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1

Analysis of secondary radiation (multiple reflections) in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation heat exchange in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces is considered. In particular, the radiative interaction between the sample and the mirror is studied. This interaction is formulated analytically taking into account multiple reflections at the mirror. It is shown that the effect of these multiple reflections in the heating process is quite important, especially up to the third reflection, and,

Damián Rivas; Rodrigo Haya

2002-01-01

2

A radiation furnace for zone-crystallisation experiments in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly efficient radiation furnace for space processing of materials was constructed. It consists of two elliptical mirrors with a common focus, joined together in a completely closed, rugby-ball-like arrangement which allows experiments in any atmosphere, and even in vacuum. Performance tests were carried out with a version with ellipsoidal axes a=100 and b=c=80 mm (effective solid angle = 3.76).

A. Eyer; H. Zimmermann; R. Nitsche

1976-01-01

3

Analysis of secondary radiation (multiple reflections) in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation heat exchange in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces is considered. In particular, the radiative interaction between the sample and the mirror is studied. This interaction is formulated analytically taking into account multiple reflections at the mirror. It is shown that the effect of these multiple reflections in the heating process is quite important, especially up to the third reflection, and, as a consequence, the effect of the mirror reflectance in the temperature field is quite strong. A conduction-radiation model is thus formulated to study the temperature field in slender, cylindrical samples (at this stage convection effects in the melt are not considered). This model is used to simulate the heating process in the floating-zone technique in microgravity conditions; important parameters like the Marangoni number (that drives the thermocapillary flow in the melt), and the temperature gradient at the melt-crystal interface are estimated. The model is validated comparing with experimental data, the agreement is very good both qualitative and quantitatively.

Rivas, Damián; Haya, Rodrigo

2002-05-01

4

Solar furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar furnace is a device for applying high temperatures to a specimen by concentrating solar radiation on it. A brief historical review concerning the development of solar furnaces is presented and fundamental operational and design principles for solar furnaces are discussed. A paraboloidal mirror is used as a radiation concentrator of the reflection type. According to the procedures used

T. Sakurai

1977-01-01

5

Radiative exchange between a cylindrical crystal and a monoellipsoidal mirror furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heating of a cylindrical sample in a monoellipsoidal mirror furnace is considered. A radiation model is formulated for slender samples where the radiative exchange between the sample and the mirror is studied analytically. To analyse the behavior of the model, the temperature field in the sample is calculated using a one-dimensional conduction radiation model. The differences with respect to

Rodrigo Haya; Damián Rivas; Javier Sanz

1997-01-01

6

Solar furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar furnace is constructed of evacuated glass block solar elements that include an interior face, or surface, of zinc. Because of this material, substantial solar radiant energy is retained and radiated to the interior of the furnace, permitting the furnace to reach temperatures of 300° C. and more when located at latitudes between the 35th parallels. Evacuated insulating elements

Clavier

1985-01-01

7

Thermal metamorphoses of cosmic dust aggregates: experiments by furnace, electrical gas discharge, and radiative heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

We experimentally investigated thermal modifications of porous dust aggregates composed of micrometer-sized grains by furnace, electrical discharge, and laser radiation heating. In the furnace, porous SiO2 aggregates of 95% porosity at first underwent surface diffusion sintering, which led to progressively increasing necking between adjacent particles. Subsequently, viscous flow dissolved the particulate structure of the still porous sample, and finally melting

T. Poppe; C. Güttler; T. Springborn

2010-01-01

8

Modeling Specular Exchange Between Concentric Cylinders in a Radiative Shielded Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research is to develop and validate mathematical models to characterize the thermal performance of a radiative shielded furnace, the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Isothermal Diffusion Oven. The mathematical models are validated against experimental data obtained from testing the breadboard oven in a terrestrial laboratory environment. It is anticipated that the validation will produce math models capable of predicting the thermal performance of the furnace over a wide range of operating conditions, including those for which no experimental data is available. Of particular interest is the furnace core temperature versus heater power parametric and the transient thermal response of the furnace. Application to a microgravity environment is not considered, although it is conjectured that the removal of any gravity dependent terms from the math models developed for the terrestrial application should yield adequate results in a microgravity environment. The UAH Isothermal Diffusion Oven is designed to provide a thermal environment that is conducive to measuring the diffusion of high temperature liquid metals. In addition to achieving the temperatures required to melt a sample placed within the furnace, reducing or eliminating convective motions within the melt is an important design consideration [1]. Both of these influences are reflected in the design of the furnace. Reducing unwanted heat losses from the furnace is achieved through the use of low conductivity materials and reflective shielding. As evidenced by the highly conductive copper core used to house the sample within the furnace, convective motions can be greatly suppressed by providing an essentially uniform thermal environment. An oven of this design could ultimately be utilized in a microgravity environment, presumably as a experiment payload. Such an application precipitates other design requirements that limit the resources available to the furnace such as power, mass, volume, and possibly even time. Through the experimental and numerical results obtained, the power requirements and thermal response time of the breadboard furnace are quantified.

Schunk, Richard Gregory; Wessling, Francis C.

2000-01-01

9

A conduction–radiation model for the floating-zone technique in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The floating-zone technique in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces is considered. A conduction–radiation model is formulated to study the thermal behaviour of cylindrical slender samples in the case where convection in the melt has been suppressed (for example, coated samples in microgravity conditions). The model includes the radiative exchange between the sample and the mirror, and the temperature dependence of the physical

Damián Rivas; Rodrigo Haya

1999-01-01

10

RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES  

SciTech Connect

The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

Smith, A

2008-12-31

11

A conduction radiation model for the floating-zone technique in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The floating-zone technique in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces is considered. A conduction-radiation model is formulated to study the thermal behaviour of cylindrical slender samples in the case where convection in the melt has been suppressed (for example, coated samples in microgravity conditions). The model includes the radiative exchange between the sample and the mirror, and the temperature dependence of the physical properties of the sample. The temperature distribution along the sample and other features like the volume of melt or the shape of the solid-liquid interfaces are analyzed. Also, some aspects of the furnace operation are simulated. The results obtained with the model are compared with floating-zone experiments for coated silicon under microgravity and for graphite under terrestrial conditions.

Rivas, Damián; Haya, Rodrigo

1999-10-01

12

A Segmented-Mirror Solar Furnace for High-Intensity Thermal Radiation Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar furnace is described, in which an array of many small plane mirrors is used to produce radiation of practically uniform intensity (up to about 5.5 cal?cm2 sec) over an area 5 cm square. This relatively large area of irradiation is required for experiments in which edge effects must be kept to a minimum, and could not have been

Robert Gardon

1954-01-01

13

Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 Hubei (China)

2011-02-15

14

FURN3D: A computer code for radiative heat transfer in pulverized coal furnaces  

SciTech Connect

A computer code FURN3D has been developed for assessing the impact of burning different coals on heat absorption pattern in pulverized coal furnaces. The code is unique in its ability to conduct detailed spectral calculations of radiation transport in furnaces fully accounting for the size distributions of char, soot and ash particles, ash content, and ash composition. The code uses a hybrid technique of solving the three-dimensional radiation transport equation for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. The technique achieves an optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy by combining the discrete ordinate method (S{sub 4}), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P, approximation in different range of optical thicknesses. The code uses spectroscopic data for estimating the absorption coefficients of participating gases C0{sub 2}, H{sub 2}0 and CO. It invokes Mie theory for determining the extinction and scattering coefficients of combustion particulates. The optical constants of char, soot and ash are obtained from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. A control-volume formulation is adopted for determining the temperature field inside the furnace. A simple char burnout model is employed for estimating heat release and evolution of particle size distribution. The code is written in Fortran 77, has modular form, and is machine-independent. The computer memory required by the code depends upon the number of grid points specified and whether the transport calculations are performed on spectral or gray basis.

Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

1992-08-01

15

FURN3D: A computer code for radiative heat transfer in pulverized coal furnaces  

SciTech Connect

A computer code FURN3D has been developed for assessing the impact of burning different coals on heat absorption pattern in pulverized coal furnaces. The code is unique in its ability to conduct detailed spectral calculations of radiation transport in furnaces fully accounting for the size distributions of char, soot and ash particles, ash content, and ash composition. The code uses a hybrid technique of solving the three-dimensional radiation transport equation for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. The technique achieves an optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy by combining the discrete ordinate method (S[sub 4]), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P, approximation in different range of optical thicknesses. The code uses spectroscopic data for estimating the absorption coefficients of participating gases C0[sub 2], H[sub 2]0 and CO. It invokes Mie theory for determining the extinction and scattering coefficients of combustion particulates. The optical constants of char, soot and ash are obtained from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. A control-volume formulation is adopted for determining the temperature field inside the furnace. A simple char burnout model is employed for estimating heat release and evolution of particle size distribution. The code is written in Fortran 77, has modular form, and is machine-independent. The computer memory required by the code depends upon the number of grid points specified and whether the transport calculations are performed on spectral or gray basis.

Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

1992-08-01

16

Optical design of a high radiative flux solar furnace for Mexico  

SciTech Connect

In the present work, the optical design of a new high radiative flux solar furnace is described. Several optical configurations for the concentrator of the system have been considered. Ray tracing simulations were carried out in order to determine the concentrated radiative flux distributions in the focal zone of the system, for comparing the different proposals. The best configuration was chosen in terms of maximum peak concentration, but also in terms of economical and other practical considerations. It consists of an arrangement of 409 first surface spherical facets with hexagonal shape, mounted on a spherical frame. The individual orientation of the facets is corrected in order to compensate for aberrations. The design considers an intercepted power of 30 kW and a target peak concentration above 10,000 suns. The effect of optical errors was also considered in the simulations. (author)

Riveros-Rosas, D.; Perez-Rabago, C.A.; Arancibia-Bulnes, C.A.; Jaramillo, O.A.; Estrada, C.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Av. Xochicalco s/n, A.P. 34, Temixco, 62580 Morelos (Mexico); Herrera-Vazquez, J.; Vazquez-Montiel, S.; Granados-Agustin, F. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, A.P. 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sanchez-Gonzalez, M. [Centro Nacional de Energias Renovables, Calle Somera 7-9, 28026 Madrid (Spain)

2010-05-15

17

Feasibility study of a high temperature radiation furnace for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility was investigated of a high temperature general purpose furnace for use in space. It was determined that no commercial furnaces exist which could, even with extensive modifications, meet the goals of temperature, power, weight, volume, and versatility originally specified in the contract Statement of Work. A feasible furnace design which does substantially meet these goals while employing many of the advanced features of the commercial furnaces is developed and presented.

Eiss, A.; Dussan, B.; Shadis, W.; Frank, L.

1973-01-01

18

Influence of solar radiation and radiant heat flow measurement error on measurement accuracy of material physical characteristics in solar furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar furnace complex the Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine was used for the study of physical, mechanical, optical as well as some thermo-physical and physico-chemical properties of materials in temperature range from 180 C to 3500 K. The influence of solar radiation and heat flow measurement error at the focal spot on the physical properties are investigated. It

I. N. Frantsevitch; V. S. Dvernyakov; V. V. Pasichny

1977-01-01

19

Heat treatment furnace  

DOEpatents

A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

2014-10-21

20

High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

Bates, Stephen C.

1997-01-01

21

Algorithms of calculation and formation of matrices of the geometrical and generalized angular radiation coefficients for the working space of a rotating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The algorithms of the calculation of the angular and generalized angular radiation coefficients and formation of their matrixes\\u000a are elaborated in order to perform mathematical modeling by the zone method of radiation heat exchange in a rotating furnace.\\u000a The correctness of these algorithms is confirmed by the fact that a computer simulation with these algorithms gives radiation\\u000a parameters that satisfy

E. I. Meshkov; T. E. Gerasimenko; M. A. Kovaleva

2009-01-01

22

Solar furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar furnace receiving reflected solar energy from a battery of remote, positionable mirrors with the furnace having primary and secondary reflectors directing concentrated radiant energy toward a Fresnel lens is described. The focal point of the lens is located within a furnace chamber into which is advanced a carbon conduit, the advancing end of which is vaporized by focal

1977-01-01

23

Prediction of a Turbulent Non-Premixed Natural Gas Flame in a Semi-Industrial Scale Furnace using a Radiative Flamelet Combustion Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixedness-reactedness flamelet combustion model coupled with a comprehensive radiation heat transfer model based on the\\u000a discrete transfer method of solution of the radiative transport equation is applied for the simulation of a 3 MW non-swirling\\u000a turbulent non-premixed natural gas flame in the experimental furnace at the International Flame Research Foundation. In the\\u000a calculation, turbulence is represented by the standard k????

T. Mahmud; S. K. Sangha

2010-01-01

24

Conductive-radiative model for predicting the shape of HgI2 crystal grown in the LTVG furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modeling of heat exchanges in a sealed ampoule in the LTVG (Low Temperature Vapor Growth) furnace is focused upon, in order to compute temperature fields and control the growth of HgI2 crystals from vapor phase at low temperatures. A coupled conductive radiative model was used to determine the shape of the source and the crystal at different equilibrium states (that is, without growth rate). The model involves conductivity anisotropy in the crystal and radiative exchanges between grey and diffuse surfaces (source and crystal interfaces, pyrex walls), which are considered as opaque. Internal buoyancy effect is not taken into account as the pressure inside the ampoule is very small. The source temperature is fixed. For different undercoolings, that is, for different cold finger temperatures, the 'equilibrium' isotherm between the source/gas and crystal/gas interfaces was numerically obtained. This 'equilibrium' isotherm, which is associated with the stop of the growing process, gives a crystal shape. This shape is compared with experimental results given by the ETH-Zurich group. The model would permit a better understanding and control of the future HgI2 crystal growth experiment. The computations are performed using a finite element package (FIDAP).

Roux, A.; Fedoseyev, A.; Roux, Bernard

1992-08-01

25

Thermal radiation and low-temperature-vapour growth of HgI 2 crystal in production furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat exchanges in a sealed ampoule in the LTVG (low temperature vapour growth) furnace have been modelled in order to compute temperature fields and control the growth of HgI 2 crystals from vapour phase at low temperatures. We use a coupled conductive-radiative model to determine the shapes of the source and the crystal at different equilibrium states (i.e. without growth rate). The model involves conductivity anisotropy in the crystal and radiative exchanges between grey and diffuse surfaces (source and crystal interfaces, Pyrex walls), which are considered as opaque. Internal buoyancy effect is not taken into account as the pressure inside the ampoule is very small. The source temperature is fixed. For different undercoolings, i.e. for different cold finger temperatures, the "equilibrium" isotherm between the source/gas and crystal/gas interface has been numerically obtained. This "equilibrium" isotherm, which is associated with the stop of the growing process, gives a crystal shape. This shape is compared with experimental results given by the ETH-Zürich group. The model would permit a better understanding and control of the future HgI 2 crystal growth experiment. The computations are performed using a finite element package (FIDAP).

Roux, A.; Fedoseyev, A.; Roux, B.

1993-06-01

26

Regularities of heat transfer in the gas layers of a steam boiler furnace flame. Part II. Gas layer radiation laws and the procedure for calculating heat transfer in furnaces, fire boxes, and combustion chambers developed on the basis of these laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents the results stemming from the scientific discovery of laws relating to radiation from the gas layers generated during flame combustion of fuel and when electric arc burns in electric-arc steel-melting furnaces. The procedure for calculating heat transfer in electric-arc and torch furnaces, fire-boxes, and combustion chambers elaborated on the basis of this discovery is described.

Makarov, A. N.

2014-10-01

27

Tube furnace  

DOEpatents

A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

Foster, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA); Frohwein, Eugene J. (San Ramon, CA); Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Bowen, David W. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

28

Furnace assembly  

DOEpatents

A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

1985-01-01

29

Solar furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar furnace electricity generating system is provided herein. It includes a concentrator and accumulator for the sun's rays to generate a concentrated high temperature solar beam. A heat hearth is disposed, e.g., in the ground, to absorb the concentrated high temperature solar beam. A plurality of concentric alternating heat-transfer-medium-containing chambers and heat absorption zones are provided around the heat

1983-01-01

30

Crystal Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A "melt recharging" technique which eliminates the cooldown and heating periods in a crystal "growing" crucible, resulted from a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)/Kayex Corporation program. Previously, the cost of growing the silicon solar cells had been very high. The JPL/Kayex system improved productivity by serially growing crystals from the same crucible using a melt recharger which made it possible to add raw silicon to an operating crucible. An isolation value, developed by Kayex, allowed the hopper to be lowered into the crucible without disturbing the inert gas atmosphere. The resulting product, a CG6000 crystal growing furnace, has become the company's major product.

1985-01-01

31

High temperature transparent furnace development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype transparent furnace was designed, fabricated, and tested at temperatures up to 1473 K. Radiation containment using an outer infrared mirror tube and convection elimination using vacuum insulation reduce electrical power consumption and heat loads on critical components. High vacuum was necessary to eliminate convection; even 0.001% atmosphere pressure caused large convective heat losses. A heat transfer model was developed to predict the behavior of the transparent furnace and permit projection of performance improvements resulting from design changes. The mirror tube that reflects infrared radiation and transmits some visible radiation was modified to eliminate radiation absorption in the mirror tube itself. Radiation shields were added to the ends of the furnace to further reduce radiative heat losses. Conductive heat losses were minimized by minimizing solid connections to the cooled furnace ends and by using quartz supports. All components were designed to survive high temperature operation. Extensive experiments were performed with a succession of preliminary prototypes, leading to a final prototype successfully tested at 1473 K.

Bates, Stephen C.; Knight, Kim S.; Yoel, David W.

1998-01-01

32

High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

Smith, James E., Jr.

1992-01-01

33

High temperature transparent furnace development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype transparent furnace was designed, fabricated, and tested at temperatures up to 1473 K. Radiation containment using an outer infrared mirror tube and convection elimination using vacuum insulation reduce electrical power consumption and heat loads on critical components. High vacuum was necessary to eliminate convection; even 0.001% atmosphere pressure caused large convective heat losses. A heat transfer model was

Stephen C. Bates; Kim S. Knight; David W. Yoel

1998-01-01

34

Heat transfer simulation with a conductive-radiative model for predicting the shape of HgI2 crystal grown in the LTVG furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modeling of heat exchangers in a sealed ampoule in the LTVG furnace is considered in order to compute temperature fields and control the growth of HgI2 crystals from vapor phase at low temperatures. As a first step, a coupled conductive radiative model was used to determine the shape of the crystal at an equilibrium state (i.e., without growth rate). Only one case is considered, corresponding to the end of growth. The model involves conductivity anisotropy in the crystal and radiative exchanges between grey and diffuse surfaces (source and crystal interfaces, pyrex walls), which are considered as opaque. Internal buoyancy effect is not taken into account as the pressure inside the ampoule is very small. The influence of the imposed boundary conditions, in particular along the pedestal and the cold finger regions which play a crucial role during the growth, was emphasized. The 'equilibrium' isotherm between the source/gas and crystal/gas interfaces, which is associated with the stop of the growing process, was numerically obtained. This 'equilibrium' isotherm gives the crystal shape, which is compared with previous experimental results. The model would permit a better understanding and control of the future HgI2 crystal growth experiment. The computations are performed using a finite element package.

