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1

Radiative heat transfer in coal furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid technique has been developed to solve three-dimensional spectral radiation transport equations for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. An optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy is obtained by combining the discrete ordinate method (Sâ), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P⁠approximation for use in different range of optical thicknesses. The technique is used in conjunction with a

R. K. Ahluwalia; K. H. Im

1992-01-01

2

Impact of radiation models in CFD simulations of steam cracking furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endothermic thermal cracking process of hydrocarbons takes place in tubular reactor coils suspended in large gas-fired pyrolysis furnaces. Heat transfer to the reactor tubes is mostly due to radiation from the furnace refractory walls and the flue gas. A three-dimensional (3-D) simulation of the flow in an industrial scale steam cracking furnace is performed. The renormalization group (RNG) k??

A. Habibi; B. Merci; G. J. Heynderickx

2007-01-01

3

Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other types of synchrotron radiation research. The furnace has a very low thermal gradient across the specimen (<0.2 °C/mm). Accurate determination of the temperature can be carried out by welding a thermocouple to the specimen. The furnace can be rotated over an angle of 90° in order to determine the crystallographic orientation of each individual grain. It is possible to follow growth kinetics of all grains in the illuminated volume of the specimen. The specimen environment can be controlled varying from vacuum (up to 10-5 mbar) to gas or air filled. The maximum temperature of operation is 1500 °C, with the possibility of achieving high heating (up to 20 °C/s) and cooling rates (up to 30 °C/s without quenching gas). 3D maps of the microstructure of the specimen can be generated at elevated temperatures by bringing the high-resolution detector close to the specimen. We show an example of a simulation of the heat affected zone during the thermal cycle of a weld in a transformation-induced plasticity steel carried out using the furnace. The unique characteristics of the furnace open possibility of new fields in materials research using synchrotron radiation.

Sharma, Hemant; Wattjes, Alix C.; Amirthalingam, Murugaiyan; Zuidwijk, Thim; Geerlofs, Nico; Offerman, S. Erik

2009-12-01

4

Global heat transfer analysis in Czochralski silicon furnace with radiation on curved specular surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical analysis of global heat transfer with coupled thermal radiation and heat conduction is investigated in Czochralski\\u000a silicon crystal growth furnace with curved diffuse and specular surfaces. The finite element method and the radiation element\\u000a method are adopted to solve the global heat transfer and the radiative heat exchange, respectively. The emphasis focuses on\\u000a the discussion of the influence of

Z. Guo; S.-H. Hahn; S. Maruyama; T. Tsukada

1999-01-01

5

Multipurpose furnace for in situ studies of polycrystalline materials using synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

We report a multipurpose furnace designed for studies using synchrotron radiation on polycrystalline materials, namely, metals, ceramics, and (semi)crystalline polymers. The furnace has been designed to carry out three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction measurements but can also be used for other types of synchrotron radiation research. The furnace has a very low thermal gradient across the specimen (<0.2 degree sign C/mm). Accurate determination of the temperature can be carried out by welding a thermocouple to the specimen. The furnace can be rotated over an angle of 90 degree sign in order to determine the crystallographic orientation of each individual grain. It is possible to follow growth kinetics of all grains in the illuminated volume of the specimen. The specimen environment can be controlled varying from vacuum (up to 10{sup -5} mbar) to gas or air filled. The maximum temperature of operation is 1500 degree sign C, with the possibility of achieving high heating (up to 20 deg. C/s) and cooling rates (up to 30 deg. C/s without quenching gas). 3D maps of the microstructure of the specimen can be generated at elevated temperatures by bringing the high-resolution detector close to the specimen. We show an example of a simulation of the heat affected zone during the thermal cycle of a weld in a transformation-induced plasticity steel carried out using the furnace. The unique characteristics of the furnace open possibility of new fields in materials research using synchrotron radiation.

Sharma, Hemant; Zuidwijk, Thim; Geerlofs, Nico; Offerman, S. Erik [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Wattjes, Alix C. [Electronic and Mechanical Support Division (DEMO), Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Amirthalingam, Murugaiyan [Materials Innovation Institute, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

2009-12-15

6

Three dimensional discrete ordinates modelling of Radiative transfer in a geometrically complex furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrete·ordinates S2' 54, 56 and 58 approximations arc used to study radiative transfer in athree-dimensional furnace with complex geometry including cooling-pipes in the combustion chamber. Theability of the discrete-ordinates method to model highly-directional shadowing effects caused by the internalpipes is illustrated. Predicted values for incident wall flux and net radiative transfer to the pipes are shown tocompare well with experimental

B. R. Adams; P. J. Smith

1993-01-01

7

Assessment of simplified thermal radiation models for engineering calculations in natural gas-fired furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper assesses the significance of thermal radiation in turbulent non-premixed natural gas flames confined in axisymmetric furnaces. The in–house developed computational model includes simulation of the turbulent flow characteristics, the controlling mixing and chemical mechanisms as well as radiation modeled via the six-flux and of the P-1 models. A variable absorption coefficient is taken into account for the gaseous

D. A. Kontogeorgos; E. P. Keramida; M. A. Founti

2007-01-01

8

RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES  

SciTech Connect

The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

Smith, A

2008-12-31

9

Analysis of Radiative Heat Transfer in a Partitioned Idealized Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the finite-volume method is applied, in conjunction with the blocked-off-region procedure, to solve the radiative heat transfer problem in a three-dimensional partitioned rectangular enclosure containing absorbing-emitting and isotropic scattering medium in the presence of heat generation. Three-dimensional test cases were chosen to benchmark this model against other methods, namely, the discrete transfer method, the discrete ordinates method,

Mohamed Naceur Borjini; Habib Farhat; Mohamed-Sassi Radhouani

2003-01-01

10

A parametric study of radiative heat transfer in pulverised coal furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The P-1 approximation and the Monte Carlo method are applied in cylindrical coal-fired furnaces. The absorption and scattering efficiencies and the phase function of coal, char and fly-ash particles are obtained from Lorenz-Mie theory and wavelength dependent optical properties based on measurements available in the literature. The influence of each kind of particle on the radiative heat transfer is investigated.

J. G. Marakis; C. Papapavlou; E. Kakaras

2000-01-01

11

Absorption and Emission Effects on Radiation Thermometry Measurements in Reformer Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple model of the effects of atmospheric absorption and emission on radiation thermometer readings is described, and methods of correcting for these effects are given. These methods are applied to measurements made in a large reformer furnace using a commercially available radiation thermometer operating near 1 ?m, whose spectral responsivity partially overlaps some of the water vapor absorption bands. An effective absorption coefficient for the thermometer and the flue gas temperature are calculated and used to correct the thermometer readings. For relatively long measurement path lengths the corrections are almost as significant as reflection errors, and the uncertainties in the corrections increase very rapidly with path length.

Saunders, Peter

2003-09-01

12

Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 Hubei (China)

2011-02-15

13

Spectral radiative heat transfer in coal furnaces using a hybrid technique  

SciTech Connect

A hybrid technique has been developed to solve three-dimensional spectral radiation transport equations for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. An optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy is obtained by combining the discrete ordinate method (S{sub 4}), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P{sub 1} approximation for use in different range of optical thicknesses. The technique is used in conjunction with a char burnout model and spectroscopic data for H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, char, soot and ash to determine the influence of ash composition, ash content and coal preparation on furnace heat absorption.

Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

1994-03-01

14

An improved colorimetric method for visualization of 2-D, inhomogeneous temperature distribution in a gas fired industrial furnace by radiation image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reconstruction of multi-dimensional, inhomogeneous combustion temperature distribution inside industrial furnaces through flame radiation images is very difficult. This is because the radiation contributed to the radiation images from the high temperature furnace wall surfaces is higher than that from water-cooled tubes in utility boilers. Based on the monochromatic intensity distributions reconstructed from the monochromatic intensity images transferred from color

Xiangyu Zhang; Qiang Cheng; Chun Lou; Huaichun Zhou

2011-01-01

15

Evaluation of high-emissivity coatings in steam cracking furnaces using a non-grey gas radiation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of the application of high-emissivity coatings on the furnace walls in steam cracking technology can only be evaluated on the basis of a description of radiative heat transfer distinguishing between the frequency bands. To this end, a non-grey gas radiation model based on the exponential wide band model (EWBM) has been developed and applied in the context of

G. D. Stefanidis; K. M. Van Geem; G. J. Heynderickx; G. B. Marin

2008-01-01

16

Measurements of the flame emissivity and radiative properties of particulate medium in pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnaces by image processing of visible radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the complicated processes for coal particles burning in industrial furnaces, their radiative properties, such as the absorption and scattering coefficients, which are essential to make reliable calculation of radiative transfer in combustion computation, are hard to be given exactly by the existing methods. In this paper, multiple color image detectors were used to capture approximately red, green, and

Chun Lou; Huai-Chun Zhou; Peng-Feng Yu; Zhi-Wei Jiang

2007-01-01

17

Measurements of the flame emissivity and radiative properties of particulate medium in pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnaces by image processing of visible radiation  

SciTech Connect

Due to the complicated processes for coal particles burning in industrial furnaces, their radiative properties, such as the absorption and scattering coefficients, which are essential to make reliable calculation of radiative transfer in combustion computation, are hard to be given exactly by the existing methods. In this paper, multiple color image detectors were used to capture approximately red, green, and blue monochromatic radiative intensity images in the visible wavelength region, and the flame emissivity and the radiative properties of the particulate media in three pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnaces were got from the flame images. It was shown that as the load increased, the flame emissivity and the radiative properties increased too; these radiative parameters had the largest values near the burner zone, and decreased along the combustion process. Compared with the combustion medium with a low-volatile anthracite coal burning in a 670 t/h boiler, the emissivity and the absorption coefficient of the medium with a high-volatile bituminous coal burning in a 1025 t/h boiler were smaller near the outlet zone, but were larger near the burner zone of the furnace, due to the significant contribution of soot to the radiation. This work will be of practical importance in modeling and calculating the radiative heat transfer in combustion processes, and improving the technology for in situ, multi-dimensional visualization of large-scale combustion processes in coal-fired furnaces of power plants. 18 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

Chun Lou; Huai-Chun Zhou; Peng-Feng Yu; Zhi-Wei Jiang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

2007-07-01

18

Furnace seal  

SciTech Connect

A peripheral seal for a furnace, e.g., a soaking pit is disclosed that is of an elongate rectangular section fibre assembly mountable on the furnace roof or door such that a flat face of the assembly can bear on a mating face of the furnace wall, means being provided for advancing the assembly such that the flat face thereof can be maintained in contact with the wall face whereby to compensate for wear and erosion of the fibre assembly.

Payne, G.

1980-01-15

19

Prediction of a Turbulent Non-Premixed Natural Gas Flame in a Semi-Industrial Scale Furnace using a Radiative Flamelet Combustion Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixedness-reactedness flamelet combustion model coupled with a comprehensive radiation heat transfer model based on the\\u000a discrete transfer method of solution of the radiative transport equation is applied for the simulation of a 3 MW non-swirling\\u000a turbulent non-premixed natural gas flame in the experimental furnace at the International Flame Research Foundation. In the\\u000a calculation, turbulence is represented by the standard k????

T. Mahmud; S. K. Sangha

2010-01-01

20

Radiative Heat Transfer in Curved Specular Surfaces in Czochralski Crystal Growth Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical investigation of radiative heat transfer constructed by curved surfaces with specular and diffuse reflection components is carried out. The ray tracing method is adopted for the calculation of view factors, in which a new ray emission model is proposed. The second-degree radiation ring elements are introduced, which are of engineering importance and numerical efficiency. The accuracy of the

Zhixiong Guo; Shigenao Maruyama; Takao Tsukada

1997-01-01

21

Calculation of the Radiative Heat-Exchange Areas in a Large-Scale Furnace with the Use of the Monte Carlo Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved approach to the simulation of the radiative heat exchange in a furnace is proposed. This approach is realized with the use of the computer program REFORM based on the well-known Monte Carlo ray tracing algorithms. The method proposed allows one to determine the factors of radiative heat exchange in furnaces for which the method of direct numerical integration is difficult to use due to their geometries. The indicated REFORM program was validated and the results obtained with it were compared with corresponding existing solutions. It has been established that the approach proposed makes it possible to more accurately represent the radiative heat exchange between a steel load and its surroundings.

Matthew, A. D.; Tan, C. K.; Roach, P. A.; Ward, J.; Broughton, J.; Heeley, A.

2014-05-01

22

Spectral radiative heat transfer in coal furnaces using a hybrid technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid technique has been developed to solve three-dimensional spectral radiation transport equations for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. An optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy is obtained by combining the discrete ordinate method (Sâ), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P⁠approximation for use in different range of optical thicknesses. The technique is used in conjunction with a

R. K. Ahluwalia; K. H. Im

1994-01-01

23

Regularities of heat transfer in the gas layers of a steam boiler furnace flame. Part II. Gas layer radiation laws and the procedure for calculating heat transfer in furnaces, fire boxes, and combustion chambers developed on the basis of these laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents the results stemming from the scientific discovery of laws relating to radiation from the gas layers generated during flame combustion of fuel and when electric arc burns in electric-arc steel-melting furnaces. The procedure for calculating heat transfer in electric-arc and torch furnaces, fire-boxes, and combustion chambers elaborated on the basis of this discovery is described.

Makarov, A. N.

2014-10-01

24

Tube furnace  

DOEpatents

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA); Frohwein, Eugene J. (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Bowen, David W. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

25

Furnace assembly  

DOEpatents

A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

1985-01-01

26

Quartz Liner Tube Inside Tube Furnace  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the American Physical Society, gives a brief description of a furnace at Kansas State University that is used in semiconductor research. An image shows heat radiation from the quartz liner in this furnace, which is used in silicon-doping experiments.

2008-09-10

27

Modeling and Experiments for Heat Transfer Process in Pulverized Coal-Firing Furnace With Two-Dimensional Radiation Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dimension-reducing method for calculating the radiant heat transfer with two-dimensional characteristics is introduced in this article. Using this dimension-reducing method, the two-dimensional discrete transfer method (DTM) was applied to a cylindrical enclosure where the medium was absorptive and emissive. The two-dimensional DTM was proved to produce equivalent prediction results as the three-dimensional radiation computation. Then the two-dimensional DTM was

Juan Yu; Mingchuan Zhang

2009-01-01

28

Application of the Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases model (SLWSGG) to the calculation of radiative heat transfer in steel reheating furnaces firing on low heating value gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (SLWSGG) model is applied to calculate the gaseous radiative properties of the aero- or oxy-combustion products of low heating value gases issued from steel making process such as Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as well as of high heating value gases such as Coke Oven Gas (COG) and conventional Natural Gas (NG). The comparison of total emissivities

P D Nguyen; A Danda; M Embouazza; M Gazdallah; P Evrard; V Feldheim

2012-01-01

29

Optimization of crystal growth by changes of flow guide, radiation shield and sidewall insulation in Cz Si furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In solar-grade single crystal silicon Cz growth, the geometries of argon flow guide, heat shields and insulations are main parameters affecting the heat exchange and crystal growth conditions. By changing the above parameters, an optimization of crystal growth was attempted. Numerical simulations before and after optimization were provided to verify the results. Through analyses of the temperature distribution in the crystal and melt, the argon gas flow between the radiation shield and the quartz crucible, and the thermal stresses in the crystal, it was found that the optimized heat shield can reduce the baking of crystal by the heater; the optimized side insulation can prevent the heat loss upward, and the optimized flow guide can decrease the SiO deposition on the upper wall. After optimization, under the same heater power, the crystallization rate is increased over 35%, without increase in macro-dislocation probability; the optimized V/G ratios along crystal radius are greater than the critical value, thus the probability of occurrence of OSF-ring in the crystal is also reduced.

Su, Wenjia; Zuo, Ran; Mazaev, Kirill; Kalaev, Vladimir

2010-02-01

30

Electromelt furnace evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electromelt furnace was designed, built and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high.

Reimann, G. A.; Welch, J. M.

1981-09-01

31

[The electric furnace of Henri Moissan at one hundred years: connection with the electric furnace, the solar furnace, the plasma furnace?].  

PubMed

The trace of Henri Moissan's pioneer work 100 years ago is clearly evidenced by an overview of achievements in high temperature devices; 1987: "Le four électrique" by Henri Moissan; 1948-1952: "High temperature heating in a cavity rotary kiln using focusing of solar radiation" by Félix Trombe; 1962: "The cavity rotary kiln using focused solar radiation jointly with a plasma gun" by Marc Foëx; 1970: "The rotary kiln with two plasma guns and arc transfer" by Marc Foëx; 1984: "The plasma furnace" by Electricité de France (EDF) at Renardières; 1997: "The plasma furnace" by the Atomic Energy Center (CEA) at Cadarache, the VULCANO program. The first part of this contribution is devoted to Henri Moissan. Re-reading his early book on the electric furnace, especially the first chapter and the sections on silica, carbon vapor and experiments performed in casting molten metal--the conclusions are outstanding--provides modern readers with an amazing insight into future developments. The last two parts are devoted to Félix Trombe and Marc Foëx, tracing the evolution of high temperature cavity processus leading to the solar furnace and the present day plasma furnace at the CEA. Focus is placed on research conducted by the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) with the solar and plasma furnaces at Odeillo. The relationships with Henri Moissan's early work are amazing, offering a well deserved homage to this pioneer researcher. PMID:10365467

Royère, C

1999-03-01

32

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

33

Application of the Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases model (SLWSGG) to the calculation of radiative heat transfer in steel reheating furnaces firing on low heating value gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (SLWSGG) model is applied to calculate the gaseous radiative properties of the aero- or oxy-combustion products of low heating value gases issued from steel making process such as Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as well as of high heating value gases such as Coke Oven Gas (COG) and conventional Natural Gas (NG). The comparison of total emissivities shows that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is in very good agreement with the Hottel and Sarofim's database. The 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is then integrated into AnsysFluent® Discrete Ordinates method under User Defined Function and CFD simulations are performed using these combined models. The simulations are done, with full combustion-radiation coupling, for steel reheating furnaces firing on three types of gases: BFG, COG and NG. The results are compared with the simulations realized with the 1-gray-gas WSGG model available in AnsysFluent®. The comparison shows that the 1-gray-gas WSGG model highly overestimates the steel discharging temperature as compared to the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model. Significant temperature differences are observed between the two radiative models, i.e. 116°C, 55°C and 67°C for the BFG, COG and NG cases, respectively. It can be concluded that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model should be used to calculate the radiation heat transfer in large industrial furnaces with more accuracy not only for low heating value gases such as BFG but also for high heating value gases such as COG and NG.

Nguyen, P. D.; Danda, A.; Embouazza, M.; Gazdallah, M.; Evrard, P.; Feldheim, V.

2012-06-01

34

High efficiency furnace  

SciTech Connect

A heat exchanger and process having multiple fluidized beds for heat exchange between two gas streams of different temperatures. The apparatus and process provides a compact high efficiency warm air furnace especially adapted for energy conservation for the heating of modern highly insulated residential buildings by gas fired furnaces of relatively low rated gas input.

Durkin, G.M.; Elkins, R.H.; Macriss, R.A.

1982-06-08

35

DEVELOPMENT OF RADIANT FURNACES FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE TESTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of high-temperature radiation-type furnaces is discussed. ; These furnaces were designed to heat ceramic fuel tubes externally at thermal ; flux densities which would impose thermal stresses on the tube comparable to ; those anticipated for internal power generation during reactor operation. The ; use of external heating techniques was necessary because of the high electrical ; resistance

J. B. Conway; D. G. Salyards

1961-01-01

36

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME 2. HEAVY-OIL AND COAL-FIRED FURNACES AND THE EVALUATION OF RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes Phase II of a research program, the overall objective of which was to specify burner design criteria for minimum pollutant emissions from both pulverized-coal- and residual-fuel-oil-fired combustors. Phase II included both furnace investigations and the evalu...

37

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS EVERY TWENTY MINUTES TO DETERMINE SIZE AND TEXTURE OF BATCH AND OTHER VARIABLES. FAN IN FRONT COOLS WORKERS AS THEY CONDUCT REPAIRS. FURNACE TEMPERATURE AT 1572 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

38

High efficiency furnace  

SciTech Connect

For heating well-insulated residential buildings, this gas-fired furnace is highly efficient, compact, and economical. Designed for a 25,000-200,000 Btu input, the furnace uses several fluidized-particulate beds to allow heat exchange between the flue-gas stream and the relatively cooler combustion-air stream, thus preheating the combustion air while saving energy. The furnace's seasonal efficiency is over 75%, and the flue-gas output to the atmosphere has a low NO/sub x/ content because of the large amounts of excess air used in the process.

Elkins, R.H.; Durkin, G.M.; Macriss, R.A.

1981-02-10

39

Trends in furnace control  

SciTech Connect

This paper relates Italimpianti's experiences over the past few years in the area of control of reheat furnaces for the steel industry. The focus is on the level 1 area; specifically on the use of PLC-based systems to perform both combustion control and mechanical/hydraulic control. Some topics to be discussed are: overview of reheat furnace control system requirements; PLC only control vs separate PLC and DCS systems; PLC hardware requirements; man machine interface (MMI) requirements; purge, light-on and safety logic; implementation of more sophisticated level 1 control algorithms; furnace temperature optimization: look up tables vs full thermal modeling; and recent trends including integrated PLC/DCS system.

McDonald, T.J.; Keefe, M.D. (Italimpianti of America, Inc., Coraopolis, PA (United States). Instrumentation and Controls Dept.)

1993-07-01

40

High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two dimensional conduction/radiation problem for an alumina crucible in a zirconia heater/muffle tube enclosing a liquid iron sample was solved numerically. Variations in the crucible wall thickness were numerically examined. The results showed that the temperature profiles within the liquid iron sample were significantly affected by the crucible wall thicknesses. New zirconia heating elements are under development that will permit continued experimental investigations of the zirconia furnace. These elements have been designed to work with the existing furnace and have been shown to have longer lifetimes than commercially available zirconia heating elements. The first element has been constructed and tested successfully.

Smith, James E., Jr.

1991-01-01

41

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace in Red Room Within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

42

Improved graphite furnace atomizer  

SciTech Connect

A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

Siemer, D.D.

1983-05-18

43

An improved gas extraction furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design of glass furnace for analysis of rocks to determine nature and amount of trapped gas is described. Furnace heats specimen in vacuum conditions by radio frequency induction. Diagram of apparatus to show construction and operation is provided.

Wilkin, R. B.

1972-01-01

44

Blast furnace reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vast a dvances h ave b een m ade in blast-furnace t echnology d uring t he p ast two decades through p lant t rials and plant d evelopments a ssisted by research to provide b etter u nderstanding of physical and chemical w orkings of the blast f urnace. T he f ields of research have i ncluded

E. T. Turkdogan

1978-01-01

45

Furnace Black Characterization  

E-print Network

of Crystallographic Studies #12;005F7 Methodologies #12;005F8 Summary · For all furnace carbon black 12� Surface Unorganized Carbon Identified #12;005F11 SRCC's Model #12;005F12 Carbon Black Surface Activity Energetic Surface Structure of Carbon Black (Summary) A. Schroeder | R. Schuster DIK #12;005F14 Polymer

46

Fast Response, Blackbody Furnace for Temperatures up to 3000°K  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inductively heated graphite furnace having a ⅜-in.-diam source of blackbody radiation for pyrometer calibration is described. The furnace is fabricated from simple, easily demountable parts and may be operated at 1800°K for 6 h with only infrequent attention; temperatures to 3000°K may be obtained for shorter periods. Source temperatures are stable and are rapidly attained. The time constant is

Allen J. Metzler; J. Robert Branstetter

1963-01-01

47

High efficiency furnace  

SciTech Connect

An improved multiple-fluidized-bed heat exchanger that heats the air stream with the hot flue gas gives this gas-fired residential furnace an efficiency of 75%. Suitable for any application involving two gas streams of differing temperatures, the heat exchanger passes the first gas stream through a bed of solid silcia-alumina particles at a velocity sufficient to maintain the fluidized bed at a depth of 1/2 - 4 in. The second gas stream passes through a similar bed, receiving heat from the first bed. The furnace incorporating this heat exchanger is compact, efficient, and especially suited for well-insulated residences needing relatively low-input heating systems.

Elkins, R.H.; Durkin, G.M.; Macriss, R.A.

1982-06-08

48

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection  

SciTech Connect

Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

NONE

1998-09-30

49

Non-carbon induction furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

1984-01-06

50

Carbon-free induction furnace  

DOEpatents

An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Masters, David R. (Knoxville, TN); Pfeiler, William A. (Norris, TN)

1985-01-01

51

A high-temperature furnace for applications in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology in the area of material processing and crystal growth has been greatly furthered by research in microgravity environments. The role of efficient, lightweight furnaces with reliable performance is crucial in these experiments. A need exists for the development of a readily duplicated, high-temperature furnace satisfying stringent weight, volume, and power constraints. A furnace was designed and is referred to as the UAH SHIELD. Stringent physical and operating characteristics for the system were specified, including a maximum weight of 20 kg, a maximum power requirement of 60 W, and a volume of the furnace assembly, excluding the batteries, limited to half a Get-Away-Special canister. The UAH SHIELD furnace uses radiation shield and vacuum technology applied in the form of a series of concentric cylinders enclosed on either end with disks. Thermal testing of a furnace prototype was performed in addition to some thermal and structural analysis. Results indicate the need for spacing of the shields to accommodate the thermal expansion during furnace operation. In addition, a power dissipation of approximately 100 W and system weight of approximately 30 kg was found for the current design.

1991-01-01

52

Exothermic furnace module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exothermic furnace module is disclosed for processing materials in space which includes an insulated casing and a sample support, carried within the casing which supports a sample container. An exothermic heat source includes a plurality of segments of exothermic material stacked one upon another to produce a desired temperature profile when ignited. The exothermic material segments are constructed in the form of an annular element having a recess opening which defines an open central core throughout the vertical axis of the stacked exothermic material. The sample container is arranged within the core of the stacked exothermic heating material.

Poorman, R. M. (inventor)

1982-01-01

53

Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model  

SciTech Connect

The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

Seymour Katz

2004-12-31

54

Blast furnace injection symposium: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 14 papers related to blast furnace injection issues. Topics include coal quality, coal grinding, natural gas injection, stable operation of the blast furnace, oxygen enrichment, coal conveying, and performance at several steel companies. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1996-12-31

55

Solar furnace apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar furnace apparatus is described including a reflector portion, a collector portion and a fluid transfer portion. The reflector portion includes a generally dish-shaped reflective member. The reflective member having a conic section configuration with a large open face and a highly reflective internal surface. The collector portion is disposed at the focal point of the reflective member, and it includes a chamber formed of a plurality of concave longitudinal sections and therewith form an enclosed chamber, inlet and outlet members communicating with the chamber. The fluid transfer portion includes a conduit member connected to the inlet and outlet members of the collector portion and mechanism associated with said conduit member for circulating fluid to heat storage or heat dissipating members.

Strickland, B.W.

1981-09-29

56

Lead recycling via rotary furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The lead-acid battery recycling industry was seriously affected during the 1980s by increasing environmental protection costs and poor lead prices. The process is now being repeated in the 1990s causing further difficulties for recyclers. In Europe, many lead-acid battery recycling plants use rotary furnaces. The Darley Dale smelter, redeveloped between 1984--87, uses only rotary furnaces. A review of options for this plant has been completed and concluded in favor of further investment to exploit more fully the benefits of rotary furnace technology.

Suttie, A.B. [H.J. Enthoven and Sons, Matlock (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

57

Challenges in Melt Furnace Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement is a critical part of running a cast house. Key performance indicators such as energy intensity, production (or melt rate), downtime (or OEE), and melt loss must all be understood and monitored on a weekly or monthly basis. Continuous process variables such as bath temperature, flue temperature, and furnace pressure should be used to control the furnace systems along with storing the values in databases for later analysis. While using measurement to track furnace performance over time is important, there is also a time and place for short-term tests.

Belt, Cynthia

2014-09-01

58

A new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more NMIs are realizing their primary scale themselves with fixed-point blackbodies as their reference standard. However, commercially available fixed-point blackbody furnaces of sufficient quality are not always easy to obtain. CHINO Corp. and NMIJ, AIST jointly developed a new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace. The new furnace has such features as 1) improved temperature uniformity when compared to previous products, enabling better plateau quality, 2) adoption of the hybrid fixed-point cell structure with internal insulation to improve robustness and thereby to extend lifetime, 3) easily ejectable and replaceable heater unit and fixed-point cell design, leading to reduced maintenance cost, 4) interchangeability among multiple fixed points from In to Cu points. The replaceable cell feature facilitates long term maintenance of the scale through management of a group of fixed-point cells of the same type. The compact furnace is easily transportable and therefore can also function as a traveling standard for disseminating the radiation temperature scale, and for maintaining the scale at the secondary level and industrial calibration laboratories. It is expected that the furnace will play a key role of the traveling standard in the anticipated APMP supplementary comparison of the radiation thermometry scale.

Hiraka, K.; Yamada, Y.; Ishii, J.; Oikawa, H.; Shimizu, T.; Kadoya, S.; Kobayashi, T.

2013-09-01

59

Solar furnace apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar furnace apparatus including a reflector portion, a collector portion and a fluid transfer portion; the reflector portion including a generally dish-shaped reflective member, the reflective member having a conic section configuration with a large open face and a highly reflective internal surface, the reflective member including a fixed base section concentric with the axis of the reflective member, a plurality of movable curved segments extending from the fixed base section to the free edge of the open face of the reflective member, the end of each segment adjacent to the fixed base section being pivotally connected thereto; the collector portion being disposed along the axis and the focal point of the reflective member, the collector portion including a chamber formed of a plurality of concave longitudinal conductive metal sections joined at their edges, the cross section of the longitudinal sections forming a generally star-shaped configuration, the concave longitudinal sections being disposed substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the reflective member, end sections affixed to the free edges of the concave longitudinal sections and therewith forming an enclosed chamber, a central conduit extending from one of the end sections to a point adjacent the other end section but spaced therefrom, a plurality of discrete longitudinal baffles disposed within the chamber around the central conduit, an inlet and an outlet communicating with the chamber.

Strickland, B.W.

