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1

Analysis of thermal radiation in coal-fired furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many utilities throughout the United States have added infrared scanning to their arsenal of techniques for inspection and predictive maintenance programs. Commercial infrared scanners are not designed, however, to withstand the searing interiors of boilers, which can exceed 2500 degrees Fahrenheit. Two high-temperature lenses designed to withstand the hostile environment inside a boiler for extended periods of time were developed by the EPRI M&D Center, thus permitting real-time measurement of steam tube temperatures and subsequent analysis of tube condition, inspection of burners, and identification of hot spots. A study was conducted by Sunderland Engineering, Inc. and EPRI M&D in order to characterize the radiative interactions that affect infrared measurements made inside a commercial, coal- fired, water-tube boiler. A comprehensive literature search exploring the existing record of results pertaining to analytical and experimental determination of radiative properties of coal-combustion byproducts was performed. An experimental component intended to provide data for characterization of the optical properties of hot combustion byproducts inside a coal-fired furnace was carried out. The results of the study indicate that hot gases, carbon particles, and fly ash, which together compose the medium inside a boiler, affect to varying degrees the transport of infrared radiation across a furnace. Techniques for improved infrared measurement across a coal-fired furnace are under development.

Miles, Jonathan J.; Hammaker, Robert G.; Madding, Robert P.; Sunderland, J. E.

1997-04-01

2

Radiative heat-transfer model in the interior of a pulverized coal furnace  

SciTech Connect

A practical mathematical model simulating radiative heat transfer in the furnace of a pulverized coal boiler is presented. The inclusion of this model in a pulverized coal combustion model allows for testing its validity and its sensitivity to furnace walls and particle emissivity values, by comparison with measurements in a 550 MW power plant boiler.

Canadas, L.; Salvador, L.; Ollero, P. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, 41012 Sevilla (ES))

1990-04-01

3

Modeling Specular Exchange Between Concentric Cylinders in a Radiative Shielded Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research is to develop and validate mathematical models to characterize the thermal performance of a radiative shielded furnace, the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Isothermal Diffusion Oven. The mathematical models are validated against experimental data obtained from testing the breadboard oven in a terrestrial laboratory environment. It is anticipated that the validation will produce math models capable of predicting the thermal performance of the furnace over a wide range of operating conditions, including those for which no experimental data is available. Of particular interest is the furnace core temperature versus heater power parametric and the transient thermal response of the furnace. Application to a microgravity environment is not considered, although it is conjectured that the removal of any gravity dependent terms from the math models developed for the terrestrial application should yield adequate results in a microgravity environment. The UAH Isothermal Diffusion Oven is designed to provide a thermal environment that is conducive to measuring the diffusion of high temperature liquid metals. In addition to achieving the temperatures required to melt a sample placed within the furnace, reducing or eliminating convective motions within the melt is an important design consideration [1]. Both of these influences are reflected in the design of the furnace. Reducing unwanted heat losses from the furnace is achieved through the use of low conductivity materials and reflective shielding. As evidenced by the highly conductive copper core used to house the sample within the furnace, convective motions can be greatly suppressed by providing an essentially uniform thermal environment. An oven of this design could ultimately be utilized in a microgravity environment, presumably as a experiment payload. Such an application precipitates other design requirements that limit the resources available to the furnace such as power, mass, volume, and possibly even time. Through the experimental and numerical results obtained, the power requirements and thermal response time of the breadboard furnace are quantified.

Schunk, Richard Gregory; Wessling, Francis C.

2000-01-01

4

A conduction–radiation model for the floating-zone technique in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The floating-zone technique in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces is considered. A conduction–radiation model is formulated to study the thermal behaviour of cylindrical slender samples in the case where convection in the melt has been suppressed (for example, coated samples in microgravity conditions). The model includes the radiative exchange between the sample and the mirror, and the temperature dependence of the physical

Damián Rivas; Rodrigo Haya

1999-01-01

5

RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES  

SciTech Connect

The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

Smith, A

2008-12-31

6

FURN3D: A computer code for radiative heat transfer in pulverized coal furnaces  

SciTech Connect

A computer code FURN3D has been developed for assessing the impact of burning different coals on heat absorption pattern in pulverized coal furnaces. The code is unique in its ability to conduct detailed spectral calculations of radiation transport in furnaces fully accounting for the size distributions of char, soot and ash particles, ash content, and ash composition. The code uses a hybrid technique of solving the three-dimensional radiation transport equation for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. The technique achieves an optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy by combining the discrete ordinate method (S[sub 4]), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P, approximation in different range of optical thicknesses. The code uses spectroscopic data for estimating the absorption coefficients of participating gases C0[sub 2], H[sub 2]0 and CO. It invokes Mie theory for determining the extinction and scattering coefficients of combustion particulates. The optical constants of char, soot and ash are obtained from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. A control-volume formulation is adopted for determining the temperature field inside the furnace. A simple char burnout model is employed for estimating heat release and evolution of particle size distribution. The code is written in Fortran 77, has modular form, and is machine-independent. The computer memory required by the code depends upon the number of grid points specified and whether the transport calculations are performed on spectral or gray basis.

Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

1992-08-01

7

FURN3D: A computer code for radiative heat transfer in pulverized coal furnaces  

SciTech Connect

A computer code FURN3D has been developed for assessing the impact of burning different coals on heat absorption pattern in pulverized coal furnaces. The code is unique in its ability to conduct detailed spectral calculations of radiation transport in furnaces fully accounting for the size distributions of char, soot and ash particles, ash content, and ash composition. The code uses a hybrid technique of solving the three-dimensional radiation transport equation for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. The technique achieves an optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy by combining the discrete ordinate method (S{sub 4}), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P, approximation in different range of optical thicknesses. The code uses spectroscopic data for estimating the absorption coefficients of participating gases C0{sub 2}, H{sub 2}0 and CO. It invokes Mie theory for determining the extinction and scattering coefficients of combustion particulates. The optical constants of char, soot and ash are obtained from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. A control-volume formulation is adopted for determining the temperature field inside the furnace. A simple char burnout model is employed for estimating heat release and evolution of particle size distribution. The code is written in Fortran 77, has modular form, and is machine-independent. The computer memory required by the code depends upon the number of grid points specified and whether the transport calculations are performed on spectral or gray basis.

Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

1992-08-01

8

Measurements of the flame emissivity and radiative properties of particulate medium in pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnaces by image processing of visible radiation  

SciTech Connect

Due to the complicated processes for coal particles burning in industrial furnaces, their radiative properties, such as the absorption and scattering coefficients, which are essential to make reliable calculation of radiative transfer in combustion computation, are hard to be given exactly by the existing methods. In this paper, multiple color image detectors were used to capture approximately red, green, and blue monochromatic radiative intensity images in the visible wavelength region, and the flame emissivity and the radiative properties of the particulate media in three pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnaces were got from the flame images. It was shown that as the load increased, the flame emissivity and the radiative properties increased too; these radiative parameters had the largest values near the burner zone, and decreased along the combustion process. Compared with the combustion medium with a low-volatile anthracite coal burning in a 670 t/h boiler, the emissivity and the absorption coefficient of the medium with a high-volatile bituminous coal burning in a 1025 t/h boiler were smaller near the outlet zone, but were larger near the burner zone of the furnace, due to the significant contribution of soot to the radiation. This work will be of practical importance in modeling and calculating the radiative heat transfer in combustion processes, and improving the technology for in situ, multi-dimensional visualization of large-scale combustion processes in coal-fired furnaces of power plants. 18 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

Chun Lou; Huai-Chun Zhou; Peng-Feng Yu; Zhi-Wei Jiang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

2007-07-01

9

Heat treatment furnace  

DOEpatents

A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

2014-10-21

10

High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

Bates, Stephen C.

1997-01-01

11

Infrared domestic furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This residential space-heating furnace generates infrared radiation in a sealed combustion chamber for improved heating efficiency, reduced air pollution (both nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide), and a lower fuel requirement (40-50% less natural gas) than conventional heaters. The burner comprises a hat-shaped fibrous matrix mounted on a cooling drum. The furnace 1) circulates only that air previously in the room,

1982-01-01

12

Deduction of the two-dimensional distribution of temperature in a cross section of a boiler furnace from images of flame radiation  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a novel instrumentation system for deducing the two-dimensional (2-D) distribution of temperature across a cross section of a furnace fired with pulverized coal. The system consisted of four flame image detectors, a frame-maker, and a microcomputer with a frame-grabber. Four colored images were captured by the four detectors, which were mounted in the four corners of a tangentially fired furnace. A radiation model was established to relate the flame images with the 2-D temperature distribution. A revised Tikhonov regularization method was used to reconstruct the 2-D temperature distribution from the flame radiation images. The experiment was done in a 1025 t/h boiler furnace of a 300-MW power generation unit. The 2-D temperature distribution in 100 discrete meshes in the cross section above the burner zone was deduced continuously using this instrumentation. The experimental results show that the 2-D temperature distribution appears typically to have single-peak shape with temperatures higher in the center and lower near the wall. Results obtained over a range of combustion conditions demonstrated that the average temperature of the cross section changed in direct proportion to the load of the furnace. The method is practically suitable for the on-line monitoring of combustion in a furnace.

Lou, C.; Zhou, H.C. [Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan (China)

2005-10-01

13

Prediction of a Turbulent Non-Premixed Natural Gas Flame in a Semi-Industrial Scale Furnace using a Radiative Flamelet Combustion Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixedness-reactedness flamelet combustion model coupled with a comprehensive radiation heat transfer model based on the\\u000a discrete transfer method of solution of the radiative transport equation is applied for the simulation of a 3 MW non-swirling\\u000a turbulent non-premixed natural gas flame in the experimental furnace at the International Flame Research Foundation. In the\\u000a calculation, turbulence is represented by the standard k????

T. Mahmud; S. K. Sangha

2010-01-01

14

Tube furnace  

DOEpatents

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA); Frohwein, Eugene J. (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Bowen, David W. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

15

Furnace assembly  

DOEpatents

A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

1985-01-01

16

Furnace construction  

SciTech Connect

A furnace having a fuel hopper in communication with a combustion chamber provided with an inclined, fuel-supporting grate. A rotary, flexible feed arm composed of a helically coiled wire serves to feed fuel from the hopper on to the grate. A draft is induced through the combustion chamber and passes through the grate and fuel supported thereon.

Wetzel, C. C.; Wetzel, G. L.; Wetzel, J. C.

1985-10-29

17

Industrial furnace  

SciTech Connect

A firebox has a liquid or gaseous burner and also a solid fuel grate assembly associated with a solid fuel inlet above the grate assembly for dropping solid fuel particles thereon. The grate assembly includes upper and lower bar type members and an intermediate member of expanded metal. A blower is mounted under the grate assembly and in combination with the latter provides an even pressurized draft for burning solid fuel particles. A sweeping bar on side runs is capable of sweeping clinkers and ashes from the grate assembly. A bottom auger receives the clinkers and ashes and carries them out of the firebox. A forced air inlet directs a flow of air down on the solid fuel inlet to prevent combustion gases from traveling reversely through the solid fuel inlet. A heat exchange chamber includes a plurality of reversely turned tubes arranged in a plurality of paths and connected by end housings capable of removal for inspection and cleaning. The solid fuel is fed to the furnace by a metering unit for use in combination with blowers to achieve maximum efficiency of the furnace.

Stevenson, R.L.

1984-05-29

18

High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

Smith, James E., Jr.

1992-01-01

19

Temperature control of a solar furnace for material testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar furnace is a thermodynamic device that concentrates sun radiation in order to achieve high-temperatures at a focus, where a sample of the material to be tested is located. This article address the problem of designing a control architecture for solar furnaces. It is motivated by the use of a solar furnace as an instrument in material science research

B. Andrade Costa; J. M. Lemos; L. G. Rosa

2011-01-01

20

Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System  

E-print Network

-evaluate the dynamics of heat transfer for a key piece of industrial equipment, a sintering furnace. The goal is to optimize furnace operations to relieve an operations bottleneck for a tungsten carbide drill nozzle production facility. In light of plans to mitigate... convection are the radiation shield and the inner chamber door. 2) Analysis Preliminary analysis and calculations have been made to determine the impact of increased convection. This was done by creating a theoretical spherical mass of tungsten carbide...

Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

2013-01-01

21

Numerical investigation of the heating process inside an industrial furnace  

E-print Network

furnace taking into account convective, conductive and radiative heat transfer. The model-to-surface radiation model. However, the view factors of a symmetric model can be calculated from the full model

Wolper, Pierre

22

Electric furnace construction  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a furnace comprising: opposing first and second sidewalls; first and second structurally rigid insulating board attached to the interior of the furnace at the first and second sidewalls; a roof; roof insulating means; at least one elongated rod passing through the roof insulating means and spanning the width of the furnace. The rod has a first and second end embedded within the first and second insulating board, respectively; heating elements positioned within the furnace; and, means to support the heating elements from the rod.

Schultz, S.J.; Huebner, J.F.; Wiedor, D.E.; Pribish, D.S.

1986-10-28

23

Two chamber reaction furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber.

Blaugher; Richard D

1998-01-01

24

Two chamber reaction furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the

Blaugher

1998-01-01

25

Advanced steel reheat furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology

D. Moyeda; M. Sheldon; R. Koppang; M. Lanyi; X. Li; B. Eleazer

1997-01-01

26

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS EVERY TWENTY MINUTES TO DETERMINE SIZE AND TEXTURE OF BATCH AND OTHER VARIABLES. FAN IN FRONT COOLS WORKERS AS THEY CONDUCT REPAIRS. FURNACE TEMPERATURE AT 1572 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

27

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME 2. HEAVY-OIL AND COAL-FIRED FURNACES AND THE EVALUATION OF RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes Phase II of a research program, the overall objective of which was to specify burner design criteria for minimum pollutant emissions from both pulverized-coal- and residual-fuel-oil-fired combustors. Phase II included both furnace investigations and the evalu...

28

Franklin Furnace Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those not in the know, the phrase "Franklin Furnace" might sound like a type of 19th century heating device. In fact, the Franklin Furnace organization has been dedicated to the proposition that avant-garde art is a very worthwhile endeavor, and their delightful website presents fine information about their work, and about the world of avant-garde art more generally. Based in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, the organization started their work in 1976, and their website offers a nice timeline and introductory essay that documents their own history. Moving along, visitors will definitely want to look over their "Archives" area, which contain a number of online exhibitions and video interview with artists who have worked with Franklin Furnace over the years. Finally, the site also contains a "Scholarly Stuff" section, which features essays on the Furnace and some of the interesting archival techniques they have used to preserve avant-garde art for future generations.

29

Wood burning furnace  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a furnace having four walls for burning cellulosic fuel therein, a grate in the furnace bottom on which the fuel is burned, means for introducing cellulosic fuel onto the grate, means for introducing air into the furnace for supporting combustion of the fuel, a rear gas pass connected to the upper end of the furnace, the walls of the furnace being inclined upwardly and outwardly from the grate in such a manner that at a given height above the grate, the cross-sectional flow area is 1 1/2 to 2 times the flow area closely adjacent to the grate, such that most of the partially burned char particles entrained in the gases near the grate reach a height in the furnace where the gas velocity equals the particle terminal velocity, so that most of the particles remain suspended at this height until combustion has reduced their size enough so that they can be carried into the rear pass by the reduced gas velocity.

Bauver, W.P. II

1986-05-20

30

High gradient directional solidification furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high gradient directional solidification furnace is disclosed which includes eight thermal zones throughout the length of the furnace. In the hot end of the furnace, furnace elements provide desired temperatures. These elements include Nichrome wire received in a grooved tube which is encapsulated y an outer alumina core. A booster heater is provided in the hot end of the furnace which includes toroidal tungsten/rhenium wire which has a capacity to put heat quickly into the furnace. An adiabatic zone is provided by an insulation barrier to separate the hot end of the furnace from the cold end. The old end of the furnace is defined by additional heating elements. A heat transfer plate provides a means by which heat may be extracted from the furnace and conducted away through liquid cooled jackets. By varying the input of heat via the booster heater and output of heat via the heat transfer plate, a desired thermal gradient profile may be provided.

Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D. (inventor)

1985-01-01

31

Biomass heat exchanger furnace  

SciTech Connect

A hot air heat exchanger furnace that uses crop residue as a fuel source is provided for producing the heat required for various purposes, such as the drying of grains, peanuts, soybeans and other materials and for the heating of buildings. The furnace includes a combustion chamber, an upper manifold, a lower manifold, a plenum and a number of exhaust tubes. The exhaust tubes direct the flow of combustion gases from the combustion chamber in a serpentine path in the plenum between the upper and lower manifolds and into a stack. Meanwhile, ambient air passes into the plenum, past the heat transfer surfaces of the combustion chamber and the exhaust tubes as heat transfers to it. Then it passes out of the furnace.

Sukup, E.G.

1984-05-22

32

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace in Red Room Within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

33

34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace operator on platform measures temperature inside bottle car. Looking southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

34

Improved graphite furnace atomizer  

DOEpatents

A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

Siemer, D.D.

1983-05-18

35

Advanced residential furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Improved combustion, flue-products-venting, and heat exchange processes utilized in the design of high-efficiency residential gas-fired central furnaces are briefly discussed. A technical summary is also presented of high efficiency residential gas-fired central furnace developments under way in the U.S. Non-condensing and condensing-flue product concepts are included with their technical status, attained or projected performance, and forward plans for commercialization. Equipment currently, or soon to be, in the market and in laboratory and field evaluations are included. A brief summary of efforts to insure introduction and to enhance timely market acceptance of such equipment is also presented.

Macriss, R.A.

1980-01-01

36

An improved gas extraction furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design of glass furnace for analysis of rocks to determine nature and amount of trapped gas is described. Furnace heats specimen in vacuum conditions by radio frequency induction. Diagram of apparatus to show construction and operation is provided.

Wilkin, R. B.

1972-01-01

37

CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN REROLL BAY. CAKES FROM THE CASTING SHOP ARE BROUGHT UP TO ROLLING TEMPERATURE IN ONE OF TWO (#130 AND 146) GAS-FIRED FURNACES. A RADIO-CONTROLLED OVERHEAD CRANE TRANSFERS CAKES FROM FLATCARS TO THE ROLLER LINE LEADING INTO THE FURNACE. CAKES ARE HEATED AT 900-1000 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT FOR THREE TO FOUR HOURS. RATED FURNACE CAPACITY IS 100,000 LBS.\\HOUR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

38

A technique for measuring the heat transfer coefficient inside a Bridgman furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge of the amount of heat that is conducted, advected and radiated between an ampoule and the furnace is important for understanding vertical Bridgman crystal growth. This heat transfer depends on the temperature, emissivities and geometries of both the furnace and ampoule, as well as the choice of ambient gas inside the furnace. This paper presents a method which directly measures this heat transfer without the need to know any physical properties of the furnace, the ampoule, or the gaseous environment. Data are given for one specific furnace in which this method was used.

Rosch, W.; Jesser, W.; Debnam, W.; Fripp, A.; Woodell, G.; Pendergrass, T. K.

1993-01-01

39

New possibilities of Consteel furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disadvantages of Consteel electric furnaces, which are mainly caused by the low efficiency of heating of a charged metal scrap by effluent furnace gases, are considered. A new concept of an electric-arc furnace with scrap heating on a conveyer by powerful burners, which provide fast scrap heating to 800°C, is proposed. As follows from calculations, the capacity of such a furnace increases substantially, the specific electric power consumption decreases, and the emission of toxic substances into the atmosphere decreases as compared to the existing Consteel furnaces.

Tuluevskii, Yu. N.; Zinurov, I. Yu.; Shver, V. G.

2012-06-01

40

High Efficiency Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

1985-08-27

41

High efficiency furnace  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

1985-12-31

42

A high-temperature furnace for applications in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology in the area of material processing and crystal growth has been greatly furthered by research in microgravity environments. The role of efficient, lightweight furnaces with reliable performance is crucial in these experiments. A need exists for the development of a readily duplicated, high-temperature furnace satisfying stringent weight, volume, and power constraints. A furnace was designed and is referred to as the UAH SHIELD. Stringent physical and operating characteristics for the system were specified, including a maximum weight of 20 kg, a maximum power requirement of 60 W, and a volume of the furnace assembly, excluding the batteries, limited to half a Get-Away-Special canister. The UAH SHIELD furnace uses radiation shield and vacuum technology applied in the form of a series of concentric cylinders enclosed on either end with disks. Thermal testing of a furnace prototype was performed in addition to some thermal and structural analysis. Results indicate the need for spacing of the shields to accommodate the thermal expansion during furnace operation. In addition, a power dissipation of approximately 100 W and system weight of approximately 30 kg was found for the current design.

1991-01-01

43

Carbon-free induction furnace  

DOEpatents

An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Masters, David R. (Knoxville, TN); Pfeiler, William A. (Norris, TN)

1985-01-01

44

Non-carbon induction furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

1984-01-06

45

Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) is a by-product from the blast-furnaces used to make iron. Blast-furnaces are\\u000a fed with controlled mixture of iron-ore, coke and limestone, and operated at a temperature of about 1,500°C. When iron-ore,\\u000a coke and limestone melt in the blast furnace, two products are produced—molten iron, and molten slag. The molten slag is lighter\\u000a and floats

Rafat Siddique; Mohammad Iqbal Khan

46

Mathematical Modeling of Pottery Production in Different Industrial Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional process for pottery production was analyzed in this work by developing a fundamental mathematical model that simulates the operation of rustic pottery furnaces as employed by natives of villages in Michoacán, Mexico. The model describes radiative heat transfer and fluid flow promoted by natural convection, phenomena that determine the operation of these furnaces. An advanced radiation model called the “Discrete Ordinates Model” was implemented within a commercial computational fluid dynamics software. Process analysis was performed to determine the effect of the design variables on the quality of the pottery pieces and on energy efficiency. The variables explored were: (a) Geometric aspect ratio between diameter and height of the furnace ( D/H) and (b) Refractory thickness ( L). The model was validated using experimental temperature measurements from furnaces located in Santa Fe and Capula, Mexico. Good agreement was obtained between experimental and numerically calculated thermal histories. It was found that furnaces with high aspect ratio D/H and with thick refractory bricks promote thermal uniformity and energy savings. In general, any parameter that increases the conductive thermal resistance of the wall furnace isolates better, and helps energy savings. Operating conditions that provide the smallest thermal gradients and lowest energy consumption are given.

Ramírez Argáez, Marco Aurelio; Huacúz, Salvador Lucas; Trápaga, Gerardo

2008-10-01

47

Water gas furnace  

SciTech Connect

A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

Gallaro, C.

1985-12-03

48

Dual stage combustion furnace  

SciTech Connect

A dual stage combustion furnace has primary and secondary combustion chambers. The primary combustion chamber contains a solid fuel, such as wood or coal. The secondary combustion chamber is formed adjacent to and in communication with the primary combustion chamber for containing and igniting volatile combustion gases produced in the primary chamber. A plurality of hollow members, which provide a grate, extend through the primary chamber, and into the secondary chamber. Volatile gases given off in the primary combustion chamber are then ignited and burned in the secondary combustion chamber upon combination with heated air passing through the hollow grate members.

Goetzman, R.G.

1984-11-27

49

Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model  

SciTech Connect

The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

Seymour Katz

2004-12-31

50

Two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

1998-05-05

51

Two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

Blaugher, R.D.

1998-05-05

52

Fuel stoker and furnace  

SciTech Connect

A furnace having a primary heat exchange unit also providing a combustion chamber, a secondary heat exchange unit connected by an upper crossover conduit to the primary heat exchange unit, and a tertiary heat exchange unit connected by a lower V-shaped crossover conduit to the secondary heat exchange unit. A third crossover conduit connects the V-shaped crossover conduit with the primary heat exchange unit. Vibrating means are provided between the secondary and tertiary heat exchange units to vibrate the walls thereof and dislodge clinging fly ash so that it falls into the V-shaped crossover conduit for removal by the screw conveyor. A burner assembly of a furnace includes a combustion air housing carrying a circular, stationary grate with an annular valley for carrying fuel during combustion. A central opening is connected to a fuel conveyor for introduction of fuel to the grate through the lower portion of the housing. Combustion air introduction conduits on the housing are remote from the fuel introduction passages and introduce air under pressure at the lower portion of the grate. An agitator and discharge ring is provided on the grate and is rotated on the grate by a suitable drive sprocket mechanism to agitate the fuel for more complete burning thereof and to remove burned ash. A horizontal burner plate is supported by a plurality of legs connected to the agitator and discharge ring over the grate to promote more complete combustion of the fuel.

Schafer, T.L.; Schafer, G.L.; Swett, H.D.

1984-02-14

53

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the

Blaugher

1999-01-01

54

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber.

Blaugher; Richard D

1999-01-01

55

High pressure furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

Morris, D.E.

1993-09-14

56

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14

57

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01

58

High pressure furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01

59

Dual stage combustion furnace  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solid fuel burning furnace having a primary combustion chamber, the primary combustion chamber having a wall and a hollow grate supporting a bed of fuel for superheating secondary air passing there through. The improvement described here comprises an afterburner which comprises an exhaust pipe which extends through the wall of the chamber entirely above the bed and defines a secondary combustion chamber entirely within the primary combustion chamber. The exhaust pipe has a throat with an open end which projects into the primary combustion chamber above the bed, a tube around the exhaust pipe defining a passage for secondary air toward the throat of the exhaust pipe, a conduit between the hollow grate and the passage for communicating superheated air toward the throat, and ignitor means in the exhaust pipe.

Goetzman, R.G.

1986-12-23

60

Challenges in Melt Furnace Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement is a critical part of running a cast house. Key performance indicators such as energy intensity, production (or melt rate), downtime (or OEE), and melt loss must all be understood and monitored on a weekly or monthly basis. Continuous process variables such as bath temperature, flue temperature, and furnace pressure should be used to control the furnace systems along with storing the values in databases for later analysis. While using measurement to track furnace performance over time is important, there is also a time and place for short-term tests.

Belt, Cynthia

2014-09-01

61

Lead recycling via rotary furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The lead-acid battery recycling industry was seriously affected during the 1980s by increasing environmental protection costs and poor lead prices. The process is now being repeated in the 1990s causing further difficulties for recyclers. In Europe, many lead-acid battery recycling plants use rotary furnaces. The Darley Dale smelter, redeveloped between 1984--87, uses only rotary furnaces. A review of options for this plant has been completed and concluded in favor of further investment to exploit more fully the benefits of rotary furnace technology.

Suttie, A.B. [H.J. Enthoven and Sons, Matlock (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

62

Glass melting furnaces designing energy-efficient bottle glass furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was shown that developing an energy-efficient design for a bottle glass furnace implies the use of modern design methodology.\\u000a It is necessary to include mathematical modeling before the technical design stage in the structure of the traditional stages\\u000a of work on a furnace design. The boundary conditions of modeling must reflect the conjugate character of external and internal\\u000a heat

V. Ya. Dzyuzer

2008-01-01

63

Refractory metal shielding /insulation/ increases operating range of induction furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal radiation shield contains escaping heat from an induction furnace. The shield consists of a sheet of refractory metal foil and a loosely packed mat of refractory metal fibers in a concentric pattern. This shielding technique can be used for high temperature ovens, high temperature fluid lines, and chemical reaction vessels.

Ebihara, B. T.

1965-01-01

64

Image Furnace for Low Yield Nuclear Weapons Effects Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of the Naval Applied Science Laboratory for direct simulation of thermal effects due to nuclear weapons has been extended to low yield devices [as small as 10 kilotons (kt)] by the installation of a high performance servo-driven shutter in a carbon arc imaging furnace. The system can simulate thermal radiation pulses from atmospheric detonations with yields of from

Neil Griff; Robert J. Heilferty; Willard L. Derksen

1967-01-01

65

Fossil fuel furnace reactor  

DOEpatents

A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

66

Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements  

E-print Network

Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements Tim Gandler Energy Coordinator Baytown Olefins Plant, Baytown Tx 2010 Industrial Energy Technology Conference May, 2010 Page 2 ? Baytown Complex ? Steam Cracking to Olefins ? Furnace overview... & challenges in steam cracking ? Energy efficiency improvements Overview Baytown Olefins Plant Page 3 Baytown Complex ?One of world?s largest integrated, most technologically advanced petroleum/petrochemical complexes ?~3,400 acres along Houston Ship...

Gandler, T.

67

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

68

Waste-burning furnace  

SciTech Connect

The furnace includes an upstanding hopper-like member having an increasing cross-sectional area from a fuel inlet at its upper end to a hollow box-like grate releasably and removably mounted within its lower end portion at an elevation slightly below the upper extremity of a gas passageway opening laterally from such member and communicating with a manifold chamber extending horizontally therefrom. The grate has elongate slot-like openings extending horizontally of and vertically through its medial portion, and preferably includes cylindrical solid rods extending longitudinally of the upper portions of such openings. An electrically-powered blower is releasably connected to the grate, for movement therewith, and during operation conducts air to the interior of the hollow sections of the grate. The latter are provided with apertures which discharge jets of air vertically upward and downward, and also angularly upward and downward, from the grate. The angularly directed air jets include ones that emanate from the upper edges of the grate openings and are directed toward the centers of such openings, and others that are discharged from grate edges that are closely adjacent the gas passageway and are directed toward such passageway. Normally shut closure members are provided in association with the fuel inlet at the upper end of the hopper-like member and in association with an ash-removal passageway provided within the lower end portion of such member. Gaseous combustion products introduced into the manifold chamber pass therefrom through ducts communicating therewith on opposite sides of a vertical baffle extending centrally and longitudinally of the chamber.