Roux, A.; Fedoseyev, A.

1992-06-01

35

Solar furnace  

SciTech Connect

The invention comprises a single unit which serves as the solar collector, heat storage area and the heat exchanger. A generally rectangular tank is provided with suitably heavy insulated walls at the bottom, ends and rear. One side, facing the sun is open and the opening extends into a portion of the top. The top is provided with a thickly insulated cover. The open side is provided with a heat collecting surface, the preferred angle being the latitude plus 10/sup 0/. The water is carried through suitable tubing which enters the tank through one end wall and then out through the same or another end wall. The tank is then filled with a suitable material having good heat storage and heat exchange properties. The best material is an eutectic salt having extremely high heat absorption and storage ability in direct contact with the container wall which is designed to absorb heat radiation, and in direct contact with the tubing to transfer the heat to the water passing through. Other substances such as concrete can also be used. The heat collecting surface is covered with an insulating glass or transparent plastic twin-walled sheet. The unit is attached to the water supply through the tubing extending at one side, the conventional water supply pressure being sufficient to operate the unit. The unit is placed on the ground adjacent the building. The unit is modular and the effects can be increased by adding units in line and hooking them up in series or parallel as desired. The system lends itself to the use of much smaller units hooked together in banks for easier handling.

Jardin, A.C.

1983-10-04

36

Solar furnace  

SciTech Connect

The invention comprises a single unit which serves as the solar collector, heat storage area, and the heat exchanger. A generally rectangular tank is provided with suitably heavy insulated walls at the bottom, ends and rear. One side, facing the sun is open and the opening extends into a portion of the top. The top is provided with a thickly insulated cover. The open side is provided with a corrugated surface, the preferred angle being the latitude plus 100. The water is carried through suitable tubing which enters the tank through one end wall. The tubing is reentrantly bent in the tank to provide a plurality of lengths (4 shown) and then out through the same end wall but below the entrance. The tank is then filled with a suitable material having good heat storage and heat exchange properties. The best material is an eutectic salt having extremely high heat absorption and storage ability in direct contact with the container wall, which is designed to absorb heat radiation, and in direct contact with the tubing to transfer the heat to the water passing through. Other substances, such as concrete, can also be used. The corrugated side is covered with an insulating glass or transparent plastic twin-walled sheet mounted at the front. The unit is attached to the water supply through the tubing extending at one side, the conventional water supply pressure being sufficient to operate the unit. The unit is placed on the ground adjacent the building. The unit is modular and the effects can be increased by adding units in line and hooking them up in series or parallel as desired. The system lends itself to the use of much smaller units hooked together in banks for easier handling.

Jardin, A.C.

1982-04-27

37

Electromelt furnace evaluation  

SciTech Connect

An electromelt furnace was designed, built, and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high.

Reimann, G.A.; Welch, J.M.

1981-09-01

38

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

39

Carbon Arc Image Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various optical systems are discussed with reference to their use with carbon arc image furnaces. A new optical system which employs two elliptical mirrors is described and shown to have numerous practical advantages. Using modifications of motion picture projection lamps, measurements have been made of carbon arc image furnaces ranging up to more than 26-kw power input, producing approximately 3000-watts

M. R. Null; W. W. Lozier

1958-01-01

40

Advanced steel reheat furnace  

SciTech Connect

Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1997-10-01

41

A 1800 K furnace designed for in situ synchrotron microtomography.  

PubMed

A radiation furnace that covers the temperature range from room temperature up to 1800 K has been designed and constructed for in situ synchrotron microtomography. The furnace operates under a vacuum or under any inert gas atmosphere. The two 1000 W halogen heating lamps are water- and air-cooled. The samples are located at the focus of these lamp reflectors on a rotary feedthrough that is connected to a driving rotation stage below the furnace. The X-ray beam penetrates the furnace through two X-ray-transparent vacuum-sealed windows. Further windows can be used for temperature control, sample changing and gas inflow and outflow. PMID:19535867

Grupp, R; Henkel, F; Nöthe, M; Banhart, J; Kieback, B; Haibel, A

2009-07-01

42

Automatic Control System of Car-Bottom Reheating Furnace  

E-print Network

flowing out and cold air coming in,but is an es sential condition to stabilize the combustion pro cedure in the furnace.And this is very important for industrial furnaces with serious leakage.Us ually,the pressure of gas forging reheating fur nace.... waste gas and heat loss THERMAL CONTROL AND CONSUMPTION OF HEAT ENF.RGY The heat losses of forging reheating furnaces 55 include mainly waste gas Q1,imperfect combustion of 50 gas Q2,radiation and stored he~t of furnace Q3,gas leakage from the gaps...

Xueqiao, M.; Weilian, X.; Hongchen, Z.

43

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME 2. HEAVY-OIL AND COAL-FIRED FURNACES AND THE EVALUATION OF RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes Phase II of a research program, the overall objective of which was to specify burner design criteria for minimum pollutant emissions from both pulverized-coal- and residual-fuel-oil-fired combustors. Phase II included both furnace investigations and the evalu...

44

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS EVERY TWENTY MINUTES TO DETERMINE SIZE AND TEXTURE OF BATCH AND OTHER VARIABLES. FAN IN FRONT COOLS WORKERS AS THEY CONDUCT REPAIRS. FURNACE TEMPERATURE AT 1572 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

45

Development of Zone Melting Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mirror furnace (Image Furnace (IMF)) for the First Material Processing Test (FMPT) project had been successfully developed in 1986. The IMF will be launched by the space shuttle 'Endeavor' on September, 1992. Based on the experience of the IMF development, an improved mirror furnace (Zone Melting Furnace (ZMF)) is now being developed as experimental equipment for the Japanese Experiment

Shinichi Yoda; Kiwao Shibukawa; Keishi Murakami; Kazumori Hama; Kiyoshi Tanaka; Takao Yokota; Hiroshi Nishimura; Seiichi Takasu

1992-01-01

46

Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) without the EAC internal support structure. Flown on USML-1 and USML-2. The Principal Investigators on these flights were: Larson, Lehoczky, Matthiesen, Wiedemeier. Processed 6 samples on USML-1 and 7 samples on USML-2.

1991-01-01

47

Franklin Furnace Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those not in the know, the phrase "Franklin Furnace" might sound like a type of 19th century heating device. In fact, the Franklin Furnace organization has been dedicated to the proposition that avant-garde art is a very worthwhile endeavor, and their delightful website presents fine information about their work, and about the world of avant-garde art more generally. Based in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, the organization started their work in 1976, and their website offers a nice timeline and introductory essay that documents their own history. Moving along, visitors will definitely want to look over their "Archives" area, which contain a number of online exhibitions and video interview with artists who have worked with Franklin Furnace over the years. Finally, the site also contains a "Scholarly Stuff" section, which features essays on the Furnace and some of the interesting archival techniques they have used to preserve avant-garde art for future generations.

48

High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two dimensional conduction/radiation problem for an alumina crucible in a zirconia heater/muffle tube enclosing a liquid iron sample was solved numerically. Variations in the crucible wall thickness were numerically examined. The results showed that the temperature profiles within the liquid iron sample were significantly affected by the crucible wall thicknesses. New zirconia heating elements are under development that will permit continued experimental investigations of the zirconia furnace. These elements have been designed to work with the existing furnace and have been shown to have longer lifetimes than commercially available zirconia heating elements. The first element has been constructed and tested successfully.

Smith, James E., Jr.

1991-01-01

49

34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. Detail of "B" furnace pour into bottle cars, furnace operator on platform measures temperature inside bottle car. Looking southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

50

Improved graphite furnace atomizer  

DOEpatents

A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

Siemer, D.D.

1983-05-18

51

Saugus Iron Works Blast Furnace  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A view of the Saugus Iron Works blast furnace, which smelted the iron from limonite, an iron ore. The limonite formed in nearby bogs, and was heated in the blast furnace until the iron melted and ran out the bottom of the furnace....

52

CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN REROLL BAY. CAKES FROM THE CASTING SHOP ARE BROUGHT UP TO ROLLING TEMPERATURE IN ONE OF TWO (#130 AND 146) GAS-FIRED FURNACES. A RADIO-CONTROLLED OVERHEAD CRANE TRANSFERS CAKES FROM FLATCARS TO THE ROLLER LINE LEADING INTO THE FURNACE. CAKES ARE HEATED AT 900-1000 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT FOR THREE TO FOUR HOURS. RATED FURNACE CAPACITY IS 100,000 LBS.\\HOUR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

53

Strengthen flame stability during the furnace`s load decrease  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the result of the study of the coal combustion characteristic and flame stability during the load decrease of PCFF (corner burner arrangement). Considering the relation between flame stability and furnace load during the furnace load change, some method must be used to strengthen the pulverized coal ignition and combustion for the furnace to maintain the flame stability especially for the furnace which fires low rank anthracite. Experimental results show that when the furnace load decreased, the temperature distribution in furnace decreased and the flame stability in furnace had changed because of the load changing. This paper also introduces a new pulverized coal burner: Bluff-body with cavity burner. According to the result of application of this burner, this kind of pulverized coal burner can improve the coal ignition and combustion efficiency. Especially for low load operation of furnace the bluff-body with cavity burner has demonstrated its ability in strengthening coal ignition and improving the flame stability for furnace operation. Experimental results show that using bluff-body with cavity burner, the lowest load for furnace fired bituminous is 40% MCR and 50% MCr for low rank anthracite (V{sup r} < 12%, A{sup f} > 45%). This burner has simple structure and is very easy to set up for furnace.

Zhang Zhiguo; Sun Xuexin; Li Fujin; Qiu Jihua; Chen Gang [HuaZhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

1996-12-31

54

Temperature Controller for a Solar Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relatively-simple movable sheild has been suggested for controlling temperature of solar furnace. Temperature modulator can be set to have collected solar energy fully "on", fully "off" or any intermediate level. Parabolic mirror concentrates Sunlight into receiver. Shade plate that blocks insolation at back of receiver produces shade zone in center of collector. No radiation is returned to receiver from shade zone; only rays falling on other areas of reflecting surface are directed back toward receiver.

Hale, R. R.; Mcdougal, A. R.

1982-01-01

55

Blast furnace stove control  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

1998-12-31

56

High Efficiency Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

1985-08-27

57

High efficiency furnace  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

1985-12-31

58

A high-temperature furnace for applications in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology in the area of material processing and crystal growth has been greatly furthered by research in microgravity environments. The role of efficient, lightweight furnaces with reliable performance is crucial in these experiments. A need exists for the development of a readily duplicated, high-temperature furnace satisfying stringent weight, volume, and power constraints. A furnace was designed and is referred to as the UAH SHIELD. Stringent physical and operating characteristics for the system were specified, including a maximum weight of 20 kg, a maximum power requirement of 60 W, and a volume of the furnace assembly, excluding the batteries, limited to half a Get-Away-Special canister. The UAH SHIELD furnace uses radiation shield and vacuum technology applied in the form of a series of concentric cylinders enclosed on either end with disks. Thermal testing of a furnace prototype was performed in addition to some thermal and structural analysis. Results indicate the need for spacing of the shields to accommodate the thermal expansion during furnace operation. In addition, a power dissipation of approximately 100 W and system weight of approximately 30 kg was found for the current design.

1991-01-01

59

Carbon-free induction furnace  

SciTech Connect

An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

1985-10-29

60

Non-carbon induction furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

1984-01-06

61

Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements  

E-print Network

Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements Tim Gandler Energy Coordinator Baytown Olefins Plant, Baytown Tx 2010 Industrial Energy Technology Conference May, 2010 Page 2 ? Baytown Complex ? Steam Cracking to Olefins ? Furnace overview... high temperature to adequately ?crack? ? The lighter the feed the higher the temperature ? Very energy intensive process; furnace fuel accounts for ~60% of plants energy use Ethylene Plant Energy Consumption 60% 5% 35% Fuel Steam Power Quench...

Gandler, T.

62

Water gas furnace  

SciTech Connect

A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

Gallaro, C.

1985-12-03

63

Feeder apparatus for melting furnaces, particularly for plasma melting furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention comprises a charging apparatus for melting furnaces, especially for plasma melting furnaces, for the continuous melting of preferably prepared aluminum scrap material. With the help of the proposed solution a controlled and regulated supply of the scrap material along with the prevention of a direct application of the plasma arc or other energy sources directly to the material

K. Primke; P. Papsdorf; G. Pohle; K. P. Trautmann

1984-01-01

64

Two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

Blaugher, R.D.

1998-05-05

65

Method of constructing solar furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar furnace of dish-shaped configuration for the reflection of solar rays toward a heat exchanger through which passes a heated medium is described. The reflective surface of the furnace comprises a multitude of mirror elements incorporated into a fiber glass reinforced plastic structure with each of the mirror elements located so as to reflect rays toward a common focus.

1976-01-01

66

Aerodynamic laser-heated contactless furnace for neutron scattering experiments at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional radiative furnaces require sample containment that encourages contamination at elevated temperatures and generally need windows which restrict the entrance and exit solid angles required for diffraction and scattering measurements. We describe a contactless windowless furnace based on aerodynamic levitation and laser heating which has been designed for high temperature neutron scattering experiments. Data from initial experiments are reported for

Claude Landron; Louis Hennet; Jean-Pierre Coutures; Tudor Jenkins; Chantal Alétru; Neville Greaves; Alan Soper; Gareth Derbyshire

2000-01-01

67

A CARBON ARC IMAGE FURNACE AND MICROSCOPE FOR STUDIES AT HIGH TEMPERATURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical principles and operational and radiation characteristics of ; a 10-kw carbon arc image furnace employing paraboloidal mirrors 12 inches in ; diameter are described. The furnace was constructed for use in conjunction with ; an American Optical Company microscope having a working distance of 7.25 inches ; and a numerical aperture of 0.1. The maximum irradiance in the

H. W. Newkirk; B. B. Brenden

1959-01-01

68

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01

69

High pressure furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01

70

A new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace  

SciTech Connect

More and more NMIs are realizing their primary scale themselves with fixed-point blackbodies as their reference standard. However, commercially available fixed-point blackbody furnaces of sufficient quality are not always easy to obtain. CHINO Corp. and NMIJ, AIST jointly developed a new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace. The new furnace has such features as 1) improved temperature uniformity when compared to previous products, enabling better plateau quality, 2) adoption of the hybrid fixed-point cell structure with internal insulation to improve robustness and thereby to extend lifetime, 3) easily ejectable and replaceable heater unit and fixed-point cell design, leading to reduced maintenance cost, 4) interchangeability among multiple fixed points from In to Cu points. The replaceable cell feature facilitates long term maintenance of the scale through management of a group of fixed-point cells of the same type. The compact furnace is easily transportable and therefore can also function as a traveling standard for disseminating the radiation temperature scale, and for maintaining the scale at the secondary level and industrial calibration laboratories. It is expected that the furnace will play a key role of the traveling standard in the anticipated APMP supplementary comparison of the radiation thermometry scale.

Hiraka, K.; Oikawa, H.; Shimizu, T.; Kadoya, S.; Kobayashi, T. [CHINO CORPORATION, Itabashi, Tokyo (Japan)] [CHINO CORPORATION, Itabashi, Tokyo (Japan); Yamada, Y.; Ishii, J. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)] [National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

2013-09-11

71

Vertical optical floating zone furnace: Principles of irradiation profile formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light distribution within the vertical double-ellipsoid mirror furnace applied for floating zone crystal growth with optical heating is studied. During the last few years, this setup was intensively applied for crystal growth of intermetallic and oxide materials due to its advantages for radiation focussing, which is superior in some key features compared to other commercial horizontal and vertical optical

D. Souptel; W. Löser; G. Behr

2007-01-01

72

Heating of compound samples in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heating of cylindrical compound samples in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces is studied. A line-source model for the lamp (instead of a point source) is considered. The irradiation profiles obtained for this lamp model are analyzed; the case of defocussed lamps is studied analytically. The temperature field in the sample is obtained by means of a conduction-radiation model that includes the

Damián Rivas; Carlos Vázquez-Espí

2002-01-01

73

Refractory metal shielding /insulation/ increases operating range of induction furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal radiation shield contains escaping heat from an induction furnace. The shield consists of a sheet of refractory metal foil and a loosely packed mat of refractory metal fibers in a concentric pattern. This shielding technique can be used for high temperature ovens, high temperature fluid lines, and chemical reaction vessels.

Ebihara, B. T.

1965-01-01

74

Fossil fuel furnace reactor  

DOEpatents

A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

75

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

1994-06-14

76

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

77

Wood by-pass furnace  

SciTech Connect

This wood by-pass furnace is designed in such a manner, as to have the oxygen for combustion controlled, to the extent that the wood does not blaze, but only produces red, glowing coals for heating a home, and the outside cover will not burn anyone when touched. It primarily consists of am inside fire chamber of cylindrical shape, to distribute heat to the top, and it includes a top baffle, that extends from the front of the fire chamber, to the rear of the furnace. It further includes the side baffles, to protect the sides of the heat chamber, and smoke and heat travels up and over the top of the top baffle, to the front of the stove or furnace, and passes out an eight inch pipe. The top baffle further serves to condense the black smoke into liquid, which will dry out and will burn in its dry form.

Stephenson, P.S. Sr.

1983-08-30

78

Batch Preheat for glass and related furnace processing operations  

SciTech Connect

The objectives that our development work addressed are: (1) Establish through lab tests a salt eutectic with a melting point of about 250 F and a working range of 250 to 1800 F. (2) Establish the most economical material of construction for the screened salt eutectics identified in the first objective. (3) Establish the material of construction for the salt heater liner. Objectives 2 and 3 were determined through corrosion tests using selected metallurgical samples. Successful completion of the above-stated goals will be incorporated in a heat recovery design that can be used in high temperature processes and furnaces, typical of which is the glass melting process. The process design incorporates the following unit operations: a vertical batch heater (whereby the batch flows down through tubes in a shell and tube exchanger; a molten salt eutectic is circulated on the shell side); a molten salt heater utilizing furnace flue gas in a radiation type heater (molten salt is circulated in the annular space between the inner and outer shells of the vertical heater, and flue gas passes from the furnace exhaust through the inner shell of the heater); a cantilever type molten salt circulating pump; and a jacketed mixer/conveyor to drive off moisture from the batch prior to feeding the batch to the vertical batch heater. Historically, radiation heaters, when applied to glass or fiberglass furnace recuperation, have experienced failures due to uneven heat flux rates, which increases internal stresses and spot overheating conditions. Low heat transfer coefficients result in requirements for large heat transfer surface areas in gas to gas or gas to air exchangers. Fouling is another factor that results in lower unit availability and reduced performance. These factors are accommodated in this process by the incorporation of several design features. The salt heater will be a vertical double wall radiation design, similar to radiation air heaters used in high temperature heat recovery. The unit utilizes an inner shell that the furnace exhaust gas passes through: this provides essentially a self-cleaning surface. Utilization of radiation air heaters in fiberglass furnaces has demonstrated that the inner shell provides a surface from which molten ash can drain down. The molten salt eutectic will be pumped through the annulus between this inner wall and the outer wall of the unit. The annular space tempering via the molten salt will promote more uniform expansion for the unit, and thereby promote more uniform heat flux rates. Heat transfer would be via radiation mainly, with a minor convective contributor.

