henry, Vincent I. (Henry Technology Solutions, LLC, Ann Arbor, MI); MacDonald, Blake A.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Field, William B. (Lilja Corp., Livermore, CA); Walsh, Peter M.; Simmons, Michael C. (Lilja Corp., Livermore, CA); Adams, Michael E. (Lilja Corp., Rochester, NY); Leadbetter, James M. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Tomasewski, Jack W. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Operacz, Walter J. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Houf, William G.; Davis, James W. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Marvin, Bart G. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Gunner, Bruce E. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Farrell, Rick G. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Bivins, David P. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Curtis, Warren (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Harris, James E. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA)

2004-08-01

156

Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains technical papers published as they were presented at a recent specialty conference sponsored by the Air & Waste Management Association, titled Waste Combustion in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces, held March 26-27, 1996, in Kansas City, Missouri. Papers touch on compilance concerns for air pollution, air monitoring methodologies, risk assessment, and problems related to public anxiety. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database from this proceedings.

NONE

1996-12-31

157

Downdraft channel gasifier furnace for biomass fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gasification of corn cobs in a furnace at temperatures ranging from 500°C to 1300°C is described. Equilibrium and heat-transfer characteristics are described. Preliminary results indicate that in absence of external oxygen, up to 23% of the initial cob weight can be obtained as CO. The development of a downdraft multi-channel gasifier for biomass fuels, starting in 1980, has resulted

M. R. Ladisch; R. Neuman; R. M. Peart; M. Voloch

1983-01-01

158

Drying powders for crucibles of induction furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 666.762.2.047.75 Powders used for ramming the crucibles of induction furnaces in the melting of iron at automobile factories are prepared from quartzites from the Karaul mountains. The properties of the powders are: weight proportion of SiO 2 not less than 97.5%, A1203 not more than 1.3%, Fe203 not more than 0.6%, refractoriness not less than 1730~ and moisture content

I. P. Tsibin; M. Z. Shvartsman; G. V. Orlov; M. Z. Naginskii; E. M. Grishpun

1980-01-01

159

Ultra-high vacuum compatible image furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the design of an optical floating-zone furnace for single-crystal growth under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible conditions. The system is based on a commercial image furnace, which has been refurbished to be all-metal sealed. Major changes concern the use of UHV rotary feedthroughs and bespoke quartz-metal seals with metal-O-rings at the lamp stage. As a consequence, the procedure of assembling the furnace for crystal growth is changed completely. Bespoke heating jackets permit to bake the system. For compounds with elevated vapor pressures, the ultra-high vacuum serves as a precondition for the use of a high-purity argon atmosphere up to 10 bar. In the ferromagnetic Heusler compound Cu2MnAl, the improvements of purity result in an improved stability of the molten zone, grain selection, and, hence, single-crystal growth. Similar improvements are observed in traveling-solvent floating-zone growth of the antiferromagnetic Heusler compound Mn3Si. These improvements underscore the great potential of optical float-zoning for the growth of high-purity single crystals of intermetallic compounds.

Neubauer, A.; Bœuf, J.; Bauer, A.; Russ, B.; Löhneysen, H. V.; Pfleiderer, C.

2011-01-01

160

Ultra-high vacuum compatible image furnace.  

PubMed

We report the design of an optical floating-zone furnace for single-crystal growth under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible conditions. The system is based on a commercial image furnace, which has been refurbished to be all-metal sealed. Major changes concern the use of UHV rotary feedthroughs and bespoke quartz-metal seals with metal-O-rings at the lamp stage. As a consequence, the procedure of assembling the furnace for crystal growth is changed completely. Bespoke heating jackets permit to bake the system. For compounds with elevated vapor pressures, the ultra-high vacuum serves as a precondition for the use of a high-purity argon atmosphere up to 10 bar. In the ferromagnetic Heusler compound Cu(2)MnAl, the improvements of purity result in an improved stability of the molten zone, grain selection, and, hence, single-crystal growth. Similar improvements are observed in traveling-solvent floating-zone growth of the antiferromagnetic Heusler compound Mn(3)Si. These improvements underscore the great potential of optical float-zoning for the growth of high-purity single crystals of intermetallic compounds. PMID:21280840

Neubauer, A; Boeuf, J; Bauer, A; Russ, B; Löhneysen, H v; Pfleiderer, C

2011-01-01

161

Furnace wall-tube monitoring with a dual-band portable imaging radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In refineries, thermal imaging has been used for many years to monitor the interior temperatures of furnaces, particularly the furnace wall-tubes, in the presence of combustion gas flames. The temperature range in these processes varies from 400 to 1200°C. Flame combustion byproducts contain gases of H2O, N2, CO2, NO and small residues of ashes and other particles that emit thermal radiation toward wall tubes resulting in heating of the tubes. Typically, a mid-infrared (MWIR) instrument is used, equipped with a narrow band-pass filter centered at 3.90?m. In this band there is a void in the emission spectrum of these gases making them transparent, and an instrument operating only in this band can provide very high quality thermal images of the furnace interior. Operating temperatures at other points in petrochemical-related processes, closer to ambient temperature, can also be very critical. For example, a 10°C temperature difference from desired temperature at the coil output of a heat exchanger of a large ethylene plant can result in substantial revenue loss per year. Monitoring of these conditions is usually accomplished using a long wave infrared (LWIR) imaging radiometer operating in the 8-14?m spectral bands. This paper will review the evolution of techniques for furnace wall-tube monitoring, discuss current techniques and conclude with the description of a modern dual-band approach. In this approach a single, portable uncooled thermal imager is deployed in a refinery to monitor both the status of high temperature elements such as wall tubes and the operating condition of the furnace and its ancillary equipment. Case histories with thermographic illustrations will be presented.

Irani, Keikhosrow

2004-04-01

162

Computer combustion-radiation model of RDF boilers at Columbus, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

A computer model based on the Columbus, Ohio RDF (refuse derived fuel) furnace system has been developed. The model simulates combustion and radiation heat transfers in the furnace. Variables evaluated were: Arrhenius combustion factors, turbulent mixing factor, radiation blackening factor, air/fuel ratio, and Bragg stirred reactor height. Results provide design evaluation criteria. 8 refs.

Kadunc, D.A.; Essenhigh, R.H.

1982-01-01

163

Efficient use of gas by the employment of assembly-type radiant roofs in industrial furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Compared with conventional flame burner heating systems, special burners such as radiant burners allow a more efficient utilization of gas in industrial furnaces in many cases of application. Practice has shown that the integration of radiant burners into assembly-type roof elements and the additional application of radiation-active ceramic protective layers permit an efficient design and employment of radiant roofs. Self-supporting superstructure elements made of heat-resistant reinforced concrete and recently also of fibrous materials are used as assembly-type roof elements which carry the radiant burners alone. Model investigations have shown that an increase in emissivity of burner bricks and adjacent roof and wall areas makes it possible to intensify the radiant heat transfer in the furnace chambers.

Borrmann, F.; Hafner, K.

1988-01-01

164

Calibration of high-heat-flux sensors in a solar furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most common sensors used for the measurement of high solar irradiance are the Gardon gauges, which are usually calibrated using a black body at a certain temperature as the radiant source. This calibration procedure is assumed to produce a systematic error when solar irradiance measurements are taken using these sensors. This paper demonstrates a calorimetric method for calibrating these high-heat-flux gauges in a solar furnace. This procedure has enabled these sensors to be calibrated under concentrated solar radiation at higher irradiances under non-laboratory conditions in the CIEMAT solar furnace at the Plataforma Solar de Almería. Working at higher irradiances has allowed the uncertainty in the calibration constant of these sensors to be reduced. This work experimentally confirms the predicted systematic errors committed when measuring high solar irradiances using Gardon sensors calibrated with a black body.

Ballestrín, J.; Rodríguez-Alonso, M.; Rodríguez, J.; Cañadas, I.; Barbero, F. J.; Langley, L. W.; Barnes, A.

2006-12-01

165

Analysis of the temperature field in compound samples heated in multizone resistance furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heating of cylindrical compound samples in multizone resistance furnaces is studied. A global model is considered where the temperature fields in the sample and the furnace are coupled through the radiation exchange between them; the input thermal data is the electric power supplied to the heaters. Graphite-silicon-graphite samples are considered; the melting of the silicon part and the temperature field in the melt are analyzed in dependence of different parameters, like the radius of the sample and the power distribution among the heaters. By changing this parameter different surface temperature distributions in the melt are obtained, which in turn define different thermocapillary flow patterns. The possibility of counterbalancing these flows by vibrating the two supporting graphite rods simultaneously is addressed.

Rivas, Damian; de Pablo, Valentin; Pérez-Grande, Isabel

2003-07-01

166

5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, SHOWING INTERIOR ELECTRODES. THE RAW MATERIALS FOR CALCIUM CARBIDE PRODUCTION--LIMESTONE AND COKE--WERE FED BY HOPPERS PLACED BETWEEN THESE ELECTRODES INTO THE ELECTRIC ARC. THE REMOVABLE PLATES ON THE EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCE OF THE HORRY FURNACE ARE SHOWN ON THE FIRST THREE FURNACES. (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

167

Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Anderson, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1992-03-01

168

Benefits of ceramic fiber for saving energy in reheat furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Refractory ceramic fiber products offer thermal insulation investment in reheat furnaces by helping to keep operating cost low and product quality high. These products are used in a range of applications that include: furnace linings; charge and discharge door insulation; skidpipe insulation; and furnace repair and maintenance. The many product forms (blankets, modules, boards, textiles, and coatings) provide several key benefits: faster cycling, energy savings and personnel protection.

Norris, A. (Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States))

1993-07-01

169

Allowable gas temperature at outlet from furnace subject to slagging  

SciTech Connect

The paper is devoted to substantiation and prediction of the allowable gas temperature at the outlet from a furnace subject to slagging. The non-optimality of values recommended by effective methodical instructions regarding the design of furnace devices is demonstrated. Utilizing knowledge gained from temperature measurements in boilers, and the situation regarding the slagging of heating surfaces located at the outlet from the furnace, new, frequently higher values are proposed. A method for evaluating the allowable gas temperature at the outlet from a furnace subject to slagging is suggested on the basis of data regarding the chemical composition of the mineral portion of coals.

A.N. Alekhnovich; N.V. Artem'eva; V.V. Bogomolov [Ural Thermotechnical Laboratory, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

2007-03-15

170

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING QBOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING Q-BOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL GAS ARE BLOWN INTO THE FURNACE THROUGH THE TUYERES TO CHARGE 460,000 LBS. OF HOT METAL, 100,000 LBS. OF SCRAP WITH 30,000 LBS. OF LIME. BLOW TIME IS 16 MINUTES. THE TIME TO BLOW AND TAP THE FURNACES OF THE RESULTING 205,000 TONS OF STEEL AND SLAG IS 35 MINUTES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

171

Glass Furnace Model (GFM) development and technology transfer program final report.  

SciTech Connect

A Glass Furnace Model (GFM) was developed under a cost-shared R&D program by the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory in close collaboration with a consortium of five glass industry members: Techneglas, Inc., Owens-Corning, Libbey, Inc., Osram Sylvania, Inc., and Visteon, Inc. Purdue University and Mississippi State University's DIAL Laboratory were also collaborators in the consortium. The GFM glass furnace simulation model that was developed is a tool industry can use to help define and evaluate furnace design changes and operating strategies to: (1) reduce energy use per unit of production; (2) solve problems related to production and glass quality by defining optimal operating windows to reduce cullet generation due to rejects and maximize throughput; and (3) make changes in furnace design and/or operation to reduce critical emissions, such as NO{sub x} and particulates. A two-part program was pursued to develop and validate the furnace model. The focus of the Part I program was to develop a fully coupled furnace model which had the requisite basic capabilities for furnace simulation. The principal outcome from the Phase I program was a furnace simulation model, GFM 2.0, which was copyrighted. The basic capabilities of GFM 2.0 were: (1) built-in burner models that can be included in the combustion space simulation; (2) a participating media spectral radiation model that maintains local and global energy balances throughout the furnace volume; and (3) a multiphase (liquid, solid) melt model that calculates (does not impose) the batch-melting rate and the batch length. The key objectives of the Part II program, which overlapped the Part I program were: (1) to incorporate a full multiphase flow analytical capability with reduced glass chemistry models in the glass melt model and thus be able to compute and track key solid, gas, and liquid species through the melt and the combustion space above; and (2) to incorporate glass quality indices into the simulation to facilitate optimization studies with regard to productivity, energy use and emissions. Midway through the Part II program, however, at the urging of the industrial consortium members, the decision was made to refocus limited resources on transfer of the existing GFM 2.0 software to the industry to speed up commercialization of the technology. This decision, in turn, necessitated a de-emphasis of the development of the planned final version of the GFM software that had full multiphase capability, GFM 3.0. As a result, version 3.0 was not completed; considerable progress, however, was made before the effort was terminated. The objectives of the Technology Transfer program were to transfer the Glass Furnace Model (GFM) to the glass industry and to promote its widespread use by providing the requisite technical support to allow effective use of the software. GFM Version 2.0 was offered at no cost on a trial, six-month basis to expedite its introduction to and use by the industry. The trial licenses were issued to generate a much more thorough user beta test of the software than the relatively small amount completed by the consortium members prior to the release of version 2.0.

Lottes, S. A.; Petrick, M.; Energy Systems

2007-12-04

172

Downdraft channel gasifier furnace for biomass fuels  

SciTech Connect

The gasification of corn cobs in a furnace at temperatures ranging from 500/sup 0/C to 1300/sup 0/C is described. Equilibrium and heat-transfer characteristics are described. Preliminary results indicate that in absence of external oxygen, up to 23% of the initial cob weight can be obtained as CO. The development of a downdraft multi-channel gasifier for biomass fuels, starting in 1980, has resulted in an efficient design which can be scaled up as desired. Development problems and solutions are described. Capacity, temperature, efficiency and emissions tests are described and results given.

Ladisch, M.R.; Neuman, R.; Peart, R.M.; Voloch, M.

1983-12-01

173

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for particulate matter from glass melting furnace] 40 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT...for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes. (a) An owner or operator of a glass melting furnaces with modified-...

2009-07-01

174

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2009-07-01

175

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2010-07-01

176

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2012-07-01

177

Furnace for burning particulate wood waste material  

SciTech Connect

A furnace for burning dry or wet wood waste products such as hogged bark and the like is provided with a grating therein comprised of aligned rows of bricks resting on supporting cross beams, with at least some of the rows of bricks maintained a uniform distance from other rows of bricks by spacers disposed between such spaced-apart rows of bricks. The furnace is charged by turbulent air entering both above and below the grating, with a select portion of such air being pre-heated. A temperature gradient is established between an area immediately beneath the grating and the area above the grating in the range of 2200/sup 0/ F and can be controlled by selected initial placement of the bricks and spacers to achieve an optimum cross sectional area for flow of heated, turbulent air through the grating to produce a temperature for efficient heating, drying and burning of wood waste products in an essentially pollution-free manner.

Kolze, B.A.; Kolze, M.W.

1983-03-22

178

Laser Ultrasonic Furnace Tube Coke Monitor  

SciTech Connect

This reports summarizes the technical progress achieved during the third quarter of the ERIP project entitled, ''Laser Ultrasonic Furnace Tube Coke Monitor.'' The focus of work during this reporting period was the construction of an automated probe that will be used to measure the thickness of coke deposits in thermal cracking furnaces. A discovery was made during the last reporting period, which indicated that a conventional NDE broadband transducer could be used in conjunction with a sacrificial standoff composed of a fusible alloy to efficiently couple the transducer to a rough surface operating at high temperature. A probe was constructed that incorporates the recent discovery and initial testing of the probe is now underway. Because of other project commitments, the manpower available to allocate to the coke detector project was limited during the most recent quarter. As a result, the project is somewhat behind the original schedule. However, project expenditures are consistent with the project progress to date. The total program budget is $98,670 and the current project expenditures are approximately $24,000. The original contract budget period ends on April 30, 1999. We intend to request a six-month no-cost extension to the contract so that we may complete the project objectives.

NONE

1999-02-15

179

General view of blast furnace "A"; looking southeast; The building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of blast furnace "A"; looking southeast; The building to the right is the crucible steel building - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Blast Furnace "A", Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

180

Linear Hearth Furnace System and Methods Regarding Same.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systems and methods for use in processing raw material (e.g., iron bearing material) include a linear furnace apparatus extending along a longitudinal axis between a charging end and a discharging end (e.g., the linear furnace apparatus includes at least ...

D. J. Englund R. F. Kiesel R. L. Bleifuss

2005-01-01

181

Clay alumina brick used in anode baking furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the choice of refractory for use in the flue walls of a carbon baking furnace is dependent upon the degree of control achieved in the furnace. This article describes how this interrelationship has occurred and describes what refractory systems are in use.

Corliss, Glenn F.; Stett, Mark A.

1996-11-01

182

4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

183

Automatic Thermocouple Positioner for Use in Vacuum Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted ...

D. K. Mee A. E. Stephens

1980-01-01

184

Method of and furnace for burning waste material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of and furnace for burning waste material are disclosed. The furnace has a central chute for receiving the waste material, and a combustion chamber which is arranged below the chute and has a closed bottom. The transition between the central chute and the combustion chamber is designed as a constriction. The waste material is accumulated above the constriction,

D. Ermisch; W. Jablonski; H. Mallek

1980-01-01

185

Halmpannor paa gaardsnivaa. (Straw furnaces on farm level).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For straw burning furnaces on farm level, the number of makes on the Swedish market is very limited. On this market there are today five well established products, all of them Danish. Three of these represent furnaces for burning of whole bales, while two...

O. Praks

1993-01-01

186

Model for blast furnace on-line simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blast furnace simulation model developed primarily for on-line application is presented. The model, which describes the steady-state operation of the furnace in one spatial dimension, is adapted to data from the real process by adjusting a set of parameters. A thermodynamic process interface provides the boundary conditions. The model, which is shown to act as an intelligent measurement device

H. Saxén; H. Uusi-Honko; A. Kilpinen

187

Carbon-Based Refractories for the Lining of Blast Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

General requirements placed on the operating properties of advanced carbon-based refractory materials intended for the lining of blast furnaces are formulated and technological routes for their achievement are outlined. Performance characteristics of refractory furnace blocks available from the ChEP JSC are given, their operational stability is characterized, and recommendations for use are proposed.

S. A. Podkopaev

2004-01-01

188

EMISSIONS FROM OUTDOOR WOOD-BURNING RESIDENTIAL HOT WATER FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of measurements of emissions from a single-pass and a double-pass furnace at average heat outputs of 15,000 and 30,000 Btu/hr (4.4 and 8.8 kW) while burning typical oak cordwood fuel. One furnace was also tested once at each heat output while fitted with ...

189

Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential

Ensar Oguz

2004-01-01

190

Improvements in blast furnace operation at AHMSA Monclova  

SciTech Connect

Following the privatization of Altos Hornos de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (AHMSA) in Nov. 1991, four areas were chosen to improve blast furnace performance and hot metal costs. These areas included improvement of pellet quality, start of oil-gas co-injection, improved control of gas flow in the blast furnace and start of monitoring program to predict the remaining life of the hearth of No. 5 blast furnace. These efforts resulted in the following improvements in the first half of 1992: Production level increased to 2.4 tonnes/cu metre/24 hr with a 1992 annual production record from No. 5 furnace of 1.639 million tonnes; Coke rates decreased by 60 kg/tonne, half of which was due to process improvements and the other half to injection of oil; Silicon standard deviations decreased from 0.22% in 1991 to 0.20% in 1992; Hot metal costs decreased by 10.6%; and The major reline of No. 5 furnace postponed by at least 1.5 years. The improvement of the blast furnace process was not limited to the larger No. 5 furnace. Similar tends can be observed with No. 4 furnace which will also be equipped with oil injection. For the future, programs have been prepared to increase injection rates, improve casthouse operation and increase process stability.

Morales, J.M.; Dominguez, H. (Altos Hornos de Mexico S.A. de C.V., Monclova (Mexico). Monclova Works); Geerdes, M. (Hoogovens Technical Services B.V., Monclova (Mexico))

1994-10-01

191

A conveyer furnace for the reduction annealing of metal powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commissioned by the Sulinsk Metallurgical Plant, the Institute of Gas, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, has designed and constructed an experimental band belt conveyer furnace for the reduction annealing of metals powders. The furnace is now being used in a test program designed to establish the optimumprocessing parameters for the annealing of iron powders and provide a basis

V. F. Pekach; N. G. Krysov; B. I. Bondarenko; N. P. Kurganskii

1976-01-01

192

Energy-conservation effectiveness of furnace-retrofit devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a current account of potentially useful near-term technology for the modification, by retrofit, of existing gas-fired residential furnace installations to increase fuel utilization efficiency. Fuel input derate and automatic vent dampers represent two such approaches, with any efficiency improvement resulting from the impact of these retrofit technologies upon furnace design and operation and building structure characteristics. Results

Macriss

1981-01-01

193

Detection of cracked heat exchangers on warm air furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests conducted by Wisconsin Gas Co. have shown that a sodium carbonate test for detecting holes or cracks in the heat exchangers of warm-air furnaces is more reliable than conventional methods and avoids the usual side effects caused by corrosive test solutions, smoke, or odors. In a test furnace simulating residential conditions, only the sodium carbonate test detected holes as

Wunderlin

1979-01-01

194

8. VIEW OF FOUNDRY INDUCTION FURNACES, MODULE J. THE FOUNDRY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF FOUNDRY INDUCTION FURNACES, MODULE J. THE FOUNDRY CASTING PROCESS WAS CONDUCTED IN A VACUUM. PLUTONIUM METAL WAS MELTED IN ONE OF FOUR ELECTRIC INDUCTION FURNACES TO FORM INGOTS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

195

Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas cleaning plants in foreground on the left and the right side of the furnace building. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

196

11. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES No. 1 AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES No. 1 AND No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

197

Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Li, X. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1999-01-14

198

12. INTERIOR VIEW OF SINGLE BAY SLOTTED TYPE FURNACE (LEFT) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. INTERIOR VIEW OF SINGLE BAY SLOTTED TYPE FURNACE (LEFT) AND CHAMBERSBURG DROP HAMMER OPERATED BY JEFF HOHMAN (RIGHT); THE FURNACE IS USED TO PRE-HEAT THE STEEL PRIOR TO FORGING, TOOL IS POST HOLE DIGGER WITH TAMPING BAR - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

199

Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust  

SciTech Connect

An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2010-12-28

200

The effects of improved residential furnace filtration on airborne particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forced air furnaces with distributed ducting systems have always had an air filter, but traditionally the filter quality was only adequate to protect the furnace fan and heat exchanger from debris. In the past several years, there has been an increasing number of more effective particulate filters that are being marketed to reduce airborne particulate or dust. These include upgraded

D. Fugler; D. Bowser; W. Kwan

2000-01-01

201

The graphite furnace and its role in atomic spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of applications of the graphite furnace is extraordinary, encompassing the fields of physics, thermochemistry, spectroscopy and analytical chemistry. In this respect, the graphite furnace has been used on a continuous basis as a research tool for nearly a century. Following its introduction as an atomization source for atomic absorption spectrometry by Lvov in 1959, its role in atomic

R. E. Sturgeon

1996-01-01

202

Temperature Gradient Vacuum Furnace for Diffusion Studies to 2000°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

An rf induction-heated furnace has been designed that produces a stable linear temperature gradient greater than 1000° C?cm and a maximum specimen temperature of 2000°C. Methods of measuring temperature in a temperature gradient have been evaluated and the performance of the furnace and its power requirements are discussed.