Foster, G.M.

1983-11-15

69

Numerical simulation in combustion space of an oil fired float glass furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce energy consumption and prolong furnace life, numerical simulation in the combustion space of an oil fired float glass furnace was carried out. The gas phase is expressed with k-epsiv two-equation model; the combustion is described with non-premixed model; the oil drop motion is described with Discrete Phase Model; the radiation is expressed with Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model. The

Shuxia Mei; Junlin Xie; Mingfang Jin; Da Han

2008-01-01

70

Computational modelling of turbulent flow, combustion and heat transfer in glass furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the combustion of natural gas in high temperature glass furnaces a computational model “Furnace” has been developed. It\\u000a includes 3-D turbulent flow, flame chemistry, radiative heat transfer and the formation of soot and of the pollutant NO. Turbulent\\u000a fluctuations have been taken into account, and are shown to have a large effect on thermal radiation and NO-formation. Spectral\\u000a behaviour

C J Hoogendoorn; C L Koster; J A Wieringa

1994-01-01

71

Batch Preheat for glass and related furnace processing operations  

SciTech Connect

The objectives that our development work addressed are: (1) Establish through lab tests a salt eutectic with a melting point of about 250 F and a working range of 250 to 1800 F. (2) Establish the most economical material of construction for the screened salt eutectics identified in the first objective. (3) Establish the material of construction for the salt heater liner. Objectives 2 and 3 were determined through corrosion tests using selected metallurgical samples. Successful completion of the above-stated goals will be incorporated in a heat recovery design that can be used in high temperature processes and furnaces, typical of which is the glass melting process. The process design incorporates the following unit operations: a vertical batch heater (whereby the batch flows down through tubes in a shell and tube exchanger; a molten salt eutectic is circulated on the shell side); a molten salt heater utilizing furnace flue gas in a radiation type heater (molten salt is circulated in the annular space between the inner and outer shells of the vertical heater, and flue gas passes from the furnace exhaust through the inner shell of the heater); a cantilever type molten salt circulating pump; and a jacketed mixer/conveyor to drive off moisture from the batch prior to feeding the batch to the vertical batch heater. Historically, radiation heaters, when applied to glass or fiberglass furnace recuperation, have experienced failures due to uneven heat flux rates, which increases internal stresses and spot overheating conditions. Low heat transfer coefficients result in requirements for large heat transfer surface areas in gas to gas or gas to air exchangers. Fouling is another factor that results in lower unit availability and reduced performance. These factors are accommodated in this process by the incorporation of several design features. The salt heater will be a vertical double wall radiation design, similar to radiation air heaters used in high temperature heat recovery. The unit utilizes an inner shell that the furnace exhaust gas passes through: this provides essentially a self-cleaning surface. Utilization of radiation air heaters in fiberglass furnaces has demonstrated that the inner shell provides a surface from which molten ash can drain down. The molten salt eutectic will be pumped through the annulus between this inner wall and the outer wall of the unit. The annular space tempering via the molten salt will promote more uniform expansion for the unit, and thereby promote more uniform heat flux rates. Heat transfer would be via radiation mainly, with a minor convective contributor.

Energy & Environmental Resources, Inc

2002-08-12

72

Crystal growth and furnace analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal analysis of Hg/Cd/Te solidification in a Bridgman cell is made using Continuum's VAST code. The energy equation is solved in an axisymmetric, quasi-steady domain for both the molten and solid alloy regions. Alloy composition is calculated by a simplified one-dimensional model to estimate its effect on melt thermal conductivity and, consequently, on the temperature field within the cell. Solidification is assumed to occur at a fixed temperature of 979 K. Simplified boundary conditions are included to model both the radiant and conductive heat exchange between the furnace walls and the alloy. Calculations are performed to show how the steady-state isotherms are affected by: the hot and cold furnace temperatures, boundary condition parameters, and the growth rate which affects the calculated alloy's composition. The Advanced Automatic Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), developed by NASA, is also thermally analyzed using the CINDA code. The objective is to determine the performance and the overall power requirements for different furnace designs.

Dakhoul, Youssef M.

1986-01-01

73

Concrete linings of heating furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metallurgical and machine-building industries have more than a thousand heating and heat-treatment furnaces lined with refractory parts. The life of the linings is up to 2 years including intermediate repairs of individual elements. The primary reason for the low life of linings is their insufficient structural strength and also failure of refractory parts in periodic sharp heating and cooling.

S. R. Zamyatin

1993-01-01

74

Wood by-pass furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This wood by-pass furnace is designed in such a manner, as to have the oxygen for combustion controlled, to the extent that the wood does not blaze, but only produces red, glowing coals for heating a home, and the outside cover will not burn anyone when touched. It primarily consists of am inside fire chamber of cylindrical shape, to distribute

P. S. Sr

1983-01-01

75

Temperature-Gradient Furnace for Solidification Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gradients are controllable from zero to 500 degrees C/cm. Typical temperature profile superimposed on partial cross section of furnace. Steepness of gradient varied by adjusting flow of energy to and from different zones of furnace. Specimen placed in ampoule moved inside ceramic tube according to needs of experiment. Furnace provides axial temperature profiles for material processing experiments.

Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D.

1985-01-01

76

Energy balance of glass-melting furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of experimental data, the authors drew up the energetic and exergetic balances of a glass-melting furnace. The results of the calculations of the exergetic balances are given in tables. The use of the exergetic balance makes it possible to achieve in detail the optimization of furnace design and to determine the most suitable regimes of furnace operation,

A. S. Kozlov; V. E. Dunduchenko; R. S. Kotselko; L. P. Shutnikova

1986-01-01

77

Cogeneration from glass furnace waste heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In glass manufacturing 70% of the total energy utilized is consumed in the melting process. Three basic furnaces are in use: regenerative, recuperative, and direct fired design. The present paper focuses on secondary heat recovery from regenerative furnaces. A diagram of a typical regenerative furnace is given. Three recovery bottoming cycles were evaluated as part of a comparative systems analysis:

J. G. Hnat; J. S. Patten

1982-01-01

78

Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

79

Direct current, closed furnace silicon technology  

SciTech Connect

The dc closed furnace technology for smelting silicon offers technical operating challenges, as well as, economic opportunities for off-gas recovery, reduced electrode consumption, reduced reductant oxidation losses, reduced energy consumption, and improved silicon recovery. The 10 mva dc closed furnace is located in East Selkirk, Manitoba. Construction of this pilot plant was started in September 1990. Following successful commissioning of the furnace in 1992, a number of smelting tests have been conducted aimed at optimization of the furnace operation and the raw material mix. The operation of a closed furnace is significantly different from an open furnace operation. The major difference being in the mechanical movement of the mix, off-gas recovery, and inability to observe the process. These differences made data collection and analysis critical in making operating decisions. This closed furnace was operated by computer control (state of the art in the smelling industry).

Dosaj, V.D. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States); May, J.B. [Dow Corning Corp., Freeland, MI (United States); Arvidson, A.N. [Meadow Materials, Manitoba (Canada)

1994-05-01

80

Optimizing rotary furnace smelting of battery residue  

SciTech Connect

The process for recovering lead from battery residues used in several Mexican Plants include lead blast furnace and rotary furnaces. The formers are basically fed with recycled batteries together with the necessary additives to produce metallic lead. One of the by-products generated in the blast furnace is a dust mainly formed by lead sulfide. The rotary furnace is used to recover lead from lead batteries, dross from the refining-alloying process and the lead fines produced in the blast furnace. This paper describes thermodynamic analysis made to the rotary furnace process to understand the effect that each component of the system has upon the lead recovery. In order to enhance the process, the influence of iron chips composition and excess coke on slag viscosity is discussed. A computer optimization program has been developed to design the furnace charge based on material and energy balances, together with the thermodynamic equilibrium calculation.

Chavez, F.; Morales, R.D.; Romero, A.; Guerrero, A.

1995-12-31

81

Wood and gas fired furnace  

SciTech Connect

A furnace for wood log fuel having apparatus which automatically inserts the logs into the furnace combustion chamber. The log fuel is retained in a sloping ramp storage compartment. Electrical circuitry controlled by a thermostat operates to move a log into an elongated chamber from which a motor driven injector pushes the log into the combustion chamber through a doorway covered by a flexible, segmented flap covering and also a door which is pushed open by the advancing log. The presence of the log on a spring mounted grate operates certain switches to return the injection mechanism to its ready condition and also to operate a fan which provides combustion air to the combustion chamber. The reduced weight on the grate by the consumption of the log by the fire permits the grate to move to a position to re-initiate the log injection cycle. A standby gas fuel burner system is also provided and is controlled by the thermostat to operate when the log fuel heat is insufficient, such as upon the supply of log fuel becoming exhausted. An optional auger conveyor which operates under the control of dual timers for automatic discharge of ashes from the furnace is also disclosed.

Richards, J. A.

1985-12-10

82

Analise de Mecanismos de CAC para Redes ATM Michel Ferreira Abdalla  

E-print Network

An´alise de Mecanismos de CAC para Redes ATM Michel Ferreira Abdalla Department of Computer Science~ao em redes ATM. Uma classifica¸c~ao destes mecanismos baseada no princ´ipio impl´icito neles utilizado encontrar em redes ATM, estes mecanismos apre- sentam resultados bastante superestimados para a capaci- dade

Abdalla, Michel Ferreira

83

Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Wittle, J. Kenneth (Chester Springs, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1996-01-01

84

Numerical Simulation in Combustion Space of an Oxy-Fuel Glass Furnace with the First Pair of Burners Arrangement Changed  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce energy consumption and prolong furnace life, numerical simulation in the combustion space of an oxy-fuel float glass furnace was carried out. The gas phase is expressed with k-¿ two-equation model; the combustion is described with non-premixed model; the radiation is expressed with discrete ordinates radiation model. The simulation results agree well with the related reference. The results show

Shuxia Mei; Junlin Xie

2009-01-01

85

Crystal growth furnace with trap doors  

DOEpatents

An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

Sachs, Emanual M. (Watertown, MA); Mackintosh, Brian H. (Lexington, MA)

1982-06-15

86

Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

1992-12-29

87

Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces  

SciTech Connect

In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

2004-01-24

88

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

1999-03-16

89

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

Blaugher, R.D.

1999-03-16

90

Simple device measures solar radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple inexpensive thermometer, insolated from surroundings by transparent glass or plastic encasement, measures intensities of solar radiation, or radiation from other sources such as furnaces or ovens. Unit can be further modified to accomplish readings from remote locations.

Humphries, W. R.

1977-01-01

91

41. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; photo taken from furnace operator's booth. Looking south/southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

92

Insulation of Pipe Bends Improves Efficiency of Hot Oil Furnaces  

E-print Network

Thermodynamic analyses of processes indicated low furnace efficiencies on certain hot oil furnaces. Further investigation, which included Infrared (IR) thermography testing of several furnaces, identified extremely hot surfaces on the outside...

Haseltine, D. M.; Laffitte, R. D.

93

50. Taken from highline; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. Taken from high-line; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is main blast furnace gas line from "C" furnace dust catcher; levy, slag hauler, removing slag. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

94

ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. umber of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total oil furnaces tested by the EPA in Roanoke, V...

95

Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors  

SciTech Connect

The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

2003-02-28

96

Glass Furnace Project: October 1981March 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the Glass Furnace Project is to evaluate the use of a joule-heated glass furnace, fitted with a Mound-developed offgas system, to reduce the volume of contaminated waste typical of that from nuclear power plants. As part of the project, several different waste types, including dry solid waste, ion exchange resin, and sludge, will be burned in the

K. M. Armstrong; L. M. Klingler

1982-01-01

97

Glass Furnace Project: October 1980March 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of the Glass Furnace Project is to evaluate the use of the Penberthy Pyro-Converter, fitted with a Mound-developed offgas system, to reduce the volume of contaminated waste typical of that from nuclear power plants. Several different waste types, including dry solid waste, ion exchange resin, and sludge, will be burned in the glass furnace unit. Combustion characteristics and radionuclide

B. M. Alexander; L. M. Klingler

1981-01-01

98

Modelling and Optimisation of Reheat Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some problems are known to have computationally demanding objective function, which could turn to be infeasible when large problems are considered. Therefore, fast approximations to the objective function are required. This paper employs portfolio of intelligent systems algorithms for optimising a metal reheat furnace scheduling problem. The proposed system has been evaluated for different techniques of the reheat furnace scheduling

Tawfeeq Al-kanhal; Maysam Abbod

2008-01-01

99

Crystal growth furnace safety system validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings are reported regarding the safe operation of the NASA crystal growth furnace (CGF) and potential methods for detecting containment failures of the furnace. The main conclusions are summarized by ampoule leak detection, cartridge leak detection, and detection of hazardous species in the experiment apparatus container (EAC).

Mackowski, D. W.; Hartfield, R.; Bhavnani, S. H.; Belcher, V. M.

1994-01-01

100

Developmental testing of a programmable multizone furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multizone furnace was evaluated for its potential utilization for process experimentation on board the Space Shuttle. A temperature gradient can be created through the use of a series of connected temperature zones and can be translated by the coordinated sequencing of zone temperatures. The Bridgman-Stockbarger thermal configuration for directional solidification was implemented so that neither the sample nor furnace was translated. The thermal behavior of the furnace was measured and characterized. Limitations due to both thermal and electronic (computer) factors are identified. The results indicate that the multizone design is limited to low temperature gradients because of the indirect furnace-to-sample thermal coupling needed to blend the discrete thermal zones. The multizone furnace design inherently consumes more power than a similar (two temperature) conventional Bridgman type directional solidification furnace because every zone must be capable of the high cooling rates needed to produce the maximum desired temperature drop. Typical achievable static temperature gradients for the furnace tested were between 6 and 75 C/in. The maximum gradient velocity was approximately 10 in./hr. Several aspects of the tested system could be improved, but the dependence of the multizone design on high heat loss will limit Space Shuttle applications in the form tested unless additional power is available. The multizone furnace offers great flexibility but requires a high level of operator understanding for full advantage to be obtained.

Ting, E. Y.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

1986-01-01

101

Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing  

DOEpatents

An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

Sopori, Bhushan L.

2014-08-05

102

Solid fuel warm air furnace  

SciTech Connect

A solid fuel furnace which includes a housing enclosing a firebox and a heat exchanger chamber. An open grate in the firebox supports solid fuel thereon. Combustion air is admitted to the area below the grate and is preheated and passes upwardly through the grate and fuel and mixes with volatile gases released from the fuel. The air/gas mixture is drawn downwardly through the fuel and exits the firebox through an inlet to an insulated burn-out chamber which is behind the firebox. A metal screen covers the inlet and serves to ignite the air/gas mixture. Hot flue gases exit the burn-out chamber to the heat exchanger chamber.

Christian, J.V.

1984-08-21

103

Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

This study has been supported by a consortium of nine industrial and governmental sponsors. Work was initiated on May 1, 1985 and completed August 31, 1989. The central objective of this work was to develop, evaluate and apply a practical combustion model for utility boilers, industrial furnaces and gasifiers. Key accomplishments have included: Development of an advanced first-generation, computer model for combustion in three dimensional furnaces; development of a new first generation fouling and slagging submodel; detailed evaluation of an existing NO{sub x} submodel; development and evaluation of an improved radiation submodel; preparation and distribution of a three-volume final report: (a) Volume 1: General Technical Report; (b) Volume 2: PCGC-3 User's Manual; (c) Volume 3: Data Book for Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Combustion Models; and organization of a user's workshop on the three-dimensional code. The furnace computer model developed under this study requires further development before it can be applied generally to all applications; however, it can be used now by specialists for many specific applications, including non-combusting systems and combusting geseous systems. A new combustion center was organized and work was initiated to continue the important research effort initiated by this study. 212 refs., 72 figs., 38 tabs.

Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.

1989-08-01

104

Study of a microwave induced argon plasma sustained in a TE 101 cavity as spectrochemical emission source coupled with graphite furnace evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The argon MIP sustained in a TE101 cavity has been evaluated as a spectrochemical radiation source and its analytical performance in combination with graphite furnace evaporation has been studied. A quartz discharge tube with a side arm is used, through which the sample vapour from the furnace is introduced by the carrier gas. A stable quasi-toroidal rotating plasma with a

Jinfu Yang; Jingyu Zhang; C. Schickling; J. A. C. Broekaert

1996-01-01

105

Optimization of the thermogauge furnace for realizing high temperature fixed points  

SciTech Connect

The thermogauge furnace was commonly used in many NMIs as a blackbody source for calibration of the radiation thermometer. It can also be used for realizing the high temperature fixed point(HTFP). According to our experience, when realizing HTFP we need the furnace provide relative good temperature uniformity to avoid the possible damage to the HTFP. To improve temperature uniformity in the furnace, the furnace tube was machined near the tube ends with a help of a simulation analysis by 'ansys workbench'. Temperature distributions before and after optimization were measured and compared at 1300 °C, 1700°C, 2500 °C, which roughly correspond to Co-C(1324 °C), Pt-C(1738 °C) and Re-C(2474 °C), respectively. The results clearly indicate that through machining the tube the temperature uniformity of the Thermogage furnace can be remarkably improved. A Pt-C high temperature fixed point was realized in the modified Thermogauge furnace subsequently, the plateaus were compared with what obtained using old heater, and the results were presented in this paper.

Wang, T.; Dong, W. [National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing (China)] [National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing (China); Liu, F. [AVIC China Precision Engineering Institute for Aircraft Industry, Beijing (China)] [AVIC China Precision Engineering Institute for Aircraft Industry, Beijing (China)

2013-09-11

106

Optimization of the thermogauge furnace for realizing high temperature fixed points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermogauge furnace was commonly used in many NMIs as a blackbody source for calibration of the radiation thermometer. It can also be used for realizing the high temperature fixed point(HTFP). According to our experience, when realizing HTFP we need the furnace provide relative good temperature uniformity to avoid the possible damage to the HTFP. To improve temperature uniformity in the furnace, the furnace tube was machined near the tube ends with a help of a simulation analysis by "ansys workbench". Temperature distributions before and after optimization were measured and compared at 1300 °C, 1700°C, 2500 °C, which roughly correspond to Co-C(1324 °C), Pt-C(1738 °C) and Re-C(2474 °C), respectively. The results clearly indicate that through machining the tube the temperature uniformity of the Thermogage furnace can be remarkably improved. A Pt-C high temperature fixed point was realized in the modified Thermogauge furnace subsequently, the plateaus were compared with what obtained using old heater, and the results were presented in this paper.

Wang, T.; Dong, W.; Liu, F.

2013-09-01

107

Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

1986-01-01

108

Removable preheater elements improve oxide induction furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat and corrosion resistant preheater elements are used in oxide induction furnaces to raise the temperature to the level for conducting electricity. These preheater elements are then removed and the induction coil energized.

Leipold, M. H.

1964-01-01

109

Energy Assessment Protocol for Glass Furnaces  

E-print Network

The Department of Energy funded development of a methodology that could be used by glass producers to increase furnace efficiency, and that could serve as a model for other energy-intensive industries. Accordingly, a team comprising PPG Industries...

Plodinec, M. J.; Kauffman, B. M.; Norton, O. P.; Richards, C.; Connors, J.; Wishnick, D.

2005-01-01

110

Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide  

DOEpatents

A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

2012-03-13

111

Glass Furnace Project, October 1982March 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Glass Furnace Project currently under way at Mound, a treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste is being evaluated that will combine volume reduction and immobilization in one step. Initial work focused on demonstrating the ability of the furnace to efficiently incinerate nonradioactive, simulated power-plant waste and on determining the adequacy of immobilization in a soda-lime silica matrix. Further

K. M. Armstrong; L. M. Klingler

1983-01-01

112

Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1998-01-01

113

15Year blast furnace campaign concept for the reline of blast furnace C at Iscor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1970`s, when blast furnace campaigns of 3 to 5 years were experienced at the Vanderbijlpark Works, consequent improvements of cooling and refractory concepts as well as the development of a hot guniting practice for belly and lower shaft resulted in campaigns of 10 years and more. Having mastered the problems in belly and lower shaft, the furnace hearth

Noska; T. G. L

1995-01-01

114

Heating of compound samples in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heating of cylindrical compound samples in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces is studied. A line-source model for the lamp (instead of a point source) is considered. The irradiation profiles obtained for this lamp model are analyzed; the case of defocussed lamps is studied analytically. The temperature field in the sample is obtained by means of a conduction-radiation model that includes the radiative exchange between the sample and the mirror. Graphite-silicon-graphite samples are considered; the melting of the silicon part and the surface temperature distribution in the melt are analyzed in dependence of lamp defocussing. By changing this parameter opposite surface temperature gradients in the melt can be obtained, which define opposite thermocapillary stresses.

Rivas, Damián; Vázquez-Espí, Carlos

115

Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

A radiometer is described with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. 5 figs.

Woskov, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Surma, J.E.

1996-11-12

116

An embedded boundary method for the modeling of unsteady combustion in an industrial gas-fired furnace  

SciTech Connect

A new methodology for the modeling of unsteady, nonpremixed, axisymmetric reacting flow in industrial furnaces is presented. The method is an extension of previous work by the authors to complex geometries, multistep kinetics mechanisms, and realistic properties, especially thermochemical data. The walls of the furnace are represented as an embedded boundary in a uniform, rectangular grid. The grid then consists of uniform rectangular cells except at the furnace wall where irregular (mixed) cells may be present. We use finite volume differencing techniques for the convective, viscous, and radiative heat transport terms in the mixed cells, while a finite element-based technique is used to solve the elliptic equation arising from the low-Mach number formulation. Results from the simulation of an experimental natural gas-fired furnace are shown.

Pember, R.B.; Almgren, A.S.; Crutchfield, W.Y.; Howell, L.H.; Bell, J.B.; Colella, P.; Beckner, V.E.

1995-10-18

117

Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-09-23

118

High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

1992-01-01

119

Acoustic Levitator With Furnace And Laser Heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic-levitation apparatus incorporates electrical-resistance furnace for uniform heating up to temperature of about 1,000 degrees C. Additional local heating by pair of laser beams raise temperature of sample to more than 1,500 degrees C. High temperature single-mode acoustic levitator generates cylindrical-mode accoustic resonance levitating sample. Levitation chamber enclosed in electrical-resistance furnace. Infrared beams from Nd:YAG laser provide additional local heating of sample. Designed for use in containerless processing of materials in microgravity or in normal Earth gravity.

Barmatz, Martin B.; Stoneburner, James D.

1991-01-01

120

Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces  

SciTech Connect

A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace.

Gorin, Andrew H. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01

121

Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

Brand, L.; Rose, W.

2012-10-01

122

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LADLE POURING MOLTEN IRON INTO QBOP FURNACE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LADLE POURING MOLTEN IRON INTO Q-BOP FURNACE. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

123

12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

124

14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

125

15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

126

13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

127

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE SIZE FRACTIONS FROM GLASS MELTING FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this research was to identify the size fraction distribution of the various chemical constituents of glass furnace emissions. This would assist researchers in identifying emissions characteristic of glass furnaces; thus, providing design requirements for control te...

128

Design and fabrication of a tin-sulfide annealing furnace  

E-print Network

A furnace was designed and its heat transfer properties were analyzed for use in annealing thin-film tins-ulfide solar cells. Tin sulfide has been explored as an earth abundant solar cell material, and the furnace was ...

Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

2011-01-01

129

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURNACE NO. 1 (ca. 1910. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURNACE NO. 1 (ca. 1910. Nameplate reads: "Heroult Electric Furnace, Capacity 6 tons, Built by American Bridge Company, Pencoyd, PA, No. 33") - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

130

22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL CONSTRUCTION. CONCRETE PAD AT LEFT IS SITE OF FORMER FURNACE USED TO HEAT URANIUM BILLETS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

131

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RETECH'S PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE - VOLUME I  

EPA Science Inventory

A demonstration of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) was conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The furnace uses heat gen...

132

42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; operator takes temperature of iron in trough during pout. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

133

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF STEELMAKING FURNACE DUST DISPOSAL METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to examine the nature of steelmaking furnace residues and disposal techniques, and to assess potential problems associated with residue disposal, a potential multimedia environmental problem. Solubilization tests of 18 furnace residue samples s...

134

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE PIPE, CINDER NOTCH IN CENTER, SLAG RUNNER IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

135

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG RUNNERS & GATES IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

136

SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING BUILDINGS SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO LOCAL POWER GRID, PRIMARILY FOR ELECTRIC FURNACES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Bessemer Foundry, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

137

36. REDUCTION PLANT CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. REDUCTION PLANT - CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER Reduction Plant furnace and boiler used to provide heat for drying the fish and fish offal, in their conversion to meal. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

138

Monitoring power system response to UHP arc furnace operations  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the use of a PC based data acquisition and analysis system for monitoring response of a power system to the operation of two electric arc furnaces. The topics of the article include a description of the steel complex, the data acquisition system, monitoring one furnace ramping up, monitoring loss of one furnace, monitoring loss of two furnaces, and the results of monitoring and analysis.

Sharma, C.; Julien, K.S. (Univ. of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

1994-01-01

139

Glassification of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Glassification process is a unique system that treats hazardous materials such as electric arc furnace dust, slag, spent refractories, etc, and produces an inert, nontoxic marketable commodity. A wide variety of end products include: colored glasses; glass-ceramics that resemble natural rocks used for architectural purposes and decorative articles; roofing granules; abrasive grit; brick and tile colorants; and fillers. This

R. B. Ek; J. E. Schlobohm

1993-01-01

140

Tube-Furnace Production of Silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Packed-bed reactor produces silicon by decomposing ultrapure silane gas in temperature gradient. Based on previous experiments with relatively low decomposition temperatures and with temperature gradients, heterogeneous decomposition will produce few fines. Fines produced are screened out and reinserted into furnace.

Farrier, E. G.; Rexer, J.; Timmel, P. J.

1982-01-01

141

Controlling glass furnace NOâ with gas reburn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass furnaces are significant emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOâ) because of their high operating temperatures. The glass industry is faced with progressively more stringent environmental regulations, particularly for NOâ emissions, in regions of ozone nonattainment. The objective of the development and demonstration program described here is to commercialize gas reburn (GR) technology--previously successfully applied in large boilers and incinerators--to large

R. Koppang; A. Marquez; D. Moyeda; M. Joshi; P. Mohr; R. Madrazo

1998-01-01

142

Model based energy benchmarking for glass furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy benchmarking of processes is important for setting energy efficiency targets and planning energy management strategies. Most approaches used for energy benchmarking are based on statistical methods by comparing with a sample of existing plants. This paper presents a model based approach for benchmarking of energy intensive industrial processes and illustrates this approach for industrial glass furnaces.A simulation model for

Vishal Sardeshpande; U. N. Gaitonde; Rangan Banerjee

2007-01-01

143

Saturable reactor control of glass melt furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of a saturable-reactor control system to an existing glass furnace, for melting a glass of composition between a soda-lime and a borosilicate, is described. The factors that influenced the selection of the specific equipment design are discussed as well as the performance characteristics that were achieved. A phase imbalance has been observed. It is concluded that the best

C. Kubiczki; F. R. Wetzel

1989-01-01

144

High-gradient continuous-casting furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High gradient allows rapid growth rates in directionally-solidified eutectic alloys. Furnace design permits cost reductions in directional solidification process through its increased solidification rates, which reduces melt/mold interaction. It produces structural engineering materials for any application requiring properties directionally-solidified eutectic materials.

Scheuermann, C. M.; Flemings, M. C.; Neff, M. A.; Rickinson, B. A.; Young, K. P.

1979-01-01

145

Multi-fuel forced air furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid fuel supported on a grate within the combustion chamber of a furnace is ignited by a liquid or gas fuel burner projecting its flame entirely within the same combustion chamber. A forced inflow of air is preheated by being conducted below and in surrounding relation to the combustion chamber and then passed in heat exchange relation to heat transfer

1977-01-01

146

HT / LT SERIES SMALL BATCH FURNACE SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

Considerations Produce a cost effective alternative to table top furnace systems that incorporate DDC control of mimicking production environment - baffling, dummy boats, etc. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT #12;Sandvik Materials Materials Technology The previous table top, the Maxi Mite, is still a valid product as shown to the right

147

APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. oth the technical and economic aspects of the technology were exami...

148

APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspectsof the technology were examined. A...