Energy & Environmental Resources, Inc

2002-08-12

79

Global simulation of a silicon Czochralski furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the characteristics of the Czochralski (Cz) furnace for the single-crystal growth of silicon, a set of global analyses of momentum, heat and mass transfer in small Cz furnaces (crucible diameter: 7.2 cm, crystal diameter: 3.5 cm, operated in a 10 Torr argon flow environment) is carried out using the finite-element method. The global analysis assumes a pseudosteady axisymmetric state with laminar flow, equilibrium relations at the melt/silica interface and vapor-liquid chemical equilibrium at the melt/gas interface, as well as the segregation coefficient of unity at the melt/crystal interface. Convective and conductive heat transfers, radiative heat transfer between diffuse surfaces and the Navier-Stokes equations for gas and melt phases are all combined and solved together. Thus, the velocities and temperatures obtained are used to calculate the oxygen concentrations. The global analysis code is effectively used to discuss the influences of the Marangoni effect and a gas guide (or a heat shield) placed between the crucible and the crystal. The results indicate that the gas guide reduces the heater power and changes the melt flow pattern and oxygen transport. The melt flow pattern is strongly dependent on the Marangoni effect and gas flow near the surface, and changes the oxygen concentration significantly. This analysis reveals the importance and effectiveness of global analysis.

Li, Mingwei; Li, Yourong; Imaishi, Nobuyuki; Tsukada, Takao

2002-01-01

80

16 CFR Appendix G2 to Part 305 - Furnaces- Electric  

...2014-01-01 false Furnaces- Electric G2 Appendix G2 to Part 305...to Part 305—Furnaces— Electric Furnace type Range of annual fuel utilization efficiencies (AFUEs) Low High Electric Furnaces—All Capacities...

2014-01-01

81

Waste Heat Recovery – Submerged Arc Furnaces (SAF)  

E-print Network

Submerged Arc Furnaces are used to produce high temperature alloys. These furnaces typically run at 3000°F using high voltage electricity along with metallurgical carbon to reduce metal oxides to pure elemental form. The process as currently...

O'Brien, T.

2008-01-01

82

Transparent furnace made of heat mirror  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of transparent furnace was fabricated with a heat mirror, a glass–ceramic (Neoceram-0) coated with an antimony-doped tin oxide (Sb–SnO2) film. It was compared with a gold furnace, which is the usual transparent furnace. Their performance was almost equivalent, so the Sb–SnO2-coated Neoceram is applicable to the transparent furnace.

M. Kojima; F. Takahashi; K. Kinoshita; T. Nishibe; M. Ichidate

2001-01-01

83

Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

84

The Saugus Iron Works Blast Furnace  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A view of the Saugus Iron Works blast furnace, which smelted the iron from limonite, an iron ore. The limonite formed in nearby bogs, and was heated in the blast furnace until the iron melted and ran out the bottom of the furnace. ...

85

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to

V. Dosaj; M. D. Brumels; C. M. Haines; J. B. May

1991-01-01

86

Computer simulation of electric multizone tube furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the numerical model and computer program of calculations allowing the electric multizone tube furnace to be simulated. The program allows calculation of temperature distribution in thermally unsteady-state status in thermal insulation of the furnace and in the heating chamber. The program also enables the longitudinal distribution of temperature in the furnace to be calculated. The calculations involve

T. Teodorczyk; K. T. Januszkiewicz

1999-01-01

87

PV-5 automatic furnace control  

SciTech Connect

While refurbishing a Harwood Engineering, Inc. designed gas autoclave facility (designated PV-5) for hot isostatic pressing (HIP) of various materials at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a furnace power supply problem was encountered. One phase of the furnace's variable AC power supply was devastated when a fault condition occurred. In the process of diagnosing the cause of the fault and repairing the AC power supply of the 30KW furnace for the autoclave vessel, a recommendation to replace the existing, outdated 3-phase saturable-core reactor variable power supplies was implemented. Three new Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) phase-angle fired AC power supplies, one for each phase of the 3-phase 480 volt circuit, were installed. To improve operator control over the new power supplies, a new 0--5 mA controller was connected as a slave to a process programmer to automatically heat the furnace according to preprogrammed temperature profiles. Data acquisition of the process parameters was enhanced by the installation of a hybrid strip chart recorder. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Younkin, J.R.

1991-06-25

88

Concrete linings of heating furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metallurgical and machine-building industries have more than a thousand heating and heat-treatment furnaces lined with refractory parts. The life of the linings is up to 2 years including intermediate repairs of individual elements. The primary reason for the low life of linings is their insufficient structural strength and also failure of refractory parts in periodic sharp heating and cooling.

S. R. Zamyatin

1993-01-01

89

Crystal growth and furnace analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal analysis of Hg/Cd/Te solidification in a Bridgman cell is made using Continuum's VAST code. The energy equation is solved in an axisymmetric, quasi-steady domain for both the molten and solid alloy regions. Alloy composition is calculated by a simplified one-dimensional model to estimate its effect on melt thermal conductivity and, consequently, on the temperature field within the cell. Solidification is assumed to occur at a fixed temperature of 979 K. Simplified boundary conditions are included to model both the radiant and conductive heat exchange between the furnace walls and the alloy. Calculations are performed to show how the steady-state isotherms are affected by: the hot and cold furnace temperatures, boundary condition parameters, and the growth rate which affects the calculated alloy's composition. The Advanced Automatic Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), developed by NASA, is also thermally analyzed using the CINDA code. The objective is to determine the performance and the overall power requirements for different furnace designs.

Dakhoul, Youssef M.

1986-01-01

90

Direct current, closed furnace silicon technology  

SciTech Connect

The dc closed furnace technology for smelting silicon offers technical operating challenges, as well as, economic opportunities for off-gas recovery, reduced electrode consumption, reduced reductant oxidation losses, reduced energy consumption, and improved silicon recovery. The 10 mva dc closed furnace is located in East Selkirk, Manitoba. Construction of this pilot plant was started in September 1990. Following successful commissioning of the furnace in 1992, a number of smelting tests have been conducted aimed at optimization of the furnace operation and the raw material mix. The operation of a closed furnace is significantly different from an open furnace operation. The major difference being in the mechanical movement of the mix, off-gas recovery, and inability to observe the process. These differences made data collection and analysis critical in making operating decisions. This closed furnace was operated by computer control (state of the art in the smelling industry).

Dosaj, V.D. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States); May, J.B. [Dow Corning Corp., Freeland, MI (United States); Arvidson, A.N. [Meadow Materials, Manitoba (Canada)

1994-05-01

91

Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Wittle, J. Kenneth (Chester Springs, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1996-01-01

92

Three-dimensional model for assessing fuel distribution on air and oxygen fired glass melting furnace performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional computer model has been developed that is suitable for predicting and analyzing combustion, fluid flow and heat transfer in the combustion space of glass melting furnaces. The model is capable of simulating gas flow, heat transfer, and the major chemical reactions within the combustion space of a furnace. The model solves the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow along with a series of additional conservation equations for energy, turbulence and combustion. The k-epsilon model is incorporated for turbulence, discrete ordinates method for radiation heat transfer and an assumed PDF method is used for combustion modeling. The model was validated against two sets of experimental data. Good agreement between predictions of wall and roof temperatures and measurements were obtained, often well within the reported experimental error. Satisfactory results were also achieved for load heat fluxes for the two different experimental furnaces. Results from simulations of the combustion space of a gas-fired glass melting furnace are presented and discussed. Three separate parametric studies were conducted to give insight into the combustion space of the glass melting furnace that was modeled. The first examined several alternate firing arrangements for an air-fired furnace. The second was similar by considering three different firing arrangements for an oxy-fired furnace. The final study examined the placement of the exhaust ports in an oxy-fired furnace. An assessment of each firing arrangement on furnace performance is provided.

Jorgensen, Kris Lon

93

Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

Dosaj, Vishu D. (Midland, MI); May, James B. (Midland, MI)

1992-12-29

94

Crystal growth furnace with trap doors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

Sachs, Emanual M. (Inventor); Mackintosh, Brian H. (Inventor)

1982-01-01

95

(Acceptance testing of the 150-kW electron-beam furnace)  

SciTech Connect

The travelers observed the acceptance testing of the 150-kW electron-beam (EB) furnace constructed by Leybold (Hanau) Technologies prior to disassembly and shipping. The testing included: (1) operation of the mold withdrawal system (2) vacuum pumping and vacuum chamber leak-up rates, (3) power stability at full power, (4) x-radiation monitoring at full power, and (5) demonstration of system interlocks for loss of water cooling, loss of vacuum, loss of power, and emergency shutdown. Preliminary training was obtained in furnace operation, EB gun maintenance, and use of the programmable logic controller for beam manipulation. Additional information was obtained on water-cooling requirements and furnace platform construction necessary for the installation. The information gained and training received will greatly assist in minimizing the installation and startup operation costs of the furnace.

Ohriner, E.K.; Howell, C.R.

1990-09-18

96

Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces  

SciTech Connect

In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

2004-01-24

97

Composite Furnace Module Cooling Systems in the Electric Slag Cleaning Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric slag cleaning furnaces have generally suff ered high rates of refractory wear in the area of the lower sidewalls that are in contact with slag. Campaign lives of around 12 months are quite common. Repairing and relining the furnace often in volves a complete cool-down, stripping out the worn refractory, installing new bricks, re-heating and bringing the furnace back

A. K. Kyllo; N. B. Gray; D. H. Montgomerie; Copper Smelter; Olympic Dam; A. Filzwieser

2005-01-01

98

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to the furnace. The off-gas from the furnace, consisting of by-product CO as well as volatiles from the feeds, pass through a venturi scrubber, where water is introduced to scrub out the fume from the furnace and cool the gas. The mixed scrubber water and off-gas pass into a centrifugal mist eliminator where the water and fume disengage from the gas. The fume slurry is passed through bag filters where the fume is separated from the water. The clean off-gas from the furnace was evaluated for its calorific value and evaluated for conversion to useful products. A number of silicon smelting tests were conducted during this program. Various levels of charcoal and coal mixtures were evaluated to determine the optimum mix. A low volatile coal was preferred over typical Blue Gem coal. The coal amount in the mix was maximized without compromising the smelting performance. A raw material mix consisting of 30% charcoal and 70% low volatile coal was determined to be an optimum mix for closed furnace operation. Silicon recoveries in the low nineties were demonstrated using this mix. Four quartz sources were also evaluated in the closed furnace. The closed furnace operation for silicon smelting was identified to offer significant advantages over an open furnace from the standpoint of reduced carbon oxidation losses, electrode consumption, electrical energy consumption and silicon yield improvement. Other advantages in addition to process off-gas recovery included improved safety from reduced heat and fume exposure, and improved pollution control to the environment. 1 ref.

Dosaj, V.; Brumels, M.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States)

1991-12-31

99

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace  

SciTech Connect

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to the furnace. The off-gas from the furnace, consisting of by-product CO as well as volatiles from the feeds, pass through a venturi scrubber, where water is introduced to scrub out the fume from the furnace and cool the gas. The mixed scrubber water and off-gas pass into a centrifugal mist eliminator where the water and fume disengage from the gas. The fume slurry is passed through bag filters where the fume is separated from the water. The clean off-gas from the furnace was evaluated for its calorific value and evaluated for conversion to useful products. A number of silicon smelting tests were conducted during this program. Various levels of charcoal and coal mixtures were evaluated to determine the optimum mix. A low volatile coal was preferred over typical Blue Gem coal. The coal amount in the mix was maximized without compromising the smelting performance. A raw material mix consisting of 30% charcoal and 70% low volatile coal was determined to be an optimum mix for closed furnace operation. Silicon recoveries in the low nineties were demonstrated using this mix. Four quartz sources were also evaluated in the closed furnace. The closed furnace operation for silicon smelting was identified to offer significant advantages over an open furnace from the standpoint of reduced carbon oxidation losses, electrode consumption, electrical energy consumption and silicon yield improvement. Other advantages in addition to process off-gas recovery included improved safety from reduced heat and fume exposure, and improved pollution control to the environment. 1 ref.

Dosaj, V.; Brumels, M.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B. (Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States))

1991-01-01

100

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

Blaugher, R.D.

1999-03-16

101

19. Inside the cast house at Furnace A. Molten iron ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Inside the cast house at Furnace A. Molten iron flowed into eight ladles. The furnace was cast (or tapped) six times each day. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

102

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

103

50. Taken from highline; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. Taken from high-line; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is main blast furnace gas line from "C" furnace dust catcher; levy, slag hauler, removing slag. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

104

Bottom electrodes of DC electric arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of dc electric arc furnaces (DCEAFs) is similar to that of three-phase arc steel-melting furnaces (ASFs) and differs from it only in the presence of one or more graphite roof electrodes (cathodes) and one or more bottom electrodes (anodes), which convey current to a metal to be melted. As compared to ASFs, DCEAFs have the following main advantages:

M. Ya. Kaplun

2009-01-01

105

Recent developments in electric arc furnace operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The provision of water cooled electric arc furnace walls and roofs, the increased use of iron pellets in the raw material charge, the use of solid state devices in electrode drive systems and the application of digital control are discussed. Integration of computer control of the separate aspects of arc furnace operation into an optimal direct digital control strategy for

A. S. Morris

1983-01-01

106

Developmental testing of a programmable multizone furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multizone furnace was evaluated for its potential utilization for process experimentation on board the Space Shuttle. A temperature gradient can be created through the use of a series of connected temperature zones and can be translated by the coordinated sequencing of zone temperatures. The Bridgman-Stockbarger thermal configuration for directional solidification was implemented so that neither the sample nor furnace was translated. The thermal behavior of the furnace was measured and characterized. Limitations due to both thermal and electronic (computer) factors are identified. The results indicate that the multizone design is limited to low temperature gradients because of the indirect furnace-to-sample thermal coupling needed to blend the discrete thermal zones. The multizone furnace design inherently consumes more power than a similar (two temperature) conventional Bridgman type directional solidification furnace because every zone must be capable of the high cooling rates needed to produce the maximum desired temperature drop. Typical achievable static temperature gradients for the furnace tested were between 6 and 75 C/in. The maximum gradient velocity was approximately 10 in./hr. Several aspects of the tested system could be improved, but the dependence of the multizone design on high heat loss will limit Space Shuttle applications in the form tested unless additional power is available. The multizone furnace offers great flexibility but requires a high level of operator understanding for full advantage to be obtained.

Ting, E. Y.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

1986-01-01

107

Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System  

E-print Network

This paper presents a case study of manufacturing furnace optimized re-design. The bottleneck in the production process is the cooling of heat treatment furnaces. These ovens are on an approximate 24-hour cycle, heating for 12 hours and cooling...

Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

2013-01-01

108

Developing composite furnace module cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composite furnace module cooling system is designed to provide an essentially uniform hot-face temperature that is low enough to promote the formation of a protective accretion layer for furnace containment. A minimal amount of copper is used to ensure that the installation of the modules will not significantly alter the process heat balance during normal operation. The modules have

A. K. Kyllo; N. B. Gray; D. Papazoglou; B. J. Elliot

2000-01-01

109

FURNACE COOLING TECHNOLOGY IN PYROMETALLURGICAL PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable furnace cooling technology is a domain of increasing concern to the pyrometallurgical industry as it can significantly increase process intensities, productivity and campaign times of furnaces. Although there are many advantages in using cooling systems, they also impose a variety of problems mainly related to safety, heat losses and sustainability of the operations. The choice of cooling system is

Karel Verscheure; Andrew K. Kyllo; Andreas Filzwieser; Bart Blanpain; Patrick Wollants

110

ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. umber of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total oil furnaces tested by the EPA in Roanoke, V...

111

Smoothness evaluation of clean furnace blacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of furnace process carbon blacks in semiconductive shields for cable is well known. For medium- to high-voltage power cables, furnace carbon black-filled semiconducting materials are used most notably to prevent a partial discharge at the surface between the conductor and the insulation or the insulation and the insulation shield layers. The author shows that two critical carbon black

Steven L. Greene

1994-01-01

112

Existing and prospective blast-furnace conditions  

SciTech Connect

Blast-furnace conditions are investigated by means of a multizone model. The expected performance of prospective technologies is assessed, as well as the trends in blast-furnace processes. The model permits the identification of means of overcoming practical difficulties.

I.G. Tovarovskii; V.I. Bol'shakov; V.P. Lyalyuk; A.E. Merkulov; D. V. Pinchuk [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy

2009-07-15

113

Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing  

DOEpatents

An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

Sopori, Bhushan L.

2014-08-05

114

A multi-zone muffle furnace design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Multi-Zone Muffle-Tube Furnace was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of providing an in-house experience base with tubular furnaces for materials processing in microgravity. As such, it must not only provide the desired temperatures and controlled thermal gradients at several discrete zones along its length but must also be capable of sustaining the rigors of a Space Shuttle launch. The furnace is insulated to minimize radial and axial heat losses. It is contained in a water-cooled enclosure for purposes of dissipating un-wanted residual heat, keeping the outer surfaces of the furnace at a 'touch-safe' temperature, and providing a rugged housing. This report describes the salient features of the furnace, testing procedures and results, and concluding remarks evaluating the overall design.

Rowe, Neil D.; Kisel, Martin

1993-01-01

115

WEST (FRONT) OF FURNACE COMPLEX, INCLUDING STACKS, WITH CHARGING BRIDGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WEST (FRONT) OF FURNACE COMPLEX, INCLUDING STACKS, WITH CHARGING BRIDGE AND TRESSLE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

116

Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

This study has been supported by a consortium of nine industrial and governmental sponsors. Work was initiated on May 1, 1985 and completed August 31, 1989. The central objective of this work was to develop, evaluate and apply a practical combustion model for utility boilers, industrial furnaces and gasifiers. Key accomplishments have included: Development of an advanced first-generation, computer model for combustion in three dimensional furnaces; development of a new first generation fouling and slagging submodel; detailed evaluation of an existing NO{sub x} submodel; development and evaluation of an improved radiation submodel; preparation and distribution of a three-volume final report: (a) Volume 1: General Technical Report; (b) Volume 2: PCGC-3 User's Manual; (c) Volume 3: Data Book for Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Combustion Models; and organization of a user's workshop on the three-dimensional code. The furnace computer model developed under this study requires further development before it can be applied generally to all applications; however, it can be used now by specialists for many specific applications, including non-combusting systems and combusting geseous systems. A new combustion center was organized and work was initiated to continue the important research effort initiated by this study. 212 refs., 72 figs., 38 tabs.

Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.

1989-08-01

117

Optimization of the thermogauge furnace for realizing high temperature fixed points  

SciTech Connect

The thermogauge furnace was commonly used in many NMIs as a blackbody source for calibration of the radiation thermometer. It can also be used for realizing the high temperature fixed point(HTFP). According to our experience, when realizing HTFP we need the furnace provide relative good temperature uniformity to avoid the possible damage to the HTFP. To improve temperature uniformity in the furnace, the furnace tube was machined near the tube ends with a help of a simulation analysis by 'ansys workbench'. Temperature distributions before and after optimization were measured and compared at 1300 °C, 1700°C, 2500 °C, which roughly correspond to Co-C(1324 °C), Pt-C(1738 °C) and Re-C(2474 °C), respectively. The results clearly indicate that through machining the tube the temperature uniformity of the Thermogage furnace can be remarkably improved. A Pt-C high temperature fixed point was realized in the modified Thermogauge furnace subsequently, the plateaus were compared with what obtained using old heater, and the results were presented in this paper.