R. O. Meyer; J. C. Voglewede

1971-01-01

203

C AND M BOTTOM LOADING FURNACE TEST DATA  

SciTech Connect

The test was performed to determine the response of the HBL Phase III Glovebox during C&M Bottom Loading Furnace operations. In addition the data maybe used to benchmark a heat transfer model of the HBL Phase III Glovebox and Furnace.

Lemonds, D

2005-08-01

204

MOLTEN METAL FROM ELECTRIC MELTING FURNACE IS TRANSFERRED THROUGH RUNNER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MOLTEN METAL FROM ELECTRIC MELTING FURNACE IS TRANSFERRED THROUGH RUNNER BOX TO HOLDING FURNACE PRIOR TO POURING. VIEW FROM BEHIND "NORTH STATION" IN CAST SHOP. THE RUNNER BOX MUST BE HEATED PRIOR TO THE TRANSFER. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

205

TILTING ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE USED TO MELT BRONZE IN THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

TILTING ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE USED TO MELT BRONZE IN THE BRASS FOUNDRY BY MEANS OF AN ARC CREATED BETWEEN TWO HORIZONTAL ELECTRODES. WHEN MELTED, THE FURNACE TILTS, FILLING MOBILE LADLES FROM THE SPOUT. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

206

GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACE BUILDING NO. 2 BEHIND CONVEYOR ASSOCIATED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW OF FURNACE BUILDING NO. 2 BEHIND CONVEYOR ASSOCIATED WITH BURRELL CONSTRUCTION COMPANY; TO RIGHT IS AMERICAN WINDOW GLASS COMPANY BATCH PLANT, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Chambers Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

207

DISCHARGE END OF 8" MILL REHEATING FURNACE, SHOWING MOTOROPERATED PEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DISCHARGE END OF 8" MILL REHEATING FURNACE, SHOWING MOTOR-OPERATED PEEL BAR PUSHER WITH PINCH ROLLS FOR MOVING BILLETS ENDWISE OUT THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE FURNACE TOWARD THE CONTINUOUS ROUGHING TRAIN. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

208

GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF BOTH FURNACE STACKS LOOKING NORTHEAST (STACK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF BOTH FURNACE STACKS LOOKING NORTHEAST (STACK NO. 2 TO LEFT, REMAINS OF NO. 1 AT CENTER RIGHT) - Greenwood Furnace, Stack No. 2, East of McAlevy's Fort on State Route 305, McAlevys Fort, Huntingdon County, PA

209

Operating a blast furnace using dried top gas  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of operating a blast furnace, comprising: introducing into the top of the furnace a charge containing metal oxide, coke and flux, collecting a top gas CO, H[sub 2], carbon dioxide and water from the furnace, increasing the reducing potential of said collected top gas by removing water but without removing carbon dioxide from at least a portion of said collected top gas thereby forming a dried top gas, heating said dried top gas to form a heated dried top gas, introducing said heated dried top gas into the lower half of the stack of the furnace at a position above which said coke is not reactive and introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrogenaceous fuel into the bosh of the furnace whereby said metal oxide is reduced to a molten metal using said heated dried top gas.

Kundrat, D.M.

1993-08-10

210

Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace  

DOEpatents

A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs.

Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

1998-03-24

211

Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace  

DOEpatents

A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater.

Kujawa, Stephan T. (Butte, MT); Battleson, Daniel M. (Butte, MT); Rademacher, Jr., Edward L. (Butte, MT); Cashell, Patrick V. (Butte, MT); Filius, Krag D. (Butte, MT); Flannery, Philip A. (Ramsey, MT); Whitworth, Clarence G. (Butte, MT)

1998-01-01

212

28. RW Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange Furnace and Clarifier position. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. RW Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range Furnace and Clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the clarification, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the Continuous flue leading from this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation, two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifiers, lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

213

A controlled atmosphere tube furnace was designed for thermal CVD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality materials were used for the fabrication of hi-tech tube furnace. The furnace was especially suitable for thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). High density alumina tube was used for the fabrication of furnace. The tube furnace was found to have three different temperature zones with maximum temperature at central zone was found to be 650°C. The flexible heating tape with capacity of 760°C was wrapped on the tube. To minimize the heat losses, asbestos and glass wool were used on heating tape. The temperature of the tube furnace was controlled by a digital temperature controller had accuracy of ±1°C. Methanol was taken as the representative of hydrocarbon sources, to give thin film of carbon. The a-C: H structure was investigated by conventional techniques using optical microscopy, FT-IR and SEM.

Rashid, M.; Bhatti, J. A.; Hussain, F.; Imran, M.; Khawaja, I. U.; Chaudhary, K. A.; Ahmad, S. A.

2013-06-01

214

Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 deg C) and high ({approx}800 deg C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 deg C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 x 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 deg C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 deg C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

Pashupati Dhakal, Gianluigi Ciovati, Wayne Rigby, John Wallace, Ganapati Rao Myneni

2012-06-01

215

Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 Degree-Sign C) and high ({approx}800 Degree-Sign C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 Degree-Sign C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 Degree-Sign C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 Degree-Sign C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Rigby, Wayne [Specialty Vacuum, Placitas, New Mexico 87043 (United States); Wallace, John [Casting Analysis Corporation, Weyers Cave, Virginia 24468 (United States)

2012-06-15

216

40 CFR 458.10 - Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Furnace Process Subcategory...

2009-01-01

217

40 CFR 458.10 - Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Furnace Process Subcategory...

2013-07-01

218

40 CFR 458.10 - Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Furnace Process Subcategory...

2010-07-01

219

Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents CFB process analysis focused on combustion and NO profiles in pilot and industrial scale bituminous coal combustion.

Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

220

15-Year blast furnace campaign concept for the reline of blast furnace C at Iscor  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1970`s, when blast furnace campaigns of 3 to 5 years were experienced at the Vanderbijlpark Works, consequent improvements of cooling and refractory concepts as well as the development of a hot guniting practice for belly and lower shaft resulted in campaigns of 10 years and more. Having mastered the problems in belly and lower shaft, the furnace hearth became the ultimate limit and two hearth breakouts were experienced in the last 5 years in South Africa. After analyzing the causes for these breakouts, the requirements for a hearth refractory design, aimed at a 15-year plus campaign life, were formulated. A refractory design concept, which satisfies these requirements were developed based on European, American and Japanese philosophies.

Noska, T.G.L. [Iscor Ltd., Gauteng (South Africa)

1995-07-01

221

OXYFUEL COMBUSTION OF LOW CALORIFIC BLAST FURNACE GAS FOR STEEL REHEATING FURNACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot trials at MEFOS have proven that a new S3 blast furnace gas (BFG)-oxyfuel burner can give high performance, low NOx, low cost reheating for the steel industry. The S3 burner has been developed by AGA-Linde based on REBOX® flameless combustion technology with the optional use of a booster fuel. This burner was tested in a series of trials in

John Niska; Anders Rensgard

222

Alloys for ethylene cracking furnace tubes  

SciTech Connect

The selection of appropriate metallurgy for pyrolysis furnaces is keyed to the following important considerations: Oxidation; Carburization; Creep strength; High temperature ductility; Cost. There are many good foundries throughout the world that offer a spectrum of products, including their own proprietary formulations, that address each of the above requirements. Unfortunately there is no simple assessment of properties that ensures maximum cost-effectiveness for the life of the unit. In addition, the combination of heat to heat variations and unanticipated service conditions make life prediction difficult. Over the past 25 years, and particularly in the last 10 years, there have been significant improvements in the properties of cast high temperature stainless alloys through careful control of chemical composition. This review examines the developments in the light of the requirements and provides a synopsis of the state of the art in pyrolysis tube metallurgy.

MacNab, A.J.

1987-12-01

223

Stabilizing distressed glass furnace melter crowns  

SciTech Connect

Before the advent of pump casting, hot patching a melter or regenerator crown was extremely time and labor intensive. During these installations, known to many as the bucket brigade, the slurry was mixed on floor level and hauled in 50--65 lb batches up to 100 ft to the top of the crown. Today, in a single shift, a crew of seven can accomplish what took two days and a crew of {approximately}25 in the past. The first application of pump-casting zircon patch occurred on the AZS crown of an insulation-wool-glass furnace. For this application, 23 in. of insulating firebrick had to be removed to gain access to the fused AZS surface. The zircon patch was applied by pumping the mix from floor level up {approximately}60 ft to the crown by means of a concrete pump. Postmortems were performed on samples from two of the gas-fired TV-panel-glass furnaces. These postmortems were performed to determine if alterations occurred on the hot face of exposed zircon patch and, if so, how much alteration did occur. There was no destructive alteration because of alkali penetration into the patch. In fact, only trace amounts of lead, barium and strontium were detected, no further than 1 in. from the hot face. There was slight loss of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} on the hot face because of migration of phosphate toward the cold face, but it did not decrease the integrity of the patch. The dissociation of zircon was <3% baddelyite detected, all within an in. of the hot face.

NONE

1997-08-01

224

Low pressure r.f. nitriding of austenitic stainless steel in an industrial-style heat-treatment furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitriding efficiency of a low pressure r.f. plasma is investigated in an industrial style hot-wall furnace in which the component is heated by thermal radiation from the walls of the vacuum chamber. The role of degassed impurities is also addressed. Samples of AISI 316 stainless steel were treated at a relatively low temperature of 400°C to avoid loss of

J. M. Priest; M. J. Baldwin; M. P. Fewell; S. C. Haydon; G. A. Collins; K. T. Short; J. Tendys

1999-01-01

225

Computer systems for controlling blast furnace operations at Rautaruukki  

SciTech Connect

Energy accounts for a significant portion of the total blast furnace production costs and, to minimize energy consumption, both technical and economical aspects have to be considered. Thus, considerable attention has been paid to blast furnace energy consumption and productivity. The most recent furnace relines were in 1985 and 1986. At that time, the furnaces were modernized and instrumentation was increased. After the relines, operation control and monitoring of the process is done by a basic automation systems (DCS`s and PLC`s) and a supervision system (process computer). The supervision system is the core of the control system combining reports, special displays, trends and mathematical models describing in-furnace phenomena. Low energy consumption together with high productivity and stable blast furnace operation have been achieved due to an improvement in raw materials quality and implementation of automation and computer systems to control blast furnace operation. Currently, the fuel rate is low and productivity is in excess of 3.0 tonnes/cu meter/day, which is one of the highest values achieved anywhere for long-term operation.

Inkala, P.; Karppinen, A. [Rautaruukki Oy, Raahe (Finland); Seppanen, M. [Rautaruukki Oy Engineering, Oulu (Finland)

1995-08-01

226

Firing of boilers and furnaces with non-fossil fuels  

SciTech Connect

Case studies were carried out at 10 sites using wood or straw fired furnaces on horticultural and agricultural applications (greenhouse, livestock housing or domestic heating, grain drying). Furnace reliability was good. Refuelling was the limiting factor for unattended operation and to extend this time, burning of wood, automatic firing, and use in conjunction with conventional oil fired heating equipment was practiced. Straw fuel was usually kept dry, with typical moisture contents of 13-15%. Wood moisture contents were greater than 20%. Combustion efficiencies mainly of the order of 40-60% were measured with simple furnaces. With automatic fired plant, mean combustion efficiencies of 71-73% were achieved.

Metcalfe, J.P.

1986-01-01

227

Electric furnace dust: Can you bury the hazard?  

SciTech Connect

Electric furnace waste treatment is moving into high gear, but the exact direction is unclear. On one hand, there is a trend toward complete recycling of the dust captured in furnace baghouses. Iron units as well as zinc and other elements are being reclaimed. On the other side, recent actions by regulators indicate recycling may not be required at all. With the correct chemical stabilization, it appears, dust may simply be placed in ordinary landfill. This paper describes three processes for waste treatment of furnace dust: Super Detox, a process for zinc removal from galvanized scrap before melting, and the INMETCO process.

McManus, G.J.

1996-04-01

228

BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are theSavings?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residential gas furnaces contain blowers to distribute warm air. Currently, furnace blowers use either a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important for understanding electricity consumption of furnaces. The electricity consumption of blower motors depends on the

James Lutz; Victor Franco; Alex Lekov; Gabrielle Wong-Parodi

2006-01-01

229

Design and Prototype Development of a Mini-Electric Arc Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnaces (EAF) have the capabilities required for furnaces used for metallurgical research. An electric arc furnace was designed and constructed to melt approximately 5kg of steel\\/cast iron scraps, using locally produced Soderberg electrodes. Tests carried out showed that it required about 60 minutes to heat up the furnace to the melting temperature of cast iron (1150C - 1400C).

F. A. Oyawale; D. O. Olawale

230

Operating experience with 100% pellet burden on Amanda blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

A number of significant changes in operations at the Ashland Works of the Armco Steel Company occurred in 1992 which directly impacted the Amanda Blast Furnace operation. These changes included the shutdown of the hot strip mill which resulted in coke oven gas enrichment of the Amanda stoves and an increase of 75 C in hot blast temperature, transition to 100% continuous cast operation which resulted in increased variation of the hot metal demand, and the July idling of the sinter plant. Historically, the Amanda Blast Furnace burden was 30% fluxed sinter and 70% acid pellet. It was anticipated that the change to 100% pellet burden would require changes in charging practice and alter furnace performance. The paper gives a general furnace description and then describes the burden characteristics, operating practice with 30% sinter/70% acid pellet burden, preparations for the 100% acid pellet burden operation, the 100% acid pellet operation, and the 100% fluxed pellet burden operation.

Keaton, D.E.; Minakawa, T. (Armco Steel Co., Middletown, OH (United States). Ironmaking Dept.)

1993-01-01

231

11. GASFIRED CRUCIBLE FURNACES WERE USED TO MELT SMALL, BATCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. GAS-FIRED CRUCIBLE FURNACES WERE USED TO MELT SMALL, BATCH QUANTITIES OF BRONZE IN STOCKHAM'S BRASS FOUNDRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BRONZE VALVES, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

232

View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer on second floor of structure, view towards southeast - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

233

47. No. 4 hot blast stove, furnace "A", showing checkerwork ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. No. 4 hot blast stove, furnace "A", showing checkerwork askew after collapse of support posts. Note pattern of checkerwork refractories. looking west - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

234

7. NO. 2 CONTINUOUS SLAB REHEATING FURNACE OF THE 160' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. NO. 2 CONTINUOUS SLAB REHEATING FURNACE OF THE 160' PLATE MILL. INTERIOR REFRACTORY LINING VISIBLE BECAUSE OF DEMOLITION. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 160" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

235

Acquisition of a Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The atomic spectroscopy facility which serves the School of Ocean and Earth Sciences and Technology (SOEST) and the marine minerals community comprises three spectrometers. These are: (1) a Perkin Elmer 603 flame/hydride/furnace atomic absorption/emission...

E. De Carlo

1991-01-01

236

30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING CREW, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Colletion, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

237

SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

This SITE demonstration of the Minergy Corporation (Minergy) Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) evaluated the technlogy's ability to reduce polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and metal concentrations in river sediment. Performance and economic data were collected during this evaluation....

238

SITE - DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY - MINERGY CORPORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) was developed by Minergy Corporation (Minergy), of Waukesha, Wisconsin. Minergy originally developed vitrification technologies to process wastewater sludge into glass aggregate that could be sold as a commercial product. Minergy modified a st...

239

44. View looking west down length of No. 2 Furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. View looking west down length of No. 2 Furnace casting shed showing overhead traveling crane. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

240

MINERGY CORPORATION GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents performance and economic data for a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program demonstration of the Minergy Corporation (Minergy) Glass Furnace Technology (GFT). The demonstration evaluated the techno...

241

8. QUENCHING MECHANISM FOR THE CONTINUOUS ELECTRIC FURNACE HEAT TREATING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. QUENCHING MECHANISM FOR THE CONTINUOUS ELECTRIC FURNACE HEAT TREATING LINE AT THE HEAT TREATMENT PLANT OF THE DUQUESNE WORKS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Heat Treatment Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

242

38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, LANCES, AND FUME HOODS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

243

Voltage flicker prediction for two simultaneously operated ac arc furnaces  

SciTech Connect

An EMTP-based arc furnace model was developed for evaluation of flicker concerns associated with supplying a large integrated steel mill as they go from one to two furnace operation and as system changes are implemented that will affect the short circuit capacity at the 230 kV power supply substation. The model includes a dynamic arc representation which is designed to be characteristic of the initial portions of the melt cycle when the arc characteristics are the most variable (worst flicker conditions). The flicker calculations are verified using previous measurements with one furnace operation. Flicker simulations were then performed to evaluate a variety of different possible system strengths with both one and two furnaces in operation. The primary flicker measure used for this study is the unweighted rms value of the fluctuation envelope, expressed as a percentage of the rms line-to-ground voltage magnitude.

Tang, L. [ABB Power T and D Co., Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States); Kolluri, S. [Entergy Services, New Orleans, LA (United States); McGranaghan, M.F. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1997-04-01

244

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. 1920) AND DETAIL OF CABLES AND BUS BARS (which convey power to electrodes) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

245

Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance/Operability Test Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed LO1 equipment, including a model 1608FL CMTM Furnace, a dessicator, and balance.

D. C. Johnston

2000-01-01

246

Pulse Combustion Furnace Phase II: Advancement of Developmental Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall aim of this project is the development of pulse combustion technology, with specific application to furnaces with ultra-high efficiency. The report describes work conducted during 1981. The performance of a series of pulse combustion burner de...

F. E. Belles J. C. Griffiths

1982-01-01

247

Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and Repossessed Uranium in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

248

Study on Creep Buckling of Side-Burning Furnace Tubes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the present paper the buckling mechanisms of the side-burning reformer furnace was analyzed by applying test-verified calculation. Creep buckling calculation equations which meet the engineering demands were obtained. On this basis advises on preventin...

F. Shen X. Wang

1992-01-01

249

Coke Detection in Furnaces Tubes by Radiographic Examination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The coke detection technique by radiographic examinations allows the quantification of coke in furnace coils of petroleum refineries and petrochemical industries. The paper describes how the radiographic parameters were determined, the wall apparent thick...

I. S. Santos

1987-01-01

250

25. Photocopy of photograph. IRON PLANT, BLAST FURNACE UNDER RENOVATION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Photocopy of photograph. IRON PLANT, BLAST FURNACE UNDER RENOVATION, 1901. (From the Asahel Curtis collection, Washington State Historical Societty, Tacoma, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

251

28. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACES UNDER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACES UNDER CONSTRUCTION, 1909. (From the Robert Teagle Private collecton, Port Townsend, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

252

Multipurpose 2000 C furnace for physical testing in controlled atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high temperature (2000 C) furnace and a servohydraulic test frame were purchased and installed for physical testing in controlled atmospheres of structural ceramics made superplastic by advanced ceramic processing.