149

Computationally efficient modeling of wafer temperatures in an LPCVD furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new first principles thermal model to predict wafer temperatures within a hot-wall Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) furnace based on furnace wall temperatures as measured by thermocouples. This model is based on an energy balance of the furnace system with the following features: (a) the model is a transformed linear model which captures the nonlinear

Qinghua He; S. Joe Qin; Anthony J. Toprac

2003-01-01

150

Phasing out Reverberatory Furnace Operations at KCM Nkana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nkana smelter was initially commissioned in 1931, with two reverberatory furnaces, two Peirce-Smith converters, and blister copper casting facilities. Reverberatory furnaces were the mainstay of production up until 1994, when an El Teniente Converter (CT) was installed to upgrade reverberatory furnace matte to white metal, prior to converting in conventional Peirce-Smith (PS) converters. In 2000, a decision was taken

C. J. Cutler; M. Natarajan; E. Mponda; J. J. Eksteen

151

Numerical simulation on the structure of glass furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention received by the float process, whose structure of the furnace is very critical, and its design is reasonable, directly affect the production and quality of glass. while the size of melting department of melting furnace is reasonable which is key solution of designing the furnace. In the past, the size of melting department is determined by referring to or

ZhiHua Wei; Jinshuang Li

2011-01-01

152

Estimation of Burning Rates in Solid Waste Combustion Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a furnace burning solid wastes, one of the key areas in design is the sizing of the furnace which is often determined on the basis of empirically selected furnace heat release rate and grate burning rate. An independent estimation of these factors would require the knowledge of physical processes of refuse combustion such as drying and heating of the

J. T. KUO

1998-01-01

153

Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in the center is a charging machine the operator of which manipulates steel ingots in the furnace, as well as in the adjacent forging hammers - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

154

ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL NATURAL GAS FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives emissions data from residential natural-gas furnaces and compares selected data to emissions data from residential oil furnaces and woodstoves. atural-gas furnace emissions data are given for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons, aldehydes, volatile and sem...

155

Mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by blast furnace slag and steel furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the adsorption of phosphate and discuss the mechanisms of phosphate removal from aqueous solution by burst furnace\\u000a slag (BFS) and steel furnace slag (SFS). The results show that the adsorption of phosphate on the slag was rapid and the majority\\u000a of adsorption was completed in 5?10 min. The adsorption capacity of phosphate by the slag was reduced dramatically

Sheng-gao Lu; Shi-qiang Bai; Hong-dan Shan

2008-01-01

156

Radiation  

Cancer.gov

DCEG researchers carry out a broad-based research program designed to identify, understand, and quantify the risk of cancer in populations exposed to medical, occupational, or environmental radiation. They study ionizing radiation exposures (e.g., x-rays,

157

6. Photocopied August 1978. LINEUP OF HORRY ROTARY FURNACES ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photocopied August 1978. LINE-UP OF HORRY ROTARY FURNACES ON THE SECOND FLOOR OF THE MICHIGAN LAKE SUPERIOR POWER COMPANY POWER HOUSE. THE HOPPERS WHICH FED THE RAW MATERIALS INTO THE FURNACES ARE SHOWN ABOVE THE FURNACES. AS THE 'SPOOL' OF THE FURNACE ROTATED PAST THE ELECTRODES PLATES WERE ADDED TO HOLD THE FINISHED PRODUCT AND THE DESCENDING RAW MATERIALS IN PLACE. THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION OF THE FURNACES SHOWN IN THIS PHOTO IS CLOCKWISE, (M). - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

158

One-dimensional code to predict the thermal behavior of the UTSI MHD radiant furnace  

SciTech Connect

An analytical model of the thermal behavior of the radiant furnace components installed in the CFFF has been developed. Efforts have been primarily directed towards obtaining a representative global evaluation of the heat recovery of the major downstream components. An overall review of the heat transfer code developed specifically for the DOE CFFF downstream components is presented. The basic methods by which the gas state, transport properties, and the thermal radiative and convective properties are calculated are delineated. Since the thermal behavior of the furnace is radiation dominated, a greater emphasis was placed on this mode of heat transfer. The heat transfer model employs a single zone approximation to the physical problem. The results of the code show good agreement with the experimental data. A more rigorous approach to the problem requires the use of a multi-zone analysis which is presently under consideration. 21 references. (WHK)

Galanga, F.L.

1984-03-01

159

Improved Blackbody Temperature Sensors for a Vacuum Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some improvements have been made in the design and fabrication of blackbody sensors (BBSs) used to measure the temperature of a heater core in a vacuum furnace. Each BBS consists of a ring of thermally conductive, high-melting-temperature material with two tantalum-sheathed thermocouples attached at diametrically opposite points. The name "blackbody sensor" reflects the basic principle of operation. Heat is transferred between the ring and the furnace heater core primarily by blackbody radiation, heat is conducted through the ring to the thermocouples, and the temperature of the ring (and, hence, the temperature of the heater core) is measured by use of the thermocouples. Two main requirements have guided the development of these BBSs: (1) The rings should have as high an emissivity as possible in order to maximize the heat-transfer rate and thereby maximize temperature-monitoring performance and (2) the thermocouples must be joined to the rings in such a way as to ensure long-term, reliable intimate thermal contact. The problem of fabricating a BBS to satisfy these requirements is complicated by an application-specific prohibition against overheating and thereby damaging nearby instrumentation leads through the use of conventional furnace brazing or any other technique that involves heating the entire BBS and its surroundings. The problem is further complicated by another application-specific prohibition against damaging the thin tantalum thermocouple sheaths through the use of conventional welding to join the thermocouples to the ring. The first BBS rings were made of graphite. The tantalum-sheathed thermocouples were attached to the graphite rings by use of high-temperature graphite cements. The ring/thermocouple bonds thus formed were found to be weak and unreliable, and so graphite rings and graphite cements were abandoned. Now, each BBS ring is made from one of two materials: either tantalum or a molybdenum/titanium/zirconium alloy. The tantalum-sheathed thermocouples are bonded to the ring by laser brazing. The primary advantage of laser brazing over furnace brazing is that in laser brazing, it is possible to form a brazed connection locally, without heating nearby parts to the flow temperature of the brazing material. Hence, it is possible to comply with the prohibition against overheating nearby instrumentation leads. Also, in laser brazing, unlike in furnace brazing, it is possible to exert control over the thermal energy to such a high degree that it becomes possible to braze the thermocouples to the ring without burning through the thin tantalum sheaths on the thermocouples. The brazing material used in the laser brazing process is a titanium-boron paste. This brazing material can withstand use at temperatures up to about 1,400 C. In thermal-cycling tests performed thus far, no debonding between the rings and thermocouples has been observed. Emissivity coatings about 0.001 in. (.0.025 mm) thick applied to the interior surfaces of the rings have been found to improve the performance of the BBS sensors by raising the apparent emissivities of the rings. In thermal-cycling tests, the coatings were found to adhere well to the rings.

Farmer, Jeff; Coppens, Chris; O'Dell, J. Scott; McKechnie, Timothy N.; Schofield, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

160

Glass Furnace Combustion and Melting Research Facility.  

SciTech Connect

The need for a Combustion and Melting Research Facility focused on the solution of glass manufacturing problems common to all segments of the glass industry was given high priority in the earliest version of the Glass Industry Technology Roadmap (Eisenhauer et al., 1997). Visteon Glass Systems and, later, PPG Industries proposed to meet this requirement, in partnership with the DOE/OIT Glass Program and Sandia National Laboratories, by designing and building a research furnace equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostics in the DOE Combustion Research Facility located at the Sandia site in Livermore, CA. Input on the configuration and objectives of the facility was sought from the entire industry by a variety of routes: (1) through a survey distributed to industry leaders by GMIC, (2) by conducting an open workshop following the OIT Glass Industry Project Review in September 1999, (3) from discussions with numerous glass engineers, scientists, and executives, and (4) during visits to glass manufacturing plants and research centers. The recommendations from industry were that the melting tank be made large enough to reproduce the essential processes and features of industrial furnaces yet flexible enough to be operated in as many as possible of the configurations found in industry as well as in ways never before attempted in practice. Realization of these objectives, while still providing access to the glass bath and combustion space for optical diagnostics and measurements using conventional probes, was the principal challenge in the development of the tank furnace design. The present report describes a facility having the requirements identified as important by members of the glass industry and equipped to do the work that the industry recommended should be the focus of research. The intent is that the laboratory would be available to U.S. glass manufacturers for collaboration with Sandia scientists and engineers on both precompetitive basic research and the solution of proprietary glass production problems. As a consequence of the substantial increase in scale and scope of the initial furnace concept in response to industry recommendations, constraints on funding of industrial programs by DOE, and reorientation of the Department's priorities, the OIT Glass Program is unable to provide the support for construction of such a facility. However, it is the present investigators' hope that a group of industry partners will emerge to carry the project forward, taking advantage of the detailed furnace design presented in this report. The engineering, including complete construction drawings, bill of materials, and equipment specifications, is complete. The project is ready to begin construction as soon as the quotations are updated. The design of the research melter closely follows the most advanced industrial practice, firing by natural gas with oxygen. The melting area is 13 ft x 6 ft, with a glass depth of 3 ft and an average height in the combustion space of 3 ft. The maximum pull rate is 25 tons/day, ranging from 100% batch to 100% cullet, continuously fed, with variable batch composition, particle size distribution, and raft configuration. The tank is equipped with bubblers to control glass circulation. The furnace can be fired in three modes: (1) using a single large burner mounted on the front wall, (2) by six burners in a staggered/opposed arrangement, three in each breast wall, and (3) by down-fired burners mounted in the crown in any combination with the front wall or breast-wall-mounted burners. Horizontal slots are provided between the tank blocks and tuck stones and between the breast wall and skewback blocks, running the entire length of the furnace on both sides, to permit access to the combustion space and the surface of the glass for optical measurements and sampling probes. Vertical slots in the breast walls provide additional access for measurements and sampling. The furnace and tank are to be fully instrumented with standard measuring equipment, such as flow meters, thermocouples, continuous gas composition

Connors, John J. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); McConnell, John F. (JFM Consulting, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Henry, Vincent I. (Henry Technology Solutions, LLC, Ann Arbor, MI); MacDonald, Blake A.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Field, William B. (Lilja Corp., Livermore, CA); Walsh, Peter M.; Simmons, Michael C. (Lilja Corp., Livermore, CA); Adams, Michael E. (Lilja Corp., Rochester, NY); Leadbetter, James M. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Tomasewski, Jack W. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Operacz, Walter J. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Houf, William G.; Davis, James W. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Marvin, Bart G. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Gunner, Bruce E. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Farrell, Rick G. (A.C. Leadbetter and Son, Inc., Toledo, OH); Bivins, David P. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Curtis, Warren (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Harris, James E. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA)

2004-08-01

161

Induction graphitizing furnace acceptance test report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The induction furnace was designed to provide the controlled temperature and environment required for the post-cure, carbonization and graphitization processes for the fabrication of a fibrous graphite NERVA nozzle extension. The acceptance testing required six tests and a total operating time of 298 hrs. Low temperature mode operations, 120 to 850 C, were completed in one test run. High temperature mode operations, 120 to 2750 C, were completed during five tests.

1972-01-01

162

New channel design for a glass furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The furnace is regenerative, with a reflected flame direction and a working basin, which is fired by gas. The throughput is 39.7 tonnes\\/day, specific production 878 kg\\/m 2 a day, maximum melting temperature 1510  10=C, working temperature 1200  5~ area of melting section 45.3 m 2, working section 9.3 m 2, melting basin depth ii00 mm, working basin

M. N. Kucheryavyi; O. N. Popov; A. S. Astakhov

1988-01-01

163

Metal sorption on blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of Cu, Ni and Zn-ions from water solution by ungranulated blast-furnace slag has been studied depending on contact time, initial ion concentration, pH and solution temperature. The polymineral composition and the slag specific properties determine its high sorption activity in metal salts solutions. In the range of the concentrations studied (10?4–10?3 M), the sorption data for Cu2+, Ni2+

S. V. Dimitrova

1996-01-01

164

Experimental control of a cupola furnace  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors present some final results from a research project focused on introducing automatic control to the operation of cupola iron furnaces. The main aim of this research is to improve the operational efficiency and performance of the cupola furnace, an important foundry process used to melt iron. Previous papers have described the development of appropriate control system architectures for the cupola. In this paper experimental data is used to calibrate the model, which is taken as a first-order multivariable system with time delay. Then relative gain analysis is used to select loop pairings to be used in a multiloop controller. The resulting controller pairs melt rate with blast volume, iron temperature with oxygen addition, and carbon composition with metal-to-coke ratio. Special (nonlinear) filters are used to compute melt rate from actual scale readings of the amount of iron produced and to smooth the temperature measurement. The temperature and melt rate loops use single-loop PI control. The composition loop uses a Smith predictor to discount the deadtime associated with mass transport through the furnace. Experiments conducted at the Department of Energy Albany Research Center`s experimental research cupola validate the conceptual controller design and provide proof-of-concept of the idea of controlling a foundry cupola.

Moore, K.L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Larsen, E.; Clark, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Abdelrahman, M.A. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; King, P. [Dept. of Energy, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

1998-08-01

165

Furnace combustion zone temperature control method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for controlling temperature in a combustion zone in a furnace, independent of flue gas oxygen content. It comprises: supplying combustion air to the furnace for combustion of a fuel therein; providing a plurality of low volume gas flow entry ports to the combustion zone in the furnace with carrier gas continuously flowing through the ports into the combustion zone; selecting a set point value for the combustion zone temperature which, upon the temperature exceeding the set point value, commences generation of a fine water mist external the combustion zone by mist generating means within the carrier gas, the mist flowing into the combustion zone with the carrier gas and reducing temperature within the combustion zone by vaporization therein; and adding a proportionately greater amount of water mist to the carrier gas as the temperature of the combustion zone deviates above the set point value, the amount of water mist added limited by the capacity of the mist generating means, and ceasing the water mist generation upon the combustion zone temperature falling to or below the set point value.

McIntyre, G.C.; Lacombe, R.J.; Forbess, R.G.

1991-05-28

166

Analise do Impacto da Rede Social na Marcac~ao de Fotos como Favoritas no Flickr1  

E-print Network

An´alise do Impacto da Rede Social na Marcac¸~ao de Fotos como Favoritas no Flickr1 Luiz Alves´udo compartilhado por um usu´ario ´e valorado ou disseminado pelos seus contatos na rede social [Bigonha et al. 2010 caracterizar a forma como um conte´udo ´e propagado em uma rede de contatos e/ou identificar usu´arios que

Cirne, Walfredo

167

Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to evaluate their utility in blast furnaces.  

PubMed

Torrefaction and burning characteristics of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, bagasse, and Madagascar almond were studied and compared with a high-volatile bituminous coal using a drop tube furnace to evaluate the potential of biomass consumed in blast furnaces. Torrefaction at 250 and 300°C for 1h duration was carried out. Analysis using the ash tracer method indicated that the extent of atomic carbon reduction in the biomasses was less than that of atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Torrefaction also lowered the sulfur content in bamboo and oil palm over 33%. An examination of the R-factor and burnout of the samples suggests that more volatiles were released and a higher burnout was achieved with raw and torrefied biomasses at 250°C than at 300°C; however, torrefaction at 300°C is a feasible operating condition to transform biomass into a solid fuel resembling a high-volatile bituminous coal used for blast furnaces. PMID:22386202

Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Zhen-Yu

2012-05-01

168

Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

Not Available

2011-10-01

169

Furnace wall-tube monitoring with a dual-band portable imaging radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In refineries, thermal imaging has been used for many years to monitor the interior temperatures of furnaces, particularly the furnace wall-tubes, in the presence of combustion gas flames. The temperature range in these processes varies from 400 to 1200°C. Flame combustion byproducts contain gases of H2O, N2, CO2, NO and small residues of ashes and other particles that emit thermal radiation toward wall tubes resulting in heating of the tubes. Typically, a mid-infrared (MWIR) instrument is used, equipped with a narrow band-pass filter centered at 3.90?m. In this band there is a void in the emission spectrum of these gases making them transparent, and an instrument operating only in this band can provide very high quality thermal images of the furnace interior. Operating temperatures at other points in petrochemical-related processes, closer to ambient temperature, can also be very critical. For example, a 10°C temperature difference from desired temperature at the coil output of a heat exchanger of a large ethylene plant can result in substantial revenue loss per year. Monitoring of these conditions is usually accomplished using a long wave infrared (LWIR) imaging radiometer operating in the 8-14?m spectral bands. This paper will review the evolution of techniques for furnace wall-tube monitoring, discuss current techniques and conclude with the description of a modern dual-band approach. In this approach a single, portable uncooled thermal imager is deployed in a refinery to monitor both the status of high temperature elements such as wall tubes and the operating condition of the furnace and its ancillary equipment. Case histories with thermographic illustrations will be presented.

Irani, Keikhosrow

2004-04-01

170

Enhanced-Contrast Viewing of White-Hot Objects in Furnaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus denoted a laser image contrast enhancement system (LICES) increases the contrast with which one can view a target glowing with blackbody radiation (a white-hot object) against a background of blackbody radiation in a furnace at a temperature as high as approximately 1,500 C. The apparatus utilizes a combination of narrowband illumination, along with band-pass filtering and polarization filtering to pass illumination reflected by the target while suppressing blackbody light from both the object and its background.

Witherow, William K.; Holmes, Richard R.; Kurtz, Robert L.

2006-01-01

171

Modelling ironmaking blast furnace: Solid flow and thermochemical behaviours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ironmaking blast furnace is a counter-, co-, cross-current moving bed reactor, where solid particles are charged at the furnace top forming a downward moving bed while gas are introduced at the lower part of furnace and travels upward through the solid bed of varying porosity, reducing solid ore to liquid iron at the cohesive zone. These three phases interact intensely. In this paper, a three-dimensional mathematical model is developed. The model describes the motion of solid and gas, based on continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the liquid flow. The model is applied to a blast furnace, where raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The results demonstrate and characterize the key multiphase flow patterns of solid-gas-liquid at different regions inside the blast furnace, in particular solid flow and associated thermochemical behaviours of solid particles. This model offers a costeffective tool to understand and optimize blast furnace operation.

Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Yu, Aibing; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter

2013-06-01

172

Experience with in-furnace surface in CFB boilers  

SciTech Connect

As CFB boiler size increases past 30 to 40 MWe (depending on fuel), the furnace walls can no longer economically absorb enough heat to maintain the desired furnace temperature. The designer has two options for providing the additional heating surface needed: In-furnace Surface, and External Heat Exchanger (EHE). Because of the inherent advantages, Ahlstrom pioneered the use of in-furnace surface, and now has over 50 units now in operation using this surface which together have accumulated over 175 unit-years of operating experience. This paper describes the advantages of in-furnace surface, the various designs for this surface used by Ahlstrom, and the operational experience with these designs including improvements made. It is shown that in furnace surface designs have evolved to provide excellent service in all applications.

Darling, S.L. [Pyropower Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Asikainen, A. [Ahlstrom Boilers, Varkaus (Finland); Shibagaki, G. [Ahlstrom Pyropower KK, Kobe (Japan)

1995-12-31

173

Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Anderson, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1992-03-01

174

Combined electric heating of glass in flat-glass furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a design for a combined electric and gas-fired furnace which involves the retrofitting of existing gas-fired furnaces used in the melting of glass with electrical heating elements. They justify the design and its implementation from both a cost-efficient and energy-efficient standpoint and cite the productivity and capacity improvements achieved by a plant where the furnace has already

D. L. Orlov; L. G. Baiburg; V. D. Tokarev; S. V. Ignatov; V. A. Chubinidze

1987-01-01

175

Comparison of predictive control methods for high consumption industrial furnace.  

PubMed

We describe several predictive control approaches for high consumption industrial furnace control. These furnaces are major consumers in production industries, and reducing their fuel consumption and optimizing the quality of the products is one of the most important engineer tasks. In order to demonstrate the benefits from implementation of the advanced predictive control algorithms, we have compared several major criteria for furnace control. On the basis of the analysis, some important conclusions have been drawn. PMID:24319354

Stojanovski, Goran; Stankovski, Mile

2013-01-01

176

Measuring Furnace/Sample Heat-Transfer Coefficients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complicated, inexact calculations now unnecessary. Device called HTX used to simulate and measure transfer of heat between directional-solidification crystal-growth furnace and ampoule containing sample of crystalline to be grown. Yields measurement data used to calculate heat-transfer coefficients directly, without need for assumptions or prior knowledge of physical properties of furnace, furnace gas, or specimen. Determines not only total heat-transfer coefficients but also coefficients of transfer of heat in different modes.

Rosch, William R.; Fripp, Archibald L., Jr.; Debnam, William J., Jr.; Woodell, Glenn A.

1993-01-01

177

5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, SHOWING INTERIOR ELECTRODES. THE RAW MATERIALS FOR CALCIUM CARBIDE PRODUCTION--LIMESTONE AND COKE--WERE FED BY HOPPERS PLACED BETWEEN THESE ELECTRODES INTO THE ELECTRIC ARC. THE REMOVABLE PLATES ON THE EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCE OF THE HORRY FURNACE ARE SHOWN ON THE FIRST THREE FURNACES. (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

178

Comparison of Predictive Control Methods for High Consumption Industrial Furnace  

PubMed Central

We describe several predictive control approaches for high consumption industrial furnace control. These furnaces are major consumers in production industries, and reducing their fuel consumption and optimizing the quality of the products is one of the most important engineer tasks. In order to demonstrate the benefits from implementation of the advanced predictive control algorithms, we have compared several major criteria for furnace control. On the basis of the analysis, some important conclusions have been drawn. PMID:24319354

2013-01-01

179

Design, performance, and experiment capabilities of the AGHF: ESA's advanced gradient furnace for spacelab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGHF is a Bridgman Furnace Facility for directional solidification experiments in microgravity environment with very well controlled heater temperatures up to 1400°C. A laboratory model and an engineering model exist, the flight model will be built at the end of 1991. The furnace uses heater elements made of W-Re wire wound on a solid TZM heat diffuser, diffuser temperature control by Pt/PtRh thermocouples to ±0.2 K, and a water cooled cooling zone regulated by a thermostatic valve to ±0.3 K. AGHF experiments use front loaded cartridges, which can use conductive coupling to the cooling zone by a liquid metal ring or radiative cooling. The laboratory model furnace, mounted in a dedicated vacuum chamber with peripherals controlled by a commercial computer, was intensively tested up to 1400°C, as specified for the AGHF by ESA, and at 1500°C in a life test under a technology development programme of ESA. Notable laboratory model results are gradients of 95 K/cm in solid Ni of 18 mm dia, with conductive cooling zone coupling by liquid metal, and 70 K/cm with radiative cooling in ZrO 2. EM test are not yet complete, but first tests indicate similar or better results, especially of gradient constancy vs pulling stroke over 140 mm. The first heater model sustained 400 h at 1000°C, 800 h at 1300°C, and 400 h at 1500°C.

Biemann, W.; Terracol, J.

1992-12-01

180

Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

1992-12-29

181

Computationally Efficient Modeling of Wafer Temperatures in an LPCVD Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper,presents a new,first principles thermal,model,to predict wafer temperatures,within a hot-wall Low Pressure Chemical,Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) furnace based,on furnace,wall temperatures,as measured,by thermocouples.,This model,is based,on an energy,balance,of the furnace system,with the following features: (a) the model,is a transformed,linear model,which,captures,the nonlinear,relationship between,the furnace wall temperature distribution and the wafer temperature distribution, (b) the model can be solved with a direct algorithm

Qinghua He; S. Joe Qin; Anthony J. Toprac

182

Biological Kraft Chemical Recycle for Augmentation of Recovery Furnace Capacity  

SciTech Connect

The chemicals used in pulping of wood by the kraft process are recycled in the mill in the recovery furnace, which oxidizes organics while simultaneously reducing sulfate to sulfide. The recovery furnace is central to the economical operation of kraft pulp mills, but it also causes problems. The total pulp production of many mills is limited by the recovery furnace capacity, which cannot easily be increased. The furnace is one of the largest sources of air pollution (as reduced sulfur compounds) in the kraft pulp mill.

Stuart E. Strand

2001-12-06

183

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING QBOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING Q-BOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL GAS ARE BLOWN INTO THE FURNACE THROUGH THE TUYERES TO CHARGE 460,000 LBS. OF HOT METAL, 100,000 LBS. OF SCRAP WITH 30,000 LBS. OF LIME. BLOW TIME IS 16 MINUTES. THE TIME TO BLOW AND TAP THE FURNACES OF THE RESULTING 205,000 TONS OF STEEL AND SLAG IS 35 MINUTES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

184

Reciprocating grate systems for furnaces and incinerators  

SciTech Connect

A new and improved reciprocating grate system for furnaces and incinerators wherein the system is advantageously constructed to accomplish a variety of objectives. Adjacent flights of adjacent portions of the composite grate structure reciprocate back and forth and the speed and stroke of such reciprocation can be ganged, coupled, or independently controlled. The individual grates themselves are advantageously configured for suitable spreading and air mixture relative to debris advancement. Air seals are provided and batch feed is accommodated. Grate frame reciprocation is accommodated by fluid control means, either hydraulic or pneumatic, and features are provided for enabling appropriate adjustment both of drive and stroke of related individual components.

John, F.C.; Taggart, G.B.; Taylor, S.R.

1984-09-18

185

Evaluation of Temperature Gradient in Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) by Numerical Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical model of heat transfer using combined conduction, radiation and convection in AADSF was used to evaluate temperature gradients in the vicinity of the crystal/melt interface for variety of hot and cold zone set point temperatures specifically for the growth of mercury cadmium telluride (MCT). Reverse usage of hot and cold zones was simulated to aid the choice of proper orientation of crystal/melt interface regarding residual acceleration vector without actual change of furnace location on board the orbiter. It appears that an additional booster heater will be extremely helpful to ensure desired temperature gradient when hot and cold zones are reversed. Further efforts are required to investigate advantages/disadvantages of symmetrical furnace design (i.e. with similar length of hot and cold zones).

Bune, Andris V.; Gillies, Donald C.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

1996-01-01

186

Molten metal holder furnace and casting system incorporating the molten metal holder furnace  

DOEpatents

A bottom heated holder furnace (12) for containing a supply of molten metal includes a storage vessel (30) having sidewalls (32) and a bottom wall (34) defining a molten metal receiving chamber (36). A furnace insulating layer (42) lines the molten metal receiving chamber (36). A thermally conductive heat exchanger block (54) is located at the bottom of the molten metal receiving chamber (36) for heating the supply of molten metal. The heat exchanger block (54) includes a bottom face (65), side faces (66), and a top face (67). The heat exchanger block (54) includes a plurality of electrical heaters (70) extending therein and projecting outward from at least one of the faces of the heat exchanger block (54), and further extending through the furnace insulating layer (42) and one of the sidewalls (32) of the storage vessel (30) for connection to a source of electrical power. A sealing layer (50) covers the bottom face (65) and side faces (66) of the heat exchanger block (54) such that the heat exchanger block (54) is substantially separated from contact with the furnace insulating layer (42).

Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

2003-02-11

187

Analysis of thermal radiation in coal-fired furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many utilities throughout the United States have added infrared scanning to their arsenal of techniques for inspection and predictive maintenance programs. Commercial infrared scanners are not designed, however, to withstand the searing interiors of boilers, which can exceed 2500 degrees Fahrenheit. Two high-temperature lenses designed to withstand the hostile environment inside a boiler for extended periods of time were developed

Jonathan J. Miles; Robert G. Hammaker; Robert P. Madding; J. E. Sunderland

1997-01-01

188

Glass Furnace Model (GFM) development and technology transfer program final report.  

SciTech Connect

A Glass Furnace Model (GFM) was developed under a cost-shared R&D program by the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory in close collaboration with a consortium of five glass industry members: Techneglas, Inc., Owens-Corning, Libbey, Inc., Osram Sylvania, Inc., and Visteon, Inc. Purdue University and Mississippi State University's DIAL Laboratory were also collaborators in the consortium. The GFM glass furnace simulation model that was developed is a tool industry can use to help define and evaluate furnace design changes and operating strategies to: (1) reduce energy use per unit of production; (2) solve problems related to production and glass quality by defining optimal operating windows to reduce cullet generation due to rejects and maximize throughput; and (3) make changes in furnace design and/or operation to reduce critical emissions, such as NO{sub x} and particulates. A two-part program was pursued to develop and validate the furnace model. The focus of the Part I program was to develop a fully coupled furnace model which had the requisite basic capabilities for furnace simulation. The principal outcome from the Phase I program was a furnace simulation model, GFM 2.0, which was copyrighted. The basic capabilities of GFM 2.0 were: (1) built-in burner models that can be included in the combustion space simulation; (2) a participating media spectral radiation model that maintains local and global energy balances throughout the furnace volume; and (3) a multiphase (liquid, solid) melt model that calculates (does not impose) the batch-melting rate and the batch length. The key objectives of the Part II program, which overlapped the Part I program were: (1) to incorporate a full multiphase flow analytical capability with reduced glass chemistry models in the glass melt model and thus be able to compute and track key solid, gas, and liquid species through the melt and the combustion space above; and (2) to incorporate glass quality indices into the simulation to facilitate optimization studies with regard to productivity, energy use and emissions. Midway through the Part II program, however, at the urging of the industrial consortium members, the decision was made to refocus limited resources on transfer of the existing GFM 2.0 software to the industry to speed up commercialization of the technology. This decision, in turn, necessitated a de-emphasis of the development of the planned final version of the GFM software that had full multiphase capability, GFM 3.0. As a result, version 3.0 was not completed; considerable progress, however, was made before the effort was terminated. The objectives of the Technology Transfer program were to transfer the Glass Furnace Model (GFM) to the glass industry and to promote its widespread use by providing the requisite technical support to allow effective use of the software. GFM Version 2.0 was offered at no cost on a trial, six-month basis to expedite its introduction to and use by the industry. The trial licenses were issued to generate a much more thorough user beta test of the software than the relatively small amount completed by the consortium members prior to the release of version 2.0.