Wang, T.; Dong, W. [National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing (China)] [National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing (China); Liu, F. [AVIC China Precision Engineering Institute for Aircraft Industry, Beijing (China)] [AVIC China Precision Engineering Institute for Aircraft Industry, Beijing (China)

2013-09-11

118

Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) with the Experimental Apparatus Container (EAC) removed flew during the USMP-2 mission. During USMP-2, the AADSF was used to study the growth of mercury cadmium telluride crystals in microgravity by directional solidification, a process commonly used on earth to process metals and grow crystals. The furnace is tubular and has three independently controlled temperature zones . The sample travels from the hot zone of the furnace (1600 degrees F) where the material solidifies as it cools. The solidification region, known as the solid/liquid interface, moves from one end of the sample to the other at a controlled rate, thus the term directional solidification.

1992-01-01

119

Modeling of ellipsoid mirror furnace for floating-zone crystal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its compactness and high efficiency, the image furnace using ellipsoid mirrors to focus infrared heating from lamps has widely been used in floating-zone (FZ) crystal growth. However, little research has been reported on modeling energy distribution in such a system. In this paper, a simple model considering direct and indirect radiation from the lamps is presented. This model

C. W. Lan; C. H. Tsai

1997-01-01

120

A model for the heating of slender samples in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heating and melting of cylindrical slender samples in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces are studied. A one-dimensional model that includes the radiative exchange between the sample and the mirror is formulated. The temperature dependence of the physical properties of the sample is taken into account in the model. Convection in the melt is not considered. The results obtained with the model

Rodrigo Haya; Damián Rivas; Bela I. Myznikova

1998-01-01

121

Temperature and flow fields in samples heated in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature field in samples heated in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces will be analyzed. The radiation heat exchange between the sample and the mirror is formulated analytically, taking into account multiple reflections at the mirror. It will be shown that the effect of these multiple reflections in the heating process is quite important, and, as a consequence, the effect of the

D. Rivas; R. Haya

2002-01-01

122

46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...that the furnace is in good working order. In each calibration the energy input to the furnace is adjusted so that the furnace thermocouple gives a steady reading of 750 ±10 °C. The wall temperature of the furnace tube is then measured by an optical...

2010-10-01

123

21. Photocopy of ca. 1951 view (when furnaces were still ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Photocopy of ca. 1951 view (when furnaces were still in blast) looking north at central furnace complex with railroad cars of furnace charging materials in foreground and No. 2 Furnace at left. Photo marked on back 'David W. Corson from A. Devaney, N.Y.' - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

124

Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

1986-01-01

125

Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) with the Experimental Apparatus Container (EAC) attached flew during the USMP-2 mission. This assembly consists of a furnace module, a muffle tube assembly and a translation mechanism which are enclosed in the EAC. During USMP-2, the AADSF was used to study the growth of mercury cadmium telluride crystals in microgravity by directional solidification, a process commonly used on earth to process metals and grow crystals. The furnace is tubular and has three independently controlled temperature zone . The sample travels from the hot zone of the furnace (1600 degrees F) where the material solidifies as it cools. The solidification region, known as the solid/liquid interface, moves from one end of the sample to the other at a controlled rate, thus the term directional solidification.

1983-01-01

126

Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide  

DOEpatents

A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

2012-03-13

127

Energy Assessment Protocol for Glass Furnaces  

E-print Network

The Department of Energy funded development of a methodology that could be used by glass producers to increase furnace efficiency, and that could serve as a model for other energy-intensive industries. Accordingly, a team comprising PPG Industries...

Plodinec, M. J.; Kauffman, B. M.; Norton, O. P.; Richards, C.; Connors, J.; Wishnick, D.

2005-01-01

128

Removable preheater elements improve oxide induction furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat and corrosion resistant preheater elements are used in oxide induction furnaces to raise the temperature to the level for conducting electricity. These preheater elements are then removed and the induction coil energized.

Leipold, M. H.

1964-01-01

129

Developing composite furnace module cooling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composite furnace module cooling system is designed to provide an essentially uniform hot-face temperature that is low\\u000a enough to promote the formation of a protective accretion layer for furnace containment. A minimal amount of copper is used\\u000a to ensure that the installation of the modules will not significantly alter the process heat balance during normal operation.\\u000a The modules have

A. K. Kyllo; N. B. Gray; D. Papazoglou; B. J. Elliot

2000-01-01

130

Universal energy-efficient refining furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines new designs of fluidized-bed furnaces that make it possible to solve a number of engineering problems.\\u000a Descriptions are given of the furnaces and their possible applications: recycling of small pieces of scrap and chips without\\u000a their preliminary processing (briquetting and the removal of oil and grinding debris from their surface); the production of\\u000a a synthetic glass-ceramic material

G. S. Sborshchikov; S. A. Krupennikov

2009-01-01

131

Calcining petroleum coke in ring furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The process of calcining has been studied for total petroleum coke (size 0–60 mm) and breeze (0–15 mm) in an experimental ring furnace.2.It has been shown that the ring furnace can be used successfully to calcine any size grade of petroleum coke produced by delayed coking.3.The quality of the calcined coke, according to the tests of VAMI and GOSNIIÉP, satisfies

Yu. V. Bentsianov; V. E. Ivanov; G. N. Makarov; M. M. Akhmetov; S. M. Slutskaya; F. A. Mustafin

1974-01-01

132

Atom diffusion in furnaces — models and measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental as well as the theoretical approach to estimate diffusion coefficients for several analyte elements with different behavior in graphite furnaces, lead, gold, indium and chromium, were investigated. 'Close' graphite furnaces of two designs differing in the size of end apertures and the diameter of the injection port were used. The furnaces were fast heated at rates of approximately 10 000 K s -1. The peak absorbance of all studied analytes was independent of geometry, suggesting that the separation of atomization and removal was attained. Residence times of the analytes in the two different furnaces were determined from absorbance tail shapes. In the case of gold, the influence of temperature in the range between 1800 and 2200 K on the residence time in both furnaces was also found. The residence times measured in the two different furnaces under otherwise identical conditions, made possible to select the accurate model of diffusional removal from several possible models. The knowledge of the accurate model allowed the estimate of experimental diffusion coefficients. They were thus compared with those semiempirically calculated from kinetic theory of gases, extended to allow for the intermolecular forces. The accuracy of these calculations is limited since the input data (critical temperatures, boiling temperature or melting temperature, molal volumes at the critical, boiling and melting points, metallic crystallographic radii and dissociation constants of metal dimers) are not known with adequate accuracy. The comparison of 'theoretical' and 'experimental' values of diffusion coefficients makes possible to assess value of using individual sources of input data for the semiempirical calculations.

Sadagoff, Yu. M.; D?dina, J.

2002-03-01

133

A Mirror Furnace for Synchrotron Diffraction Experiments up to 1600K.  

PubMed

An X-ray mirror fumace is described that has been developed for in situ diffraction experiments at a synchrotron source for temperatures up to 1600 K. It can be used in a reducing as well as in an oxidizing atmosphere. In this kind of furnace, the sample is located at one focus of a rotational ellipsoid and heated by the radiation of a halogen lamp located at the other focus. The furnace has been designed to work on a four-circle diffractometer with minimum restriction of the setting angles. PMID:16714820

Proffen, T; Frey, F; Plöckl, H; Krane, H G

1995-09-01

134

Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1998-01-01

135

Temperature field in Graphite-Silicon-Graphite samples heated in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heating of cylindrical compound samples in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces is analyzed by means of a conduction-radiation model that includes the radiative exchange between the sample and the mirror, and that takes into account the temperature dependence of the physical properties of the materials that form the sample. Graphite-Silicon-Graphite samples are considered. The melting of the Silicon part, and the

Damián Rivas; Rodrigo Haya

1999-01-01

136

Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

A radiometer is described with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. 5 figs.

Woskov, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Surma, J.E.

1996-11-12

137

Heating of compound samples in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heating of cylindrical compound samples in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces is studied. A line-source model for the lamp (instead of a point source) is considered. The irradiation profiles obtained for this lamp model are analyzed; the case of defocussed lamps is studied analytically. The temperature field in the sample is obtained by means of a conduction-radiation model that includes the radiative exchange between the sample and the mirror. Graphite-silicon-graphite samples are considered; the melting of the silicon part and the surface temperature distribution in the melt are analyzed in dependence of lamp defocussing. By changing this parameter opposite surface temperature gradients in the melt can be obtained, which define opposite thermocapillary stresses.

Rivas, Damián; Vázquez-Espí, Carlos

138

Modeling of ellipsoid mirror furnace for floating-zone crystal growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of its compactness and high efficiency, the image furnace using ellipsoid mirrors to focus infrared heating from lamps has widely been used in floating-zone (FZ) crystal growth. However, little research has been reported on modeling energy distribution in such a system. In this paper, a simple model considering direct and indirect radiation from the lamps is presented. This model is consistent with the point-source model as the lamp size is diminished. The effects of lamp size, shape, orientation, and defocusing are discussed. The model is further integrated with a three-dimensional thermal-capillary model. Therefore, the temperature distribution and the zone shape of the sample during FZ growth in the furnace can be estimated. Temperature measurements of a graphite rod in a mirror furnace were also conducted to validate the global model.

Lan, C. W.; Tsai, C. H.

1997-04-01

139

Composite Furnace Modules - Application in DC Furnaces for FeNi alloy production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arduous operating conditions in high intensity furnaces require specialized equipment incorpo- rated into the containment vessel to ensure viable, long term operation. This is particularly true for high temperature pyrometallurgical processes where the slag constituents are chemically aggressive to the conventional refractory materials utilized in the sidewall lining. Smelting of nickeliferous lateritic ores in an electric furnace is an

Frik Marx; Mike Shapiro; Isabel Geldenhuys; Nico Fowler; Neil B. Gray

140

Rotary furnace supervisory control system at Timken`s Gambrinus furnace No. 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1994, the Timken Co. upgraded the rotary hearth billet furnace at the Gambrinus plant. As part of the upgrade, a new furnace supervisory control system was installed. This system includes an on-line thermal model which calculates steel temperatures and gradients while accounting for changing project dimensions and steel grades. Temperature and production rate set points are calculated to consistently

L. E. Cates; E. Schweinsberg; T. Fearn

1995-01-01

141

Optical emission from a small scale model electric arc furnace in 250-600 nm region.  

PubMed

Optical emission spectroscopy has been for long proposed for monitoring and studying industrial steel making processes. Whereas the radiative decay of thermal excitations is always taking place in high temperatures needed in steel production, one of the most promising environment for such studies are electric arc furnaces, creating plasma in excited electronic states that relax with intense characteristic emission in the optical regime. Unfortunately, large industrial scale electric arc furnaces also present a challenging environment for optical emission studies and application of the method is not straightforward. To study the usability of optical emission spectroscopy in real electric arc furnaces, we have developed a laboratory scale DC electric arc furnace presented in this paper. With the setup, optical emission spectra of Fe, Cr, Cr2O3, Ni, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, and MgO were recorded in the wavelength range 250-600 nm and the results were analyzed with the help of reference data. The work demonstrates that using characteristic optical emission, obtaining in situ chemical information from oscillating plasma of electric arc furnaces is indeed possible. In spite of complications, the method could possibly be applied to industrial scale steel making process in order to improve its efficiency. PMID:23635185

Mäkinen, A; Niskanen, J; Tikkala, H; Aksela, H

2013-04-01

142

Optical emission from a small scale model electric arc furnace in 250-600 nm region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical emission spectroscopy has been for long proposed for monitoring and studying industrial steel making processes. Whereas the radiative decay of thermal excitations is always taking place in high temperatures needed in steel production, one of the most promising environment for such studies are electric arc furnaces, creating plasma in excited electronic states that relax with intense characteristic emission in the optical regime. Unfortunately, large industrial scale electric arc furnaces also present a challenging environment for optical emission studies and application of the method is not straightforward. To study the usability of optical emission spectroscopy in real electric arc furnaces, we have developed a laboratory scale DC electric arc furnace presented in this paper. With the setup, optical emission spectra of Fe, Cr, Cr2O3, Ni, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, and MgO were recorded in the wavelength range 250-600 nm and the results were analyzed with the help of reference data. The work demonstrates that using characteristic optical emission, obtaining in situ chemical information from oscillating plasma of electric arc furnaces is indeed possible. In spite of complications, the method could possibly be applied to industrial scale steel making process in order to improve its efficiency.

Mäkinen, A.; Niskanen, J.; Tikkala, H.; Aksela, H.

2013-04-01

143

A numerical model including PID control of a multizone crystal growth furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a 2D axisymmetric combined conduction and radiation model of a multizone crystal growth furnace. The model is based on a programmable multizone furnace (PMZF) designed and built at NASA Lewis Research Center for growing high quality semiconductor crystals. A novel feature of this model is a control algorithm which automatically adjusts the power in any number of independently controlled heaters to establish the desired crystal temperatures in the furnace model. The control algorithm eliminates the need for numerous trial and error runs previously required to obtain the same results. The finite element code, FIDAP, used to develop the furnace model, was modified to directly incorporate the control algorithm. This algorithm, which presently uses PID control, and the associated heat transfer model are briefly discussed. Together, they have been used to predict the heater power distributions for a variety of furnace configurations and desired temperature profiles. Examples are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PID controlled model in establishing isothermal, Bridgman, and other complicated temperature profies in the sample. Finally, an example is given to show how the algorithm can be used to change the desired profile with time according to a prescribed temperature-time evolution.

Panzarella, Charles H.; Kassemi, Mohammad

1992-01-01

144

Energy efficient operation of aluminum furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Secondary Aluminium melting offers significant energy savings over the production of Aluminium from raw resources since it takes approximately 5% of the energy to re-melt the Aluminium for product than it does to generate the same amount of Aluminium from raw material. However, the industry faces technical challenges for further improving the efficiency of the secondary Aluminium melting furnaces and lacks tools that can aid in helping to understand the intricate interactions of combustion and heat transfer. The U. S. Dept. of Energy, Albany Research Center (ARC), in cooperation with the Argonne and Oak Ridge National Labs, the University of Kentucky, and with industrial support through Secat, Inc. of Lexington, KY (representing 8 Aluminium re-melt companies) built and operates a test-bed reverberatory furnace to study efficiency issues in Aluminium melting. The experimental reverberatory furnace (ERF) is a one ton nominal capacity research furnace capable of melting 1000 lbs per hour with its twin 0.8 MMBtu/hr burners. Studies in the ERF include melt efficiency as a function of combustion space volume, power input and charge alloy. This paper details the experimental equipment, conditions, procedures, and measurements and includes results and discussions of melt efficiency studies. Specific results reported include an analysis of the efficiency of the furnace as a function of power input and the effect that changing combustion space volume has on melting efficiency. In conjunction with this, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate fuel combustion, heat transfer, gaseous product flow and the production/transport of pollutants and greenhouse gases in an Aluminium furnace. Data from the ERF is utilized for computational model validation in order to have a high degree of confidence in the model results. Once validated, the CFD code can then be used to perform parametric studies and to investigate methods to optimize operation in industrial furnaces. Finally, an analytic analysis of the efficiency of the furnace under varying conditions was conducted to determine overall efficiency characteristics of the furnace.

King, Paul E.; Golchert, B.M. (ANL); Li, T. (University of Kentucky); Hassan, M. (University of Kentucky); Han, Q. (ORNL)

2005-01-01

145

High temp vacuum furnace offers new option  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum furnaces operating up to 2,350 F are commonly used for metallurgical processes such as hardening tool steels, treating super alloys, power metal sintering, and brazing. Traditionally electric, these furnaces are costly to operate and maintain. They are often sensitivity to impurities driven off work pieces in the heating chamber because the vapors condense on the walls of the heating chamber and negatively effect operation. The gas-fired vacuum furnace now in development by Surface Combustion, with support from the Gas Research Institute (GRI) will, however, have none of the drawbacks of the electric models while maintaining or improving on performance. Costly electric operating and demand charges will be avoided through the use of natural gas as a fuel. Its ``hot wall`` furnace design means that impurities driven off the work piece can be pulled out of the chamber before they condense. Because ceramic radiant tubes will be used in conjunction with the hot wall design, temperature uniformity and productivity are expected to equal, or surpass, that of the electric furnaces.

NONE

1995-12-11

146

Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1997-09-23

147

Radiation  

Cancer.gov

DCEG researchers carry out a broad-based research program designed to identify, understand, and quantify the risk of cancer in populations exposed to medical, occupational, or environmental radiation. They study ionizing radiation exposures (e.g., x-rays,

148

Acoustic Levitator With Furnace And Laser Heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acoustic-levitation apparatus incorporates electrical-resistance furnace for uniform heating up to temperature of about 1,000 degrees C. Additional local heating by pair of laser beams raise temperature of sample to more than 1,500 degrees C. High temperature single-mode acoustic levitator generates cylindrical-mode accoustic resonance levitating sample. Levitation chamber enclosed in electrical-resistance furnace. Infrared beams from Nd:YAG laser provide additional local heating of sample. Designed for use in containerless processing of materials in microgravity or in normal Earth gravity.

Barmatz, Martin B.; Stoneburner, James D.

1991-01-01

149

The Dlr Solar Furnace - A Facility For Astrophysical and Mineralogical Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy of solar radiation can be used to cause thermal or photochemical effects in the irradiated materials. The DLR Solar Furnace in Cologne is a facility that concentrates the direct solar radiation (concentration factor up to 5200 suns) for research experiments. It offers many different possibilities of using concentrated solar radiation to scientists and industrial users. For astrophysical and mineralogical applications a vacuum chamber with a special design and different instruments for measurements were developed, installed in the solar furnace and tested in experiments with small solid samples. The goal of the first project was to simulate the formation of so-called `chondrules' - constituents of meteorites - by "flash- heating" appropriate mineral samples with the concentrated beam of the solar furnace. The samples were melted and solidified subsequently by controlled cooling. The experiments had to be carried out under vacuum or controlled oxygen fugacity. Some results are presented as part of the paper "DYNAMIC CRYSTALLIZATION EXPERIMENTS USING CONVENTIONAL and SOLAR FURNACE TECHNIQUES - IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FORMATION of REFRACTORY FORSTERITE IN CHONDRITES", submitted to this conference. In a second series of experiments a slightly varied design was used to cause thermal reduction of samples of metal oxide and of lunar regolith simulate. The goal of this ongoing activity is to produce oxygen by pyrolysis. The process is conducted under high vacuum. The paper describes the facility with its properties and presents first results of the mentioned experiments. The two projects are co-operations between the High Flux Solar Furnace of DLR in Cologne (a department of the Solar Technology Division) and the Mission Architecture and Advanced Technologies Section (a department of the Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration of DLR). In the first experiments and in the sample analysis the Institute of Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the University of Cologne was also involved.

Sauerborn, M.; Neumann, A.; Seboldt, W.; Klerner, S.