1983-12-27

60

Fossil fuel furnace reactor  

DOEpatents

A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

61

Biomass-fueled furnace  

SciTech Connect

A combustion system for domestic or small industrial heating needs, utilizing biomass fuels such as wood and brush chips, sawdust, logs, nut hulls, peat, leaves and other organic waste products of forestry, agriculture and industry with essentially smokeless, clean exhaust. By preheating the combustion air, insulating the combustion process and carefully controlling the fuel to air proportions and mixing parameters, essentially complete combustion with very little excess air at high temperatures is achieved even with fuels containing over half their weight in water. This water is then condensed out of the exhaust gases in uniquely designed air and water counterflow heat exchangers that can capture over 90% of the high heat value of the fuel. This invention is capable of maintaining clean combustion at high temperatures with little excess air, at burn rates much lower than the best popular ''air-tight'' woodstoves and is capable of higher heat outputs than most domestic heat plants. This biomass-fueled furnace does not require electric fans or controls and can be used where electricity is unavailable.

Dobson, L. A.

1985-12-24

62

Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements  

E-print Network

into undesirable compounds, e.g. coke, methane, hydrogen ? Requires additional firing Furnace Cracked Products Feed Fuel Dilution Steam Page 7 Challenges in Steam Cracking - Coke Formation ? Coke is a undesirable byproduct of steam cracking formed from... complete dehydrogenation of hydrocarbon molecules ? Thickness of coke layer increases with run length ? Reduces heat transfer to process stream ? After a period of being online furnaces ?Decoke? with steam+air due to ? High pressure drop ? High tube...

Gandler, T.

63

In situ reaction furnace for real-time XRD studies.  

PubMed

The new furnace at the Materials Characterization by X-ray Diffraction beamline at Elettra has been designed for powder diffraction measurements at high temperature (up to 1373?K at the present state). Around the measurement region the geometry of the radiative heating element assures a negligible temperature gradient along the capillary and can accommodate either powder samples in capillary or small flat samples. A double capillary holder allows flow-through of gas in the inner sample capillary while the outer one serves as the reaction chamber. The furnace is coupled to a translating curved imaging-plate detector, allowing the collection of diffraction patterns up to 2? ? 130°. PMID:23254674

Riello, Pietro; Lausi, Andrea; Macleod, Jennifer; Plaisier, Jasper Rikkert; Zerauschek, Giulio; Fornasiero, Paolo

2013-01-01

64

Pyrometer method for measuring slab temperature in a reheat furnace  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus to measure the temperature of a slab in a reheat furnace with increased accuracy using either a single or dual pyrometer system through use of a multiplicity of temperature correction functions involving temperatures of slab and wall, distance between a pyrometer and the slab at which it is aimed, a ratio of air and fuel supplying the furnace heat and radiation interferences. The functions are chosen by a micro-processor in the system dependent on temperature differentials, emissivity setting of the pyrometer, target distance between pyrometer and slab, and air and fuel flow rates existing and fluctuating in the system.

Rudzki, E.M.; Jackson, R.W.; Martocci, A.P.

1984-02-21

65

Numerical simulation in combustion space of an oil fired float glass furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce energy consumption and prolong furnace life, numerical simulation in the combustion space of an oil fired float glass furnace was carried out. The gas phase is expressed with k-epsiv two-equation model; the combustion is described with non-premixed model; the oil drop motion is described with Discrete Phase Model; the radiation is expressed with Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model. The

Shuxia Mei; Junlin Xie; Mingfang Jin; Da Han

2008-01-01

66

Batch Preheat for glass and related furnace processing operations  

SciTech Connect

The objectives that our development work addressed are: (1) Establish through lab tests a salt eutectic with a melting point of about 250 F and a working range of 250 to 1800 F. (2) Establish the most economical material of construction for the screened salt eutectics identified in the first objective. (3) Establish the material of construction for the salt heater liner. Objectives 2 and 3 were determined through corrosion tests using selected metallurgical samples. Successful completion of the above-stated goals will be incorporated in a heat recovery design that can be used in high temperature processes and furnaces, typical of which is the glass melting process. The process design incorporates the following unit operations: a vertical batch heater (whereby the batch flows down through tubes in a shell and tube exchanger; a molten salt eutectic is circulated on the shell side); a molten salt heater utilizing furnace flue gas in a radiation type heater (molten salt is circulated in the annular space between the inner and outer shells of the vertical heater, and flue gas passes from the furnace exhaust through the inner shell of the heater); a cantilever type molten salt circulating pump; and a jacketed mixer/conveyor to drive off moisture from the batch prior to feeding the batch to the vertical batch heater. Historically, radiation heaters, when applied to glass or fiberglass furnace recuperation, have experienced failures due to uneven heat flux rates, which increases internal stresses and spot overheating conditions. Low heat transfer coefficients result in requirements for large heat transfer surface areas in gas to gas or gas to air exchangers. Fouling is another factor that results in lower unit availability and reduced performance. These factors are accommodated in this process by the incorporation of several design features. The salt heater will be a vertical double wall radiation design, similar to radiation air heaters used in high temperature heat recovery. The unit utilizes an inner shell that the furnace exhaust gas passes through: this provides essentially a self-cleaning surface. Utilization of radiation air heaters in fiberglass furnaces has demonstrated that the inner shell provides a surface from which molten ash can drain down. The molten salt eutectic will be pumped through the annulus between this inner wall and the outer wall of the unit. The annular space tempering via the molten salt will promote more uniform expansion for the unit, and thereby promote more uniform heat flux rates. Heat transfer would be via radiation mainly, with a minor convective contributor.

Energy & Environmental Resources, Inc

2002-08-12

67

Waste Heat Recovery – Submerged Arc Furnaces (SAF)  

E-print Network

Submerged Arc Furnaces are used to produce high temperature alloys. These furnaces typically run at 3000°F using high voltage electricity along with metallurgical carbon to reduce metal oxides to pure elemental form. The process as currently...

O'Brien, T.

2008-01-01

68

Crystal growth and furnace analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal analysis of Hg/Cd/Te solidification in a Bridgman cell is made using Continuum's VAST code. The energy equation is solved in an axisymmetric, quasi-steady domain for both the molten and solid alloy regions. Alloy composition is calculated by a simplified one-dimensional model to estimate its effect on melt thermal conductivity and, consequently, on the temperature field within the cell. Solidification is assumed to occur at a fixed temperature of 979 K. Simplified boundary conditions are included to model both the radiant and conductive heat exchange between the furnace walls and the alloy. Calculations are performed to show how the steady-state isotherms are affected by: the hot and cold furnace temperatures, boundary condition parameters, and the growth rate which affects the calculated alloy's composition. The Advanced Automatic Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), developed by NASA, is also thermally analyzed using the CINDA code. The objective is to determine the performance and the overall power requirements for different furnace designs.

Dakhoul, Youssef M.

1986-01-01

69

Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

70

Blast furnace repairs, relines and modernizations  

SciTech Connect

Bethlehem Steel's Burns Harbor Div. operates two 89,000-cu ft blast furnaces, D and C, built in 1969 and 1972. These furnaces have been in the forefront of blast furnace performance since they were blown-in. To maintain a credible operation throughout the past 25 years their performance has been improved continuously. Production was increased approximately 3%/year while fuel rate decreased 1%/year. This presentation summarizes the early repairs, relines and improvements that have sustained and enhanced the furnace's performance. The fourth reline of both furnaces will be discussed in detail. As part of the 1991 reline of D furnace its lines were improved and modern penstocks installed. The bosh, tuyere jacket, hearth jacket and both cast floors were replaced. The furnace now has a larger hearth making it easier to control and, liquid level is no longer a problem when pulling the wind to shut down. The new cast floor with its increased trough length has much improved separation of slag from iron and lowered refractory consumption. Since the cast floors on D furnace were changed, there has been a reduction in accidents and absenteeism. This may be related to the change in work practices on the new cast floors. The 1994 reline of C furnace incorporates those improvements made on D furnace in 1991. In addition, C furnace will have high-density cooling which is expected to double its campaign from 6 to 12 years, without interim repairs.

Carpenter, J.A.; Swanson, D.E; Chango, R.F. (Bethlehem Steel Corp., Chesterton, IN (United States). Burns Harbor Div.)

1994-09-01

71

The microwave processing of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ideal treatment for electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is to cost-effectively process the dust on site to generate high-value\\u000a products. Microwave heating has the potential to be the ideal approach. In this study, testing was conducted to evaluate the\\u000a feasibility of treating EAF dust under microwave radiation to produce iron metal and zinc metal instead of zinc oxides as

Xiang Sun; Jiann-Yang Hwang; Xiaodi Huang

2008-01-01

72

Optimizing rotary furnace smelting of battery residue  

SciTech Connect

The process for recovering lead from battery residues used in several Mexican Plants include lead blast furnace and rotary furnaces. The formers are basically fed with recycled batteries together with the necessary additives to produce metallic lead. One of the by-products generated in the blast furnace is a dust mainly formed by lead sulfide. The rotary furnace is used to recover lead from lead batteries, dross from the refining-alloying process and the lead fines produced in the blast furnace. This paper describes thermodynamic analysis made to the rotary furnace process to understand the effect that each component of the system has upon the lead recovery. In order to enhance the process, the influence of iron chips composition and excess coke on slag viscosity is discussed. A computer optimization program has been developed to design the furnace charge based on material and energy balances, together with the thermodynamic equilibrium calculation.

Chavez, F.; Morales, R.D.; Romero, A.; Guerrero, A.

1995-12-31

73

A heat transfer model for the analysis of transient heating of the slab in a direct-fired walking beam type reheating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical heat transfer model for the prediction of heat flux on the slab surface and temperature distribution in the slab has been developed by considering the thermal radiation in the furnace chamber and transient heat conduction governing equations in the slab, respectively. The furnace is modeled as radiating medium with spatially varying temperature and constant absorption coefficient. The steel

Man Young Kim

2007-01-01

74

Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Wittle, J. Kenneth (Chester Springs, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1996-01-01

75

Crystal growth furnace with trap doors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

Sachs, Emanual M. (Inventor); Mackintosh, Brian H. (Inventor)

1982-01-01

76

Crystal growth furnace with trap doors  

DOEpatents

An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

Sachs, Emanual M. (Watertown, MA); Mackintosh, Brian H. (Lexington, MA)

1982-06-15

77

Blast furnace repairs, relines and modernizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bethlehem Steel's Burns Harbor Div. operates two 89,000-cu ft blast furnaces, D and C, built in 1969 and 1972. These furnaces have been in the forefront of blast furnace performance since they were blown-in. To maintain a credible operation throughout the past 25 years their performance has been improved continuously. Production was increased approximately 3%\\/year while fuel rate decreased 1%\\/year.

J. A. Carpenter; D. E Swanson; R. F. Chango

1994-01-01

78

BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem

1999-01-01

79

Recent developments in electric arc furnace operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The provision of water cooled electric arc furnace walls and roofs, the increased use of iron pellets in the raw material charge, the use of solid state devices in electrode drive systems and the application of digital control are discussed. Integration of computer control of the separate aspects of arc furnace operation into an optimal direct digital control strategy for the furnace is considered. Use of dc plasma torches as an alternative to the ac electric arc as an energy source is forecast. Potential advantages of these include reduced energy costs, use of nonconsumable electrodes, and noncontamination of steel by electrodes. An operational 40 tonne dc plasma torch furnace is reported.

Morris, A. S.

1983-06-01

80

MODELING OF RADIATION INTENSITY IN AN EAF  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the melting process of steel scrap in an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF), a radiation model has been developed to quantify the radiant energy distribution inside the furnace. Using the operational voltage, current, and power factor, the energy radiated from an arc is determined. Radiation laws are cast into a discretized form to compute the energy intensity inside the

Diancai GUO; Gordon A. IRONS

81

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to the furnace. The off-gas from the furnace, consisting of by-product CO as well as volatiles from the feeds, pass through a venturi scrubber, where water is introduced to scrub out the fume from the furnace and cool the gas. The mixed scrubber water and off-gas pass into a centrifugal mist eliminator where the water and fume disengage from the gas. The fume slurry is passed through bag filters where the fume is separated from the water. The clean off-gas from the furnace was evaluated for its calorific value and evaluated for conversion to useful products. A number of silicon smelting tests were conducted during this program. Various levels of charcoal and coal mixtures were evaluated to determine the optimum mix. A low volatile coal was preferred over typical Blue Gem coal. The coal amount in the mix was maximized without compromising the smelting performance. A raw material mix consisting of 30% charcoal and 70% low volatile coal was determined to be an optimum mix for closed furnace operation. Silicon recoveries in the low nineties were demonstrated using this mix. Four quartz sources were also evaluated in the closed furnace. The closed furnace operation for silicon smelting was identified to offer significant advantages over an open furnace from the standpoint of reduced carbon oxidation losses, electrode consumption, electrical energy consumption and silicon yield improvement. Other advantages in addition to process off-gas recovery included improved safety from reduced heat and fume exposure, and improved pollution control to the environment. 1 ref.

Dosaj, V.; Brumels, M.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B. (Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States))

1991-01-01

82

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to the furnace. The off-gas from the furnace, consisting of by-product CO as well as volatiles from the feeds, pass through a venturi scrubber, where water is introduced to scrub out the fume from the furnace and cool the gas. The mixed scrubber water and off-gas pass into a centrifugal mist eliminator where the water and fume disengage from the gas. The fume slurry is passed through bag filters where the fume is separated from the water. The clean off-gas from the furnace was evaluated for its calorific value and evaluated for conversion to useful products. A number of silicon smelting tests were conducted during this program. Various levels of charcoal and coal mixtures were evaluated to determine the optimum mix. A low volatile coal was preferred over typical Blue Gem coal. The coal amount in the mix was maximized without compromising the smelting performance. A raw material mix consisting of 30% charcoal and 70% low volatile coal was determined to be an optimum mix for closed furnace operation. Silicon recoveries in the low nineties were demonstrated using this mix. Four quartz sources were also evaluated in the closed furnace. The closed furnace operation for silicon smelting was identified to offer significant advantages over an open furnace from the standpoint of reduced carbon oxidation losses, electrode consumption, electrical energy consumption and silicon yield improvement. Other advantages in addition to process off-gas recovery included improved safety from reduced heat and fume exposure, and improved pollution control to the environment. 1 ref.

Dosaj, V.; Brumels, M.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States)

1991-12-31

83

3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT LOOKING NORTH. DOROTHY SIX IS THE CLOSEST FURNACE IN THE PHOTOGRAPH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

84

Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

85

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

86

Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

87

56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

88

41. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; photo taken from furnace operator's booth. Looking south/southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

89

2. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING AND ELECTRIC FURNACE OFFICE & CHEMICAL LABORATORY BUILDING. INGOT MOLDS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

90

19. Inside the cast house at Furnace A. Molten iron ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Inside the cast house at Furnace A. Molten iron flowed into eight ladles. The furnace was cast (or tapped) six times each day. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

91

Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors  

SciTech Connect

The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

2003-02-28

92

Energy Assessment Protocol for Glass Furnaces  

E-print Network

of the operating furnace, and then confirms the effectiveness of any changes made. Application of the protocol resulted in a 10% improvement in energy transfer into the glass or a 2.6% energy improvement in overall furnace efficiency. It is estimated that energy...

Plodinec, M. J.; Kauffman, B. M.; Norton, O. P.; Richards, C.; Connors, J.; Wishnick, D.

2005-01-01

93

Zinc recovery from blast furnace flue dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace flue dusts are a mixture of oxides expelled from the top of the blast furnace, whose major components are iron oxides. They also contain zinc, silicon, magnesium and other minor element oxides in lesser amounts. The direct recycling of flue dust is not usually possible since it contains some undesirable elements (zinc and alkaline metals) that can cause

B. Asadi Zeydabadi; D. Mowla; M. H. Shariat; J. Fathi Kalajahi

1997-01-01

94

Blast furnace injection developments in British Steel  

SciTech Connect

British Steel has four integrated steel works, i.e., Llanwern, Port Talbot, Scunthorpe, Teesside, with a total of ten blast furnaces, nine of which are currently operating. The furnaces range in size from the 14 meters (45 feet 11 inches) hearth diameter Redcar No. 1 furnace at Teesside (a single furnace works) to the 8.33 meters (27 feet 4 inches) hearth Queen Mary and Queen Bess furnaces at Schunthorpe, with a total of four furnaces at that works. All have injection systems installed, those at Scunthorpe being equipped with granular coal injection and all others currently working with oil injection. The driving force behind the development of blast furnace injection has been as a means for introducing reducing agents (British Steel now refers to coke plus hydrocarbon injectants as total reductants) into the process as a part substitute/supplement for top charged coke and the technology is still being developed and used for that purpose. By utilizing practical experience and observing the work of others, British Steel has been assessing blast furnace injection technology experimentally for purposes other than the introduction of reducing agents.

Jukes, M.H.

1996-12-31

95

Existing and prospective blast-furnace conditions  

SciTech Connect

Blast-furnace conditions are investigated by means of a multizone model. The expected performance of prospective technologies is assessed, as well as the trends in blast-furnace processes. The model permits the identification of means of overcoming practical difficulties.

I.G. Tovarovskii; V.I. Bol'shakov; V.P. Lyalyuk; A.E. Merkulov; D. V. Pinchuk [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy

2009-07-15

96

Numerical Modelling of Biomass Grate Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is increasingly being used for the optimisation of industrial coal furnaces and gas burners. Due to the high complexity of heterogeneous combustion of fixed or moving biomass fuel beds, only few research projects have so far dealt with the introduction of CFD as a cost-efficient tool in the optimisation of biomass grate furnaces. The present work

Robert Scharler; Ingwald Obernberger

2000-01-01

97

Overview of Energy Efficiency for Glass Furnace  

E-print Network

thermodynamic energy required Internal ­ within plant, time series External- with other plants #12;3 April, 2006)Data Analysis ­ regression ­ pooled cross-sectional and time series data, best practice, average data b) Minimum Provide useful input for new furnace design #12;3 April, 2006 16 Need for Model Furnace processes - Glass

Banerjee, Rangan

98

Channel Furnace Melting with Jet Flow Inductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melting of metal in vessels powered by channel type inductors dates back to early in this century. Until recently, iron foundries requiring 5 to 10 tons of metal per hour relied upon cupolas or arc furnaces. About 15 years ago, the coreless induction furnace began to find acceptance in this field. Now improvements in the basic design of channel induction

Richard A. Sommer

1976-01-01

99

Methods of Intensifying Blast-Furnace Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1871, famous metallurgist Henri Bessemer became the first to proclaim the benefits of increasing the operating pressure in blast furnaces [1]. The underlying assumption here was that increasing furnace pressure would raise the temperature of the products of fuel combustion in the tuyere hearths. Forty-four years later, a paper written by P. M. Esmanski for the Ekaterinoslav Mining Institute

I. E. Sperkach; I. F. Kurunov

2005-01-01

100

Shougang No. 2 blast furnace enlargement  

SciTech Connect

Shougang is expanding to become a 10 million ton/year steel plant in 1995. In 1990, the capacity of Shougang No. 2 blast furnace was enlarged from 1,327 to 1,726 cu meters. The project consisted of building a new furnace on the old site while maintaining the operation of the old furnace. The project was completed in 188 calendar days, 3 days ahead of schedule. Shougang has a large, comprehensive technical force that includes design, construction and production. Most of the equipment and instrumentation, both mechanical and electrical, were fabricated by Shougang personnel. The future increase in capacity of No. 1, 3 and 4 blast furnaces will exceed that of No. 2 furnace.

Wang, Z.Z. (Shougang Iron and Steel Corp., Beijing (China))

1994-09-01

101

A multi-zone muffle furnace design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Multi-Zone Muffle-Tube Furnace was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of providing an in-house experience base with tubular furnaces for materials processing in microgravity. As such, it must not only provide the desired temperatures and controlled thermal gradients at several discrete zones along its length but must also be capable of sustaining the rigors of a Space Shuttle launch. The furnace is insulated to minimize radial and axial heat losses. It is contained in a water-cooled enclosure for purposes of dissipating un-wanted residual heat, keeping the outer surfaces of the furnace at a 'touch-safe' temperature, and providing a rugged housing. This report describes the salient features of the furnace, testing procedures and results, and concluding remarks evaluating the overall design.

Rowe, Neil D.; Kisel, Martin

1993-01-01

102

Optimization of the thermogauge furnace for realizing high temperature fixed points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermogauge furnace was commonly used in many NMIs as a blackbody source for calibration of the radiation thermometer. It can also be used for realizing the high temperature fixed point(HTFP). According to our experience, when realizing HTFP we need the furnace provide relative good temperature uniformity to avoid the possible damage to the HTFP. To improve temperature uniformity in the furnace, the furnace tube was machined near the tube ends with a help of a simulation analysis by "ansys workbench". Temperature distributions before and after optimization were measured and compared at 1300 °C, 1700°C, 2500 °C, which roughly correspond to Co-C(1324 °C), Pt-C(1738 °C) and Re-C(2474 °C), respectively. The results clearly indicate that through machining the tube the temperature uniformity of the Thermogage furnace can be remarkably improved. A Pt-C high temperature fixed point was realized in the modified Thermogauge furnace subsequently, the plateaus were compared with what obtained using old heater, and the results were presented in this paper.

Wang, T.; Dong, W.; Liu, F.

2013-09-01

103

Partnering and the WCI blast furnace reline  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, WCI Steel entered into a partnership agreement to perform a blast furnace reline. The reline included a complete rebrick from the tuyere breast to the furnace top including the tapholes. Also included was the replacement of the Paul Wurth top equipment from the receiving hoppers through the gearbox and distribution chute, a skip incline replacement, and installation of tilting runners and a casthouse roof. The bustle pipe and hot blast main were repaired. One stove was also replaced. The reline was accomplished in 36 days, wind to wind, which allowed for 29 days of construction inside the blast furnace proper.

Musolf, D.W. [WCI Steel, Inc., Warren, OH (United States)

1997-11-01

104

Biomass gasification at the focus of the Odeillo (France 1MW (thermal) solar furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments described in this paper were undertaken to explore the use of concentrated solar radiation for the flash pyrolysis of biomass. Biomass materials (powdered, microcrystalline cellulose and ground corn cob material) have been successfully gasified in a windowed chemical reactor operating at the focus of the Odeillo 1 MW\\/sub th\\/ solar furnace. The quartz window survived radiant flux levels in

M. J. Jr. Antal; C. Royere; A. Vialaron

1980-01-01

105

Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

1986-01-01

106

46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...that the furnace is in good working order. In each calibration the energy input to the furnace is adjusted so that the furnace thermocouple gives a steady reading of 750 ±10 °C. The wall temperature of the furnace tube is then measured by an optical...

2012-10-01

107

46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...that the furnace is in good working order. In each calibration the energy input to the furnace is adjusted so that the furnace thermocouple gives a steady reading of 750 ±10 °C. The wall temperature of the furnace tube is then measured by an optical...

2010-10-01

108

Blast furnace supervision and control system  

SciTech Connect

On December 1992, a group of companies headed by Techint, took over Somisa, the state-owned integrated steel plant located at San Nicolas, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, culminating an ambitious government privatization scheme. The blast furnace 2 went into a full reconstruction and relining in January 1995. After a 140 MU$ investment the new blast furnace 2 was started in September 1995. After more than one year of operation of the blast furnace the system has proven itself useful and reliable. The main reasons for the success of the system are: same use interface for all blast furnace areas -- operation, process, maintenance and management, (full horizontal and vertical integration); and full accessibility to all information and process tools though some restrictions apply to field commands (people empowerment). The paper describes the central system.

Remorino, M.; Lingiardi, O.; Zecchi, M. [Siderar S.A.I.C./Ingdesi, San Nicolas (Argentina)

1997-12-31

109

Removable preheater elements improve oxide induction furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat and corrosion resistant preheater elements are used in oxide induction furnaces to raise the temperature to the level for conducting electricity. These preheater elements are then removed and the induction coil energized.

Leipold, M. H.

1964-01-01

110

Reduced Electric Reactance for Electric Arc Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reduction of the high current circuit reactance of 3-phase electric arc furnaces will increase the thermoelectric efficiency. This improvement is expected to result in savings of electricity and other consumables as well as in reduced network turbulat...

R. Kasper

1983-01-01

111

Reduced Electric Reactance for Electric Arc Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reduction of the high current circuit reactance of 3-phase electric arc furnaces which will increase the thermoelectric efficiency is discussed. The improvement is expected to result in savings of electricity and other consumables and in reduced netwo...

R. Kasper

1983-01-01

112

A consortium approach to glass furnace modeling.  

SciTech Connect

Using computational fluid dynamics to model a glass furnace is a difficult task for any one glass company, laboratory, or university to accomplish. The task of building a computational model of the furnace requires knowledge and experience in modeling two dissimilar regimes (the combustion space and the liquid glass bath), along with the skill necessary to couple these two regimes. Also, a detailed set of experimental data is needed in order to evaluate the output of the code to ensure that the code is providing proper results. Since all these diverse skills are not present in any one research institution, a consortium was formed between Argonne National Laboratory, Purdue University, Mississippi State University, and five glass companies in order to marshal these skills into one three-year program. The objective of this program is to develop a fully coupled, validated simulation of a glass melting furnace that may be used by industry to optimize the performance of existing furnaces.

Chang, S.-L.; Golchert, B.; Petrick, M.

1999-04-20

113

Combustion Air Preheat on Steam Cracker Furnaces  

E-print Network

Beginning in 1978, Exxon has started up nine large new steam cracking furnaces with various levels of air preheat, and has seven more under construction. Sources of heat have included process streams, flue gas and gas turbine exhaust. Several...

Kenney, W. F.

1983-01-01

114

Redesigned Electron-Beam Furnace Boosts Productivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Redesigned electron-beam furnace features carousel of greater capacity so more experiments conducted per loading, and time spent on reloading and vacuum pump-down reduced. Common mounting plate for electron source and carousel simplifies installation and reduces vibration.

Williams, Gary A.

1995-01-01

115

Creating successful blast furnace refractory systems  

SciTech Connect

Successful lifetimes of the refractories utilized in the blast furnace are dependent on a variety of external factors such as operation, geometry, cooling capability, configuration and arrangement, as well as refractory properties. These external factors, as well as the properties required to withstand the main mechanisms of wear, combine to create the successful refractory system. These significant factors and properties are reviewed with the intention of providing guidelines required for successful refractory performance in the blast furnace.

Dzermejko, A.J. [UCAR Carbon Co., Inc., Columbia, TN (United States)

1995-07-01

116

Copper staves in the blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

Operational data for stave cooling systems for two German blast furnaces show good correlation with predicted thermal results. Copper staves have been installed in blast furnaces in the zones exposed to the highest thermal loads. The good operational results achieved confirm the choice of copper staves in the areas of maximum heat load. Both temperature measurements and predictions establish that the MAN GHH copper staves do not experience large temperature fluctuations and that the hot face temperatures will be below 250 F. This suggests that the copper staves maintain a more stable accretion layer than the cast iron staves. Contrary to initial expectations, heat flux to the copper staves is 50% lower than that to cast iron staves. The more stable accretion layer acts as an excellent insulator for the stave and greatly reduces the number of times the hot face of the stave is exposed to the blast furnace process and should result in a more stable furnace operation. In the future, it may be unnecessary to use high quality, expensive refractories in front of copper staves because of the highly stable accretion layer that appears to rapidly form due to the lower operating temperature of the staves. There is a balance of application regions for cast iron and copper staves that minimizes the capital cost of a blast furnace reline and provides an integrated cooling system with multiple campaign life potential. Cast iron staves are proven cooling elements that are capable of multiple campaign life in areas of the blast furnace which do not experience extreme heat loads. Copper staves are proving to be an effective and reliable blast furnace cooling element that are subject to virtually no wear and are projected to have a longer campaign service life in the areas of highest thermal load in the blast furnace.

Helenbrook, R.G. [ATSI, Inc., Amherst, NY (United States); Kowalski, W. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany); Grosspietsch, K.H. [Preussag Stahl AG, Saltzgitter (Germany); Hille, H. [MAN GHH AG, Oberhausen (Germany)

1996-08-01

117

Furnaces for steam reforming of methane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey covers the integration of furnaces capable of producing 520,000 to 4.2 million cu m\\/day of hydrogen with plants for ore reduction, hydrogenation, and the production of chemicals, including ammonia, methanol, and urea; design and operating parameters, including heat recovery; heat exchanger and condenser materials; problems caused by catalyst expansion; furnace operation and control requirements and problems; noise propagation

Amblard

1973-01-01

118

Quality of coal for blast furnace injection  

SciTech Connect

CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC) has been involved in a research program to evaluate the suitability of various coals for blast furnace injection. The primary objectives of this program are to provide essential information on coal combustion in the blast furnace and to establish proper criteria for evaluating and selecting coals for blast furnace injection. The program comprises three parts. Parts one and two have been completed. To date, the program has encompassed both a theoretical assessment of cooling and coke replacement characteristics of coals using CETC`s computer model and an experimental determination of the combustibility of coals of different ranks and particle sizes as well as the influence of oxygen enrichment on burnout. The experimental part was conducted in CETC`s pilot-scale injection unit that simulates blast furnace blowpipe-tuyere conditions. Part three now being developed will incorporate results of experimental trials into a blast furnace raceway model in order to predict total combustibility of coals at different blast furnace operating conditions. This paper describes CETC`s facility and methodology of work, and presents and discusses results.

Hutny, W.P.; Giroux, L.; MacPhee, J.A.; Price, J.T. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre/Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

1996-12-31

119

Glass Furnace Project: October 1981-March 1982  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Glass Furnace Project is to evaluate the use of a joule-heated glass furnace, fitted with a Mound-developed offgas system, to reduce the volume of contaminated waste typical of that from nuclear power plants. As part of the project, several different waste types, including dry solid waste, ion exchange resin, and sludge, will be burned in the glass furnace unit. Burned combustion characteristics and radionuclide behavior in the glass furnace and associated offgas system will be monitored to determine optimum operating conditions. The project will provide an evaluation of the glass furnace as a volume reduction technique for the nuclear power industry as well as design criteria that can be used in constructing such a system by the end of FY-1984. The first half of FY-1982 was devoted to completion of the installation, checkout, and startup of the furnace unit and control systems. Compatibility studies to determine the effects of refractory and simulated waste on the soda-lime glass matrix were also performed in conjunction with the Mound Glass Ceramics group. These studies include chemical durability testing to discern the optimum waste loading of the glass. Finally, an experimental procedure was designed to determine the combustion efficiency of the incinerator. The combustion offgas will be monitored during experimentation to determine such related parameters as optimum feedrate and total oxygen requirements.