Lottes, S. A.; Petrick, M.; Energy Systems

2007-12-04

189

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2014-07-01

190

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2012-07-01

191

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2011-07-01

192

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2013-07-01

193

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2010-07-01

194

When Your Furnace Kicks On, Be Sure Poison Gas Isn't Coming Out  

MedlinePLUS

WHEN YOUR FURNACE KICKS ON, BE SURE POISON GAS ISN’T COMING OUT Every winter when the ... drops, your furnace can become a silent killer. Gas- and oil-burning furnaces produce carbon monoxide (CO). ...

195

COMPUTER-ASSISTED FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of furnace atomic absorption instrumentation with a turnkey chromatography data system is described. A simple addition of relays to the furnace power supply allows for automatic start-up of A/D conversion and spectrophotometer zeroing at the proper time. Manipulations inv...

196

8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS, CUPOLA TENDER RICHARD SLAUGHTER SUPERVISING THE POUR. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

197

Hydrogen-atmosphere induction furnace has increased temperature range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved hydrogen-atmosphere induction furnace operates at temperatures up to 5,350 deg F. The furnace heats up from room temperature to 4,750 deg F in 30 seconds and cools down to room temperature in 2 minutes.

Caves, R. M.; Gresslin, C. H.

1966-01-01

198

Use of magnesite concrete in open-hearth furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions Many years practical experience with the use of refractory magnesite concretes in open-hearth furnaces at the KMZ confirmed that it is rational to use them even for preparing concretes and blocks on the working sites of open-hearth shops, and it also confirmed the unacceptability of open-hearth furnace structures for placing the concretes.

S. M. Broit; N. Ya. Trusov

1972-01-01

199

Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust  

DOEpatents

An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2010-12-28

200

INTERIOR VIEW WITH SCRAP HAULER DUMPING SCRAP INTO QBOP FURNACE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH SCRAP HAULER DUMPING SCRAP INTO Q-BOP FURNACE. SCRAP HAULER IS GREGORY JACKS. FURNACEMAN IS VINCENT MOREL. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

201

41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

202

7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

203

42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

204

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SEED ON THE LEFT, THE #1 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SHED ON THE RIGHT, AND THE STOVES, BOILERS, AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT IN THE CENTER. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

205

An adaptive temperature control law for a solar furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of an adaptive control law based on exact feedback linearization and Lyapunov adaptation of the process dynamics applied to a solar furnace. The controller is tested on a 6kW solar furnace model that represents a plant installed at the Odeillo Processes Materials and Solar Energy Laboratory (Oriental Pyrenees in the South of France). The adaptive

B. Andrade da Costa; J. M. Lemos; E. Guillot; G. Olalde; L. G. Rosa; J. C. Fernandes

2008-01-01

206

Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas cleaning plants in foreground on the left and the right side of the furnace building. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

207

11. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES No. 1 AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES No. 1 AND No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

208

Microwave caustic leaching of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is a waste product which is generated when steel scrap is melted in an electric arc furnace. It contains high concentrations of iron, zinc and lead. Numerous pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processes have been developed to treat this material. Only a limited number of these have reached commercialization and the majority have been pyrometallurgical. However, the

D. K. Xia; C. A. Picklesi

2000-01-01

209

A Rowland Circle, multielement graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simultaneous, multielement atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a graphite furnace atomizer was constructed and evaluated. The optical arrangement employs a concave grating to combine the spectral output from a deuterium lamp and four hollow cathode lamps that are placed on the perimeter of a Rowland Circle. A graphite furnace atomizer is positioned on the circle at the point of convergence

Karl A. Wagner; James D. Batchelor; Bradley T. Jones

1998-01-01

210

Heat loss through the lining of glass-melting furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all the ways of saving fuel in glass production, thermal insulation of the lining of the furnaces seems to be the most promising, a view based mainly on the results of a calculation of the possible fuel savings. With the aim of refining and adding to existing data on heat loss through furnace lining and determining the effect of

A. S. Kozlov; A. V. Ivanov; I. S. Volkov; V. A. Tolstov

1985-01-01

211

Methods of designing components for glass furnace frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have therefore performed a de=ailed analysis for major elements in directly heated furnaces. The geometrical parameters in the framework are rigidly related to the refractory stack design in a regenerative furnace (e.g., the column spacing is determined by the width of the burner arrays and the panels between them), whereas there is some freedom of choice in a directly

A. I. Korolev; K. K. Vil'nis; Yu. V. Erlandts; A. I. Myakishev; N. M. Grigoryan

1988-01-01

212

Experience in reconstructing a glass-making furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of upgrading a glass-making furnace and the practicality of the engineering solutions used for this purpose are\\u000a examined. It is shown that mathematical simulation of the thermophysical processes involved in glass-making would be helpful\\u000a for furnace reconstruction.

V. S. Meshka; V. I. Ureki; V. Ya. Dzyuzer

2007-01-01

213

C AND M BOTTOM LOADING FURNACE TEST DATA  

SciTech Connect

The test was performed to determine the response of the HBL Phase III Glovebox during C&M Bottom Loading Furnace operations. In addition the data maybe used to benchmark a heat transfer model of the HBL Phase III Glovebox and Furnace.

Lemonds, D

2005-08-01

214

Effect of Combustion Air Preheat on a Forged Furnace Productivity  

E-print Network

A basic thermal analysis of a gas fired forge furnace can determine the fuel savings from exhaust energy recovery/combustion air preheat on a furnace operating at a single condition, for example, high fire. What this analysis is not able...

Ward, M. E.; Bohn, J.; Davis, S. R.; Knowles, D.

1984-01-01

215

Research of industrial furnace fault diagnosis expert system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to realize fast location and detection of abnormal status during running of industrial furnace, especially abnormal status of firing, this article studies and designs a fault diagnosis expert system based on fault tree theory. Firstly, formalized definition of industrial furnace fault diagnosis expert system is given in the paper, then all component elements of the expert system are

Shengquan Yang; Bailin Liu

2010-01-01

216

11. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND THE PARTS HEATING FURNACE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND THE PARTS HEATING FURNACE. THE PARTS OR METALS WERE HEATED PRIOR TO BEING PRESSED. THE MANIPULATOR ARM WAS USED TO INSERT AND REMOVE PARTS OR METALS FROM THE FURNACE. (2/9/79) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

217

Artificial neural networks in predicting current in electric arc furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a study of the possibility of using artificial neural networks for the prediction of the current and the voltage of Electric Arc Furnaces. Multi-layer perceptron and radial based functions Artificial Neural Networks implemented in Matlab were used. The study is based on measured data items from an Electric Arc Furnace in an industrial plant in Romania.

Panoiu, M.; Panoiu, C.; Iordan, A.; Ghiormez, L.

2014-03-01

218

4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

219

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CYCLONE FURNACE SOIL VITRI- FICATION TECHNOLOGY - BABCOCK & WILCOX  

EPA Science Inventory

Babcock and Wilcox's (B&W) cyclone furnace is an innovative thermal technology which may offer advantages in treating soils containing organics, heavy metals, and/or radionuclide contaminants. The furnace used in the SITE demonstration was a 4- to 6-million Btu/hr pilot system....

220

EMISSIONS FROM OUTDOOR WOOD-BURNING RESIDENTIAL HOT WATER FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of measurements of emissions from a single-pass and a double-pass furnace at average heat outputs of 15,000 and 30,000 Btu/hr (4.4 and 8.8 kW) while burning typical oak cordwood fuel. One furnace was also tested once at each heat output while fitted with ...

221

STRIP TEMPERATURE IN A METAL COATING LINE ANNEALING FURNACE  

E-print Network

STRIP TEMPERATURE IN A METAL COATING LINE ANNEALING FURNACE Mark McGuinness1 and Stephen Taylor2 We continuously through the furnace, to certain temperatures and then cooling it, resulting in a change prior to being coated, by heating to a predeter- mined temperature for a definite time. Annealing

McGuinness, Mark

222

BLAST FURNACE CAST HOUSE EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The study describes the state-of-the-art of controlling fumes escaping from blast furnace cast houses. Background information is based on: a study of existing literature; visits to blast furnaces in the U.S., Japan, and Europe; meetings with an ad hoc group of experienced blast f...

223

Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential

Ensar Oguz

2004-01-01

224

8. VIEW OF FOUNDRY INDUCTION FURNACES, MODULE J. THE FOUNDRY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF FOUNDRY INDUCTION FURNACES, MODULE J. THE FOUNDRY CASTING PROCESS WAS CONDUCTED IN A VACUUM. PLUTONIUM METAL WAS MELTED IN ONE OF FOUR ELECTRIC INDUCTION FURNACES TO FORM INGOTS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

225

CARBON REACTIVATION BY EXTERNALLY-FIRED ROTARY KILN FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

An externally-fired rotary kiln furnace system has been evaluated for cost-effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The pilot scale rotary kiln furnace was operated within the range of 682 kg/day (1,500 lb/day) to 909 kg/...

226

A controlled atmosphere tube furnace was designed for thermal CVD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality materials were used for the fabrication of hi-tech tube furnace. The furnace was especially suitable for thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). High density alumina tube was used for the fabrication of furnace. The tube furnace was found to have three different temperature zones with maximum temperature at central zone was found to be 650°C. The flexible heating tape with capacity of 760°C was wrapped on the tube. To minimize the heat losses, asbestos and glass wool were used on heating tape. The temperature of the tube furnace was controlled by a digital temperature controller had accuracy of ±1°C. Methanol was taken as the representative of hydrocarbon sources, to give thin film of carbon. The a-C: H structure was investigated by conventional techniques using optical microscopy, FT-IR and SEM.

Rashid, M.; Bhatti, J. A.; Hussain, F.; Imran, M.; Khawaja, I. U.; Chaudhary, K. A.; Ahmad, S. A.

2013-06-01

227

29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange furnace and clarifier ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range furnace and clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the concentration, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the continous flue leaving this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifier lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

228

28. RW Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange Furnace and Clarifier position. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. RW Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range Furnace and Clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the clarification, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the Continuous flue leading from this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation, two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifiers, lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

229

Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace  

DOEpatents

A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs.

Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

1998-03-24

230

Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace  

DOEpatents

A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater.

Kujawa, Stephan T. (Butte, MT); Battleson, Daniel M. (Butte, MT); Rademacher, Jr., Edward L. (Butte, MT); Cashell, Patrick V. (Butte, MT); Filius, Krag D. (Butte, MT); Flannery, Philip A. (Ramsey, MT); Whitworth, Clarence G. (Butte, MT)

1998-01-01

231

40 CFR 458.10 - Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory. 458...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Furnace Process Subcategory §...

2011-07-01

232

15-Year blast furnace campaign concept for the reline of blast furnace C at Iscor  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1970`s, when blast furnace campaigns of 3 to 5 years were experienced at the Vanderbijlpark Works, consequent improvements of cooling and refractory concepts as well as the development of a hot guniting practice for belly and lower shaft resulted in campaigns of 10 years and more. Having mastered the problems in belly and lower shaft, the furnace hearth became the ultimate limit and two hearth breakouts were experienced in the last 5 years in South Africa. After analyzing the causes for these breakouts, the requirements for a hearth refractory design, aimed at a 15-year plus campaign life, were formulated. A refractory design concept, which satisfies these requirements were developed based on European, American and Japanese philosophies.

Noska, T.G.L. [Iscor Ltd., Gauteng (South Africa)

1995-07-01

233

Special measurements in combustion equipment furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the authors` knowledge from the measurement of temperature and concentration fields taken from combustion equipment furnaces. The obtained results serve in the research on combustion processes and in the research on the formation of pollutants, for example NO{sub x}. The special measurement technique makes it possible to find the concentration and temperature distribution for a temperature as high as 1,500 C. The measurement results were obtained through tests for grate boilers with an output of 20--50 MW, burning solid fuel (a mixture of powders and small pieces of coal which were burnt separately as black (hard) coal or brown coal). On the basis of the obtained results a proposal was formulated for the reconstruction of existing boilers or the construction of new boilers with an aim to ensure the maximum combustion efficiency with a minimal formation of pollutants.

Ochodek, T.; Janalik, R.; Vytisk, T. [VSB-Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic)

1995-12-31

234

Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 deg C) and high ({approx}800 deg C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 deg C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 x 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 deg C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 deg C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

Pashupati Dhakal, Gianluigi Ciovati, Wayne Rigby, John Wallace, Ganapati Rao Myneni

2012-06-01

235

Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 Degree-Sign C) and high ({approx}800 Degree-Sign C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 Degree-Sign C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 Degree-Sign C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 Degree-Sign C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Rigby, Wayne [Specialty Vacuum, Placitas, New Mexico 87043 (United States); Wallace, John [Casting Analysis Corporation, Weyers Cave, Virginia 24468 (United States)

2012-06-15

236

Comparative study of phosphosilicate glass on (100) silicon by furnace and rapid isothermal annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Annealing experiments were carried out on phosphosilicate glass (PSG) films deposited on (100) silicon substrates by using a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition technique. Rapid isothermal processing and conventional furnace heating were used to study the electrical, structural, and mechanical characteristics of these films and the results of the two processes compared. A refractive index of 1.457 was obtained in the rapid isothermal annealing cycle of 800 °C/15S, but was 1.419 for the furnace annealing cycle (i.e., 800 °C/65S). Spreading resistance analysis has shown that the junction depth remains unchanged for an 800 °C/15S rapid isothermal annealing cycle. Stress measurements show that rapid isothermal annealing leads to less strain compared to furnance annealing. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that as compared to furnance annealing, rapid isothermal annealing provides a chemically homogenous interface. High-frequency capacitance voltage (C-V) measurements show that furnance-annealed samples are leaky and a higher concentration of oxygen-related defects are present in the PSG/Si interface. On the other hand, because of a relatively clean interface, a well behaved C-V characteristic is observed in the rapid isothermal annealed samples. In summary, as compared to furnace annealing, rapid isothermal annealing resulted in superior structural, mechanical, and electrical properties of PSG films on Si substrates. A plausible explanation of such behavior may be attributed to the difference in the radiation spectra of the two sources of energy.

Thakur, R. P. S.; Singh, R.; Nelson, A. J.; Ullal, H. S.; Chaudhuri, J.; Gondhalekar, V.

1991-01-01

237

Mercury in dumped blast furnace sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste generated in the production of pig iron and was dumped in sedimentation ponds. As these wastes often contain high contents of zinc, lead, cadmium, and arsenic, significant hazards to environmental surroundings may arise from former BFS sedimentation ponds. Sixty-five samples from seven BFS locations in Europe were investigated regarding the toxic element mercury (Hg) for the first time. The charge material of the blast furnace operations (coke, iron ores, and additives such as olivine, bauxite, ilmenite and gravels) revealed Hg contents from 0.015 to 0.093 mg kg-1. In comparison, the Hg content of BFS varied between 0.006 and 20.8 mg kg-1 with a median of 1.63 mg kg-1, which indicates enrichment with Hg. For one site with a larger sample set (n = 31), Hg showed a stronger correlation with the total non-calcareous carbon (C) including coke and graphite (r = 0.695; n = 31; p < 0.001). It can be assumed that these C-rich compounds are hosting phases for Hg. The solubility of Hg was rather low and did not exceed 0.43% of total Hg. The correlation between the total Hg concentration and total amount of NH4NO3-soluble Hg was relatively poor (r = 0.496; n = 27; p = 0.008) indicating varying hazard potentials of the different BFS. Consequently, BFS is a mercury-containing waste and dumped BFS should be regarded as potentially mercury-contaminated sites.

Földi, Corinna

2014-05-01

238

A Simple Quasi-2D Numerical Model of a Thermogage Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple quasi-2D model for the temperature distribution in a graphite tube furnace is presented. The model is used to estimate the temperature gradients in the furnace at temperatures above which contact sensors can be used, and to assist in the redesign of the furnace heater element to improve the temperature gradients. The Thermogage graphite tube furnace is commonly used in many NMIs as a blackbody source for radiation thermometer calibration and as a spectral irradiance standard. Although the design is robust, easy to operate and can change temperature rapidly, it is limited by its effective emissivity of typically 99.5 99.8%. At NMIA, the temperature gradient along the tube is assessed using thermocouples up to about 1,500°C, and the blackbody emissivity is calculated from this. However, at higher operating temperatures (up to 2,900°C), it is impractical to measure the gradient, and we propose to numerically model the temperature distributions used to calculate emissivity. In another paper at this conference, the model is used to design an optimized heater tube with improved temperature gradients. In the model presented here, the 2-D temperature distribution is simplified to separate the axial and radial temperature distributions within the heater tube and the surrounding insulation. Literature data for the temperature dependence of the electrical and thermal conductivities of the graphite tube were coupled to models for the thermal conductivity of the felt insulation, particularly including the effects of allowing for a gas mixture in the insulation. Experimental measurements of the temperature profile up to 1,500°C and radial heat fluxes up to 2,200°C were compared to the theoretical predictions of the model and good agreement was obtained.

Chahine, Khaled; Ballico, Mark; Reizes, John; Madadnia, Jafar

2007-12-01

239

No. 5 blast furnace 1995 reline and upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The 1995 reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is an undertaking which has never been approached in previous relines of any blast furnace in the history of Wheeling Pittsburgh Steel Corporation. The scope of the project is such that it represents a radical departure from W.P.S.C.`s traditional methods of ironmaking. The reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is one of the largest capital improvements performed at W.P.S.C. Blast Furnaces. The improvements made at one single time are taking a furnace from 1960`s technology into the 21st century. With this in mind, employee training was one of the largest parts of the project. Training for the automated stockhouse, castfloor, new skip drive, new instrumentation, new castfloor equipment, hydraulics and overall furnace operation were an absolute necessity. The reline has laid the ground work to give the Corporation an efficient, higher productive, modern Blast Furnace which will place W.P.S.C. in the world class category in ironmaking well into the 21st century.

Kakascik, T.F. Jr.

1996-12-31

240

Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

2014-09-01

241

Electric furnace dust: Can you bury the hazard?  

SciTech Connect

Electric furnace waste treatment is moving into high gear, but the exact direction is unclear. On one hand, there is a trend toward complete recycling of the dust captured in furnace baghouses. Iron units as well as zinc and other elements are being reclaimed. On the other side, recent actions by regulators indicate recycling may not be required at all. With the correct chemical stabilization, it appears, dust may simply be placed in ordinary landfill. This paper describes three processes for waste treatment of furnace dust: Super Detox, a process for zinc removal from galvanized scrap before melting, and the INMETCO process.

McManus, G.J.

1996-04-01

242

A new furnace for thin-film stress experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A specialized furnace that is compatible with the optical-lever method of thin-film stress measurement has been developed. Its design is geared toward experiments in which changes in stress at constant temperature are to be monitored. Important capabilities include a maximum temperature of over 700 °C, good temperature control, hot-furnace sample insertion, lack of interference with stress measurement, and the use of inert gas or steam as ambients. Application of the furnace to the study of thermally activated material processes is demonstrated in experiments involving water sorption in phosphosilicate glass and crystallization of amorphous silicon.

von Preissig, F. J.

1992-04-01

243

Correction-free pyrometry in radiant wall furnaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A specular, spherical, or near-spherical target is located within a furnace having inner walls and a viewing window. A pyrometer located outside the furnace 'views' the target through pyrometer optics and the window, and it is positioned so that its detector sees only the image of the viewing window on the target. Since this image is free of any image of the furnace walls, it is free from wall radiance, and correction-free target radiance is obtained. The pyrometer location is determined through a nonparaxial optical analysis employing differential optical ray tracing methods to derive a series of exact relations for the image location.

Thomas, Andrew S. W. (inventor)

1994-01-01

244

Electric analysis of the low current, high reactance arc furnace  

SciTech Connect

An electric quantitative analysis is made of the low current, high reactance operation of the arc furnace. Designed or reengineered for this practice, a furnace has several important operational and economic advantages: lower electrode consumption; smoother operation; and less disturbances to the power system as current rushes, flicker and harmonic currents. The electromechanical superstructure is lighter. For a power increase to nan existing furnace, the same electrodes and electrode positioning system may suffice. Adversely, the longer arc requires a thicker foamy slag layer for successful operations.

Celada S., J. [Celada S. (Juan), Monterrey (Mexico)

1995-11-01

245

High-temperature furnace for dynamic neutron radiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An easy-to-build and comparatively inexpensive high-temperature graphite tube furnace has been designed, fabricated, and tested for measuring physical properties of silicate melts with dynamic neutron radiography up to temperatures of 2300 K. This furnace allows in situ and real-time observations of large melt volumes at these high temperatures. The furnace has been used for the visualization of the interaction of two chemically distinct melts and for a determination of melt viscosities of silicates with the falling sphere method.

Kahle, Andreas; Winkler, Björn; Hennion, Bernard; Boutrouille, Philippe

2003-08-01

246

Numerical Simulation in Combustion Space of an Oxy-fuel Glass Furnace with Different Jet Angles of Auxiliary Oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulation in the combustion space of an oxy-fuel glass furnace was carried out. In order to obtain better combustion efficiency, the cases by adding auxiliary oxygen inlet with different jet angles of auxiliary oxygen from 0 degrees to 90 degrees were compared. The gas phase is expressed with two-equation model, while the combustion with non-premixed model and the radiation

Xinjie Fu; Hailiang Zhang; Junlin Xie; Shuxia Mei

2010-01-01

247

Low pressure r.f. nitriding of austenitic stainless steel in an industrial-style heat-treatment furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitriding efficiency of a low pressure r.f. plasma is investigated in an industrial style hot-wall furnace in which the component is heated by thermal radiation from the walls of the vacuum chamber. The role of degassed impurities is also addressed. Samples of AISI 316 stainless steel were treated at a relatively low temperature of 400°C to avoid loss of

J. M. Priest; M. J. Baldwin; M. P. Fewell; S. C. Haydon; G. A. Collins; K. T. Short; J. Tendys

1999-01-01

248

Electrical resitivity of glass in furnaces with coaxially mounted cylindrical electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors construct a mathematical formulation for determining the optimal energy-efficient electrode configuration in an electric glass melting furnace. The principle parameter of model is the electrical conductivity of the glass to be melted in the furnace. The performance of a furnace designed according to the model is assessed against other furnaces both for efficiency and productivity and is found

K. M. Tatevosyan; Yu. N. Petrosyan

1987-01-01

249

Estimation of Temperature Profiles within Slabs of a Simulated Reheat Furnace using the Extended Kalman Filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE control of a reheat furnace is complicated by modern furnace configurations. Slabs of various thicknesses, width and length are charged to the furnace. The slabs are heated to a specified average temperature for rolling. The furnace operator must exercise considerable judgement, based on experience, to achieve properly heated slabs; there is no means of measuring the temperature gradient across

H. J. Wick

1987-01-01

250

49. Taken from highline; "McKinley hat" remains on "B" furnace; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. Taken from high-line; "McKinley hat" remains on "B" furnace; no longer used, "McKinley hat was open receptacle with bell below. Hat carried charge to furnace top, dumping it to bell; bell locked onto furnace top, dropping charge into furnace. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

251

VIEW FACING EAST, VIEW FROM RIVER OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FACING EAST, VIEW FROM RIVER OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3. DORR THICKENER & ORE BRIDGE AT LEFT, HOT BLAST STOVES & DUST CATCHER CENTER, CAST HOUSE AT RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

252

DETAIL VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND SKIP HOIST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND SKIP HOIST. DUST CATCHER IS AT THE RIGHT. VIEW IS FROM THE EAST. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

253

30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING CREW, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Colletion, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

254

39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod or poker at right was used to unplug iron notch. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

255

CLOSEUP VIEW OF OPEN HEARTH COMPLEX (INCLUDING PIT FURNACE BUILDING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSE-UP VIEW OF OPEN HEARTH COMPLEX (INCLUDING PIT FURNACE BUILDING, BLOOMING & BAR MILL, & HOT BEDS) & RAIL MILL. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

256

44. View looking west down length of No. 2 Furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. View looking west down length of No. 2 Furnace casting shed showing overhead traveling crane. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

257

38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ladle car on floor of casting shed. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

258

38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, LANCES, AND FUME HOODS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

259

SITE - DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY - MINERGY CORPORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) was developed by Minergy Corporation (Minergy), of Waukesha, Wisconsin. Minergy originally developed vitrification technologies to process wastewater sludge into glass aggregate that could be sold as a commercial product. Minergy modified a st...

260

POURING IRON FROM ELECTRIC FURNACE INTO BULL LADLE AFTER MAGNESIUM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

POURING IRON FROM ELECTRIC FURNACE INTO BULL LADLE AFTER MAGNESIUM HAD BEEN ADDED TO GENERATE DUCTILE IRON WHEN IT COOLS IN THE MOLD. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

261

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. 1920) AND DC MOTORS (which raise and lower the bus bars) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

262

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. 1920) AND DETAIL OF CABLES AND BUS BARS (which convey power to electrodes) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

263

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING NO. 1 FURNACE. TO RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING NO. 1 FURNACE. TO RIGHT ARE D.C. MOTORS (which raise and lower the bus bars) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

264

Plasma furnace treatment of metallurgical by-product streams  

SciTech Connect

It is a common misconception that plasma furnace technology only has application for exotic and very high temperature processes. With the increasing importance placed on waste minimization and the environmental constraints imposed on heavy metals present in byproducts from mainstream operations, plasma technology is finding widespread application. Tetronics is a premier supplier of plasma tundish heating systems for the steel industry. More recently the company has found growing interest in electric arc furnace dust treatment, lead blast furnace slag treatment and metal recovery, copper, nickel and cobalt scavenging from primary smelter slags, dross treatment, platinum group metals (PGM) recovery from catalysts and vitrification and detoxification of heavy metal contaminated waste byproducts. The principal advantages of the plasma arc technology are the close metallurgical control of the furnace environment, minimal off-gas handling requirements and overall high energy efficiency of the processes. A number of applications in the ferrous and non-ferrous metals industry are described.

Whellock, J.G. [JW Technologies, LLC, Englewood, CO (United States); Heanley, C.P.; Chapman, C.S. [Tetronics Ltd., Faringdon (United Kingdom)

1997-12-31

265

Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and Repossessed Uranium in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

266

8. QUENCHING MECHANISM FOR THE CONTINUOUS ELECTRIC FURNACE HEAT TREATING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. QUENCHING MECHANISM FOR THE CONTINUOUS ELECTRIC FURNACE HEAT TREATING LINE AT THE HEAT TREATMENT PLANT OF THE DUQUESNE WORKS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Heat Treatment Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

267

View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer on second floor of structure, view towards southeast - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

268

34. REDUCTION PLANT Furnace and boiler which provided steam heat ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. REDUCTION PLANT Furnace and boiler which provided steam heat required in converting fish, and fish offal, into meal and fish oil. Cone shaped tank at right held extracted oil. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

269

ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES FOR IRON PRIOR TO FILLING MOBILE LADLES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

270

MINERGY CORPORATION GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents performance and economic data for a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program demonstration of the Minergy Corporation (Minergy) Glass Furnace Technology (GFT). The demonstration evaluated the techno...

271

46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-13...furnace tube is then measured by an optical micro-pyrometer at intervals of...

2010-10-01

272

Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag.  

PubMed

Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential of particles, specific surface area, and images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the particles before and after adsorption. The specific surface area of the blast furnace slag was 0.4m(2)g(-1). The removal of phosphate predominantly has taken place by a precipitation mechanism and weak physical interactions between the surface of adsorbent and the metallic salts of phosphate. In this study, phosphate removal in excess of 99% was obtained, and it was concluded that blast furnace slag is an efficient adsorbent for the removal of phosphate from solution. PMID:15511583

Oguz, Ensar

2004-10-18

273

102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust gases to stoves during heating cycle. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

274

Metallic Glass Cooling Inside The TEMPUS Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sample of advanced metallic glass alloy cools down during an experiment with the TEMPUS furnace on STS-94, July 7, 1997, MET:5/23:35 (approximate). The sequence shows the sample glowing, then fading to black as scientists began the process of preserving the liquid state, but lowering the temperature below the normal solidification temperature of the alloy. This process is known as undercooling. (10 second clip covering approximately 50 seconds.) TEMPUS (stands for Tiegelfreies Elektromagnetisches Prozessiere unter Schwerelosigkeit (containerless electromagnetic processing under weightlessness). It was developed by the German Space Agency (DARA) for flight aboard Spacelab. The DARA project scientist was Igon Egry. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). DARA and NASA are exploring the possibility of flying an advanced version of TEMPUS on the International Space Station. (1.1MB, 9-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300188.html.