Chen, I.-Wei

1990-02-01

253

10. DETAIL OF LAST SURVIVING FURNACE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. DETAIL OF LAST SURVIVING FURNACE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BARN ON GROUND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

254

11. DETAIL OF CAST IRON DOOR OF LAST SURVIVING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. DETAIL OF CAST IRON DOOR OF LAST SURVIVING FURNACE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BARN ON GROUND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

255

9. VIEW OF OF LAST SURVIVING FURNACE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF OF LAST SURVIVING FURNACE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BARN ON GROUND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

256

GENERAL VIEW OF BATCH PLANT, CONVEYOR AND GLASS FURNACE STACK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW OF BATCH PLANT, CONVEYOR AND GLASS FURNACE STACK LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM DREY STREET - Chambers Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

257

Blast-furnace performance with coal-dust injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the blast-furnace shop at OAO Alchevskii Met- allurgicheskii Kombinat (AMK), the injection of coal- dust fuel is promising. Preliminary steps toward its introduction are underway, including analytical research. In this context, we calculate blast-furnace per- formance when using coal-dust fuel in the present work. As in any combined blast, the consumption of coal- dust fuel in unit blast and

G. G. Vasyura

2007-01-01

258

Finite Element Modeling of Heat Transfer in Salt Bath Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat flow patterns in two salt bath furnaces were studied in this work using finite element(FE) analysis. The implications of the heat flows on long term stability of furnace performance were evaluated. One design had a purely silica brick back-up after the embedded heating element with asbestos and glass-wool fiber insulation just before the outer steel shell. The other had

O. O. Oluwole; P. O. Atanda; B. I. Imasogie

259

Rational design of the car hearth of a tunnel furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tunnel furnaces the heat losses into the environment amount to 15-20% of the burnt-fuel heat. The heat is essentially lost through the car (carrier) hearth into the corridor of the furnace bottom. A light-weight car has been designed that is thermally insulated using a high-alumina kaolin fiber of the VGR-130 mark. The car-hearth weight was reduced by 1.5 times

K. S. Kryzhanovskii; V. N. Mokhort; O. M. Dunaevskii; V. I. Chernyi; N. I. Sedoi

1985-01-01

260

13. Blast furnace plant embraces the east bank of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Blast furnace plant embraces the east bank of the Cuyahoga River. Plant was established in 1881 by the Cleveland Rolling Mill Co. It was absorbed by the American Steel and Wire Co. in 1899 and, two years later, by the U.S. Steel Corp., which closed it in 1978. View looking north. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

261

Solar cells from high-purity arc-furnace silicon  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented from a joint Elkem and Exxon research and development program having the goal of producing high efficiency solar cells from single crystalline ingot grown from low-cost, solar-grade silicon produced by the carbothermic reduction of pure silica in an arc furnace. Sources of Si0/sub 2/ were investigated from a purity standpoint, and then added together with Cblack/sucrose pellets to the arc furnace. Both thermal black (from natural gas) and furnace black (from residual oils) were agglomerated with watersucrose solutions in a disc pelletizer to form strong pellets of about 1-cm diameter for use as a feedstock for the furnace. These feedstocks were first evaluated in a 50-kW arc furnace, whose construction was modified to establish the most suitable conditions for pure operation. Subsequently, a 100 kW arc furnace was built, and silicon production at 5 kg/hr was demonstrated. The best silicon produced from the larger arc furnace was analyzed to have about 50-100 ppmw each of aluminum and iron and about 10 ppmw titanium. All other metallic impurities were found to be less than about 10 ppmw. Second-generation Czochralski ingots were grown from this silicon. Carbon and oxygen levels were the same as for Czochralski ingots prepared from commercial semiconductor grade polysilicon. Analysis showed an average concentration of 1.5 ppma boron and 0.6 ppma phosphorus, a factor of two lower boron content than was reported previously from these types of feedstock. The average efficiency of 4-cm/sup 2/ test solar cells was 13.7%, with more than one-third exceeding 14% -- about 2% higher than previously reported for arc-furnace derived material. Of 99 solar cells fabricated on 10-cm diameter wafers, using standard production technology, the average efficiency was about 11.8%. Of these, more than one-third exceeded 12% in efficiency.

Amick, J.A.; Dismukes, J.P.; Francis, R.W.; Hunt, L.P.; Larsen, K.; Matthei, K.; Ravishankar, P.S.; Schei, A.; Schneider, M.; Sylvain, R.

1983-05-01

262

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of

Gary M. Blythe

2002-01-01

263

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of

Gary M. Blythe

2003-01-01

264

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of

Gary M. Blythe

2001-01-01

265

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric

Gary M. Blythe

2003-01-01

266

Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?  

SciTech Connect

Residential two-stage gas furnaces account for almost a quarter of the total number of models listed in the March 2005 GAMA directory of equipment certified for sale in the United States. Two-stage furnaces are expanding their presence in the market mostly because they meet consumer expectations for improved comfort. Currently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure serves as the method for reporting furnace total fuel and electricity consumption under laboratory conditions. In 2006, American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) proposed an update to its test procedure which corrects some of the discrepancies found in the DOE test procedure and provides an improved methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The objectives of this paper are to explore the differences in the methods for calculating two-stage residential gas furnace energy consumption in the DOE test procedure and in the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure and to compare test results to research results from field tests. Overall, the DOE test procedure shows a reduction in the total site energy consumption of about 3 percent for two-stage compared to single-stage furnaces at the same efficiency level. In contrast, the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure shows almost no difference in the total site energy consumption. The 2006 ASHRAE test procedure appears to provide a better methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The results indicate that, although two-stage technology by itself does not save site energy, the combination of two-stage furnaces with BPM motors provides electricity savings, which are confirmed by field studies.

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

2006-05-12

267

High-temperature, gas-burning furnace  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes furnace apparatus. It comprises:a rotor, and means to rotate the rotor, the rotor having opposite ends, a substantially cylindrical, porous ceramic bed carried by the rotor, the bed having an axis of rotation. The bed surrounding and defining an interior combustion zone, and thermal insulation means substantially closing the opposite ends of the rotor, the ends axially spaced apart, a housing into which the rotor and bed are received, and having an inlet for air to pass sidewardly through the rotating bed via one side thereof to be preheated and then to pass into the interior zone, fuel inlet means for supplying fuel to the combustion zone to mix with air therein for combustion in the zone, and the housing having an outlet to discharge hot combustion products which have passed sidewardly through the porous bed via another side thereof to pre-heat same for subsequent rotation into the path of the air to pass therethrough, the bed thickness predetermined to provide regeneration at over 1,000{degrees}C.

Yuen, W.W.

1990-08-14

268

Recycling of electric-arc-furnace dust  

SciTech Connect

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is one of the largest solid waste streams produced by steel mills, and is classified as a waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Successful recycle of the valuable metals (iron, zinc, and lead) present in the dust will result in resource conservation while simultaneously reducing the disposal problems. Technical feasibility of a novel recycling method based on using hydrogen as the reductant was established under this project through laboratory experiments. Sponge iron produced was low in zinc, cadmium, and lead to permit its recycle, and nontoxic to permit its safe disposal as an alternative to recycling. Zinc oxide was analyzed to contain 50% to 58% zinc by weight, and can be marketed for recovering zinc and lead. A prototype system was designed to process 2.5 tons per day (600 tons/year) of EAF dust, and a preliminary economic analysis was conducted. The cost of processing dust by this recycling method was estimated to be comparable to or lower than existing methods, even at such low capacities.

Sresty, G.C.

1990-05-01

269

Laboratory Evaluation of Residential Furnace BlowerPerformance  

SciTech Connect

A testing program was undertaken at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and an electric utility (Pacific Gas and Electric Co.) to compare the performance of furnace blowers. This laboratory testing program was undertaken to support potential changes to California Building Standards regarding in-field furnace blower energy use. This technical support includes identifying suitable performance metrics and target performance levels for use in standards. Five different combinations of blowers and residential furnaces were tested for air moving performance. Three different types of blower and motor combinations were tested in two different furnace cabinets. The blowers were standard forward--curved impellors and a prototype impeller with reverse-inclined blades. The motors were two 6-pole permanent split capacitor (PSC) single-phase induction motors, a brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motor and a prototype BPM designed for use with a prototype reverse-inclined impellor. The laboratory testing operated each blower and furnace combination over a range of air flows and pressure differences to determine air flow performance, power consumption and efficiency. Additional tests varied the clearance between the blower housing and the furnace cabinet, and the routing of air flow into the blower cabinet.

Walker, Iain S.; Lutz, Jim D.

2005-09-01

270

Coal burnout in the IFRF No. 1 Furnace  

SciTech Connect

A coal combustion model is used to match burnout measurements for four coals of different rank in a one-dimensional furnace and is then combined with a flow and heat transfer model to predict burnout in the IFRF No. 1 furnace. The coals show a continuous decrease in high temperature volatility and char reactivity with rank. Predicted and measured flame temperatures are shown to depend on the high temperature volatility and the char reactivity, varying by 300/sup 0/C for the coals. For the residence time available in the flame, a proportion of fine coal is burned; the low reactivity of the high rank coals is partially compensated by a grinding characteristic giving more fine coals. Final burnout levels are shown to depend principally on the char reactivity as well as the furnace cooling, as this determines furnace temperatures. The sensitivity to volatility, grind, the flow model, and uncertainties in the combustion model are quantified. It is shown that the furnace cooling must be reduced to obtain acceptable levels of burnout for the two coals of lowest volatility.

Wall, T.F.; Phelan, W.J.; Bortz, S.

1986-11-01

271

DC Arc Plasma Furnace Melting of Waste Incinerator Fly Ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was melted using a set of direct current (DC) arc plasma furnace system for the first time in China. At a feed-rate of flying ash of 80 kg/h, the temperature at the gas outlet was above 1300°C. Dioxins in the off-gas were recorded as 0.029 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (international toxic equivalent, I-TEQ), well below 0.5 ngTEQ/Nm3 (toxic equivalent, TEQ), while those in the melted product (slag) were 0.00035 ng/g I-TEQ. Molten slag from the furnace showed excellent resistance against the leaching of heavy metals. These results prove that the plasma furnace is effective for the detoxification and stabilization of MSWI fly ash.

Chen, Mingzhou; Meng, Yuedong; Shi, Jiabiao; Kuang, Jing'an; Ni, Guohua; Liu, Wei; Jiang, Yiman

2009-02-01

272

Application of effective thermal insulating materials in firing furnaces  

SciTech Connect

It was established that the application of thermal insulation in high-heat thermal units makes it possible to save up to 2 tons of standard fuel per year. A survey of the furnace installations of the porcelain and faience field and the thermal balance calculations showed that the walls and the roof of the firing zone of the furnances form the main sources of heat losses. Basalt sheets were introduced for thermal insulation of the roof. The use of BTK-1 basalt sheet as a supplementary thermal insulation makes it possible to reduce heat loss through the furnace roof by 13% as compared to the conventional method of thermal insulation of the tunnel furnace using diatomite chips.

Kryzhanovskii, K.S.; Chernyl, V.I.; Dunaevskii, O.M.; Korzh, A.I.; Sedoi, N.I.

1986-07-01

273

Application of two-phase thermosiphons in tube furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Two-phase (vaporizing) thermosiphons (TTS) are used in various types of heating units, including vessels used in processing hydrocarbon media. A thermosiphon is a heat transfer device and is illustrated here. In many cases, the use of TTSs can increase the level of reliability and heat capacity of a particular process unit and savings of electric energy can be achieved as is shown by the authors. It has been proposed that TTSs should be used to increase the heat capacity of tube furnaces, where the principal element is the tube coil. The authors show distribution of heat flux density around the circumference of the tube coil. Designs of tube furnaces are shown with a TTS as the shield of the product coil. Calculations show that when the TTS is used, the heat capacity of two furnaces may be increased by a factor of 1.4-1.6.

Kazhdan, A.Z.; Bezrodnyi, M.K.; Baklashov, V.E.

1987-01-01

274

Production of fluid fertilizer from phosphorus furnace waste stream  

SciTech Connect

Processes and compositions of matter are disclosed for the production of liquid fertilizers wherein wastewater from a phosphorus smelting furnace is incorporated in liquid fertilizer processes. The wastewater replaces water evaporated and the wastewater dissolves fertilizer salts. A serious water pollution problem is avoided when wastewater is incorporated in liquid fertilizers. The invention discloses a process for making orthophosphate suspension fertilizer wherein impure phosphoric acid is neutralized in the condensing system, water from the condensing system is bled off, and a suspending clay is added to produce orthophosphate suspension fertilizer. In this process, phosphorus sludge made at phosphorus furnaces is used to produce suspension fertilizer, and wastewater from phosphate smelting furnaces is recovered. New compositions of matter are disclosed. A process is disclosed for making phosphoric acid with low impurities content wherein phosphorus sludge is burned to make impure orthophosphoric acid and the impure acid is recycled to an agglomerating step in a process for making elemental phosphorus.

Barber, J. C.

1985-04-30

275

IMPROVED FURNACE EFFICIENCY THROUGH THE USE OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes efforts performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in collaboration with industrial refractory manufacturers, refractory users, and academic institutions, to improve energy efficiency of U.S. industry through increased furnace efficiency brought about by the employment of novel refractory systems and techniques. Work in furnace applications related to aluminum, gasification, and lime are discussed. The energy savings strategies discussed are achieved through reduction of chemical reactions, elimination of mechanical degradation caused by the service environment, reduction of temperature limitations of materials, and elimination of costly installation and repair needs. Key results of several case studies resulting from a US Department of Energy (DOE) funded research program are discussed with emphasis on applicability of these results to high temperature furnace applications.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL

2011-01-01

276

VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER STATION IN THE CASTING SHOP. (OTHER UNITS MELT BRASS ALLOYS.) THIS IS THE SOUTHERNMOST FURNACE OF THE FOUR PRESENTLY IN SITU. THE CURRENT CASTING SHOP WAS CONSTRUCTED DURING THE EARLY 1970'S, REPLACING THE ORIGINAL PRE-WWI FACILITY. STATIONS #02,03, AND 04 EACH CONSIST OF A HOLDER FLANKED BY A PAIR OF 800 KW ELECTRIC MELTERS. THE HOLDER IS RATED AT 85,000 LBS. SHAKER BOXES, LOCATED AT THE REAR OF EACH MELTER SUPPLY THE MIXTURE OF INGREDIENTS REQUIRED FOR EACH PARTICULAR ALLOY. ONE MEMBER OF THE THREE-MAN CASTING TEAMS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SHAKING METAL INTO THE MELTERS. IN THE LOWER RIGHT ARE SHOWN THE MOLD STORAGE AREA AND THE FURNACE BUILDERS' AREA FOR CHIPPING AND REBRICKING OFF-LINE UNITS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

277

VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER STATION IN THE CASTING SHOP. (OTHER UNITS MELT BRASS ALLOYS.) THIS IS THE SOUTHERNMOST FURNACE OF THE FOUR PRESENTLY IN SITU. THE CURRENT CASTING SHOP WAS CONSTRUCTED DURING THE EARLY 1970'S, REPLACING THE ORIGINAL PRE-WWI FACILITY. STATIONS #02, 03, AND 04 EACH CONSIST OF A HOLDER FLANKED BY A PAIR OF 800 KW ELECTRIC MELTERS. THE HOLDER IS REHEATED AT 85,000 LBS. SHAKER BOX, LOCATED AT THE REAR OF EACH MELTER SUPPLY THE MIXTURE OF INGREDIENTS REQUIRED FOR EACH PARTICULAR ALLOY. ONE MEMBER OF THE THREE-MAN CASTING TEAMS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SHAKING METAL INTO THE MELTERS. IN THE LOWER RIGHT ARE SHOWN THE MOLD STORAGE AREA AND THE FURNACE BUILDERS' AREA FOR CHIPPING AND REBRICKING OFF-LINE UNITS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

278

Genetic algorithms for multicriteria shape optimization of induction furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution we deal with a multi-criteria shape optimization of an induction furnace. We want to find shape parameters of the furnace in such a way, that two different criteria are optimized. Since they cannot be optimized simultaneously, instead of one optimum we find set of partially optimal designs, so called Pareto front. We compare two different approaches to the optimization, one using nonlinear conjugate gradient method and second using variation of genetic algorithm. As can be seen from the numerical results, genetic algorithm seems to be the right choice for this problem. Solution of direct problem (coupled problem consisting of magnetic and heat field) is done using our own code Agros2D. It uses finite elements of higher order leading to fast and accurate solution of relatively complicated coupled problem. It also provides advanced scripting support, allowing us to prepare parametric model of the furnace and simply incorporate various types of optimization algorithms.

Ku?s, Pavel; Mach, František; Karban, Pavel; Doležel, Ivo

2012-09-01

279

Heat loss through the lining of glass-melting furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Of all the ways of saving fuel in glass production, thermal insulation of the lining of the furnaces seems to be the most promising, a view based mainly on the results of a calculation of the possible fuel savings. With the aim of refining and adding to existing data on heat loss through furnace lining and determining the effect of various factors on the size of the loss, research was done between 1980 and 1982 on 26 glass-melting furnaces of various productivities, differing in design, the method of fuel combustion management, and the durability of the refractories. Here the authors report data on such heat loss at the Dyat'kov and Gusev Crystal Plants; the Kerchensk Cooperative Glass Combine; the Kherson Glassware Plant; the Experimental Plant of the Gusev Branch of the State Institute, among others.

Kozlov, A.S.; Ivanov, A.V.; Tolstov, V.A.; Volkov, I.S.

1985-11-01

280

Application of Argonne's Glass Furnace Model to longhorn glass corporation oxy-fuel furnace for the production of amber glass.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to apply the Argonne National Laboratory's Glass Furnace Model (GFM) to the Longhorn oxy-fuel furnace to improve energy efficiency and to investigate the transport of gases released from the batch/melt into the exhaust. The model will make preliminary estimates of the local concentrations of water, carbon dioxide, elemental oxygen, and other subspecies in the entire combustion space as well as the concentration of these species in the furnace exhaust gas. This information, along with the computed temperature distribution in the combustion space may give indications on possible locations of crown corrosion. An investigation into the optimization of the furnace will be performed by varying several key parameters such as the burner firing pattern, exhaust number/size, and the boost usage (amount and distribution). Results from these parametric studies will be analyzed to determine more efficient methods of operating the furnace that reduce crown corrosion. Finally, computed results from the GFM will be qualitatively correlated to measured values, thus augmenting the validation of the GFM.

Golchert, B.; Shell, J.; Jones, S.; Energy Systems; Shell Glass Consulting; Anheuser-Busch Packaging Group

2006-09-06

281

Use of Different Furnaces to Study Repeatability and Reproducibility of Three Pd-C Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different Pd-C eutectic fixed-point cells were prepared and investigated at INRIM. Several tens of phase transition runs were carried out and recorded with both a Si-based radiation thermometer at 950 nm and a precision InGaAs-based thermometer at 1.6 ?m. Two of the cells were of the same design with an inner volume of 12 cm3. The third one was smaller with a useful inner volume of 3.6 cm3. The three cells were filled with palladium powder 4N5 or 4N8 pure and graphite powder 6N pure. The repeatability and stability of the inflection point were investigated over a period of 1 year. The noticeably different external dimensions of the two cells, namely, 110 mm and 40 mm in length, allowed the influence of the longitudinal temperature distribution to be investigated. For this purpose, two different furnaces, a single-zone with SiC heaters and a three-zone with MoSi2 heaters, were used. Different operative conditions, namely, temperature steps, melting rate, longitudinal temperature distributions, and position of cells within the furnace, were tested to investigate the reproducibility of the cells. Effects on the duration and shape of the plateaux were also studied. This article gives details of the measurement setup and analyses of the melting plateaux obtained with the different conditions.

Battuello, M.; Florio, M.; Girard, F.

2010-09-01

282

40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous...Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn...

2013-07-01

283

40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack height...other fuels, and industrial furnace feed stocks...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack...

2013-07-01

284

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes. (a) An owner or operator of a glass melting furnaces with...

2010-07-01

285

40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2009-07-01

286

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2009-07-01

287

40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2010-07-01

288

40 CFR 63.10686 - What are the requirements for electric arc furnaces and argon-oxygen decarburization vessels?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What are the requirements for electric arc furnaces and argon-oxygen decarburization...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities ...10686 What are the requirements for electric arc furnaces and argon-oxygen...

2013-07-01

289

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution...Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air...

2012-07-01

290

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution...Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air...

2010-07-01

291

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes. (a) An owner or operator of a glass melting furnaces with...

2013-07-01

292

Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential  

SciTech Connect

Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces is unregulated, tested at laboratory conditions using the DOE test procedure, and is reported in the GAMA directory as varying from 76 kWh/year to 1,953 kWh/year. Furnace blowers account for about 80percent of the total furnace electricity consumption and are primarily used to distribute warm air throughout the home during furnace operation as well as distribute cold air during air conditioning operation. Yet the furnace test procedure does not provide a means to calculate the electricity consumption during cooling operation or standby, which account for a large fraction of the total electricity consumption. Furthermore, blower electricity consumption is strongly affected by static pressure. Field data shows that static pressure in the house distribution ducts varies widely and that the static pressure used in the test procedure as well as the calculated fan power is not representative of actual field installations. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important to address electricity consumption of furnaces and air conditioners. This paper compares the potential regional and national energy savings of two-stage brushless permanent magnet (BPM) blower motors (the blower design option with the most potential savings that is currently available in the market) to single-stage permanent split capacitor (PSC) blower motors (the most common blower design option). Computer models were used to generate the heating and cooling loads for typical homes in 16 different climates which represent houses throughout the United States. The results show that the potential savings of using BPM motors vary by region and house characteristics, and are very strongly tied to improving house distribution ducts. Savings decrease dramatically with increased duct pressure. Cold climate locations will see savings even in the high static pressure duct situations, while warm climate locations will see less savings overall and negative savings in the high static pressure duct situations. Moderate climate locations will see little or no savings.

Florida Solar Energy Center; Franco, Victor; Franco, Victor; Lutz, Jim; Lekov, Alex; Gu, Lixing

2008-05-16

293

Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance and Operability Test Procedure  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed Loss on Ignition (LOI) equipment, including a model 1608FL CMTM Furnace, a dessicator, and balance. The operability of the furnace will be verified. The arrangement of the equipment placed in Glovebox 157-3/4 to perform LOI testing on samples supplied from the Thermal Stabilization line will be verified. In addition to verifying proper operation of the furnace, this ATP/OTP will also verify the air flow through the filters, verify a damper setting to establish and maintain the required differential pressure between the glovebox and the room pressure, and test the integrity of the newly installed HEPA filter. In order to provide objective evidence of proper performance of the furnace, the furnace must heat 15 crucibles, mounted on a crucible rack, to 1000 C, according to a program entered into the furnace controller located outside the glovebox. The glovebox differential pressure will be set to provide the 0.5 to 2.0 inches of water (gauge) negative pressure inside the glovebox with an expected airflow of 100 to 125 cubic feet per minute (cfm) through the inlet filter. The glovebox inlet G1 filter will be flow tested to ensure the integrity of the filter connections and the efficiency of the filter medium. The newly installed windows and glovebox extension, as well as all disturbed joints, will be sonically tested via ultra probe to verify no leaks are present. The procedure for DOS testing of the filter is found in Appendix A.

JOHNSTON, D.C.