Armstrong, K M; Klingler, L M

1982-05-14

120

1. GENERAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE PLANT, KNOWN AS THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE PLANT, KNOWN AS THE CARRIE FURNACES, FROM THE TOP OF WATER TOWER. CARRIE FURNACES No. 6 AND No. 7 ARE ON THE LEFT, AND FURNACES No. 3 AND No. 4 ARE ON THE RIGHT. THE TOWN OF RANKIN IS IN THE BACKGROUND. Jet Lowe, Photographer, 1989. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

121

Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

A radiometer is described with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. 5 figs.

Woskov, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Surma, J.E.

1996-11-12

122

Increasing blast furnace productivity. Is there a universal solution for all blast furnaces?  

SciTech Connect

In the past few years there has been a major effort in the integrated plants in the US to increase blast furnace productivity. Record production levels have been reported by AK Steel using direct reduced/hot briquetted iron (DRI/HBI) and high levels of natural gas (NG)-oxygen injection at their Middletown blast furnace. Similarly, US Steel-Gary No. 13 reported high productivity levels with PCI and oxygen enrichment. A productivity of 6 NTHM/day/100 ft{sup 3}WV was the norm in the past, but today levels higher than 11 NTHM/day/100ft{sup 3}WV have been reached on a sustained basis. These high productivity levels have been an important aspect of facility rationalization efforts, as companies seek to maximize their throughput while reducing costs. Hot metal demand in a particular plant depends on downstream capabilities in converting hot metal to saleable steel. Single vs. multi-furnace plants may have different production requirements for each facility. Business cycles may influence productivity requirements from different furnaces of a multiple furnace plant, more so for those considered as swing furnaces. Therefore, the production requirement for individual blast furnaces is different for different plants. In an effort to understand productivity improvement methods, calculations were made for a typical 8 m hearth diameter furnace using data and experience gathered on Inland`s operation. Here the authors present the results obtained in the study.

Chaubal, P.C.; Ranade, M.G. [Inland Steel Co., East Chicago, IN (United States)

1997-12-31

123

Flowfield simulations in industrial furnace configurations  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental element of comprehensive pulverized-fuel combustion modeling is the description of the turbulent gaseous flow field within the furnace. As part of a program to develop a three-dimensional coal combustion code, a non-reacting gas flow dynamics model has been developed. This flow model, GAS3D, has been demonstrated in a variety of industrial configurations including corner-fired, cross-fired, and wall-fired furnace geometries. This paper discusses the components and capabilities of the model and presents comparisons between experimental data and model predictions for a wall-fired furnace. The emphasis of this paper is on evaluating model performance. Experimental data has been obtained from Consolidation Coal Company for a wall-fired furnace. This configuration has been simulated with GAS3D using three different turbulence models. A description of the flow patterns predicted within the furnace are given. Comparisons are made between the predictions and experimental data and between the different turbulence models.

Gillis, P.A.; Smith, P.J. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (USA))

1988-01-01

124

Flowfield simulations in industrial furnace configurations  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental element of comprehensive pulverized-fuel combustion modelling is the description of the turbulent gaseous flow field within the furnace. As part of a program to develop a three-dimensional coal combustion code, a non-reacting gas flow dynamics model has been developed. This flow model, GAS3D, has been demonstrated in a variety of industrial configurations including corner-fired, cross-fired, and wall-fired furnace geometries. This paper discusses the components and capabilities of the model and presents comparisons between experimental data and model predictions for a wall-fired furnace. The emphasis of this paper is on evaluating model performance. Experimental data has been obtained from Consolidation Coal Company for a wall-fired furnace. This configuration has been simulated with GAS3D using three different turbulence models. A description of the flow patterns predicted within the furnace are given. Comparisons are made between the predictions and experimental data and between the different turbulence models.

Gillis, P.A.; Smith, P.J. (Combustion Computations Lab., 75 CTB, Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (US))

1988-06-01

125

Computational simulations and experimental validation of a furnace brazing process  

SciTech Connect

Modeling of a furnace brazing process is described. The computational tools predict the thermal response of loaded hardware in a hydrogen brazing furnace to programmed furnace profiles. Experiments were conducted to validate the model and resolve computational uncertainties. Critical boundary conditions that affect materials and processing response to the furnace environment were determined. {open_quotes}Global{close_quotes} and local issues (i.e., at the furnace/hardware and joint levels, respectively) are discussed. The ability to accurately simulate and control furnace conditions is examined.

Hosking, F.M.; Gianoulakis, S.E.; Malizia, L.A.

1998-12-31

126

High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

1992-01-01

127

Microprocessor controls for bagasse fired furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies of automatic controls for bagasse fired furnaces in Louisiana have shown the feasibility of automatic forced draft control systems. The paper presents the results of a study carried out during the 1984 Louisiana sugar crop to further develop the principles of automatic control of bagasse furnaces using a microprocessor-based programmable logic controller. The data obtained validate the concepts of draft control and show how fuel control can be accomplished, thus providing overall boiler control. A brief outline of the further development of the system is also given.

Keenliside, W.; Mc Grew, K.

1987-02-01

128

Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces  

DOEpatents

A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace. 5 figs.

Gorin, A.H.; Holcombe, C.E.

1994-07-26

129

36. REDUCTION PLANT CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. REDUCTION PLANT - CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER Reduction Plant furnace and boiler used to provide heat for drying the fish and fish offal, in their conversion to meal. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

130

GENERAL VIEW OF TURBOBLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW OF TURBO-BLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND HOT BLAST STOVES (RIGHT). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Haselton Blast Furnaces, West of Center Street Viaduct, along Mahoning River, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

131

Looking east at blast furnace no. 5 between the hot ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking east at blast furnace no. 5 between the hot blast stoves (left) and the dustcatcher (right). - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

132

1. LOOKING EAST AT BLAST FURNACES NO. 3 AND No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. LOOKING EAST AT BLAST FURNACES NO. 3 AND No. 4 FROM CRAWFORD STREET IN THE CITY OF DUQUESNE. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

133

13. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF CAST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF CAST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST FURNACE No. 1, AND HOIST HOUSE No. 1. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

134

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPENHEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPEN-HEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 AND CAST HOUSE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

135

58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED No. 3 IN FOREGROUND ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

136

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG RUNNERS & GATES IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

137

55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX WITH LADLE HOUSE AND IRON DESULPHERIZATION BUILDING ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

138

70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE STOCKHOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

139

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE PIPE, CINDER NOTCH IN CENTER, SLAG RUNNER IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

140

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSEUP, IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSE-UP, IRON NOTCH IN CENTER. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

141

59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

142

ROMPS critical design review. Volume 3: Furnace module design documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the furnace module design documentation, the furnace module Easylab programs definitions and command variables are described. Also included are Easylab commands flow charts and fault conditions.

Dobbs, M. E.

1992-01-01

143

6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace from J.L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy, Ginn & Co. New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Blast Furnace Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

144

46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...insertion device, and three thermocouples (a furnace thermocouple to measure furnace temperature, a surface thermocouple to measure temperature at the surface of a specimen, and a specimen thermocouple to measure temperature at the center...

2010-10-01

145

42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; operator takes temperature of iron in trough during pout. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

146

31. VIEW OF TRIPPER CAR ON TOP OF BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW OF TRIPPER CAR ON TOP OF BLAST FURNACE STOCKING TRESTLE LOOKING EAST. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

147

46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...insertion device, and three thermocouples (a furnace thermocouple to measure furnace temperature, a surface thermocouple to measure temperature at the surface of a specimen, and a specimen thermocouple to measure temperature at the center...

2013-10-01

148

46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...insertion device, and three thermocouples (a furnace thermocouple to measure furnace temperature, a surface thermocouple to measure temperature at the surface of a specimen, and a specimen thermocouple to measure temperature at the center...

2012-10-01

149

46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...insertion device, and three thermocouples (a furnace thermocouple to measure furnace temperature, a surface thermocouple to measure temperature at the surface of a specimen, and a specimen thermocouple to measure temperature at the center...

2011-10-01

150

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURNACE NO. 1 (ca. 1910. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURNACE NO. 1 (ca. 1910. Nameplate reads: "Heroult Electric Furnace, Capacity 6 tons, Built by American Bridge Company, Pencoyd, PA, No. 33") - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

151

3. INSIDE BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT REGENERATIVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. INSIDE BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT REGENERATIVE BATCH FURNACES ON LEFT AND 5 TON CAPACITY CHARGING MACHINE ON RIGHT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

152

Design and fabrication of a tin-sulfide annealing furnace  

E-print Network

A furnace was designed and its heat transfer properties were analyzed for use in annealing thin-film tins-ulfide solar cells. Tin sulfide has been explored as an earth abundant solar cell material, and the furnace was ...

Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

2011-01-01

153

Energy Recovery for Medium- and High-Temperature Industrial Furnaces  

E-print Network

The application of metallic heat exchangers on medium- and high-temperature industrial furnaces is examined. A thorough technical understanding of all furnace operating conditions and the duties imposed upon heat exchangers is identified as a key...

Krumm, E. D.

1981-01-01

154

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF STEELMAKING FURNACE DUST DISPOSAL METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to examine the nature of steelmaking furnace residues and disposal techniques, and to assess potential problems associated with residue disposal, a potential multimedia environmental problem. Solubilization tests of 18 furnace residue samples s...

155

22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL CONSTRUCTION. CONCRETE PAD AT LEFT IS SITE OF FORMER FURNACE USED TO HEAT URANIUM BILLETS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

156

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RETECH'S PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE - VOLUME I  

EPA Science Inventory

A demonstration of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) was conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The furnace uses heat gen...

157

1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

158

5. LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON GROUND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON GROUND FLOOR OF POURING AISLE. VIEW OF THE NATION'S FIRST VACUUM DEGASSING UNIT (1956). - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

159

Radiation  

Cancer.gov

DCEG researchers carry out a broad-based research program designed to identify, understand, and quantify the risk of cancer in populations exposed to medical, occupational, or environmental radiation. They study ionizing radiation exposures (e.g., x-rays,

160

Manual for improving boiler and furnace performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This reference shows how to improve the efficiency of boilers, furnaces, and dryers while saving up to 30% on their fuel costs. Twenty methods are presented-10 with no capital investment, and 10 that require minimal investment with payback periods of only weeks or months. Tabulated and graphical data and specially designed slide rules are included to facilitate efficiency and heat-loss

Garcia-Borras

1983-01-01

161

APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. oth the technical and economic aspects of the technology were exami...

162

APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspectsof the technology were examined. A...

163

Aqueous Leachate from Electric Furnace Slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

In manufacturing manganese and carbon steel in the basic electric arc furnace, 70 to 80 kg of slag per tonne of steel is produced, whereas the grey cast production results in 30 to 40 kg of slag per tonne of grey cast. Such large slag volumes require special care for their disposal at landfills near steel and rolling mills. It

Alenka Rastov

164

Energy Savings in Electric Arc Furnace Melting  

E-print Network

Arc furnace melting which at one time was almost exclusively used to produce alloy steel and steel castings is now widely accepted in the industry as an efficient process to produce all types of steel and iron. Presently, about 28% of steel...

Lubbeck, W.

1982-01-01

165

Recycling of electric-arc-furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is one of the largest solid waste streams produced by steel mills, and is classified as a waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Successful recycle of the valuable metals (iron, zinc, and lead) present in the dust will result in resource conservation while simultaneously reducing

Sresty

1990-01-01

166

Data acquisition from a crystal growth furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital acquisition from a furnace for growing the lead tin telluride crystal based on Asyst software is described. It is shown that the use of Asyst for the acquisition of experimental data makes it possible to handle large amounts of data and to drastically reduce the time required for displaying the data from several hours to less than 5 minutes.

Woodell, Glenn A.

1988-01-01

167

Flame Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) is one of the most widespread traditional analytical techniques for trace element determination, but it often suffers from poor sensitivity due to the low nebulization efficiency and the short residence time of free atoms in the flame. On the basis of conventional FAAS, flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (FF-AAS) is developed with a tube (flame

Peng Wu; Shaopan He; Bin Luo; Xiandeng Hou

2009-01-01

168

SITE DEMONSTRATION OF MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The final report for this project has been published. (EPA/540/R-03/500) March 2004. This SITE project demonstration of the Minergy Corporation (Minergy) Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) evaluated the technology's ability to reduce polychlorinated biphenyl PCB and metal concentrati...

169

VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) SHARING THE SAME CAST HOUSE WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. ORE BRIDGE & BLOWER HOUSE TO RIGHT, HULETT CAR DUMPER IS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

170

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE)/ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT, WITH SINTERING PLANT CONVEYORS & TRANSFER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

171

Energetically optimized control of an electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control concept described here is based on an existing control system for three phase arc furnaces that uses the impedances of the three phases as control variables. It calculates the impedance set points in such a way that the electrical energy is optimally transferred into the scrap without damaging the furnace vessel. To keep the abrasion of the furnace

Gregor Gortler; H. Peter Jorgl

2004-01-01

172

A simplified thermal analysis of an inductively heated casting furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified thermal analysis technique was developed to analyze an inductively heated casting furnace. Initial operation of the vacuum casting furnace indicated that the outer shell of the vessel was exceeding the temperature design limit. The casting furnace is very complex and not easily modeled in a short period of time through the use of general purpose heat transfer codes.

R. Clarksean; C. Solbrig

1995-01-01

173

Temperature Estimation of Liquid Steel in Induction Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the indirect measures of temperature by measuring the energy put into the furnace, temperature and flow rate of cooling water and temperature at the outer wall lining of the induction furnace in order to estimate the temperature of the liquid steel in the furnace. The technique for estimating the temperature relies on the consideration of the heat

Anuwat Pansuwan

174

Insulation of Pipe Bends Improves Efficiency of Hot Oil Furnaces  

E-print Network

INSULATION OF PIPE BENDS IMPROVES EFFICIENCY OF HOT OIL FURNACES Douglas M. Haseltine Royce D. Laffitte Senior Engineering Associate Director, Energy Policy and Planning Leader of Tennessee Eastman's Process Energy Efficiency Team Worldwide... Operations Support Eastman Chemical Company Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Thermodynamic analyses of processes indicated low furnace efficiencies on certain hot oil furnaces. Further investigation, which included Infrared (lR) thermography testing...

Haseltine, D. M.; Laffitte, R. D.

175

Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in the center is a charging machine the operator of which manipulates steel ingots in the furnace, as well as in the adjacent forging hammers - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

176

Advanced furnace concepts - advanced commercial warm-air furnace. Annual report, October 1984March 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project's objective is to develop an advanced, condensing commercial warm-air furnace. The furnace uses a gas-fired, low-NOx radiant-fiber burner manufactured by the performing organization. In the first of four projet phases, the retrofit of the burner into a conventional heater resulted in a significant reduction in NOx emissions and noise output. During the second phase, a field retrofit of

J. A. Gotterba; G. G. Buckley; R. J. Schreiber; J. P. Kesselring

1986-01-01

177

Temperature profiles in high gradient furnaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate temperature measurement of the furnace environment is very important in both the science and technology of crystal growth as well as many other materials processing operations. A high degree of both accuracy and precision is acutely needed in the directional solidification of compound semiconductors in which the temperature profiles control the freezing isotherm which, in turn, affects the composition of the growth with a concomitant feedback perturbation on the temperature profile. Directional solidification requires a furnace configuration that will transport heat through the sample being grown. A common growth procedure is the Bridgman Stockbarger technique which basically consists of a hot zone and a cold zone separated by an insulator. In a normal growth procedure the material, contained in an ampoule, is melted in the hot zone and is then moved relative to the furnace toward the cold zone and solidification occurs in the insulated region. Since the primary path of heat between the hot and cold zones is through the sample, both axial and radial temperature gradients exist in the region of the growth interface. There is a need to know the temperature profile of the growth furnace with the crystal that is to be grown as the thermal load. However it is usually not feasible to insert thermocouples inside an ampoule and thermocouples attached to the outside wall of the ampoule have both a thermal and a mechanical contact problem as well as a view angle problem. The objective is to present a technique of calibrating a furnace with a thermal load that closely matches the sample to be grown and to describe procedures that circumvent both the thermal and mechanical contact problems.

Fripp, A. L.; Debnam, W. J.; Woodell, G. A.; Berry, R.; Crouch, R. K.; Sorokach, S. K.

1989-01-01

178

One-dimensional code to predict the thermal behavior of the UTSI MHD radiant furnace  

SciTech Connect

An analytical model of the thermal behavior of the radiant furnace components installed in the CFFF has been developed. Efforts have been primarily directed towards obtaining a representative global evaluation of the heat recovery of the major downstream components. An overall review of the heat transfer code developed specifically for the DOE CFFF downstream components is presented. The basic methods by which the gas state, transport properties, and the thermal radiative and convective properties are calculated are delineated. Since the thermal behavior of the furnace is radiation dominated, a greater emphasis was placed on this mode of heat transfer. The heat transfer model employs a single zone approximation to the physical problem. The results of the code show good agreement with the experimental data. A more rigorous approach to the problem requires the use of a multi-zone analysis which is presently under consideration. 21 references. (WHK)

Galanga, F.L.

1984-03-01

179

Process control techniques for the Sidmar blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The major challenge for modern blast furnace operation is the achievement of a very high productivity, excellent hot metal quality, low fuel consumption and longer blast furnace campaigns. The introduction of predictive models, decision supporting software and expert systems has reduced the standard deviation of the hot metal silicon content. The production loss due to the thermal state of the blast furnace has decreased three times since 1990. An appropriate control of the heat losses with high pulverized coal injection rates, is of the utmost importance for the life of the blast furnace. Different rules for the burden distribution of both blast furnaces are given. At blast furnace A, a peripheral gas flow is promoted, while at blast furnace B a more central gas flow is promoted.

Vandenberghe, D.; Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. van [Sidmar N.V., Ghent (Belgium)

1995-12-01

180

Improved Blackbody Temperature Sensors for a Vacuum Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some improvements have been made in the design and fabrication of blackbody sensors (BBSs) used to measure the temperature of a heater core in a vacuum furnace. Each BBS consists of a ring of thermally conductive, high-melting-temperature material with two tantalum-sheathed thermocouples attached at diametrically opposite points. The name "blackbody sensor" reflects the basic principle of operation. Heat is transferred between the ring and the furnace heater core primarily by blackbody radiation, heat is conducted through the ring to the thermocouples, and the temperature of the ring (and, hence, the temperature of the heater core) is measured by use of the thermocouples. Two main requirements have guided the development of these BBSs: (1) The rings should have as high an emissivity as possible in order to maximize the heat-transfer rate and thereby maximize temperature-monitoring performance and (2) the thermocouples must be joined to the rings in such a way as to ensure long-term, reliable intimate thermal contact. The problem of fabricating a BBS to satisfy these requirements is complicated by an application-specific prohibition against overheating and thereby damaging nearby instrumentation leads through the use of conventional furnace brazing or any other technique that involves heating the entire BBS and its surroundings. The problem is further complicated by another application-specific prohibition against damaging the thin tantalum thermocouple sheaths through the use of conventional welding to join the thermocouples to the ring. The first BBS rings were made of graphite. The tantalum-sheathed thermocouples were attached to the graphite rings by use of high-temperature graphite cements. The ring/thermocouple bonds thus formed were found to be weak and unreliable, and so graphite rings and graphite cements were abandoned. Now, each BBS ring is made from one of two materials: either tantalum or a molybdenum/titanium/zirconium alloy. The tantalum-sheathed thermocouples are bonded to the ring by laser brazing. The primary advantage of laser brazing over furnace brazing is that in laser brazing, it is possible to form a brazed connection locally, without heating nearby parts to the flow temperature of the brazing material. Hence, it is possible to comply with the prohibition against overheating nearby instrumentation leads. Also, in laser brazing, unlike in furnace brazing, it is possible to exert control over the thermal energy to such a high degree that it becomes possible to braze the thermocouples to the ring without burning through the thin tantalum sheaths on the thermocouples. The brazing material used in the laser brazing process is a titanium-boron paste. This brazing material can withstand use at temperatures up to about 1,400 C. In thermal-cycling tests performed thus far, no debonding between the rings and thermocouples has been observed. Emissivity coatings about 0.001 in. (.0.025 mm) thick applied to the interior surfaces of the rings have been found to improve the performance of the BBS sensors by raising the apparent emissivities of the rings. In thermal-cycling tests, the coatings were found to adhere well to the rings.

Farmer, Jeff; Coppens, Chris; O'Dell, J. Scott; McKechnie, Timothy N.; Schofield, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

181

Gas flow analysis in melting furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The flow structure inside round furnaces with various numbers of burners, burner arrangement, and exit conditions has been studied experimentally with the purpose of improving the flow conditions and the resulting heat transfer. Small-scale transparent models were built according to the laws of geometric and dynamic similarity. Various visualization and experimental techniques were applied. The flow pattern in the near-surface regions was visualized by the fluorescent minituft and popcorn techniques; the flow structure in the bulk was analyzed by smoke injection and laser sheet illumination. For the study of the transient effects, high-speed video photography was applied. The effects of the various flow patterns, like axisymmetric and rotational flow, on the magnitude and uniformity of the residence time, as well as on the formation of stagnation zones, were discussed. Conclusions were drawn and have since been applied for the improvement of furnace performance.

Kiss, L.I.; Bui, R.T.; Charette, A. [Univ. du Quebec, Chicoutimi, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Applied Science; Bourgeois, T. [Alcan International Limited, Jonquiere, Quebec (Canada). Arvida Research and Development Center

1998-12-01

182

Furnace for oil refineries and petrochemical plants  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a furnace for use in oil refineries and petrochemical plants. It comprises: burner means for heating a hydrocarbon feedstock; stack means positioned above the burner for discharging combustion gases emitted from the burner means; wall means peripherally enclosing and annularly surrounding the burning means; substantially uniform heat distribution including a set of substantially horizontal radiant furnace tubes extending along the wall means for passage of the hydrocarbon feedstock about the burner means; and a composite floor under the burner means having refractory bricks, temperature and strain resistant ceramic fiber boards beneath the bricks, high density ceramic fiber modules beneath the boards, and a carbon steel plate beneath the molecules with an underside having a corrosion resistant coating.

Pickell, F.W.; Varesic, J.Z.; Melton, M.S.; Melton, S.H.

1990-01-22

183

Metal sorption on blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of Cu, Ni and Zn-ions from water solution by ungranulated blast-furnace slag has been studied depending on contact time, initial ion concentration, pH and solution temperature. The polymineral composition and the slag specific properties determine its high sorption activity in metal salts solutions. In the range of the concentrations studied (10?4–10?3 M), the sorption data for Cu2+, Ni2+

S. V. Dimitrova

1996-01-01

184

Boronizing from paste with furnace heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.For boronizing from paste with furnace heating we have developed a coating based on aluminum oxide that gives reliable protection of the surface against penetration of oxygen and the outflow of boron-containing gases.2.The protective coating can be used for local protection of surfaces against saturation with various elements during chemicothermal treatment and also against oxidation of decarburizing of the surfaces

M. I. Bayazitov; V. A. Volkov; A. A. Aliev

1976-01-01

185

Optimized Utility Systems and Furnace Integration  

E-print Network

defines the Process/Utility interface. Clearly, changing the process design can result in different utility demands and possibly in different utility system designs. This paper presents a procedure, using Pinch Technology, for the simultaneous design... to the design and process integration of furnaces. The methodology used for designing an optimum Process/Utility interface is an extension of Pinch Technology. In recent years, Pinch Technology (1) has beco e widely accepted and applied within industry...

McMullan, A. S.; Spriggs, H. D.

186

Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This publication contains technical papers published as they were presented at a recent specialty conference sponsored by the Air & Waste Management Association, titled Waste Combustion in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces, held March 26-27, 1996, in Kansas City, Missouri. Papers touch on compilance concerns for air pollution, air monitoring methodologies, risk assessment, and problems related to public anxiety. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database from this proceedings.

NONE

1996-12-31

187

Experimental control of a cupola furnace  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors present some final results from a research project focused on introducing automatic control to the operation of cupola iron furnaces. The main aim of this research is to improve the operational efficiency and performance of the cupola furnace, an important foundry process used to melt iron. Previous papers have described the development of appropriate control system architectures for the cupola. In this paper experimental data is used to calibrate the model, which is taken as a first-order multivariable system with time delay. Then relative gain analysis is used to select loop pairings to be used in a multiloop controller. The resulting controller pairs melt rate with blast volume, iron temperature with oxygen addition, and carbon composition with metal-to-coke ratio. Special (nonlinear) filters are used to compute melt rate from actual scale readings of the amount of iron produced and to smooth the temperature measurement. The temperature and melt rate loops use single-loop PI control. The composition loop uses a Smith predictor to discount the deadtime associated with mass transport through the furnace. Experiments conducted at the Department of Energy Albany Research Center`s experimental research cupola validate the conceptual controller design and provide proof-of-concept of the idea of controlling a foundry cupola.

Moore, K.L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Larsen, E.; Clark, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Abdelrahman, M.A. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; King, P. [Dept. of Energy, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

1998-08-01

188

Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to evaluate their utility in blast furnaces.  

PubMed

Torrefaction and burning characteristics of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, bagasse, and Madagascar almond were studied and compared with a high-volatile bituminous coal using a drop tube furnace to evaluate the potential of biomass consumed in blast furnaces. Torrefaction at 250 and 300°C for 1h duration was carried out. Analysis using the ash tracer method indicated that the extent of atomic carbon reduction in the biomasses was less than that of atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Torrefaction also lowered the sulfur content in bamboo and oil palm over 33%. An examination of the R-factor and burnout of the samples suggests that more volatiles were released and a higher burnout was achieved with raw and torrefied biomasses at 250°C than at 300°C; however, torrefaction at 300°C is a feasible operating condition to transform biomass into a solid fuel resembling a high-volatile bituminous coal used for blast furnaces. PMID:22386202

Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Zhen-Yu

2012-05-01

189

Radiators  

SciTech Connect

A heat-exchange radiator is connected to a fluid flow circuit by a connector which provides one member of an interengageable spigot and socket pair for push-fit, fluid-tight, engagement between the connector and the radiator, with latching formations at least one of which is resilient. Preferably the connector carries the spigot which tapers and engages with a socket of corresponding shape, the spigot carrying an O-ring seal and either latching fingers or a resilient latching circlip.

Webster, D. M.

1985-07-30

190

Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

Not Available

2011-10-01

191

Furnace wall-tube monitoring with a dual-band portable imaging radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In refineries, thermal imaging has been used for many years to monitor the interior temperatures of furnaces, particularly the furnace wall-tubes, in the presence of combustion gas flames. The temperature range in these processes varies from 400 to 1200°C. Flame combustion byproducts contain gases of H2O, N2, CO2, NO and small residues of ashes and other particles that emit thermal radiation toward wall tubes resulting in heating of the tubes. Typically, a mid-infrared (MWIR) instrument is used, equipped with a narrow band-pass filter centered at 3.90?m. In this band there is a void in the emission spectrum of these gases making them transparent, and an instrument operating only in this band can provide very high quality thermal images of the furnace interior. Operating temperatures at other points in petrochemical-related processes, closer to ambient temperature, can also be very critical. For example, a 10°C temperature difference from desired temperature at the coil output of a heat exchanger of a large ethylene plant can result in substantial revenue loss per year. Monitoring of these conditions is usually accomplished using a long wave infrared (LWIR) imaging radiometer operating in the 8-14?m spectral bands. This paper will review the evolution of techniques for furnace wall-tube monitoring, discuss current techniques and conclude with the description of a modern dual-band approach. In this approach a single, portable uncooled thermal imager is deployed in a refinery to monitor both the status of high temperature elements such as wall tubes and the operating condition of the furnace and its ancillary equipment. Case histories with thermographic illustrations will be presented.

Irani, Keikhosrow

2004-04-01

192

Sealed rotary hearth furnace with central bearing support  

DOEpatents

The furnace has a hearth which rotates inside a stationary closed chamber and is supported therein on vertical cylindrical conduit which extends through the furnace floor and is supported by a single center bearing. The charge is deposited through the furnace roof on the rim of the hearth as it rotates and is moved toward the center of the hearth by rabbles. Externally generated hot gases are introduced into the furnace chamber below the hearth and rise through perforations in the hearth and up through the charge. Exhaust gases are withdrawn through the furnace roof. Treated charge drops from a center outlet on the hearth into the vertical cylindrical conduit which extends downwardly through the furnace floor to which it is also sealed.

Docherty, James P. (Carnegie, PA); Johnson, Beverly E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Beri, Joseph (Morgan, PA)

1989-01-01

193

Experience with in-furnace surface in CFB boilers  

SciTech Connect

As CFB boiler size increases past 30 to 40 MWe (depending on fuel), the furnace walls can no longer economically absorb enough heat to maintain the desired furnace temperature. The designer has two options for providing the additional heating surface needed: In-furnace Surface, and External Heat Exchanger (EHE). Because of the inherent advantages, Ahlstrom pioneered the use of in-furnace surface, and now has over 50 units now in operation using this surface which together have accumulated over 175 unit-years of operating experience. This paper describes the advantages of in-furnace surface, the various designs for this surface used by Ahlstrom, and the operational experience with these designs including improvements made. It is shown that in furnace surface designs have evolved to provide excellent service in all applications.

Darling, S.L. [Pyropower Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Asikainen, A. [Ahlstrom Boilers, Varkaus (Finland); Shibagaki, G. [Ahlstrom Pyropower KK, Kobe (Japan)

1995-12-31

194

Improved Transparent Furnace For Crystal-Growth Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Novel design and fabrication process for transparent crystal-growing furnace developed. Design consists of one or more heater zones in which heating wire coiled around insides of quartz tubes. Ampoule of material supported inside furnace by guide wire. Crystal then grown by directional freezing of material in ampoule. Distinct feature of use of quartz is capability of direct visual observation of crystal-growth process during experiment. Study of transparent electronic materials conducted in new furnaces.

Rosenthal, Bruce N.; White, Steve; Kalinowski, Joseph M.

1989-01-01

195

Benefits of ceramic fiber for saving energy in reheat furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Refractory ceramic fiber products offer thermal insulation investment in reheat furnaces by helping to keep operating cost low and product quality high. These products are used in a range of applications that include: furnace linings; charge and discharge door insulation; skidpipe insulation; and furnace repair and maintenance. The many product forms (blankets, modules, boards, textiles, and coatings) provide several key benefits: faster cycling, energy savings and personnel protection.