2003-01-01

275

High Temperature Calibration Furnace System user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High Temperature Calibration Furnace System (HTCFS) was developed by Summitec Corporation. It is a high precision instrument providing a constant temperature which can be used to calibrate high temperature thermocouples. Incorporating the many recent technological advances from the fields of optical fiber thermometry, material science, computer systems interfacing, and process control, the engineers at Summitec Corporation have been able to create a system that can reach a steady operating temperature of 1700 C. The precision for the system requires the measurement of temperature to be within 1 C in two hours and within 2 C in 24 hours. As documented, the experimental result shows that this system has been able to stay within .5 C in 5 hours. No other systems commercially available have been able to achieve such high temperature precision. This manual provides an overview of the system design, instructions for instrument setup, and operation procedures. Also included are a vendor list and the source codes for the custom-designed software.

1994-01-01

276

Develop of the Blast Furnace Soft Water Temperature Measurement System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to ensure normal operation of the blast furnace (BF) closed loop soft water cooling system, cooling water temperature and the heat load must be controlled. It is the most important how the hundreds of large-scale blast furnace soft water temperature points for real-time detection. The DS18B20 digital thermometer was used as a temperature sensor. The DS18B20 communicates over

Zhang Lei; Zhou Fei; Qian Ya-ping

2008-01-01

277

Caustic roasting and leaching of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is produced when iron and steel scrap is remelted in an electric arc furnace. There are still significant problems associated with the pyrometallurgical and\\/or hydrometallurgical processes for the treatment of this dust. In the present research, the dust was roasted with caustic soda at low temperatures. It was found that the zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) in

D. K. Xia; C. A. Pickles

1999-01-01

278

Stand assembly of a glass-furnace bottom  

Microsoft Academic Search

“BKO” JSC has perfected an assembly-stand technology for the elements of a glass-making furnace, first and foremost, the furnace\\u000a bottom. Coordinated studies were performed to ensure that the accuracy of the stand meets the requirements: a stand with planarity\\u000a deviations ± 0.5 mm was designed and built, the preparation technology (cutting and grinding) for the block articles for the\\u000a assembly

V. P. Migal’; V. N. Ivanov; G. Ya. Nikolaeva; V. V. Skurikhin; I. N. Ermakov

2010-01-01

279

Maintenance repair of the refractory lining of glass furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of increasing the service life of glass furnaces with the aim of reducing expenses is solved most effectively\\u000a by using the method of depositing refractory powders onto the internal surface of fractured regions by an oxygen torch. The\\u000a high efficiency of the facing has been confirmed by the service life of glass furnaces of different design, output, and

V. I. Kirilenko

2000-01-01

280

MUZO flight experience with the programmable multizone furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multi-Zone (MUZO) furnace has been developed for growing germanium (Ge) crystals under microgravity in a Get Away Special (GAS) payload. The MUZO furnace was launched with STS-47 Endeavour in September 1992. The payload worked as planned during the flight and a Ge sample was successfully processed. The experiment has given valuable scientific information. The design and functionality of the payload together with flight experience is reported.

Lockowandt, Christian; Loth, Kenneth

1993-01-01

281

Stable activated carbon process using a moving grate stroker furnace  

SciTech Connect

Carbonaceous raw material, such as lignite coal, having first been passed successively through a moving grate stoker furnace, a shaft furnace and a quench chamber is screened so as to remove from the end product substantially all +12 mesh and larger particles which are then crushed to -12 mesh screen size and recirculated into the stream of raw material enroute through the moving grate stoker.

Smith, J.B.

1984-10-09

282

Development Of A Magnetic Directional-Solidification Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes development of directional-solidification furnace in which axial magnetic field is imposed by surrounding ring permanent magnets and/or electromagnets and pole pieces. Furnace provides controlled axial temperature gradients in multiple zones, through which ampoule containing sample of material to be solidified is translated at controlled speed by low-vibration, lead-screw, stepping-motor-driven mechanism. Intended for use in low-gravity (spaceflight) experiments on melt growth of high-purity semiconductor crystals.

Aldrich, Bill R.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

1996-01-01

283

16. Coke 'fines' bin at Furnace D. After delivery to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Coke 'fines' bin at Furnace D. After delivery to the trestle bins, the coke was screened and the coke 'fines' or breeze, were transported by conveyor to the coke fines bins where it was collected and leaded into dump trucks. The coke fines were then sold for fuel to a sinter plant in Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

284

Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces  

DOEpatents

The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

Mee, D.K.; Stephens, A.E.

1980-06-06

285

Space Station Furnace Facility. Volume 2: Summary of technical reports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is a modular facility for materials research in the microgravity environment of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The SSFF is designed for crystal growth and solidification research in the fields of electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics, and will allow for experimental determination of the role of gravitational forces in the solidification process. The facility will provide a capability for basic scientific research and will evaluate the commercial viability of low-gravity processing of selected technologically important materials. In order to accommodate the furnace modules with the resources required to operate, SSFF developed a design that meets the needs of the wide range of furnaces that are planned for the SSFF. The system design is divided into subsystems which provide the functions of interfacing to the SSF services, conditioning and control for furnace module use, providing the controlled services to the furnace modules, and interfacing to and acquiring data from the furnace modules. The subsystems, described in detail, are as follows: Power Conditioning and Distribution Subsystem; Data Management Subsystem; Software; Gas Distribution Subsystem; Thermal Control Subsystem; and Mechanical Structures Subsystem.

1992-05-01

286

Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces  

DOEpatents

The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

Mee, David K. (Knoxville, TN); Stephens, Albert E. (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01

287

Laboratory Evaluation of Residential Furnace BlowerPerformance  

SciTech Connect

A testing program was undertaken at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and an electric utility (Pacific Gas and Electric Co.) to compare the performance of furnace blowers. This laboratory testing program was undertaken to support potential changes to California Building Standards regarding in-field furnace blower energy use. This technical support includes identifying suitable performance metrics and target performance levels for use in standards. Five different combinations of blowers and residential furnaces were tested for air moving performance. Three different types of blower and motor combinations were tested in two different furnace cabinets. The blowers were standard forward--curved impellors and a prototype impeller with reverse-inclined blades. The motors were two 6-pole permanent split capacitor (PSC) single-phase induction motors, a brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motor and a prototype BPM designed for use with a prototype reverse-inclined impellor. The laboratory testing operated each blower and furnace combination over a range of air flows and pressure differences to determine air flow performance, power consumption and efficiency. Additional tests varied the clearance between the blower housing and the furnace cabinet, and the routing of air flow into the blower cabinet.

Walker, Iain S.; Lutz, Jim D.

2005-09-01

288

Optimization of a Graphite Tube Blackbody Heater for a Thermogage Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design modifications are presented for a 289-mm long, 25.4-mm inner diameter blackbody heater element of a 48 kW Thermogage blackbody furnace, based on (i) cutting a small “heater zone” into the ends of the tube and (ii) using a mixture of He and Ar or N2 to “tune” the heat losses and, hence, gradients in the furnace. A simple numerical model for the heater tube is used to model and optimize these design changes, and experimental measurements of the modified temperature profile are presented. The convenience of the Thermogage graphite-tube furnace, commonly used in many NMIs as a blackbody source for radiation thermometer calibration and as a spectral irradiance standard, is limited by its effective emissivity, typically between 99.5% and 99.9%. The design simplicity of the furnace is that the blackbody cavity, heater, and electrical and mechanical connections are achieved through a single piece of machined graphite. As the heater also performs a mechanical function, the required material thickness leads to significant axial heat flux and resulting temperature gradients. For operation at a single temperature, changes to the tube profile could be used to optimize the gradient. However, it is desired to use the furnace over a wide temperature range (1,000 2,900°C), and the temperature-dependence of the electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity, and that of the insulation, makes this approach much more complex; for example, insulation losses are proportional to T 4, whereas conduction losses are proportional to T. In the results presented here, a slightly thinner graphite region near each end of the tube was used to “inject heat” to compensate for the axial conduction losses, and the depth, width, and position of this region was adjusted to achieve a compromise in performance over a wide temperature range. To assist with this optimization, the insulation purging gas was changed from N2 to He at the lower temperatures to change the thermal conductivity of the felt insulation, and the effectiveness of this approach has been experimentally confirmed.

Chahine, Khaled; Ballico, Mark; Reizes, John; Madadnia, Jafar

2008-02-01

289

Modelling of the temperature distribution in a three-zone resistance furnace: influence of furnace configuration and ampoule position  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical modelling of the heat transport in a three-zone resistance furnace has been performed.The results of the calculations agree very well with experimentally obtained temperature profiles. A strong dependence of the calculated temperature field on the thermal conductivity of the furnace material is observed and can be explained by nonisotropic effects like inhomogeneities in the insulation.The simulations can also

S. Boschert; P Dold; K. W Benz

1998-01-01

290

Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust.  

PubMed

In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in an increase of mechanical strength. Moreover, leaching tests performed according to the Europeans standards on the EAFD-block samples showed that the quantities of heavy metals leached from crushed blocks were within the regulatory limits. Thus the EAFD-blocks can be regarded as material of no environmental concern. PMID:24012962

Stathopoulos, V N; Papandreou, A; Kanellopoulou, D; Stournaras, C J

2013-11-15

291

Signal oscillation and overcorrection in the determination of aluminum using the transversely heated graphite furnace with Zeeman background correction*1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In certain situations, oscillating atomic and background signals were observed using the transversely heated graphite furnace (Perkin-Elmer 4100ZL) in the presence of large amounts of refractory matrix. It was found that the oscillation was relatively independent of the analytical wavelength. The general occurrence of oscillation indicates that it probably results from radiation emitted from the furnace wall and the platform, scattered by refractory particles, in a situation where the radiation follows a different furnace heating frequency (60 Hz) from that used for the measurement circuit (54.25 Hz). Additionally, a spectral interference occurred in the determination of Al at the 396.2-nm line using the 4100ZL instrument with samples containing large amounts of Ca because of a background overcorrection error. Errors may thus arise in the determination of Al at this wavelength for samples that have high Ca contents, such as bone digestate. However, both oscillation and overcorrection were reduced by (1) addition of 10% H 2 to the Ar purge gas; (2) using a smaller slit width; or (3) using a heating ramp (non-zero) atomization. The overcorrection was not observed at the 309.3-nm Al line.

Tang, Shida; Parsons, Patrick J.; Slavin, Walter

1997-07-01

292

A General Viscosity Model for Molten Blast Furnace Slag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast furnace slag is the most abundant slag in the steel industry. Its metallurgical properties are determined to a great extent by its viscosity. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a reliable viscosity model for blast furnace slag. In the current work, a simple, accurate, and physically meaningful viscosity model for a wide composition range of blast furnace slags is developed based on the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation: log ? = A + B/( T - C). The model is calibrated by a database containing 365 compositions and 1233 measurements of synthetic and industrial slags. The parameter A has a value of -3.10. The parameters B and C are related to the mass fraction ratio of (CaO + MgO) to (SiO2 + Al2O3) and liquidus temperature of the slag, respectively. Present viscosity model accurately predicts the viscosity of blast furnace slag with relative average error (?) of 0.211 (±0.180) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.239 Pa·s. A slight modification of this model can also predict the glass transition temperature of blast furnace slag satisfactorily.

Gan, Lei; Lai, Chaobin

2014-06-01

293

Unique furnace system for high-energy-neutron experiments  

SciTech Connect

The low flux of high energy neutron sources requires optimum utilization of the available neutron field. A furnace system has been developed in support of the US DOE fusion materials program which meets this challenge. Specimens positioned in two temperature zones just 1 mm away from the outside surface of a neutron window in the furnace enclosure can be irradiated simultaneously at two independent, isothermal (+- 1/sup 0/C) temperatures. The temperature difference between these closely spaced isothermal zones is controllable from 0 to 320/sup 0/C and the maximum temperature is 400/sup 0/C. The design of the system also provides a controlled specimen environment, rapid heating and cooling and easy access to heaters and thermocouples. This furnace system is in use at the Rotating Target Neutron Source-II of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Panayotou, N F; Green, D R; Price, L S

1982-03-01

294

Direct sampling of gas and particulates from electric arc furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a given arc furnace heat for melting of scrap steel charges and subsequent steel making, considerable amounts of particulates are produced, varying in composition, size distribution and production rates corresponding to several distinct stages of the heat. In an effort to develop a detailed model for the particle production mechanisms, a new program for direct sampling of the furnace gas and particulates from the interior of the furnace has been devised and successfully implemented. It consists of a new high temperature sampling tube, capable of withstanding temperatures up to 1900 C for an indefinite period of time, and an experimental protocol designed to extract certain specific information necessary for development of a theoretical model. The results from two complete runs are described in detail. A theoretical model has been formulated, as guided by the measurements, which facilitates realistic predictions of the growth rate and elemental compositon of the particulates.

Harding, Thomas W.; Kim, Yong W.

1982-05-01

295

Genetic algorithms for multicriteria shape optimization of induction furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution we deal with a multi-criteria shape optimization of an induction furnace. We want to find shape parameters of the furnace in such a way, that two different criteria are optimized. Since they cannot be optimized simultaneously, instead of one optimum we find set of partially optimal designs, so called Pareto front. We compare two different approaches to the optimization, one using nonlinear conjugate gradient method and second using variation of genetic algorithm. As can be seen from the numerical results, genetic algorithm seems to be the right choice for this problem. Solution of direct problem (coupled problem consisting of magnetic and heat field) is done using our own code Agros2D. It uses finite elements of higher order leading to fast and accurate solution of relatively complicated coupled problem. It also provides advanced scripting support, allowing us to prepare parametric model of the furnace and simply incorporate various types of optimization algorithms.

K?s, Pavel; Mach, František; Karban, Pavel; Doležel, Ivo

2012-09-01

296

IMPROVED FURNACE EFFICIENCY THROUGH THE USE OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes efforts performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in collaboration with industrial refractory manufacturers, refractory users, and academic institutions, to improve energy efficiency of U.S. industry through increased furnace efficiency brought about by the employment of novel refractory systems and techniques. Work in furnace applications related to aluminum, gasification, and lime are discussed. The energy savings strategies discussed are achieved through reduction of chemical reactions, elimination of mechanical degradation caused by the service environment, reduction of temperature limitations of materials, and elimination of costly installation and repair needs. Key results of several case studies resulting from a US Department of Energy (DOE) funded research program are discussed with emphasis on applicability of these results to high temperature furnace applications.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL

2011-01-01

297

Production of fluid fertilizer from phosphorus furnace waste stream  

SciTech Connect

Processes and compositions of matter are disclosed for the production of liquid fertilizers wherein wastewater from a phosphorus smelting furnace is incorporated in liquid fertilizer processes. The wastewater replaces water evaporated and the wastewater dissolves fertilizer salts. A serious water pollution problem is avoided when wastewater is incorporated in liquid fertilizers. The invention discloses a process for making orthophosphate suspension fertilizer wherein impure phosphoric acid is neutralized in the condensing system, water from the condensing system is bled off, and a suspending clay is added to produce orthophosphate suspension fertilizer. In this process, phosphorus sludge made at phosphorus furnaces is used to produce suspension fertilizer, and wastewater from phosphate smelting furnaces is recovered. New compositions of matter are disclosed. A process is disclosed for making phosphoric acid with low impurities content wherein phosphorus sludge is burned to make impure orthophosphoric acid and the impure acid is recycled to an agglomerating step in a process for making elemental phosphorus.

Barber, J. C.

1985-04-30

298

Application of Argonne's Glass Furnace Model to longhorn glass corporation oxy-fuel furnace for the production of amber glass.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to apply the Argonne National Laboratory's Glass Furnace Model (GFM) to the Longhorn oxy-fuel furnace to improve energy efficiency and to investigate the transport of gases released from the batch/melt into the exhaust. The model will make preliminary estimates of the local concentrations of water, carbon dioxide, elemental oxygen, and other subspecies in the entire combustion space as well as the concentration of these species in the furnace exhaust gas. This information, along with the computed temperature distribution in the combustion space may give indications on possible locations of crown corrosion. An investigation into the optimization of the furnace will be performed by varying several key parameters such as the burner firing pattern, exhaust number/size, and the boost usage (amount and distribution). Results from these parametric studies will be analyzed to determine more efficient methods of operating the furnace that reduce crown corrosion. Finally, computed results from the GFM will be qualitatively correlated to measured values, thus augmenting the validation of the GFM.

Golchert, B.; Shell, J.; Jones, S.; Energy Systems; Shell Glass Consulting; Anheuser-Busch Packaging Group

2006-09-06

299

Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance and Operability Test Procedure  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed LOI equipment, including a model 1608FL CM{trademark} Furnace, a dessicator, and balance. The operability of the furnace will be verified. The arrangement of the equipment placed in Glovebox 157-3/4 to perform Loss on Ignition (LOI) testing on samples supplied from the Thermal Stabilization line will be verified. In addition to verifying proper operation of the furnace, this ATP/OTP will also verify the air flow through the filters, verify a damper setting to establish and maintain the required differential pressure between the glovebox and the room pressure, and test the integrity of the newly installed HEPA filter. In order to provide objective evidence of proper performance of the furnace, the furnace must heat 15 crucibles, mounted on a crucible rack, to 1000 C, according to a program entered into the furnace controller located outside the glovebox. The glovebox differential pressure will be set to provide the 0.5 to 2.0 inches of water (gauge) negative pressure inside the glovebox with an airflow of 100 to 125 cubic feet per minute (cfm) through the inlet filter. The glovebox inlet Glfilter will he flow tested to ensure the integrity of the filter connections and the efficiency of the filter medium. The newly installed windows and glovebox extension, as well as all disturbed joints, will be sonically tested via ultra probe to verify no leaks are present. The procedure for DOS testing of the filter is found in Appendix A.

JOHNSON, D.C.

2000-06-01

300

Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance and Operability Test Procedure  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed Loss on Ignition (LOI) equipment, including a model 1608FL CMTM Furnace, a dessicator, and balance. The operability of the furnace will be verified. The arrangement of the equipment placed in Glovebox 157-3/4 to perform LOI testing on samples supplied from the Thermal Stabilization line will be verified. In addition to verifying proper operation of the furnace, this ATP/OTP will also verify the air flow through the filters, verify a damper setting to establish and maintain the required differential pressure between the glovebox and the room pressure, and test the integrity of the newly installed HEPA filter. In order to provide objective evidence of proper performance of the furnace, the furnace must heat 15 crucibles, mounted on a crucible rack, to 1000 C, according to a program entered into the furnace controller located outside the glovebox. The glovebox differential pressure will be set to provide the 0.5 to 2.0 inches of water (gauge) negative pressure inside the glovebox with an expected airflow of 100 to 125 cubic feet per minute (cfm) through the inlet filter. The glovebox inlet G1 filter will be flow tested to ensure the integrity of the filter connections and the efficiency of the filter medium. The newly installed windows and glovebox extension, as well as all disturbed joints, will be sonically tested via ultra probe to verify no leaks are present. The procedure for DOS testing of the filter is found in Appendix A.

JOHNSTON, D.C.

2000-08-23

301

Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential  

SciTech Connect

Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces is unregulated, tested at laboratory conditions using the DOE test procedure, and is reported in the GAMA directory as varying from 76 kWh/year to 1,953 kWh/year. Furnace blowers account for about 80percent of the total furnace electricity consumption and are primarily used to distribute warm air throughout the home during furnace operation as well as distribute cold air during air conditioning operation. Yet the furnace test procedure does not provide a means to calculate the electricity consumption during cooling operation or standby, which account for a large fraction of the total electricity consumption. Furthermore, blower electricity consumption is strongly affected by static pressure. Field data shows that static pressure in the house distribution ducts varies widely and that the static pressure used in the test procedure as well as the calculated fan power is not representative of actual field installations. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important to address electricity consumption of furnaces and air conditioners. This paper compares the potential regional and national energy savings of two-stage brushless permanent magnet (BPM) blower motors (the blower design option with the most potential savings that is currently available in the market) to single-stage permanent split capacitor (PSC) blower motors (the most common blower design option). Computer models were used to generate the heating and cooling loads for typical homes in 16 different climates which represent houses throughout the United States. The results show that the potential savings of using BPM motors vary by region and house characteristics, and are very strongly tied to improving house distribution ducts. Savings decrease dramatically with increased duct pressure. Cold climate locations will see savings even in the high static pressure duct situations, while warm climate locations will see less savings overall and negative savings in the high static pressure duct situations. Moderate climate locations will see little or no savings.

Florida Solar Energy Center; Franco, Victor; Franco, Victor; Lutz, Jim; Lekov, Alex; Gu, Lixing

2008-05-16

302

Computer simulation of processes in the dead–end furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study turbulent combustion of natural gas in the reverse flame of fire–tube boiler simulated with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Aerodynamic structure and volumetric pressure fields of the flame were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. The effect of the twist parameter for a drag coefficient of dead–end furnace was estimated. Finite element method was used for simulating the following processes: the combustion of methane in air oxygen, radiant and convective heat transfer, turbulence. Complete geometric model of the dead–end furnace based on boiler drawings was considered.

Zavorin, A. S.; Khaustov, S. A.; Zaharushkin, Russia N. A.

2014-10-01

303

Visualization of flow structure in a vortex furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial structure of a swirling flow in a model vortex furnace with distributed input of fuel-air-mixture jets has been studied. The results of experimental and numerical investigations of a three-dimensional (3D) field of time-averaged velocities in an isothermal laboratory model of a vortex furnace have been used to image the structure of flow. Vortex structures have been identified using ?2 and Q criteria, as well as the concept of "minimum total pressure." The vortex core of the flow has a V-shaped 3D structure.

Anufriev, I. S.; Krasinsky, D. V.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Sharypov, O. V.

2014-10-01

304

Automatic Control System of Car-Bottom Reheating Furnace  

E-print Network

. ~ Ul Ul One of the most effective metho~~ tor increa o~ 0 '0 t.~1)o1(,; ...... sing the calorific efficiency is to improve thermal ~"t' control systems of reheating furnaces.In this way w 4.0 / you may get a remarkable result in energy.... CONTROL OF AIR SUPPLY The control of air supply should not only ensure the air supply into the furnace for con sumption of fuel inside,but also not to take heat away with waste gas because of excess air.The fac tor of excess air ol is about 1...

Xueqiao, M.; Weilian, X.; Hongchen, Z.

305

DUCT RETROFIT STRATEGY TO COMPLEMENT A MODULATING FURNACE.  

SciTech Connect

Some recent work (Walker 2001, Andrews 2002) has indicated that installing a modulating furnace in a conventional duct system may, in many cases, result in a significant degradation in thermal distribution efficiency. The fundamental mechanism was pointed out nearly two decades ago (Andrews and Krajewski 1985). The problem occurs in duct systems that are less-than-perfectly insulated (e.g., R-4 duct wrap) and are located outside the conditioned space. It stems from the fact that when the airflow rate is reduced, as it will be when the modulating furnace reduces its heat output rate, the supply air will have a longer residence time in the ducts and will therefore lose a greater percentage of its heat by conduction than it did at the higher airflow rate. The impact of duct leakage, on the other hand, is not expected to change very much under furnace modulation. The pressures in the duct system will be reduced when the airflow rate is reduced, thus reducing the leakage per unit time. This is balanced by the fact that the operating time will increase in order to meet the same heating load as with the conventional furnace operating at higher output and airflow rates. The balance would be exact if the exponent in the pressure vs. airflow equation were the same as that in the pressure vs. duct leakage equation. Since the pressure-airflow exponent is usually {approx}0.5 and the pressure-leakage exponent is usually {approx}0.6, the leakage loss as a fraction of the load should be slightly lower for the modulating furnace. The difference, however, is expected to be small, determined as it is by a function with an exponent equal to the difference between the above two exponents, or {approx}0.1. The negative impact of increased thermal conduction losses from the duct system may be partially offset by improved efficiency of the modulating furnace itself. Also, the modulating furnace will cycle on and off less often than a single-capacity model, and this may add a small amount (probably in the range 1%-3%) to the thermal distribution efficiency. Nevertheless, the effect of furnace modulation on thermal distribution efficiency, both as calculated and as measured in the laboratory, is quite significant. Although exact quantification of the impact will depend on factors such as climate and the location of the ducts within the structure, impacts in the 15%-25% range are to be expected for ducts located outside the conditioned space, as most residential duct systems are. This is too large a handicap to ignore.

ANDREWS,J.W.

2002-10-02

306

Coal-fired furnace for testing of thermionic converters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of thermionic converter technology has progressed to make near-term applications such as the thermionic topping of a pulverized coal-fired central station powerplant. Up to now, thermionic converters have been flame tested using natural gas as fuel. A test furnace is required for evaluation of thermionic converters in a coal-fired environment. The design and costs of a facility which adapts a coal-fired furnace for thermionic converter testing are discussed. Such a facility would be exempt from air pollution regulations because of its low firing rate.

1980-10-01

307

Tellurite glass fiber fabrication and drawing furnace analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At first, the paper carries on the stable state thermal analysis to the temperature field distribution of the drawing furnace, then, a rod-in-tube technique is described here to the fabrication of tellurite glass fiber. There are some equipments needed, which are designed according to the dimension of the fiber required. The different combinations of these equipment could meet the various requirements, such as the rotating equipment and drawing furnace under vacuum controlling, for the aim of fiber fabrication with high diameter ratio of cladding to core (DRCC) for single-mode optical fibers.

Wang, Xunsi; Nie, Qiuhua; Xu, Tiefeng; Dai, Shixun; Xu, Chunping; Huang, Jian; Liu, Liren

2007-09-01

308

Pore Formation and Mobility Furnace within the MSG  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Richard Grugel, a materials scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight in Huntsville, Ala., examines the furnace used to conduct his Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation -- one of the first two materials science experiments to be conducted on the International Space Station. This experiment studies materials processes similar to those used to make components used in jet engines. Grugel's furnace was installed in the Microgravity Science Glovebox through the circular port on the side. In space, crewmembers are able to change out samples using the gloves on the front of the facility's work area.

2003-01-01

309

Three-Dimensional Flow and Thermal Structure in Glass Melting Furnaces. Part I: Effect of the Net Heat Flux Distribution  

E-print Network

improved design and control of glass melting furnaces [2,3].design and operating parameters in glass melting furnaces.furnace design and on the ?ring pattern, the net heat ?ux distribution from the combustion space to the glass

Pilon, Laurent; Zhao, Guochang; Viskanta, Raymond

2002-01-01

310

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2014-07-01

311

40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2012-07-01

312

40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2014-07-01

313

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2012-07-01

314

40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2011-07-01

315

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2010-07-01

316

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2011-07-01

317

40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2013-07-01

318

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2013-07-01

319

40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous...Liquid Fuel Boilers, and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1218 What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn...

2010-07-01

320

40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack height...other fuels, and industrial furnace feed stocks...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack...

2012-07-01

321

40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack height...other fuels, and industrial furnace feed stocks...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack...

2014-07-01

322

40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack height...other fuels, and industrial furnace feed stocks...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack...

2013-07-01

323

40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack height...other fuels, and industrial furnace feed stocks...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack...

2011-07-01

324

40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack height...other fuels, and industrial furnace feed stocks...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack...

2010-07-01

325

A CMOS integrated infrared radiation detector for flame monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated infrared radiation detector for flame monitoring applications, fabricated in CMOS technology. The system discriminates the radiation of the flickering flame in an oil burner from the steady background radiation generated by the furnace by considering only the harmonic components of the infrared signal in the band from 50 Hz to 250 Hz. In order to

P. Bendiscioli; F. Francesconi; P. Malcovati; F. Maloberti; M. Poletti; R. Valacca

1998-01-01

326

Glass foams: formation, transport properties, and heat, mass, and radiation transfer  

E-print Network

companies. An empirical, experience-based approach to design and operation of glass melting furnaces fails and designing the next generation of glass melters. The physico-chemical processes taking place during glass of the glass melting furnace is shown in Fig. 1. It indicates the heat input by convection and radiation from

Pilon, Laurent

327

Characterization of Process Conditions in Industrial Stainless Steelmaking Electric Arc Furnace Using Optical Emission Spectrum Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission spectroscopy is a potential method for gaining information on electric arc furnace (EAF) process conditions. Previous studies published in literature on industrial EAF emission spectra have focused on a smaller scales and DC arc furnaces. In this study emission spectrum measurements were conducted for 140t AC stainless steelmaking EAF at Outokumpu Stainless Oy, Tornio Works, Finland. Four basic types of emission spectra were obtained during the EAF process cycle. The first one is obscured by scrap steel, the second is dominated by thermal radiation of the slag, the third is dominated by alkali peaks and sodium D-lines and the fourth is characterized by multiple atomic emission peaks. The atomic emission peaks were identified by comparing them to the NIST database for atomic emission lines and previous laboratory measurements on EAF slag emission spectra. The comparison shows that the optic emission of an arc is dominated by slag components. Plasma conditions were analyzed by deriving plasma temperature from optical emissions of Ca I lines. The analysis suggests that accurate information on plasma conditions can be gained from outer plasma having a plasma temperature below 7000 K (6727 °C).

Aula, Matti; Leppänen, Ahti; Roininen, Juha; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Vallo, Kimmo; Fabritius, Timo; Huttula, Marko

2014-06-01

328

75 FR 64621 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its test procedures for residential furnaces and...Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007). These test procedure amendments are primarily...