150

46 CFR 164.009-11 - Furnace apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...voltage stabilizer, specimen holder, specimen insertion device, and three thermocouples (a furnace thermocouple to measure furnace temperature, a surface thermocouple to measure temperature at the surface of a specimen, and a specimen...

2010-10-01

151

33. BOILER HOUSE FURNACE AND BOILER Close view of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. BOILER HOUSE - FURNACE AND BOILER Close view of the Dorward Engineering Company furnace and boiler which provided steam to the cooking retorts in the adjacent room. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

152

42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; operator takes temperature of iron in trough during pout. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

153

36. REDUCTION PLANT CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. REDUCTION PLANT - CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER Reduction Plant furnace and boiler used to provide heat for drying the fish and fish offal, in their conversion to meal. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

154

3. LOOKING WEST INSIDE ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON CHARGING FLOOR. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. LOOKING WEST INSIDE ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON CHARGING FLOOR. VIEW OF 7 1/2 TON CAPACITY ALLIANCE SIDE DOOR CHARGING MACHINE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

155

4. LOOKING SOUTHEAST INSIDE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON GROUND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. LOOKING SOUTHEAST INSIDE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON GROUND FLOOR OF CHARGING AISLE. VIEW OF 50 TON CAPACITY CHARGING BUCKET. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

156

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSEUP, IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSE-UP, IRON NOTCH IN CENTER. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

157

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG RUNNERS & GATES IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

158

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPENHEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPEN-HEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 AND CAST HOUSE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

159

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE PIPE, CINDER NOTCH IN CENTER, SLAG RUNNER IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

160

GENERAL VIEW OF TURBOBLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW OF TURBO-BLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND HOT BLAST STOVES (RIGHT). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Haselton Blast Furnaces, West of Center Street Viaduct, along Mahoning River, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

161

6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace from J.L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy, Ginn & Co. New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Blast Furnace Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

162

55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX WITH LADLE HOUSE AND IRON DESULPHERIZATION BUILDING ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

163

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF STEELMAKING FURNACE DUST DISPOSAL METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to examine the nature of steelmaking furnace residues and disposal techniques, and to assess potential problems associated with residue disposal, a potential multimedia environmental problem. Solubilization tests of 18 furnace residue samples s...

164

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE SIZE FRACTIONS FROM GLASS MELTING FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this research was to identify the size fraction distribution of the various chemical constituents of glass furnace emissions. This would assist researchers in identifying emissions characteristic of glass furnaces; thus, providing design requirements for control te...

165

Design and fabrication of a tin-sulfide annealing furnace  

E-print Network

A furnace was designed and its heat transfer properties were analyzed for use in annealing thin-film tins-ulfide solar cells. Tin sulfide has been explored as an earth abundant solar cell material, and the furnace was ...

Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

2011-01-01

166

22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. DETAIL OBLIQUE VIEW NORTHWEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING GENERAL CONSTRUCTION. CONCRETE PAD AT LEFT IS SITE OF FORMER FURNACE USED TO HEAT URANIUM BILLETS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

167

Monitoring power system response to UHP arc furnace operations  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the use of a PC based data acquisition and analysis system for monitoring response of a power system to the operation of two electric arc furnaces. The topics of the article include a description of the steel complex, the data acquisition system, monitoring one furnace ramping up, monitoring loss of one furnace, monitoring loss of two furnaces, and the results of monitoring and analysis.

Sharma, C.; Julien, K.S. (Univ. of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

1994-01-01

168

Load characteristics and harmonic analysis of DC arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors discuss the load characteristics of a steel factory containing a DC arc furnace. In order to reduce the cost, the arc furnace works during the off-peak period. While the furnace is in operation, the variation of active power and reactive power is quite large. In order to understand the load characteristics, the statistics method is

Chi-Jui Wu; Tsu-Hsun Fu; You-Jen Chen

2000-01-01

169

46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of the furnace and the diameter of a true circle at the same location. The diameter of the true circle may be taken as the original furnace diameter...necessary to force the furnace back to a true circle if the allowable pressure is reduced in...

2012-10-01

170

46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the furnace and the diameter of a true circle at the same location. The diameter of the true circle may be taken as the original furnace diameter...necessary to force the furnace back to a true circle if the allowable pressure is reduced in...

2010-10-01

171

46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of the furnace and the diameter of a true circle at the same location. The diameter of the true circle may be taken as the original furnace diameter...necessary to force the furnace back to a true circle if the allowable pressure is reduced in...

2011-10-01

172

46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the furnace and the diameter of a true circle at the same location. The diameter of the true circle may be taken as the original furnace diameter...necessary to force the furnace back to a true circle if the allowable pressure is reduced in...

2013-10-01

173

Power Usage and Electrical Circuit Analysis for Electric Arc Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power usage in ultrahigh-powered electric arc furnaces requires considerably more investigation into system parameters, furnace secondary circuit analysis, and operating characteristics than previously given to normal powered electric arc furnaces. The power input must be analyzed from the infinite electric utility bus to the arc at the electrode. All interested parties must participate in the analysis to assure a mutual

J. J. Trageser

1980-01-01

174

Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in the center is a charging machine the operator of which manipulates steel ingots in the furnace, as well as in the adjacent forging hammers - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

175

ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL NATURAL GAS FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives emissions data from residential natural-gas furnaces and compares selected data to emissions data from residential oil furnaces and woodstoves. atural-gas furnace emissions data are given for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons, aldehydes, volatile and sem...

176

VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) SHARING THE SAME CAST HOUSE WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. ORE BRIDGE & BLOWER HOUSE TO RIGHT, HULETT CAR DUMPER IS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

177

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE)/ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT, WITH SINTERING PLANT CONVEYORS & TRANSFER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

178

29. Blast furnace plant, looking southeast. The Machine Shop and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. Blast furnace plant, looking southeast. The Machine Shop and Turbo Blower Building are at left, the pig-casting machine and Furnace A at center right. In foregound are the 50-ton ladle cars used to transport hot metal to Valley Mould & Iron Co. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

179

8. Copy of a photograph taken c. 1912 of Furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Copy of a photograph taken c. 1912 of Furnace 'D' blown-in 17 July 1911, the fourth experimental 'thin-lined furnace' to be built in the United States. Photo courtesy Ralph A. Dise, Cleveland Heights, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

180

Electrode mounting in DC arc furnace vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vessel is described for a dc arc furnace having a bottom with a refractory lining, there being a cooled electric current feeding structure arranged outside of the vessel underneath the bottom, and further including a plurality of electrode pins, the improvement comprising a separate mounting facility for each pin, including in each instance: a bore in the lining; an

1986-01-01

181

Glassification of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Glassification process is a unique system that treats hazardous materials such as electric arc furnace dust, slag, spent refractories, etc, and produces an inert, nontoxic marketable commodity. A wide variety of end products include: colored glasses; glass-ceramics that resemble natural rocks used for architectural purposes and decorative articles; roofing granules; abrasive grit; brick and tile colorants; and fillers. This

R. B. Ek; J. E. Schlobohm

1993-01-01

182

Thermal model of the whole element furnace  

SciTech Connect

A detailed thermal analysis was performed to calculate temperatures in the whole element test furnace that is used to conduct drying studies of N-Reactor fuel. The purpose of this analysis was to establish the thermal characteristics of the test system and to provide a basis for post-test analysis.

Cramer, E.R.

1998-01-22

183

Energy Savings in Electric Arc Furnace Melting  

E-print Network

Arc furnace melting which at one time was almost exclusively used to produce alloy steel and steel castings is now widely accepted in the industry as an efficient process to produce all types of steel and iron. Presently, about 28% of steel...

Lubbeck, W.

1982-01-01

184

Data acquisition from a crystal growth furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital acquisition from a furnace for growing the lead tin telluride crystal based on Asyst software is described. It is shown that the use of Asyst for the acquisition of experimental data makes it possible to handle large amounts of data and to drastically reduce the time required for displaying the data from several hours to less than 5 minutes.

Woodell, Glenn A.

1988-01-01

185

Nitrogen control in electric arc furnace steelmaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace produced steels are usually characterized by relatively high nitrogen content. This restricts their use in applications requiring controlled nitrogen content, such as deep drawing quality products. This report presents the results of an EPRI Center for Materials Production and steel industry study of methods for controlling or reducing the nitrogen content of EAF steels. The study involved

J. Thomas; C. Scheid; G. Geiger; C. Czarnik; D. Teall

1992-01-01

186

High-gradient continuous-casting furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High gradient allows rapid growth rates in directionally-solidified eutectic alloys. Furnace design permits cost reductions in directional solidification process through its increased solidification rates, which reduces melt/mold interaction. It produces structural engineering materials for any application requiring properties directionally-solidified eutectic materials.

Scheuermann, C. M.; Flemings, M. C.; Neff, M. A.; Rickinson, B. A.; Young, K. P.

1979-01-01

187

Protecting brazing furnaces from air leaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inexpensive inert-atmosphere shielding protects vacuum brazing-furnace components that are likely to spring leak. Pipefittings, gages, and valves are encased in transparent plastic shroud inflated with argon. If leak develops, harmless argon will enter vacuum chamber, making it possible to finish ongoing brazing or heat treatment before shutting down for repair.

Armenoff, C. T.; Mckown, R. D.

1980-01-01

188

Concentration of a Cassegrain solar furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar furnace comprising a paraboloidal mirror for tracking the sun and a hyperboloidal reflector having one focus in common with the paraboloid is analyzed to determine the geometric concentration of the system. A numerical ray-trace analysis was carried out to study various geometrical configurations of the two reflectors. In particular, the geometric concentration is calculated for the case when

M. H. Cobble

1981-01-01

189

Estimation of parameters for a solar furnace  

SciTech Connect

An improved technique has been proposed based on Carlson's et al. modeling that can be used to estimate the reflectivity of the heliostat-concentrator system, the tracking errors and mirror imperfections in a lumped parameter for simulating the performance of a solar furnace as measured by a calorimeter.

Jarosch, H.S. (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel))

1989-01-01

190

Intensifying the heat work of glass furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

cycles for the combustion of the fuel. Investigation of the process of heat transfer in the tank was limited to studying the transfer of heat as the result of natural convection from the hot zones to the zones which were heated to a lesser degree. Further intensification of the work of the glass tank furnaces by increasing the temperature in

L. S. Pioro; V. I. Babich

1966-01-01

191

APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. oth the technical and economic aspects of the technology were exami...

192

APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspectsof the technology were examined. A...

193

Vertical optical floating zone furnace: Principles of irradiation profile formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The light distribution within the vertical double-ellipsoid mirror furnace applied for floating zone crystal growth with optical heating is studied. During the last few years, this setup was intensively applied for crystal growth of intermetallic and oxide materials due to its advantages for radiation focussing, which is superior in some key features compared to other commercial horizontal and vertical optical floating zone facilities. A point source model was used as a light source to reveal basic principles of the irradiation profile formation, which can strongly affect the melt flows, as well as the curvature and stability of crystallization front. Effects of the lamp displacement along the vertical optical axis with respect to the focal point of the lower elliptical mirror and the effect of mirror apertures were studied as the prime factors, which determine the light profile on the crystal. The efficiency of the light focusing in the presented optical configuration is discussed.

Souptel, D.; Löser, W.; Behr, G.

2007-03-01

194

6. Photocopied August 1978. LINEUP OF HORRY ROTARY FURNACES ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photocopied August 1978. LINE-UP OF HORRY ROTARY FURNACES ON THE SECOND FLOOR OF THE MICHIGAN LAKE SUPERIOR POWER COMPANY POWER HOUSE. THE HOPPERS WHICH FED THE RAW MATERIALS INTO THE FURNACES ARE SHOWN ABOVE THE FURNACES. AS THE 'SPOOL' OF THE FURNACE ROTATED PAST THE ELECTRODES PLATES WERE ADDED TO HOLD THE FINISHED PRODUCT AND THE DESCENDING RAW MATERIALS IN PLACE. THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION OF THE FURNACES SHOWN IN THIS PHOTO IS CLOCKWISE, (M). - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

195

Improved Blackbody Temperature Sensors for a Vacuum Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some improvements have been made in the design and fabrication of blackbody sensors (BBSs) used to measure the temperature of a heater core in a vacuum furnace. Each BBS consists of a ring of thermally conductive, high-melting-temperature material with two tantalum-sheathed thermocouples attached at diametrically opposite points. The name "blackbody sensor" reflects the basic principle of operation. Heat is transferred between the ring and the furnace heater core primarily by blackbody radiation, heat is conducted through the ring to the thermocouples, and the temperature of the ring (and, hence, the temperature of the heater core) is measured by use of the thermocouples. Two main requirements have guided the development of these BBSs: (1) The rings should have as high an emissivity as possible in order to maximize the heat-transfer rate and thereby maximize temperature-monitoring performance and (2) the thermocouples must be joined to the rings in such a way as to ensure long-term, reliable intimate thermal contact. The problem of fabricating a BBS to satisfy these requirements is complicated by an application-specific prohibition against overheating and thereby damaging nearby instrumentation leads through the use of conventional furnace brazing or any other technique that involves heating the entire BBS and its surroundings. The problem is further complicated by another application-specific prohibition against damaging the thin tantalum thermocouple sheaths through the use of conventional welding to join the thermocouples to the ring. The first BBS rings were made of graphite. The tantalum-sheathed thermocouples were attached to the graphite rings by use of high-temperature graphite cements. The ring/thermocouple bonds thus formed were found to be weak and unreliable, and so graphite rings and graphite cements were abandoned. Now, each BBS ring is made from one of two materials: either tantalum or a molybdenum/titanium/zirconium alloy. The tantalum-sheathed thermocouples are bonded to the ring by laser brazing. The primary advantage of laser brazing over furnace brazing is that in laser brazing, it is possible to form a brazed connection locally, without heating nearby parts to the flow temperature of the brazing material. Hence, it is possible to comply with the prohibition against overheating nearby instrumentation leads. Also, in laser brazing, unlike in furnace brazing, it is possible to exert control over the thermal energy to such a high degree that it becomes possible to braze the thermocouples to the ring without burning through the thin tantalum sheaths on the thermocouples. The brazing material used in the laser brazing process is a titanium-boron paste. This brazing material can withstand use at temperatures up to about 1,400 C. In thermal-cycling tests performed thus far, no debonding between the rings and thermocouples has been observed. Emissivity coatings about 0.001 in. (.0.025 mm) thick applied to the interior surfaces of the rings have been found to improve the performance of the BBS sensors by raising the apparent emissivities of the rings. In thermal-cycling tests, the coatings were found to adhere well to the rings.

Farmer, Jeff; Coppens, Chris; O'Dell, J. Scott; McKechnie, Timothy N.; Schofield, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

196

Induction graphitizing furnace acceptance test report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The induction furnace was designed to provide the controlled temperature and environment required for the post-cure, carbonization and graphitization processes for the fabrication of a fibrous graphite NERVA nozzle extension. The acceptance testing required six tests and a total operating time of 298 hrs. Low temperature mode operations, 120 to 850 C, were completed in one test run. High temperature mode operations, 120 to 2750 C, were completed during five tests.

1972-01-01

197

Concentration of a Cassegrain solar furnace  

SciTech Connect

A solar furnace comprising a paraboloidal mirror for tracking the sun and a hyperboloidal reflector having one focus in common with the paraboloid is analyzed to determine the geometric concentration of the system. A numerical ray-trace analysis was carried out to study various geometrical configurations of the two reflectors. In particular, the geometric concentration is calculated for the case when the line joining the foci of the hyperboloid and the axis of revolution of the paraboloid are not coincident.

Cobble, M.H.

1981-01-01

198

Optimized Utility Systems and Furnace Integration  

E-print Network

OPTIMIZED UTILITY SYSTEMS AND FURNACE INTEGRATION A. S. McMullan and H. D. Spriggs, Linnhoff March, Inc., Leesburg, Va. ABSTRACT Conventional process design philosophy usually results in utility systems being designed after process design... defines the Process/Utility interface. Clearly, changing the process design can result in different utility demands and possibly in different utility system designs. This paper presents a procedure, using Pinch Technology, for the simultaneous design...

McMullan, A. S.; Spriggs, H. D.

199

Ultra-high vacuum compatible image furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the design of an optical floating-zone furnace for single-crystal growth under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible conditions. The system is based on a commercial image furnace, which has been refurbished to be all-metal sealed. Major changes concern the use of UHV rotary feedthroughs and bespoke quartz-metal seals with metal-O-rings at the lamp stage. As a consequence, the procedure of assembling the furnace for crystal growth is changed completely. Bespoke heating jackets permit to bake the system. For compounds with elevated vapor pressures, the ultra-high vacuum serves as a precondition for the use of a high-purity argon atmosphere up to 10 bar. In the ferromagnetic Heusler compound Cu _2MnAl, the improvements of purity result in an improved stability of the molten zone, grain selection, and, hence, single-crystal growth. Similar improvements are observed in traveling-solvent floating-zone growth of the antiferromagnetic Heusler compound Mn _3Si. These improvements underscore the great potential of optical float-zoning for the growth of high-purity single crystals of intermetallic compounds.

Neubauer, A.; BĹ`uf, J.; Bauer, A.; Russ, B.; Löhneysen, H. v.; Pfleiderer, C.

2011-01-01

200

Ultra-high vacuum compatible image furnace.  

PubMed

We report the design of an optical floating-zone furnace for single-crystal growth under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible conditions. The system is based on a commercial image furnace, which has been refurbished to be all-metal sealed. Major changes concern the use of UHV rotary feedthroughs and bespoke quartz-metal seals with metal-O-rings at the lamp stage. As a consequence, the procedure of assembling the furnace for crystal growth is changed completely. Bespoke heating jackets permit to bake the system. For compounds with elevated vapor pressures, the ultra-high vacuum serves as a precondition for the use of a high-purity argon atmosphere up to 10 bar. In the ferromagnetic Heusler compound Cu(2)MnAl, the improvements of purity result in an improved stability of the molten zone, grain selection, and, hence, single-crystal growth. Similar improvements are observed in traveling-solvent floating-zone growth of the antiferromagnetic Heusler compound Mn(3)Si. These improvements underscore the great potential of optical float-zoning for the growth of high-purity single crystals of intermetallic compounds. PMID:21280840

Neubauer, A; Boeuf, J; Bauer, A; Russ, B; Löhneysen, H v; Pfleiderer, C

2011-01-01

201

Furnace combustion zone temperature control method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for controlling temperature in a combustion zone in a furnace, independent of flue gas oxygen content. It comprises: supplying combustion air to the furnace for combustion of a fuel therein; providing a plurality of low volume gas flow entry ports to the combustion zone in the furnace with carrier gas continuously flowing through the ports into the combustion zone; selecting a set point value for the combustion zone temperature which, upon the temperature exceeding the set point value, commences generation of a fine water mist external the combustion zone by mist generating means within the carrier gas, the mist flowing into the combustion zone with the carrier gas and reducing temperature within the combustion zone by vaporization therein; and adding a proportionately greater amount of water mist to the carrier gas as the temperature of the combustion zone deviates above the set point value, the amount of water mist added limited by the capacity of the mist generating means, and ceasing the water mist generation upon the combustion zone temperature falling to or below the set point value.

McIntyre, G.C.; Lacombe, R.J.; Forbess, R.G.