Norris, A. (Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States))

1993-07-01

196

Comparison of Predictive Control Methods for High Consumption Industrial Furnace  

PubMed Central

We describe several predictive control approaches for high consumption industrial furnace control. These furnaces are major consumers in production industries, and reducing their fuel consumption and optimizing the quality of the products is one of the most important engineer tasks. In order to demonstrate the benefits from implementation of the advanced predictive control algorithms, we have compared several major criteria for furnace control. On the basis of the analysis, some important conclusions have been drawn. PMID:24319354

2013-01-01

197

Design, performance, and experiment capabilities of the AGHF: ESA's advanced gradient furnace for spacelab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGHF is a Bridgman Furnace Facility for directional solidification experiments in microgravity environment with very well controlled heater temperatures up to 1400°C. A laboratory model and an engineering model exist, the flight model will be built at the end of 1991. The furnace uses heater elements made of W-Re wire wound on a solid TZM heat diffuser, diffuser temperature control by Pt/PtRh thermocouples to ±0.2 K, and a water cooled cooling zone regulated by a thermostatic valve to ±0.3 K. AGHF experiments use front loaded cartridges, which can use conductive coupling to the cooling zone by a liquid metal ring or radiative cooling. The laboratory model furnace, mounted in a dedicated vacuum chamber with peripherals controlled by a commercial computer, was intensively tested up to 1400°C, as specified for the AGHF by ESA, and at 1500°C in a life test under a technology development programme of ESA. Notable laboratory model results are gradients of 95 K/cm in solid Ni of 18 mm dia, with conductive cooling zone coupling by liquid metal, and 70 K/cm with radiative cooling in ZrO 2. EM test are not yet complete, but first tests indicate similar or better results, especially of gradient constancy vs pulling stroke over 140 mm. The first heater model sustained 400 h at 1000°C, 800 h at 1300°C, and 400 h at 1500°C.

Biemann, W.; Terracol, J.

198

Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

1992-12-29

199

Exothermic furnace module development. [space processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exothermic furnace module was developed to rapidly heat and cool a 0.820-in. (2.1 cm) diameter by 2.75-in. (7.0 cm) long TZM molybdenum alloy crucible. The crucible contains copper, oxygen, and carbon for processing in a low-g environment. Peak temperatures of 1270 C were obtainable 3.5 min after start of ignition, and cooling below 950 C some 4.5 min later. These time-temperature relationships were conditioned for a foam-copper experiment, Space Processing Applications Rocket experiment 77-9, in a sounding rocket having a low-g period of 5 min.

Darnell, R. R.; Poorman, R. M.

1982-01-01

200

Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System  

E-print Network

and into the atmosphere after each use, but plans exist to implement a recapture system to re-cycle the gas through the system multiple times. FIGURE 1. FURNACE SCHEMATIC. The outer chamber wall is made of stainless steel and cannot be exposed to extreme... endangering the structural integrity of the stainless steel pressure vessel wall. The inner chamber temperature that corresponds with this process is displayed in Fig. 3. The outer chamber wall also contains a water jacket with a 40 gal/min flow rate...

Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

2013-01-01

201

Molten metal holder furnace and casting system incorporating the molten metal holder furnace  

DOEpatents

A bottom heated holder furnace (12) for containing a supply of molten metal includes a storage vessel (30) having sidewalls (32) and a bottom wall (34) defining a molten metal receiving chamber (36). A furnace insulating layer (42) lines the molten metal receiving chamber (36). A thermally conductive heat exchanger block (54) is located at the bottom of the molten metal receiving chamber (36) for heating the supply of molten metal. The heat exchanger block (54) includes a bottom face (65), side faces (66), and a top face (67). The heat exchanger block (54) includes a plurality of electrical heaters (70) extending therein and projecting outward from at least one of the faces of the heat exchanger block (54), and further extending through the furnace insulating layer (42) and one of the sidewalls (32) of the storage vessel (30) for connection to a source of electrical power. A sealing layer (50) covers the bottom face (65) and side faces (66) of the heat exchanger block (54) such that the heat exchanger block (54) is substantially separated from contact with the furnace insulating layer (42).

Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

2003-02-11

202

Laser Ultrasonic Furnace Tube Coke Monitor  

SciTech Connect

This reports summarizes the technical progress achieved during the third quarter of the ERIP project entitled, ''Laser Ultrasonic Furnace Tube Coke Monitor.'' The focus of work during this reporting period was the construction of an automated probe that will be used to measure the thickness of coke deposits in thermal cracking furnaces. A discovery was made during the last reporting period, which indicated that a conventional NDE broadband transducer could be used in conjunction with a sacrificial standoff composed of a fusible alloy to efficiently couple the transducer to a rough surface operating at high temperature. A probe was constructed that incorporates the recent discovery and initial testing of the probe is now underway. Because of other project commitments, the manpower available to allocate to the coke detector project was limited during the most recent quarter. As a result, the project is somewhat behind the original schedule. However, project expenditures are consistent with the project progress to date. The total program budget is $98,670 and the current project expenditures are approximately $24,000. The original contract budget period ends on April 30, 1999. We intend to request a six-month no-cost extension to the contract so that we may complete the project objectives.

NONE

1999-02-15

203

Surrogate burns in deactivation furnace system.  

PubMed

The deactivation furnace system at the Deseret Chemical Depot in Utah is designed for processing explosive components from munitions containing nerve and mustard agents. The system was installed during the period of 1989 through 1993. The Utah Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (UDSHW) required that trial burns be conducted using surrogate chemicals prior to introducing chemical agents into the system. The selected surrogate chemicals were monochlorobenzene and hexachloroethane based on the criteria established by the UDSHW. Three surrogate runs were conducted in October, 1995. The gaseous emissions and liquid and solid effluents were sampled and analyzed using approved EPA methods. The trial burns demonstrated the desirable destruction and removal efficiency for the selected surrogate chemicals. The pollution abatement system demonstrated the desired scrubbing efficiency for acid gases generated during incineration of chlorinated surrogate chemicals. The particulate removal efficiency during the trial burns was also considerably higher than required by regulations. After comprehensive review of the performance of the deactivation furnace system during the surrogate trial burns, UDSHW approved introduction of GB nerve agent into the system to prepare it for agent trial burns. PMID:10334826

Shah, J K

1999-05-14

204

Decreased gas consumption of a fluidized bed furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of utilizing a closed circulatory system to generate gases for a fluidized bed furnace was investigated with the primary concentrations of both economizing on the raw materials used for producing furnace atmospheres and decreasing the air pollution caused by exhaust gases. Air humidified with water vapor was first introduced into a charcoal furnace for causing a reaction with hot charcoal to form a carburizing atmosphere. This atmosphere was then introduced into a fluidized bed furnace to carburize steels. The exhaust gases from the fluidized bed furnace were recycled by repassing them through the hot charcoal layer in the charcoal furnace with a gas pump. The charcoal furnace and the fluidized bed furnace formed a closed circulatory system during the carburization of steels. Experiments were performed with various parameters of this system, including content of water vapor in the humid air, temperature of the charcoal, rate of recirculation of the atmosphere, etc. The effect of each parameter on the carburizing behavior in the fluidized bed furnace was investigated on the basis of the rate of carburization and the carbon potential of the atmosphere. The feasibility of applying this system to a fluidized bed furnace was assessed from the aspects of the fluidization of A12O3 powder, the result of carburizing steel, and the rate of consumption of charcoal. The closed system employed in generating atmosphere was demonstrated by the experimental results to have enabled the fluidized bed furnace to operate normally and to have significantly decreased both the consumption rate of charcoal and the environmental pollution.

Chen, Yong-Chwang

1993-10-01

205

When Your Furnace Kicks On, Be Sure Poison Gas Isn't Coming Out  

MedlinePLUS

WHEN YOUR FURNACE KICKS ON, BE SURE POISON GAS ISN’T COMING OUT Every winter when the ... drops, your furnace can become a silent killer. Gas- and oil-burning furnaces produce carbon monoxide (CO). ...

206

CARBON REACTIVATION BY EXTERNALLY-FIRED ROTARY KILN FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

An externally-fired rotary kiln furnace system has been evaluated for cost-effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The pilot scale rotary kiln furnace was operated within the range of 682 kg/day (1,500 lb/day) to 909 kg/...

207

TILTING ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE USED TO MELT BRONZE IN THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

TILTING ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE USED TO MELT BRONZE IN THE BRASS FOUNDRY BY MEANS OF AN ARC CREATED BETWEEN TWO HORIZONTAL ELECTRODES. WHEN MELTED, THE FURNACE TILTS, FILLING MOBILE LADLES FROM THE SPOUT. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

208

8. VIEW OF FOUNDRY INDUCTION FURNACES, MODULE J. THE FOUNDRY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF FOUNDRY INDUCTION FURNACES, MODULE J. THE FOUNDRY CASTING PROCESS WAS CONDUCTED IN A VACUUM. PLUTONIUM METAL WAS MELTED IN ONE OF FOUR ELECTRIC INDUCTION FURNACES TO FORM INGOTS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

209

Blast furnace lining and cooling technology: experiences at Corus IJmuiden  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the blast furnace lining and cooling concept as originally developed and applied by Hoogovens (Corus IJmuiden). The technology has also been applied by Danieli Corus in all its blast furnace projects executed in the last 25 years. The technology has helped Corus increase its PCI rate to over 200 kg/thm. 4 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Stokman, R.; van Stein Cellenfels, E.; van Laar, R.

2004-11-01

210

5. SOUTHERN VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES No. 3, No. 4, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. SOUTHERN VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES No. 3, No. 4, AND No. 6, WITH ORE YARD IN THE FOREGROUND. BUILDING ON THE LEFT IS THE CENTRAL BOILER HOUSE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

211

15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 IN LOWER CENTER OF PHOTO AT THE BASE OF HOT BLAST STOVES. HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

212

17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 LOOKING EAST. THE BUSTLE PIPE IS VISIBLE ACROSS THE CENTER OF THE IMAGE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

213

Blast-furnace performance with coal-dust injection  

SciTech Connect

For the blast furnace shop at OAO Alchevskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (AMK) the injection of pulverized fuel is promising. Preliminary steps toward its introduction are underway, including analytical research. In this context, blast furnace performance when using pulverized coal is calculated in this study.

G.G. Vasyura [OAO Alchevskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat, Alchevsk (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01

214

Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential

Ensar Oguz

2004-01-01

215

General view of blast furnace "A"; looking southeast; The building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of blast furnace "A"; looking southeast; The building to the right is the crucible steel building - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Blast Furnace "A", Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

216

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CYCLONE FURNACE SOIL VITRI- FICATION TECHNOLOGY - BABCOCK & WILCOX  

EPA Science Inventory

Babcock and Wilcox's (B&W) cyclone furnace is an innovative thermal technology which may offer advantages in treating soils containing organics, heavy metals, and/or radionuclide contaminants. The furnace used in the SITE demonstration was a 4- to 6-million Btu/hr pilot system....

217

Controlling the Furnace Process in Coal-Fired Boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give an outline of methods using which the furnace process in coal-fired boilers can be controlled to expand the range of loads, reduce the extent to which the furnace is contaminated with slag and the amount of harmful substances is emitted, and when a change is made to another kind of fuel.

Shatil', A. A.; Klepikov, N. S.; Smyshlyaev, A. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. V.

2008-01-01

218

Optimization of an Automatic Blast Furnace through Integrated Simulation Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to develop an integrated simulation model of an automatic blast furnace in a full-scale steelmaking factory. The integrated simulation model introduces a set of optimizing alternatives through sensitivity analysis. The simulation model is built by considering all major and detailed operations and interacting systems of the blast furnace workshop. The workshop is composed two

Ali Azadeh; S. Farid Ghaderi

2006-01-01

219

COMPUTER-ASSISTED FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of furnace atomic absorption instrumentation with a turnkey chromatography data system is described. A simple addition of relays to the furnace power supply allows for automatic start-up of A/D conversion and spectrophotometer zeroing at the proper time. Manipulations inv...

220

25. View looking southwest from furnaces shows the ore end ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. View looking southwest from furnaces shows the ore end limestone storage bins. Ore and limestone were carried by conveyor, seen at far left, to the tripper car, which in turn distributed them into the trestle bins. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

221

4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Furnace doer for sugar ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Furnace doer for sugar boiling range. Manufactured by Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, 1879. Cost: $15.30. View: the furnace for the sugar boiling range was stoked from outside of the east wall of the boiling house. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

222

Pressurized water model of the blast furnace hearth drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of making iron, the liquid level at the blast furnace hearth is one important effect to consider in the operation. The liquid level is check in order to have a smooth running process. Many numerical methods have been done and analyzed in order to have an understanding of the liquid behavior inside the blast furnace. All numerical

Pedro Alvarez

2011-01-01

223

PAH emissions from combustion of coal liquids in industrial furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible environmental impact of substituting fuel oils derived from coal instead of petroleum was investigated using an industrial furnace. Emphasis was placed on the emissions of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The nonpetroleum fuel oil (ECLP-SS) was produced from Texas lignite coal by the Exxon Donor Solvent Process at the Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant. The effects of furnace loading

R. M. Schirmer; M. D. Gill; D. A. Nickeson

1983-01-01

224

11. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND THE PARTS HEATING FURNACE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND THE PARTS HEATING FURNACE. THE PARTS OR METALS WERE HEATED PRIOR TO BEING PRESSED. THE MANIPULATOR ARM WAS USED TO INSERT AND REMOVE PARTS OR METALS FROM THE FURNACE. (2/9/79) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

225

Use of magnesite concrete in open-hearth furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions Many years practical experience with the use of refractory magnesite concretes in open-hearth furnaces at the KMZ confirmed that it is rational to use them even for preparing concretes and blocks on the working sites of open-hearth shops, and it also confirmed the unacceptability of open-hearth furnace structures for placing the concretes.

S. M. Broit; N. Ya. Trusov

1972-01-01

226

Temperature Gradient Vacuum Furnace for Diffusion Studies to 2000°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

An rf induction-heated furnace has been designed that produces a stable linear temperature gradient greater than 1000° C?cm and a maximum specimen temperature of 2000°C. Methods of measuring temperature in a temperature gradient have been evaluated and the performance of the furnace and its power requirements are discussed.

R. O. Meyer; J. C. Voglewede

1971-01-01

227

Operation of a bench-scale metal distillation furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation and design of an inductively heated, bench-scale distillation furnace (retort) are described. The furnace is used as part of a pyrochemical process for the electrometallurgical treatment of spent light water reactor fuel. The focus is on the components that contain the metal melts and vapors. The forerunner of this paper focuses on the design of the induction power

M. A. Vest; G. K. Johnson; R. D. Pierce; E. J. Wesolowski

1997-01-01

228

SIMPLE, GAS-TIGHT FURNACE FOR INDUCTION HEATING  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a means of attaining high temperatures in pure atmospheres a furnace ; was constructed in which the atmosphere can be controlled at any degree between ; high vacuum and positive gas pressure. Temperatures up to 1900 deg C were ; attained. A detailed description of the furnace design including possible ; refinements and materials of construction is given. (J.R.D.);

Grinthal

1958-01-01

229

Effect of Combustion Air Preheat on a Forged Furnace Productivity  

E-print Network

A basic thermal analysis of a gas fired forge furnace can determine the fuel savings from exhaust energy recovery/combustion air preheat on a furnace operating at a single condition, for example, high fire. What this analysis is not able...

Ward, M. E.; Bohn, J.; Davis, S. R.; Knowles, D.

1984-01-01

230

Development of bench-scale metal distillation furnace (retort)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processes for the recovery of actinides from spent nuclear fuels required the design of a high-temperature vacuum furnace. The furnace had to be able to melt actinides, distill volatile metals (zinc and magnesium), be able to operate in a nitrogen glove box with low head room, and heat resonably fast while being capable of holding temperature. Induction heating was chosen

M. A. Vest; L. Smith; R. D. Pierce

1995-01-01

231

12. INTERIOR VIEW OF SINGLE BAY SLOTTED TYPE FURNACE (LEFT) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. INTERIOR VIEW OF SINGLE BAY SLOTTED TYPE FURNACE (LEFT) AND CHAMBERSBURG DROP HAMMER OPERATED BY JEFF HOHMAN (RIGHT); THE FURNACE IS USED TO PRE-HEAT THE STEEL PRIOR TO FORGING, TOOL IS POST HOLE DIGGER WITH TAMPING BAR - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

232

EMISSIONS FROM OUTDOOR WOOD-BURNING RESIDENTIAL HOT WATER FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of measurements of emissions from a single-pass and a double-pass furnace at average heat outputs of 15,000 and 30,000 Btu/hr (4.4 and 8.8 kW) while burning typical oak cordwood fuel. One furnace was also tested once at each heat output while fitted with ...

233

Recent improvements in casthouse practices at the Kwangyang blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

POSCO`s Kwangyang blast furnaces have continuously carried out high production and low fuel operation under a high pulverized coal injection rate without complications since the Kwangyang No. 1 blast furnace was blown-in in 1987. The Kwangyang blast furnaces have focused on improving the work environment for the increase of competitive power in terms of increased production, cost savings, and management of optimum manpower through use of low cost fuel and raw material. At this time, the casthouse work lags behind most work in the blast furnace. Therefore, the Kwangyang blast furnaces have adopted a remote control system for the casthouse equipment to solve complications in the casthouse work due to high temperature and fumes. As the result, the casthouse workers can work in clean air and the number of workers has been reduced to 9.5 personnel per shift by reduction of the workload.

Jang, Y.S.; Han, K.W.; Kim, K.Y.; Cho, B.R.; Hur, N.S.

1997-12-31

234

Pulverized coal injection operation on CSC No. 3 blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

The pulverized coal injection system was introduced for the first time in No. 1 and No. 2 blast furnace at China Steel Corporation (CSC) in 1988. Currently the coal injection rate for both blast furnaces has steadily risen to 70--89 kg/thm (designed value). No 3 blast furnace (with an inner volume of 3400 m3) was also equipped with a PCI system of Armco type and started coal injection on November 17, 1993. During the early period, some problems such as injection lance blocking, lance-tip melting down, flexible hose wear, grind mill tripping occasionally interrupted the stable operation of blast furnace. After a series of efforts offered on equipment improvement and operation adjustment, the PC rate currently reaches to 90--110 kg/thm and furnace stable operation is still being maintained with productivity more than 2.20.

Chan, C.M.; Hsu, C.H. [China Steel Corp., Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

1996-12-31

235

Development of a low-cost heat storage furnace  

SciTech Connect

The author describes the development of a low cost central electric heat storage furnace for residential use in the USA. The heat storage furnace design uses crushed trap rock, a basaltic rock found throughout the USA. Residential furnaces were built and successfully tested both under laboratory conditions and in residences from Minnesota to New England. Although the furnace was developed for residential space heating, applications for commercial and industrial heating are under consideration. Heat storage using off-peak electricity is used as a load management tool in several ways. The specific application considered in this paper is space heating with warm air. In this application, the furnace converts off-peak electric power to heat and stores it for space heating during non-peak periods on a daily cycle basis.

Lentz, E. (Calidyne Corporation (US))

1987-01-01

236

29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange furnace and clarifier ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range furnace and clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the concentration, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the continous flue leaving this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifier lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

237

28. RW Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange Furnace and Clarifier position. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. RW Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range Furnace and Clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the clarification, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the Continuous flue leading from this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation, two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifiers, lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

238

Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace  

DOEpatents

A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs.

Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

1998-03-24

239

On the effects of furnace gradients on interface shape during the growth of cadmium zinc telluride in EDG furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulations are performed to assess cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) interface shape dependency on thermal gradients in electrodynamic gradient (EDG) furnaces. Results explain how larger furnace gradients in these systems tend to flatten the shape of the solid–liquid interface. Convection dominates heat transfer through the melt, and mixing acts to radially homogenize the melt temperature field. These features do not

Lisa Lun; Andrew Yeckel; Michael Reed; Csaba Szeles; Prodromos Daoutidis; Jeffrey J. Derby

2006-01-01

240

A valve-maintained high-frequency induction furnace and some notes on the performance of induction furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is divided into two parts. In Part I the electrical design is given of a valve-operated high-frequency induction furnace, together with some details of its performance, and in Part II a theory of the behaviour of induction furnaces in general is developed, and some experimental results supporting the theory are given.

G Eric Bell

1927-01-01

241

Fibonacci lattices application for furnace processes control  

SciTech Connect

Universal structures formed during the fuel oxidizer and combustion mixing process are characterized by the Fibonacci gold ratio. This paper will demonstrate how the gold ratio can be used for control action in combustion. The combustion character in furnace apparatuses is in large part dependent on a reagent motion regime. In general, there are three such regimes: lamina (L), lamina-preturbulent or quasi-periodic (LPT) and turbulent-mixing (TM). Compound structures are absent from the L-regime and are characterized by a low Reynolds number Re. As Re increases the periodic regime remains consistent but one frequency process appears. The LPT and TM regimes are independent of material physical carriers and are characterized by the universal relationship of the oscillate frequencies, the so-called ``golden sections`` F*{sup n}, where F* is the gold ratio (F* = 1.618...) and n is the integer such that the degree of mixing is in proportion to n.

Khavkin, Y. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Maktin, G.M. [A.O. NIVA, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

242

NOx reduction in a lignite cyclone furnace  

SciTech Connect

Reburning, selective catalytic reduction, and selective noncatalytic reduction techniques have demonstrated some potential for NOx reduction in cyclone boilers. These techniques are costly in terms of both capital and operating costs. Lignite cyclone combustion modeling studies indicated that modifying combustion inside the cyclone barrel could reduce cyclone NOx emissions. The modeling showed that air staging, secondary air basing, flue gas injection and variations in coal moisture content could affect NOx emissions. Short term lignite boiler tests and now longer term boiler operation have confirmed that significant NOx reductions can be accomplished merely by modifying cyclone combustion. The low NOx operation does not appear to significantly impact maintenance, reliability or capacity of the cyclone burner or furnace.

Melland, C. [Leland Olds Generating Station, Stanton, ND (United States); O`Connor, D. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1998-12-31

243

Mercury in dumped blast furnace sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste generated in the production of pig iron and was dumped in sedimentation ponds. As these wastes often contain high contents of zinc, lead, cadmium, and arsenic, significant hazards to environmental surroundings may arise from former BFS sedimentation ponds. Sixty-five samples from seven BFS locations in Europe were investigated regarding the toxic element mercury (Hg) for the first time. The charge material of the blast furnace operations (coke, iron ores, and additives such as olivine, bauxite, ilmenite and gravels) revealed Hg contents from 0.015 to 0.093 mg kg-1. In comparison, the Hg content of BFS varied between 0.006 and 20.8 mg kg-1 with a median of 1.63 mg kg-1, which indicates enrichment with Hg. For one site with a larger sample set (n = 31), Hg showed a stronger correlation with the total non-calcareous carbon (C) including coke and graphite (r = 0.695; n = 31; p < 0.001). It can be assumed that these C-rich compounds are hosting phases for Hg. The solubility of Hg was rather low and did not exceed 0.43% of total Hg. The correlation between the total Hg concentration and total amount of NH4NO3-soluble Hg was relatively poor (r = 0.496; n = 27; p = 0.008) indicating varying hazard potentials of the different BFS. Consequently, BFS is a mercury-containing waste and dumped BFS should be regarded as potentially mercury-contaminated sites.

Földi, Corinna

2014-05-01

244

Ceramic coating used on MWC furnace walls  

SciTech Connect

Fire-side corrosion of Municipal Waste Combustor (MWC) furnace walls has been a significant problem for these units. This corrosion can take place quite rapidly. Within less than a year major tube failures have occurred. The corrosion mechanisms and history of various units have been well documented previously. The commonly used answer to this corrosion is use of Inconel 625 weld overlay. It is often applied after erection of units, because the corrosion or its location is unforeseen. Two major problems with the Inconel 625 weld overlay is its high initial cost and the subsequent maintenance due to imperfections in the overlay during its application. Now, a thin, ceramic coating has proven its ability to protect the carbon steel tubes and survive the furnace environment. As of April, 1995, it will have about 10 months of service at the SPSA operated MWC plant. Its cost is a fraction of Inconel 625 weld overlay. Since it forms a continuous coating there are very few imperfections in the coating. One key feature of the ceramic coating is its thermal expansion rate is similar to carbon steel. This eliminates flaking of the ceramic coating. A brief review of the SPSA/NNSY Steam/Power Plant operating characteristics is presented. Maps showing loss of metal (based on ultrasonic testing) in a number of units are presented. Then physical and chemical properties of the ceramic coating are discussed. The costs of various alternatives are compared. This ceramic coating will prove to save MWCs millions of dollars. It can be used to go over poor Inconel overlay work.

Parker, P.R. [Southeastern Public Service Authority, Portsmouth, VA (United States); Zvosec, C. [CETEK, Transfer, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

245

Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 Degree-Sign C) and high ({approx}800 Degree-Sign C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 Degree-Sign C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 Degree-Sign C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 Degree-Sign C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Rigby, Wayne [Specialty Vacuum, Placitas, New Mexico 87043 (United States); Wallace, John [Casting Analysis Corporation, Weyers Cave, Virginia 24468 (United States)

2012-06-15

246

Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low (˜120 °C) and high (˜800 °C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 °C with a maximum pressure of ˜1 × 10-5 Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 °C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 °C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of ˜2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Rigby, Wayne; Wallace, John; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

2012-06-01

247

Development of silicon purification by strong radiation catalysis method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a new type of solar furnace and a specially designed induction furnace, cost effective and highly efficient purification of metallurgical silicon into solar grade silicon can be achieved. It is realized by a new method for extracting boron from silicon with the aid of photo-chemical effect. In this article, we discussed the postulated principle of strong radiation catalysis and

Ying-Tian Chen; Tso-Hsiu Ho; Chern-Sing Lim; Han Lim Boon

2010-01-01

248

Computer systems for controlling blast furnace operations at Rautaruukki  

SciTech Connect

Energy accounts for a significant portion of the total blast furnace production costs and, to minimize energy consumption, both technical and economical aspects have to be considered. Thus, considerable attention has been paid to blast furnace energy consumption and productivity. The most recent furnace relines were in 1985 and 1986. At that time, the furnaces were modernized and instrumentation was increased. After the relines, operation control and monitoring of the process is done by a basic automation systems (DCS`s and PLC`s) and a supervision system (process computer). The supervision system is the core of the control system combining reports, special displays, trends and mathematical models describing in-furnace phenomena. Low energy consumption together with high productivity and stable blast furnace operation have been achieved due to an improvement in raw materials quality and implementation of automation and computer systems to control blast furnace operation. Currently, the fuel rate is low and productivity is in excess of 3.0 tonnes/cu meter/day, which is one of the highest values achieved anywhere for long-term operation.

Inkala, P.; Karppinen, A. [Rautaruukki Oy, Raahe (Finland); Seppanen, M. [Rautaruukki Oy Engineering, Oulu (Finland)

1995-08-01

249

No. 5 blast furnace 1995 reline and upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The 1995 reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is an undertaking which has never been approached in previous relines of any blast furnace in the history of Wheeling Pittsburgh Steel Corporation. The scope of the project is such that it represents a radical departure from W.P.S.C.`s traditional methods of ironmaking. The reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is one of the largest capital improvements performed at W.P.S.C. Blast Furnaces. The improvements made at one single time are taking a furnace from 1960`s technology into the 21st century. With this in mind, employee training was one of the largest parts of the project. Training for the automated stockhouse, castfloor, new skip drive, new instrumentation, new castfloor equipment, hydraulics and overall furnace operation were an absolute necessity. The reline has laid the ground work to give the Corporation an efficient, higher productive, modern Blast Furnace which will place W.P.S.C. in the world class category in ironmaking well into the 21st century.

Kakascik, T.F. Jr.

1996-12-31

250

Application of AI techniques to blast furnace operations  

SciTech Connect

It was during the first stages of application of artificial intelligence (AI) to industrial fields, that the ironmaking division of Mizushima works at Kawasaki Steel recognized its potential. Since that time, the division has sought applications for these techniques to solve various problems. AI techniques applied to control the No. 3 blast furnace operations at the Mizushima works include: Blast furnace control by a diagnostic type of expert system that gives guidance to the actions required for blast furnace operation as well as control of furnace heat by automatically setting blast temperature; Hot stove combustion control by a combination of fuzzy inference and a physical model to insure good thermal efficiency of the stove; and blast furnace burden control using neural networks makes it possible to connect the pattern of gas flow distribution with the condition of the furnace. Experience of AI to control the blast furnace and other ironmaking operations has proved its capability for achieving automation and increased operating efficiency. The benefits are very high. For these reasons, the applications of AI techniques will be extended in the future and new techniques studied to further improve the power of AI.

Iida, Osamu; Ushijima, Yuichi; Sawada, Toshiro [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Kurashiki (Japan)

1995-10-01

251

Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

2014-09-01

252

Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

2014-08-01

253

Numerical Simulation in Combustion Space of an Oxy-fuel Glass Furnace with Different Jet Angles of Auxiliary Oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulation in the combustion space of an oxy-fuel glass furnace was carried out. In order to obtain better combustion efficiency, the cases by adding auxiliary oxygen inlet with different jet angles of auxiliary oxygen from 0 degrees to 90 degrees were compared. The gas phase is expressed with two-equation model, while the combustion with non-premixed model and the radiation

Xinjie Fu; Hailiang Zhang; Junlin Xie; Shuxia Mei

2010-01-01

254

34. REDUCTION PLANT Furnace and boiler which provided steam heat ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. REDUCTION PLANT Furnace and boiler which provided steam heat required in converting fish, and fish offal, into meal and fish oil. Cone shaped tank at right held extracted oil. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

255

View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer on second floor of structure, view towards southeast - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

256

44. View looking west down length of No. 2 Furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. View looking west down length of No. 2 Furnace casting shed showing overhead traveling crane. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

257

Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and Repossessed Uranium in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

258

SITE - DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY - MINERGY CORPORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) was developed by Minergy Corporation (Minergy), of Waukesha, Wisconsin. Minergy originally developed vitrification technologies to process wastewater sludge into glass aggregate that could be sold as a commercial product. Minergy modified a st...

259

38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ladle car on floor of casting shed. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

260

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. 1920) AND DC MOTORS (which raise and lower the bus bars) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

261

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING NO. 1 FURNACE. TO RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING NO. 1 FURNACE. TO RIGHT ARE D.C. MOTORS (which raise and lower the bus bars) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

262

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING HEROULT NO. 2 FURNACE (ca. 1920) AND DETAIL OF CABLES AND BUS BARS (which convey power to electrodes) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

263

Prospects for the construction of solar furnaces for industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The various techniques and prototype installations employed to absorb and concentrate solar energy for use in applications requiring 100-4000 C temperatures are explored. Mention is made of the Pericles heliostat field and the THEK distributed parabolic concentrator installations, and attention is focused on viable concepts useful for industrial purposes. The Odeillo solar furnace provided design guidelines and requirements for industrial usage. It was found that the reliability of the furnace depends on the annual insolation, that the solar furnaces must be designed to meet specific thermal goals, that simplification and optimization are needed for the orientation and focusing mechanisms, and that solar furnaces are ideally suited for developing nations which experience high levels of insolation. A stepped paraboloid is described for improving the efficiency of a heliostat system, while still employing plane parallel mirrors.