2010-10-20

329

78 FR 41265 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...proposed rulemaking (NOPR) to amend its test procedure for residential furnaces and...today's action. This final rule amends that test procedure by adopting new equations...

2013-07-10

330

Estimation of Fuel Savings by Recuperation of Furnace Exhausts to Preheat Combustion Air  

E-print Network

The recovery of waste energy in furnace exhaust gases is gaining in importance as fuel costs continue to escalate. Installation of a recuperator in the furnace exhaust stream to preheat the combustion air can result in considerable savings in fuel...

Rebello, W. J.; Kohnken, K. H.; Phipps, H. R., Jr.

1980-01-01

331

40 CFR 458.10 - Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory. 458.10 ...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Furnace Process Subcategory § 458.10...

2010-07-01

332

10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or gas-fired furnace designed to supply heated air through ducts to spaces that require it and includes combination warm air furnace/electric air conditioning units but does not include unit heaters and...

2011-01-01

333

10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...or gas-fired furnace designed to supply heated air through ducts to spaces that require it and includes combination warm air furnace/electric air conditioning units but does not include unit heaters and...

2014-01-01

334

10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or gas-fired furnace designed to supply heated air through ducts to spaces that require it and includes combination warm air furnace/electric air conditioning units but does not include unit heaters and...

2013-01-01

335

10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or gas-fired furnace designed to supply heated air through ducts to spaces that require it and includes combination warm air furnace/electric air conditioning units but does not include unit heaters and...

2012-01-01

336

10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or gas-fired furnace designed to supply heated air through ducts to spaces that require it and includes combination warm air furnace/electric air conditioning units but does not include unit heaters and...

2010-01-01

337

Glass melting furnace for the production of high-quality hollow ware  

SciTech Connect

A design has been developed for a direct-heating glass-melting tank furnace with crown-installed flat-flame ports as illustrated in this article. The glass-melting furnace with GPPN-5 flat-flame ports is being tested at the Stryisk Glass Plant. The furnace is producing high-quality hollow ware made from glass which is colored by manganese. The furnace will make it possible to reduce fuel consumption and increase efficiency from 5 to 11%.

Erinov, A.E.; Babich, V.I.; Dunduchenko, V.E.; Martynyuk, N.E.; Pavlovskii, G.N.; Sezonenko, B.D.

1985-07-01

338

Glass melting furnace for the production of high-quality hollow ware  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design has been developed for a direct-heating glass-melting tank furnace with crown-installed flat-flame ports as illustrated in this article. The glass-melting furnace with GPPN-5 flat-flame ports is being tested at the Stryisk Glass Plant. The furnace is producing high-quality hollow ware made from glass which is colored by manganese. The furnace will make it possible to reduce fuel consumption

A. E. Erinov; V. I. Babich; V. E. Dunduchenko; N. E. Martynyuk; G. N. Pavlovskii; B. D. Sezonenko

1985-01-01

339

Development of NOx control methods for glass-melting furnaces. Final report, August 1984December 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the results of combustion modification field tests for control of NO(x) emissions from glass-melting furnaces. The techniques were developed on a pilot-scale glass-tank simulator resulting in generalized correlations between NO(x) formation and port design and operating parameters. Two commercial-container glass-melting furnaces were tested - a 165 ton\\/day endport furnace and a 250 ton\\/day sideport furnace. Data from

H. A. Abbasi; D. K. Fleming

1987-01-01

340

TPV Tube Generators for Apartment Building and Industrial Furnace Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major changes in the regulation of electric and natural gas industries during recent years have forced energy companies to explore opportunities in small-size Combined Heat and Power systems. These differ fundamentally from the traditional model of central generation and delivery since small, modular electric generators can be located very close to end-users inside a building or a single house within an industrial area, combined with the production of heat and cold. In particular, interest is growing in the new technologies for sub-100kWe units, including systems based on thermophotovoltaic (TPV) technology. TPV generator tubes can be inserted into hot furnaces to generate electricity and low-grade heat. In this generator tube, a water-cooled GaSb photovoltaic converter array inside the tube faces outward toward an infrared emitter liner mounted on the inside surface of the closed-end tube. Each tube can be sized to generate several kW and a given furnace can heat several tubes. We have conducted pilot experiments on key components in order to develop the concept just described. This includes a pilot scale array tested in an electrical furnace that heat a 3? diameter alumina tube with an infrared emitting liner. Also, a silicon carbide tube with a water-cooling system was tested in a ceramic fiber lined furnace equipped with a commercial 200 kW flameless regenerative burner, simulating a TPV generator tube in such a system.

Fraas, Lewis M.; Avery, James E.; Daniels, Wilbert E.; Huang, Huang X.; Malfa, Enrico; Venturino, Matteo; Testi, Giandomenico; Mascalzi, Gianni; Wuenning, Joachim G.

2003-01-01

341

Combustion in a multiburner furnace with selective flow of oxygen  

DOEpatents

Improved operational characteristics such as improved fuel efficiency, reduction of NOx formation, reduction of the amount of unburned carbon in the ash, and lessened tendency to corrosion at the tube wall, in a multi-burner furnace are obtained by reducing the flow rate of combustion air to the burners and selectively individually feeding oxidant to only some of the burners.

Bool III, Lawrence E.; Kobayashi, Hisashi

2004-03-02

342

LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

343

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST, DUST CATCHER AND STOCK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

344

36. View from southwest of No. 2 Furnace skiphoist with ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. View from southwest of No. 2 Furnace skip-hoist with skip-hoist engine house in left corner and dust catcher in background. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

345

46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...same by means of a ring, arc- or gas-welded to the...Figure 59.15-1, the welding to be done by welders and...subchapter using acceptable welding electrodes in accordance...reinforcing furnaces by means of arc or gas...

2010-10-01

346

COMBUSTION ENGINEERING'S FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION PROGRAMS FOR SO2 CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses three Combustion Engineering programs relating to the furnace sorbent injection process, a low-cost method for controlling sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from tangentially fired, coal burning boilers. The programs are: (1) pilot-scale investigations in the lab...

347

MULTISTAGED BURNER DESIGN FOR IN-FURNACE NOX CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a multistage combustion modification design, combining two advanced NOx control technologies, on a pilot-scale (0.9 MW) package boiler simulator for in-furnace NOx control of high nitrogen fuel combustion applications. A low NOx precomb...

348

A high temperature furnace The Sample Environment Group  

E-print Network

resulted in many different designs. In general these have incorporated a cylindrical foil heating element output. Preliminary trials with ribbon elements while achieving - 1 800 OC exhibited brittle failure). It is designed to accommodate large samples, and use low quality cooling water. The furnace uses a tantalum heat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

349

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #1 BLAST FURNACE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #1 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST AND DUST CATCHER. STOCK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND, THE #2 CASTING SHED BEYOND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

350

VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE FROM THE EAST, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE FROM THE EAST, SHOWING SKIP HOIST, DUST CATCHER AND STOCK BINS IN THE FOREGROUND. #2 CASTING SHED IS TO THE LEFT, HOT BLAST MAIN IS ON THE RIGHT. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

351

Ash melting treatment by rotating type surface melting furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of melting treatment of fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are described, and safety and an effective use of slag discharged from the melting treatment are studied. The fly ash has an average particle size of 22 ?m and a melting fluidity point of 1280–1330°C and was able to be melted by using a Kubota melting furnace without

Sei-ichi Abe; Fumiaki Kambayashi; Masaharu Okada

1996-01-01

352

APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: BABCOCK AND WILCOX CYCLONE FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils contaminated with heavy metals, radionuclides, and organics. oth the technical and economic aspects of...

353

Modelling methods for co-fired pulverised fuel furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-firing of biomass and coal can be beneficial in reducing the carbon footprint of energy production. Accurate modelling of co-fired furnaces is essential to discover potential problems that may occur during biomass firing and to mitigate potential negative effects of biomass fuels, including lower efficiency due to lower burnout and NOx formation issues. Existing coal combustion models should be modified

L. Ma; M. Gharebaghi; R. Porter; M. Pourkashanian; J. M. Jones; A. Williams

2009-01-01

354

Energy conservation and pollution abatement at phosphorus furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process and product of waste recovery at phosphorus furnaces is disclosed wherein small sized discrete particles of carbonaceous material or beneficiated phosphate ore are mixed with a mineral acid, an alkaline fluid and water, and the reacted mixture is tumbled in a horizontal cylinder at a temperature below that at which the carbonaceous material oxidizes to form agglomerates which

Barber

1983-01-01

355

Computational fluid dynamics simulations of a glass melting furnace  

SciTech Connect

The glass production industry is one of the major users of natural gas in the US, and approximately 75% of the energy produced from natural gas is used in the melting process. Industrial scale glass melting furnaces are large devices, typically 5 or more meters wide, and twice as long. To achieve efficient heat transfer to the glass melt below, the natural gas flame must extend over a large portion of the glass melt. Therefore modern high efficiency burners are not used in these furnaces. The natural gas is injected as a jet, and a jet flame forms in the flow of air entering the furnace. In most current glass furnaces the energy required to melt the batch feed stock is about twice the theoretical requirement. An improved understanding of the heat transfer and two phase flow processes in the glass melt and solid batch mix offers a substantial opportunity for energy savings and consequent emission reductions. The batch coverage form and the heat flux distribution have a strong influence on the glass flow pattern. This flow pattern determines to a significant extent the melting rate and the quality of glass.

Egelja, A.; Lottes, S. A.

2000-05-09

356

Fuzzy Diagnosis of Float-Glass Production Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The industrial production of high-quality float-glass is usually supervised by the single human expert. It is of interest to formalize his empirical knowledge to support the furnace operator at all times during the day. The paper describes the systematic development of a fuzzy expert with 6 blocks of 297 knowledge rules and 85 fuzzy terms for verified production quality.

Lambert Spaanenburg; H. Terhaseborg; J. A. G. Nijhuis

1997-01-01

357

Engineering glass furnaces for energy conservation in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy shortages and increasing costs of energy supplies are an incentive to the glass industry to examine improvements in the design, construction, and operation of glass-melting regenerative furnaces in order to achieve more efficient operation and energy conservation. The following recommendations are made: planning and design must be optimized for the most efficient use of fuel. Model tests have proven

H. Grauer; S. E. LaDue

1978-01-01

358

Evolution of simulation techniques to model electric glass furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors outline the development of modeling tools used in the analysis of the operation and design of electric glass furnaces. They emphasize the improvement over the last few decades of techniques that encompass scaled physical models and computer models. Those milestones which, in the authors' opinion, have had important influences in the course of model development and process analysis

R. A. Murnane; D. A. Nolet

1989-01-01

359

RECYCLE OF MODIFIED FLY ASH FROM FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses technical and economic studies to assess the impact of recycle on the furnace sorbent injection process. Levelized costs of various recycle schemes were compared to baseline (non-recycle) costs using the EPA LIMB Cost Model and the LIMB Recycle Model. Laborato...

360

Application of effective thermal insulating materials in firing furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was established that the application of thermal insulation in high-heat thermal units makes it possible to save up to 2 tons of standard fuel per year. A survey of the furnace installations of the porcelain and faience field and the thermal balance calculations showed that the walls and the roof of the firing zone of the furnances form the

K. S. Kryzhanovskii; V. I. Chernyl; O. M. Dunaevskii; A. I. Korzh; N. I. Sedoi

1986-01-01

361

19. VIEW OF THE BAKEOUT FURNACE, WHERE PARTS WERE HEATED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. VIEW OF THE BAKE-OUT FURNACE, WHERE PARTS WERE HEATED UNDER A VACUUM TO HEAT TREAT OR TO BAKE OUT ANY IMPURITIES. (9/19/72) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

362

9. VIEW OF FOUNDRY FURNACE, DEPLETED URANIUM INGOTS, BERYLLIUM INGOTS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF FOUNDRY FURNACE, DEPLETED URANIUM INGOTS, BERYLLIUM INGOTS, AND ALUMINUM SHAPES WERE PRODUCED IN THE FOUNDRY. (10/30/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

363

6. DETAIL VIEW OF SPIN FORM FURNACE FOR STAINLESS STEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL VIEW OF SPIN FORM FURNACE FOR STAINLESS STEEL FABRICATION. STAINLESS STEEL WAS MACHINED IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING, BEGINNING IN 1957. (4/24/78) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

364

12. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND PARTS HEATING FURNACE. THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND PARTS HEATING FURNACE. THE METALS WERE HEATED PRIOR TO BEING PRESSED. THE ARM IS DRAPED WITH FIRE RESISTANT MATERIAL. (2/9/79) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

365

Better VPS Fabrication of Crucibles and Furnace Cartridges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation has shown that by (1) vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) of suitable refractory metal alloys on graphite mandrels, and then (2) heat-treating the VPS alloy deposits under suitable conditions, it is possible to fabricate improved crucibles and furnace cartridges that could be used at maximum temperatures between 1,400 and 1,600 C and that could withstand chemical attack by the materials to be heated in the crucibles and cartridges. Taken by itself, the basic concept of fabricating furnace cartridges by VPS of refractory materials onto graphite mandrels is not new; taken by itself, the basic concept of heat treatment of VPS deposits for use as other than furnace cartridges is also not new; however, prior to this investigation, experimental crucibles and furnace cartridges fabricated by VPS had not been heat treated and had been found to be relatively weak and brittle. Accordingly, the investigation was directed toward determining whether certain combinations of (1) refractory alloy compositions, (2) VPS parameters, and (3) heat-treatment parameters could result in VPS-fabricated components with increased ductility.

Holmes, Richard R.; Zimmerman, Frank R.; O'Dell, J. Scott; McKechnie, Timothy N.

2003-01-01

366

No Furnaces but Heat Aplenty in ‘Passive Houses’  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly cogent feature from the The New York Time Europe, from December 28, 2008, describes the super efficient features of passive houses. These carefully engineered structures allow inhabitants to maintain comfortable temperatures inside and produce hot water in very cold climates without the need of a furnace.

ELISABETH ROSENTHAL

367

Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate  

DOEpatents

An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1996-01-01

368

MULTISTAGED APPROACH FOR IN-FURNACE NOX CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the evaluation of a multistaged combustion burner design on a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator for in-furnace nitrogen oxides (NOx) control and high combustion efficiency. The adiabatic precombustion chamber burner has been reduced in size by a factor of about ...

369

INTERIOR VIEW OF TRANSFORMER ROOM FOR FURNACE NO. 2 LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF TRANSFORMER ROOM FOR FURNACE NO. 2 LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING BACK OF CONTROL PANEL AND TRANSFORMER (GE, 3000 KUA water cooled, 60 cycles, U.S. patent 1900585. Transformer dates from 1937, control panel GE resistors) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

370

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: BABCOCK AND WILCOX CYCLONE FURNACE VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology is a treatment process for contaminated soils. he process was evaluated to determine its ability to destroy semivolatile organics and to isolate metals and simulated radionuclides into a non-leachable slag materi...

371

PERMEABILITY PROPERTIES OF FLY ASH FORM FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses tests of the applicability of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) waste solids for use as synthetic waste landfill liners by measuring the mechanical strength and permeability of moisture-cured samples. SI waste solids were received from the EPA-sponsored demonstr...

372

NOX EMISSIONS MODELING IN BIOMASS COMBUSTION GRATE FURNACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new flamelet combustion model is developed for the modeling of NOx emissions in biomass grate furnaces. The model describes the combustion chemistry using premixed flamelets. The chemical system is mapped on two controlling variables: the mixture fraction and a reaction progress variable. The species mass fractions and temperature are tabulated as functions of the controlling variables in a pre-processing

B. A. Albrecht; R. J. M. Bastiaans; J. A. van Oijen; L. P. H. de Goey

373

Numerical Simulation and Chaotic Analysis of an Aluminum Holding Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve high heat efficiency, low pollutant emission and homogeneous melt temperature during thermal process of secondary aluminum, taking into account the features of aluminum alloying process, a CFD process model was developed and integrated with heat load and aluminum temperature control model. This paper presented numerical simulation of aluminum holding furnaces using the customized code based on FLUENT packages. Thermal behaviors of aluminum holding furnaces were investigated by probing into main physical fields such as flue gas temperature, velocity, and concentration, and combustion instability of aluminum holding process was represented by chaos theory. The results show that aluminum temperature uniform coefficient firstly decreases during heating phase, then increases and reduces alternately during holding phase, lastly rises during standing phase. Correlation dimension drops with fuel velocity. Maximal Lyapunov exponent reaches to a maximum when air-fuel ratio is close to 1. It would be a clear comprehension about each phase of aluminum holding furnaces to find new technology, retrofit furnace design, and optimize parameters combination.

Wang, Ji-min; Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Lan, Shen; Chen, Tao; Li, Jie; Yan, Hong-jie; Zhou, Jie-min; Tian, Rui-jiao; Tu, Yan-wu; Li, Wen-ke

2014-12-01

374

Fabrication and leak-tight furnace brazing of intricate objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extremely compact crossflow heat exchanger has been constructed by hydrogen furnace brazing together a stack of hundreds of chemically milled stainless-steel sheets. The resulting structure is leak tight and very strong, but fluid channels as small as 51 ?m are not plugged by excess brazing material. The construction technique is easily adapted to mass production and should be useful

G. W. Swift; A. Migliori; John Wheatley; C. R. Waller; G. Suazo

1984-01-01

375

The Iron Blast Furnace: A Study in Chemical Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the furnace from a chemical thermodynamics perspective. Examines the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy change for each reaction of importance. These properties are interpreted on the molecular level then used to deduce the conditions necessary for each reaction to occur in its intended direction. Chemical kinetics is also discussed.…

Treptow, Richard S.; Jean, Luckner

1998-01-01

376

CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

377

FRACTIONAL EFFICIENCY OF AN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE BAGHOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the performance of a fabric filter system controlling emissions from either one or two 30-ton electric arc furnaces producing a high-strength, low-alloy specialty steel. The evaluation involved measuring the system's total mass collect...

378

Blast furnace slags as sorbents of phosphate from water solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is focused on the sorption of phosphorus from aqueous solutions by crystalline and amorphous blast furnace slags. Slag sorption kinetics were measured, adsorption tests were carried out and the effect of acidification on the sorption properties of slags was studied. The kinetic measurements confirmed that the sorption of phosphorus on crystalline as well as amorphous slags can be

Bruno Kostura; Hana Kulveitová; Juraj Leško

2005-01-01

379

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: THE PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE RETECH, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The plasma centrifugal furnace is a thermal technology which uses the heat generated from a plasma torch to decontaminate metal and organic contaminated waste. This is accomplished by melting metal-bearing solids and, in the process, thermally destroying organic contaminants. The...

380

46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...patch shall be placed on the waterside of the plate in order not to form a pocket in which sediment may collect. (e) Furnace crowns which have become distorted, not in excess of the limitations provided in paragraph (c) of this section, may be...

2013-10-01

381

46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...patch shall be placed on the waterside of the plate in order not to form a pocket in which sediment may collect. (e) Furnace crowns which have become distorted, not in excess of the limitations provided in paragraph (c) of this section, may be...

2011-10-01

382

46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...patch shall be placed on the waterside of the plate in order not to form a pocket in which sediment may collect. (e) Furnace crowns which have become distorted, not in excess of the limitations provided in paragraph (c) of this section, may be...

2014-10-01

383

46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...patch shall be placed on the waterside of the plate in order not to form a pocket in which sediment may collect. (e) Furnace crowns which have become distorted, not in excess of the limitations provided in paragraph (c) of this section, may be...

2012-10-01

384

15. TAKING A CAST AT FURNACE NO. 1 HOT SLAG, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. TAKING A CAST AT FURNACE NO. 1 HOT SLAG, BY-PRODUCT IN SMELTING OF PIG IRON, CAN BE SEEN FLOWING INTO THE SLAG YARD. VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

385

Phosphate removal using blast furnace slags and opoka-mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abiotic sorption efficiency of on-site wastewater treatment systems can be improved by using a strongly sorbing filter material that, if it retains phosphorus (P) in a plant available way, can be used as fertiliser when P saturation is achieved. Two materials, blast furnace slag and the siliceous sedimentary rock opoka, have shown a high P sorption capacity and were

Lena Johansson; Jon Petter Gustafsson

2000-01-01

386

Fire-resistant geopolymer produced by granulated blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes research into the use of granulated blast furnace slag as an active filler in the making of geopolymers. During this work it was found that geopolymer setting time correlates well with temperature, potassium hydroxide concentration, metakaolinite and sodium silicate addition. The physical and mechanical properties of the geopolymer also correlated well with the concentration of alkaline solution

T. W. Cheng; J. P. Chiu

2003-01-01

387

Characterization of municipal solid waste combustion in a grate furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the combustion process of municipal solid waste combustion in a grate furnace both experimentally and numerically by using data of a reference experiment with over-stoichiometric primary air supply. Measurements were carried out inside the combustion chamber of a pilot plant by monitoring temperatures and sampling gaseous combustion products along the bed surface.

Hans-Heinz Frey; Bernhard Peters; Hans Hunsinger; Jürgen Vehlow

2003-01-01

388

Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V\\/1000 A DC as an example, the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat

Peng Zhao; Yuedong Meng; Xinyao Yu; Longwei Chen; Yiman Jiang; Guohua Ni; Mingzhou Chen

2009-01-01

389

Experimenting with concentrated sunlight using the DLR solar furnace  

SciTech Connect

The high flux solar furnace that is operated by the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) at Cologne was inaugurated in June 1994 and we are now able to look back onto one year of successful operation. The solar furnace project was founded by the government of the State Northrhine Westfalia within the Study Group AG Solar. The optical design is a two-stage off-axis configuration which uses a flat 52 m{sup 2} heliostat and a concentrator composed of 147 spherical mirror facets. The heliostat redirects the solar light onto the concentrator which focuses the beam out of the optical axis of the system into the laboratory building. At high insolation levels (>800W/m{sup 2}) it is possible to collect a total power of 20 kW with peak flux densities of 4 MW/m{sup 2}. Sixteen different experiment campaigns were carried out during this first year of operation. The main research fields for these experiments were material science, component development and solar chemistry. The furnace also has its own research program leading to develop sophisticated measurement techniques like remote infrared temperature sensing and flux mapping. Another future goal to be realized within the next five years is the improvement of the performance of the furnace itself. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Neumann, A.; Groer, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt Linder Hoehe, Koeln (Germany)] [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt Linder Hoehe, Koeln (Germany)

1996-10-01

390

APPLICABILITY OF NOX COMBUSTION MODIFICATIONS TO CYCLONE BOILERS (FURNACES)  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyclone furnaces are a significant source of stationary NOx emissions. It was estimated that 0.76 x 10 to the 6th power tonnes of NOx (over 6% of stationary source NOx) were emitted from all cyclone-coal-fired utility boilers in 1973. This represents from 19% to 22% of the total ...

391

NON-PORTLAND CEMENT ACTIVATION OF BLAST FURNACE SLAG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to produce a “greener” cement from granulated ground blast furnace slag (GGBS) using non-Portland cement activation. By eventually developing “greener” cement, the ultimate goal of this research project would be to reduce the amount of Portland cement used in concrete, therefore reducing the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere during cement production.

Anne Elizabeth Oberlink

2010-01-01

392

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND MACHINERY AND ARTIFACTS INCLUDING A STEAM ENGINE HUB MADE AT THE BRIERFIELD ROLLING MILL (INSCRIBED C.C. HUCKABEE AND DATED 1863) AND OTHER STEAM ENGINES. - Iron & Steel Museum of Alabama, 12632 Confederate Pkwy., Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

393

Complex reconstruction of a direct-heating glass-melting furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex reconstruction of direct-heating glass-melting furnace No. 4, heated with natural gas, at the Kamyshinsk Glass Container Plant had the purpose of first, converting the furnace previously designed for production of glass tiles, to production of silicate blocks and second, increasing the thermal efficiency of the furnace by more than two times. The complete reconstruction project includes two stages. The

O. N. Popov; I. B. Smulyanskii; A. V. Khobotov; V. M. Zolotarev; V. S. Shevchenko

1994-01-01

394

Thermal balances of glass-melting furnaces producing table glassware and glass containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data from experimental studies and calculations of the thermal balances of industrial furnaces are used to develop the necessary steps to save fuel in glass production. This paper reports some results of studies of the thermal operation of glass-melting furnaces, of their thermal balances, and also an analysis of the factors which affect the thermal operation of the furnaces.

A. S. Kozlov; V. E. Dunduchenko; R. S. Kotselko; L. P. Shutnikova

1986-01-01

395

Fuzzy temperature control of industrial refineries furnaces through combined feedforward\\/feedback multivariable cascade systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to improve and apply a multivariable advanced control structure on the basis of fuzzy logic technique for two flow tubular furnace having widespread applications in petroleum refinery industries. After analyzing the dynamic properties of furnaces, it has been concluded that these furnaces are the MIMO processes which have two inputs and two outputs. There

A. G. Abilov; Z. Zeybek; O. Tuzunalp; Z. Telatar

2002-01-01

396

Practical primer on design of electric arc furnace emission control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper will cover the methodology for designing environmentally acceptable and cost-effective emission control systems in modern electric arc furnace meltshops. Fundamental requirements for effective direct evacuation control (DEC) of electric and ladle furnace melting operations and canopy\\/local hood control of secondary emissions from electric arc furnace charging and tapping emissions will be addressed. The following topics will be included:

P. G. A. Brand; R. W. Manten

1994-01-01

397

Electrode Arrangement As Substitute Bottom For An Electrothermic Slag Smelting Furnace.  

DOEpatents

The electrode arrangement uses vertically oriented electrodes with side wall contacts for an electrothermic smelting furnace for aluminum production. The side wall contacts are radially moveable into the furnace to compensate for wear on the contacts. The side wall contacts can be hollow to allow a slag forming charge to be fed to the furnace.

Aune, Jan Arthur (Enebakk, NO); Brinch, Jon Christian (Oslo, NO); Johansen, Kai (Kristiansand, NO)

2005-12-27

398

Method and apparatus for automatic furnace. [fireplace with heat exchanger and controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

A furnace and method of operation are disclosed for the efficient, controlled combustion of a combustible material such as wood, coal, etc. The furnace includes a grate which grate permits a large amount of combustible material to be stacked within the grate and to be constantly compressed to insure efficient combustion. The furnace also includes a heat exchanger surrounding the

Rush

1977-01-01

399

Automatic system to control radial gas-flow distribution parameters in the blast-furnace stack  

Microsoft Academic Search

and instruments for controlling the distribution of the gas flow across the stack of blast furnaces. This is because the proportion of indirectly reduced iron represents a significant part of the material and heat balances in blast-furnace smelting, determining the technicoeconomic indices of furnace operation. The importance of this work has increased in recent years in connection with the construction

I. A. Rylov; M. M. Shmonin; V. A. Makarychev; V. M. Yanchevskii; O. R. Basargin; A. P. Kalinin

1980-01-01

400

Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-Making Plantation. Teaching with Historic Places.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rhythmic noises of the turning water wheel and the roar of the furnace blast never stopped at Hopewell Furnace (Pennsylvania) during its years of operation (1771-1883). As long as the furnace was in blast, the ironworkers' jobs were safe. In case of trouble, they could escape to the woods, fields, and creeks of rural Pennsylvania. Now a…

Koman, Rita G.

401

Dry scrubbing: a new concept for removing odor and particulates from kraft recovery furnace stack gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet regulatory standards, existing kraft mills, with direct contact evaporators, have essentially the following three options: installation of a new, larger recovery furnace to replace the existing overloaded furnace; or to build a second recovery furnace to handle the extra load; installation or upgrading of existing weak black and\\/or strong black liquor oxidation system(s); these systems are

Bhatia

1984-01-01

402

Redirecting concentrated radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Often the direction of radiation is important for technological reasons. Melting substances may drip down, or for air receivers, convection may cause instabilities. One obvious solution is to reorient the radiation before concentration with a planar mirror. This is only practical, if the angular spread is considerably less than 45 degrees. Here we propose a section of a torus with reflecting walls to reorient the radiation. The torus, by virtue of its rotational symmetry will not reject any radiation, even if the incoming radiation is close to the thermodynamic limit and thus completely diffuse. A toroid reflector can be easily manufactured from massive material and cooled. It seams a compact and practical device. We calculate the number of reflections and discuss applications of such a device in solar furnaces.

Collares-Pereira, Manuel; Mendes, Joao F.; Rabl, Ari; Ries, Harald

1995-08-01

403

Status and Evaluation of Microwave Furnace Capabilities at NASA Glenn Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microwave (MW) furnace is a HY-Tech Microwave Systems, 2 kW 2.45 GHz Single Mode Microwave Applicator operating in continuous wave (CW) with variable power. It is located in Cleveland, Ohio at NASA Glenn Research Center. Until recently, the furnace capabilities had not been fully realized due to unknown failure that subsequently damaged critical furnace components. Although the causes of the problems were unknown, an assessment of the furnace itself indicated operational failure may have been partially caused by power quality. This report summarizes the status of the MW furnace and evaluates its capabilities in materials processing.