1991-05-28

202

Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

Not Available

2011-10-01

203

Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to evaluate their utility in blast furnaces.  

PubMed

Torrefaction and burning characteristics of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, bagasse, and Madagascar almond were studied and compared with a high-volatile bituminous coal using a drop tube furnace to evaluate the potential of biomass consumed in blast furnaces. Torrefaction at 250 and 300°C for 1h duration was carried out. Analysis using the ash tracer method indicated that the extent of atomic carbon reduction in the biomasses was less than that of atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Torrefaction also lowered the sulfur content in bamboo and oil palm over 33%. An examination of the R-factor and burnout of the samples suggests that more volatiles were released and a higher burnout was achieved with raw and torrefied biomasses at 250°C than at 300°C; however, torrefaction at 300°C is a feasible operating condition to transform biomass into a solid fuel resembling a high-volatile bituminous coal used for blast furnaces. PMID:22386202

Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Zhen-Yu

2012-05-01

204

Rotary furnace supervisory control system at Timken`s Gambrinus furnace No. 3  

SciTech Connect

During 1994, the Timken Co. upgraded the rotary hearth billet furnace at the Gambrinus plant. As part of the upgrade, a new furnace supervisory control system was installed. This system includes an on-line thermal model which calculates steel temperatures and gradients while accounting for changing project dimensions and steel grades. Temperature and production rate set points are calculated to consistently produce properly heated pieces. The set point control strategy will reduce fuel consumption, decrease temperature variations between pieces, prevent overheating, and minimize the amount of scaling and decarburization of the steel.

Cates, L.E.; Schweinsberg, E. [Davy International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Automation Services Div.; Fearn, T. [Timken Co., Canton, OH (United States)

1995-07-01

205

Design, performance, and experiment capabilities of the AGHF: ESA's advanced gradient furnace for spacelab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGHF is a Bridgman Furnace Facility for directional solidification experiments in microgravity environment with very well controlled heater temperatures up to 1400°C. A laboratory model and an engineering model exist, the flight model will be built at the end of 1991. The furnace uses heater elements made of W-Re wire wound on a solid TZM heat diffuser, diffuser temperature control by Pt/PtRh thermocouples to ±0.2 K, and a water cooled cooling zone regulated by a thermostatic valve to ±0.3 K. AGHF experiments use front loaded cartridges, which can use conductive coupling to the cooling zone by a liquid metal ring or radiative cooling. The laboratory model furnace, mounted in a dedicated vacuum chamber with peripherals controlled by a commercial computer, was intensively tested up to 1400°C, as specified for the AGHF by ESA, and at 1500°C in a life test under a technology development programme of ESA. Notable laboratory model results are gradients of 95 K/cm in solid Ni of 18 mm dia, with conductive cooling zone coupling by liquid metal, and 70 K/cm with radiative cooling in ZrO 2. EM test are not yet complete, but first tests indicate similar or better results, especially of gradient constancy vs pulling stroke over 140 mm. The first heater model sustained 400 h at 1000°C, 800 h at 1300°C, and 400 h at 1500°C.

Biemann, W.; Terracol, J.

1992-12-01

206

Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Anderson, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1992-03-01

207

Comparison of Predictive Control Methods for High Consumption Industrial Furnace  

PubMed Central

We describe several predictive control approaches for high consumption industrial furnace control. These furnaces are major consumers in production industries, and reducing their fuel consumption and optimizing the quality of the products is one of the most important engineer tasks. In order to demonstrate the benefits from implementation of the advanced predictive control algorithms, we have compared several major criteria for furnace control. On the basis of the analysis, some important conclusions have been drawn. PMID:24319354

2013-01-01

208

5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, SHOWING INTERIOR ELECTRODES. THE RAW MATERIALS FOR CALCIUM CARBIDE PRODUCTION--LIMESTONE AND COKE--WERE FED BY HOPPERS PLACED BETWEEN THESE ELECTRODES INTO THE ELECTRIC ARC. THE REMOVABLE PLATES ON THE EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCE OF THE HORRY FURNACE ARE SHOWN ON THE FIRST THREE FURNACES. (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

209

12. ANGLED VIEW OF THE SCOTT FURNACE WITH PRIMARY CONDENSER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. ANGLED VIEW OF THE SCOTT FURNACE WITH PRIMARY CONDENSER AND SOUTH SECONDARY CONDENSER IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

210

VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS INCLUDING (POSSIBLE SOOT FURNACE), FOREGROUND, CONDENSERS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF MARISCAL WORKS INCLUDING (POSSIBLE SOOT FURNACE), FOREGROUND, CONDENSERS AND ORE BIN FOUNDATION ABOVE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

211

Biological Kraft Chemical Recycle for Augmentation of Recovery Furnace Capacity  

SciTech Connect

The chemicals used in pulping of wood by the kraft process are recycled in the mill in the recovery furnace, which oxidizes organics while simultaneously reducing sulfate to sulfide. The recovery furnace is central to the economical operation of kraft pulp mills, but it also causes problems. The total pulp production of many mills is limited by the recovery furnace capacity, which cannot easily be increased. The furnace is one of the largest sources of air pollution (as reduced sulfur compounds) in the kraft pulp mill.

Stuart E. Strand

2001-12-06

212

Calibration of high-heat-flux sensors in a solar furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most common sensors used for the measurement of high solar irradiance are the Gardon gauges, which are usually calibrated using a black body at a certain temperature as the radiant source. This calibration procedure is assumed to produce a systematic error when solar irradiance measurements are taken using these sensors. This paper demonstrates a calorimetric method for calibrating these high-heat-flux gauges in a solar furnace. This procedure has enabled these sensors to be calibrated under concentrated solar radiation at higher irradiances under non-laboratory conditions in the CIEMAT solar furnace at the Plataforma Solar de Almería. Working at higher irradiances has allowed the uncertainty in the calibration constant of these sensors to be reduced. This work experimentally confirms the predicted systematic errors committed when measuring high solar irradiances using Gardon sensors calibrated with a black body.

Ballestrín, J.; Rodríguez-Alonso, M.; Rodríguez, J.; Cańadas, I.; Barbero, F. J.; Langley, L. W.; Barnes, A.

2006-12-01

213

Exothermic furnace module development. [space processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exothermic furnace module was developed to rapidly heat and cool a 0.820-in. (2.1 cm) diameter by 2.75-in. (7.0 cm) long TZM molybdenum alloy crucible. The crucible contains copper, oxygen, and carbon for processing in a low-g environment. Peak temperatures of 1270 C were obtainable 3.5 min after start of ignition, and cooling below 950 C some 4.5 min later. These time-temperature relationships were conditioned for a foam-copper experiment, Space Processing Applications Rocket experiment 77-9, in a sounding rocket having a low-g period of 5 min.

Darnell, R. R.; Poorman, R. M.

1982-01-01

214

Nitrogen control in electric arc furnace steelmaking  

SciTech Connect

Electric arc furnace produced steels are usually characterized by relatively high nitrogen content. This restricts their use in applications requiring controlled nitrogen content, such as deep drawing quality products. This report presents the results of an EPRI Center for Materials Production and steel industry study of methods for controlling or reducing the nitrogen content of EAF steels. The study involved a series of trials performed by North Star Steel at its Michigan Division plant. A major conclusion of the study is that nitrogen content can be reduced through an increase in carbon monoxide evolution sustained by oxygen injection and carbon additions.

Thomas, J.; Scheid, C.; Geiger, G.; Czarnik, C.; Teall, D. (North Star Steel Co., Monroe, MI (United States))

1992-12-01

215

High velocity combustion furnace and burner  

SciTech Connect

A new high-velocity combustion system for heat-treating or forging furnaces improves upon prior designs in that it needs only a small combustion chamber and that several nozzles can be housed in a common air manifold. The combustion air is sufficiently pressurized to create a high flue-gas velocity that causes a backpressure within the combustion chamber, thus reducing the volume of space required in the chamber, bringing the refractory closer to the work piece, shortening the heat-treating time, and increasing the thermal load on the work pieces.

McElroy, J.G.

1982-01-05

216

Glass Furnace Model (GFM) development and technology transfer program final report.  

SciTech Connect

A Glass Furnace Model (GFM) was developed under a cost-shared R&D program by the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory in close collaboration with a consortium of five glass industry members: Techneglas, Inc., Owens-Corning, Libbey, Inc., Osram Sylvania, Inc., and Visteon, Inc. Purdue University and Mississippi State University's DIAL Laboratory were also collaborators in the consortium. The GFM glass furnace simulation model that was developed is a tool industry can use to help define and evaluate furnace design changes and operating strategies to: (1) reduce energy use per unit of production; (2) solve problems related to production and glass quality by defining optimal operating windows to reduce cullet generation due to rejects and maximize throughput; and (3) make changes in furnace design and/or operation to reduce critical emissions, such as NO{sub x} and particulates. A two-part program was pursued to develop and validate the furnace model. The focus of the Part I program was to develop a fully coupled furnace model which had the requisite basic capabilities for furnace simulation. The principal outcome from the Phase I program was a furnace simulation model, GFM 2.0, which was copyrighted. The basic capabilities of GFM 2.0 were: (1) built-in burner models that can be included in the combustion space simulation; (2) a participating media spectral radiation model that maintains local and global energy balances throughout the furnace volume; and (3) a multiphase (liquid, solid) melt model that calculates (does not impose) the batch-melting rate and the batch length. The key objectives of the Part II program, which overlapped the Part I program were: (1) to incorporate a full multiphase flow analytical capability with reduced glass chemistry models in the glass melt model and thus be able to compute and track key solid, gas, and liquid species through the melt and the combustion space above; and (2) to incorporate glass quality indices into the simulation to facilitate optimization studies with regard to productivity, energy use and emissions. Midway through the Part II program, however, at the urging of the industrial consortium members, the decision was made to refocus limited resources on transfer of the existing GFM 2.0 software to the industry to speed up commercialization of the technology. This decision, in turn, necessitated a de-emphasis of the development of the planned final version of the GFM software that had full multiphase capability, GFM 3.0. As a result, version 3.0 was not completed; considerable progress, however, was made before the effort was terminated. The objectives of the Technology Transfer program were to transfer the Glass Furnace Model (GFM) to the glass industry and to promote its widespread use by providing the requisite technical support to allow effective use of the software. GFM Version 2.0 was offered at no cost on a trial, six-month basis to expedite its introduction to and use by the industry. The trial licenses were issued to generate a much more thorough user beta test of the software than the relatively small amount completed by the consortium members prior to the release of version 2.0.

Lottes, S. A.; Petrick, M.; Energy Systems

2007-12-04

217

Temperature field in a cylindrical crystal heated in a mono-ellipsoid mirror furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature field in a cylindrical solid crystal heated in a mono-ellipsoid mirror furnace is studied. The radiation intensity on the surface of the sample is obtained explicity as a function of the parameters that define the problem. The resulting axisymmetric two-dimensional conduction-radiation model is solved numerically. The dependence of the maximum temperature in the crystal on several design parameters is analyzed. The importance of the radiation losses from the sample is assessed. When the slenderness of the crystal is large, the temperature field is practically unidimensional. A one-dimensional model to describe the heat transfer process is formulated; the agreement with the two-dimensional model is excellent. The simplified one-dimensional model is proposed for the analysis of the more difficult problem where the redistribution by the mirror of the radiation losses from the sample is considered.

Rivas, Damián; Sanz, Javier; Vázquez, Carlos

1992-01-01

218

Mercury in dumped blast furnace sludge.  

PubMed

Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste generated in the production of pig iron and was dumped in sedimentation ponds. Sixty-five samples from seven BFS locations in Europe were investigated regarding the toxic element mercury (Hg) for the first time. The charge material of the blast furnace operations revealed Hg contents from 0.015 to 0.097mgkg(-1). In comparison, the Hg content of BFS varied between 0.006 and 20.8mgkg(-1) with a median of 1.63mgkg(-1), which indicates enrichment with Hg. For one site with a larger sample set (n=31), Hg showed a stronger correlation with the total non-calcareous carbon (C) including coke and graphite (r=0.695; n=31; p<0.001). It can be assumed that these C-rich compounds are hosting phases for Hg. The solubility of Hg was rather low and did not exceed 0.43% of total Hg. The correlation between the total Hg concentration and total amount of NH4NO3-soluble Hg was relatively poor (r=0.496; n=27; p=0.008) indicating varying hazard potentials of the different BFS. Finally, BFS is a mercury-containing waste and dumped BFS should be regarded as potentially mercury-contaminated sites. PMID:24290303

Földi, Corinna; Dohrmann, Reiner; Mansfeldt, Tim

2014-03-01

219

When Your Furnace Kicks On, Be Sure Poison Gas Isn't Coming Out  

MedlinePLUS

WHEN YOUR FURNACE KICKS ON, BE SURE POISON GAS ISN’T COMING OUT Every winter when the ... drops, your furnace can become a silent killer. Gas- and oil-burning furnaces produce carbon monoxide (CO). ...

220

16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces. 305.12 Section 305...Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout . All...labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces (including...

2010-01-01

221

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2010-07-01

222

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2011-07-01

223

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2013-07-01

224

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2014-07-01

225

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2012-07-01

226

Power quality analysis and improvement of DC arc furnace load  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the power quality problems of a DC arc furnace load are investigated. An 18-pulse converter is used to provide the DC currents to the furnace. The power quality problems concerned are the harmonics and voltage flicker (voltage fluctuation). Field measurement is used to reveal the harmonic distributions of the rectifiers under balanced and unbalanced conditions. The effect

Tsu-Hsun Fu; Chi-Jui Wu

2002-01-01

227

Inexpensive high-temperature furnace for thermocouple calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New furnace calibrates unknown thermocouple by comparing its electrical output to a reference thermocouple /previously calibrated by optical pyrometry/, as both are heated simultaneously. Thermocouples may be radioactive, thus heat source must be accessible by remote manipulation and inspection measurements. Advantages of furnace operation are cited.

Gracey, C. M.; Hoff, R. G.

1971-01-01

228

RELEVANCE OF FUEL PARAMETERS FOR OPERATION CONDITIONS OF BIOMASS FURNACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide biomass ranks fourth as an energy source and over 90% of the generated bio-energy are produced in biomass furnaces. The recent development in biomass combustion technology has led to improvement of efficiency and significant reduction of emissions from modern conversion installations. However, the operation and maintenance of biomass furnaces requires detailed understanding of the complex burning process. There is

Rafal Strzalka; Roman Ulbrich; Ursula Eicker; Ömer Gül

229

8. VIEW OF FOUNDRY INDUCTION FURNACES, MODULE J. THE FOUNDRY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF FOUNDRY INDUCTION FURNACES, MODULE J. THE FOUNDRY CASTING PROCESS WAS CONDUCTED IN A VACUUM. PLUTONIUM METAL WAS MELTED IN ONE OF FOUR ELECTRIC INDUCTION FURNACES TO FORM INGOTS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

230

DISCHARGE END OF 8" MILL REHEATING FURNACE, SHOWING MOTOROPERATED PEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DISCHARGE END OF 8" MILL REHEATING FURNACE, SHOWING MOTOR-OPERATED PEEL BAR PUSHER WITH PINCH ROLLS FOR MOVING BILLETS ENDWISE OUT THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE FURNACE TOWARD THE CONTINUOUS ROUGHING TRAIN. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

231

RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACE SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION--PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the second of a two-phase investigation into ways to improve the air pollutant emission and thermal efficiency characteristics of residential oil furnaces. A prototype, low-emission, warm-air furnace (designed in Phase I to embody a number of burner and combu...

232

STRIP TEMPERATURE IN A METAL COATING LINE ANNEALING FURNACE  

E-print Network

STRIP TEMPERATURE IN A METAL COATING LINE ANNEALING FURNACE Mark McGuinness1 and Stephen Taylor2 We continuously through the furnace, to certain temperatures and then cooling it, resulting in a change prior to being coated, by heating to a predeter- mined temperature for a definite time. Annealing

McGuinness, Mark

233

Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Li, X. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1999-01-14

234

41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

235

8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS, CUPOLA TENDER RICHARD SLAUGHTER SUPERVISING THE POUR. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

236

7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

237

42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

238

EMISSIONS FROM OUTDOOR WOOD-BURNING RESIDENTIAL HOT WATER FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of measurements of emissions from a single-pass and a double-pass furnace at average heat outputs of 15,000 and 30,000 Btu/hr (4.4 and 8.8 kW) while burning typical oak cordwood fuel. One furnace was also tested once at each heat output while fitted with ...

239

Effect of Combustion Air Preheat on a Forged Furnace Productivity  

E-print Network

A basic thermal analysis of a gas fired forge furnace can determine the fuel savings from exhaust energy recovery/combustion air preheat on a furnace operating at a single condition, for example, high fire. What this analysis is not able...

Ward, M. E.; Bohn, J.; Davis, S. R.; Knowles, D.

1984-01-01

240

ELECTRIC FURNACES TILT AROUND A PIVOT UNDER THE SPOUT TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ELECTRIC FURNACES TILT AROUND A PIVOT UNDER THE SPOUT TO FILL BULL LADLES BELOW THE CHARGING DECK. THE REAR VIEW OF A POURING ELECTRIC FURNACE FROM THE CHARGING DECK IS SHOWN HERE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

241

NORTH END OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND CAST AND ENGINE SHED, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTH END OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND CAST AND ENGINE SHED, WITH BLOWER HOUSE TO THE EAST AND CHARGING BRIDGE AND TRESSLE TO THE WEST, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

242

Artificial neural networks in predicting current in electric arc furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a study of the possibility of using artificial neural networks for the prediction of the current and the voltage of Electric Arc Furnaces. Multi-layer perceptron and radial based functions Artificial Neural Networks implemented in Matlab were used. The study is based on measured data items from an Electric Arc Furnace in an industrial plant in Romania.

Panoiu, M.; Panoiu, C.; Iordan, A.; Ghiormez, L.

2014-03-01

243

COMPUTER-ASSISTED FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of furnace atomic absorption instrumentation with a turnkey chromatography data system is described. A simple addition of relays to the furnace power supply allows for automatic start-up of A/D conversion and spectrophotometer zeroing at the proper time. Manipulations inv...

244

5. SOUTHERN VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES No. 3, No. 4, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. SOUTHERN VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES No. 3, No. 4, AND No. 6, WITH ORE YARD IN THE FOREGROUND. BUILDING ON THE LEFT IS THE CENTRAL BOILER HOUSE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

245

General view of blast furnace "A"; looking southeast; The building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of blast furnace "A"; looking southeast; The building to the right is the crucible steel building - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Blast Furnace "A", Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

246

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CYCLONE FURNACE SOIL VITRI- FICATION TECHNOLOGY - BABCOCK & WILCOX  

EPA Science Inventory

Babcock and Wilcox's (B&W) cyclone furnace is an innovative thermal technology which may offer advantages in treating soils containing organics, heavy metals, and/or radionuclide contaminants. The furnace used in the SITE demonstration was a 4- to 6-million Btu/hr pilot system....