La Blanchetais, Ch. H.

264

VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, OF BULLION FURNACE AND HOOD AT RIGHT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, OF BULLION FURNACE AND HOOD AT RIGHT, AMALGAM PRESS ON STAND AT LEFT FOREGROUND, AND AMALGAMATION BARREL BEHIND IT. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

265

5. Photocopy of drawing of Mac Dougall furnace in roaster ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photocopy of drawing of Mac Dougall furnace in roaster building from John L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy Ginn & Co., New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Roaster Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

266

SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

This SITE demonstration of the Minergy Corporation (Minergy) Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) evaluated the technlogy's ability to reduce polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and metal concentrations in river sediment. Performance and economic data were collected during this evaluation....

267

MINERGY CORPORATION GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents performance and economic data for a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program demonstration of the Minergy Corporation (Minergy) Glass Furnace Technology (GFT). The demonstration evaluated the techno...

268

Vitrification of electric arc furnace dusts.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace baghouse dust (EAFD), a waste by-product of the steelmaking process, contains the elements that are volatilized from the charge during the melting (Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd). The results of leaching tests show that the concentration of these elements exceeds the regulatory limits. Consequently, EAFD cannot be disposed of in ordinary landfill sites without stabilization of the heavy metals. In this work, the vitrification of EAFD, from both carbon and stainless steel productions, were studied. The vitrification process was selected as the inertizing process because it permits the immobilization of the hazardous elements in the glass network and represents an environmentally acceptable method for the stabilization of this waste. Classes of various compositions were obtained by mixing EAFD with glass cullet and sand. The EAFD and the glass products were characterized by DTA, TG, X-ray analysis and by the TCLP test. The results show that the stability of the product is influenced by the glass structure, which mainly depends on the Si/O ratio. Secondary crystallization heat-treatment were carried out on some samples. The results highlighted the formation of spinel phases, which reduced the chemical durability in acid media. The possibility to recover Zn from carbon steel production EAFD was investigated and about 60-70% of metal recovery was obtained. The resulting glass show higher chemical stability than glasses obtained without metal recovery. PMID:12423059

Pelino, M; Karamanov, A; Pisciella, P; Crisucci, S; Zonetti, D

2002-01-01

269

Triple-activated blast furnace slag  

SciTech Connect

The current shortage of portland cement in the world will require the use of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) to fill demands in many industrialized countries. Therefore, an extensive series of triple-activated slag experiments have been undertaken to optimize an economical combination of mechanical properties for alkali-activated slags. Na{sub 2}OSiO{sub 2} (N Grade), Ca(OH){sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} have been added as activators in 5 to 10, 0 to 5 and 0 to 5 weight percentages of water and slag in a mix with a water:cement ratio of 1:1. Silica Fume and Sika 10 superplasticizer have been added as 1 and 10 weight percent of slag. Set times, initial hardening times and compressive strengths at percentages of the mix to identify more refined formulations. Finally, the resulting aggregate to develop a triple-activated slag formulation with the ultimate objective of contributing toward satisfying the world shortage of high performance concrete.

Clarke, W.J. [Geochemical Corporation, Ridgewood, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31

270

Reactions of sinter in a lead blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the composition of the condensed phases derived from the sinter feed to a commercial lead blast furnace are\\u000a presented. No significant reaction was detected at a level in the furnace above about 3 m from the tuyeres, at which the measured\\u000a temperature was about 800 ?C. The reaction zone was predominantly in a region 1 m to 2

David R. Morris; Brent R. Amero; Philip G. Evans; William Petruk; D. R. Owens

1983-01-01

271

16. Coke 'fines' bin at Furnace D. After delivery to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Coke 'fines' bin at Furnace D. After delivery to the trestle bins, the coke was screened and the coke 'fines' or breeze, were transported by conveyor to the coke fines bins where it was collected and leaded into dump trucks. The coke fines were then sold for fuel to a sinter plant in Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

272

MUZO flight experience with the programmable multizone furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multi-Zone (MUZO) furnace has been developed for growing germanium (Ge) crystals under microgravity in a Get Away Special (GAS) payload. The MUZO furnace was launched with STS-47 Endeavour in September 1992. The payload worked as planned during the flight and a Ge sample was successfully processed. The experiment has given valuable scientific information. The design and functionality of the payload together with flight experience is reported.

Lockowandt, Christian; Loth, Kenneth

1993-01-01

273

A pressurized drop-tube furnace for coal reactivity studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and characterization of a pressurized drop-tube furnace for investigation of coal devolatilization, gasification, and combustion are presented. The furnace is designed for high-temperature, isothermal operation in a developing laminar flow regime. It can be operated at pressures up to 1600 kPa, and temperatures up to 1673 K, with variable reaction time, particle feeding rate, and with inert and

Shan Ouyang; Hasina Yeasmin; Joseph Mathews

1998-01-01

274

Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?  

SciTech Connect

Residential two-stage gas furnaces account for almost a quarter of the total number of models listed in the March 2005 GAMA directory of equipment certified for sale in the United States. Two-stage furnaces are expanding their presence in the market mostly because they meet consumer expectations for improved comfort. Currently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure serves as the method for reporting furnace total fuel and electricity consumption under laboratory conditions. In 2006, American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) proposed an update to its test procedure which corrects some of the discrepancies found in the DOE test procedure and provides an improved methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The objectives of this paper are to explore the differences in the methods for calculating two-stage residential gas furnace energy consumption in the DOE test procedure and in the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure and to compare test results to research results from field tests. Overall, the DOE test procedure shows a reduction in the total site energy consumption of about 3 percent for two-stage compared to single-stage furnaces at the same efficiency level. In contrast, the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure shows almost no difference in the total site energy consumption. The 2006 ASHRAE test procedure appears to provide a better methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The results indicate that, although two-stage technology by itself does not save site energy, the combination of two-stage furnaces with BPM motors provides electricity savings, which are confirmed by field studies.

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

2006-05-12

275

Furnace Controls Using High Temperature Preheated Combustion Air  

E-print Network

FURNACE CONTROLS USING HIGH TEMPERATURE PREHEATED COMBUSTION AIR Jeffrey M. Gonzalez Wilfred J. Rebello GTE Products Corporation PAR Enterprises, Inc. Towanda, Pennsylvania Fairfax, Virginia ABSTRACT GTE Products Corporation (Towanda... available ratio control apparatus. Various control sys (I) was the development of a different way of looking at combustion. As preheated combustion air temperatures increase, excess air Industrial furnaces generally utilize air as the basic source...

Gonzales, J. M.; Rebello, W. J.

1981-01-01

276

Modelling of multiphase flow in ironmaking blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model for the four-phase (gas, powder, liquid, and solids) flow in a two-dimensional ironmaking blast furnace is presented by extending the existing two-fluid flow models. The model describes the motion of gas, solid, and powder phases, based on the continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the flow of liquids, such as metal and slag in a blast furnace. The model results demonstrate a solid stagnant zone and dense powder hold-up region, as well as a dense liquid flow region that exists in the lower part of a blast furnace, which are consistent with the experimental observations reported in the literature. The simulation is extended to investigate the effects of packing properties and operational conditions on the flow and the volume fraction distribution of each phase in a blast furnace. It is found that solid movement has a significant effect on powder holdup distribution. Small solid particles and low porosity distribution are predicted to affect the fluid flow considerably, and this can cause deterioration in bed permeability. The dynamic powder holdup in a furnace increases significantly with the increase of powder diameter. The findings should be useful to better understand and control blast furnace operations.

Dong, X.F.; Yu, A.B.; Burgess, J.M.; Pinson, D.; Chew, S.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School for Material Science and Engineering

2009-01-15

277

A pressurized drop-tube furnace for coal reactivity studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and characterization of a pressurized drop-tube furnace for investigation of coal devolatilization, gasification, and combustion are presented. The furnace is designed for high-temperature, isothermal operation in a developing laminar flow regime. It can be operated at pressures up to 1600 kPa, and temperatures up to 1673 K, with variable reaction time, particle feeding rate, and with inert and various oxidizing atmospheres. Particle residence times can be varied between ˜0.02 and ˜10 s depending upon operating conditions and positions of injection and sampling probes. Observations ports are available for sample collections and for optical investigation of the reactions or temperature measurements. Characterization of gas temperature in the furnace shows that, although the gas temperature profile in the furnace is affected by the water-cooled injection probe, the furnace is able to achieve isothermal operation in a developing laminar flow regime. Results from a series of brown coal devolatilization tests demonstrated the suitability of the furnace for experiments in coal research.

Ouyang, Shan; Yeasmin, Hasina; Mathews, Joseph

1998-08-01

278

Laboratory Evaluation of Residential Furnace BlowerPerformance  

SciTech Connect

A testing program was undertaken at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and an electric utility (Pacific Gas and Electric Co.) to compare the performance of furnace blowers. This laboratory testing program was undertaken to support potential changes to California Building Standards regarding in-field furnace blower energy use. This technical support includes identifying suitable performance metrics and target performance levels for use in standards. Five different combinations of blowers and residential furnaces were tested for air moving performance. Three different types of blower and motor combinations were tested in two different furnace cabinets. The blowers were standard forward--curved impellors and a prototype impeller with reverse-inclined blades. The motors were two 6-pole permanent split capacitor (PSC) single-phase induction motors, a brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motor and a prototype BPM designed for use with a prototype reverse-inclined impellor. The laboratory testing operated each blower and furnace combination over a range of air flows and pressure differences to determine air flow performance, power consumption and efficiency. Additional tests varied the clearance between the blower housing and the furnace cabinet, and the routing of air flow into the blower cabinet.

Walker, Iain S.; Lutz, Jim D.

2005-09-01

279

An Overview of the Thermal Challenges of Designing Microgravity Furnaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshall Space Flight Center is involved in a wide variety of microgravity projects that require furnaces, with hot zone temperatures ranging from 300 C to 2300 C, requirements for gradient processing and rapid quench, and both semi-conductor and metal materials. On these types of projects, the thermal engineer is a key player in the design process. Microgravity furnaces present unique challenges to the thermal designer. One challenge is designing a sample containment assembly that achieves dual containment, yet allows a high radial heat flux. Another challenge is providing a high axial gradient but a very low radial gradient. These furnaces also present unique challenges to the thermal analyst. First, there are several orders of magnitude difference in the size of the thermal 'conductors' between various parts of the model. A second challenge is providing high fidelity in the sample model, and connecting the sample with the rest of the furnace model, yet maintaining some sanity in the number of total nodes in the model. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the challenges involved in designing and analyzing microgravity furnaces and how some of these challenges have been overcome. The thermal analysis tools presently used to analyze microgravity furnaces and will be listed. Challenges for the future and a description of future analysis tools will be given.

Westra, Douglas G.

2001-01-01

280

Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces  

DOEpatents

The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

Mee, D.K.; Stephens, A.E.

1980-06-06

281

Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces  

DOEpatents

The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

Mee, David K. (Knoxville, TN); Stephens, Albert E. (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01

282

Determination of the furnace effect of two high-temperature furnaces on metal-carbon eutectic points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the determination of the temperature distribution in the range from 1300 °C to 2500°C is introduced in this paper. This method was adapted to characterize the two high temperature furnaces used at LNE-Cnam: the Chino IR-R80 and the VNIIOFI HTBB 3200pg. Temperature profiles are given at three furnace temperatures, corresponding to the three most studied metal-carbon eutectic points: Co-C (1324 °C), Pt-C (1738 °C) and Re-C (2474 °C). These three fixed points were then studied in the two furnaces in different known temperature profiles, in order to determine their sensitivity to the temperature distribution. Finally, a discussion on what can be included in the term "furnace effect" is proposed.

Bourson, F.; Briaudeau, S.; Rougié, B.; Sadli, M.

2013-09-01

283

Mathematical simulation of conjugate heat exchange in heating furnaces with a moving bottom  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of conjugate heat exchange in heating furnaces with a moving bottom (ring furnaces and walking-beam furnaces)\\u000a has been developed. The model allows one to determine the heating of steel blanks in these furnaces with account for all mechanisms\\u000a of heat transfer in the high-temperature working region of a furnace, in its lining, and in the steel blanks.

V. I. Timoshpol’skii; M. L. German; P. S. Grinchuk; S. M. Kabishov

2006-01-01

284

Electric furnaces. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning electric furnaces and devices to improve safety and efficiency. Arc melting furnaces and vertical lifted portable furnaces are among those described. Patents describing online monitoring and control of electric furnaces are included. Devices that exhaust gases and fumes and recycle furnace dust are also mentioned. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-05-01

285

Modeling Effects of Soot and Turbulence-Radiation Coupling on Radiative Transfer in Turbulent Gaseous Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional combustion model which couples turbulent flow statistics with chemical reactions and radiative heat transfer is used to evaluate the effect of soot and turbulence-radiation coupling on radiative transfer in an industrial-scale furnace. Radiation and soot formation models are presented which include the nonlinear dependencies between fluid turbulence effects, soot formation and radiative absorption and emission in the participating

B. R. ADAMS; P. J. SMITH

1995-01-01

286

Experimental investigations on visualization of three-dimensional temperature distributions in a large-scale pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using a novel flame image processing technique, the 3-D temperature distributions of combustion in the pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnace of a 200MW power generation unit were visualized experimentally. With the assumption of gray radiation, multiple color flame image detectors were used to capture approximately monochromatic radiation intensity images under the visible wavelengths of red (R), green (G), and blue (B),

Huai-Chun Zhou; Chun Lou; Qiang Cheng; Zhiwei Jiang; Jin He; Benyuan Huang; Zhenlin Pei; Chuanxin Lu

2005-01-01

287

Feasibility of high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry in flame and furnace for sulphur determination in petroleum products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, high-resolution molecular absorption spectrometry with a high-intensity xenon lamp as radiation source has been applied for the determination of sulphur in crude oil and petroleum products. The samples were analysed as xylene solutions using vaporisation in acetylene-air flame or in an electrothermally heated graphite furnace. The sensitive rotational lines of the CS molecule, belonging to the ?? = 0 vibrational sequence within the electronic transition X 1? + ? A 1?, were applied. For graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry, the Pd + Mg organic modifier was selected. Strong interactions with Pd atoms enable easier decomposition of sulphur-containing compounds, likely through the temporal formation of Pd xS y molecules. At the 258.056 nm line, with the wavelength range covering central pixel ± 5 pixels and with application of interactive background correction, the detection limit was 14 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and 18 mg kg -1 in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. Meanwhile, application of 2-points background correction found a characteristic mass of 12 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and a characteristic concentration of 104 mg kg -1 in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. The range of application of the proposed methods turned out to be significantly limited by the properties of the sulphur compounds of interest. In the case of volatile sulphur compounds, which can be present in light petroleum products, severe difficulties were encountered. On the contrary, heavy oils and residues from distillation as well as crude oil could be analysed using both flame and graphite furnace vaporisation. The good accuracy of the proposed methods for these samples was confirmed by their mutual consistency and the results from analysis of reference samples (certified reference materials and home reference materials with sulphur content determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry).

Kowalewska, Zofia

2011-07-01

288

Trial injection of prereduced fine ore through blast furnace tuyere  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing demand for greatly raising the productivity of hot metal which is produced with low cost at the existing blast furnace because large investments for installing a new blast furnace is required nowadays. In this connection, the injection of fine ore through the blast furnace tuyere is available as one of the techniques meeting the demand. There was a case where an attempt had ever been made to inject crude fine ore even in the past. In this case, it was aimed primarily at reducing Si content of hot metal. However, this was not put to practical use by the reason that the lower part of blast furnace was sensitively affected by heat fluctuation resulted from the endothermic reduction reaction of injected crude fine ore. The increase of heat fluctuation gave difficulty in maintenance of stable operation of the furnace. This presentation devotes discussions on the effect of injection of prereduced fine ore and some technical questions to be worked out for injection.

Okuno, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Takamoto, Yasushi; Kunitomo, Kazuya

1996-12-31

289

Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part III. Control of furnace atmosphere composition with a zirconia oxygen sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas carburizing experiments were conducted in a batch-type sealed-quench furnace using furnace atmospheres produced by the reaction of propane and air within the furnace. The air-propane ratio of the inlet gases was automatically controlled to maintain a constant oxygen potential, as measured by a zirconia oxygen sensor, within the furnace. The results of carburizing trials at 843 and 927 °C are described. The effect of inlet gas flow rate on furnace atmosphere composition and the amount of carburizing is illustrated.

Stickels, C. A.; Mack, C. M.; Pieprzak, J. A.

1980-09-01

290

Raceway control with oxygen, steam and coal for stable blast furnace operation  

SciTech Connect

Tata Steel operates seven blast furnaces at its Jamshedpur works. Coal injection was introduced in the three larger furnaces starting in 1991, and coal tar injection was commissioned in the A blast furnace in June, 1996. Presently, a coal injection level of 130 kg/thm has been achieved at G blast furnace, which is the newest and the largest among all blast furnaces at Tata Steel. The paper discusses the operational features of the blast furnaces at Tata Steel, practical limits of fuel injection, the philosophy of the control of raceway conditions, and experience with fuel injection at Tata Steel.

Chatterjee, L.M. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

1996-12-31

291

Portland cement-blast furnace slag blends in oilwell cementing applications  

SciTech Connect

Recent investigations of blast furnace slag cementing technologies. have been expanded to include Portland cement/blast furnace slag blends. Mixtures of Portland cement and blast furnace slag, while having a long history of use in the construction industry, have not been used extensively in oilwell cementing applications. Test results indicate that blending blast furnace slag with Portland cement produces a high quality well cementing material. Presented are the design guidelines and laboratory test data relative to mixtures of blast furnace slag and Portland cements. Case histories delineating the use of blast furnace slag - Portland cement blends infield applications are also included.

Mueller, D.T.; DiLullo, G.; Hibbeler, J. [and others

1995-12-31

292

VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER STATION IN THE CASTING SHOP. (OTHER UNITS MELT BRASS ALLOYS.) THIS IS THE SOUTHERNMOST FURNACE OF THE FOUR PRESENTLY IN SITU. THE CURRENT CASTING SHOP WAS CONSTRUCTED DURING THE EARLY 1970'S, REPLACING THE ORIGINAL PRE-WWI FACILITY. STATIONS #02, 03, AND 04 EACH CONSIST OF A HOLDER FLANKED BY A PAIR OF 800 KW ELECTRIC MELTERS. THE HOLDER IS REHEATED AT 85,000 LBS. SHAKER BOX, LOCATED AT THE REAR OF EACH MELTER SUPPLY THE MIXTURE OF INGREDIENTS REQUIRED FOR EACH PARTICULAR ALLOY. ONE MEMBER OF THE THREE-MAN CASTING TEAMS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SHAKING METAL INTO THE MELTERS. IN THE LOWER RIGHT ARE SHOWN THE MOLD STORAGE AREA AND THE FURNACE BUILDERS' AREA FOR CHIPPING AND REBRICKING OFF-LINE UNITS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

293

VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER STATION IN THE CASTING SHOP. (OTHER UNITS MELT BRASS ALLOYS.) THIS IS THE SOUTHERNMOST FURNACE OF THE FOUR PRESENTLY IN SITU. THE CURRENT CASTING SHOP WAS CONSTRUCTED DURING THE EARLY 1970'S, REPLACING THE ORIGINAL PRE-WWI FACILITY. STATIONS #02,03, AND 04 EACH CONSIST OF A HOLDER FLANKED BY A PAIR OF 800 KW ELECTRIC MELTERS. THE HOLDER IS RATED AT 85,000 LBS. SHAKER BOXES, LOCATED AT THE REAR OF EACH MELTER SUPPLY THE MIXTURE OF INGREDIENTS REQUIRED FOR EACH PARTICULAR ALLOY. ONE MEMBER OF THE THREE-MAN CASTING TEAMS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SHAKING METAL INTO THE MELTERS. IN THE LOWER RIGHT ARE SHOWN THE MOLD STORAGE AREA AND THE FURNACE BUILDERS' AREA FOR CHIPPING AND REBRICKING OFF-LINE UNITS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

294

IMPROVED FURNACE EFFICIENCY THROUGH THE USE OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes efforts performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in collaboration with industrial refractory manufacturers, refractory users, and academic institutions, to improve energy efficiency of U.S. industry through increased furnace efficiency brought about by the employment of novel refractory systems and techniques. Work in furnace applications related to aluminum, gasification, and lime are discussed. The energy savings strategies discussed are achieved through reduction of chemical reactions, elimination of mechanical degradation caused by the service environment, reduction of temperature limitations of materials, and elimination of costly installation and repair needs. Key results of several case studies resulting from a US Department of Energy (DOE) funded research program are discussed with emphasis on applicability of these results to high temperature furnace applications.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL

2011-01-01

295

Genetic algorithms for multicriteria shape optimization of induction furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution we deal with a multi-criteria shape optimization of an induction furnace. We want to find shape parameters of the furnace in such a way, that two different criteria are optimized. Since they cannot be optimized simultaneously, instead of one optimum we find set of partially optimal designs, so called Pareto front. We compare two different approaches to the optimization, one using nonlinear conjugate gradient method and second using variation of genetic algorithm. As can be seen from the numerical results, genetic algorithm seems to be the right choice for this problem. Solution of direct problem (coupled problem consisting of magnetic and heat field) is done using our own code Agros2D. It uses finite elements of higher order leading to fast and accurate solution of relatively complicated coupled problem. It also provides advanced scripting support, allowing us to prepare parametric model of the furnace and simply incorporate various types of optimization algorithms.

K?s, Pavel; Mach, František; Karban, Pavel; Doležel, Ivo

2012-09-01

296

2200 C oxidizing atmosphere furnace for space manufacturing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a high temperature furnace is presented which uses electrically conducting ceramic oxide heating elements. The heating elements are made of either thoria or stabilized zirconia which become conductive when preheated to 700 to 1000 C. These heater elements can be operated to 2200 C in oxidizing or inert atmospheres. The furnace is being designed to have a temperature which can be controlled to within 11 C. By a replacement of the heater element, the working cavity can be changed from isothermal to a cavity with a selected specific axial temperature gradient of up to 200 C per centimeter. This furnace concept is appropriate for the growth of crystals which might be grown best in an oxidizing atmosphere such as sapphire (melting point 2040 C), yttrium aluminum garnet (1970 C) or yttrium orthoaluminate (1875 C).

Halbach, C. R.; Page, R. J.; Arthur, P. D.

1974-01-01

297

Application of Argonne's Glass Furnace Model to longhorn glass corporation oxy-fuel furnace for the production of amber glass.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to apply the Argonne National Laboratory's Glass Furnace Model (GFM) to the Longhorn oxy-fuel furnace to improve energy efficiency and to investigate the transport of gases released from the batch/melt into the exhaust. The model will make preliminary estimates of the local concentrations of water, carbon dioxide, elemental oxygen, and other subspecies in the entire combustion space as well as the concentration of these species in the furnace exhaust gas. This information, along with the computed temperature distribution in the combustion space may give indications on possible locations of crown corrosion. An investigation into the optimization of the furnace will be performed by varying several key parameters such as the burner firing pattern, exhaust number/size, and the boost usage (amount and distribution). Results from these parametric studies will be analyzed to determine more efficient methods of operating the furnace that reduce crown corrosion. Finally, computed results from the GFM will be qualitatively correlated to measured values, thus augmenting the validation of the GFM.

Golchert, B.; Shell, J.; Jones, S.; Energy Systems; Shell Glass Consulting; Anheuser-Busch Packaging Group

2006-09-06

298

Furnace Blower Electricity: National and Regional Savings Potential  

SciTech Connect

Currently, total electricity consumption of furnaces is unregulated, tested at laboratory conditions using the DOE test procedure, and is reported in the GAMA directory as varying from 76 kWh/year to 1,953 kWh/year. Furnace blowers account for about 80percent of the total furnace electricity consumption and are primarily used to distribute warm air throughout the home during furnace operation as well as distribute cold air during air conditioning operation. Yet the furnace test procedure does not provide a means to calculate the electricity consumption during cooling operation or standby, which account for a large fraction of the total electricity consumption. Furthermore, blower electricity consumption is strongly affected by static pressure. Field data shows that static pressure in the house distribution ducts varies widely and that the static pressure used in the test procedure as well as the calculated fan power is not representative of actual field installations. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important to address electricity consumption of furnaces and air conditioners. This paper compares the potential regional and national energy savings of two-stage brushless permanent magnet (BPM) blower motors (the blower design option with the most potential savings that is currently available in the market) to single-stage permanent split capacitor (PSC) blower motors (the most common blower design option). Computer models were used to generate the heating and cooling loads for typical homes in 16 different climates which represent houses throughout the United States. The results show that the potential savings of using BPM motors vary by region and house characteristics, and are very strongly tied to improving house distribution ducts. Savings decrease dramatically with increased duct pressure. Cold climate locations will see savings even in the high static pressure duct situations, while warm climate locations will see less savings overall and negative savings in the high static pressure duct situations. Moderate climate locations will see little or no savings.

Florida Solar Energy Center; Franco, Victor; Franco, Victor; Lutz, Jim; Lekov, Alex; Gu, Lixing

2008-05-16

299

Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance and Operability Test Procedure  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed LOI equipment, including a model 1608FL CM{trademark} Furnace, a dessicator, and balance. The operability of the furnace will be verified. The arrangement of the equipment placed in Glovebox 157-3/4 to perform Loss on Ignition (LOI) testing on samples supplied from the Thermal Stabilization line will be verified. In addition to verifying proper operation of the furnace, this ATP/OTP will also verify the air flow through the filters, verify a damper setting to establish and maintain the required differential pressure between the glovebox and the room pressure, and test the integrity of the newly installed HEPA filter. In order to provide objective evidence of proper performance of the furnace, the furnace must heat 15 crucibles, mounted on a crucible rack, to 1000 C, according to a program entered into the furnace controller located outside the glovebox. The glovebox differential pressure will be set to provide the 0.5 to 2.0 inches of water (gauge) negative pressure inside the glovebox with an airflow of 100 to 125 cubic feet per minute (cfm) through the inlet filter. The glovebox inlet Glfilter will he flow tested to ensure the integrity of the filter connections and the efficiency of the filter medium. The newly installed windows and glovebox extension, as well as all disturbed joints, will be sonically tested via ultra probe to verify no leaks are present. The procedure for DOS testing of the filter is found in Appendix A.

JOHNSON, D.C.

2000-06-01

300

Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance and Operability Test Procedure  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed Loss on Ignition (LOI) equipment, including a model 1608FL CMTM Furnace, a dessicator, and balance. The operability of the furnace will be verified. The arrangement of the equipment placed in Glovebox 157-3/4 to perform LOI testing on samples supplied from the Thermal Stabilization line will be verified. In addition to verifying proper operation of the furnace, this ATP/OTP will also verify the air flow through the filters, verify a damper setting to establish and maintain the required differential pressure between the glovebox and the room pressure, and test the integrity of the newly installed HEPA filter. In order to provide objective evidence of proper performance of the furnace, the furnace must heat 15 crucibles, mounted on a crucible rack, to 1000 C, according to a program entered into the furnace controller located outside the glovebox. The glovebox differential pressure will be set to provide the 0.5 to 2.0 inches of water (gauge) negative pressure inside the glovebox with an expected airflow of 100 to 125 cubic feet per minute (cfm) through the inlet filter. The glovebox inlet G1 filter will be flow tested to ensure the integrity of the filter connections and the efficiency of the filter medium. The newly installed windows and glovebox extension, as well as all disturbed joints, will be sonically tested via ultra probe to verify no leaks are present. The procedure for DOS testing of the filter is found in Appendix A.

JOHNSTON, D.C.

2000-08-23

301

Adaptive temperature profile control of a multizone crystal growth furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intelligent measurement system is described which is used to assess the shape of a crystal while it is growing inside a multizone transparent furnace. A color video imaging system observes the crystal in real time, and determines the position and the shape of the interface. This information is used to evaluate the crystal growth rate, and to analyze the effects of translational velocity and temperature profiles on the shape of the interface. Creation of this knowledge base is the first step to incorporate image processing into furnace control.

Batur, C.; Sharpless, R. B.; Duval, W. M. B.; Rosenthal, B. N.

1991-01-01

302

Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V/1000 A DC as an example, the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat loss of the furnace were analyzed based on the energy conservation law, so as to achieve the total heat information and energy balance during plasma processing, and to provide a theoretical basis for an optimized design of the structure and to improve energy efficiency.

Zhao, Peng; Meng, Yuedong; Yu, Xinyao; Chen, Longwei; Jiang, Yiman; Ni, Guohua; Chen, Mingzhou

2009-04-01

303

Two-Zone Bridgman Furnace With Sharp Thermal Gradient  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-zone vertical directional-solidification furnace designed and built to grow crystals from stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric melts and from solutions. Includes conventional wire heater in lower zone, tubular silicon carbide heating element in upper zone, and thermal baffle between zones. Temperature gradients up to 125 degrees centigrade per centimeter achieved in the crystal-growth region. Sharper gradient enables both faster growth and better separation between solid and liquid. Furnace used in laboratory or industrial setting for growth of crystals from congruently melting materials as well as for growth of compounds formed by peritectic reactions.

Borshchevsky, Alex; Caillat, Thierry; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

1994-01-01

304

Pore Formation and Mobility Furnace within the MSG  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Richard Grugel, a materials scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight in Huntsville, Ala., examines the furnace used to conduct his Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation -- one of the first two materials science experiments to be conducted on the International Space Station. This experiment studies materials processes similar to those used to make components used in jet engines. Grugel's furnace was installed in the Microgravity Science Glovebox through the circular port on the side. In space, crewmembers are able to change out samples using the gloves on the front of the facility's work area.

2003-01-01

305

Computer simulation of processes in the dead–end furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study turbulent combustion of natural gas in the reverse flame of fire–tube boiler simulated with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Aerodynamic structure and volumetric pressure fields of the flame were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. The effect of the twist parameter for a drag coefficient of dead–end furnace was estimated. Finite element method was used for simulating the following processes: the combustion of methane in air oxygen, radiant and convective heat transfer, turbulence. Complete geometric model of the dead–end furnace based on boiler drawings was considered.