2000-08-23

294

Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance and Operability Test Procedure  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed LOI equipment, including a model 1608FL CM{trademark} Furnace, a dessicator, and balance. The operability of the furnace will be verified. The arrangement of the equipment placed in Glovebox 157-3/4 to perform Loss on Ignition (LOI) testing on samples supplied from the Thermal Stabilization line will be verified. In addition to verifying proper operation of the furnace, this ATP/OTP will also verify the air flow through the filters, verify a damper setting to establish and maintain the required differential pressure between the glovebox and the room pressure, and test the integrity of the newly installed HEPA filter. In order to provide objective evidence of proper performance of the furnace, the furnace must heat 15 crucibles, mounted on a crucible rack, to 1000 C, according to a program entered into the furnace controller located outside the glovebox. The glovebox differential pressure will be set to provide the 0.5 to 2.0 inches of water (gauge) negative pressure inside the glovebox with an airflow of 100 to 125 cubic feet per minute (cfm) through the inlet filter. The glovebox inlet Glfilter will he flow tested to ensure the integrity of the filter connections and the efficiency of the filter medium. The newly installed windows and glovebox extension, as well as all disturbed joints, will be sonically tested via ultra probe to verify no leaks are present. The procedure for DOS testing of the filter is found in Appendix A.

JOHNSON, D.C.

2000-06-01

295

Optimal control of an aluminum casting furnace: Part I. The control model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a series of two articles on the control of an aluminum casting furnace to bring a mass of liquid aluminum from a known initial temperature to a desired final temperature in a given time with minimal fuel cost. An analytic model of the furnace already exists but is too complex for control purposes. Here in Part I, a simplified nonlinear control model is derived from the analytic model. In Part II, an optimization of the fuel flow is performed on the control model using Pontryagin’s maximum principle. The first article shows that despite the complexity of the analytic model, a tenth-order nonlinear control model with good representativity can be obtained. The second article shows that the maximum principle applied to this problem leads to a solution with optimal fuel cost. If modeling industrial processes is a complex problem in itself, obtaining a control model therefrom is just as delicate. This series of articles proposes an approach that works for the casting furnace and is indeed applicable to other industrial processes as well. In the existing analytic model, the casting furnace is treated as two one-dimensional conducting media (metal and refractories), while its chamber is seen as a well-stirred reactor. In this article, a control model is derived therefrom by a statistical method. The analytic model is run several times to obtain a set of predicted data on which a least-squares approximation is performed to determine the best parameter values to be used for the control model equations. The conduction equations in the two media are linear. The expressions for heat generation in the chamber and for radiative-convective heat transfer from the chamber to the two media are nonlinear and are kept to ensure maximum representativity. The result is a highly representative tenth-order control model, the degree of representativity being assessed by comparing the temperature outputs and the energy balances obtained from the analytic model with those obtained from the control model.

Bui, R. T.; Ouellet, R.

1990-06-01

296

Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V/1000 A DC as an example, the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat loss of the furnace were analyzed based on the energy conservation law, so as to achieve the total heat information and energy balance during plasma processing, and to provide a theoretical basis for an optimized design of the structure and to improve energy efficiency.

Zhao, Peng; Meng, Yuedong; Yu, Xinyao; Chen, Longwei; Jiang, Yiman; Ni, Guohua; Chen, Mingzhou

2009-04-01

297

Tellurite glass fiber fabrication and drawing furnace analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At first, the paper carries on the stable state thermal analysis to the temperature field distribution of the drawing furnace, then, a rod-in-tube technique is described here to the fabrication of tellurite glass fiber. There are some equipments needed, which are designed according to the dimension of the fiber required. The different combinations of these equipment could meet the various requirements, such as the rotating equipment and drawing furnace under vacuum controlling, for the aim of fiber fabrication with high diameter ratio of cladding to core (DRCC) for single-mode optical fibers.

Wang, Xunsi; Nie, Qiuhua; Xu, Tiefeng; Dai, Shixun; Xu, Chunping; Huang, Jian; Liu, Liren

2007-09-01

298

Dross treatment in a rotary arc furnace with graphite electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum baths are always covered with a layer of dross resulting from the aluminum surface oxidation. This dross represents 1-10% of the melt and may contain up to 75wt.% aluminum. Since aluminum production is highly energy intensive, dross recycling is very attractive from both energy and economic standpoints. The conventional recycling process using salt rotary furnaces is thermally inefficient and environmentally unacceptable because of the production of salt slags. Hydro-Quebec has developed a new technology using a rotary arc furnace with graphite electrodes. This process provides aluminum recovery rates of 80-90%, using a highly energy efficient, environmentally sound production method.

Drouet, Michel G.; Handfield, My; Meunier, Jean; Laflamme, Claude B.

1994-05-01

299

Coal-fired furnace for testing of thermionic converters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of thermionic converter technology has progressed to make near-term applications such as the thermionic topping of a pulverized coal-fired central station powerplant. Up to now, thermionic converters have been flame tested using natural gas as fuel. A test furnace is required for evaluation of thermionic converters in a coal-fired environment. The design and costs of a facility which adapts a coal-fired furnace for thermionic converter testing are discussed. Such a facility would be exempt from air pollution regulations because of its low firing rate.

1980-10-01

300

Secondary Aluminum Melting Research in a Laboratory Scale Reverberatory Furnace  

SciTech Connect

The Albany Research Center (ARC), U.S. Department of Energy, has developed a 175-pound capacity, natural gas, direct-fired reverberatory furnace. The high temperature reactions present during the aluminum remelt process are being investigated. Preventing dross formation has been the key aim to date. Reducing losses to dross by 25-50% will potentially lead to an annual energy savings of over 75 trillion BTU's by the year 2020. Schematics and operation characteristics of the ARC Laboratory Scale Reverberatory Furnace (LSRF) will be presented. Potential gas-solid, gas-liquid, and liquid-solid interactions between the hot combustion gases, aluminum, and refractories will be discussed.

Clark, J.A., III

2003-01-01

301

Numerical simulation of crystal growth in a vertical Bridgman furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of global calculation of heat transfer is applied to the numerical simulation of crystal growth in a vertical Bridgman furnace. Specific consideration is given to the Mellen electrodynamic gradient furnace, where a large number of heating elements make it possible to generate arbitrary temperature fields within the load. By means of the global analysis, it is possible to obtain a full description of the temperature field in terms of a limited number of parameters. Also shown is the importance of a precise measurement of material parameters.

Crochet, M. J.; Dupret, F.; Ryckmans, Y.; Geyling, F. T.; Monberg, E. M.

1989-09-01

302

Calibration of Thermocouples and Infrared Radiation Thermometers by Comparison to Radiation Thermometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Metrology Institute of Spain (CEM) has designed, characterized, and set-up its new system to calibrate thermocouples\\u000a and infrared radiation thermometers up to 1600 °C by comparison to radiation thermometry. This system is based on a MoSi2 three-zone furnace with a graphite blackbody comparator. Two interchangeable alumina tubes with different structures are\\u000a used for thermocouples and radiation thermometer calibrations. The

M. J. Martin; M. Zarco; D. Del Campo

2011-01-01

303

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD TO THE CENTER, HEYL & PATTERSON CAR DUMPER TO THE LEFT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

304

78 FR 19606 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans...of Energy (DOE) proposes to establish test procedures for electrically-powered devices...as ``furnace fans.'' DOE proposes a test procedure that would be applicable to...

2013-04-02

305

78 FR 7681 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...of Energy (DOE) proposes to revise its test procedure for residential furnaces and...standard incorporated by reference in the DOE test procedure. DATES: Meeting: DOE...

2013-02-04

306

77 FR 28673 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans...of Energy (DOE) proposes to establish test procedures for residential products...

2012-05-15

307

78 FR 675 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Furnaces and...process to consider amendments to DOE's test procedure for residential furnaces and boilers. Because DOE has recently completed a test procedure rulemaking for the standby...

2013-01-04

308

78 FR 41265 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...proposed rulemaking (NOPR) to amend its test procedure for residential furnaces and...today's action. This final rule amends that test procedure by adopting new equations...

2013-07-10

309

75 FR 64621 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its test procedures for residential furnaces and...Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007). These test procedure amendments are primarily...

2010-10-20

310

Real Time Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) in a Semi-Industrial Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) technique is described, and measurements on a small methane furnace and a large furnace fed by various fuels are discussed. Results show that reliable operation of the CARS spectrometer is possible, with ...

A. Ferrario M. Garbi C. Malvicini

1983-01-01

311

16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces...COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS ...central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces...central air conditioners, heat pumps, and...exclusively on the label. Specific sizes and faces...

2009-01-01

312

16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces...COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS ...central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces...central air conditioners, heat pumps, and...exclusively on the label. Specific sizes and faces...

2010-01-01

313

Analysis of HLLW and its simulated solution by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to the analysis of high level liquid waste (HLLW) and its simulated solution are presented. A commercial instrument was modified to meet above requirement, the graphite furnace and the ass...

V. Cali F. Troiani V. Pagliai J. Liyun

1993-01-01

314

Rebuilding and modernization of blast furnace B'' at Cockerill-Sambre Ougree  

SciTech Connect

Blown in for the first time in 1962, the B blast furnace of Cockerill-Sambre was relined for the fourth time in 1989. The furnace produced 8,649,000 tons during the last campaign (1980 - 1989). Gunning repairs were carried out in 1985 and 1987. The blast furnace was blow down on June 30 and the burden level was lowered to the tuyere level. Afterwards a salamander of 350 tons was cast in open ladles. The relining of the blast furnace was performed on schedule and the furnace was blown in on the 4th of December 1989. The paper describes the relining goals and the main modifications. The specifications of the blast furnace are listed. Then the paper describes the modifications to the following systems: the charging computer system; the cooling system; the refractory materials; the hot stoves; blast furnace gas system; instrumentation and regulation; the blast furnace computer system; the pollution control equipment; and the cast floor.

Neuville, J.; Lecomte, P.; Massin, J.P.; Drimmer, D. (Cockerill-Sambre, Liege (Belgium))

1993-01-01

315

The new technology and the partial thermotechnical computation for air-cooled blast furnace tuyere  

Microsoft Academic Search

To change the cooling method for the water-cooled blast furnace tuyere used during iron-making progress, according to the jet principle of fluid mechanics and heat convection principle, the technology of jet-flow air-cooled blast furnace tuyere was put forward. Based on the hypotheses about blast furnace, tuyere and the mix-up transparent gas medium in a hearth of blast furnace, the mathematical

Shen Yuan-Sheng; Liu Zong-Ming; Zhu Tao; Yan Fu-Sheng; Xin Hong-Ni; Sun Rui-Lian

2009-01-01

316

Heat treatment of aluminum alloys in furnaces of the PAP type  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The PAP furnace is more economical, simpler to manufacture, and safer in operation than electric air furnaces or salt baths.2.The PAP furnace produces a more uniform temperature in the working space and heats the air from room temperature to the given temperature twice as rapidly as ÉTA furnaces.3.Heating of different semifinished products with sections 40–200 mm thick in loads of

N. I. Kolobnev; L. B. Kushner; D. M. Mitin; P. I. Tevis

1968-01-01

317

Ultrapurification of iron by three types of melting furnaces constructed using ultra-high vacuum technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the ultra-purification of base metals a new arc melting furnace, a new induction-heating floating-zone melting furnace and a new cold-crucible induction melting furnace have been designed and constructed using ultra-high vacuum technology. The ultra-high vacuum attainable in this induction-heating floating-zone melting furnace is so good as 1×10-7 Pa that an iron bar can be zone-melted not only in ultra-higher

Seiichi Takaki; Kenji Abiko

1999-01-01

318

Simulation of natural-gas combustion in a blast-furnace tuyere  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective method of reducing blast-furnace coke consumption is to inject gaseous, liquid, or solid fuel in the blast-furnace tuyeres. It is important ensure the maximum possible fuel combustion in the tuyere, since incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons from the fuel results in their pyrolysis, with the formation of soot, which is entrained wastefully from the furnace with the gas or

T. B. Ibadullaev; V. A. Arutyunov; I. A. Levitskii; V. N. Loginov; I. F. Kurunov; S. A. Feshchenko

2007-01-01

319

Technical Effects of Air Cooled Blast Furnace Slag on Asphalt Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air cooled blast furnace slag is a by product made of gradually air cooled molten blast furnace slag and is often stored in stockpiles near the iron mills and usually occupy a wide area around the iron mills. From this perspective the further use of these materials can have its own merits. Air cooled blast furnace slag can be used

A. Esmaeili; S. M. Marandi; P. Safapour

320

A new concept of electrical power supply for AC arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical arc furnaces (EAFs) cause many power quality problems on the power network. Static var compensator or STATCOM are typically used for power quality requirements. In this paper the authors evaluate different STATCOM control strategy on the power system for two points of view: power quality requirements and furnace productivity enhancement. Simulation results, based on a new arc furnace electrical

G. Postiglione; P. Ladoux

2006-01-01

321

Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-Making Plantation. Teaching with Historic Places.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The rhythmic noises of the turning water wheel and the roar of the furnace blast never stopped at Hopewell Furnace (Pennsylvania) during its years of operation (1771-1883). As long as the furnace was in blast, the ironworkers' jobs were safe. In case of trouble, they could escape to the woods, fields, and creeks of rural Pennsylvania. Now a…

Koman, Rita G.

322

Modeling and Control of Industrial Tunneltype Furnaces for Brick and Tile Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic behavior of an industrial tunnel- type furnace is of the fundamental importance for the quality of the processed products. The knowledge of the furnace dynamics can make the control of the system easier as well as it can eliminate certain operational problems. The various subsystems existent in a tunnel-type furnace are usually controlled by conventional techniques and independent

Panagiotis Michael; Stamatis Manesis

323

Contoured furnace tube for determination of volatile elements in ECP-emission spectrometry with electrothermal vaporization  

SciTech Connect

The standard carbon furnace tubes were modified by contouring and reducing the wall thickness at the end. The furnace tube was tested in the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. It was found that the new design of the furnace tube eliminated multiple emission peaks. (AIP)

Matusiewicz, H.K.; Barnes, R.M.

1985-07-01

324

The measurement of carbon in soils using a microprocessor?controlled resistance furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of carbon in soils using the Leco CR?12 resistance furnace has been investigated. The microprocessor? controlled furnace, and aspects of its use and performance, are described with particular attention to the routine analysis of soil materials. Some of the effects of furnace temperature, sample weight, fine grinding, ‘comparator’ setting and nature of the carbon on carbon determination and

R. H. Merry; L. R. Spouncer

1988-01-01

325

Model predictive control of an electric arc furnace off-gas process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that an electric arc furnace off-gas system can provide valuable manipulated variables for feedback control which can improve furnace efficiency and contribute to safety in the workplace. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to illustrate this concept using practically motivated control objectives. An initial verification of a non-linear furnace model with plant data is shown. The design

J. G Bekker; I. K Craig; P. C Pistorius

2000-01-01

326

Thermal balances of glass-melting furnaces producing table glassware and glass containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data from experimental studies and calculations of the thermal balances of industrial furnaces are used to develop the necessary steps to save fuel in glass production. This paper reports some results of studies of the thermal operation of glass-melting furnaces, of their thermal balances, and also an analysis of the factors which affect the thermal operation of the furnaces.

A. S. Kozlov; V. E. Dunduchenko; R. S. Kotselko; L. P. Shutnikova

1986-01-01

327

A predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon content in pig iron has long been used as one of the most important indices to represent the thermal state of a blast furnace. In this paper, a predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis is presented. The qualitative trend of the process in blast furnace is predicted through causal analysis and qualitative

Jian Chen

2001-01-01

328

Direct analysis of solids by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using a second surface atomizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric analysis of solids using the second surface atomizer has been investigated. The atomizer features a gas-cooled Ta insert within the graphite furnace onto which the analyte can be condensed, after which atomization is performed by raising the furnace to a higher temperature and shutting off the coolant gas. The analyses were conducted on

Thomas M. Rettberg; James A. Holcombe

1986-01-01

329

Modeling and Simulation of the billet's heating process in a furnace with rotary hearth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for the numerical simulation of the billets temperature into an industrial furnace. A very important aspect in approaching the problem was the fact that there were considered both the temperature variations from the exterior medium of the billet from the furnace and the temperature variations from its volume. I. INTRODUCTION HE furnace with rotary hearth

V. Muresan; M. Abrudean; T. Colosi

2011-01-01

330

Brayton-Cycle Heat Recovery System Characterization Program. Glass-furnace facility test plan  

SciTech Connect

The test plan for development of a system to recover waste heat and produce electricity and preheated combustion air from the exhaust gases of an industrial glass furnace is described. The approach is to use a subatmospheric turbocompressor in a Brayton-cycle system. The operational furnace test requirements, the operational furnace environment, and the facility design approach are discussed. (MCW)

Not Available

1980-08-29

331

Numerical modelling of recirculated liquid metal flows in induction furnaces with the cold crucible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and numerical investigations of the turbulent melt flow are carried out in various laboratory and industrial-sized induction furnaces like an induction crucible furnace and an induction furnace with a cold crucible (IFCC). The results of the transient 3D LES simulation of the turbulent melt flow reveal large scale periodic flow instabilities and the temperature distribution in the melt, which

A. Umbrasko; E. Baake; B. Nacke; A. Jakovics

2007-01-01

332

Environmental Modeling of Blast Furnace Slag Aggregate Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presented in this paper has mainly consisted of developing an environmental model of the aggregate production process. An environmental assessment of blast furnace slag aggregates was performed at a given quarry site, for two typical production scenarios, with each yielding several gradings. The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of each grading was then determined for both scenarios. A considerable

Sylvie Nouvion; Agnès Jullien; Maud Sommier; Vincent Basuyau

2009-01-01

333

DC FURNACE CONTAINMENT VESSEL DESIGN USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective pyrometallurgical process vessel design requires accurate assessment of the heat fluxes through the walls of the furnace. This is particularly important for freeze lining operation which is designed to protect refractory materials exposed to chemically corrosive molten contents, or facilitate high temperature operation when the refractory materials are used at conditions close to their service limits. Numerical modelling of

B. Henning; M. Shapiro; L. A. le Grange

334

MULTISTAGED BURNER DESIGN FOR IN-FURNACE NOX CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a multistage combustion modification design, combining two advanced NOx control technologies, on a pilot-scale (0.9 MW) package boiler simulator for in-furnace NOx control of high nitrogen fuel combustion applications. A low NOx precomb...

335

REACTIVATION OF GRANULAR CARBON IN AN INFRARED TRAVELING BELT FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

An all-electrical Shirco carbon regeneration furnace and its air pollution control system have been evaluated for cost and process effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The granular activated carbon used for the Shirco...

336

Ash melting treatment by rotating type surface melting furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of melting treatment of fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are described, and safety and an effective use of slag discharged from the melting treatment are studied. The fly ash has an average particle size of 22 ?m and a melting fluidity point of 1280–1330°C and was able to be melted by using a Kubota melting furnace without

Sei-ichi Abe; Fumiaki Kambayashi; Masaharu Okada

1996-01-01

337

Frog Hollow down-Draft Furnace. Final Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tested down draft furnace provided approximately one-third to one-half of the heating requirements for a 3000 square foot Victorian style house. No significant reduction in air pollutants was observed in the down draft mode compared to the up draft mo...

S. J. Hillenbrand

1983-01-01

338

Modelling methods for co-fired pulverised fuel furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-firing of biomass and coal can be beneficial in reducing the carbon footprint of energy production. Accurate modelling of co-fired furnaces is essential to discover potential problems that may occur during biomass firing and to mitigate potential negative effects of biomass fuels, including lower efficiency due to lower burnout and NOx formation issues. Existing coal combustion models should be modified

L. Ma; M. Gharebaghi; R. Porter; M. Pourkashanian; J. M. Jones; A. Williams

2009-01-01

339

High pressure oil/gas fired closed loop furnace  

SciTech Connect

Furnace structures having smoke and gas return are disclosed. The structures have a closed circuit combustion gas loop and a closed circuit liquid heat transfer loop. The two loops are circulated countercurrent to one another so that maximum heat transfer efficiency is achieved and exhaust emissions are reduced to a minimum.

Hollister, C.W.

1983-02-08

340

COMBUSTION ENGINEERING'S FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION PROGRAMS FOR SO2 CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses three Combustion Engineering programs relating to the furnace sorbent injection process, a low-cost method for controlling sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from tangentially fired, coal burning boilers. The programs are: (1) pilot-scale investigations in the lab...

341

Controlling glass furnace NO{sub x} with gas reburn  

SciTech Connect

Glass furnaces are significant emitters of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because of their high operating temperatures. The glass industry is faced with progressively more stringent environmental regulations, particularly for NO{sub x} emissions, in regions of ozone nonattainment. The objective of the development and demonstration program described here is to commercialize gas reburn (GR) technology--previously successfully applied in large boilers and incinerators--to large glass furnaces commonly used in the manufacture of flat, container and specialty glass. The technical and economic feasibility has been established through pilot hot-firing and cold-flow model testing and through preliminary design studies. This article focuses primarily on the use of this data to scale the design to a large, side-port regenerative furnace manufacturing container glass. Hardware concepts to implement each of three primary process steps is described: primary combustion with reduced excess O{sub 2} operation; port neck gas reburn zone fuel injection and mixing; regenerator burnout air target wall-mounted injection and mixing. A host demonstration site at Anchor Glass Container`s Antioch plant was judged to be compatible with the GR process. One furnace was modified to implement full gas reburning with the objective of demonstrating up to 70% control in the GR operating mode.

Koppang, R.; Marquez, A.; Moyeda, D. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Joshi, M.; Mohr, P. [Combustion Tec Inc., Apopka, FL (United States); Madrazo, R. [Anchor Glass Container Corp., Tampa, FL (United States)

1998-02-01

342

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: BABCOCK AND WILCOX CYCLONE FURNACE VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology is a treatment process for contaminated soils. he process was evaluated to determine its ability to destroy semivolatile organics and to isolate metals and simulated radionuclides into a non-leachable slag materi...