247

19. MOLTEN IRON FLOWS INTO A 'BOTTLE' AT FURNACE NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. MOLTEN IRON FLOWS INTO A 'BOTTLE' AT FURNACE NO. 1. THE IRON WILL BE TRANSPORTED BY RAIL TO THE OPEN HEARTH OR BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES, WHERE IT IS A MAJOR COMPONENT IN THE PRODUCTION OF STEEL. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

248

Experimenting with concentrated sunlight using the DLR solar furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high flux solar furnace that is operated by the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) at Cologne was inaugurated in June 1994 and we are now able to look back onto one year of successful operation. The solar furnace project was founded by the government of the State Northrhine Westfalia within the Study Group AG Solar. The optical

A. Neumann; U. Groer

1996-01-01

249

Improvements in blast furnace operation at AHMSA Monclova  

SciTech Connect

Following the privatization of Altos Hornos de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (AHMSA) in Nov. 1991, four areas were chosen to improve blast furnace performance and hot metal costs. These areas included improvement of pellet quality, start of oil-gas co-injection, improved control of gas flow in the blast furnace and start of monitoring program to predict the remaining life of the hearth of No. 5 blast furnace. These efforts resulted in the following improvements in the first half of 1992: Production level increased to 2.4 tonnes/cu metre/24 hr with a 1992 annual production record from No. 5 furnace of 1.639 million tonnes; Coke rates decreased by 60 kg/tonne, half of which was due to process improvements and the other half to injection of oil; Silicon standard deviations decreased from 0.22% in 1991 to 0.20% in 1992; Hot metal costs decreased by 10.6%; and The major reline of No. 5 furnace postponed by at least 1.5 years. The improvement of the blast furnace process was not limited to the larger No. 5 furnace. Similar tends can be observed with No. 4 furnace which will also be equipped with oil injection. For the future, programs have been prepared to increase injection rates, improve casthouse operation and increase process stability.

Morales, J.M.; Dominguez, H. (Altos Hornos de Mexico S.A. de C.V., Monclova (Mexico). Monclova Works); Geerdes, M. (Hoogovens Technical Services B.V., Monclova (Mexico))

1994-10-01

250

Hydrogen-atmosphere induction furnace has increased temperature range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved hydrogen-atmosphere induction furnace operates at temperatures up to 5,350 deg F. The furnace heats up from room temperature to 4,750 deg F in 30 seconds and cools down to room temperature in 2 minutes.

Caves, R. M.; Gresslin, C. H.

1966-01-01

251

Blast-furnace performance with coal-dust injection  

SciTech Connect

For the blast furnace shop at OAO Alchevskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (AMK) the injection of pulverized fuel is promising. Preliminary steps toward its introduction are underway, including analytical research. In this context, blast furnace performance when using pulverized coal is calculated in this study.

G.G. Vasyura [OAO Alchevskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat, Alchevsk (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01

252

11. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND THE PARTS HEATING FURNACE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND THE PARTS HEATING FURNACE. THE PARTS OR METALS WERE HEATED PRIOR TO BEING PRESSED. THE MANIPULATOR ARM WAS USED TO INSERT AND REMOVE PARTS OR METALS FROM THE FURNACE. (2/9/79) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

253

Pulverized coal injection operation on CSC No. 3 blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

The pulverized coal injection system was introduced for the first time in No. 1 and No. 2 blast furnace at China Steel Corporation (CSC) in 1988. Currently the coal injection rate for both blast furnaces has steadily risen to 70--89 kg/thm (designed value). No 3 blast furnace (with an inner volume of 3400 m3) was also equipped with a PCI system of Armco type and started coal injection on November 17, 1993. During the early period, some problems such as injection lance blocking, lance-tip melting down, flexible hose wear, grind mill tripping occasionally interrupted the stable operation of blast furnace. After a series of efforts offered on equipment improvement and operation adjustment, the PC rate currently reaches to 90--110 kg/thm and furnace stable operation is still being maintained with productivity more than 2.20.

Chan, C.M.; Hsu, C.H. [China Steel Corp., Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

1996-12-31

254

Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace  

DOEpatents

A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater.

Kujawa, Stephan T. (Butte, MT); Battleson, Daniel M. (Butte, MT); Rademacher, Jr., Edward L. (Butte, MT); Cashell, Patrick V. (Butte, MT); Filius, Krag D. (Butte, MT); Flannery, Philip A. (Ramsey, MT); Whitworth, Clarence G. (Butte, MT)

1998-01-01

255

28. RW Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange Furnace and Clarifier position. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. RW Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range Furnace and Clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the clarification, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the Continuous flue leading from this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation, two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifiers, lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

256

29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange furnace and clarifier ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range furnace and clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the concentration, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the continous flue leaving this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifier lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

257

Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace  

DOEpatents

A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs.

Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

1998-03-24

258

Programmable multi-zone furnace for microgravity research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to provide new furnace technology to accommodate microgravity research studies and commercial applications in material processes, research has been initiated on the development of the Programmable-Multi-zone Furnace (PMZF). The PMZF is described as a multi-user materials processing furnace facility that is composed of thirty or more heater elements in series on a muffle tube or in a stacked ring-type configuration and independently controlled by a computer. One of the aims of the PMZF project is to allow furnace thermal gradient profiles to be reconfigured without physical modification of the hardware by creating the capability of reconfiguring thermal profiles in response to investigators' requests. The future location of the PMZF facility is discussed; the preliminary science survey results and preliminary conceptual designs for the PMZF are presented; and a review of multi-zone furnace technology is given.

Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Krolikowski, Cathryn R.

1991-01-01

259

40 CFR 458.10 - Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory.  

...false Applicability; description of the carbon black furnace process subcategory. 458...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Furnace Process Subcategory §...

2014-07-01

260

Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 Degree-Sign C) and high ({approx}800 Degree-Sign C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 Degree-Sign C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 Degree-Sign C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 Degree-Sign C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Rigby, Wayne [Specialty Vacuum, Placitas, New Mexico 87043 (United States); Wallace, John [Casting Analysis Corporation, Weyers Cave, Virginia 24468 (United States)

2012-06-15

261

Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low ({approx}120 deg C) and high ({approx}800 deg C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 deg C with a maximum pressure of {approx}1 x 10{sup -5} Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 deg C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 deg C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of {approx}2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

Pashupati Dhakal, Gianluigi Ciovati, Wayne Rigby, John Wallace, Ganapati Rao Myneni

2012-06-01

262

Process Modeling and Optimization of a Submerged Arc Furnace for Phosphorus Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a process model of a phosphorus-producing, submerged arc furnace. The model successfully incorporates accurate, multifield thermodynamic, kinetic, and industrial data with computational flow dynamic calculations and thus further unifies the sciences of kinetics and equilibrium thermodynamics. The model is structurally three-dimensional and uses boundary conditions, initial values, and material specifications provided by industrial measurements, laboratory experiments, and a combination of empirical and thermodynamic data. It accounts for fully developed gas flows of gaseous product generated from within the packed bed; the energy associated with chemical reactions, heating, and melting, as well as thermal conductivity and the particle-particle radiation within the burden. The model proves the existence of a narrow, gas-solid reduction zone where the bulk of phosphorus is produced. It shows that fast reaction rates in this narrow reaction zone in combination with long residence times diminish the influence changing reaction rates have on the process. It indicates that most heat exchanged between the new pellets entering the furnace and the gaseous product produced in the reduction zone takes place in the top 0.5 m of the furnace bed. The gaseous product and flow information shows low and recirculating gaseous flow velocity areas that cause dust accumulation.

Scheepers, Emile; Yang, Yongxiang; Adema, Allert T.; Boom, Rob; Reuter, Markus A.

2010-10-01

263

A three-region, moving boundary model of a furnace flame  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new, efficient technique for computing first-order spatial dependence of a furnace flame. The technique, called the moving boundary flame model, creates dynamic state variables that track the size of the flame within the furnace. The approximation is appropriate for full plant training simulators, control system analysis, and engineering analyses in which a higher fidelity model than a point reactor model is needed. In comparison to the point reactor models, the one dimensional spatial dependence should improve the accuracy of distributed quantities such as heat transfer and reaction rates over the range fuel and air flow conditions that exist in normal and abnormal operation. The model is not intended to replace detailed multi-dimension flow models of the furnace. Although the flame model is a first principles model, the accuracy depends on data from a more detailed combustion simulation or experimental data for volume-averaged parameters such as the turbulent mixing coefficient for fuel and air, radiative and conductive heat transfer coefficients, and ignition and extinction conditions. These inputs can be viewed as tuning parameters used normalize the moving boundary model to a more accurate model at a particular operating point. The expected application for the model is dynamic system analysis for burner diagnostics and controls. Burner diagnostics and controls are expected to be areas for major development to reduce emissions and improve efficiency of commercial fossil fuel power plants.

Wilson, T.L. Jr.

1997-02-01

264

An analysis of lamp irradiation in ellipsoidal mirror furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The irradiation generated by halogen lamps in ellipsoidal mirror furnaces is analyzed, in configurations suited to the study of the floating-zone technique for crystal growth in microgravity conditions. A line-source model for the lamp (instead of a point source) is developed, so that the longitudinal extent of the filament is taken into account. With this model the case of defocussed lamps can be handle analytically. In the model the lamp is formed by an aggregate of point-source elements, placed along the axis of the ellipsoid. For these point sources (which, in general, are defocussed) an irradiation model is formulated, within the approximation of geometrical optics. The irradiation profiles obtained (both on the lateral surface and on the inner base of the cylindrical sample) are analyzed. They present singularities related to the caustics formed by the family of reflected rays; these caustics are also analyzed. The lamp model is combined with a conduction-radiation model to study the temperature field in the sample. The effects of defocussing the lamp (common practice in crystal growth) are studied; advantages and also some drawbacks are pointed out. Comparison with experimental results is made.

Rivas, Damián; Vázquez-Espí, Carlos

2001-03-01

265

Fibonacci lattices application for furnace processes control  

SciTech Connect

Universal structures formed during the fuel oxidizer and combustion mixing process are characterized by the Fibonacci gold ratio. This paper will demonstrate how the gold ratio can be used for control action in combustion. The combustion character in furnace apparatuses is in large part dependent on a reagent motion regime. In general, there are three such regimes: lamina (L), lamina-preturbulent or quasi-periodic (LPT) and turbulent-mixing (TM). Compound structures are absent from the L-regime and are characterized by a low Reynolds number Re. As Re increases the periodic regime remains consistent but one frequency process appears. The LPT and TM regimes are independent of material physical carriers and are characterized by the universal relationship of the oscillate frequencies, the so-called ``golden sections`` F*{sup n}, where F* is the gold ratio (F* = 1.618...) and n is the integer such that the degree of mixing is in proportion to n.

Khavkin, Y. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Maktin, G.M. [A.O. NIVA, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

266

Mercury in dumped blast furnace sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste generated in the production of pig iron and was dumped in sedimentation ponds. As these wastes often contain high contents of zinc, lead, cadmium, and arsenic, significant hazards to environmental surroundings may arise from former BFS sedimentation ponds. Sixty-five samples from seven BFS locations in Europe were investigated regarding the toxic element mercury (Hg) for the first time. The charge material of the blast furnace operations (coke, iron ores, and additives such as olivine, bauxite, ilmenite and gravels) revealed Hg contents from 0.015 to 0.093 mg kg-1. In comparison, the Hg content of BFS varied between 0.006 and 20.8 mg kg-1 with a median of 1.63 mg kg-1, which indicates enrichment with Hg. For one site with a larger sample set (n = 31), Hg showed a stronger correlation with the total non-calcareous carbon (C) including coke and graphite (r = 0.695; n = 31; p < 0.001). It can be assumed that these C-rich compounds are hosting phases for Hg. The solubility of Hg was rather low and did not exceed 0.43% of total Hg. The correlation between the total Hg concentration and total amount of NH4NO3-soluble Hg was relatively poor (r = 0.496; n = 27; p = 0.008) indicating varying hazard potentials of the different BFS. Consequently, BFS is a mercury-containing waste and dumped BFS should be regarded as potentially mercury-contaminated sites.

Földi, Corinna

2014-05-01

267

Ceramic coating used on MWC furnace walls  

SciTech Connect

Fire-side corrosion of Municipal Waste Combustor (MWC) furnace walls has been a significant problem for these units. This corrosion can take place quite rapidly. Within less than a year major tube failures have occurred. The corrosion mechanisms and history of various units have been well documented previously. The commonly used answer to this corrosion is use of Inconel 625 weld overlay. It is often applied after erection of units, because the corrosion or its location is unforeseen. Two major problems with the Inconel 625 weld overlay is its high initial cost and the subsequent maintenance due to imperfections in the overlay during its application. Now, a thin, ceramic coating has proven its ability to protect the carbon steel tubes and survive the furnace environment. As of April, 1995, it will have about 10 months of service at the SPSA operated MWC plant. Its cost is a fraction of Inconel 625 weld overlay. Since it forms a continuous coating there are very few imperfections in the coating. One key feature of the ceramic coating is its thermal expansion rate is similar to carbon steel. This eliminates flaking of the ceramic coating. A brief review of the SPSA/NNSY Steam/Power Plant operating characteristics is presented. Maps showing loss of metal (based on ultrasonic testing) in a number of units are presented. Then physical and chemical properties of the ceramic coating are discussed. The costs of various alternatives are compared. This ceramic coating will prove to save MWCs millions of dollars. It can be used to go over poor Inconel overlay work.

Parker, P.R. [Southeastern Public Service Authority, Portsmouth, VA (United States); Zvosec, C. [CETEK, Transfer, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

268

A Simple Quasi-2D Numerical Model of a Thermogage Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple quasi-2D model for the temperature distribution in a graphite tube furnace is presented. The model is used to estimate the temperature gradients in the furnace at temperatures above which contact sensors can be used, and to assist in the redesign of the furnace heater element to improve the temperature gradients. The Thermogage graphite tube furnace is commonly used in many NMIs as a blackbody source for radiation thermometer calibration and as a spectral irradiance standard. Although the design is robust, easy to operate and can change temperature rapidly, it is limited by its effective emissivity of typically 99.5 99.8%. At NMIA, the temperature gradient along the tube is assessed using thermocouples up to about 1,500°C, and the blackbody emissivity is calculated from this. However, at higher operating temperatures (up to 2,900°C), it is impractical to measure the gradient, and we propose to numerically model the temperature distributions used to calculate emissivity. In another paper at this conference, the model is used to design an optimized heater tube with improved temperature gradients. In the model presented here, the 2-D temperature distribution is simplified to separate the axial and radial temperature distributions within the heater tube and the surrounding insulation. Literature data for the temperature dependence of the electrical and thermal conductivities of the graphite tube were coupled to models for the thermal conductivity of the felt insulation, particularly including the effects of allowing for a gas mixture in the insulation. Experimental measurements of the temperature profile up to 1,500°C and radial heat fluxes up to 2,200°C were compared to the theoretical predictions of the model and good agreement was obtained.

Chahine, Khaled; Ballico, Mark; Reizes, John; Madadnia, Jafar

2007-12-01

269

Electrical equipment for d-c arc furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Starting with a d-c ladle furnace in 1986 and using worldwide experience in supplying electrical equipment for more than 30 electrical steel plants, Siemens commissioned their first 70-Mw d-c arc furnace at the end of 1992. This article is divided into three parts: Siemens experience with their first d-c furnace: current improvements; and future considerations. Siemens first electrical installation for a d-c furnace has been in successful operation for more than a year. In spite of the special new construction of the thyristor rectifiers and the new digital open and closed-loop controls for this furnace, there have been no electrical failures. For new facilities, electrical components have been optimized based on the experience gained, taking into account the rapid innovations currently taking place. They are rated to accommodate the higher current requirements when graphite electrodes with a diameter of 800 mm or larger are available for the single electrode furnace or for a twin-electrode single shell furnace.

Schnapperelle, J. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Gandhi, V. [Siemens Energy and Automation, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

1995-09-01

270

Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

2014-09-01

271

Holden gas-fired furnace baseline data. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Holden gas-fired furnace is used in the enriched uranium recovery process to dry and combust small batches of combustibles. The ash is further processed. The furnace operates by allowing a short natural gas flame to burn over the face of a wall of porous fire brick on two sides of the furnace. Each firing wall uses two main burners and a pilot burner to heat the porous fire brick to a luminous glow. Regulators and orifice valves are used to provide a minimum gas pressure of 4 in. water column at a rate of approximately 1,450 scf/h to the burners. The gas flow rate was calculated by determining the gas flow appropriate for the instrumentation in the gas line. Observed flame length and vendor literature were used to calculate pilot burner gas consumption. Air for combustion, purging, and cooling is supplied by a single blower. Rough calculations of the air-flow distribution in piping entering the furnace show that air flow to the burners approximately agrees with the calculated natural gas flow. A simple on/off control loop is used to maintain a temperature of 1,000 F in the furnace chamber. Hoods and glove boxes provide contamination control during furnace loading and unloading and ash handling. Fan EF-120 exhausts the hoods, glove boxes, and furnace through filters to Stack 33. A review of the furnace safety shows that safety is ensured by design, interlocks, procedure, and a safety system. Recommendations for safety improvements include installation of both a timed ignition system and a combustible-gas monitor near the furnace. Contamination control in the area could be improved by redesigning the loading hood face and replacing worn gaskets throughout the system. 33 refs., 16 figs.

Weatherspoon, K.A.

1996-11-01

272

Correction-free pyrometry in radiant wall furnaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A specular, spherical, or near-spherical target is located within a furnace having inner walls and a viewing window. A pyrometer located outside the furnace 'views' the target through pyrometer optics and the window, and it is positioned so that its detector sees only the image of the viewing window on the target. Since this image is free of any image of the furnace walls, it is free from wall radiance, and correction-free target radiance is obtained. The pyrometer location is determined through a nonparaxial optical analysis employing differential optical ray tracing methods to derive a series of exact relations for the image location.

Thomas, Andrew S. W. (inventor)

1994-01-01

273

Firing of boilers and furnaces with non-fossil fuels  

SciTech Connect

Case studies were carried out at 10 sites using wood or straw fired furnaces on horticultural and agricultural applications (greenhouse, livestock housing or domestic heating, grain drying). Furnace reliability was good. Refuelling was the limiting factor for unattended operation and to extend this time, burning of wood, automatic firing, and use in conjunction with conventional oil fired heating equipment was practiced. Straw fuel was usually kept dry, with typical moisture contents of 13-15%. Wood moisture contents were greater than 20%. Combustion efficiencies mainly of the order of 40-60% were measured with simple furnaces. With automatic fired plant, mean combustion efficiencies of 71-73% were achieved.

Metcalfe, J.P.