Lizcano, Maricela; Mackey, Jonathan A.

2014-01-01

404

A 3D CFD simulation of liquid flow in an ironmaking blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional CFX-based mathematical model is developed to describe the flow-heat transfer-chemical reactions behaviours of gas-solid-liquid phases in an ironmaking blast furnace (BF), where the raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The typical in-furnace phenomena of an operating blast furnace, in particular, the liquid flow in the lower part of a blast furnace is simulated in aspects of velocity and volume fraction. This model offers a cost-effective tool to understand and optimize blast furnace operation.

Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter; Yu, Aibing

2013-07-01

405

Texture and porosity effects on the thermal radiative behavior of alumina ceramics.  

E-print Network

and optimize devices working at high temperature such as glass making furnaces or thermal shields. To determine characterization of the thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency of structural materials is mandatory to design

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

406

Three-Dimensional Flow and Thermal Structures in Glass Melting Furnaces. Part I. Effects of the Heat Flux Distribution.  

E-print Network

of glass melting furnaces are commonly used in the glass industry [1]: 1. Float glass furnaces are oftenThree-Dimensional Flow and Thermal Structures in Glass Melting Furnaces. Part I. Effects in the molten glass bath of a typical glass melting furnace with a throat but without air bubblers or electric

Pilon, Laurent

407

Hybrid algorithm with fuzzy system and conventional PI control for the temperature control of TV glass furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a practical application of fuzzy logic to the temperature control of glass melting furnace for television picture tube. Because of the complexity and nonlinearity, temperature control of glass melting furnace is still delegated to human operators. Though the overall characteristics of glass melting furnace are complex and nonlinear, one part of the furnace characteristics can be modeled

Un-Chul Moon; Kwang Y. Lee

2003-01-01

408

Design of a High Thermal Gradient Bridgman Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) is a Bridgman-Stockbarger microgravity processing facility, designed and manifested to first fly aboard the second United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2) Space Shuttle mission. The AADSF was principally designed to produce high axial thermal gradients, and is particularly suitable for metals solidification experiments, including non-dilute alloys. To accommodate a wider range of experimental conditions, the AADSF is equipped with a reconfigurable gradient zone. The overall design of the AADSF and the relationship between gradient zone design and furnace performance are described. Parametric thermal analysis was performed and used to select gradient zone design features that fulfill the high thermal gradient requirements of the USMP-2 experiment. The thermal model and analytical procedure, and parametric results leading to the first flight gradient zone configuration, are presented. Performance for the USMP-2 flight experiment is also predicted, and analysis results are compared to test data.

LeCroy, J. E.; Popok, D. P.

1994-01-01

409

Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace  

DOEpatents

A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

2014-04-22

410

FRONT VIEW OF POURING FROM #61 HOLDING FURNACE AT #02 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FRONT VIEW OF POURING FROM #61 HOLDING FURNACE AT #02 STATION INTO THREE VERTICAL MOLDS SUBMERGED IN A WATER-FILLED TANK BELOW THE CASTING FLOOR. THE CASTING CREW'S JOBS DURING THIS PHASE OF THE OPERATION INCLUDE REGULATING THE POURING RATE AND MONITORING THE VALVE RODS THAT CONTROL THE WATER SPRAYS ON THE MOLDS. DIFFERENT ALLOYS REQUIRE SPECIFIC POURING SPEEDS AND WATER PRESSURES. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

411

Recharging the Silicon Crucible in a Hot Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Melt recharger" adds raw silicon to crucible in crystal-growing furnace without disturbing inert-gas atmosphere or significantly lowering temperature of melt. Crucible-refill hopper is lowered into hot zone of crystal-pulling chamber through an isolation valve. Cable that supports hopper is fastened to cone-shaped stopper in bottom of hopper. Stopper moves out of opening in hopper, allowing part of polysilicon charge to drop into crucible.

Lane, R. L.

1982-01-01

412

Moving-Temperature-Gradient Heat-Pipe Furnace Element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In improved apparatus, ampoule of material directionally solidified mounted in central hole of annular heat pipe, at suitable axial position between heated and cooled ends. Heated end held in fixed position in single-element furnace; other end left in ambient air or else actively cooled. Gradient of temperature made to move along heat pipe by changing pressure of noncondensable gas. In comparison with prior crystal-growing apparatuses, this one simpler, smaller, and more efficient.

Gillies, Donald C.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Gernert, Nelson J.

1993-01-01

413

Scrubber system lightens load of glass furnace emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The particulate matter concentration at the outlet of the exhaust stack from a 200 TPD container glass furnace at Glass Containers' Vernon, California, plant ranged from 0.10 to 0.13 grain\\/sdcf (standard\\/cubic feet of dry gas). A system was designed to take the sodium sulfate emission, still in its gaseous form, and condense it under controlled conditions either directly on the

1975-01-01

414

Plumbrook Hypersonic Tunnel Facility Graphite Furnace Degradation Mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recent rebuild revealed extensive degradation to the large graphite induction furnace in the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF). This damage to the graphite blocks and insulating felt is examined and modeled with thermochemical equilibrium codes. The primary reactions appear to be with water vapor and the nitrogen purge gas. Based on these conclusions, several changes are recommended. An inert purge gas (e.g. argon or helium) and controlling and monitoring water vapor to about 10 ppm should decrease the damage substantially.

Jacobson, Nathan S.

1999-01-01

415

Grate Furnace Combustion: A Submodel for the Solid Fuel Layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of NOx-formation in biomass fired grate furnaces requires the development of numerical models. To represent the variety in scales\\u000a and physical processes playing a role in the conversion, newly developed submodels are required. Here, a submodel for the\\u000a reverse combustion process in the solid fuel layer on the grate is described. The submodel is shown to give good

H. A. J. A. Van Kuijk; R. J. M. Bastiaans; J. A. Van Oijen; L. P. H. De Goey

2007-01-01

416

Combustion Control using B-Spline Based Furnace Temperature Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a closed-loop combustion control algorithm for a coal-fired boiler using the recently developed output distribution control theory. The furnace temperature distribution (FTD) is regarded as the controlled variable, which demonstrates the stability, economy and reliability of combustion process. Following the FTD obtained by Fluent simulation software, the equivalent B-spline FTD model is then established. Consequently, the control

Jian-Hua Zhang; Bin Tian; Guo-Lian Hou; Jin-Fang Zhang

2007-01-01

417

Phosphorus Purifing Effect of Blast Furnace Slags in Sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focus on purifying phosphorus by batch and column experiment and researching phosphorus removal theory of blast furnace slags. The content includes the following main parts: experiment method and procedure, results and discussion and conclusion. The results indicated: the phosphorus removal rate of solution containing 10 mg\\/L P is above 85% with 2.5 g BF slags, at 25°C. The

Ling Huang; Haihong Xu

2009-01-01

418

Phosphorus removal by electric arc furnace steel slag and serpentinite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag and serpentinite were tested in columns either alone or mixed with limestone to determine their capacity to remove phosphorus (P) from a solution containing initially 20mg P\\/L (for 114 days) than 400mg P\\/L (for 21 days). EAF steel slag was nearly 100% efficient due to specific P adsorption onto metal hydroxides and precipitation of

Aleksandra Drizo; Christiane Forget; Robert P. Chapuis; Yves Comeau

2006-01-01

419

Blast furnace slag as phosphorus sorbents — column studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filter substrates that efficiently remove phosphorus (P) from wastewater can be used to optimise the nutrient removal by on-site wastewater treatment systems. A number of filter substrates have been investigated and the industrial by-product blast furnace slag has attracted attention as a promising substrate. To further evaluate the sorption and attenuation of PO43?, a column experiment was carried out under

Lena Johansson

1999-01-01

420

Crystallization mechanism and properties of a blast furnace slag glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex crystallization process of a Brazilian blast-furnace slag glass was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction (SAD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Three crystalline phases (merwinite, melilite and larnite) were identified after heat treatment between Tg (742°C) and the DSC crystallization peak (T=1000°C). Merwinite was identified

C. Fredericci; E. D. Zanotto; E. C. Ziemath

2000-01-01

421

Adapting TPV for Use in a Standard Home Heating Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel TPV configuration will be presented that can fit into a standard home furnace cabinet. This system incorporates an externally faceted glass cylinder with a dichroic filter deposited on its outer surface and a GaSb IR cell array bonded to the outer surface on top of the filter. This cylindrical array is then surrounded with an envelope containing a low boiling point liquid for evaporative cooling. The liquid is in direct contact with the backside of the cell array. An air-cooled condenser is then mounted above the photovoltaic converter array. Evaporative cooling potentially allows a heat removal rate of 20 W/cm2. Additional novel features of this design are described. The goal is to design a cost-effective retrofit forced-air warm air furnace that can work either as a self-powered furnace or as a Combined Heat and Power appliance. In order to achieve low cost, the design point for the GaSb cell electric power density is 2.5 W/cm2.

Carlson, Randolph S.; Fraas, Lewis M.

2007-02-01

422

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

Gary M. Blythe

2000-12-01

423

A rotary arc furnace for aluminum dross processing  

SciTech Connect

Dross, a major by-product of all processes involving molten aluminum, forms at the surface of the molten metal as the latter reacts with the furnace atmosphere. It generally represents 1 to 5 wt% of the melt, depending on the process, and contains on average about 50% free aluminum dispersed in an oxide layer. Since aluminum production is highly energy-intensive, dross recycling is very attractive from both the energy and the economic standpoints. The conventional recycling process using salt rotary furnaces is thermally inefficient and environmentally non-acceptable because of the production of salt slags. Hydro-Quebec has developed and patented a new salt-free technology using a rotary furnace heated by an electric arc between two graphite electrodes, called DROSCAR{reg_sign}. A 600-kW pilot plant in operation at LTEE is in use to demonstrate the process. This process provides aluminum recovery rates over 90%, using a highly energy efficient, environmentally sound production method. In 1994, 400 tonnes of aluminum dross were treated in this facility and several tests on various types of dross have also been conducted in early 1995. A report on the results will be presented.

Drouet, M.G.; Meunier, J.; Laflamme, C.B.; Handfield, M.D.; Biscaro, A.; Lemire, C. [Hydro-Quebec, Shawinigan, Quebec (Canada)

1995-12-31

424

Time and Temperature Test Results for PFP Thermal Stabilization Furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The national standard for plutonium storage acceptability (standard DOE-STD-3013-99, generally known as ''the 3013 standard'') has been revised to clarify the requirement for processes that will produce acceptable storage materials. The 3013 standard (Reference 1) now states that ''Oxides shall be stabilized by heating the material in an oxidizing atmosphere to a Material Temperature of at least 950 C (1742 F) for not less than 2 hours.'' The process currently in use for producing stable oxides for storage at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) heats a furnace atmosphere to 1000 C and holds it there for 2 hours. The temperature of the material being stabilized is not measured directly during this process. The Plutonium Process Support Laboratories (PPSL) were requested to demonstrate that the process currently in use at PFP is an acceptable method of producing stable plutonium dioxide consistently. A spare furnace identical to the production furnaces was set up and tested under varying conditions with non-radioactive surrogate materials. Reference 2 was issued to guide the testing program. The process currently in use at the PFP for stabilizing plutonium-bearing powders was shown to heat all the material in the furnace to at least 950 C for at least 2 hours. The current process will work for (1) relatively pure plutonium dioxide, (2) dioxide powders mixed with up to 20 weight percent magnesium oxide, and (3) dioxide powders with up to 11 weight percent magnesium oxide and 20 weight percent magnesium nitrate hexahydrate. Time and temperature data were also consistent with a successful demonstration for a mixture containing 10 weight percent each of sodium and potassium chloride; however, the molten chloride salts destroyed the thermocouples in the powder and temperature data were unavailable for part of that run. These results assume that the current operating limits of no more than 2500 grams per furnace charge and a powder height of no more than 1.5 inches remain in effect, although deeper powder beds (up to 2 inches) also yielded temperatures of greater than 950 C for longer than 2 hours.

COMPTON, J.A.

2000-08-09

425

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

Gary M. Blythe

2001-11-06

426

Heat treatment of nuclear reactor pump part in integrated furnace facility  

SciTech Connect

A flexible heat treating system is meeting strict work specifications while accommodating the production flow pattern requirements and floor space needs of Advanced Metal Treating, Inc., Butler, Wis. Modular design and appropriate furnace configurations allow realization of the most efficient heat treat processing and energy use in a relatively small production area. The totally-integrated system (Pacemaker--manufactured by Lindberg, A Unit of General Signal, Chicago) consists of an electric integral-quench furnace with companion draw furnaces, washer unit and a material transfer car. With its one-side, inout configuration, the furnace operates with a minimum of drawing and washing equipment. The integral-quench furnace has a work chamber dimension of 30 by 48 by 30 inches (76.2 x 122 x 76.2 cm). The firm has two of these units, plus three in-out draw furnaces, one washer, one transfer car and two endothermic gas generators.

Not Available

1983-08-01

427

Seasonal performance and cost factors of oil or gas-fired boilers and furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost effective performance of an oil- or gas-fired furnace for residential space heating and\\/or domestic hot water systems is examined on a theoretical basis. Numerical expressions are derived for the Seasonal Performance Factor and Seasonal Cost Factor for a given boiler\\/furnace design and can be compared with experimental data on fuel consumption and boiler\\/furnace efficiency. (LCL)

A. L. Berlad; J. Batey; R. Hoppe; F. J. Salzano

1976-01-01

428

Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow  

DOEpatents

Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

Pollock, G.G.

1997-01-28

429

Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow  

DOEpatents

Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

Pollock, George G. (San Ramon, CA)

1997-01-01

430

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

Gary M. Blythe

2004-01-01

431

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-10-01

432

Design, construction, and performance testing of an isothermal naphthalene heat pipe furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, an isothermal naphthalene heat pipe furnace was developed to achieve uniformly radiant heating at temperature up to 300 °C. The startup, stability, and thermography tests were carried out to evaluate the uniform temperature zone of the furnace. The temperature variance of the uniform temperature zone was observed to be within ±1 °C along the axis of the furnace. To illustrate its capabilities, the furnace was used to successfully sinter thin layers of copper nanoparticle on microporous copper wicks and form biporous wicks, materials of high interest to advanced heat pipe technologies.

Choi, Jeehoon; Yuan, Yuan; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana-Andrea; Kang, Hwankook

2014-09-01

433

Modeling energy consumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S. homes  

SciTech Connect

In 2001, DOE initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is their cost-effectiveness to consumers. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This report describes calculation of equipment energy consumption (fuel and electricity) based on estimated conditions in a sample of homes that are representative of expected furnace and boiler installations. To represent actual houses with furnaces and boilers in the United States, we used a set of houses from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey of 1997 conducted by the Energy Information Administration. Our calculation methodology estimates the energy consumption of alternative (more-efficient) furnaces, if they were to be used in each house in place of the existing equipment. We developed the method of calculation described in this report for non-weatherized gas furnaces. We generalized the energy consumption calculation for this product class to the other furnace product classes. Fuel consumption calculations for boilers are similar to those for the other furnace product classes. The electricity calculations for boilers are simpler than for furnaces, because boilers do not provide thermal distribution for space cooling as furnaces often do.

Lutz, James; Dunham-Whitehead, Camilla; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James

2004-02-01

434

Prediction of the furnace heat absorption by utilizing thermomechanical analysis for various kinds of coal firing  

SciTech Connect

In order to predict the furnace heat absorption, which is sensitive to coal properties, an attempt to make a model universally applicable for any kind of pulverized coal fired boiler is in progress. First of all, the heat absorption rates on to furnace wall were surveyed for 600MWe pulverized coal fired boiler, and they were ranked into four levels by indicating a furnace heat absorption index (FHAI). Some ash composition is relatively well related to the FHAI, while a new index from thermomechanical analysis (TMA) offers a good prediction of the furnace heat absorption.

Ishinomori, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kiga, T.; Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S.K.

1999-07-01

435

Theoretical and experimental foundations for preparing coke for blast-furnace smelting  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the preparation of coke for blast-furnace smelting by a method that most fully meets the requirements of blast-furnace technology: screening of the -36 mm fraction, the separation of nut coke of the 15-36 mm fraction, and its charging into the furnace in a mixture with the iron-ore-bearing charge components. An analysis is made of trial use of coke of the Premium class on blast furnace No. 5 at the Enakievo Metallurgical Plant. Use of this coke makes it possible to reduce the consumption of skip coke by 3.2-4.1%.

A.L. Podkorytov; A.M. Kuznetsov; E.N. Dymchenko; V.P. Padalka; S.L. Yaroshevskii; A.V. Kuzin [Enakievo Metallurgical Plant, Enakievo (Ukraine)

2009-05-15

436

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

Gary M. Blythe

2000-12-01

437

Increase in the productivity of blast-furnace stoves  

SciTech Connect

The Novolipetsk combine proposed sending a cold blast through a special 150-mm-diameter pipe passing through an igniter opening into the combustion chamber. To evaluate the efficiency the stove performance in which some of the cold blast was directed to the combustion chamber was compared against that of unmodified stoves. This blast-delivery system was found to increase consumption of blast-furnace gas during the first stage, reduce time required to bring the dome up to prescribed temperatures, shorten the stove-heating period, and increase blast-heating temperature by 10-15/degree/.

Solomentsev, S.L.; Chernobrivets, B.F.; Sigmund, V.K.; Basukinskii, S.M.; Beremblyum, G.B.; Nakhaev, P.E.; Serpevskii, S.L.

1988-03-01

438

Sandjet- A New Alternative for Cleaning Furnace Tubes  

E-print Network

' energy savings are from more complete cleaning of furnace tub~s and the resultant lengthening of I service cycles and tube life. I I Process heaters are used to add, heat to hydro- I carbon feedstocks and in normal operations this increase... to designonditions. A European refinery had beef, operating a large vacuum heater for seven years with frequent tube ruptures caused by hot spots. The quality of crude oil being processed caused the extensive development of scale buildups leading to hot spots...

Pollock, C. B.

1981-01-01

439

Crew Member Interface with Space Station Furnace Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is a facility located in the International Space Station United States Laboratory (ISS US Lab) for materials research in the microgravity environment. The SSFF will accommodate basic research, commercial applications, and studies of phenomena of metals and alloys, electronic and photonic materials, and glasses and ceramics. To support this broad base of research requirements, the SSFF will operate, regulate, and support a variety of Experiment Modules (EMs). To meet station requirements concerning the microgravity level needed for experiments, station is providing an active vibration isolation system, and SSFF provides the interface. SSFF physically consists of a Core Rack and two instrument racks (IRs) that occupy three adjacent ISS US Lab rack locations within the International Space Station (ISS). All SSFF racks are modified International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR). SSFF racks will have a 50% larger pass through area on the lower sides than ISPRs to accommodate the many rack to rack interconnections. The Instrument Racks are further modified with lowered floors and an additional removable panel (15" x 22") on top of the rack for access if needed. The Core Rack shall contain all centralized Core subsystems and ISS subsystem equipment. The two Instrument Racks shall contain the distributed Core subsystem equipment, ISS subsystem equipment, and the EMs. The Core System, which includes the Core Rack, the IR structures, and subsystem components located in the IRs serves as the central control and management for the IRs and the EMs. The Core System receives the resources provided by the International Space Station (ISS) and modifies, allocates, and distributes these resources to meet the operational requirements of the furnace. The Core System is able to support a total of four EMs and can control, support, and activate/deactivate the operations of two EMs, simultaneously. The IRs can be configured to house two small EMs or one tall vertical EM, and serve as the interface between the Core and the respective EM. The Core Rack and an adjacent Instrument Rack (containing one or more furnaces) will be delivered to the ISS in one launch. This is Integrated Configuration One (ICI). The Core Rack and IRI will be passive during transport in the Mini Pressurized Logistics Module (MPLM): Any subsequent EMs to operate within IRI are installed on-orbit. The second IR (containing one or more furnaces) is delivered to ISS on a subsequent launch which will establish Integrated Configuration Two (IC2). Additional integrated configurations will be established with the replacement of EMs or Instrument Racks.

Cash, Martha B.

1997-01-01

440

Graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Graphite Electrode DC Arc Furnace (DC Arc) is a high-temperature thermal process, which has been adapted from a commercial technology, for the treatment of mixed waste. A DC Arc Furnace heats waste to a temperature such that the waste is converted into a molten form that cools into a stable glassy and/or crystalline waste form. Hazardous organics are destroyed through combustion or pyrolysis during the process and the majority of the hazardous metals and radioactive components are incorporated in the molten phase. The DC Arc Furnace chamber temperature is approximately 593--704 C and melt temperatures are as high as 1,500 C. The DC Arc system has an air pollution control system (APCS) to remove particulate and volatiles from the offgas. The advantage of the DC Arc is that it is a single, high-temperature thermal process that minimizes the need for multiple treatment systems and for extensive sorting/segregating of large volumes of waste. The DC Arc has the potential to treat a wide range of wastes, minimize the need for sorting, reduce the final waste volumes, produce a leach resistant waste form, and destroy organic contaminants. Although the DC arc plasma furnace exhibits great promise for treating the types of mixed waste that are commonly present at many DOE sites, several data and technology deficiencies were identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) regarding this thermal waste processing technique. The technology deficiencies that have been addressed by the current studies include: establishing the partitioning behavior of radionuclides, surrogates, and hazardous metals among the product streams (metal, slag, and offgas) as a function of operating parameters, including melt temperature, plenum atmosphere, organic loading, chloride concentration, and particle size; demonstrating the efficacy of waste product removal systems for slag and metal phases; determining component durability through test runs of extended duration, evaluating the effect of feed composition variations on process operating conditions and slag product performance; and collecting mass balance and operating data to support equipment and instrument design.

NONE

1999-05-01

441

Vitrification of fly ash by swirling-flow furnace  

SciTech Connect

According to the amendment of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law of 1992, fly ash is regulated as Specially controlled waste and wide attention is now being paid to the melting and vitrification treatment of fly ash, which can reduce overall volume, detoxify and recover sources. Kobe Steel has demonstrated its operation using a swirling-flow furnace and has perfected a vitrification technique. The demonstration test has confirmed stable melting, high decomposition ratio of dioxins and the soundness of the slag. Kobe Steel has successfully developed a new technique for heightening the quality of slag and a new process for the heavy metals recovery from collected dust.

Ito, Tadashi [Kobe Steel Ltd., Nishi, Kobe (Japan). Engineering and Machinery Div.] [Kobe Steel Ltd., Nishi, Kobe (Japan). Engineering and Machinery Div.

1996-12-31

442

The Universal Multizone Crystallizator (UMC) Furnace: An International Cooperative Agreement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Universal Multizone Crystallizator (UMC) is a special apparatus for crystal growth under terrestrial and microgravity conditions. The use of twenty-five zones allows the UMC to be used for several normal freezing growth techniques. The thermal profile is electronically translated along the stationary sample by systematically reducing the power to the control zones. Elimination of mechanical translation devices increases the systems reliability while simultaneously reducing the size and weight. This paper addresses the UMC furnace design, sample cartridge and typical thermal profiles and corresponding power requirements necessary for the dynamic gradient freeze crystal growth technique. Results from physical vapor transport and traveling heater method crystal growth experiments are also discussed.

Watring, D. A.; Su, C.-H.; Gillies, D.; Roosz, T.; Babcsan, N.

1996-01-01

443

Marble-type glass based on blast furnace slag  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the recovery and use of blast furnace wastes as coloring agents in the manufacture of imitation marble glass. The slags consist of a series of metal oxides each of which is tested for the color it generates when reacted and annealed with the molten glass. Comparative tests were also run against non-waste coloring agents and it was found that the waste-derived colorants were equal or superior both in process behavior and in generating the appropriate optical properties in the finished glass.

Sarkisov, P.D.; Smirnov, V.G.; Trifonova, T.E.; Sergeev, Yu.N.

1987-01-01

444

Modeling of pulverized coal combustion processes in a vortex furnace of improved design. Part 1: Flow aerodynamics in a vortex furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some results of the complex experimental and numerical study of aerodynamics and transfer processes in a vortex furnace, whose design was improved via the distributed tangential injection of fuel-air flows through the upper and lower burners, were presented. The experimental study of the aerodynamic characteristics of a spatial turbulent flow was performed on the isothermal laboratory model (at a scale of 1 : 20) of an improved vortex furnace using a laser Doppler measurement system. The comparison of experimental data with the results of the numerical modeling of an isothermal flow for the same laboratory furnace model demonstrated their agreement to be acceptable for engineering practice.

Krasinsky, D. V.; Salomatov, V. V.; Anufriev, I. S.; Sharypov, O. V.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Anikin, Yu. A.

2015-02-01

445

Increasing benefits of energy assistance programs through oil furnace retrofits  

SciTech Connect

Four million low income households in the Unites States heat with fuel oil. Those in colder climates are confronting severe hardships. The Fuel Oil Marketing Advisory Committee (FOMAC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has documented the desperate nature of this situation, which continues to worsen as prices rise. For FY 1982, the Administration has proposed that HHS administer a four-year block grant to states combining LIEAP with emergency assistance to the needy, and has requested an authorization of $1.875 billion annually for the two combined programs. HHS has taken the position that states should now have the option of using Low Income Energy Assistance Program (LIEAP) monies for low cost weatherization including furnace retrofits. This report is intended for those who may be involved in making decisions about the nature of future energy assistance programs. The major sections of the report are evaluation of the Phildelphia Pilot Program, economics of an Oil Furnace Retrofit Program, and administrators' considerations. Each section is supported by appendices as listed in the table of contents.

Not Available

1981-07-01

446

Preparation of Ceramic-Bonded Carbon Block for Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional carbon blocks for blast furnaces are mainly produced with electrically calcined anthracite owing to its good hot metal corrosion resistance. However, this kind of material shows low thermal conductivity and does not meet the demands for cooling of the hearth and the bottom of blast furnaces. In this article, a new kind of a high-performance carbon block has been prepared via ceramic-bonded carbon (CBC) technology in a coke bed at 1673 K (1400 °C) using artificial graphite aggregate, alumina, metallic aluminum, and silicon powders as starting materials. The results showed that artificial graphite aggregates were strongly bonded by the three-dimensional network of ceramic phases in carbon blocks. In this case, the good resistance of the CBC blocks against erosion/corrosion by the hot metal is provided by the ceramic matrix and the high thermal conductivity by the graphite aggregates. The microstructure of this carbon block resembles that of CBC composites with a mean pore size of less than 0.1 ?m, and up to 90 pct of the porosity shows a pore size <1 ?m. Its thermal conductivity is higher than 30 W · m-1 · K-1 [293 K (20 °C)]. Meanwhile, its hot metal corrosion resistance is better than that of traditional carbon blocks.

Li, Yiwei; Li, Yawei; Sang, Shaobai; Chen, Xilai; Zhao, Lei; Li, Yuanbing; Li, Shujing

2014-01-01

447

Removal of chloride from electric arc furnace dust.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust with high chloride content increases the threat of dioxin emissions and the high chloride content reduces the value of recycled zinc oxide produced by EAF dust recycling plants. This study conducts a number of laboratory experiments to determine the technical feasibility of a new dechlorination method. These methods consist of a series of roasting processes and water washing processes. In the roasting process, EAF dust was heated in a tube furnace to evaluate the parameters of atmospheric conditions, roasting temperature, and roasting time. Results indicate that sulfation roasting is more efficient in reducing chloride content than other roasting processes. The water washing process can totally remove water-soluble chloride at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10. However, the remaining water-insoluble substance is difficult to dechlorinate. For example, lead chloride forms a hydroxyl-halide (PbOHCl) and lead chloride carbonate (Pb(2)CO(3)Cl(2)) agglutinative matrix that is hard to wash away. PMID:21531506

Chen, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Chang, Fang-Chih

2011-06-15

448

Collection and conversion of silicon furnace waste gas into higher value products: Phase 3, 6 MW pilot plant dc closed furnace technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The construction and operation of a 6 MW, closed dc furnace for smelting silicon was the primary focus of Phase 3. A 6 MW, dc closed furnace pilot plant was built in East Selkirk, Manitoba, Canada. The furnace is equipped with world`s most modern automatic control system used to control and monitor the process variables and operational data. This control system is suitable for commercial applications and could be used with either closed or open dc furnaces for smelting silicon or ferrosilicon. The construction was started in September 1990, and the facility was operational within 18 months. Following successful commissioning of the pilot plant in June 1992, twelve smelting test campaigns were conducted through November 1994.

Dosaj, V.D.

1995-01-01

449

An Investigation of the Flame-Burden Interaction during Remelting in an Experimental Aluminum Reverbatory Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Flame impingement on the burden is routinely encountered during the initial phase of melting in aluminum reverberatory furnaces. This impingement causes an obstructed pathway for the hot gases, and hence the circulation and residence time of the hot gases are greatly impacted. Moreover, as the load melts, the flames gradually achieve an unobstructed path leading to reduced gas residence times. This flame impingement and constantly changing combustion space volume will lead to vastly different fuel and oxidizer mixing patterns and thus affect the overall furnace performance. Fine tuning the burner operating conditions such as flow rates and injection angles with the changing combustion space could result in significant improvements to the furnace efficiency. However, one has to gain a better understanding of the furnace dynamics to know the suitable parameters to adjust. Physical modeling can be elaborate and expensive to conduct on a regular basis while Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can cost-effectively address this challenge. In this study, the furnace model is created with a particular loading pattern to understand the flame dynamics in the presence of a piled load. This configuration can be thought of as a computational model of the furnace with the burden at a particular stage of the melting process. Thermal efficiency and behavior of the furnace are quantified and the predicted values are compared with the operational data from an experimental reverberatory furnace.