Zavorin, A. S.; Khaustov, S. A.; Zaharushkin, Russia N. A.

2014-10-01

306

Heat Recovery From Arc Furnaces Using Water Cooled Panels  

E-print Network

. The refractories above the slag line take a lot of punishment because they are directly ex posed to the full "heat flux", which can range as high as 250,000 BTU!sq.ft.!hour (Figure 1). I-I..----l'..'------?..-llu' I- SLAG L1NI is l...--------''''--------i:o: ..GUll NO I This exposure, along with damage that may be caused by charging heavy scrap into the furnace, causes rapid deterioration of the refractories. Many furnaces must be shut down every 100 to 150 heats to reline the areas above the slag line...

Darby, D. F.

307

Dross treatment in a rotary arc furnace with graphite electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum baths are always covered with a layer of dross resulting from the aluminum surface oxidation. This dross represents 1-10% of the melt and may contain up to 75wt.% aluminum. Since aluminum production is highly energy intensive, dross recycling is very attractive from both energy and economic standpoints. The conventional recycling process using salt rotary furnaces is thermally inefficient and environmentally unacceptable because of the production of salt slags. Hydro-Quebec has developed a new technology using a rotary arc furnace with graphite electrodes. This process provides aluminum recovery rates of 80-90%, using a highly energy efficient, environmentally sound production method.

Drouet, Michel G.; Handfield, My; Meunier, Jean; Laflamme, Claude B.

1994-05-01

308

Automatic Control System of Car-Bottom Reheating Furnace  

E-print Network

performed compari son tests,that is,under the condition of same ma terial and same process this furnace was operated I ~ PIC' Waste gas ~ lllU' ,n r 0EBp Temp. transmitter Pressure transmitter Temp. recorder Controller Regulator Pressure... performed compari son tests,that is,under the condition of same ma terial and same process this furnace was operated I ~ PIC' Waste gas ~ lllU' ,n r 0EBp Temp. transmitter Pressure transmitter Temp. recorder Controller Regulator Pressure...

Xueqiao, M.; Weilian, X.; Hongchen, Z.

309

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2014-07-01

310

40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...  

...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2014-07-01

311

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2010-07-01

312

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2012-07-01

313

40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2012-07-01

314

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2011-07-01

315

40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2013-07-01

316

40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2011-07-01

317

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2013-07-01

318

40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2010-07-01

319

16 CFR Appendix G4 to Part 305 - Mobile Home Furnaces  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Mobile Home Furnaces G4 Appendix G4 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. G4 Appendix G4 to Part 305—Mobile Home Furnaces Manufacturer's...

2010-01-01

320

16 CFR Appendix G2 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Electric  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Furnaces-Electric G2 Appendix G2 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. G2 Appendix G2 to Part 305—Furnaces—Electric Manufacturer's...

2010-01-01

321

40 CFR 458.10 - Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory. 458.10 ...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Furnace Process Subcategory § 458.10...

2010-07-01

322

Rebuilding and modernization of blast furnace B'' at Cockerill-Sambre Ougree  

SciTech Connect

Blown in for the first time in 1962, the B blast furnace of Cockerill-Sambre was relined for the fourth time in 1989. The furnace produced 8,649,000 tons during the last campaign (1980 - 1989). Gunning repairs were carried out in 1985 and 1987. The blast furnace was blow down on June 30 and the burden level was lowered to the tuyere level. Afterwards a salamander of 350 tons was cast in open ladles. The relining of the blast furnace was performed on schedule and the furnace was blown in on the 4th of December 1989. The paper describes the relining goals and the main modifications. The specifications of the blast furnace are listed. Then the paper describes the modifications to the following systems: the charging computer system; the cooling system; the refractory materials; the hot stoves; blast furnace gas system; instrumentation and regulation; the blast furnace computer system; the pollution control equipment; and the cast floor.

Neuville, J.; Lecomte, P.; Massin, J.P.; Drimmer, D. (Cockerill-Sambre, Liege (Belgium))

1993-01-01

323

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD TO THE CENTER, HEYL & PATTERSON CAR DUMPER TO THE LEFT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

324

78 FR 7681 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...of Energy (DOE) proposes to revise its test procedure for residential furnaces and...standard incorporated by reference in the DOE test procedure. DATES: Meeting: DOE...

2013-02-04

325

75 FR 64621 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its test procedures for residential furnaces and...Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007). These test procedure amendments are primarily...

2010-10-20

326

78 FR 41265 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...proposed rulemaking (NOPR) to amend its test procedure for residential furnaces and...today's action. This final rule amends that test procedure by adopting new equations...

2013-07-10

327

76 FR 61999 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and Boilers (Standby Mode and Off Mode); Correction AGENCY: Office...Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and Boilers. This correction provides the appropriate E-mail...

2011-10-06

328

10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. 431.72 Section...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces § 431.72...

2011-01-01

329

10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. 431.72 Section...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces § 431.72...

2012-01-01

330

10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. 431.72 Section...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces § 431.72...

2013-01-01

331

10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. 431.72 Section...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces § 431.72...

2010-01-01

332

10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.  

...2014-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. 431.72 Section...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces § 431.72...

2014-01-01

333

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart X of... - Emissions Limits for Secondary Lead Smelting Furnaces  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Emissions Limits for Secondary Lead Smelting Furnaces 2 Table 2 to Subpart...Hazardous Air Pollutants From Secondary Lead Smelting Pt. 63, Subpt. X, Table...Part 63—Emissions Limits for Secondary Lead Smelting Furnaces For vents from...

2013-07-01

334

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart X of... - Emissions Limits for Secondary Lead Smelting Furnaces  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Emissions Limits for Secondary Lead Smelting Furnaces 2 Table 2 to Subpart...Hazardous Air Pollutants From Secondary Lead Smelting Pt. 63, Subpt. X, Table...Part 63—Emissions Limits for Secondary Lead Smelting Furnaces For vents from...

2012-07-01

335

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart X of... - Emissions Limits for Secondary Lead Smelting Furnaces  

... false Emissions Limits for Secondary Lead Smelting Furnaces 2 Table 2 to Subpart...Hazardous Air Pollutants From Secondary Lead Smelting Pt. 63, Subpt. X, Table...Part 63—Emissions Limits for Secondary Lead Smelting Furnaces For vents from...

2014-07-01

336

76 FR 37407 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...addresses use in these modes of fossil fuels by gas and oil-fired furnaces...oil-fired furnaces accounted for fossil fuel consumption in the active...about standby mode and off mode fossil fuel consumption as well. EEI...

2011-06-27

337

A Ceramic Waste Heat Recovery System on a Rotary Forge Furnace: An Installation and Operating History  

E-print Network

helos to maintain a turbulence level commensurate with the use of non preheated air, and insures a clean furnace environ ?ment. In normal operation, there is no furnace haze. This improves radiant heat transfer. Burner recir culation also alleviates... helos to maintain a turbulence level commensurate with the use of non preheated air, and insures a clean furnace environ ?ment. In normal operation, there is no furnace haze. This improves radiant heat transfer. Burner recir culation also alleviates...

Young, S. B.; Campbell, T. E.; Worstell, T. M.

1981-01-01

338

Evaluation of heat flux through blast furnace shell with attached sensors  

SciTech Connect

Plant trials to evaluate heat fluxes through a lining/cooling system of a blast furnace were conducted in order to realize the cooling efficiency of the blast furnace under operation. For this purpose, several experiments to measure the in-furnace gas temperatures were cautiously made, and numerical simulations for the temperature distributions over the blast furnace shell and cooling/lining systems were also carried out.

Han, J.W. [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon, Kyonggi (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Lee, J.H.; Suh, Y.K. [POSCO, Kwangyang, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

1996-12-31

339

Ultrapurification of iron by three types of melting furnaces constructed using ultra-high vacuum technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the ultra-purification of base metals a new arc melting furnace, a new induction-heating floating-zone melting furnace and a new cold-crucible induction melting furnace have been designed and constructed using ultra-high vacuum technology. The ultra-high vacuum attainable in this induction-heating floating-zone melting furnace is so good as 1×10-7 Pa that an iron bar can be zone-melted not only in ultra-higher

Seiichi Takaki; Kenji Abiko

1999-01-01

340

Thermal operation of the DSP-120 Consteel furnace in the Ashinsk metallurgical works  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat losses with waste gases in modern electric arc furnaces are 20-25%. Scrap heating by waste gases is performed in Fuchs Systemtechnik shaft furnaces and Consteel furnaces with conveyer charging. The results of balance heats conducted in the DSP-120 Consteel electric furnace located in the Ashinsk metallurgical works are presented, and measures for increasing the energy efficiency of its operation are proposed.

Evstratov, V. G.; Kiselev, A. D.; Zinurov, I. Yu.; Shakirov, Z. Kh.; Mamenko, Yu. F.; Shumakov, A. M.; Gindullin, M. T.

2013-06-01

341

Temperature control of glass melting furnace with fuzzy logic and conventional PI control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a practical application of fuzzy logic control of the temperature of glass-melting furnace. Because of the complexity and nonlinearity, temperature control of glass-melting furnace is still delegated to human operator. Though the overall characteristics of glass-melting furnace are complex and nonlinear, one portion of the furnace characteristics can be modeled as a linear system. The linear portion

Un-Chul Moon; Kwang Y. Lee

2000-01-01

342

Combustion Measurements in a Pulverised Coal-Fired Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion measurements are being performed in a laboratory cylindrical pulverised coal fired furnace as part of a continuing research programme, The data are primarily intended to assist the validation of mathematical models ultimately intended for the prediction of full scale plant. In this paper gas-species concentration and temperature data are presented and discussed for a bituminous coal fuel fired at

S. Godoy; K. A. Hirji; F. C. Lockwood

1988-01-01

343

6. DETAIL VIEW OF SPIN FORM FURNACE FOR STAINLESS STEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL VIEW OF SPIN FORM FURNACE FOR STAINLESS STEEL FABRICATION. STAINLESS STEEL WAS MACHINED IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING, BEGINNING IN 1957. (4/24/78) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

344

Blast furnace slags as sorbents of phosphate from water solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is focused on the sorption of phosphorus from aqueous solutions by crystalline and amorphous blast furnace slags. Slag sorption kinetics were measured, adsorption tests were carried out and the effect of acidification on the sorption properties of slags was studied. The kinetic measurements confirmed that the sorption of phosphorus on crystalline as well as amorphous slags can be

Bruno Kostura; Hana Kulveitová; Juraj Leško

2005-01-01

345

Phosphate removal using blast furnace slags and opoka-mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abiotic sorption efficiency of on-site wastewater treatment systems can be improved by using a strongly sorbing filter material that, if it retains phosphorus (P) in a plant available way, can be used as fertiliser when P saturation is achieved. Two materials, blast furnace slag and the siliceous sedimentary rock opoka, have shown a high P sorption capacity and were

Lena Johansson; Jon Petter Gustafsson

2000-01-01

346

Durability of Portland blast-furnace slag cement concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results of studies carried out at the Building Research Establishment in the UK, on the performance and long-term durability of concrete where ground glassy blast-furnace slag (granulated and pelletized) has been used as a cementitious material. Using data from tests on site structures and laboratory and exposure site studies, comparisons are made of the properties and

G. J. Osborne

1999-01-01

347

Fire-resistant geopolymer produced by granulated blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes research into the use of granulated blast furnace slag as an active filler in the making of geopolymers. During this work it was found that geopolymer setting time correlates well with temperature, potassium hydroxide concentration, metakaolinite and sodium silicate addition. The physical and mechanical properties of the geopolymer also correlated well with the concentration of alkaline solution

T. W. Cheng; J. P. Chiu

2003-01-01

348

Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous

Daphne Mirabile; Maria Ilaria Pistelli; Marina Marchesini; Roberta Falciani; Lisa Chiappelli

2002-01-01

349

FRACTIONAL EFFICIENCY OF AN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE BAGHOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the performance of a fabric filter system controlling emissions from either one or two 30-ton electric arc furnaces producing a high-strength, low-alloy specialty steel. The evaluation involved measuring the system's total mass collect...

350

CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

351

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: THE PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE RETECH, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The plasma centrifugal furnace is a thermal technology which uses the heat generated from a plasma torch to decontaminate metal and organic contaminated waste. This is accomplished by melting metal-bearing solids and, in the process, thermally destroying organic contaminants. The...

352

NON-PORTLAND CEMENT ACTIVATION OF BLAST FURNACE SLAG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to produce a “greener” cement from granulated ground blast furnace slag (GGBS) using non-Portland cement activation. By eventually developing “greener” cement, the ultimate goal of this research project would be to reduce the amount of Portland cement used in concrete, therefore reducing the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere during cement production.

Anne Elizabeth Oberlink

2010-01-01

353

VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE FROM THE EAST, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE FROM THE EAST, SHOWING SKIP HOIST, DUST CATCHER AND STOCK BINS IN THE FOREGROUND. #2 CASTING SHED IS TO THE LEFT, HOT BLAST MAIN IS ON THE RIGHT. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

354

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #1 BLAST FURNACE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #1 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST AND DUST CATCHER. STOCK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND, THE #2 CASTING SHED BEYOND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

355

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST, DUST CATCHER AND STOCK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

356

APPLICABILITY OF NOX COMBUSTION MODIFICATIONS TO CYCLONE BOILERS (FURNACES)  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyclone furnaces are a significant source of stationary NOx emissions. It was estimated that 0.76 x 10 to the 6th power tonnes of NOx (over 6% of stationary source NOx) were emitted from all cyclone-coal-fired utility boilers in 1973. This represents from 19% to 22% of the total ...

357

Sandjet- A New Alternative for Cleaning Furnace Tubes  

E-print Network

Energy management in modern refineries is becoming more difficult as the real cost of in-house and purchased fuel escalates and the quality of feed stocks decreases. Furnace tube maintenance has been made more complex by the presence of not only...

Pollock, C. B.

1981-01-01

358

COMBUSTION ENGINEERING'S FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION PROGRAMS FOR SO2 CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses three Combustion Engineering programs relating to the furnace sorbent injection process, a low-cost method for controlling sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from tangentially fired, coal burning boilers. The programs are: (1) pilot-scale investigations in the lab...

359

METALLURGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MEFOS 3 MW DC ARC FURNACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past twenty years the 3 MW DC arc furnace at MEFOS has been frequently used for development of new processes. These processes include recovery of valuable metals from slag, sludge and dust from steel and other metallurgical industry, treatment of ashes from power plant and incinerators, smelting reduction of minerals and zinc recovery from EAF dust. The process

G. Ye; J. Alexis; E. Burström

2004-01-01

360

MULTISTAGED BURNER DESIGN FOR IN-FURNACE NOX CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a multistage combustion modification design, combining two advanced NOx control technologies, on a pilot-scale (0.9 MW) package boiler simulator for in-furnace NOx control of high nitrogen fuel combustion applications. A low NOx precomb...

361

CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED CAST HOUSE LIES IN BETWEEN TWO SKIP INCLINES. HIP ROOF AT RIGHT COVERS BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

362

INTERIOR VIEW OF TRANSFORMER ROOM FOR FURNACE NO. 2 LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF TRANSFORMER ROOM FOR FURNACE NO. 2 LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING BACK OF CONTROL PANEL AND TRANSFORMER (GE, 3000 KUA water cooled, 60 cycles, U.S. patent 1900585. Transformer dates from 1937, control panel GE resistors) - Braeburn Alloy Steel, Braeburn Road at Allegheny River, Lower Burrell, Westmoreland County, PA

363

Removal of chloride from electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust with high chloride content increases the threat of dioxin emissions and the high chloride content reduces the value of recycled zinc oxide produced by EAF dust recycling plants. This study conducts a number of laboratory experiments to determine the technical feasibility of a new dechlorination method. These methods consist of a series of roasting processes

Wei-Sheng Chen; Yun-Hwei Shen; Min-Shing Tsai; Fang-Chih Chang

2011-01-01

364

PERMEABILITY PROPERTIES OF FLY ASH FORM FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses tests of the applicability of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) waste solids for use as synthetic waste landfill liners by measuring the mechanical strength and permeability of moisture-cured samples. SI waste solids were received from the EPA-sponsored demonstr...

365

Air-cooled CWS warm air furnace. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermo Power Corporation, Tecogen Division, has developed coal water slurry (CWS) combustion technologies specifically tailored to meet the space heating needs of the residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. This furnace was extensively tested and met all the design and operating criteria of the development program, which included combustion efficiencies in excess of 99%, response to full load from a

A. F. Litka; F. E. Becker

1995-01-01

366

Calcination of pulverized limestone particles under furnace injection conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcination behaviour of limestone particles (6–90 ?m) under furnace injection conditions (1073–1673 K) was determined. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of partially calcined particles revealed that calcination occurred over the total (internal and external) surface area with different calcination rates at different locations. A model consistent with experimental rate data indicated that the calcination rate was influenced by heat transfer,

Naiyi Hu; Alan W. Scaroni

1996-01-01

367

The Iron Blast Furnace: A Study in Chemical Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the furnace from a chemical thermodynamics perspective. Examines the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy change for each reaction of importance. These properties are interpreted on the molecular level then used to deduce the conditions necessary for each reaction to occur in its intended direction. Chemical kinetics is also discussed.…

Treptow, Richard S.; Jean, Luckner

1998-01-01

368

RECYCLING OF ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST: JORGENSEN STEEL FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an evaluation of the Ek Glassification Process to recycle and convert K061-tested waste (Electric Arc Furnace) and other by products of the steel-making industry into usable products. he process holds potential for replacing the need for expensive disposal costs ...

369

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE NO. 25 IN VICINITY OF MIXERS (MACK HEMP) LADLE #2. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

370

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE NO.25 IN VICINITY OF MIXERS (MACK HEMP) LADLE #1 DETAIL. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

371

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE NO. 25 IN VICINITY OF MIXERS (MACK HEMP) LADLE DETAIL. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

372

20. TAKING A CAST AT BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. WORKERS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. TAKING A CAST AT BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. WORKERS, LIKE THE ONE STANDING ON THE BRIDGE ABOVE THE 'BOTTLE' INTO WHICH THE HOT IRON FLOWS, ARE PROTECTED BY HEAVY FIREPROOF GARMENTS. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

373

12. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND PARTS HEATING FURNACE. THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND PARTS HEATING FURNACE. THE METALS WERE HEATED PRIOR TO BEING PRESSED. THE ARM IS DRAPED WITH FIRE RESISTANT MATERIAL. (2/9/79) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

374

Numerical Simulation and Chaotic Analysis of an Aluminum Holding Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve high heat efficiency, low pollutant emission and homogeneous melt temperature during thermal process of secondary aluminum, taking into account the features of aluminum alloying process, a CFD process model was developed and integrated with heat load and aluminum temperature control model. This paper presented numerical simulation of aluminum holding furnaces using the customized code based on FLUENT packages. Thermal behaviors of aluminum holding furnaces were investigated by probing into main physical fields such as flue gas temperature, velocity, and concentration, and combustion instability of aluminum holding process was represented by chaos theory. The results show that aluminum temperature uniform coefficient firstly decreases during heating phase, then increases and reduces alternately during holding phase, lastly rises during standing phase. Correlation dimension drops with fuel velocity. Maximal Lyapunov exponent reaches to a maximum when air-fuel ratio is close to 1. It would be a clear comprehension about each phase of aluminum holding furnaces to find new technology, retrofit furnace design, and optimize parameters combination.

Wang, Ji-min; Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Lan, Shen; Chen, Tao; Li, Jie; Yan, Hong-jie; Zhou, Jie-min; Tian, Rui-jiao; Tu, Yan-wu; Li, Wen-ke

2014-08-01

375

Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Shelmidine, Gregory J. (Tijeras, NM)

2007-02-20

376

THE OXIDE-DROSSING FURNACE FOR THE PROCESSING REFABRICATION EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

An engineering mock-up was carried out to demonstrate the remote ; operation and maintainability of the oxide-drossing phase of the PRE process. ; This effort included installation and full-scale operation of a highfrequency air ; melting induction furnace; and the design, fabrication, and modification of ; remotely operated supporting devices such as molds, metal chargers, ventilation ; hoods, and transfer

Ballif

1958-01-01

377

Closed loop power control of an induction furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, at first, an optimized resonant capacitor is designed for a practical induction furnace with parallel resonant inverter, by using Lagrange's method. Then, rectifier and inverter snubber circuits are designed. To access a control system, a passive linear controller is also designed. Meanwhile the whole system is started and load is changing, the controller, by changing firing angle

Arash Kiyoumarsi; Rahmat-o-Allah Houshmand; Rasoul Ali-Zargar; Mohammad-reza Hassanzadeh

2008-01-01

378

High temperature, low power furnace for processing nuclear fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A furnace of minimum size, high thermal efficiency, and easy maintenance was designed with 10 kg capacity for fabricating mixed oxide fuels. Two versions were developed for working up to 1800°C and to 1150°C, for the High Performance Fuel Laboratory. (DLC)

W. W. Bowen; R. W. Buckman

1978-01-01

379

REACTIVATION OF GRANULAR CARBON IN AN INFRARED TRAVELING BELT FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

An all-electrical Shirco carbon regeneration furnace and its air pollution control system have been evaluated for cost and process effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The granular activated carbon used for the Shirco...

380

A Geologic Guide to the Cooper Furnace Day Use Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the day use area adjoining the Allatoona Dam on the Etowah River north of Atlanta and the geology of the three physiographic provinces which converge there. Included are a generalized geologic map of the area and maps of the visitor center, picnic areas, the abandoned pig iron furnace, the scenic overlooks, and the…

Crews, Patty

1991-01-01

381

LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

382

STRIP TEMPERATURE IN A METAL COATING LINE ANNEALING FURNACE  

E-print Network

near future; a 3 MW induction heater and a gas jet cooler. The induction heater is capable of heating will pass directly from the induction heater into the radiant furnace. The extra heating power should allow used to anneal strips of steel. The annealing process involves heating the steel, which is passed

McGuinness, Mark

383

Simultaneous data reconciliation and parameter estimation. Application to a basic oxygen furnace.  

E-print Network

a blast furnace is poured into a large refractory-lined container. Then the container is filledSimultaneous data reconciliation and parameter estimation. Application to a basic oxygen furnace may impact final product quality. This is particularly true for the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) where

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

384

Thermomechanical Modelling of a Blast Furnace Hearth J. Brulin1,2  

E-print Network

Thermomechanical Modelling of a Blast Furnace Hearth J. Brulin1,2 , A. Rekik1 , E. Blond1 , L Abstract The goal of this work is to develop a thermo-mechanical model of a blast furnace hearth able-situ instrumentation results. 1. Introduction The blast furnace (BF) hearth is the most critical part within the whole

Boyer, Edmond

385

Hopewell Furnace: A Pennsylvania Iron-Making Plantation. Teaching with Historic Places.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rhythmic noises of the turning water wheel and the roar of the furnace blast never stopped at Hopewell Furnace (Pennsylvania) during its years of operation (1771-1883). As long as the furnace was in blast, the ironworkers' jobs were safe. In case of trouble, they could escape to the woods, fields, and creeks of rural Pennsylvania. Now a…

Koman, Rita G.

386

A predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon content in pig iron has long been used as one of the most important indices to represent the thermal state of a blast furnace. In this paper, a predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis is presented. The qualitative trend of the process in blast furnace is predicted through causal analysis and qualitative

Jian Chen

2001-01-01

387

Fuzzy temperature control of industrial refineries furnaces through combined feedforward\\/feedback multivariable cascade systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to improve and apply a multivariable advanced control structure on the basis of fuzzy logic technique for two flow tubular furnace having widespread applications in petroleum refinery industries. After analyzing the dynamic properties of furnaces, it has been concluded that these furnaces are the MIMO processes which have two inputs and two outputs. There

A. G. Abilov; Z. Zeybek; O. Tuzunalp; Z. Telatar

2002-01-01

388

A new approach to construct dynamic models for NOx control in a FGR furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach to construct dynamic models for NOx control of an industrial furnace with flue gas recirculation (FGR). In this paper, the full?scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out for the FGR furnace and the CFD results are used to construct the transfer functions to represent the linearized dynamic models of the furnace. The

R. Zhang; C. Zhang; J. Jiang

2007-01-01

389

High temperature furnaces for small and large angle neutron scattering of disordered materials  

E-print Network

725 High temperature furnaces for small and large angle neutron scattering of disordered materials and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments respectively. They are vacuum furnaces with a thin maintained in a tantalum box. In a neutron beam, the furnaces produce a very low scattering level (without

Boyer, Edmond

390

Analysis of energy transfer in industrial gas-fired radiant tube furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal system mathematical model has been developed to predict heat transfer from the products of combustion in the radiant tubes to the ultimate load in the furnace. The three-dimensional thermal model for the furnace involved the integration of various submodels for the radiant tube and the furnace enclosure.^ For the radiant tube, mathematical models were developed to describe turbulent

Ramamurthy Hariharan

1993-01-01

391

Air-cooled CWS warm air furnace. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Thermo Power Corporation, Tecogen Division, has developed coal water slurry (CWS) combustion technologies specifically tailored to meet the space heating needs of the residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. This furnace was extensively tested and met all the design and operating criteria of the development program, which included combustion efficiencies in excess of 99%, response to full load from a cold start in less than 5 minutes, and steady-state thermal efficiencies as high as 85%. While this furnace design is extremely versatile, versatility came at the expense of system complexity and cost. To provide a more cost effective CWS-based option for the residential market sector, Tecogen, developed a totally air-cooled CWS-fired residential warm air heating system. To minimize system cost and to take advantage of industry manufacturing practices and experience, a commercially available oil/gas solid fuel-fired central furnace, manufactured by Yukon Energy Corporation, was used as the platform for the CWS combustor and related equipment. A prototype furnace was designed, built, and tested in the laboratory to verify system integrity and operation. This unit was then shipped to the PETC to undergo demonstration operation and serve as a showcase of the CWS technology. An in-depth Owners Manual was prepared and delivered with the furnace. This Owners Manual, which is included as Appendix A of this report, includes installation instructions, operating procedures, wiring diagrams, and equipment bulletins on the major components. It also contains coal water slurry fuel specifications and typical system operating variables, including key temperatures, pressures, and flowrates.

Litka, A.F.; Becker, F.E.

1995-08-01

392

Development and evaluation of a Workpiece Temperature Analyzer for industrial furnaces: Steel industry survey and furnace selection  

SciTech Connect

This report explores the advantages of the proposed Workpiece Temperature Analyzer (WPTA) in non-contact measurement of the internal temperature of hot steel. The technical origin for the WPTA is in ultrasonic thermometry. The cumulative advantages of the WPTA in contrast with existing technology, thermocouples, pyrometers and mathematical modelling, is that (1) it will provide true internal temperature, (2) the measurement requires no contact with the workpiece, and (3) the approximate payback for applications we have studied is one year or less, except for small batch reheat furnaces that process less than 11% of US raw steel production. After review of potential WPTA applications, detailed economic and noneconomic benefit analyses were made for reheat furnaces and continuous casters. In reheat furnaces, the required measurement is that of the internal temperature of a solid workpiece in the furnace. Virtually all raw steel must be reheated. The significant measurement in a continuous caster is the solidification front of the molten steel. Here the measurement becomes more complex because of the phase changes. For both applications, the primary advantage was perceived to be quality, which in turn would enable US steel manufacturers to achieve a stronger competitive position in world markets. 25 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

Witt, M.A.

1990-02-01

393

Experiences with computer systems in blast furnace operation control at Rautaruukki  

SciTech Connect

Low energy consumption, together with high productivity and stable blast furnace operation, has been achieved at Rautaruukki's Raahe Steel Works as a result of the efficient use of computer technology in process control and improvements in raw materials quality. The blast furnace supervision system is designed to support the decision-making in medium and long-term process control. The information presenting the blast furnace operation phenomena is grouped so that little time is needed to obtain the current state of the process. Due to the complexity of the blast furnace process, an expert system to guide and diagnose the short and medium-term blast furnace operation has been developed.

Inkala, P.; Karppinen, A. (Rautaruukki Oy, Raahe (Finland). Raahe Steel Works); Seppanen, M. (Rautaruukki Oy Engineering, Oulu (Finland))

1994-09-01

394

Utilization of computational fluid dynamics technique in low NOx burner/furnace retrofits  

SciTech Connect

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique has been utilized to provide design guidance for retrofitting low NOx combustion systems and incorporating associated furnace modifications into existing utility boilers. The CFD program utilized is FW-FIRES (Fossil fuel, Water-walled Furnace Integrated Reaction and Emission Simulation) which simulates furnace combustion, heat transfer and pollutant formation based on fundamental principals of mass, momentum and energy conservations. The program models the gas flow field as a three-dimensional turbulent reacting continuum and the particle flow as a series of discrete particle trajectories through the gas continuum. Chemical reaction, heat transfer, and pollutant formation mechanisms are incorporated in the program. FW-FIRES furnace simulation of low NOx combustion system retrofits has been performed for various furnace configurations including front wall-fired, front and real wall-fired, and tangentially-fired furnaces, to determine the effects of burner/furnace modifications on the NOx emission, furnace exit gas temperature, furnace heat absorption, unburned carbon, and furnace wall corrosion. For front wall-fired, and front and real wall-fired furnaces, the NOx emission requirement is met by the use of Foster Wheeler lox NOx burners and overfire air (OFA) staging. Studies of burner and OFA quantify and spacing are conducted to limit NOx emission and unburned carbon to acceptable levels. A major concern in once-through supercritical units with OFA is furnace wall corrosion which is caused by high furnace wall metal temperature and corrosive hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) created in a reducing atmosphere from part of coal sulfur. The FW-FIRES code is used to minimize this corrosion potential by selecting the proper location and quantity of boundary air. A simulation of tangentially-fired unit, which has been retrofitted with low NOx burners, is used to study the effect of the burner tilt on the furnace exit gas temperature. This paper details the basis and results of several CFD analyses conducted for potential retrofit programs.

Cho, S.M.; Seltzer, A.H.; Ma, J.; Steitz, T.H.; Grusha, J.; Cole, R.W.