343

Process computerization of No. 13 blast furnace at Gary works  

Microsoft Academic Search

No. 13 blast furnace underwent extensive modifications to the process control system during the second reline. This represents a major shift in control philosophy from hardwired relays and analog controllers to a totally integrated computer control system. The new system created the opportunity for comprehensive diagnostic analysis and increased flexibility for control strategy modifications. The goal of achieving maximum production

G. J. Sherman; M. L. Zmierski; F. W. Hyle

1993-01-01

344

The Iron Blast Furnace: A Study in Chemical Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the furnace from a chemical thermodynamics perspective. Examines the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy change for each reaction of importance. These properties are interpreted on the molecular level then used to deduce the conditions necessary for each reaction to occur in its intended direction. Chemical kinetics is also discussed.…

Treptow, Richard S.; Jean, Luckner

1998-01-01

345

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE NO. 25 IN VICINITY OF MIXERS (MACK HEMP) LADLE #2. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

346

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE NO. 25 IN VICINITY OF MIXERS (MACK HEMP) LADLE DETAIL. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

347

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE NO.25 IN VICINITY OF MIXERS (MACK HEMP) LADLE #1 DETAIL. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

348

Recycling of Electric Arc Furnace Dust: Jorgensen Steel Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is an evaluation of the Ek Glassification(TM) Process to recycle and convert K061-listed waste (Electric Arc Furnace or EAF dust) and other byproducts of the steel-making industry into usable products. The Process holds potential for replaci...

T. W. Jackson J. S. Chapman

1995-01-01

349

LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

350

Blast furnace slags as sorbents of phosphate from water solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is focused on the sorption of phosphorus from aqueous solutions by crystalline and amorphous blast furnace slags. Slag sorption kinetics were measured, adsorption tests were carried out and the effect of acidification on the sorption properties of slags was studied. The kinetic measurements confirmed that the sorption of phosphorus on crystalline as well as amorphous slags can be

Bruno Kostura; Hana Kulveitová; Juraj Leško

2005-01-01

351

Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous

Daphne Mirabile; Maria Ilaria Pistelli; Marina Marchesini; Roberta Falciani; Lisa Chiappelli

2002-01-01

352

Building structure's impact on the effectiveness of furnace retrofits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement of the energy use efficiency of gas furnace (and boiler) installations by retrofit has been considered in the past, and two general approaches have been proposed for implementation. These are: retrofit of the heating appliances (for maladjusted or sized equipment) and\\/or retrofit of its energy distribution system (duct work, hot water piping, etc.). Fuel input derate, accompanied by adjustment

Macriss

1981-01-01

353

Application of effective thermal insulating materials in firing furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was established that the application of thermal insulation in high-heat thermal units makes it possible to save up to 2 tons of standard fuel per year. A survey of the furnace installations of the porcelain and faience field and the thermal balance calculations showed that the walls and the roof of the firing zone of the furnances form the

K. S. Kryzhanovskii; V. I. Chernyl; O. M. Dunaevskii; A. I. Korzh; N. I. Sedoi

1986-01-01

354

BELL ANNEALING FURNACES, SHOWING EMPLOYEEDESIGN CENTER POST WITH THREE RADIAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BELL ANNEALING FURNACES, SHOWING EMPLOYEE-DESIGN CENTER POST WITH THREE RADIAL ARMS FOR HANGING COILS. ANNEALING SOFTENS BATCHES OF COILS WHICH HAVE BEEN HARDENED BY ROLLING SO THAT THEY WILL BE SUITABLE FOR FURTHER PROCESSING. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

355

FRACTIONAL EFFICIENCY OF AN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE BAGHOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the performance of a fabric filter system controlling emissions from either one or two 30-ton electric arc furnaces producing a high-strength, low-alloy specialty steel. The evaluation involved measuring the system's total mass collect...

356

32. INTERIOR BOILER HOUSE Above the two furnaces, one ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. INTERIOR - BOILER HOUSE Above the two furnaces, one of the boilers can be seen to the upper left. The large pipes in the foreground are all that remain of the distribution system. Most of the pipe and tubing have been stripped from the room and sold for scrap. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

357

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: THE PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE RETECH, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The plasma centrifugal furnace is a thermal technology which uses the heat generated from a plasma torch to decontaminate metal and organic contaminated waste. This is accomplished by melting metal-bearing solids and, in the process, thermally destroying organic contaminants. The...

358

Babcock and Wilcox cyclone furnace vitrification technology: Applications analysis report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The document is an evaluation of the performance of the Babcock Wilcox (B W) Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils contaminated with heavy metals, radionuclides, and organics. Both the technical and economic aspects of the technology were examined. A demonstration of the B W vitrification technology was conducted in the fall of 1991

Staley

1992-01-01

359

Recycle of Modified Fly Ash from Furnace Sorbent Injection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses technical and economic studies to assess the impact of recycle on the furnace sorbent injection process. Levelized costs of various recycle schemes were compared to baseline (non-recycle) costs using the EPA LIMB Cost Model and the LIM...

N. Kresovich N. Kaplan E. A. Stokes C. C. Clark R. S. Dahlin

1988-01-01

360

System design description for the whole element furnace testing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document provides a detailed description of the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Whole Element Furnace Testing System located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory G-Cell (327 Building). Equipment specifications, system schematics, general operating modes, maintenance and calibration requirements, and other supporting information are provided in this document. This system was developed for performing cold vacuum drying and hot vacuum drying

G. A. Ritter; S. C. Marschman; P. J. MacFarlan; D. A. King

1998-01-01

361

19. VIEW OF THE BAKEOUT FURNACE, WHERE PARTS WERE HEATED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. VIEW OF THE BAKE-OUT FURNACE, WHERE PARTS WERE HEATED UNDER A VACUUM TO HEAT TREAT OR TO BAKE OUT ANY IMPURITIES. (9/19/72) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

362

MULTIMEDIA ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRIC SUBMERGED ARC FURNACES PRODUCING FERROALLOYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of sampling and analysis at five ferroalloy plants to determine the amounts of particulates and organics generated during manufacture of several products, the effect of furnace type on the amounts generated, and the amounts of these materials escaping to ...

363

Experimenting with concentrated sunlight using the DLR solar furnace  

SciTech Connect

The high flux solar furnace that is operated by the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) at Cologne was inaugurated in June 1994 and we are now able to look back onto one year of successful operation. The solar furnace project was founded by the government of the State Northrhine Westfalia within the Study Group AG Solar. The optical design is a two-stage off-axis configuration which uses a flat 52 m{sup 2} heliostat and a concentrator composed of 147 spherical mirror facets. The heliostat redirects the solar light onto the concentrator which focuses the beam out of the optical axis of the system into the laboratory building. At high insolation levels (>800W/m{sup 2}) it is possible to collect a total power of 20 kW with peak flux densities of 4 MW/m{sup 2}. Sixteen different experiment campaigns were carried out during this first year of operation. The main research fields for these experiments were material science, component development and solar chemistry. The furnace also has its own research program leading to develop sophisticated measurement techniques like remote infrared temperature sensing and flux mapping. Another future goal to be realized within the next five years is the improvement of the performance of the furnace itself. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Neumann, A.; Groer, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt Linder Hoehe, Koeln (Germany)

1996-10-01

364

Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance/Operability Test Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed Loss on Ignition (LOI) equipment, including a model 1608FL CMTM Furnace, a dessicator, and balance. The operability of th...

D. C. Johnston

2000-01-01

365

Phosphate removal using blast furnace slags and opoka-mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abiotic sorption efficiency of on-site wastewater treatment systems can be improved by using a strongly sorbing filter material that, if it retains phosphorus (P) in a plant available way, can be used as fertiliser when P saturation is achieved. Two materials, blast furnace slag and the siliceous sedimentary rock opoka, have shown a high P sorption capacity and were

Lena Johansson; Jon Petter Gustafsson

2000-01-01

366

Dioxin Emissions from Straw-Burning Furnaces. Preliminary Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this analysis was to find out if dioxins are emitted from a modern straw-fueled heating plant and from a socalled farm furnace and if so to determine the amount of emitted dioxins per m/sup 3/ flue gas and per ton straw. For both plants the con...

P. R. Nielsen J. Wood Pedersen

1987-01-01

367

The influence of sunshape on the DLR Solar Furnace beam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circumsolar ratio CSR is often used as a simple description of the relevant solar energy feature of the solar brightness distribution, known as sunshape. The variation of the CSR can affect the performance of solar concentrators.DLR has conducted sunshape studies since the beginning of the design phase of the DLR Solar Furnace in 1992. In addition, in 1996 a

A. Neumann; A. Witzke

1999-01-01

368

NOX EMISSIONS MODELING IN BIOMASS COMBUSTION GRATE FURNACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new flamelet combustion model is developed for the modeling of NOx emissions in biomass grate furnaces. The model describes the combustion chemistry using premixed flamelets. The chemical system is mapped on two controlling variables: the mixture fraction and a reaction progress variable. The species mass fractions and temperature are tabulated as functions of the controlling variables in a pre-processing

B. A. Albrecht; R. J. M. Bastiaans; J. A. van Oijen; L. P. H. de Goey

369

Development Status of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace-ELF) for KIBO  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution shows the development status and the properties of new Electrostatic Levitation Furnace (ELF) system. Prior to this system, a number of ELFs have been developed and performed Small Rocket Experiment Missions. This ELF system is developed such that it may be used as one of the next stage experiment facilities of International Space Station Japan Experimental Module -

Kazunori Kawasaki; Shoji Muramatsu; Hiroaki Asahi; Takahiro Nishimura

2002-01-01

370

Coal Injection in an Experimental Blast Furnace: A Comprehensive Reort.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blast furnace coal injection tests conducted by the Bureau of Mines in cooperation with a consortium of 22 steel companies in 1963-64 are described. These tests were part of a program of extensive investigation of auxiliary fuel injection in the Bureau's ...

P. L. Woolf

1985-01-01

371

Blast Furnace Operation with Oxygen-Enriched Unheated Blast Air.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three trials with oxygen-enriched unheated blast air are described. The trials were conducted in the Bureau of Mines experimental blast furnace located in Bruceton, PA. For the first trial, moisture was added to the oxygenated blast. The second and third ...

P. L. Woolf

1985-01-01

372

A Geologic Guide to the Cooper Furnace Day Use Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the day use area adjoining the Allatoona Dam on the Etowah River north of Atlanta and the geology of the three physiographic provinces which converge there. Included are a generalized geologic map of the area and maps of the visitor center, picnic areas, the abandoned pig iron furnace, the scenic overlooks, and the…

Crews, Patty

1991-01-01

373

Lot sizing and furnace scheduling in small foundries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot sizing and scheduling problem prevalent in small market-driven foundries is studied. There are two related decision levels: (1) the furnace scheduling of metal alloy production, and (2) moulding machine planning which specifies the type and size of production lots. A mixed integer programming (MIP) formulation of the problem is proposed, but is impractical to solve in reasonable computing

Silvio A. De Araujo; Marcos N. Arenales; Alistair R. Clark

2008-01-01

374

CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED CAST HOUSE LIES IN BETWEEN TWO SKIP INCLINES. HIP ROOF AT RIGHT COVERS BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

375

Lining of a cylindrical furnace for oil processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alimerka company has developed heat-insulating refractory concrete BRAB5I11 and gunned mixture BRAB5I11t. The refractory\\u000a concrete and air-placed mixture have been used in cylindrical furnaces for heating fuel oil. Three years of service have corroborated\\u000a the good insulating properties and durability of this concrete.

I. V. Tropinova; A. M. Tropinov; V. N. Karnaushenko; N. I. Kopach

2007-01-01

376

Atomization Efficiency of Graphite Furnace in Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atomization efficiency of the Hitachi GA-3 graphite furnace for the production and containment of atomic vapour was determined for Ag, Cd, Cr, Ge and In by a method suggested. The method is based on the measurements of residence time, peak hight and peak, area absorbances of analyte atoms. The ? and ?a values of above mentioned elements were experimentally

Yansheng Zheng

1994-01-01

377

INTERIOR VIEW OF TRANSFORMER ROOM FOR FURNACE NO. 2 LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF TRANSFORMER ROOM FOR FURNACE NO. 2 LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING BACK OF CONTROL PANEL AND TRANSFORMER (GE, 3000 KUA water cooled, 60 cycles, U.S. patent 1900585. Transformer dates from 1937, control panel GE resistors) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

378

9. VIEW OF FOUNDRY FURNACE, DEPLETED URANIUM INGOTS, BERYLLIUM INGOTS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF FOUNDRY FURNACE, DEPLETED URANIUM INGOTS, BERYLLIUM INGOTS, AND ALUMINUM SHAPES WERE PRODUCED IN THE FOUNDRY. (10/30/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

379

No Furnaces but Heat Aplenty in âPassive Housesâ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly cogent feature from the The New York Time Europe, from December 28, 2008, describes the super efficient features of passive houses. These carefully engineered structures allow inhabitants to maintain comfortable temperatures inside and produce hot water in very cold climates without the need of a furnace.

Rosenthal, Elisabeth

380

North Dakota lignite burns cleanly in cyclone furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

High moisture North Dakota lignite was handled with ease during the ; first three years of operation. The furnace is a 235-Mw rated Babcock & Wilcox ; Cyclone located at Milton R. Young Generating Station of Minnkota Power ; Cooperative, lnc., at Center, N. D. Plant availability was 93.8% and output ; seldom fell below normal rating during most of

Bougie

1973-01-01

381

Mechanisms controlling graphite furnace atomization and stabilization of beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The real-time mass spectra of gas-phase species, produced in a graphite furnace containing beryllium analyte and a magnesium modifier, are obtained and used to elucidate mechanisms that control vaporization, atomization and stabilization. It is determined that free beryllium is produced from the thermal decomposition of adsorbed monomeric oxide. Beryllium is lost as polymeric oxides, carbides, cyanide, and cyanamide during the

D. L. Styris; D. A. Redfield

1987-01-01

382

Rational design of the car hearth of a tunnel furnace  

SciTech Connect

In tunnel furnaces the heat losses into the environment amount to 15-20% of the burnt-fuel heat. The heat is essentially lost through the car (carrier) hearth into the corridor of the furnace bottom. A light-weight car has been designed that is thermally insulated using a high-alumina kaolin fiber of the VGR-130 mark. The car-hearth weight was reduced by 1.5 times by using a light-weight fireclay and incorporating an air space within the hearth. Using the method of finite differences, the authors determined the dynamics of temperature field variation along the height of the car-hearth before and after its reconstruction as applied to the firing parameters of the products in the tunnel furnace. The results of the determinations are presented. An additional thermal insulation of the car hearth using a 15-20 mm thick high-alumina kaolin fiber also makes it possible to reduce the heat losses in the furnace-bottom corridor by 30-40%, and thereby, to decrease the maximum temperature in the corridor from 90 to 60 degrees C, which significantly improves energy efficiency.

Kryzhanovskii, K.S.; Chernyi, V.I.; Dunaevskii, O.M.; Mokhort, V.N.; Sedoi, N.I.

1985-09-01

383

RECYCLE OF MODIFIED FLY ASH FROM FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses technical and economic studies to assess the impact of recycle on the furnace sorbent injection process. Levelized costs of various recycle schemes were compared to baseline (non-recycle) costs using the EPA LIMB Cost Model and the LIMB Recycle Model. Laborato...

384

Fire-resistant geopolymer produced by granulated blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes research into the use of granulated blast furnace slag as an active filler in the making of geopolymers. During this work it was found that geopolymer setting time correlates well with temperature, potassium hydroxide concentration, metakaolinite and sodium silicate addition. The physical and mechanical properties of the geopolymer also correlated well with the concentration of alkaline solution

T. W. Cheng; J. P. Chiu

2003-01-01

385

Trap assembly for a condensing fossil fuel furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a furnace of the type including a heat exchanger with a combustion chamber for combusting a fuel and air mixture; means for introducing a fuel and air mixture to the chamber; means for igniting the fuel and air mixture; a combustion product plenum connected to the chamber for directing combustion products from the combustion chamber to a

Shellenberger

1988-01-01

386

STATCOM for compensation of large electric arc furnace installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

High power electronic equipment, developed for the compensation of utility power transmission systems, has been successfully applied to the problem of flicker compensation in a large industrial arc furnace. Whereas conventional flicker compensation methods, using thyristor valves in conjunction with passive components, have generally failed to reduce flicker substantially the new STATCOM-based compensator provides a dramatic reduction in flicker, as

C. Schauder

1999-01-01

387

Calcination of pulverized limestone particles under furnace injection conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcination behaviour of limestone particles (6–90 ?m) under furnace injection conditions (1073–1673 K) was determined. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of partially calcined particles revealed that calcination occurred over the total (internal and external) surface area with different calcination rates at different locations. A model consistent with experimental rate data indicated that the calcination rate was influenced by heat transfer,

Naiyi Hu; Alan W. Scaroni

1996-01-01

388

Coke Oven and Blast Furnace Gas Control and Optimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this work fuel distribution in the Raahe Steel Works is discussed, the main target being the processes in which the by-product fuels, coke oven and blast furnace gas can be used. From this study a system for optimization and priority of fuel distributi...

P. Ruha J. Koskela

1989-01-01

389

Results from commercial size crop biomass furnace evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Results from a project demonstrate the logistical and technical feasibility of burning straw, cornstalks, and other regionally plentiful crop biomass to produce usable thermal energy for air or hot water heating. A modified domestically produced direct burning biomass furnace was evaluated with respect to various operating characteristics.

Click, L.S.; Marquis, J.A.

1987-01-01

390

Quadrupole lamp furnace for high temperature (up to 2050 K) synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction studies in air in reflection geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four-lamp thermal image furnace has been developed to conduct high temperature x-ray diffraction in reflection geometry on oxide ceramic powder samples in air at temperatures ?2050 K using synchrotron radiation. A refractory crucible made of Pt20%Rh alloy was used as a specimen holder. A material with well characterized lattice expansion properties was used as an internal crystallographic thermometer to

P. Sarin; W. Yoon; K. Jurkschat; P. Zschack; W. M. Kriven

2006-01-01

391

Air-cooled CWS warm air furnace. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Thermo Power Corporation, Tecogen Division, has developed coal water slurry (CWS) combustion technologies specifically tailored to meet the space heating needs of the residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. This furnace was extensively tested and met all the design and operating criteria of the development program, which included combustion efficiencies in excess of 99%, response to full load from a cold start in less than 5 minutes, and steady-state thermal efficiencies as high as 85%. While this furnace design is extremely versatile, versatility came at the expense of system complexity and cost. To provide a more cost effective CWS-based option for the residential market sector, Tecogen, developed a totally air-cooled CWS-fired residential warm air heating system. To minimize system cost and to take advantage of industry manufacturing practices and experience, a commercially available oil/gas solid fuel-fired central furnace, manufactured by Yukon Energy Corporation, was used as the platform for the CWS combustor and related equipment. A prototype furnace was designed, built, and tested in the laboratory to verify system integrity and operation. This unit was then shipped to the PETC to undergo demonstration operation and serve as a showcase of the CWS technology. An in-depth Owners Manual was prepared and delivered with the furnace. This Owners Manual, which is included as Appendix A of this report, includes installation instructions, operating procedures, wiring diagrams, and equipment bulletins on the major components. It also contains coal water slurry fuel specifications and typical system operating variables, including key temperatures, pressures, and flowrates.

Litka, A.F.; Becker, F.E.

1995-08-01

392

Experiences with computer systems in blast furnace operation control at Rautaruukki  

SciTech Connect

Low energy consumption, together with high productivity and stable blast furnace operation, has been achieved at Rautaruukki's Raahe Steel Works as a result of the efficient use of computer technology in process control and improvements in raw materials quality. The blast furnace supervision system is designed to support the decision-making in medium and long-term process control. The information presenting the blast furnace operation phenomena is grouped so that little time is needed to obtain the current state of the process. Due to the complexity of the blast furnace process, an expert system to guide and diagnose the short and medium-term blast furnace operation has been developed.

Inkala, P.; Karppinen, A. (Rautaruukki Oy, Raahe (Finland). Raahe Steel Works); Seppanen, M. (Rautaruukki Oy Engineering, Oulu (Finland))

1994-09-01

393

Process to eliminate hazardous components from the electric arc furnace flue dust and recovering of metals  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method to recover metals from flue dust generated in an electric arc furnace, the method comprising: charging pelletized or powder flue dust into an electric induction furnace between induction susceptors; sealing of the furnace top to prevent entry of air; injecting natural gas through the bottom of the electric induction furnace as a solitary reducing agent; heating the charge by electromagnetic induction of the susceptors to provide reduction energy; recovering of heavy metals as a zinclead-cadmium alloy in a condenser at the top of the furnace; burning and scrubbing exiting gases in the condenser; and melting the remaining iron to produce steel and slag.

Lazcano-Navarro, A.

1988-08-09

394

Investigation of Furnace Uniformity and its Effect on High-Temperature Fixed-Point Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large-area furnace BB3500YY was designed and built at the VNIIOFI as a furnace for high-temperature metal (carbide)-carbon (M(C)-C) eutectic fixed points and was then investigated at the NMIJ. The dependence of the temperature uniformity of the furnace on various heater and cell holder arrangements was investigated. After making some improvements, the temperature of the central part of the furnace was uniform to within 2K over a length of 40 mm—the length of the fixed-point cell—at a temperature of 2,500°C. With this furnace, the melting plateaux of Re-C and TiC-C were shown to be better than those observed in other furnaces. For instance, a Re-C cell showed melting plateaux with a 0.1K melting range and a duration of about 40 min. Furthermore, to verify the capability of the furnace to fill cells, one Re-C and one TiC-C cell were made using the BB3500YY. The cells were then compared to a Re-C cell made in a Nagano furnace and a TiC-C cell filled in a BB3200pg furnace. The agreement in plateau shapes demonstrates the capability of the BB3500YY furnace to also function as a filling furnace.

Khlevnoy, B.; Sakharov, M.; Ogarev, S.; Sapritsky, V.; Yamada, Y.; Anhalt, K.