Kumar, Ashwini (ANSYS, Evanston, IL); Venuturumilli, Raj (ANSYS, Evanston, IL); King, P.E

2008-10-01

450

High temperature furnaces for small and large angle neutron scattering of disordered materials  

E-print Network

725 High temperature furnaces for small and large angle neutron scattering of disordered materials and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments respectively. They are vacuum furnaces with a thin of the neutron scattering pattern. It also requests measure- ments at very high k values k= 4;sin 0, 2 0 being (1

Boyer, Edmond

451

Three-dimensional mathematical modeling of a float glass melting furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Float glass melting furnaces are characterized by their large sizes (60 m in length, 10 m in width, 1 m in depth). The physical and chemical processes taking place in the glass bath and the combustion chamber are complex. With the rapid progress in computer technology, it has become possible to numerically simulate the performance of large size melting furnaces.

Yongxin Wang

1998-01-01

452

Joule-heated glass furnace processing of a highly aqueous hazardous waste stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hazardous waste stream, covered by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), generated as a by-product of explosives fabrication processes, was treated by means of a joule-heated glass furnace in a series of test burns at Mound. The burns were designed to determine the furnace's capability to meet the Environmental Protection Agency's hazardous waste incineration standard while processing a

L. M. Klinger; P. L. Abellera

1989-01-01

453

Improvement of Operation of Open-Flame Glass-Melting Furnaces (A Review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper summarizes the experience of more than ten years of research performed by the authors on industrial glass-melting furnaces of various designs and is based on the analysis of mathematical modeling of heat exchange processes in the flame space of these furnaces. The mathematical modeling is based on the most adequate zonal method for heat exchange calculation. Recommendations for

S. N. Gushchin; V. G. Lisienko; V. B. Kut'in; P. N. Bodnar

2001-01-01

454

Design and application research on DCS used for large glass furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large glass furnace is a complex control object with the characters of process complexity and many control parameters. How to improve its integrative control level is the key problem of control system design. A suit of distributed control system used for large glass furnace is presented in this paper. System structure and reliability design methods are issued. The control strategy

Qingyu Yang; Xianghua Yao; Ren Shi

2004-01-01

455

Space Station Furnace Facility. Experiment/Facility Requirements Document (E/FRD), volume 2, appendix 5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The function of the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is to support materials research into the crystal growth and solidification processes of electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics. To support this broad base of research requirements, the SSFF will employ a variety of furnace modules operated, regulated, and supported by a core of common subsystems. Furnace modules may be reconfigured or specifically developed to provide unique solidifcation conditions for each set of experiments. The SSFF modular approach permits the addition of new or scaled-up furnace modules to support the evolution of the facility as new science requirements are identified. The SSFF Core is of modular design to permit augmentation for enhanced capabilities. The fully integrated configuration of the SSFF will consist of three racks with the capability of supporting up to two furnace modules per rack. The initial configuration of the SSFF will consist of two of the three racks and one furnace module. This Experiment/Facility Requirements Document (E/FRD) describes the integrated facility requirements for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Integrated Configuration-1 (IC1) mission. The IC1 SSFF will consist of two racks: the Core Rack, with the centralized subsystem equipment, and the Experiment Rack-1, with Furnace Module-1 and the distributed subsystem equipment to support the furnace.

Kephart, Nancy

1992-05-01

456

Design of Glass Furnace Control System Based on Model-Free Adaptive Controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model-free adaptive (MFA) control is an entirely new field of automatic control theory and technology that does not require process models; it is novel and effective ideas and methods to solve complex industrial process control. Glass furnace is one type of typical industrial furnace; it is a complex and all- conditioned process. The original control program is using the traditional

Qi Jianling; Ma Guang

2010-01-01

457

Chemical analysis of particle size fractions from glass melting furnaces. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to identify the size fraction distribution of the various chemical constituents of glass furnace emissions. This would assist researchers in identifying emissions characteristic of glass furnaces; thus, providing design requirements for control technology development programs. The analysis included mass of particulate emissions, particulate size distributions, and analysis of trace metals concentrations in each size

E. D. Spinosa; R. A. Holman

1981-01-01

458

Method and apparatus for recovery of energy from blast furnace exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for recovering energy from a blast furnace exhaust gas by utilizing an axial-flow turbine. According to the method of the present invention, a blast furnace exhaust gas is first passed through a wet scrubber to remove dusts and form a saturated gas, and low temperature water is sprayed to the saturated

Shirato

1981-01-01

459

Apparatus for cleaning and recovering power from blast furnace exhaust gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy or power is recovered from blast furnace exhaust gas by passing it through coarse dust removing mechanism, and then passing the gas through a dry moving bed type dust collecting mechanism for final dust removal; thereafter the blast furnace exhaust gas is supplied to a top pressure recovery turbine.

H. Kohama; K. Sakuma; K. Sato; A. Wakabayashi; S. Watanabe

1981-01-01

460

Mass and heat transfer in 140-t AC ladle-furnace unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Treatment of the intermediate product using a ladle? furnace unit helps ensure the required quality of the steel produced. The growing use of such equipment testifies to its flexibility and promise. However, it is clear from operational experience, the results of foreign studies, and our research that the efficiency of treatment in a ladle? furnace unit may be increased,

V. P. Piptyuk; S. E. Samokhvalov; I. A. Pavlyuchenkov; D. N. Turunov; E. N. Dymchenko; S. V. Grekov

2007-01-01

461

DESTRUCTION AND REMOVAL OF POHCS (PRINCPAL ORGANIC HAZARDOUS CONSTITUENTS) IN IRON MAKING BLAST FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

At least one steel company utilizes organic waste liquids as a heat and carbon content source to partially replace the coke that is used to charge the blast furnaces. The waste liquids fed to the blast furnace are likely to contain hazardous constituents. Temperature and residenc...

462

BLAST FURNACE SLIPS AND ACCOMPANYING EMISSIONS AS AN AIR POLLUTION SOURCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to ascertain the severity of blast-furnace slips and their accompanying bleeder-valve emissions as a source of air pollution. It describes factors contributing to the occurrence of hangs and slips in the blast furnace. It discusses the mechanic...

463

The Utilization and Recovery of Energy from Blast Furnaces and Converters  

E-print Network

The Bischoff Blast Furnace Top Gas Process for high pressure blast furnaces is presented as an example of a modern gas treatment process in the iron and steel industry: the work potential of the high pressure top gas is utilized in a plant...

Hegemann, K. R.; Niess, T.; Baare, R. D.

1979-01-01

464

78 FR 53625 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Documents. Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL...Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces...Federal Register that amended the test procedure for residential furnaces...subsections in section 10 of the DOE test procedure regulation for...

2013-08-30

465

Air lock mechanism speeds specimen testing in high-temperature vacuum furnaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanism, made of 347 stainless steel, is attached to furnace port by bolted flange. Unit incorporates quick opening, high vacuum valve and associated fittings which provide connections to air lock evacuation and to inert gas supply for quenching specimen after it is withdrawn from furnace into air lock.

Whitehead, C.

1971-01-01

466

Impact of the air staging on the performance of a pulverized coal fired furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to evaluate the impact of the air staging on the overall performance of a large-scale laboratory furnace fired by an industry-type pulverized coal swirl burner. Data have been obtained for pollutant emissions and particle burnout for a wide range of the furnace operating conditions. The influence of the axial position of the staged air

A. Ribeirete; M. Costa

2009-01-01

467

10 CFR Appendix N to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...different from 2,080, adjust the annual fossil fuel and auxiliary electrical energy consumption values for mobile home furnaces...furnaces the sales weighted average annual fossil fuel energy consumption is expressed in Btu per year...

2010-01-01

468

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing Plants § 60.293 Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with...

2014-07-01

469

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing Plants § 60.293 Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with...

2011-07-01

470

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing Plants § 60.293 Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with...

2012-07-01

471

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing Plants § 60.293 Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with...

2010-07-01

472

40 CFR 60.293 - Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with modified-processes...SOURCES Standards of Performance for Glass Manufacturing Plants § 60.293 Standards for particulate matter from glass melting furnace with...

2013-07-01

473

Short vertical tube furnace for the fabrication of doped glass microsphere lasers.  

PubMed

We report on the design of an electric tube furnace that can be used for the fabrication of doped glass microsphere lasers. The tube furnace has a short hot zone of length 133 mm and is based on a quartz tube design. Doped laser glass particles, specifically Er:Yb phosphate glass (IOG-2), of approximately 1 microm diameter are blown into the furnace using a 60 ml syringe and microspheres ranging in size from 10 to 400 microm are collected at the output of the tube furnace in a Petri dish. The furnace operates at a wall temperature of approximately 900 degrees C and is capable of making microspheres from glasses with glass transition temperatures of at least 375 degrees C. High quality (Q approximately 10(5)) whispering gallery modes have been excited within the microspheres by optically pumping at 978 nm via a tapered optical fiber. PMID:20687704

Ward, Jonathan M; Wu, Yuqiang; Khalfi, Krimo; Nic Chormaic, Síle

2010-07-01

474

Short vertical tube furnace for the fabrication of doped glass microsphere lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the design of an electric tube furnace that can be used for the fabrication of doped glass microsphere lasers. The tube furnace has a short hot zone of length 133 mm and is based on a quartz tube design. Doped laser glass particles, specifically Er:Yb phosphate glass (IOG-2), of ˜1 ?m diameter are blown into the furnace using a 60 ml syringe and microspheres ranging in size from 10 to 400 ?m are collected at the output of the tube furnace in a Petri dish. The furnace operates at a wall temperature of ˜900 °C and is capable of making microspheres from glasses with glass transition temperatures of at least 375 °C. High quality (Q ˜105) whispering gallery modes have been excited within the microspheres by optically pumping at 978 nm via a tapered optical fiber.

Ward, Jonathan M.; Wu, Yuqiang; Khalfi, Krimo; Chormaic, Síle Nic

2010-07-01

475

Numerical modeling of the thermal performance of regenerative slab reheat furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Fuel consumption in reheat furnaces represents a significant percentage of the total processing cost. The competitiveness of the steel industry demands more efficient use of available fuel resources. Thus it has become more important to have enhanced furnace design tools. Here, numerical simulations of reactive turbulent flows and heat transfer in regenerative slab reheat furnaces have been carried out. A moment closure method with the assumed {beta} probability density function for the mixture fraction is used to model the turbulent nonpremixed combustion process in the furnaces. The combustion model is based on the assumption of instantaneous full chemical equilibrium. The numerical predictions are critically assessed by comparing with the experimental data. The comparison indicated that the numerical approach presented in this study is capable of predicting the thermal performance of regenerative furnaces with moving slabs.

Zhang, C.; Ishii, T.; Sugiyama, S. [NKK Corp., Fukuyama, Hiroshima (Japan). Materials and Processing Research Center

1997-11-07

476

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15

477

Effect of wear of the atomic-absorption spectrometer graphite furnace on the analytical zone temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One mechanism of increase in the heating temperature of the analytical zone of the graphite tube furnace of the atomic-absorption spectrometer as a result of wear is discussed. The influence of the furnace profile on its heating temperature is shown, and the calculated heating temperature of the standard tube is compared to the temperature in the special case where the cross-section area of the analytical zone of the furnace is reduced by half. Experimental proofs of a given temperature excess, as well as of a relation between the change in the tube profile and the decrease in its mass, are given. The dependence of temperature on the furnace mass and the number of measurements has been investigated. The necessity of taking into account the increase in the heating temperature of the furnace in the wear process has been considered.

Kulik, A. N.; Bugai, A. N.; Rogul'Skii, Yu. V.; Zakharets, M. I.; Sukhodub, L. F.

2007-01-01

478

BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are theSavings?  

SciTech Connect

Residential gas furnaces contain blowers to distribute warm air. Currently, furnace blowers use either a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important for understanding electricity consumption of furnaces. The electricity consumption of blower motors depends on the static pressure across the blower. This paper examines both types of blower motors in non-condensing non-weatherized gas furnaces at a range of static pressures. Fan performance data is based on manufacturer product literature and laboratory tests. We use field-measured static pressure in ducts to get typical system curves to calculate how furnaces would operate in the field. We contrast this with the electricity consumption of a furnace blower operating under the DOE test procedure and manufacturer rated conditions. Furnace electricity use is also affected by operating modes that happen at the beginning and end of each furnace firing cycle. These operating modes are the pre-purge and post-purge by the draft inducer, the on-delay and off-delay of the blower, and the hot surface ignitor operation. To accurately calculate this effect, we use the number of firing cycles in a typical California house in the Central Valley of California. Cooling hours are not considered in the DOE test procedure. We also account for furnace blower use by the air conditioner and stand-by power. Overall BPM motors outperform PSC motors, but the total electricity savings are significantly less than projected using the DOE test procedure conditions. The performance gains depend on the static pressure of the household ducts, which are typically much higher than in the test procedures.

Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

2006-05-12

479

Final report on the project entitled: Highly Preheated Combustion Air System with/without Oxygen Enrichment for Metal Processing Furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This work develops and demonstrates a laboratory-scale high temperature natural gas furnace that can operate with/without oxygen enrichment to significantly improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. The laboratory-scale is 5ft in diameter & 8ft tall. This furnace was constructed and tested. This report demonstrates the efficiency and pollutant prevention capabilities of this test furnace. The project also developed optical detection technology to control the furnace output.

Arvind Atreya

2007-02-16

480

Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag.  

PubMed

The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y(-1) for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y(-1). PMID:22826355

U?ur, F A; Turhan, S; Sahan, H; Sahan, M; Gören, E; Gezer, F; Ye?ingil, Z

2013-01-01

481

Effectiveness of linearization of calibration curves in Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical analysis is made of the effect of analytical line broadening and of non-absorbable radiation in the light source on the shape of concentration curves in Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. These results have been used in a systematic study of the effect of spectrometer slit width and hollow-cathode lamp (HCL) current on linearization of calibration graphs for 11 elements: Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Sb. The effectiveness of linearization throughout the analytical range covered was estimated experimentally on series of 25-30 solutions. Three solutions in each series were used as standards for constructing the calibration graph, the others serving to evaluate the linearization effectiveness. Increasing the slit width and decreasing the HCL current compared to the standard measurement conditions have permitted us to reach a sufficiently high effectiveness of linearization for all the elements studied, with the exception of Ni. The maximum deviation of experimental points from the linear graph under optimum conditions does not exceed 6%. The effect of the ? parameter used in the computational algorithm on linearization effectiveness is investigated.

L'vov, B. V.; Polzik, L. K.; Novichikhin, A. V.; Borodin, A. V.; Dyakov, A. O.

1995-12-01

482

Blast furnace slags as sorbents of phosphate from water solutions.  

PubMed

The paper is focused on the sorption of phosphorus from aqueous solutions by crystalline and amorphous blast furnace slags. Slag sorption kinetics were measured, adsorption tests were carried out and the effect of acidification on the sorption properties of slags was studied. The kinetic measurements confirmed that the sorption of phosphorus on crystalline as well as amorphous slags can be described by a model involving pseudo-second-order reactions. For all slag types, phosphorus sorption follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The acid neutralizing capacities of crystalline and amorphous slags were determined. In the case of the crystalline slags, buffering intervals were found to exist during which the slag minerals dissolve in the sequence bredigite-gehlenite-diaspor. There is a high correlation (R2=0.9989) between ANC3.8 and the saturation capacities of crystalline and amorphous slags. PMID:15899277

Kostura, Bruno; Kulveitová, Hana; Lesko, Juraj

2005-05-01

483

When did movement begin on the Furnace Creek fault zone  

SciTech Connect

About 50 km of post-Jurassic right-lateral slip has occurred on the northern part of the Furnace Creek fault zone (FCFZ). The sedimentology, stratigraphy, and structure of Tertiary rocks suggest that movement on the fault began no earlier than 12--8 Ma and possibly as late as 5--4 Ma. Large remnants of erosion surfaces occur on both sides of the FCFZ in the southern White Mountains and Fish Lake Valley and are buried by rhyolite and basalt, mostly 12--10 Ma; the ash flows and welded tuffs were likely erupted from sources at least 40 km to the east. Thus, the area probably had gentle topography, suggesting a lengthy period of pre-late Miocene tectonic stability. On the west side of the FCFZ, Cambrian sedimentary rocks are buried by a fanglomerate with an [sup [minus

Reheis, M. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-04-01

484

High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace  

DOEpatents

A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics. 4 figs.

Hardt, D.E.; Lee, S.G.

1996-08-06

485

High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace  

DOEpatents

A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics.

Hardt, David E. (Concord, MA); Lee, Steven G. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1996-01-01

486

Plane flame furnace combustion tests on JPL desulfurized coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combustion characteristics of three raw bituminous (PSOC-282 and 276) and subbituminous (PSOC-230) coals, the raw coals partially desulfurized (ca -60%) by JPL chlorinolysis, and the chlorinated coals more completely desulfurized (ca -75%) by JPL hydrodesulfurization were determined. The extent to which the combustion characteristics of the untreated coals were altered upon JPL sulfur removal was examined. Combustion conditions typical of utility boilers were simulated in the plane flame furnace. Upon decreasing the parent coal voltaile matter generically by 80% and the sulfur by 75% via the JPL desulfurization process, ignition time was delayed 70 fold, burning velocity was retarded 1.5 fold, and burnout time was prolonged 1.4 fold. Total flame residence time increased 2.3 fold. The JPL desulfurization process appears to show significant promise for producing technologically combustible and clean burning (low SO3) fuels.

Reuther, J. J.; Kim, H. T.; Lima, J. G. H.

1982-01-01

487

Processing electric arc furnace dust into saleable chemical products  

SciTech Connect

The modern steel industry uses electric arc furnace (EAF) technology to manufacture steel. A major drawback of this technology is the production of EAF dust, which is listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The annual disposal of approximately 0.65 million tons of EAF dust in the United States and Canada is an expensive, unresolved problem for the steel industry. EAF dust byproducts are generated during the manufacturing process by a variety of mechanisms. The dust consists of various metals (e.g., zinc, lead, cadmium) that occur as vapors at 1,600{degrees}C (EAF hearth temperature); these vapors are condensed and collected in a baghouse. The production of one ton of steel will generate approximately 25 pounds of EAF dust as a byproduct, which is currently disposed of in landfills.

NONE

1998-04-01

488

A simulation model for a MSW grate incinerator furnace  

SciTech Connect

Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration on a mechanical grate is simulated by means of a mathematical model featuring an adaptable MSW composition and stochastic variance. Various algorithms account for the movement and mixing of refuse, for drying, pyrolysis, combustion of volatiles and char, for heat transfer and mixing effects in the combustion chamber. Regulation and control algorithms can be built in and their effects on furnace capacity and effluent burn-out monitored. Continuous interaction is possible and input as well as operating variables may be changed at any time and the resulting variations followed in (accelerated) real time; the resulting changes may be used for characterizing the system, for predictive and control purposes, or for operator training. Also start-up and shut-down procedures can be simulated.

Geyter, F. de [BVBA De Geyter, Buggenhout (Belgium); Buekens, J. [Research, Development and Consulting SA, Aalst (Belgium); Buekens, A.G. [Vrije Univ. Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

1996-12-31

489

Gold Sample Heating within the TEMPUS Electromagnetic Levitation Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gold sample is heated by the TEMPUS electromagnetic levitation furnace on STS-94, 1997, MET:10/09:20 (approximate). The sequence shows the sample being positioned electromagnetically and starting to be heated to melting. TEMPUS (stands for Tiegelfreies Elektromagnetisches Prozessiere unter Schwerelosigkeit (containerless electromagnetic processing under weightlessness). It was developed by the German Space Agency (DARA) for flight aboard Spacelab. The DARA project scientist was Igon Egry. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). DARA and NASA are exploring the possibility of flying an advanced version of TEMPUS on the International Space Station. (460KB, 14-second MPEG, screen 160 x 120 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300190.html.

2003-01-01

490

Recycling of metal bearing electronic scrap in a plasma furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recycling of electronic waste and the recovery of valuable components are large problems in the modern world economy. This paper presents the effects of melting sorted electronic scrap in a plasma furnace. Printed circuit boards, cables, and windings were processed separately. The characteristics of the obtained products (i.e., alloy metal, slag, dust, and gases) are presented. A method of their further processing in order to obtain commercial products is proposed. Because of the chemical composition and physical properties, the waste slag is environmentally inert and can be used for the production of abrasives. Process dusts containing large amounts of carbon and its compounds have a high calorific value. That makes it possible to use them for energy generation. The gas has a high calorific value, and its afterburning combined with energy recovery is necessary.

Jarosz, Piotr; Ma?ecki, Stanis?aw; Gargul, Krzysztof

2011-12-01

491

Specifics of Design and Service of Highly Efficient Glass-Melting Furnaces for Sheet Float-Glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the improvement of the main technical and economical parameters of glass-melting furnaces in the leading countries and at the Salavatsteklo company are given. The authors consider the issues of upgrading the furnace design and operating regimes, which can increases the thermal and technological efficiency of furnaces, extend their campaign, and improve product quality. It is demonstrated that the

V. D. Tokarev; S. S. Ignat'ev; O. N. Popov

2004-01-01

492

Flow field and thermal characteristics in a model of a tangentially fired furnace under different conditions of burner tripping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tangentially fired furnaces are vortex-combustion units and are widely used in steam generators of industrial plants. The present study provides a numerical investigation of the problem of turbulent reacting flows in a model furnace of a tangentially fired boiler. The importance of this problem is mainly due to its relation to large boiler furnaces used in thermal power plants. In

M. A. Habib; R. Ben-Mansour; M. A. Antar

2005-01-01

493

MELT RATE FURNACE TESTING FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 FRIT OPTIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to provide the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) with a frit composition for Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) to optimize processing. A series of experiments were designed for testing in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF). This dry fed tool can be used to quickly determine relative melt rates for a large number of candidate frit compositions and lead to a selection for further testing. Simulated Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product was made according to the most recent SB5 sludge projections and a series of tests were conducted with frits that covered a range of boron and alkali ratios. Several frits with relatively large projected operating windows indicated melt rates that would not severely impact production. As seen with previous MRF testing, increasing the boron concentration had positive impacts on melt rate on the SB5 system. However, there appears to be maximum values for both boron and sodium above which the there is a negative effect on melt rate. Based on these data and compositional trends, Frit 418 and a specially designed frit (Frit 550) have been selected for additional melt rate testing. Frit 418 and Frit 550 will be run in the Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF), which is capable of distinguishing rheological properties not detected by the MRF. Frit 418 will be used initially for SB5 processing in DWPF (given its robustness to compositional uncertainty). The Frit 418-SB5 system will provide a baseline from which potential melt rate advantages of Frit 550 can be gauged. The data from SMRF testing will be used to determine whether Frit 550 should be recommended for implementation in DWPF.

Miller, D; Fox, K; Pickenheim, B; Stone, M

2008-10-03

494

Oscillator strengths of ultraviolet Ni I lines from hook-method and absorption measurements in a furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the oscillator strengths of the ultraviolet lines of neutral nickel obtained by the use of the combined hook and absorption technique are reported. A total of 221 transitions in the range 1964-4094 A was measured for nickel atoms from a high-temperature graphite furnace (2000-2500 K) using a continuum background source, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a 3-m Czerny-Turner spectrograph. Hook and absorption measurements are presented, and radiative lifetimes are derived from log gf values. Comparison of the present values with previous results indicates only those of Bell et al. (1966) and Lennard et al. (1975) to consistently agree with the data presented, although the reliability laser-excitation technique of lifetime measurement is supported over that of Hanle methods.

Huber, M. C. E.; Sandeman, R. J.

1980-01-01

495

Numerical Investigation of the Effect of C/O Mole Ratio on the Performance of Rotary Hearth Furnace Using a Combined Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) the direct reduction of composite pellets and processes of heat and mass transfer as well as combustion in the chamber of RHF influence each other. These mutual interactions should be considered when an accurate model of RHF is established. This paper provides a combined model that incorporates two sub-models to investigate the effects of C/O mole ratio in the feed pellets on the reduction kinetics and heat and mass transfer as well as combustion processes in the chamber of a pilot-scale RHF. One of the sub-models is established to describe the direct reduction process of composite pellets on the hearth of RHF. Heat and mass transfer within the pellet, chemical reactions, and radiative heat transfer from furnace walls and combustion gas to the surface of the pellet are considered in the model. The other sub-model is used to simulate gas flow and combustion process in the chamber of RHF by using commercial CFD software, FLUENT. The two sub-models were linked through boundary conditions and heat, mass sources. Cases for pellets with different C/O mole ratio were calculated by the combined model. The calculation results showed that the degree of metallization, the total amounts of carbon monoxide escaping from the pellet, and heat absorbed by chemical reactions within the pellet as well as CO and CO2 concentrations in the furnace increase with the increase of C/O mole ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.0, when calculation conditions are the same except for C/O molar ratio. Carbon content in the pellet has little influence on temperature distribution in the furnace under the same calculation conditions except for C/O mole ratio in the feed pellets.

Liu, Ying; Wen, Zhi; Lou, Guofeng; Li, Zhi; Yong, Haiquan; Feng, Xiaohong

2014-12-01

496

Heating rates in furnace atomic absorption using the L'vov platform  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Heating rate profiles for the furnace tube wall, the furnace atmosphere, and a L'vov platform were established for a range of conditions in a cyclically heated graphite atomizer. The tube wall profile was made by direct observation with a recording optical pyrometer. The sodium line reversal method was used to establish the heating rate of the furnace atmosphere, and appearance temperatures for a series metals of differing volatility was used to establish platform profiles. The tube wall heating rate was nearly linear at 2240??C s- until the desired temperature was reached after which the temperature remained constant. The furnace atmosphere reached a given temperature 0.2-0.4 s later than the tube wall through most of the atomize cycle. The platform lagged the tube wall 0.5-0.8 s. Under typical operating conditions the furnace atmosphere was 100-200??C cooler than the tube wall and at nearly constant temperature when the analyte vaporized from the platform. The L'vov platform causes the cyclically heated commercial furnace to approximate the behavior of a constant temperature furnace during atomization. ?? 1984.

Koirtyohann, S.R.; Giddings, R.C.; Taylor, H.E.

1984-01-01

497

A low temperature furnace for solution crystal growth on the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zeolite Crystal Growth Furnace Unit (ZCG-FU) is the first module in an integrated payload designed for low temperature crystal growth in solutions on the International Space Station (ISS). This payload is scheduled to fly on the ISS flight 7A.1 in an EXPRESS rack. Its name originated from early shuttle flight experiments limited to the growth of zeolite crystals but has since grown to include other materials of significant commercial interest using the solution method of crystal growth. Zeolites, ferroelectrics, piezeoelectrics and silver halides are some of the materials considered. The ZCG-FU experiment consists of a furnace unit and its electronic control system, and mechanically complex, crystal growth autoclaves suitable for use with a particular furnace and solution. The ZCG facility is being designed to grow into four independent furnaces controlled by IZECS (Improved Zeolite Electronic Control System). IZECS provides monitoring of critical parameters, data logging, safety monitoring, air-to-ground control and operator interfacing. It is suitable for controlling the four furnaces either individually or all at one time. It also contains the power management solid-state drivers and switches for the ZCG-FU furnace. The furnace contains 19 tubes operating at three different temperature zones. .

Baç, Nurcan; Harpster, Joseph; Maston, Robert A.; Sacco, Albert

2000-01-01

498

Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia.  

PubMed

The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 ?m. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. PMID:24793329

Mohiuddin, Kazi; Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F; Stelcer, Eduard; Evans, Tim

2014-07-15

499

Design consideration and temperature determination of an automated graphite furnace cup system used for direct sample introduction for ICP optical emission spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four graphite cup furnace designs for use with an automated direct sample introduction device for ICP-OES are described. The heating rate and terminal temperature of each cup in the plasma is determined by means of a radiation thermometer operating in the range 0.7-1.0 ?m and some correlation between heating rate and peak height for the four elements used in the study (nickel, chromium, manganese and lead) is observed. The use of a glassy carbon support improves sensitivity for nickel and a reduction in graphite rod diameter improves this significantly further. Detection limits and relative standard deviations using the four furnance designs are also discussed.

Barnett, N. W.; Cope, M. J.; Kirkbright, G. F.; Taobi, A. A. H.

500

Results from studies of furnace processes in boilers constructed on the basis of vortex combustion technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main results obtained from experimental and numerical simulation of furnace processes and emission of toxic substances during the firing of low-grade coals, in particular, in a steam generator equipped with the vortex furnace designed by N.V. Golovanov from the Central Boiler-Turbine Institute, are presented. A set of research works carried out at the modern level made it possible to work out recommendations for making further improvements in the design and operating characteristics of boilers equipped with a vortex furnace.

Salomatov, V. V.

2012-06-01