1999-07-01

395

Energy Conservation for Granular Coal Injection into a Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the lack of knowledge regarding the combustion of granular coal injected into a blast furnace, injection characteristics of granular coal were first studied through proximate analysis, element analysis, and research of explosivity, ignition point, meltability of ash, grindability, calorific value, etc. Using a sampling device in the raceway combined with petrographic analysis, during the combustion process of granular coal with high crystal water and volatile in raceway, cracks and bursts were found, leading to a reduction of particle size. Based on a model of mass control and dynamic theory of particle combustion, the transition dynamic model for cracking in combustion of granular coal was found, and the critical value of cracking ratio (?P) for granular coal combustion in the raceway was calculated. Finally, the utilization ratio and energy efficiency of granular coal used in the blast furnace were discussed, offering theoretical foundation and technical support for intensifying granular coal combustion and promoting granular coal injection.

Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Zhang, Jianliang; Shao, Jiugang; Zuo, Haibin; Ren, Shan

2012-08-01

396

Recovering Zn, Pb, Cd and Fe from electric furnace dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the operation of a typical mini-mill, about 1 to 2% of each charge to the electric furnace is converted to dust, which is collected as particulate matter in the baghouse system. The dust is considered hazardous because it contains lead and cadmium. However, it also contains large, recoverable quantities of zinc and iron. To make the dust environmentally acceptable and to recover the valuable content, pyrometallurgical processing was studied on a laboratory scale. The experimental results show that successful removal of zinc, lead and cadmium and considerable upgrading of iron from the electric furnace dust have been accomplished, and that a nonhazardous inert slag have been formed by pyrometallurgical processing at two temperatures.

Wang, J. C.; Hepworth, M. T.; Reid, K. J.

1990-04-01

397

Design of a High Thermal Gradient Bridgman Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) is a Bridgman-Stockbarger microgravity processing facility, designed and manifested to first fly aboard the second United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2) Space Shuttle mission. The AADSF was principally designed to produce high axial thermal gradients, and is particularly suitable for metals solidification experiments, including non-dilute alloys. To accommodate a wider range of experimental conditions, the AADSF is equipped with a reconfigurable gradient zone. The overall design of the AADSF and the relationship between gradient zone design and furnace performance are described. Parametric thermal analysis was performed and used to select gradient zone design features that fulfill the high thermal gradient requirements of the USMP-2 experiment. The thermal model and analytical procedure, and parametric results leading to the first flight gradient zone configuration, are presented. Performance for the USMP-2 flight experiment is also predicted, and analysis results are compared to test data.

LeCroy, J. E.; Popok, D. P.

1994-01-01

398

Experimental processing of salt slags from an aluminum dross furnace  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Bureau of Mines has developed a hydrometallurgical method to recover aluminum, aluminum oxide, and fluxing salts from aluminum salt slags. The slag is leached with water at room temperature to produce a saturated brine slurry. Screening of the slurry yields an aluminum-rich fraction that can be returned to the dross furnace. The remaining slurry is vacuum filtered, yielding a clear brine solution and an aluminum oxide filter cake. Evaporation of the clear filtrate produces a high-purity fluxing salt for reuse in the dross furnace. Over 80 pct of the metallic aluminum is recovered in the aluminum-rich oversize fraction, while essentially all the fluxing salts are recovered by evaporation. This report contains the final results of an investigation on a process research unit scale, an economic evaluation of the method, and recommendations to further improve the process.

Magyar, M.J.; Kaplan, R.S.; Makar, H.V.

1980-01-01

399

Hybrid algorithm with fuzzy system and conventional PI control for the temperature control of TV glass furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a practical application of fuzzy logic to the temperature control of glass melting furnace for television picture tube. Because of the complexity and nonlinearity, temperature control of glass melting furnace is still delegated to human operators. Though the overall characteristics of glass melting furnace are complex and nonlinear, one part of the furnace characteristics can be modeled

Un-Chul Moon; Kwang Y. Lee

2003-01-01

400

On the influence of coil design and electromagnetic configuration on the efficiency of an induction melting furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation is done on a novel configuration for an induction melting furnace which is a combination of conventional channel and coreless induction furnaces. The efficiency of the furnace is determined for various coil and magnetic core designs, and these designs are compared with one another. A finite-element simulation of the furnace is done and compared with the results from

Pieter Dorland; Jacobus D. van Wyk; Oskar H. Stielau

2000-01-01

401

On the influence of coil design and electromagnetic configuration on the efficiency of an induction melting furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation is done on a novel configuration for an induction melting furnace which is a combination of conventional channel and coreless induction furnaces. The efficiency of the furnace is determined for various coil and magnetic core designs, and these designs are compared with one another. A finite element simulation of the furnace is done and compared with the results

Pieter Dorland; Jacobus D. van Wyk; Oskar H. Stielau

1999-01-01

402

COMBUSTION OF PYROLYSIS 'BIO-OILS' IN A TUNNEL FURNACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test program has been carried out in a pilot-scale (2.5 GJ\\/h) tunnel furnace to evaluate potential emission levels from combustion of various biomass pyrolysis oil 'cuts'. Two pyrolysis oil cuts were tested: a “whole” oil and a “premium” high moisture (30% H2O) oil, both supplied by Ensyn. A CETC-O designed external mixing air-assisted atomising nozzle originally designed for coal

Fernando Preto; Irene Coyle Joe Wong; Frank Zhang

2011-01-01

403

Crystallization mechanism and properties of a blast furnace slag glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex crystallization process of a Brazilian blast-furnace slag glass was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction (SAD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Three crystalline phases (merwinite, melilite and larnite) were identified after heat treatment between Tg (742°C) and the DSC crystallization peak (T=1000°C). Merwinite was identified

C. Fredericci; E. D. Zanotto; E. C. Ziemath

2000-01-01

404

Blast furnace slag as phosphorus sorbents — column studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filter substrates that efficiently remove phosphorus (P) from wastewater can be used to optimise the nutrient removal by on-site wastewater treatment systems. A number of filter substrates have been investigated and the industrial by-product blast furnace slag has attracted attention as a promising substrate. To further evaluate the sorption and attenuation of PO43?, a column experiment was carried out under

Lena Johansson

1999-01-01

405

Autogenous shrinkage of concrete containing granulated blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the experimental results and prediction model for the autogenous shrinkage of concrete made with various water-to-cementitious materials ratios (w\\/cm) ranging from 0.27 to 0.42 and granulated blast-furnace slag (BFS) in the range of 0% to 50% by mass of the total cementitious materials. Test results showed that BFS concrete exhibited greater autogenous shrinkage than ordinary concrete with

K. M. Lee; H. K. Lee; S. H. Lee; G. Y. Kim

2006-01-01

406

Sorption of heavy metals on blast furnace sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the use of sludge, a by-product of the steel industry, as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents was carried out. Gases produced in the blast furnace were washed and led towards a Dorr thickener where the sludge was obtained as a suspension. The sorption of Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ on

A. López-Delgado; C. Pérez; F. A. López

1998-01-01

407

Evaluation of steel furnace slags as cement additives  

SciTech Connect

Chemical and physical properties and strength development have been studied for six granulated steel furnace slags from the normal steelmaking process. This paper reports results of research performed to develop cement mixture proportions using these slags. The influence of slag proportions, specific surface, and water demand on compressive strength and bulk density of cement blends are presented in this paper. The different test results, which were compared with the Turkish Standards, in general, were found to be within the limits.

Tuefekci, M.; Demirbas, A.; Genc, H. [Technical Univ. of the Black Sea, Trabzon (Turkey)] [Technical Univ. of the Black Sea, Trabzon (Turkey)

1997-11-01

408

Flow diagnostics in a vortex furnace by particle image velocimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internal aerodynamics of a model vortex furnace for a steam generator with a horizontal axis of flow rotation and distributed input of fuel-air mixture jets has been studied. Average characteristics of the flow velocity field in various cross sections have been determined using a digital tracer imaging (particle image velocimetry) technique. Results are compared to data obtained by the method of laser Doppler anemometry.

Anufriev, I. S.; Sharypov, O. V.; Shadrin, E. Yu.

2013-05-01

409

Phosphorus removal by electric arc furnace steel slag and serpentinite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag and serpentinite were tested in columns either alone or mixed with limestone to determine their capacity to remove phosphorus (P) from a solution containing initially 20mg P\\/L (for 114 days) than 400mg P\\/L (for 21 days). EAF steel slag was nearly 100% efficient due to specific P adsorption onto metal hydroxides and precipitation of

Aleksandra Drizo; Christiane Forget; Robert P. Chapuis; Yves Comeau

2006-01-01

410

Mechanism of wet sewage sludge pyrolysis in a tubular furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work was to develop a preliminary mechanistic understanding of wet sewage sludge decomposition from starting constituents to final products, including intermediates formed during the pyrolysis process. Sewage sludge with a moisture content of 84.2 wt% was pyrolyzed at different temperatures in a tubular furnace, the pyrolysis products (hydrogen-rich fuel gas, tar and solid char) were detected

Beiping Zhang; Sijiang Xiong; Bo Xiao; Dongke Yu; Xiaoyuan Jia

2011-01-01

411

Recycling of electric arc furnace dust: Jorgensen steel facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is an evaluation of the Ek Glassification(TM) Process to recycle and convert K061-listed waste (Electric Arc Furnace or EAF dust) and other byproducts of the steel-making industry into usable products. The Process holds potential for replacing the need for expensive disposal costs associated with the listed waste with the generation of marketable products. The products include colored glass

T. W. Jackson; J. S. Chapman

1995-01-01

412

Moving-Temperature-Gradient Heat-Pipe Furnace Element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In improved apparatus, ampoule of material directionally solidified mounted in central hole of annular heat pipe, at suitable axial position between heated and cooled ends. Heated end held in fixed position in single-element furnace; other end left in ambient air or else actively cooled. Gradient of temperature made to move along heat pipe by changing pressure of noncondensable gas. In comparison with prior crystal-growing apparatuses, this one simpler, smaller, and more efficient.

Gillies, Donald C.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Gernert, Nelson J.

1993-01-01

413

Diagnostics of the air-heater casings in blast furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diagnostic method for air heaters in blast furnaces is described. The method involves magnetic and ultrasonic monitoring,\\u000a thermometry, and metallographic analysis without the removal of samples. Monitoring data for several air heaters are presented.\\u000a The benefits of nondestructive monitoring methods are demonstrated. Such methods extend air-heater life and also prevent emergency\\u000a shutdowns.

V. L. Siviryuk; I. V. Gramotnik; A. N. Bezrukov

2011-01-01

414

Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace  

SciTech Connect

Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Kazakh National University, Alma Ata (Kazakhstan). Dept. of Physics

2007-12-15

415

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

Gary M. Blythe

2000-12-01

416

A rotary arc furnace for aluminum dross processing  

SciTech Connect

Dross, a major by-product of all processes involving molten aluminum, forms at the surface of the molten metal as the latter reacts with the furnace atmosphere. It generally represents 1 to 5 wt% of the melt, depending on the process, and contains on average about 50% free aluminum dispersed in an oxide layer. Since aluminum production is highly energy-intensive, dross recycling is very attractive from both the energy and the economic standpoints. The conventional recycling process using salt rotary furnaces is thermally inefficient and environmentally non-acceptable because of the production of salt slags. Hydro-Quebec has developed and patented a new salt-free technology using a rotary furnace heated by an electric arc between two graphite electrodes, called DROSCAR{reg_sign}. A 600-kW pilot plant in operation at LTEE is in use to demonstrate the process. This process provides aluminum recovery rates over 90%, using a highly energy efficient, environmentally sound production method. In 1994, 400 tonnes of aluminum dross were treated in this facility and several tests on various types of dross have also been conducted in early 1995. A report on the results will be presented.

Drouet, M.G.; Meunier, J.; Laflamme, C.B.; Handfield, M.D.; Biscaro, A.; Lemire, C. [Hydro-Quebec, Shawinigan, Quebec (Canada)

1995-12-31

417

A rotary arc furnace for aluminum dross processing  

SciTech Connect

Dross, a major by-product of all processes involving molten aluminum, forms at the surface of the molten metal as the latter reacts with the furnace atmosphere. It generally represents 1 to 5 wt% of the melt, depending on the process, and contains on average about 50% free aluminum dispersed in an oxide layer. Since aluminum production is highly energy-intensive, dross recycling is very attractive from both the energy and the economic standpoints. The conventional recycling process using salt rotary furnaces is thermally inefficient and environmentally unacceptable because of the salt slags produced. Hydro-Quebec has developed and patented a new salt-free technology using a rotary furnace heated by an electric arc between two graphite electrodes, called DROSCAR{reg_sign}. A 600-kW pilot plant in operation at LTEE is in use to demonstrate the process. This process provides aluminum recovery rates for over 90%, using a highly energy efficient, environmentally sound production method. In 1994, 400 tons of aluminum dross were treated in this facility and several tests on various types of dross have also been conducted in early 1995. A report on the results will be presented.

Drouet, M.G.; Meunier, J.; Laflamme, C.B.; Handfield, M.D.; Biscaro, A.; Lemire, C. [Hydro-Quebec, Shawinigan, Quebec (Canada)

1995-12-31

418

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the previous semi-annual technical progress report (April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001). During the current reporting period, additional balance of plant impact information was determined for one of the two tests. These additional balance-of-plant results are presented and discussed in this report. There was no other technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed.

Gary M. Blythe

2002-04-29

419

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

Gary M. Blythe

2001-11-06

420

Simulation of the mass and heat transfer in a three-electrode round impoverishment furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermophysical model is developed for a three-electrode round impoverishment furnace operating with electrodes immersed in a slag melt in order to predict the operation of the impoverishment furnaces located at the Nadezhdinsk metallurgical works of the Noril’sk Nikel integrated works and to optimize their energy-technical conditions. This model provides reliable information on the temperature field in the slag bath of a furnace depending on the furnace operating schedule, the velocity and character of motion of a slag melt, the heat release in different regions of the slag melt, and (hence) the heat load applied to furnace elements. The results of calculation by this model were used to make recommendations for improving the designs of the furnaces operating at the Noril’sk Nikel integrated works and for changing their operating conditions.

Rumyantsev, D. V.; Talalov, V. A.; Stepanov, V. V.; Rusakov, M. R.

2010-06-01

421

Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements forResidential Gas Furnaces in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents analysis of the life-cycle costs for individual households and the aggregate energy and economic impacts from potential energy efficiency improvements in U.S. residential furnaces. Most homes in the US are heated by a central furnace attached to ducts for distributing heated air and fueled by natural gas. Electricity consumption by a furnace blower is significant, comparable to the annual electricity consumption of a major appliance. Since the same blower unit is also used during the summer to circulate cooled air in centrally air conditioned homes, electricity savings occur year round. Estimates are provided of the potential electricity savings from more efficient fans and motors. Current regulations require new residential gas-fired furnaces (not including mobile home furnaces) to meet or exceed 78 percent annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE), but in fact nearly all furnaces sold are at 80 percent AFUE or higher. The possibilities for higher fuel efficiency fall into two groups: more efficient non-condensing furnaces (81 percent AFUE) and condensing furnaces (90-96 percent AFUE). There are also options to increase the efficiency of the furnace blower. This paper reports the projected national energy and economic impacts of requiring higher efficiency furnaces in the future. Energy savings vary with climate, with the result that condensing furnaces offer larger energy savings in colder climates. The range of impacts for a statistical sample of households and the percent of households with net savings in life cycle cost are shown. Gas furnaces are somewhat unusual in that the technology does not easily permit incremental change to the AFUE above 80 percent. Achieving significant energy savings requires use of condensing technology, which yields a large efficiency gain (to 90 percent or higher AFUE), but has a higher cost. With respect to electricity efficiency design options, the ECM has a negative effect on the average LCC. The current extra cost of this technology more than offsets the sizable electricity savings.

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James E.; McNeil, Michael; Lutz, Jim

2006-05-26

422

Modeling and parametric studies of heat transfer in a direct-fired continuous reheating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical system model of a direct-fired continuous reheating furnace has been developed. The furnace is modeled as several\\u000a well-stirred gas zones with one-dimensional (1-D) heat conduction in the refractory walls and two-dimensional heat transfer\\u000a in the load. The load travels either parallel or counterflow to the combustion gases which enter the furnace throughout its\\u000a length. The convective heat-transfer rate

K. s. Chapman; S. Ramadhyani; R. Viskanta

1991-01-01

423

Modeling and parametric studies of heat transfer in a direct-fired batch reheating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical systems model of a batch reheating furnace has been developed to assist the furnace design and heat treatment\\u000a engineer. The furnace was modeled as a well-stirred enclosure with one-dimensional transient heat conduction in the refractory\\u000a walls and the load. The convective heat transfer rate to the load and refractory was calculated by using existing correlations\\u000a from the literature.

K. S. Chapman; S. Ramadhyani; R. Viskanta

1990-01-01

424

Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow  

DOEpatents

Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

Pollock, G.G.

1997-01-28

425

Pulse combustion gas-fired furnaces, January 1980-May 1980, field test. Final report  

SciTech Connect

To determine the operating characteristics of pulse combustion furnaces in actual homes. The field tests were made to demonstrate that applying the pulse combustion/condensing principles to residential gas-fired warm air furnaces will result in reduced fuel consumption as compared to furnaces of conventional design, and with noise levels acceptable to the user. A secondary purpose was to determine what types of application problems would be encountered in a real time environment.

Wilson, R.; Adams, C.W.

1982-08-16

426

Design, construction, and testing of a 2000°C furnace and fission product collection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An induction furnace, capable of operation at 2000°C in steam, was developed to conduct product release tests. The test specimen and steam atmosphere are contained in a stabilized ZrOâ furnace tube, which is heated by a concentric susceptor of either tungsten or graphite. A two-color optical pyrometer and high-temperature thermocouples are used for temperature measurement. The furnace has operated reliably

M. F. Osborne; J. L. Collins; R. A. Lorenz; J. R. Travis; C. S. Webster

1984-01-01

427

Improved insulation for an induction-heated ZrOâ furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction-heated ZrOâ muffle furnace is extensively used for the production of silica fibers used as optical waveguides in the communications industry. The furnace typically operates in air between 2200° and 2300°C. Improved materials and design that will increase the life, the operating temperature, as well as the physical size and particulate cleanliness of the furnace atmosphere, are continually being

S. Keguang; R. Pike; A. T. Chapman

1987-01-01

428

Physical-chemical basis for selecting refractories for large-tonnage vacuum-induction furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The working efficiency of vacuum-induction furnaces largely depends on the operational resistance of the refractory linings. The authors examine linings for large-tonnage vacuum-induction furnaces of the ISV-25 at the Chelyabinsk metallurgical combine. The design of the ISV-25 furnace specifies three modifications of inductor in which crucibles of capacity 6, 12.5, and 25 tons are prepared. A study was also made

Belyaeva

1986-01-01

429

COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN AND OPERATION OF INDUCTION FURNACE FOR TAPER HEATING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer model is developed to simulate the electro-magnetic and the heat-transfer behaviors of the taper heating process. The computer-aided tool can provide the necessary information for design and operation of induction furnaces for taper heating required for isothermal extrusion. A feasibility study of two induction furnace designs is presented. Computer results indicate that the three-zone type furnace can provide

1986-01-01

430

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

Gary M. Blythe

2003-10-01

431

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

Gary M. Blythe

2004-01-01

432

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

Gary M. Blythe

2000-12-01

433

Estimation of Fuel Savings by Recuperation of Furnace Exhausts to Preheat Combustion Air  

E-print Network

EXHAUST MEI'HANE BURNER FURNACE .. GAS 'ID hv ST.ACK J) 1 I J) -I ] d) AIR 77?F Figure 1 System :Schmatic l'Tithout Recuperator cp JI1E'rHANER-"'Y--".~1 BURNER FURNACE AIR .c-....-.... EXHAUST GA~ 'ID STibHANE BURNER FURNACE .. GAS 'ID hv ST.ACK J) 1 I J) -I ] d) AIR 77?F Figure 1 System :Schmatic l'Tithout Recuperator cp JI1E'rHANER-"'Y--".~1 BURNER FURNACE AIR .c-....-.... EXHAUST GA~ 'ID STib< Figure 2 System Schematic...

Rebello, W. J.; Kohnken, K. H.; Phipps, H. R., Jr.

1980-01-01

434

Rohm and Haas: Furnace Replacement Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Chemical Plant  

SciTech Connect

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Rohm and Haas's Deer Park, Texas, chemical plant reduced natural gas usage and energy costs by replacing inefficient furnace equipment.

Not Available

2006-02-01

435

Design, construction, and performance testing of an isothermal naphthalene heat pipe furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, an isothermal naphthalene heat pipe furnace was developed to achieve uniformly radiant heating at temperature up to 300 °C. The startup, stability, and thermography tests were carried out to evaluate the uniform temperature zone of the furnace. The temperature variance of the uniform temperature zone was observed to be within ±1 °C along the axis of the furnace. To illustrate its capabilities, the furnace was used to successfully sinter thin layers of copper nanoparticle on microporous copper wicks and form biporous wicks, materials of high interest to advanced heat pipe technologies.

Choi, Jeehoon; Yuan, Yuan; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana-Andrea; Kang, Hwankook

2014-09-01

436

Variation in coke properties within the blast-furnace shop  

SciTech Connect

In active production at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), samples of melt materials were taken during shutdown and during planned repairs at furnaces 1 and 8. In particular, coke was taken from the tuyere zone at different distances from the tuyere tip. The mass of the point samples was 2-15 kg, depending on the sampling zone. The material extracted from each zone underwent magnetic separation and screening by size class. The resulting coke sample was averaged out and divided into parts: one for determining the granulometric composition and mechanical strength; and the other for technical analysis and determination of the physicochemical properties of the coke.

E.N. Stepanov; I.I. Mel'nikov; V.P. Gridasov; A.A. Stepanova [OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), Magnitogorsk, (Russian Federation)

2009-04-15

437

Increase in the productivity of blast-furnace stoves  

SciTech Connect

The Novolipetsk combine proposed sending a cold blast through a special 150-mm-diameter pipe passing through an igniter opening into the combustion chamber. To evaluate the efficiency the stove performance in which some of the cold blast was directed to the combustion chamber was compared against that of unmodified stoves. This blast-delivery system was found to increase consumption of blast-furnace gas during the first stage, reduce time required to bring the dome up to prescribed temperatures, shorten the stove-heating period, and increase blast-heating temperature by 10-15/degree/.

Solomentsev, S.L.; Chernobrivets, B.F.; Sigmund, V.K.; Basukinskii, S.M.; Beremblyum, G.B.; Nakhaev, P.E.; Serpevskii, S.L.

1988-03-01

438

Leaching of basic oxygen furnace sludge with sulphuric acid  

E-print Network

In this study the hydrometallurgical processing of BOF sludge in the sulphuric acid solutions under atmospheric pressure and temperatures up to 100 °C is investigated on a laboratory scale. The influence of sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio (L:S) on the leaching process was studied. The main aim of this study was to determine optimal conditions when the maximum amount of zinc passes into the solution. Key words: basic oxygen furnace dust and sludge, hydrometallurgy, leaching, zinc, sulphuric acid

Zuzana Hoang Trung; František Kukurugya; Zita Taká?ová; Dušan Orá?; Martina Laubertová; Andrea Miškufová; TomᚠHavlík

439

Graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Graphite Electrode DC Arc Furnace (DC Arc) is a high-temperature thermal process, which has been adapted from a commercial technology, for the treatment of mixed waste. A DC Arc Furnace heats waste to a temperature such that the waste is converted into a molten form that cools into a stable glassy and/or crystalline waste form. Hazardous organics are destroyed through combustion or pyrolysis during the process and the majority of the hazardous metals and radioactive components are incorporated in the molten phase. The DC Arc Furnace chamber temperature is approximately 593--704 C and melt temperatures are as high as 1,500 C. The DC Arc system has an air pollution control system (APCS) to remove particulate and volatiles from the offgas. The advantage of the DC Arc is that it is a single, high-temperature thermal process that minimizes the need for multiple treatment systems and for extensive sorting/segregating of large volumes of waste. The DC Arc has the potential to treat a wide range of wastes, minimize the need for sorting, reduce the final waste volumes, produce a leach resistant waste form, and destroy organic contaminants. Although the DC arc plasma furnace exhibits great promise for treating the types of mixed waste that are commonly present at many DOE sites, several data and technology deficiencies were identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) regarding this thermal waste processing technique. The technology deficiencies that have been addressed by the current studies include: establishing the partitioning behavior of radionuclides, surrogates, and hazardous metals among the product streams (metal, slag, and offgas) as a function of operating parameters, including melt temperature, plenum atmosphere, organic loading, chloride concentration, and particle size; demonstrating the efficacy of waste product removal systems for slag and metal phases; determining component durability through test runs of extended duration, evaluating the effect of feed composition variations on process operating conditions and slag product performance; and collecting mass balance and operating data to support equipment and instrument design.

NONE

1999-05-01

440

Crew Member Interface with Space Station Furnace Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is a facility located in the International Space Station United States Laboratory (ISS US Lab) for materials research in the microgravity environment. The SSFF will accommodate basic research, commercial applications, and studies of phenomena of metals and alloys, electronic and photonic materials, and glasses and ceramics. To support this broad base of research requirements, the SSFF will operate, regulate, and support a variety of Experiment Modules (EMs). To meet station requirements concerning the microgravity level needed for experiments, station is providing an active vibration isolation system, and SSFF provides the interface. SSFF physically consists of a Core Rack and two instrument racks (IRs) that occupy three adjacent ISS US Lab rack locations within the International Space Station (ISS). All SSFF racks are modified International Standard Payload Racks (ISPR). SSFF racks will have a 50% larger pass through area on the lower sides than ISPRs to accommodate the many rack to rack interconnections. The Instrument Racks are further modified with lowered floors and an additional removable panel (15" x 22") on top of the rack for access if needed. The Core Rack shall contain all centralized Core subsystems and ISS subsystem equipment. The two Instrument Racks shall contain the distributed Core subsystem equipment, ISS subsystem equipment, and the EMs. The Core System, which includes the Core Rack, the IR structures, and subsystem components located in the IRs serves as the central control and management for the IRs and the EMs. The Core System receives the resources provided by the International Space Station (ISS) and modifies, allocates, and distributes these resources to meet the operational requirements of the furnace. The Core System is able to support a total of four EMs and can control, support, and activate/deactivate the operations of two EMs, simultaneously. The IRs can be configured to house two small EMs or one tall vertical EM, and serve as the interface between the Core and the respective EM. The Core Rack and an adjacent Instrument Rack (containing one or more furnaces) will be delivered to the ISS in one launch. This is Integrated Configuration One (ICI). The Core Rack and IRI will be passive during transport in the Mini Pressurized Logistics Module (MPLM): Any subsequent EMs to operate within IRI are installed on-orbit. The second IR (containing one or more furnaces) is delivered to ISS on a subsequent launch which will establish Integrated Configuration Two (IC2). Additional integrated configurations will be established with the replacement of EMs or Instrument Racks.

Cash, Martha B.

1997-01-01

441

A study of slag freezing in metallurgical furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many smelting and slag-cleaning furnaces operate with cooling systems designed to freeze a slag layer over the refractory to protect it. The fluid flow and heat transfer conditions associated with the freeze layer and mushy zones are poorly understood. This study was conducted to understand the chill layer formation and heat transfer that is required to design cooling systems in pyrometallurgical operations where a slag layer is required to protect the furnace wall. The freeze layer formation and heat transfer in mushy zones were experimentally study at room temperature in a 2-dimensional square cavity differentially heated, using an aqueous solution of calcium chloride to simulate the slag. Reasonable similarity with conditions encountered with copper and nickel smelting systems was achieved (Pr ? 50 and Ra ? 108, in the laminar-turbulent transition). Measurements of velocities were made with the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. The freeze layer development was tracked using a digital camera. Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of the mean flow using a finite control volume technique with a fixed domain method were also made of the unsteady fluid flow and heat transfer problem. It was found that the macro solidification process is well described using an improved model for high molecular viscosity in the mushy zone. Solid front growth, isothermal profiles, velocity profiles and heat transfer through the walls showed good agreement between the PIV and DNS results. Experimental and numerical velocity profiles close to the freeze layer show a parabolic behaviour in the vertical velocity profile which is completely different from the calculation of heat transfer using a sharp interface model. The reason for this is attributed to the effects of the mushy zone with a high viscosity and high shear stresses acting on that area. In Part III of this Thesis, effects of slag viscosity temperature relationship were analysed with a two-dimensional mathematical model of an electric smelting furnace. The model was focused on the fluid dynamics of the molten slag and the effects over the formation of magnetite-rich slag layer over the walls. The results of the previous experimental and mathematical work, Part I and II, were used to describe mathematically the freeze layer formation on the furnace walls using a fixed-grid model from a highly viscous liquid. Chemical composition of the slag was taken into account through the effect of the viscous activation energy as well the solidus and liquidus temperatures. The results show that the flow pattern is strongly affected in the areas of high viscosity. The results are discussed in terms of heat flux over the refractories and their effects on cooling system design.

Guevara, Fernando

442

Vitrification of fly ash by swirling-flow furnace  

SciTech Connect

According to the amendment of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law of 1992, fly ash is regulated as Specially controlled waste and wide attention is now being paid to the melting and vitrification treatment of fly ash, which can reduce overall volume, detoxify and recover sources. Kobe Steel has demonstrated its operation using a swirling-flow furnace and has perfected a vitrification technique. The demonstration test has confirmed stable melting, high decomposition ratio of dioxins and the soundness of the slag. Kobe Steel has successfully developed a new technique for heightening the quality of slag and a new process for the heavy metals recovery from collected dust.

Ito, Tadashi [Kobe Steel Ltd., Nishi, Kobe (Japan). Engineering and Machinery Div.] [Kobe Steel Ltd., Nishi, Kobe (Japan). Engineering and Machinery Div.

1996-12-31

443

Preparation of Ceramic-Bonded Carbon Block for Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional carbon blocks for blast furnaces are mainly produced with electrically calcined anthracite owing to its good hot metal corrosion resistance. However, this kind of material shows low thermal conductivity and does not meet the demands for cooling of the hearth and the bottom of blast furnaces. In this article, a new kind of a high-performance carbon block has been prepared via ceramic-bonded carbon (CBC) technology in a coke bed at 1673 K (1400 °C) using artificial graphite aggregate, alumina, metallic aluminum, and silicon powders as starting materials. The results showed that artificial graphite aggregates were strongly bonded by the three-dimensional network of ceramic phases in carbon blocks. In this case, the good resistance of the CBC blocks against erosion/corrosion by the hot metal is provided by the ceramic matrix and the high thermal conductivity by the graphite aggregates. The microstructure of this carbon block resembles that of CBC composites with a mean pore size of less than 0.1 ?m, and up to 90 pct of the porosity shows a pore size <1 ?m. Its thermal conductivity is higher than 30 W · m-1 · K-1 [293 K (20 °C)]. Meanwhile, its hot metal corrosion resistance is better than that of traditional carbon blocks.