2008-02-01

395

Carbon reactivation by externally-fired rotary kiln furnace. Final report Oct 75-Jan 78  

SciTech Connect

An externally-fired rotary kiln furnace system has been evaluated for cost-effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The pilot scale rotary kiln furnace was operated within the range of 682 kg/day (1,500 lb/day) to 909 kg/day (2,000 lb/day). The rotary kiln furnace was found to be as effective as the multiple hearth furnace in reactivating the exhausted granular activated carbon. The operating and maintenance of the rotary kiln system required less operator skill than the multiple hearth furnace system. However, the corrosion rate was higher in the rotary tube than in the multiple hearth furnace. Cost estimates based on a typical regeneration capacity of 182 kg/hr (400 lb/hr) have been made for both rotary kiln and multiple hearth furnace systems. These indicate that the capital cost for the multiple hearth furnace is about two times that of the rotary kiln furnace. The operation and maintenance costs for both furnace systems are similar. The overall process costs for the multiple hearth and rotary kiln furnace systems are estimated to be 33.2 cents/kg (15.1 cents/lb) of carbon regenerated and 29.2 cents/kg (13.3 cents/lb) of carbon regenerated, respectively.

Chen, C.; Directo, L.S.

1980-08-01

396

Energy saving devices on gas furnaces. Final report, 1 Sep 78-1 Mar 80  

SciTech Connect

Three devices designed for attachment to gas furnace flues were tested under specified conditions to measure their effect on the thermal efficiency of one furnace. An automatic vent damper (AVD) had no appreciable effect on furnace thermal efficiency. The tests confirmed the claims for this device, that it is of benefit only in reducing air exfiltration while the furnace is off. A vent restrictor and an extended draft hood were of varying effectiveness under the test conditions employed. The performance of these two devices showed that additional testing including furnace derating would be required to properly evaluate and compare these devices. Any consideration of retrofit vent devices should be reviewed with building officials, furnace manufacturer, device manufacturer and local utility with regard to building codes, mechanical codes, furnace warranty, and safety factors.

Brisbane, T.E.; Sheperd, P.B.

1980-03-01

397

ReTech, Inc., Plasma Centrifugal Furnace: Applications analysis report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspects of the technology were examined. A demonstration of the Retech furnace was conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program and the Department of Energy's Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. Operational data, along with sampling and analysis information, were carefully complied to establish a data base against which other available data, as well as the vendor's claims for the technology, have been compared and evaluated. Conclusions concerning the technology's suitability for use in immobilizing contaminants in the feed soil were reached, and extrapolations regarding applications at other sites with different contaminants and soil types were made.

Jackson, Trevor

1992-06-01

398

Electric arc furnace dust management: A review of technologies  

SciTech Connect

Technologies to recover and recycle values from, stabilize and dispose of, and glassify and sell electric arc furnace dust by pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, and hybrid methods continue to emerge, be reduced to commercial practice, then succeed and move forward or fail and fade away. The current development and/or commercial status of the following types of processes have been reviewed and analyzed: pyrometallurgical such as kiln, flame reactor, bath smelting, and plasma and electric furnace-based processes; hydrometallurgical involving acidic or basic leaching alone or combined with electrowinning; hybrid hydrometallurgical/pyrometallurgical stabilization techniques using cement and other additives; and glassification. Comparative costs, the trend toward higher value-added products, and the prognosis for these technologies are assessed. Regulations changed significantly during 1995 regarding allowable disposal methods, toward more flexible options. These changes are affecting current and future dust producers, processors and developers of dust management technology. The impacts are discussed.

Zunkel, A.D. [A.D. Zunkel Consultants Inc., Vancouver, WA (United States)

1997-03-01

399

Microstructural changes on the reduction of imperial smelting furnace sinters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction reactions of Imperial Smelting Furnace (ISF) sinter microstructure were investigated in simulated zinc blast furnace conditions. Initial and partially reduced samples were examined using optical, electron-probe microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize the struc-tural and compositional changes occurring during the reduction reaction. The reaction mecha-nisms and reduction sequences for the various oxide phases within the sinter structure during reduction of ISF sinters under the system studied are discussed. The reduction of sinters resulted in the structural modification of zincite, franklinite, slag phases, and the formation of new oxide and metallic phases. The rate and sequence of these complex phase transformations were found to be dependent upon reduction time, temperature, and the reacting gas composition.

Lee, F. T.; Hayes, P. C.

1993-02-01

400

Energy Conservation for Granular Coal Injection into a Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the lack of knowledge regarding the combustion of granular coal injected into a blast furnace, injection characteristics of granular coal were first studied through proximate analysis, element analysis, and research of explosivity, ignition point, meltability of ash, grindability, calorific value, etc. Using a sampling device in the raceway combined with petrographic analysis, during the combustion process of granular coal with high crystal water and volatile in raceway, cracks and bursts were found, leading to a reduction of particle size. Based on a model of mass control and dynamic theory of particle combustion, the transition dynamic model for cracking in combustion of granular coal was found, and the critical value of cracking ratio (?P) for granular coal combustion in the raceway was calculated. Finally, the utilization ratio and energy efficiency of granular coal used in the blast furnace were discussed, offering theoretical foundation and technical support for intensifying granular coal combustion and promoting granular coal injection.

Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Zhang, Jianliang; Shao, Jiugang; Zuo, Haibin; Ren, Shan

2012-08-01

401

Experimental processing of salt slags from an aluminum dross furnace  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Bureau of Mines has developed a hydrometallurgical method to recover aluminum, aluminum oxide, and fluxing salts from aluminum salt slags. The slag is leached with water at room temperature to produce a saturated brine slurry. Screening of the slurry yields an aluminum-rich fraction that can be returned to the dross furnace. The remaining slurry is vacuum filtered, yielding a clear brine solution and an aluminum oxide filter cake. Evaporation of the clear filtrate produces a high-purity fluxing salt for reuse in the dross furnace. Over 80 pct of the metallic aluminum is recovered in the aluminum-rich oversize fraction, while essentially all the fluxing salts are recovered by evaporation. This report contains the final results of an investigation on a process research unit scale, an economic evaluation of the method, and recommendations to further improve the process.

Magyar, M.J.; Kaplan, R.S.; Makar, H.V.

1980-01-01

402

A blended cement containing blast furnace slag and phosphorous slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blended cement containing blast furnace slag (BFS) and phosphorous slag (PS) is a new kind of cement. The total content of\\u000a blended materials could increase if two additives were used. Using the same admixtures, the properties of the blended cement\\u000a with 70% additives could reach the standard of 525-grade slag cement according to GB. The strength of cement with 80%

Li Dong-xu; Chen Lin; Xu Zhong-zi; Luo Zhi-min

2002-01-01

403

Mathematical model of the electric arc furnace. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking is responsible for some 25% of the steel produced in the US and this proportion is likely to grow in the future. This operation consumes some 1.4 x 10¹° kWh annually at an overall process efficiency of about 60 to 75%. The purpose of this program has been to develop a mathematical model representing the energy

Szekely

1982-01-01

404

Advanced physics and algorithms in the IBA DataFurnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IBA DataFurnace (NDF) is a general purpose program for analysis of IBA data. It currently includes Rutherford backscattering (RBS), elastic (non-Rutherford) backscattering (EBS), elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), non-resonant nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Here we discuss recent developments in the advanced physics capabilities implemented in NDF, supported by advanced algorithms. Examples of real life hard cases are given that illustrate the issues discussed.

Barradas, N. P.; Jeynes, C.

2008-04-01

405

How to conserve fuel in furnaces and flares  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first part of this article, the author discusses some ideas on energy conservation in refinery process furnaces. In the second part, he discusses refinery flares and how to conserve purge gas and steam. It is shown that flue gas temperatures between 500\\/degree\\/F and 800\\/degree\\/F can waste seven to 15 percent of the fuel's heating valve. For flue gas

Seebold

1981-01-01

406

Sorption of heavy metals on blast furnace sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the use of sludge, a by-product of the steel industry, as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents was carried out. Gases produced in the blast furnace were washed and led towards a Dorr thickener where the sludge was obtained as a suspension. The sorption of Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ on

A. López-Delgado; C. Pérez; F. A. López

1998-01-01

407

Autogenous shrinkage of concrete containing granulated blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the experimental results and prediction model for the autogenous shrinkage of concrete made with various water-to-cementitious materials ratios (w\\/cm) ranging from 0.27 to 0.42 and granulated blast-furnace slag (BFS) in the range of 0% to 50% by mass of the total cementitious materials. Test results showed that BFS concrete exhibited greater autogenous shrinkage than ordinary concrete with

K. M. Lee; H. K. Lee; S. H. Lee; G. Y. Kim

2006-01-01

408

Crystallization mechanism and properties of a blast furnace slag glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex crystallization process of a Brazilian blast-furnace slag glass was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction (SAD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Three crystalline phases (merwinite, melilite and larnite) were identified after heat treatment between Tg (742°C) and the DSC crystallization peak (T=1000°C). Merwinite was identified

C. Fredericci; E. D. Zanotto; E. C. Ziemath

2000-01-01

409

Blast furnace slag as phosphorus sorbents — column studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filter substrates that efficiently remove phosphorus (P) from wastewater can be used to optimise the nutrient removal by on-site wastewater treatment systems. A number of filter substrates have been investigated and the industrial by-product blast furnace slag has attracted attention as a promising substrate. To further evaluate the sorption and attenuation of PO43?, a column experiment was carried out under

Lena Johansson

1999-01-01

410

Phosphorus removal by electric arc furnace steel slag and serpentinite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag and serpentinite were tested in columns either alone or mixed with limestone to determine their capacity to remove phosphorus (P) from a solution containing initially 20mg P\\/L (for 114 days) than 400mg P\\/L (for 21 days). EAF steel slag was nearly 100% efficient due to specific P adsorption onto metal hydroxides and precipitation of

Aleksandra Drizo; Christiane Forget; Robert P. Chapuis; Yves Comeau

2006-01-01

411

Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg\\/h (500 to 2,000 lb\\/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated

W. K. OConnor; P. C. Turner

1999-01-01

412

Radiotracer investigation of hydride trapping efficiency within a graphite furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficiencies of hydride generation and in situ trapping in the transversely heated graphite furnace by using Pd modifier were studied for selenium hydride, arsine and stibine by means of the radiotracers 75Se, 76As and 122Sb. The influence of four experimental parameters, i.e. Pd modifier mass, trapping temperature, carrier gas flow rate and the distance of the hydride introduction capillary from

B. Do?ekal; J. D?dina; V. Krivan

1997-01-01

413

Development of a bench-scale metal distillation furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of an inductively heated bench-scale distillation furnace (retort) capable of processing actinides is described. The apparatus consists of a vacuum\\/inert gas bell jar, a bell-jar lift, a nonwater-cooled induction coil, the induction tank circuit, and a series of components designed to contain the metal melts and vapors. The apparatus is located within a nitrogen glovebox and is designed to

M. A. Vest; E. F. Lewandowski; R. D. Pierce; J. L. Smith

1997-01-01

414

Gaseous cooling media used for heat treatment in vacuum furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Gases used for bright quench-hardening of steels after heating in vacuum furnaces have to meet the following requirements:a)in the hardening of steels whose austenitization temperature does not exceed 1000°C the oxygen content of the cooling gas has to be 0.007 vol.% at the most, and the water vapor content 0.020 vol.% at the most; this corresponds to a dew point

S. Kowal'ski

1983-01-01

415

Stress fields of solid flow in a model blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computational fluid dynamics–discrete element method approach, supported by an averaging technique, has been employed\\u000a to quantitatively investigate the stress distributions of solid flow in a model blast furnace (BF). The results indicate that\\u000a large normal stresses are mainly observed in the lower central part of the BF, whilst small normal stresses in the vicinity\\u000a of the raceway. In the

H. P. Zhu; Z. Y. Zhou; A. B. Yu; P. Zulli

2009-01-01

416

Multistaged burner design for in-furnace NOx control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a multistage combustion-modification design, combining two advanced NOx control technologies, on a pilot-scale (0.9 MW) package boiler simulator for in-furnace NOx control of high-nitrogen fuel-combustion applications. A low-NOx precombustion chamber burner, reduced in size (to provide a 350-msec bulk gas residence time) to improve commercial applicability, is being used with 10-20% natural

J. A. Mulholland; R. K. Srivastava

1986-01-01

417

Evaluation of steel furnace slags as cement additives  

SciTech Connect

Chemical and physical properties and strength development have been studied for six granulated steel furnace slags from the normal steelmaking process. This paper reports results of research performed to develop cement mixture proportions using these slags. The influence of slag proportions, specific surface, and water demand on compressive strength and bulk density of cement blends are presented in this paper. The different test results, which were compared with the Turkish Standards, in general, were found to be within the limits.

Tuefekci, M.; Demirbas, A.; Genc, H. [Technical Univ. of the Black Sea, Trabzon (Turkey)

1997-11-01

418

Catalyst added to Claus furnace reduces sulfur losses  

SciTech Connect

Several substances effectively catalyze the reduction of carbon disulfide in Claus gas streams at Claus reaction furnace conditions (about 1,000{sup 0}C). Some conversion of carbonyl sulfide also occurs. Carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide as well-known problem compounds that reduce sulfur recovery efficiency in many sulfur recovery plants. Installation of a suitable catalytic material in the reaction furnace promises significant improvement of Claus plant efficiency, and prolonged life of the catalytic converters. Almost every Claus sulfur recovery plant makes some carbon disulfide (CS/sub 2/) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) in the reaction furnace, and in many of these plants, these compounds constitute a significant problem. CS/sub 2/ and COS often comprise more than 50% of sulfur losses in the tail gas. This article reexamines the issue of CS/sub 2/ and COS in the Claus plant. The relative importance of these two troublesome components is explored with data accumulated from Shell Canada Claus plants. The authors discuss which factors tend to produce these components. Then a method for reducing CS/sub 2/ and COS virtually at the source will be introduced.

Luinstra, E.A.; d'Haene, P.E. (Shell Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada). Oakville Research Centre)

1989-07-01

419

Modeling of Blast Furnace with Layered Cohesive Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is a moving bed reactor involving counter-, co-, and cross-current flows of gas, powder, liquids, and solids, coupled with heat exchange and chemical reactions. The behavior of multiple phases directly affects the stability and productivity of the furnace. In the present study, a mathematical model is proposed to describe the behavior of fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, as well as chemical reactions in a BF, in which gas, solid, and liquid phases affect each other through interaction forces, and their flows are competing for the space available. Process variables that characterize the internal furnace state, such as reduction degree, reducing gas and burden concentrations, as well as gas and condensed phase temperatures, have been described quantitatively. In particular, different treatments of the cohesive zone (CZ), i.e., layered, isotropic, and anisotropic nonlayered, are discussed, and their influence on simulation results is compared. The results show that predicted fluid flow and thermochemical phenomena within and around the CZ and in the lower part of the BF are different for different treatments. The layered CZ treatment corresponds to the layered charging of burden and naturally can predict the CZ as a gas distributor and liquid generator.

Dong, X. F.; Yu, A. B.; Chew, S. J.; Zulli, P.

2010-04-01

420

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

Gary M. Blythe

2000-12-01

421

Adapting TPV for Use in a Standard Home Heating Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel TPV configuration will be presented that can fit into a standard home furnace cabinet. This system incorporates an externally faceted glass cylinder with a dichroic filter deposited on its outer surface and a GaSb IR cell array bonded to the outer surface on top of the filter. This cylindrical array is then surrounded with an envelope containing a low boiling point liquid for evaporative cooling. The liquid is in direct contact with the backside of the cell array. An air-cooled condenser is then mounted above the photovoltaic converter array. Evaporative cooling potentially allows a heat removal rate of 20 W/cm2. Additional novel features of this design are described. The goal is to design a cost-effective retrofit forced-air warm air furnace that can work either as a self-powered furnace or as a Combined Heat and Power appliance. In order to achieve low cost, the design point for the GaSb cell electric power density is 2.5 W/cm2.

Carlson, Randolph S.; Fraas, Lewis M.

2007-02-01

422

Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace  

SciTech Connect

Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Kazakh National University, Alma Ata (Kazakhstan). Dept. of Physics

2007-12-15

423

The graphite furnace and its role in atomic spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The diversity of applications of the graphite furnace is extraordinary, encompassing the fields of physics, thermochemistry, spectroscopy and analytical chemistry. In this respect, the graphite furnace has been used on a continuous basis as a research tool for nearly a century. Following its introduction as an atomization source for atomic absorption spectrometry by L'vov in 1959, its role in atomic spectrometry expanded considerably to encompass analytical applications in emision, fluorescence, absorption and mass spectrometry. In addition to its conspicuous use as an atomization source in these areas, it is frequently employed as a vaporizer when used in the format of combined and tandem sources with other instrumentation. The unique physico-chemical micro-environment which can be attained within the graphite furnace has also been used to advantage in a number of investigations, including the determination of gas- and solid-phase diffusion coefficients of high-temperature metal vapours, the heats of sublimation of refractory metals, fundamental optical constants and the measurement of the heats of desorption of adatoms from high-temperature surfaces. The range of such applications remains to be more fully explored. The attractive features of this source, viz., the high atomization/vaporization efficiency, comparatively long atomic vapour residence times, controllable chemical and thermal environment and its ability to handle high dissolved solids content samples (

Sturgeon, R E

1996-06-01

424

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the previous semi-annual technical progress report (April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001). During the current reporting period, additional balance of plant impact information was determined for one of the two tests. These additional balance-of-plant results are presented and discussed in this report. There was no other technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed.

Gary M. Blythe

2002-04-29

425

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

Gary M. Blythe

2001-11-06

426

Thermal balances of glass-melting furnaces producing table glassware and glass containers  

SciTech Connect

The data from experimental studies and calculations of the thermal balances of industrial furnaces are used to develop the necessary steps to save fuel in glass production. This paper reports some results of studies of the thermal operation of glass-melting furnaces, of their thermal balances, and also an analysis of the factors which affect the thermal operation of the furnaces. The studies showed that it is effective to use thermal insulation in individual elements of the lining of glass-melting furnaces with the aim of lowering heat loss. The improvement in the designe of the furnaces and the methods used for the combustion of fuel, and the fuller utilization of reserves for increasing productivity which are already there in most furnaces should all be focused upon as tasks to achieve lower consumption of fuel.

Kozlov, A.S.; Dunduchenko, V.E.; Kotselko, R.S.; Shutnikova, L.P.

1986-03-01

427

Analysis of emissions from residential natural gas furnaces. Report for June-September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The report includes emissions data from residential natural-gas furnaces and compares selected data to emissions data from residential oil furnaces and wood-stoves. Natural-gas furnace emissions data are given for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons, aldehydes, volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (including mono- and polyaromatic hydrocarbons), total particulate, and total extractable organics. Natural-gas furnace combustion emissions were collected in a laboratory setting under simulated residential conditions and usage. The study was part of the Integrated Air Cancer Project, a multidisciplinary, cross-EPA laboratory effort to apportion sources of mutagenicity in ambient emissions. Both high and low efficiency gas furnaces were tested. The results indicate that significant levels of CO, unburned hydrocarbons, aromatic volatile organic compounds, and aldehydes can be emitted. Based on emission factors relative to thermal input, residential natural-gas emissions are at least a factor of 10 to 100 less than comparable emissions from residential oil furnaces and woodstoves.

Ryan, J.V.; McCrillis, R.C.

1994-06-01

428

Mathematical simulation of working processes in the furnace of a circulating fluidized bed boiler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A software system developed for simulating and calculating boiler furnaces with circulating fluidized beds is described. The main principles on which the system is constructed are outlined, and the physical and mathematical models of processes in circulating fluidized bed furnaces are described together with the calculation algorithm. Results from a study of analyzing the effect the grinding fineness of initial fuel particles has on the processes in a circulating fluidized bed furnace are presented.

Dvoinishnikov, V. A.; Larkov, A. V.

2009-01-01

429

Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements forResidential Gas Furnaces in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents analysis of the life-cycle costs for individual households and the aggregate energy and economic impacts from potential energy efficiency improvements in U.S. residential furnaces. Most homes in the US are heated by a central furnace attached to ducts for distributing heated air and fueled by natural gas. Electricity consumption by a furnace blower is significant, comparable to the annual electricity consumption of a major appliance. Since the same blower unit is also used during the summer to circulate cooled air in centrally air conditioned homes, electricity savings occur year round. Estimates are provided of the potential electricity savings from more efficient fans and motors. Current regulations require new residential gas-fired furnaces (not including mobile home furnaces) to meet or exceed 78 percent annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE), but in fact nearly all furnaces sold are at 80 percent AFUE or higher. The possibilities for higher fuel efficiency fall into two groups: more efficient non-condensing furnaces (81 percent AFUE) and condensing furnaces (90-96 percent AFUE). There are also options to increase the efficiency of the furnace blower. This paper reports the projected national energy and economic impacts of requiring higher efficiency furnaces in the future. Energy savings vary with climate, with the result that condensing furnaces offer larger energy savings in colder climates. The range of impacts for a statistical sample of households and the percent of households with net savings in life cycle cost are shown. Gas furnaces are somewhat unusual in that the technology does not easily permit incremental change to the AFUE above 80 percent. Achieving significant energy savings requires use of condensing technology, which yields a large efficiency gain (to 90 percent or higher AFUE), but has a higher cost. With respect to electricity efficiency design options, the ECM has a negative effect on the average LCC. The current extra cost of this technology more than offsets the sizable electricity savings.

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James E.; McNeil, Michael; Lutz, Jim

2006-05-26

430

Analysis of candidate silicon carbide recuperator materials exposed to industrial furnace environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several SiC ceramics were exposed to the combustion environment in six industrial furnaces to determine their corrosion resistance. The matrials were sintered-..cap alpha.. (Hexoloy SA), Sintride, recrystallized (NC-400), CVD SiC coated NC-400, siliconized (NC-430), reaction sintered (SC-X and KT), and SiâNâ-bounded (C\\/75 and CN-178). Tubes of these materials were exposed in two aluminum remelt furnaces, a forge furnace, a steel

J. I. Federer; T. N. Tiegs; D. M. Kotchick; D. Petrak

1985-01-01

431

Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow  

DOEpatents

Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

Pollock, G.G.