Li, Yiwei; Li, Yawei; Sang, Shaobai; Chen, Xilai; Zhao, Lei; Li, Yuanbing; Li, Shujing

2014-01-01

444

Parametric study of a carbon black oil furnace  

SciTech Connect

Carbon black is the main reinforcing agent of natural rubber. This particulate carbon product is produced by the carbon black oil furnace process through the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon feedstock. The formation of carbon black is modeled by a two equation global soot model in which the formation process is related to the concentration of the hydrocarbon carbon black feedstock. The gas field is solved employing a standard finite volume technique with the governing partial differential equations, cast in curvilinear coordinates, maintaining orthogonal velocity components. The feedstock injection is calculated in a lagrangian frame of reference and coupled to the gas phase through appropriate source terms of mass, momentum and energy. The soot model constants are calibrated through a product simulation exercise. The calibrated model`s behavior is investigated by means of a parametric study in which all the major geometric and fluid dynamic parameters of the carbon black oil furnace are varied. The trends obtained from the parametric study compare well with those found in the carbon black industry. New recommendations for likely improved operating conditions are made.

Lockwood, F.C.; Van Niekerk, J.E. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-10-01

445

Removal of chloride from electric arc furnace dust.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust with high chloride content increases the threat of dioxin emissions and the high chloride content reduces the value of recycled zinc oxide produced by EAF dust recycling plants. This study conducts a number of laboratory experiments to determine the technical feasibility of a new dechlorination method. These methods consist of a series of roasting processes and water washing processes. In the roasting process, EAF dust was heated in a tube furnace to evaluate the parameters of atmospheric conditions, roasting temperature, and roasting time. Results indicate that sulfation roasting is more efficient in reducing chloride content than other roasting processes. The water washing process can totally remove water-soluble chloride at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10. However, the remaining water-insoluble substance is difficult to dechlorinate. For example, lead chloride forms a hydroxyl-halide (PbOHCl) and lead chloride carbonate (Pb(2)CO(3)Cl(2)) agglutinative matrix that is hard to wash away. PMID:21531506

Chen, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Chang, Fang-Chih

2011-06-15

446

Adaptive Sample Position Control System for Electrostatic Levitation Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electrostatic Levitation Furnace (ELF) is one of the experiment facilities for materials science which is expected to be used on the International Space Station (ISS) in future. A unique feature of ELF is to levitate a sample inside the furnace by means of Coulomb's force throughout the fusion/solidification experiments. To realize this condition under the disturbances of the ISS environment we designed three customized control logics. Incidentally, when those logics were tested in a rocket experiment in 1998, the sample material showed an unexpectedly shaky motion during the experiment. The cause of this phenomenon was explained by analysis that the control force diminished when the sample temperature was high and the heating lasers were lit. Actually, the electrical charge of the sample significantly decreases when it is heated to a certain degree and is irradiated by the lasers. Hence, we redesigned the control software by adopting the Recursive Least-Squares Algorithm (RLSA), which identifies the amount of a sample's electrical charge in real-time. As a result, several numerical simulations have proved that the sample motion is well controlled with this adaptive control software even if the electrical charge changes significantly. Consequently, we concluded that this adaptive control technique is widely applicable to the systems whose parameters are changeable during operations.

Nakamura, Tai

447

Effect of sulfur and chlorine on furnace wall corrosion  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion resistance of a furnace-wall tubing alloy, SA213-T2, was evaluated in a laboratory test, simulating the reducing/sulfidizing combustion environment in PC-fired utility boilers burning coal substoichiometrically. This alloy was exposed to mixed gases containing H{sub 2}S and HCl, as well as other major flue-gas components, with and without the coverage of ash deposits. The results show that sulfidation was the primary mode of attack on SA213-T2. Chlorination could not be identified from the addition of 80 ppm HCl to the mixed gas and 10 wt.% chlorides to the ash. However, under the 10%-chloride ash, the sulfidation attack was noticeably enhanced. The accelerated sulfidation attack was attributed to the increase of point defects in the FeS outer scale formed, thus promoting the outward diffusion of Fe. The presence of a sulfide-rich deposit also considerably increased the sulfidization attack on T2. Such an increase was partially caused by the presence of a constantly reducing/sulfidizing atmosphere locally in the ash layer. In addition, a new corrosion mechanism is proposed here to account for the accelerated attack, which involves sulfidation of T2 by elemental sulfur. The elemental sulfur was formed when the FeS-rich ash was in contact with an oxidizing flue gas. This mechanism would explain the relatively high corrosion wastage found on the furnace walls of units burning coal substoichiometrically.

Kung, S.C. [McDermott Technology, Inc., Alliance, OH (United States); Bakker, W.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1998-12-31

448

BLAST FURNACE SLIPS AND ACCOMPANYING EMISSIONS AS AN AIR POLLUTION SOURCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to ascertain the severity of blast-furnace slips and their accompanying bleeder-valve emissions as a source of air pollution. It describes factors contributing to the occurrence of hangs and slips in the blast furnace. It discusses the mechanic...

449

16 CFR Appendix G3 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Oil  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Furnaces-Oil G3 Appendix G3 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. G3 Appendix G3 to Part 305—Furnaces—Oil Manufacturer's rated...

2010-01-01

450

16 CFR Appendix G1 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Gas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Furnaces-Gas G1 Appendix G1 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. G1 Appendix G1 to Part 305—Furnaces—Gas Manufacturer's rated...

2010-01-01

451

Pulverised Coal Combustion Under Transient Cloud Conditions in a Drop Tube Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low volatile coal was burned with oxygen-enriched air in a drop tube furnace at 1223 and 1523 K, either as single particles or as small batches added as a pulse. The particle temperatures and burnout times at the two furnace temperatures were recorded for each test. The ignition \\/ combustion processes were recorded by pyrometer and video camera. The

B. R. STANMORE; Y.-C. CHOI; R. GADIOU; O. CHARON; P. GILOT

2000-01-01

452

Neural networks for the identification and control of blast furnace hot metal quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation and control of blast furnaces poses a great challenge because of the difficult measurement and control problems associated with the unit. The measurement of hot metal composition with respect to silica and sulfur are critical to the economic operation of blast furnaces. The measurement of the compositions require spectrographic techniques which can be performed only off line. An

V. R Radhakrishnan; A. R Mohamed

2000-01-01

453

Space Station Furnace Facility. Experiment/Facility Requirements Document (E/FRD), volume 2, appendix 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The function of the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is to support materials research into the crystal growth and solidification processes of electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics. To support this broad base of research requirements, the SSFF will employ a variety of furnace modules operated, regulated, and supported by a core of common subsystems. Furnace modules may be reconfigured or specifically developed to provide unique solidifcation conditions for each set of experiments. The SSFF modular approach permits the addition of new or scaled-up furnace modules to support the evolution of the facility as new science requirements are identified. The SSFF Core is of modular design to permit augmentation for enhanced capabilities. The fully integrated configuration of the SSFF will consist of three racks with the capability of supporting up to two furnace modules per rack. The initial configuration of the SSFF will consist of two of the three racks and one furnace module. This Experiment/Facility Requirements Document (E/FRD) describes the integrated facility requirements for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Integrated Configuration-1 (IC1) mission. The IC1 SSFF will consist of two racks: the Core Rack, with the centralized subsystem equipment, and the Experiment Rack-1, with Furnace Module-1 and the distributed subsystem equipment to support the furnace.

Kephart, Nancy

1992-01-01

454

Fouling and heat transfer in a furnace under variable load of a liquid slag removal boiler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical parameters that characterize the fouling dynamics of the water wall surfaces of the chamber furnace when its heat load varies are determined. The effect of the variable heat transfer conditions in the furnace on the working surface of steam generating tubes is substantiated.

Baltyan, V. N.

1993-03-01

455

Prediction of Three-Dimensional Flows in Utility Boiler Furnaces and Comparison with Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The turbulent flow field in large utility boiler furnaces is strongly affected hy heat release from combustion and by the heat extracted from the furnace through the boiler tube walls. To describe and predict these effects with reasonable engineering accuracy, a mathematical model termed COMpac has been developed at the University of Stuttgart. The series of codes is based on

K. GORNER; W. ZINSER

1988-01-01

456

The multi-scale forecast of submerged arc furnace energy consumption base on support vector machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to ferroalloy submerged arc furnace smelting is an extremely complicated chemistry and physics reaction process, the exact forecast of energy consumption related to the stable and efficient operation of submerged arc furnace, introducing a multi-scale energy consumption prediction model based on least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), first of all, by conducting the wavelet decomposition to the energy consumption

Zhang Niaona; Wang Zijian; Zhang Dejiang

2010-01-01

457

Thermodynamic modelling of the multiphase pyrometallurgical processing of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is produced when automobile scrap is remelted in an electric arc furnace and about 10–20 kilograms are generated per ton of steel. The major elements present in the dust are usually zinc, iron and calcium with smaller amounts of numerous other elements such as lead, copper and nickel. Typically, in the pyrometallurgical EAF dust treatment

C. A. Pickles

2009-01-01

458

Waste stabilization\\/solidification of an electric arc furnace dust using fly ash-based geopolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stabilization\\/solidification (S\\/S) of a carbon steel electric arc furnace (EAF) dust containing hazardous metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr or Zn using geopolymerization technology is described in this paper. Different reagents such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate, potassium silicate, kaolinite, metakaolinite and blast furnace slag have been used. Mixtures of EAF waste with these geopolymeric materials and

C. Fernández Pereira; Y. Luna; X. Querol; D. Antenucci; J. Vale

2009-01-01

459

Simulation of Furnace Cascade PID Control System Based on Matlab \\/ Simulink  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cascade control system has better anti-interference ability, quickness, flexibility and quality control, so it is widely used in complex process control. Furnace temperature is primarily regulated by the gas flow control. The furnace control system has larger capacity lags and suite for cascade PID control. However, traditional parameters tuning method of controller can only meet either of the target tracking

Honglian Zhang

2011-01-01

460

THE BEHAVIOUR OF COKE IN SUBMERGED ARC FURNACE SMELTING OF FERROMANGANESE  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been observed that the productivity of ferromanganese furnaces, and the stability of metal and slag compositions, vary considerably according to the type of coke used as reductant. However, the desired properties of coke for optimum furnace performance are not well understood. In this investigation, the behaviour of four cokes, which exhibited a wide range of performance in ferromanganese

S. Kamalpour; W. J. Rankin

2004-01-01

461

Modeling of the Thermal State Change of Blast Furnace Hearth With Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the economic operation of a blast furnace, the thermal state change of a blast furnace hearth (BFH), often repre- sented by the change of the silicon content in hot metal, needs to be strictly monitored and controlled. For these purposes, this paper has taken the tendency prediction of the thermal state of BFH as a binary classification problem and

Chuanhou Gao; Ling Jian; Shihua Luo

2012-01-01

462

Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to examine the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces, as measured by steady-state efficiency and AFUE. PARR identified twelve furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines Iowa metropolitan area and worked with a local HVAC contractor to retrieve them and test them for steady-state efficiency and AFUE in the lab. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace. After removal from the field the furnaces were transported to the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) laboratory, where PARR conducted steady-state efficiency and AFUE testing. The test results show that steady-state efficiency in the field was 6.4% lower than that measured for the same furnaces under standard conditions in the lab, which included tuning the furnace input and air flow rate. Comparing AFUE measured under ASHRAE standard conditions with the label value shows no reduction in efficiency for the furnaces in this study over their 15 to 24 years of operation when tuned to standard conditions. Further analysis of the data showed no significant correlation between efficiency change and the age or the rated efficiency of the furnace.

Rothgeb, S.; Brand, L.

2013-11-01

463

Research on image processing for furnace flame and reconstruct on temperature field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process burning coal powder in boiler is in very complex suspension combustion and very unstable, monitoring system image includes a lot of noise signals from difference hands. In this chapter, compose of furnace flame monitoring system is introduced, the new method called as fast median filter for elimination image noise, enhancement image and special boundary detection algorithm for furnace flame

Chenggang Zhen; Pu Han; Yuguang Niu

2003-01-01

464

Heat transfer to walls of a circulating fluidized-bed furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical review of information on heat transfer between the furnace and enclosing walls of a circulating fluidized-bed boiler is presented. A good understanding of the heat transfer process was impeded for some time by a lack of detailed information about the hydrodynamics of fast fluidization. With improvement in the understanding of the furnace hydrodynamics a clearer picture of the

P. K. Nag

1996-01-01

465

Field measurements of interactions between furnaces and forced air distribution systems  

E-print Network

controlling the indoor temperature. This short cycling increases cyclic losses from the duct system, changes over a furnace heat exchanger resulting in the furnace cycling on the high limit switch rather than heat exchanger effectiveness and reliability and therefore changes the overall system performance from

466

An induction furnace to attain temperatures above 3000°C in controlled atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

An induction furnace operating at 500 kc\\/s is described which is capable of providing temperatures in excess of 3000° C at high vacuum or in any suitable gas mixture at pressures up to 8 atmospheres. The work coil is mounted inside the furnace chamber, which can then be designed as a pressure vessel and constructed of electrically conducting steel. By

L. C. F. Blackman; P. H. Dundas; A. W. Moore; A. R. Ubbelohde

1961-01-01

467

Mathematical modeling of glass melt heat exchange in a cylindrical induction furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-dimensional mathematical model of glass melt heat exchange in a cylindrical induction furnace was examined. The model includes the solution of heat and Bussinesk-Oberbeck equations by the finite difference method. The variants of the change in the boundary conditions investigated allowed modeling both different induction furnace designs and different methods of conducting the technological process.

A. A. Zhilin; A. N. Zamyatin; V. K. Shiff

1994-01-01

468

Fluid velocities in induction melting furnaces: Part I. Theory and laboratory experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluid flow in an induction furnace due to electromagnetic stirring forces is predicted theoretically from furnace design parameters by the simultaneous solution of the Maxwell and Navier Stokes equations. Streamline plots and velocity profiles are obtained and compared with surface velocities measured experimentally. The measurements were made on a mercury pool stirred inductively by a Tocco 30 kW 3 kHz

Erach D. Tarapore; James W. Evans

1976-01-01

469

Instrument for measuring the speed at which fused metals move in induction furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fused metal is provided with an intensive movement under the effect of ponderomotive forces produced during smelting in the induction furnaces. Electromagnetic mixing of the melt in the furnace tank depends on the supplied specific power, frequency of the current, and the metal level in the crucible. It intensifies to a considerable extent the smelting process, and has a pronounced

N. K. Blozhko; A. N. Gorshenkov

1971-01-01

470

An optimum design of the lining of a medium frequency induction melting furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, medium frequency induction melting furnaces find wide application in the making of steels by remelting of scraps. An operational problem of these furnaces is the need to repair and rebuild the lining of the crucible frequently. We present a methodical approach for better design and maintenance to decrease such problems. The erosion process of the lining is modelled

Pritibhushan Sinha; Subhash Saha Chandra

1998-01-01

471

Electromagnetic processes in the channel induction furnace with rotational motion of metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design of the channel induction furnace with rotational movement of the liquid metal in channels, a new highly effective electric thermal device is described. A problem of the electromagnetic field calculation with regard for the electric current induced by the metal rotation is solved as applied to such furnace. The joint solution of a system of integral equations for

Y. M. Gorislavets; N. K. Ehrkenov

1996-01-01

472

EFFECTS OF FURNACE PRESSURE AND FEED MATERIAL ON URANIUM INGOT QUALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uranium remelt operation at National Lead Company of Ohio is ; performed in a vacuum induction furnace at pressures ranging from 10⁻¹ mm ; to 5 x 10⁻¹ mm Hg (ionization gage readings). A program was originated to ; determine the effect of furnace pressure on ingot chemical impurities and ; metallurgical qualities. A series of melts (69) was

H. M. Eikenberry; R. B. Steck; D. DeTrou

1960-01-01

473

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "B2-Ox-Alloy" furnace in TRL.  

E-print Network

interlock ( > 50%, >10 minutes, alone), to clear the furnace of Oxygen. The wafer handling is manual_Alloy" is an Atmospheric furnace designed to grow thermal SiO2 in the temperature range of 800- 1050C, on Silicon wafers up to 6" inch in diameter. Other thermal processes can also be run. The system is operated in manual mode

Reif, Rafael

474

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "A1-GateOx" furnace in TRL.  

E-print Network

), to clear the furnace of Oxygen. The wafer handling is manual: the quartz boat is introduced in the flatOx" is an Atmospheric furnace designed to grow thermal SiO2 in the temperature range of 800- 1050C, on Silicon wafers up to 6" inch in diameter. Other thermal processes can also be run. The system is operated in manual mode

Reif, Rafael

475

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR TUBE "A2-WetOxBond" furnace in TRL.  

E-print Network

the furnace of Oxygen. The wafer handling is manual: the quartz boat is introduced in the flat zoneOxBond" is an Atmospheric furnace designed to grow thermal SiO2 in the temperature range of 800- 1050C, on Silicon wafers up to 6" inch in diameter. Other thermal processes can also be run. The system is operated in manual mode

Reif, Rafael

476

DESTRUCTION AND REMOVAL OF POHCS (PRINCPAL ORGANIC HAZARDOUS CONSTITUENTS) IN IRON MAKING BLAST FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

At least one steel company utilizes organic waste liquids as a heat and carbon content source to partially replace the coke that is used to charge the blast furnaces. The waste liquids fed to the blast furnace are likely to contain hazardous constituents. Temperature and residenc...

477

Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part I. The effect of air-propane ratio on furnace atmosphere composition and the amount of carburizing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas carburizing experiments were conducted in a batch-type sealed quenched furnace at 843 and 927 °C using furnace atmospheres produced by reacting propane and air within the furnace chamber. With low, constant gas flow rates it is shown that the amount of carburizing varies regularly with air-propane ratio. Furnace atmosphere composition was monitored as a function of temperature and air-propane ratio and compared with the composition expected at thermodynamic equilibrium.

Stickels, C. A.; Mack, C. M.; Brachaczek, M.

1980-09-01

478

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15

479

Short vertical tube furnace for the fabrication of doped glass microsphere lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the design of an electric tube furnace that can be used for the fabrication of doped glass microsphere lasers. The tube furnace has a short hot zone of length 133 mm and is based on a quartz tube design. Doped laser glass particles, specifically Er:Yb phosphate glass (IOG-2), of ˜1 ?m diameter are blown into the furnace using a 60 ml syringe and microspheres ranging in size from 10 to 400 ?m are collected at the output of the tube furnace in a Petri dish. The furnace operates at a wall temperature of ˜900 °C and is capable of making microspheres from glasses with glass transition temperatures of at least 375 °C. High quality (Q ˜105) whispering gallery modes have been excited within the microspheres by optically pumping at 978 nm via a tapered optical fiber.

Ward, Jonathan M.; Wu, Yuqiang; Khalfi, Krimo; Chormaic, Síle Nic

2010-07-01

480

Speciation of Zn in Blast Furnace Sludge from Former Sedimentation Ponds Using Synchrotron Xray Diffraction, Fluorescence, and  

E-print Network

materials in wastewater treatment. INTRODUCTION Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a hazardous industrial waste generated in large quantities during the purification of flue gas leaving blast furnaces used in pig iron

481

Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming Dong-Sang Kim a,*, Bryan C. Dutton b  

E-print Network

`dilution model', suggesting that foaming is more severe in oxy-fired furnaces than in air-fired furnaces with the pull rate, the use of recycled and contam- inated cullet of mixed colors [6]. The type of gaseous fuel

Pilon, Laurent

482

10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.  

...for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures §...

2014-01-01

483

10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures §...

2013-01-01

484

10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures §...

2012-01-01

485

10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures §...

2011-01-01

486

10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures §...

2010-01-01

487

Development of residential gas-fired furnaces using heat pipe heat exchangers. Final report, July 1988February 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objective of the heat pipe heat exchanger development program was to design, fabricate, and demonstrate the performance of heat pipe heat exchangers for gas-fired residential furnaces that improved upon the previously marketed heat pipe furnace.

P. M. Dussinger; J. R. Hartenstine

1992-01-01

488

New concepts and designs for blast furnace linings and cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

In the 1960`s, concurrent with major technological developments in blast furnace operation, cooling became increasingly important in extending furnace campaign life. Cooling systems developed from simple shower spray and jacket types, to intensive plate and stave systems. Each system has advantages and disadvantages. The principal furnace cooling areas are: underhearth (which has ceased to be a cause of premature end of a furnace campaign); and shell cooling using plates, staves and refractories. Plate coolers, a traditional method of furnace cooling, have developed through the years. Current designs for critical locations in the furnace include double chamber and 6-pass, single chamber copper castings. Their disadvantage is the requirement for large apertures in the furnace shell for installation that complicates the design of the shell. Stave coolers, designed to give protection to the furnace shell, even if the refractory is lost, provide more uniform cooling compared with plate coolers and extract less heat from the furnace. Although damaged stave coolers are difficult to replace, an increasing number of plants are adopting this method of cooling. There are four main types of cooling water circuits: once-through; open recirculating; evaporative; and closed loop. Greatest control of fouling, micro biological and scaling conditions is provided by a closed-loop system. The lining of a blast furnace requires a wider range of refractories than any other process in iron and steelmaking. A recent example includes the application of the following materials: micropore carbon in the hearth wall; silicon carbide in the bosh, belly and lower stack; 65% alumina in the mid-stack; and staves in the upper stack.

Carmichael, I.F. [Davy International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-08-01

489

BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are theSavings?  

SciTech Connect

Residential gas furnaces contain blowers to distribute warm air. Currently, furnace blowers use either a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important for understanding electricity consumption of furnaces. The electricity consumption of blower motors depends on the static pressure across the blower. This paper examines both types of blower motors in non-condensing non-weatherized gas furnaces at a range of static pressures. Fan performance data is based on manufacturer product literature and laboratory tests. We use field-measured static pressure in ducts to get typical system curves to calculate how furnaces would operate in the field. We contrast this with the electricity consumption of a furnace blower operating under the DOE test procedure and manufacturer rated conditions. Furnace electricity use is also affected by operating modes that happen at the beginning and end of each furnace firing cycle. These operating modes are the pre-purge and post-purge by the draft inducer, the on-delay and off-delay of the blower, and the hot surface ignitor operation. To accurately calculate this effect, we use the number of firing cycles in a typical California house in the Central Valley of California. Cooling hours are not considered in the DOE test procedure. We also account for furnace blower use by the air conditioner and stand-by power. Overall BPM motors outperform PSC motors, but the total electricity savings are significantly less than projected using the DOE test procedure conditions. The performance gains depend on the static pressure of the household ducts, which are typically much higher than in the test procedures.

Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

2006-05-12

490

Plane flame furnace combustion tests on JPL desulfurized coal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combustion characteristics of three raw bituminous (PSOC-282 and 276) and subbituminous (PSOC-230) coals, the raw coals partially desulfurized (ca -60%) by JPL chlorinolysis, and the chlorinated coals more completely desulfurized (ca -75%) by JPL hydrodesulfurization were determined. The extent to which the combustion characteristics of the untreated coals were altered upon JPL sulfur removal was examined. Combustion conditions typical of utility boilers were simulated in the plane flame furnace. Upon decreasing the parent coal voltaile matter generically by 80% and the sulfur by 75% via the JPL desulfurization process, ignition time was delayed 70 fold, burning velocity was retarded 1.5 fold, and burnout time was prolonged 1.4 fold. Total flame residence time increased 2.3 fold. The JPL desulfurization process appears to show significant promise for producing technologically combustible and clean burning (low SO3) fuels.

Reuther, J. J.; Kim, H. T.; Lima, J. G. H.

1982-01-01

491

High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace  

DOEpatents

A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics. 4 figs.

Hardt, D.E.; Lee, S.G.

1996-08-06

492

High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace  

DOEpatents

A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics.

Hardt, David E. (Concord, MA); Lee, Steven G. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1996-01-01

493

Waste Heat Recovery from Blast Furnace Slag by Chemical Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast furnace (BF) slag, which is the main byproduct in the ironmaking process, contains large amounts of sensible heat. To recover the heat, a new waste heat-recovery system—granulating molten BF slag by rotary multinozzles cup atomizer and pyrolyzing printed circuited board with obtained hot BF slag particle—was proposed in this study. The feasibility of the waste heat-recovery system was verified by dry granulation and pyrolyzation experiments. The energy of hot BF slag could be converted to chemical energy through the pyrolysis reaction, and a large amount of combustible gas like CO, H2, C m H n , and CH4 can be generated during the process.

Qin, Yuelin; Lv, Xuewei; Bai, Chenguang; Qiu, Guibao; Chen, Pan

2012-08-01

494

When did movement begin on the Furnace Creek fault zone  

SciTech Connect

About 50 km of post-Jurassic right-lateral slip has occurred on the northern part of the Furnace Creek fault zone (FCFZ). The sedimentology, stratigraphy, and structure of Tertiary rocks suggest that movement on the fault began no earlier than 12--8 Ma and possibly as late as 5--4 Ma. Large remnants of erosion surfaces occur on both sides of the FCFZ in the southern White Mountains and Fish Lake Valley and are buried by rhyolite and basalt, mostly 12--10 Ma; the ash flows and welded tuffs were likely erupted from sources at least 40 km to the east. Thus, the area probably had gentle topography, suggesting a lengthy period of pre-late Miocene tectonic stability. On the west side of the FCFZ, Cambrian sedimentary rocks are buried by a fanglomerate with an [sup [minus

Reheis, M. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-04-01

495

Enriching blast furnace gas by removing carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Blast furnace gas (BF gas) produced in the iron making process is an essential energy resource for a steel making work. As compared with coke oven gas, the caloric value of BF gas is too low to be used alone as fuel in hot stove because of its high concentrations of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. If the carbon dioxide in BF gas could be captured efficiently, it would meet the increasing need of high caloric BF gas, and develop methods to reusing and/or recycling the separated carbon dioxide further. Focused on this, investigations were done with simple evaluation on possible methods of removing carbon dioxide from BF gas and basic experiments on carbon dioxide capture by chemical absorption. The experimental results showed that in 100 minutes, the maximum absorbed doses of carbon dioxide reached 20 g/100 g with ionic liquid as absorbent. PMID:25078829

Zhang, Chongmin; Sun, Zhimin; Chen, Shuwen; Wang, Baohai

2013-12-01

496

Gold Sample Heating within the TEMPUS Electromagnetic Levitation Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gold sample is heated by the TEMPUS electromagnetic levitation furnace on STS-94, 1997, MET:10/09:20 (approximate). The sequence shows the sample being positioned electromagnetically and starting to be heated to melting. TEMPUS (stands for Tiegelfreies Elektromagnetisches Prozessiere unter Schwerelosigkeit (containerless electromagnetic processing under weightlessness). It was developed by the German Space Agency (DARA) for flight aboard Spacelab. The DARA project scientist was Igon Egry. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). DARA and NASA are exploring the possibility of flying an advanced version of TEMPUS on the International Space Station. (460KB, 14-second MPEG, screen 160 x 120 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300190.html.

2003-01-01

497

Large area silicon sheet by EFG. [furnace growth techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a technique for the production of silicon ribbon is discussed. Extensive characterization of the multiple ribbon Furnace 3A main zone temperature profile was performed and the information used to improve uniformity of heating. Irregularities in the main zone heater were associated with growth difficulties at specific cartridge locations, and growth conditions subsequently improved by profiling the main zone heater. Good growth conditions were established in all three cartridge positions. These improvements allowed multiple growth of three 10 cm wide ribbons to be demonstrated for periods of an hour on several occasions. A gas distribution system for the 10 cm cartridge was introduced and demonstrated to lead to improved ambient control during growth. Growth without and with CO2 showed that quality improvement in 10 cm ribbon grown with cold shoes results from ambient manipulation.

1981-01-01

498

Determination of zinc in blast furnace flue dusts.  

PubMed

Two methods for the determination of zinc in blast-furnace flue dusts are described. One involves a solvent extraction step using methyl isobutyl ketone to separate the zinc from the bulk of the interfering elements, followed by a complexometric titration of the zinc with EDTA, using Eriochrome Black T as indicator. The other employs differential pulse polarography with a hydrochloric acid + pyridine supporting electrolyte. In this method, the interference of iron is prevented by reducing it with hydroxylamine hydrochloride; aluminium is complexed with potassium fluoride. Other elements, with the exception of cobalt, do not interfere. Excellent agreement between the two methods is obtained in the range 0.01-0.6% zinc. PMID:18962345

Hitchen, A; Zechanowitsch, G

499

Low cost Get-Away-Special (GAS) furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple and inexpensive Space Shuttle experimental apparatus to conduct microgravity melting and solidification is presented. A GAS space furnace was initially developed as a student design project at the USAF Academy and further refined at NASA Lewis. The experiment package consists of a melting chamber, battery power system, temperature data recording systems, and electronic controller. The melting chamber is a thin-walled tube wrapped by heating resistance wire. Thermocouples are used to record the specimen thermal history. Power is supplied by 2-V batteries wired to produce 360 W. The mV output of the thermocouples is amplified, cold-junction compensated, and converted to a frequency which is then recorded on an off-the-shelf cassette tape recorder. A backup data recording system which digitizes the amplified signal and records the data on EEPROMs has also been included. This experimental device demonstrates that basic science research can be kept simple and inexpensive.

Turner, Glon D.; Antoon, Fred A.; Degroh, Henry C.

1987-01-01

500

Plane flame furnace combustion tests on JPL desulfurized coal  

SciTech Connect

The combustion characteristics of three raw bituminous (PSOC-282 and 276) and subbituminous (PSOC-230) coals, the raw coals partially desulfurized (ca -60%) by JPL chlorinolysis, and the chlorinated coals more completely desulfurized (ca -75%) by JPL hydrodesulfurization were determined. The extent to which the combustion characteristics of the untreated coals were altered upon JPL sulfur removal was examined. Combustion conditions typical of utility boilers were simulated in the plane flame furnace. Upon decreasing the parent coal voltaile matter generically by 80% and the sulfur by 75% via the JPL desulfurization process, ignition time was delayed 70 fold, burning velocity was retarded 1.5 fold, and burnout time was prolonged 1.4 fold. Total flame residence time increased 2.3 fold. The JPL desulfurization process appears to show significant promise for producing technologically combustible and clean burning (low SO3) fuels.

Reuther, J.J.; Kim, H.T.; Lima, J.G.H.

1982-05-01