1997-01-28

432

Effects of flexible power cables on harmonic generation of an arc furnace steel plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-phase dynamic arc furnace model is presented to investigate the effect of flexible power cables oscillations on harmonic generation of an arc-furnace steel plant. In this model, the flexible cables are presented by a varying three-phase inductor bank connected in series to the arc furnace. The self and mutual inductances of the inductors are calculated at each time step,

H. Khoshkhoo; S. H. H. Sadeghi; R. Moini; M. Jabbari

2008-01-01

433

Radiation Effects in Zircon  

SciTech Connect

The widespread distribution of zircon in the continental crust, its tendency to concentrate trace elements, particularly lanthanides and actinides, its use in age-dating, and its resistance to chemical and physical degradation have made zircon the most important accessory mineral in geologic studies. Because zircon is highly refractory, it also has important industrial applications, including its use as a lining material in high-temperature furnaces. However, during the past decade, zircon has also been proposed for advanced technology applications, such as a durable material for the immobilization of plutonium or, when modified by ion-beam irradiation, as an optic waveguide material. In all of these applications, the change in properties as a function of increasing radiation dose is of critical importance. In this chapter, we summarize the state-of-knowledge on the radiation damage accumulation process in zircon.

Ewing, Rodney C.; Meldrum, Alkiviathes; Wang, L. M.; Weber, William J.; Corrales, Louis R.

2003-12-11

434

Rohm and Haas: Furnace Replacement Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Chemical Plant  

SciTech Connect

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Rohm and Haas's Deer Park, Texas, chemical plant reduced natural gas usage and energy costs by replacing inefficient furnace equipment.

Not Available

2006-02-01

435

Carbottom furnace retrofitted with burner-ceramic recuperator system to save energy in heat treating castings  

SciTech Connect

A carbottom pusher type heat treating furnace at Bucyrus Erie in Milwaukee, Wis., was retrofitted with ceramic recuperators mounted on medium velocity tempered air burners to save energy in the heat treatment of castings (components of heavy construction and mining equipment). The heat treat furnace at Bucyrus Erie is one of 41 different types of industrial furnaces being retrofitted under the DOE program. The basis for retrofitting this furnace was maximum energy efficiency through improved fuel-air ratio, more effective burners, improved insulation and heat recovery for preheating combustion air through recuperation.

Bartkowski, F.J.; Kohnken, K.H.

1982-06-01

436

Modeling energy consumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S. homes  

SciTech Connect

In 2001, DOE initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is their cost-effectiveness to consumers. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This report describes calculation of equipment energy consumption (fuel and electricity) based on estimated conditions in a sample of homes that are representative of expected furnace and boiler installations. To represent actual houses with furnaces and boilers in the United States, we used a set of houses from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey of 1997 conducted by the Energy Information Administration. Our calculation methodology estimates the energy consumption of alternative (more-efficient) furnaces, if they were to be used in each house in place of the existing equipment. We developed the method of calculation described in this report for non-weatherized gas furnaces. We generalized the energy consumption calculation for this product class to the other furnace product classes. Fuel consumption calculations for boilers are similar to those for the other furnace product classes. The electricity calculations for boilers are simpler than for furnaces, because boilers do not provide thermal distribution for space cooling as furnaces often do.

Lutz, James; Dunham-Whitehead, Camilla; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James

2004-02-01

437

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-10-01

438

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

Gary M. Blythe

2004-01-01

439

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

Gary M. Blythe

2000-12-01

440

Universal multizone crystallizator (UMC) furnace: an international cooperative agreement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Universal Multizone Crystallizator (UMC) is a special apparatus for crystal growth under terrestrial and microgravity conditions. The use of twenty-five zones allows the UMC to be used for several normal freezing growth techniques. THe thermal profile is electronically translated along the stationary sample by systematically reducing the power to the control zones. Elimination of mechanical translation devices increases the systems reliability while simultaneously reducing the size and weight. THis paper addresses the UMC furnace design, sample cartridge and typical thermal profiles and corresponding power requirements necessary for the dynamic gradient freeze crystal growth technique. Results from physical vapor transport and traveling heater method crystal growth experiments are also discussed.

Watring, Dale A.; Su, Ching-Hua; Gillies, Donald C.; Roosz, Tomas; Babcsan, N.

1996-07-01

441

A study of slag freezing in metallurgical furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many smelting and slag-cleaning furnaces operate with cooling systems designed to freeze a slag layer over the refractory to protect it. The fluid flow and heat transfer conditions associated with the freeze layer and mushy zones are poorly understood. This study was conducted to understand the chill layer formation and heat transfer that is required to design cooling systems in pyrometallurgical operations where a slag layer is required to protect the furnace wall. The freeze layer formation and heat transfer in mushy zones were experimentally study at room temperature in a 2-dimensional square cavity differentially heated, using an aqueous solution of calcium chloride to simulate the slag. Reasonable similarity with conditions encountered with copper and nickel smelting systems was achieved (Pr ? 50 and Ra ? 108, in the laminar-turbulent transition). Measurements of velocities were made with the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. The freeze layer development was tracked using a digital camera. Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of the mean flow using a finite control volume technique with a fixed domain method were also made of the unsteady fluid flow and heat transfer problem. It was found that the macro solidification process is well described using an improved model for high molecular viscosity in the mushy zone. Solid front growth, isothermal profiles, velocity profiles and heat transfer through the walls showed good agreement between the PIV and DNS results. Experimental and numerical velocity profiles close to the freeze layer show a parabolic behaviour in the vertical velocity profile which is completely different from the calculation of heat transfer using a sharp interface model. The reason for this is attributed to the effects of the mushy zone with a high viscosity and high shear stresses acting on that area. In Part III of this Thesis, effects of slag viscosity temperature relationship were analysed with a two-dimensional mathematical model of an electric smelting furnace. The model was focused on the fluid dynamics of the molten slag and the effects over the formation of magnetite-rich slag layer over the walls. The results of the previous experimental and mathematical work, Part I and II, were used to describe mathematically the freeze layer formation on the furnace walls using a fixed-grid model from a highly viscous liquid. Chemical composition of the slag was taken into account through the effect of the viscous activation energy as well the solidus and liquidus temperatures. The results show that the flow pattern is strongly affected in the areas of high viscosity. The results are discussed in terms of heat flux over the refractories and their effects on cooling system design.

Guevara, Fernando

442

Efficient electric arc furnace control at Nueva Montana Quijano SA  

SciTech Connect

In March 1991, ABB commissioned a process control system for Nueva Montana Quijano's (NMQ) electric arc furnace in Santander, Spain. The installation consists of a system for controlled scrap meltdown and an electrode regulator. This paper presents the improvements that have been achieved during the first year of production. The improvements have included: Electrode consumption decrease of approximately 14%. Power-on time decrease of approximately 3%. Lining wear decrease of approximately 8%. Experience from operations also provides a theoretical calculation that shows that if the new and old systems are compared at the same power factor or the same power; active power can be increased 8% or operating power factor increased 4%.

Hultin, L. (ABB Automation AB, Vasteras (Sweden)); Vazques, P.A. (Nueva Montana Quijano SA, Cantabria (Spain))

1993-07-01

443

Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Wall Heat Flux in Pulverized-Coal Furnaces and Boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model of combustion and heat transfer within a cylindrical enclosure firing pulverized coal has been developed and tested against two sets of measured data (one is 1993 WSU/DECO Pilot test data, the other one is the International Flame Research Foundation 1964 Test (Beer, 1964)) and one independent code FURN3D from the Argonne National Laboratory (Ahluwalia and IM, 1992). The model called PILC assumes that the system is a sequence of many well-stirred reactors. A char burnout model combining diffusion to the particle surface, pore diffusion, and surface reaction is employed for predicting the char reaction, heat release, and evolution of char. The ash formation model included relates the ash particle size distribution to the particle size distribution of pulverized coal. The optical constants of char and ash particles are calculated from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. The Mie theory is applied to determine the extinction and scattering coefficients. The radiation heat transfer is modeled using the virtual zone method, which leads to a set of simultaneous nonlinear algebraic equations for the temperature field within the furnace and on its walls. This enables the heat fluxes to be evaluated. In comparisons with the experimental data and one independent code, the model is successful in predicting gas temperature, wall temperature, and wall radiative flux. When the coal with greater fineness is burnt, the particle size of pulverized coal has a consistent influence on combustion performance: the temperature peak was higher and nearer to burner, the radiation flux to combustor wall increased, and also the absorption and scattering coefficients of the combustion products increased. The effect of coal particle size distribution on absorption and scattering coefficients and wall heat flux is significant. But there is only a small effect on gas temperature and fuel fraction burned; it is speculated that this may be a characteristic special to the test combustor used.

Lu, Jun

444

Fundamental Scaling of NOx Emissions from Burners and Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of experiments at five different scales having near-uniform geometric, aerodynamic, and thermal similarity and uniform measurement protocols have yielded the first NOx scaling data from burners and furnaces over the range of thermal scales from 30 kW to 12 MW. Detailed in-flame measurements of NO, NOx, CO, O2, unburned hydrocarbons, temperature, and velocities at each scale allow identification of various sources of NOx production. The underlying physics of each of these NOx sources leads to scaling laws for their respective contributions to the overall NOx emissions performance. It is found that the relative importance of each sources depends on thermal input scale and burner operating conditions; simple furnace residence time scalings commonly used by industry are shown to be comparatively irrelevant. The scalings for these NOx sources are combined in a unified scaling model for NOx emission performance. Results are compared against experimental data from all scales, including effects of turndown, staging, preheat, and excess air dilution. Good agreement is found between predictions from the scaling model and measurements, with correlations generally exceeding 90%. (Supported by GRI Contract No. 5093-260-2728.)

Hsieh, Adrian T.-C.; Dahm, Werner J. A.; Driscoll, James F.

1996-11-01

445

Determination of heliostat and concentrator size for solar furnace facilities  

SciTech Connect

There are basically two types of solar furnaces -- a vertical-beam or a horizontal-beam facility. A vertical-beam facility uses movable heliostats to redirect the incoming solar energy vertically upward to a stationary parabolid. A horizontal-beam furnace uses the heliostat to redirect the incoming energy horizontally to the paraboloid. This paper presents a method to determine the optimum size of the heliostat and/or concentrator to meet predetermined design criteria. Usually the concentrator size is fixed by the temperature and flux-density required at the test plane and the problem is to size the heliostat so the facility can be used for a certain length of time each day during the entire year. However, the method can also be used when the heliostat size is fixed and the concentrator size must be determined. The analysis considers energy incident from the sun being reflected from a flat spectral surface (heliostat) onto a concentrating surface (concentrator), which then redirects the energy to a focal spot that can then be used as a high temperature, high-flux density source. The analysis uses the basic relations of geometric optics and considers only the central ray of the incoming cone of energy from the sun. Errors involved with this assumption will be minimal for most cases, but if deemed necessary, the reflected cone can be accounted for in the reflected ray from the heliostat.

Mulholland, G.P.

1983-08-01

446

Evaluation of the performance of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil in a flame tube furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a theoretical and experimental study of the biodiesel (ethyl ester from a waste vegetable oil) performance in a flame tube furnace. The heat transfer rate was analysed in several sections along the furnace and the performance of the biodiesel was compared to that of diesel oil. The flow of heat from the burn of each fuel in

Gustavo Rodrigues de Souza; Antonio Moreira dos Santos; Sérgio Lucas Ferreira; Keyll Carlos Ribeiro Martins; Délson Luiz Módolo

2009-01-01

447

Self-powered automatic secondary air controllers for woodstoves and small furnaces  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the regulation of combustion in woodstoves, small furnaces and the like, so as to produce efficient combustion, while maximizing the possible heat output and minimizing air pollution. More specifically, the invention relates to controllers for automatically regulating and the supply of secondary combustion air to woodstoves, small furnaces or the like. 9 figs.

Siemer, D.D.

1989-03-15

448

Data-Driven Modeling Based on Volterra Series for Multidimensional Blast Furnace System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multidimensional blast furnace system is one of the most complex industrial systems and, as such, there are still many unsolved theoretical and experimental difficulties, such as silicon prediction and blast furnace automation. For this reason, this paper is concerned with developing data-driven models based on the Volterra series for this complex system. Three kinds of different low-order Volterra filters

Chuanhou Gao; Ling Jian; Xueyi Liu; Jiming Chen; Youxian Sun

2011-01-01

449

Utilization of weathered basic oxygen furnace slag in the production of hydraulic road binders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the use of a weathered basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag as a main constituent in hydraulic road binder. The original idea of this study was to associate the BOF slag with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). The free lime contained in BOF slag activated the GGBFS. Small amounts of catalyst were added to the mixtures

P.-Y. Mahieux; J.-E. Aubert; G. Escadeillas

2009-01-01

450

An Investigation of the Flame-Burden Interaction during Remelting in an Experimental Aluminum Reverbatory Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Flame impingement on the burden is routinely encountered during the initial phase of melting in aluminum reverberatory furnaces. This impingement causes an obstructed pathway for the hot gases, and hence the circulation and residence time of the hot gases are greatly impacted. Moreover, as the load melts, the flames gradually achieve an unobstructed path leading to reduced gas residence times. This flame impingement and constantly changing combustion space volume will lead to vastly different fuel and oxidizer mixing patterns and thus affect the overall furnace performance. Fine tuning the burner operating conditions such as flow rates and injection angles with the changing combustion space could result in significant improvements to the furnace efficiency. However, one has to gain a better understanding of the furnace dynamics to know the suitable parameters to adjust. Physical modeling can be elaborate and expensive to conduct on a regular basis while Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can cost-effectively address this challenge. In this study, the furnace model is created with a particular loading pattern to understand the flame dynamics in the presence of a piled load. This configuration can be thought of as a computational model of the furnace with the burden at a particular stage of the melting process. Thermal efficiency and behavior of the furnace are quantified and the predicted values are compared with the operational data from an experimental reverberatory furnace.

Kumar, Ashwini (ANSYS, Evanston, IL); Venuturumilli, Raj (ANSYS, Evanston, IL); King, P.E

2008-10-01

451

Development of a high efficiency warm air furnace using heat pipe principles  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is the development of a gas fired warm air furnace of the highest practicable efficiency. A market survey indicated that the average furnace in the mid-to-late 1980's would have approximately 14.6 kW (50,000 Btu/hr) input.

Thomas, W.E.; Ihlenfield, H.L.

1981-08-01

452

Nonlinear black-box modeling of electric arc furnace: an application of fuzzy logic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents the application of fuzzy logic systems and adaptive fuzzy logic systems to model electric arc furnaces. The main objectives are to provide the rationale and to justify the use of fuzzy modeling for electric furnaces. To this end, the principles of fuzzy logic systems are described briefly, and justifications for application of fuzzy systems for modeling are provided. This

A. R. Sadeghian; J. D. Lavers

1999-01-01

453

Neural networks for the identification and control of blast furnace hot metal quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation and control of blast furnaces poses a great challenge because of the difficult measurement and control problems associated with the unit. The measurement of hot metal composition with respect to silica and sulfur are critical to the economic operation of blast furnaces. The measurement of the compositions require spectrographic techniques which can be performed only off line. An

V. R Radhakrishnan; A. R Mohamed

2000-01-01

454

The effects of furnace environment on the mechanical properties of vanadium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted tests to ascertain whether or not exposure to erbia would adversely affect the mechanical properties of vanadium more than the regular annealing furnace environment. Mechanical properties of the vanadium exposed to erbia are not different from those of the vanadium to a regular annealing furnace environment. However, there is a change in the impurity levels, the carbon

J. H. dePruneda; G. F. Gallegos; M. P. Stratman

1988-01-01

455

A numerical analysis of slab heating characteristics in a walking beam type reheating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical analysis of slab heating characteristics in a reheating furnace has been accomplished using FLUENT, a commercial software. The phenomena in the furnace are periodically transient because the slabs are transported toward a rolling mill with every time interval controlled. Unsteady calculation has been performed to obtain a periodically transient solution. A User-Defined Function (UDF) program has been developed to

Sang Heon Han; Daejun Chang; Chang Young Kim

2010-01-01

456

Performance testing of a vertical Bridgman furnace using experiments and numerical modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details a portion of the work performed in preparation for the growth of lead tin telluride crystals during a Space Shuttle flight. A coordinated effort of experimental measurements and numerical modeling was completed to determine the optimum growth parameters and the performance of the furnace. This work was done using NASA's Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace, but the

W. R. Rosch; A. L. Fripp; W. J. Debnam; T. K. Pendergrass

1997-01-01

457

Solidification behavior of low and high thermal conductivity materials in a Bridgman-Stockbarger furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid-liquid interface position and the temperature gradients in both the solid and liquid at the interface have been studied in a modified Bridgman-Stockbarger crystal growth furnace. These crystal growth factors have been studied as a function of ampoule translation rate, materials properties, and the size and temperature of a small auxiliary heater placed at the edge of the furnace

T. I. Ejim; W. A. Jesser; A. L. Fripp

1984-01-01

458

Development of Gas-Fired Small-Scale Small-Scale Glass Melting Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are about 70 small-scale glass melting furnaces, so-called multipot furnaces, within our operating area, with a potential demand of 3 x 10 sup 6 m sup 3 /year. Recently, in order to increase gas sales in this area, we have developed glass melting fu...

I. Nakamachi K. Yasuzawa T. Nakamura

1986-01-01

459

SSSStudy on Combustion Characteristics of the Blast Furnace Gas in the Constant Volume Combustion Bomb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace gas is the byproduct of smelting steel production process, and is the important secondary energy source. It is can be used as fuel for engines to generate electricity for most middle and small steel enterprises. In order to understand the combustion mechanism and provide the basis for the design of blast furnace gas engine,premixed laminar combustion experiments of

LIU YONGQI; WANG HAIFENG; LI PING

460

Design of Glass Furnace Control System Based on Model-Free Adaptive Controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model-free adaptive (MFA) control is an entirely new field of automatic control theory and technology that does not require process models; it is novel and effective ideas and methods to solve complex industrial process control. Glass furnace is one type of typical industrial furnace; it is a complex and all- conditioned process. The original control program is using the traditional

Qi Jianling; Ma Guang

2010-01-01

461

A new time domain voltage source model for an arc furnace using EMTP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new time domain Controlled Voltage Source (CVS) model for an arc furnace using the Electro Magnetic Transients Program (EMTP). The developed model is based on a piece wise linear approximation of the v-i characteristic of the arc furnace load. In addition to this, the novelty of this simulation technique lies in the fact that the active

S. Varadan; E. B. Makram; A. A. Girgis

1996-01-01

462

Improving the Efficiency of Bell-Type Furnaces and the Quality of Annealed Rolled Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that the thermal regime of the furnaces used for the recrystallization annealing of cold-rolled products depends on the type of lining used for the covers of these furnaces. For example, the thermal conductivity of the fibrous insulating materials used by the companies Ebner and LOI is considerably (by an order of magnitude) lower [1, 2] than that

O. N. Shtekhno; V. A. Yatsenko; S. É. Dobrovol'skii

2002-01-01

463

Model predictive control of an electric arc furnace off-gas procedure combined with temperature control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model predictive control (MPC) of an electric arc furnace (EAF) off-gas process combined with temperature control is investigated. A more predictable process, safer working environment, cleaner emission gases and reduced energy wastage are some of the advantages obtained by controlling relative furnace pressure, CO-emission and temperature

D. J. Oosthuizen; I. K. Craig; P. C. Pistorius

1999-01-01

464

Second law analysis of thermodynamics in the electric arc furnace at a steel producing company  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, energy and conservation analyses are applied to the production of steel process in the electric arc furnace. The scrap pre-heating system, stack gas and cooling water leaving the furnace are investigated, and the obtained results are compared with experimental ones.

Ünal Çamdali; Murat Tunç; Ahmet Karaka?

2003-01-01

465

An intelligent signal validation system for a cupola furnace. I. Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a methodology for developing a signal validation technique that can be introduced to improve the operation of the cupola iron-melting furnace. The operation of the digital controllers used depends on the measurement accuracy of the controlled variables. We develop a signal validation system for one of the process variables of the cupola furnace, namely iron temperature. An artificial

Mohamed Abdelrahman; Senthil Subramanian

1999-01-01

466

Refractory fiber modules saves fuel in a walking beam billet heating furnace  

SciTech Connect

The new furnace is expected to meet certain criteria: low heat loss through the refractories, a low heat storage refractory lining, a walking beam method of transporting the stock through the furnace, a low operating labor requirement, increased throughput, low fuel consumption, and ease of maintenance.

Braun, R.C.; Parker, W.H.

1982-04-01

467

A SCADA-based expert system to provide delay strategies for a steel billet reheat furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manufacturing of steel bar products in mini-mills involves continuous casting of billet sections, cooling of the billets, reheating to rolling temperatures and final shaping and size reduction in rolling mills. The operation of the reheat furnaces is a significant challenge due to the dynamic nature of both the reheating and rolling processes. The operation of a furnace was analyzed

Clifford Mui; Edmund Osinski; John A. Meech; Peter V. Barr

1999-01-01

468

Evaluation of PFP Furnace Systems for Thermal Stabilization of Washed High Chloride Plutonium Oxide Items  

SciTech Connect

High chloride content plutonium (HCP) oxides are impure plutonium oxide scrap which contains NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and/or CaCl2 salts at potentially high concentrations and must be stabilized at 950 C per the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000. The chlorides pose challenges to stabilization because volatile chloride salts and decomposition products can corrode furnace heating elements and downstream ventilation components. A high-temperature furnace (same make and model as used at the RMC at Plutonium Finishing Plant) and the associated offgas system were set up at PNNL to identify system vulnerabilities and to investigate alternative materials and operating conditions that would mitigate any corrosion and plugging of furnace and offgas components. The key areas of interest for this testing were the furnace heating elements, the offgas line located inside the furnace, the offgas line between the furnace and the filter/knockout pot, the filter/knockout pot, the sample boat, and corrosion coupons to evaluate alternative materials of construction. The evaluation was conducted by charging the furnace with CeO2 that had been impregnated with a mixture of chloride salts (selected to represent the expected residual chloride salt level in washed high chloride items) and heated in the furnace in accordance with the temperature ramp rates and hold times used at PFP.

Fischer, Christopher M.; Elmore, Monte R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

2002-12-17

469

Performance comparison update -- a-c vs d-c furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Difference in energy consumption between d-c and a-c furnaces is less than 10 to 15 kwhr/ton. There is reduced electrode consumption, 15 to 35%, and significantly less flicker. Power Input flexibility is greater with d-c furnaces which broadens the range of choices open to the steelmaker with the potential to better optimize electrical programming.

Bowman, B. [UCAR Carbon Co., Inc., Parma, OH (United States)

1995-06-01

470

16 CFR Appendix G4 to Part 305 - Mobile Home Furnaces  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Mobile Home Furnaces G4 Appendix G4 to Part 305 Commercial Practices...CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS...305, App. G4 Appendix G4 to Part 305âMobile Home Furnaces...

2010-01-01

471

16 CFR Appendix G4 to Part 305 - Mobile Home Furnaces  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Mobile Home Furnaces G4 Appendix G4 to Part 305 Commercial Practices...CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS...305, App. G4 Appendix G4 to Part 305âMobile Home Furnaces...

2009-01-01

472

A longitudinally heated graphite furnace for a longitudinal magnetic field. Formation of absorbance signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical properties and analytical characteristics of a longitudinally heated graphite furnace placed in a longitudinal a.c. magnetic field have been investigated. This graphite furnace is used in a commercially available (Cortech Ltd., Russia, model Z.ETA) Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer. The analytical signals presented by convolution of the supply and removal functions have been determined for a number of elements

Yuri M. Sadagoff

1997-01-01

473

EFFECTS OF FURNACE PRESSURE AND FEED MATERIAL ON URANIUM INGOT QUALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uranium remelt operation at National Lead Company of Ohio is ; performed in a vacuum induction furnace at pressures ranging from 10⁻¹ mm ; to 5 x 10⁻¹ mm Hg (ionization gage readings). A program was originated to ; determine the effect of furnace pressure on ingot chemical impurities and ; metallurgical qualities. A series of melts (69) was

H. M. Eikenberry; R. B. Steck; D. DeTrou

1960-01-01

474

Control systems of melting electric furnaces in metallurgy and mechanical engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and improvement of melting electric furnaces and the attendant technological processes are accompanied by development in the field of creating compatible automatic control systems. The automation of the functioning of equipment can also modify the furnaces that operate several decades and can prolong their life.

Dednev, A. A.; Elizariov, K. A.; Kissel'man, M. A.; Nekhamin, S. M.

2013-06-01

475

Electrical conductivity of the roof of electric arc steel melting furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The authors test for the relationship between temperature and electrical conductivity in the refractory liners of arc furnaces used by the steel industry in the Soviet Union in order to minimize the degradation of these refractories by electrical and thermal processes, to maximize their service life, and to optimize their insulating properties and the consequent efficiency of the furnaces in which they are utilized.

Osipenko, V.D.; Garbuz, S.S.; Khromov, A.P.

1987-01-01

476

Nondestructive Evaluation of Multiply Connected Electrical Arc Furnace Graphite Rod Electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low quality of graphite electrodes in a small electrical arc furnace causes many problems on furnace operation. High temperature and erosion at the remote electrode tip, and defects in the electrode increase the probability of electrode failure due to ageing phenomena such as thermal stress cracking. Most measurement techniques cannot determine the electrode quality under such conditions as the

G. D. Harvel; J. S. Chang

2009-01-01

477

Design of an experimental electric arc furnace. Report of investigations\\/1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instabilities in electric steelmaking furnace arcs cause electrical and acoustical noise, reduce operating efficiency, increase refractory erosion, and increase electrode usage. The U.S. Bureau of Mines has an ongoing research project investigating methods to stabilize these arcs to improve productivity in steel production. To perform experiments to test new hypotheses, researchers designed and instrumented an advanced, experimental single-phase furnace. The

A. D. Hartman; T. L. Ochs

1992-01-01

478

Waste stabilization\\/solidification of an electric arc furnace dust using fly ash-based geopolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stabilization\\/solidification (S\\/S) of a carbon steel electric arc furnace (EAF) dust containing hazardous metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr or Zn using geopolymerization technology is described in this paper. Different reagents such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate, potassium silicate, kaolinite, metakaolinite and blast furnace slag have been used. Mixtures of EAF waste with these geopolymeric materials and

C. Fernández Pereira; Y. Luna; X. Querol; D. Antenucci; J. Vale

2009-01-01

479

Sludge Batch 5 Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnace Test with Frits 418 and 550  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) testing for the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) projected composition and assessments of the potential frits with reasonable operating windows, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommended Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) testing with Frits 418 and 550. DWPF is currently using Frit 418 with SB5 based on SRNL's recommendation due to its ability

Donald Miller; Bradley Pickenheim

2009-01-01

480

BLAST FURNACE SLIPS AND ACCOMPANYING EMISSIONS AS AN AIR POLLUTION SOURCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to ascertain the severity of blast-furnace slips and their accompanying bleeder-valve emissions as a source of air pollution. It describes factors contributing to the occurrence of hangs and slips in the blast furnace. It discusses the mechanic...

481

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart X of... - Emissions Limits for Secondary Lead Smelting Furnaces  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Emissions Limits for Secondary Lead Smelting Furnaces 2 Table 2 to Subpart...Hazardous Air Pollutants From Secondary Lead Smelting Pt. 63, Subpt. X, Table...Part 63âEmissions Limits for Secondary Lead Smelting Furnaces For vents from...

2013-07-01

482

Development of residential gas-fired furnaces using heat pipe heat exchangers. Final report, July 1988-February 1992  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of the heat pipe heat exchanger development program was to design, fabricate, and demonstrate the performance of heat pipe heat exchangers for gas-fired residential furnaces that improved upon the previously marketed heat pipe furnace.

Dussinger, P.M.; Hartenstine, J.R.

1992-07-01

483

40 CFR 63.10686 - What are the requirements for electric arc furnaces and argon-oxygen decarburization vessels?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Pollutants for Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking...the requirements for electric arc furnaces and argon-oxygen...or existing affected source that has a production...see § 63.14) as an alternative to EPA Method...

2010-07-01

484

40 CFR 63.10686 - What are the requirements for electric arc furnaces and argon-oxygen decarburization vessels?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Pollutants for Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking...the requirements for electric arc furnaces and argon-oxygen...or existing affected source that has a production...see § 63.14) as an alternative to EPA Method...

2009-07-01

485

Development of residential gas-fired furnaces using heat pipe heat exchangers. Final report, July 1988February 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objective of the heat pipe heat exchanger development program was to design, fabricate, and demonstrate the performance of heat pipe heat exchangers for gas-fired residential furnaces that improved upon the previously marketed heat pipe furnace.

P. M. Dussinger; J. R. Hartenstine

1992-01-01

486

Calculation of Thermal Operations of UPH Arc Furnaces. Session 2.2A N.2.2.9.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Considered in details are heat exchange dynamics in the furnace workspace free part and heat exchange in the charge, while employing the results of calculation by multi-dimensional mathematical models, which are adequate to industrial furnaces. When consi...

I. I. Ignatov B. B. Peltz

1984-01-01

487

Plan for the Startup of HA-21I Furnace Operations at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)  

SciTech Connect

Achievement of Thermal Stabilization mission elements require the installation and startup of three additional muffle furnaces for the thermal stabilization of plutonium and plutonium bearing materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The release to operate these additional furnaces will require an Activity Based Startup Review. The conduct of the Activity Based Startup Review (ABSR) was approved by Fluor Daniel Hanford on October 15, 1999. This plan has been developed with the objective of identifying those activities needed to guide the controlled startup of five furnaces from authorization to unrestricted operations by adding the HA-211 furnaces in an orderly and safe manner after the approval to Startup has been given. The Startup Plan provides a phased approach that bridges the activities between the completion of the Activity Based Startup Review authorizing the use of the three additional furnaces and the unrestricted operation of the five thermal stabilization muffle furnaces. The four phases are: (1) the initiation of five furnace operations using three empty (simulated full) boat charges from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C; (2) three furnace operations (one full charge from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C); (3) four furnace operations (two full charges from HA-211 and two full charges from HC-21C); and (4) integrated five furnace operations and unrestricted operations. Phase 1 of the Plan will be considered as the cold runs. This Plan also provides management oversight and administrative controls that are to be implemented until unrestricted operations are authorized. It also provides a formal review process for ensuring that all preparations needed for full five furnace operations are completed and formally reviewed prior to proceeding to the increased activity levels associated with five furnace operations. Specific objectives include: (1) To ensure that activities are conducted in a safe manner. (2) To provide supplemental technical and managerial support to Thermal Stabilization activities during the initial use of the HA-211 Furnaces until the commencement of full five furnace, unrestricted operations. (3) Ensure that operations can be conducted in a manner that meets PFP and DOE expectations associated with the principles of integrated safety management. (4) To ensure that all interfacing activities needed to meet Thermal Stabilization mission objectives are completed.

WILLIS, H.T.

2000-02-17

488

Short vertical tube furnace for the fabrication of doped glass microsphere lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the design of an electric tube furnace that can be used for the fabrication of doped glass microsphere lasers. The tube furnace has a short hot zone of length 133 mm and is based on a quartz tube design. Doped laser glass particles, specifically Er:Yb phosphate glass (IOG-2), of ~1 ?m diameter are blown into the furnace using a 60 ml syringe and microspheres ranging in size from 10 to 400 ?m are collected at the output of the tube furnace in a Petri dish. The furnace operates at a wall temperature of ~900 °C and is capable of making microspheres from glasses with glass transition temperatures of at least 375 °C. High quality (Q~105) whispering gallery modes have been excited within the microspheres by optically pumping at 978 nm via a tapered optical fiber.

Ward, Jonathan M.; Wu, Yuqiang; Khalfi, Krimo; Chormaic, Síle Nic

2010-07-01

489

Short vertical tube furnace for the fabrication of doped glass microsphere lasers.  

PubMed

We report on the design of an electric tube furnace that can be used for the fabrication of doped glass microsphere lasers. The tube furnace has a short hot zone of length 133 mm and is based on a quartz tube design. Doped laser glass particles, specifically Er:Yb phosphate glass (IOG-2), of approximately 1 microm diameter are blown into the furnace using a 60 ml syringe and microspheres ranging in size from 10 to 400 microm are collected at the output of the tube furnace in a Petri dish. The furnace operates at a wall temperature of approximately 900 degrees C and is capable of making microspheres from glasses with glass transition temperatures of at least 375 degrees C. High quality (Q approximately 10(5)) whispering gallery modes have been excited within the microspheres by optically pumping at 978 nm via a tapered optical fiber. PMID:20687704

Ward, Jonathan M; Wu, Yuqiang; Khalfi, Krimo; Nic Chormaic, Síle

2010-07-01

490

A computational study of heterogeneous char reactions in a full-scale furnace  

SciTech Connect

Driven by the need for more efficient means of power generation, computational simulation of furnace operation has assumed an increasingly important role. Computational tools make it possible to predict trends in furnace performance characteristics, such carbon burnout, with reasonable accuracy. Char burnout in a furnace occurs primarily by reaction with molecular oxygen in the surrounding gas. Consequently, most models of carbon burnout used in furnace codes only consider the char-O[sub 2] reaction. However, char reactions with other gas phase species, such as carbon dioxide and water become important where oxygen concentrations are low. Using a numerical model of a full-scale tangentially fired furnace, this work quantifies the relative importance of these reactions.

Mann, A.P.; Kent, J.H. (Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1994-10-01

491

Reactivation of granular carbon in an infrared traveling-belt furnace  

SciTech Connect

An all-electrical Shirco carbon regeneration furnace and its air pollution control system were evaluated for cost and process effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The granular activated carbon used for the Shirco Furnace evaluation study was exhausted in three 1.8 m (6 ft) diameter steel carbon adsorption columns connected in series. The columns treated unchlorinated and unfiltered activated sludge effluent from the 0.44 cu m/sec (10 MGD) Ponoma Water Reclamation Plant. The Shirco carbon regeneration system was found to be as effective as the multiple hearth and rotary-kiln furnaces in reactivating the exhausted granular activated carbon. The operation and maintenance cost for the Shirco furnace was, however, found to be higher than those for both the multiple hearth and the rotary-kiln furnaces.

Nur, R.; Horvath, R.W.

1987-07-01

492

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15

493

Effectiveness of linearization of calibration curves in Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical analysis is made of the effect of analytical line broadening and of non-absorbable radiation in the light source on the shape of concentration curves in Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. These results have been used in a systematic study of the effect of spectrometer slit width and hollow-cathode lamp (HCL) current on linearization of calibration graphs for 11 elements: Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Sb. The effectiveness of linearization throughout the analytical range covered was estimated experimentally on series of 25-30 solutions. Three solutions in each series were used as standards for constructing the calibration graph, the others serving to evaluate the linearization effectiveness. Increasing the slit width and decreasing the HCL current compared to the standard measurement conditions have permitted us to reach a sufficiently high effectiveness of linearization for all the elements studied, with the exception of Ni. The maximum deviation of experimental points from the linear graph under optimum conditions does not exceed 6%. The effect of the ? parameter used in the computational algorithm on linearization effectiveness is investigated.

L'vov, B. V.; Polzik, L. K.; Novichikhin, A. V.; Borodin, A. V.; Dyakov, A. O.

1995-12-01

494

Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag.  

PubMed

The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y(-1) for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y(-1). PMID:22826355

U?ur, F A; Turhan, S; Sahan, H; Sahan, M; Gören, E; Gezer, F; Ye?ingil, Z

2012-07-22

495

New method of dynamic and multispectral thermography elaborated for inspection of petrochemical process furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major concern in the petrochemical industry is both safety and efficiency of process heaters operation. As the tubes temperature and the symmetry of heating belong to the critical components, infrared imaging and measuring methods have been used worldwide for many years. Monitoring these high temperature objects has frequently been relying on highly subjective analyses, particularly due to fluctuations of flame and heating medium and/or sometimes inaccurate or not well-fit thermocouple data. Recent developments in infrared camera technology and data processing possibilities have brought significant progress for high resolution spatial and temporal analysis of infrared radiation distributions. This paper presents an innovative method which deals with the flickering and spectrally selective features of the heating mediums, analysed basing on capturing and elaboration of long sequence of images instead of the snapshot method. Thereupon, digital image processing algorithms enable automatic search of a few chosen statistic values for every pixel of the every frame, with the aim to form substitute images, which consist only from pixels of min., max, or mean values and their standard deviation distributions. By applying this new methodology, it is possible to separate extremes of fluctuating signals and, in result, to obtain deeper and more reliable knowledge about temperature distributions or about heating phenomena inside process furnaces. These data can be utilised to significantly increase heater throughput while helping to ensure safe operation of the heater. Many other applications could take advantage of presented idea, algorithm and tools.

Pregowski, Piotr; Goleniewski, Grzegorz; Komosa, Wojciech; Korytkowski, Waldemar; Zwolenik, Slawomir

2005-09-01

496

New concepts and designs for blast furnace linings and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

In the 1960`s, concurrent with major technological developments in blast furnace operation, cooling became increasingly important in extending furnace campaign life. Cooling systems developed from simple shower spray and jacket types, to intensive plate and stave systems. Each system has advantages and disadvantages. The principal furnace cooling areas are: underhearth (which has ceased to be a cause of premature end of a furnace campaign); and shell cooling using plates, staves and refractories. Plate coolers, a traditional method of furnace cooling, have developed through the years. Current designs for critical locations in the furnace include double chamber and 6-pass, single chamber copper castings. Their disadvantage is the requirement for large apertures in the furnace shell for installation that complicates the design of the shell. Stave coolers, designed to give protection to the furnace shell, even if the refractory is lost, provide more uniform cooling compared with plate coolers and extract less heat from the furnace. Although damaged stave coolers are difficult to replace, an increasing number of plants are adopting this method of cooling. There are four main types of cooling water circuits: once-through; open recirculating; evaporative; and closed loop. Greatest control of fouling, micro biological and scaling conditions is provided by a closed-loop system. The lining of a blast furnace requires a wider range of refractories than any other process in iron and steelmaking. A recent example includes the application of the following materials: micropore carbon in the hearth wall; silicon carbide in the bosh, belly and lower stack; 65% alumina in the mid-stack; and staves in the upper stack.

Carmichael, I.F. [Davy International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-08-01

497

BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are theSavings?  

SciTech Connect

Residential gas furnaces contain blowers to distribute warm air. Currently, furnace blowers use either a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important for understanding electricity consumption of furnaces. The electricity consumption of blower motors depends on the static pressure across the blower. This paper examines both types of blower motors in non-condensing non-weatherized gas furnaces at a range of static pressures. Fan performance data is based on manufacturer product literature and laboratory tests. We use field-measured static pressure in ducts to get typical system curves to calculate how furnaces would operate in the field. We contrast this with the electricity consumption of a furnace blower operating under the DOE test procedure and manufacturer rated conditions. Furnace electricity use is also affected by operating modes that happen at the beginning and end of each furnace firing cycle. These operating modes are the pre-purge and post-purge by the draft inducer, the on-delay and off-delay of the blower, and the hot surface ignitor operation. To accurately calculate this effect, we use the number of firing cycles in a typical California house in the Central Valley of California. Cooling hours are not considered in the DOE test procedure. We also account for furnace blower use by the air conditioner and stand-by power. Overall BPM motors outperform PSC motors, but the total electricity savings are significantly less than projected using the DOE test procedure conditions. The performance gains depend on the static pressure of the household ducts, which are typically much higher than in the test procedures.

Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

2006-05-12

498

Flow field and thermal characteristics in a model of a tangentially fired furnace under different conditions of burner tripping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tangentially fired furnaces are vortex-combustion units and are widely used in steam generators of industrial plants. The present study provides a numerical investigation of the problem of turbulent reacting flows in a model furnace of a tangentially fired boiler. The importance of this problem is mainly due to its relation to large boiler furnaces used in thermal power plants. In

M. A. Habib; R. Ben-Mansour; M. A. Antar

2005-01-01

499

Efficient 'Optical Furnace': A Cheaper Way to Make Solar Cells is Reaching the Marketplace  

SciTech Connect

In Bhushan Sopori's laboratory, you'll find a series of optical furnaces he has developed for fabricating solar cells. When not in use, they sit there discreetly among the lab equipment. But when a solar silicon wafer is placed inside one for processing, Sopori walks over to a computer and types in a temperature profile. Almost immediately this fires up the furnace, which glows inside and selectively heats up the silicon wafer to 800 degrees centigrade by the intense light it produces. Sopori, a principal engineer at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has been researching and developing optical furnace technology for around 20 years. He says it's a challenging technology to develop because there are many issues to consider when you process a solar cell, especially in optics. Despite the challenges, Sopori and his research team have advanced the technology to the point where it will benefit all solar cell manufacturers. They are now developing a commercial version of the furnace in partnership with a manufacturer. 'This advanced optical furnace is highly energy efficient, and it can be used to manufacture any type of solar cell,' he says. Each type of solar cell or manufacturing process typically requires a different furnace configuration and temperature profile. With NREL's new optical furnace system, a solar cell manufacturer can ask the computer for any temperature profile needed for processing a solar cell, and the same type of furnace is suitable for several solar cell fabrication process steps. 'In the future, solar cell manufacturers will only need this one optical furnace because it can be used for any process, including diffusion, metallization and oxidation,' Sopori says. 'This helps reduce manufacturing costs.' One startup company, Applied Optical Systems, has recognized the furnace's potential for manufacturing thin-film silicon cells. 'We'd like to develop thin-film silicon cells with higher efficiencies, up to 15 to 18 percent, and we believe this furnace will enable us to do so,' says A. Rangappan, founder and CEO of Applied Optical Systems. Rangappan also says it will take only a few minutes for the optical furnace to process a thin-film solar cell, which reduces manufacturing costs. Overall, he estimates the company's solar cell will cost around 80 cents per watt. For manufacturing these thin-film silicon cells, Applied Optical Systems and NREL have developed a partnership through a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to construct an optical furnace system prototype. DOE is providing $500,000 from its Technology Commercialization Development Fund to help offset the prototype's development costs because of the technology's significant market potential. The program has provided the NREL technology transfer office with a total of $4 million to expand such collaborative efforts between NREL researchers and companies. Applied Optical will construct a small version of the optical furnace based on the prototype design in NREL's process development and integration laboratory through a separate CRADA. This small furnace will only develop one solar cell wafer at a time. Then, the company will construct a large, commercial-scale optical furnace at its own facilities, which will turn out around 1,000 solar cell wafers per hour. 'We hope to start using the optical furnace for manufacturing within four to five years,' Rangappan says. Meanwhile, another partnership using the optical furnace has evolved between NREL and SiXtron Advanced Materials, another startup. Together they'll use the optical furnace to optimize the metallization process for novel antireflective solar cell coatings. The process is not only expected to yield higher efficiencies for silicon-based solar cells, but also lowers processing costs and eliminates safety concerns for manufacturers. Most solar cell manufacturers currently use a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system with compressed and extremely pyrophoric silane gas (SiH4) for applying passivation antireflective coatings (ARC). If silane is exposed t

von Kuegelgen, T.

2008-10-01

500

Nuclear techniques for the inspection of blast furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon hearth wall failures in blast furnaces create safety risks and require a large expense to repair. To avoid failures they are replaced early, incurring costs in wasted hearth wall use. Two non-invasive measurements provide realtime analysis of wall integrity. The two major failure modes are erosion of carbon thickness and iron-filled cracks in the bricks. Measurements of backscattered gamma-ray spectra and thermal neutron decay rate can identify both phenomena. Gamma-ray spectra from a compact Linac beam primarily respond to average carbon thickness. Neutron decay time, using a pulsed neutron source, is sensitive to iron in the carbon volume. Each measurement is sensitive to the other failure made, but the combination permits each phenomenon to be resolved. These techniques can detect a high atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section material behind one of low atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section.

Schweitzer, J. S.; Lanza, R. C.

1999-06-01