1986-01-01

274

Modeling the DC electric arc furnace based on chaos theory and neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

DC electric arc furnace is an important nonlinear time-varying load in power system. Due to the adverse effects produced by the operation of arc furnace, it is important to build a practical model to described the behavior of electric arc furnace. The electrical fluctuations in the arc furnace voltage have proven to be chaotic in nature. Therefore, this paper deals

Fenghua Wang; Zhijian Jin; Zishu Zhu; Xusheng Wang

2005-01-01

275

49. Taken from highline; "McKinley hat" remains on "B" furnace; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. Taken from high-line; "McKinley hat" remains on "B" furnace; no longer used, "McKinley hat was open receptacle with bell below. Hat carried charge to furnace top, dumping it to bell; bell locked onto furnace top, dropping charge into furnace. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, Wayne County, MI

276

Computationally efficient modeling of wafer temperatures in a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new thermal model is developed to predict wafer temperatures within a hot-wall low pressure chemical vapor deposition furnace based on the furnace wall temperatures as measured by thermocouples. Based on an energy balance of the furnace system, this model is a transformed linear model which captures the nonlinear relationship between the furnace wall temperature distribution and the wafer temperature

Qinghua He; S. Joe Qin; Anthony J. Toprac

2003-01-01

277

17. HIGHWAY 190 ROAD VIEW AT FURNACE CREEK INN. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. HIGHWAY 190 ROAD VIEW AT FURNACE CREEK INN. NOTE ABANDONED GAS STATION ON LEFT AND ROAD TO BADWATER AT LEFT IN BACKGROUND. LOOKING WSW. - Death Valley National Park Roads, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

278

30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING CREW, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Colletion, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

279

5. Photocopy of drawing of Mac Dougall furnace in roaster ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photocopy of drawing of Mac Dougall furnace in roaster building from John L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy Ginn & Co., New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Roaster Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

280

Plasma furnace treatment of metallurgical by-product streams  

SciTech Connect

It is a common misconception that plasma furnace technology only has application for exotic and very high temperature processes. With the increasing importance placed on waste minimization and the environmental constraints imposed on heavy metals present in byproducts from mainstream operations, plasma technology is finding widespread application. Tetronics is a premier supplier of plasma tundish heating systems for the steel industry. More recently the company has found growing interest in electric arc furnace dust treatment, lead blast furnace slag treatment and metal recovery, copper, nickel and cobalt scavenging from primary smelter slags, dross treatment, platinum group metals (PGM) recovery from catalysts and vitrification and detoxification of heavy metal contaminated waste byproducts. The principal advantages of the plasma arc technology are the close metallurgical control of the furnace environment, minimal off-gas handling requirements and overall high energy efficiency of the processes. A number of applications in the ferrous and non-ferrous metals industry are described.

Whellock, J.G. [JW Technologies, LLC, Englewood, CO (United States); Heanley, C.P.; Chapman, C.S. [Tetronics Ltd., Faringdon (United Kingdom)

1997-12-31

281

Furnace characterization for horizontal shipping container thermal testing  

SciTech Connect

In order to perform regulatory thermal tests required by 10 CFR 71.73(c)(3) on the newly designed Horizontal Shipping Container (HSC), it was necessary to find a company involved in the business of heat treating who was willing to allow their furnace to be used for these tests. Of the companies responding to a request for interest, Lindberg Heat Treating Company`s Solon, Ohio, facility was found to be the best available vendor for this activity. Their furnace was instrumented and characterized such that these tests could be performed in a manner that would conform to the specifications contained in 10 CFR 71. It was found that Lindberg`s furnace was usable for this task, and recommendations concerning the use of this furnace for the above stated purpose are made herein.

Feldman, M.R.

1994-05-01

282

ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE IN THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY MAINTAINS CONSTANT TEMPERATURES FOR IRON PRIOR TO FILLING MOBILE LADLES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

283

39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod or poker at right was used to unplug iron notch. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

284

38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ladle car on floor of casting shed. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

285

34. REDUCTION PLANT Furnace and boiler which provided steam heat ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. REDUCTION PLANT Furnace and boiler which provided steam heat required in converting fish, and fish offal, into meal and fish oil. Cone shaped tank at right held extracted oil. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

286

8. QUENCHING MECHANISM FOR THE CONTINUOUS ELECTRIC FURNACE HEAT TREATING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. QUENCHING MECHANISM FOR THE CONTINUOUS ELECTRIC FURNACE HEAT TREATING LINE AT THE HEAT TREATMENT PLANT OF THE DUQUESNE WORKS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Heat Treatment Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

287

POURING IRON FROM ELECTRIC FURNACE INTO BULL LADLE AFTER MAGNESIUM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

POURING IRON FROM ELECTRIC FURNACE INTO BULL LADLE AFTER MAGNESIUM HAD BEEN ADDED TO GENERATE DUCTILE IRON WHEN IT COOLS IN THE MOLD. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

288

VIEW OF DOUBLE ROOF CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF DOUBLE ROOF CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3. COKE PLANT & MONESSEN BUSINESS DISTRICT IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FACING EAST. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

289

CLOSEUP VIEW OF OPEN HEARTH COMPLEX (INCLUDING PIT FURNACE BUILDING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSE-UP VIEW OF OPEN HEARTH COMPLEX (INCLUDING PIT FURNACE BUILDING, BLOOMING & BAR MILL, & HOT BEDS) & RAIL MILL. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

290

VIEW FACING EAST, VIEW FROM RIVER OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FACING EAST, VIEW FROM RIVER OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3. DORR THICKENER & ORE BRIDGE AT LEFT, HOT BLAST STOVES & DUST CATCHER CENTER, CAST HOUSE AT RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

291

DETAIL VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND SKIP HOIST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND SKIP HOIST. DUST CATCHER IS AT THE RIGHT. VIEW IS FROM THE EAST. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

292

Service of refractories in a double bath steel melting furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions The absence of regenerators, the small quantity of easily removable powdery slag in the slaggers, the low wear of the head structure, the verticals, and the lower structure of the furnace substantially simplify repair operations.

A. I. Borodulin; I. M. Konovalov; T. V. Mal'chenko; N. A. Kudryavaya; K. D. Mokrushin; A. A. Proklov; V. A. Andreev

1968-01-01

293

Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and Repossessed Uranium in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

294

MUZO flight experience with the programmable multizone furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Multi-Zone (MUZO) furnace has been developed for growing germanium (Ge) crystals under microgravity in a Get Away Special (GAS) payload. The MUZO furnace was launched with STS-47 Endeavour in September 1992. The payload worked as planned during the flight and a Ge sample was successfully processed. The experiment has given valuable scientific information. The design and functionality of the payload together with flight experience is reported.

Lockowandt, Christian; Loth, Kenneth

1993-01-01

295

Development Of A Magnetic Directional-Solidification Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes development of directional-solidification furnace in which axial magnetic field is imposed by surrounding ring permanent magnets and/or electromagnets and pole pieces. Furnace provides controlled axial temperature gradients in multiple zones, through which ampoule containing sample of material to be solidified is translated at controlled speed by low-vibration, lead-screw, stepping-motor-driven mechanism. Intended for use in low-gravity (spaceflight) experiments on melt growth of high-purity semiconductor crystals.

Aldrich, Bill R.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

1996-01-01

296

16. Coke 'fines' bin at Furnace D. After delivery to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Coke 'fines' bin at Furnace D. After delivery to the trestle bins, the coke was screened and the coke 'fines' or breeze, were transported by conveyor to the coke fines bins where it was collected and leaded into dump trucks. The coke fines were then sold for fuel to a sinter plant in Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

297

Develop of the Blast Furnace Soft Water Temperature Measurement System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to ensure normal operation of the blast furnace (BF) closed loop soft water cooling system, cooling water temperature and the heat load must be controlled. It is the most important how the hundreds of large-scale blast furnace soft water temperature points for real-time detection. The DS18B20 digital thermometer was used as a temperature sensor. The DS18B20 communicates over

Zhang Lei; Zhou Fei; Qian Ya-ping

2008-01-01

298

High Temperature Calibration Furnace System user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High Temperature Calibration Furnace System (HTCFS) was developed by Summitec Corporation. It is a high precision instrument providing a constant temperature which can be used to calibrate high temperature thermocouples. Incorporating the many recent technological advances from the fields of optical fiber thermometry, material science, computer systems interfacing, and process control, the engineers at Summitec Corporation have been able to create a system that can reach a steady operating temperature of 1700 C. The precision for the system requires the measurement of temperature to be within 1 C in two hours and within 2 C in 24 hours. As documented, the experimental result shows that this system has been able to stay within .5 C in 5 hours. No other systems commercially available have been able to achieve such high temperature precision. This manual provides an overview of the system design, instructions for instrument setup, and operation procedures. Also included are a vendor list and the source codes for the custom-designed software.

1994-01-01

299

SCR performance on a hydrogen reformer furnace.  

PubMed

In late 1993, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. began operating a new steam-methane reformer at the Tosco Refining Co.'s Avon refinery in Martinez, CA, to provide hydrogen and steam to the refinery under a long-term supply agreement. The hydrogen plant--owned, operated, and maintained by Air Products--includes a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit on the reformer-furnace flue gas for environmental control. SCR is a commercially proven process capable of abating emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) to extremely low levels; however, documented experience in a refinery setting has been limited. This paper discusses performance of the SCR, primarily during its first two years of operation; it incorporates theory and prior research findings sufficient to understand the relationship between key system variables and SCR performance. Test results demonstrate that NOx, ammonia (NH3) slip, and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are in compliance with permit limits. NOx removal efficiency is nearly linear with the inlet NH3:NOx molar ratio up to almost 90% NOx conversion, where ammonia slip begins to rise steeply. The stoichiometric reaction ratio of NH3 to NOx is close to the theoretical 1.0. Catalyst life is estimated at four years, in line with published figures for SCR catalysts in clean-gas service. PMID:15655995

Kunz, R G

1998-01-01

300

Metallic Glass Cooling Inside The TEMPUS Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sample of advanced metallic glass alloy cools down during an experiment with the TEMPUS furnace on STS-94, July 7, 1997, MET:5/23:35 (approximate). The sequence shows the sample glowing, then fading to black as scientists began the process of preserving the liquid state, but lowering the temperature below the normal solidification temperature of the alloy. This process is known as undercooling. (10 second clip covering approximately 50 seconds.) TEMPUS (stands for Tiegelfreies Elektromagnetisches Prozessiere unter Schwerelosigkeit (containerless electromagnetic processing under weightlessness). It was developed by the German Space Agency (DARA) for flight aboard Spacelab. The DARA project scientist was Igon Egry. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). DARA and NASA are exploring the possibility of flying an advanced version of TEMPUS on the International Space Station. (1.1MB, 9-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300188.html.

2003-01-01

301

Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces  

DOEpatents

The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

Mee, D.K.; Stephens, A.E.

1980-06-06

302

Laboratory Evaluation of Residential Furnace BlowerPerformance  

SciTech Connect

A testing program was undertaken at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and an electric utility (Pacific Gas and Electric Co.) to compare the performance of furnace blowers. This laboratory testing program was undertaken to support potential changes to California Building Standards regarding in-field furnace blower energy use. This technical support includes identifying suitable performance metrics and target performance levels for use in standards. Five different combinations of blowers and residential furnaces were tested for air moving performance. Three different types of blower and motor combinations were tested in two different furnace cabinets. The blowers were standard forward--curved impellors and a prototype impeller with reverse-inclined blades. The motors were two 6-pole permanent split capacitor (PSC) single-phase induction motors, a brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motor and a prototype BPM designed for use with a prototype reverse-inclined impellor. The laboratory testing operated each blower and furnace combination over a range of air flows and pressure differences to determine air flow performance, power consumption and efficiency. Additional tests varied the clearance between the blower housing and the furnace cabinet, and the routing of air flow into the blower cabinet.

Walker, Iain S.; Lutz, Jim D.

2005-09-01

303

Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces  

DOEpatents

The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

Mee, David K. (Knoxville, TN); Stephens, Albert E. (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01

304

Optimization of a Graphite Tube Blackbody Heater for a Thermogage Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design modifications are presented for a 289-mm long, 25.4-mm inner diameter blackbody heater element of a 48 kW Thermogage blackbody furnace, based on (i) cutting a small “heater zone” into the ends of the tube and (ii) using a mixture of He and Ar or N2 to “tune” the heat losses and, hence, gradients in the furnace. A simple numerical model for the heater tube is used to model and optimize these design changes, and experimental measurements of the modified temperature profile are presented. The convenience of the Thermogage graphite-tube furnace, commonly used in many NMIs as a blackbody source for radiation thermometer calibration and as a spectral irradiance standard, is limited by its effective emissivity, typically between 99.5% and 99.9%. The design simplicity of the furnace is that the blackbody cavity, heater, and electrical and mechanical connections are achieved through a single piece of machined graphite. As the heater also performs a mechanical function, the required material thickness leads to significant axial heat flux and resulting temperature gradients. For operation at a single temperature, changes to the tube profile could be used to optimize the gradient. However, it is desired to use the furnace over a wide temperature range (1,000 2,900°C), and the temperature-dependence of the electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity, and that of the insulation, makes this approach much more complex; for example, insulation losses are proportional to T 4, whereas conduction losses are proportional to T. In the results presented here, a slightly thinner graphite region near each end of the tube was used to “inject heat” to compensate for the axial conduction losses, and the depth, width, and position of this region was adjusted to achieve a compromise in performance over a wide temperature range. To assist with this optimization, the insulation purging gas was changed from N2 to He at the lower temperatures to change the thermal conductivity of the felt insulation, and the effectiveness of this approach has been experimentally confirmed.

Chahine, Khaled; Ballico, Mark; Reizes, John; Madadnia, Jafar

2008-02-01

305

Experimental investigations on visualization of three-dimensional temperature distributions in a large-scale pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using a novel flame image processing technique, the 3-D temperature distributions of combustion in the pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnace of a 200MW power generation unit were visualized experimentally. With the assumption of gray radiation, multiple color flame image detectors were used to capture approximately monochromatic radiation intensity images under the visible wavelengths of red (R), green (G), and blue (B),

Huai-Chun Zhou; Chun Lou; Qiang Cheng; Zhiwei Jiang; Jin He; Benyuan Huang; Zhenlin Pei; Chuanxin Lu

2005-01-01

306

Temperature field in Graphite-Silicon-Graphite samples heated in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heating of cylindrical compound samples in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces is analyzed by means of a conduction-radiation model that includes the radiative exchange between the sample and the mirror, and that takes into account the temperature dependence of the physical properties of the materials that form the sample. Graphite-Silicon-Graphite samples are considered. The melting of the Silicon part, and the temperature difference between the two Graphite rods that hold the Silicon melt zone are analyzed. The relative position of the Silicon part in the compound sample turns out to be a very sensitive parameter: it affects (1) the power needed to melt the Silicon zone, and (2) the temperature difference between the solid Graphite rods.

Rivas, Damián; Haya, Rodrigo

1999-01-01

307

3D dynamic simulation of heat transfer and melt flow in an inductively heated crystallization furnace for mc-silicon with PID temperature control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A heat transfer model of a semi-industrial induction furnace has been build, using a 3D finite element model in order to analyze the entire process cycle, based on the heating, melting, solidification and cooling phases of a multi-crystalline square ingot. In the modeling of the entire process, heat transfer phenomena such as radiation and conduction in the furnace have been taken into account. A PID (Proportional Integral Differential) control algorithm has been implemented into the model for adjusting the power input in the heaters, so that the heater temperature is kept at prescribed time-varying values. The furnace model and the PID control algorithm are validated by temperature measurements from a crystallization experiment. Subsequently the validated model was used to investigate the melt flow field and its impact on the solid-liquid interface shape.

Bellmann, M. P.; Lindholm, D.; Sřrheim, E. A.; Mortensen, D.; M'Hamdi, M.

2013-11-01

308

A dynamic simulation of a lead blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic model has been developed to simulate the operation of the stack zone of a lead blast furnace. The mathematical formulation of the governing equations of change leads to a system of 2nd order partial differential equations, which is solved by finite difference methods. A reduction model of ash-layer diffusion controlled mechanism, which allows the stepwise reduction to the lowest oxide or metal thermodynamically possible for the local gas composition within the sinter, is employed in this model. The surface reaction and the internal diffusion in the porous solid particles are taken into account in the coke gasification reaction. The profiles of the temperatures of gases and solids, solid compositions, and gas compositions and pressure in both radial and axial directions are predicted by the model. The results provide a good representation of the experimental data obtained for the blast furnace at Brunswick Mining and Smelting Corp., Ltd., New Brunswick, Canada and also of the less extensive data available for the Cominco blast furnace at Trail, British Columbia, Canada. In addition to the modelling of the stack, a mass and energy balance for the bosh zone is also included in the present calculation. The improvement of coke efficiency due to oxygen enrichment in the blast air for the Brunswick Furnace were interpreted semiquantitatively. The effect of sinter size distribution on the furnace performance has also been studied.

Chao, John T.

1981-06-01

309

Coal burnout in the IFRF No. 1 Furnace  

SciTech Connect

A coal combustion model is used to match burnout measurements for four coals of different rank in a one-dimensional furnace and is then combined with a flow and heat transfer model to predict burnout in the IFRF No. 1 furnace. The coals show a continuous decrease in high temperature volatility and char reactivity with rank. Predicted and measured flame temperatures are shown to depend on the high temperature volatility and the char reactivity, varying by 300/sup 0/C for the coals. For the residence time available in the flame, a proportion of fine coal is burned; the low reactivity of the high rank coals is partially compensated by a grinding characteristic giving more fine coals. Final burnout levels are shown to depend principally on the char reactivity as well as the furnace cooling, as this determines furnace temperatures. The sensitivity to volatility, grind, the flow model, and uncertainties in the combustion model are quantified. It is shown that the furnace cooling must be reduced to obtain acceptable levels of burnout for the two coals of lowest volatility.

Wall, T.F.; Phelan, W.J.; Bortz, S.

1986-11-01

310

A General Viscosity Model for Molten Blast Furnace Slag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast furnace slag is the most abundant slag in the steel industry. Its metallurgical properties are determined to a great extent by its viscosity. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a reliable viscosity model for blast furnace slag. In the current work, a simple, accurate, and physically meaningful viscosity model for a wide composition range of blast furnace slags is developed based on the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation: log ? = A + B/( T - C). The model is calibrated by a database containing 365 compositions and 1233 measurements of synthetic and industrial slags. The parameter A has a value of -3.10. The parameters B and C are related to the mass fraction ratio of (CaO + MgO) to (SiO2 + Al2O3) and liquidus temperature of the slag, respectively. Present viscosity model accurately predicts the viscosity of blast furnace slag with relative average error (?) of 0.211 (±0.180) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.239 Pa·s. A slight modification of this model can also predict the glass transition temperature of blast furnace slag satisfactorily.

Gan, Lei; Lai, Chaobin

2014-06-01

311

DC Arc Plasma Furnace Melting of Waste Incinerator Fly Ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was melted using a set of direct current (DC) arc plasma furnace system for the first time in China. At a feed-rate of flying ash of 80 kg/h, the temperature at the gas outlet was above 1300°C. Dioxins in the off-gas were recorded as 0.029 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (international toxic equivalent, I-TEQ), well below 0.5 ngTEQ/Nm3 (toxic equivalent, TEQ), while those in the melted product (slag) were 0.00035 ng/g I-TEQ. Molten slag from the furnace showed excellent resistance against the leaching of heavy metals. These results prove that the plasma furnace is effective for the detoxification and stabilization of MSWI fly ash.

Chen, Mingzhou; Meng, Yuedong; Shi, Jiabiao; Kuang, Jing'an; Ni, Guohua; Liu, Wei; Jiang, Yiman

2009-02-01

312

New temperature and metals emissions monitoring technologies for furnaces  

SciTech Connect

New technologies have been successfully tested for continuous real time monitoring of temperature and hazardous metals emission in a DC graphite electrode arc furnace that is being evaluated for mixed waste processing. An active millimeter-wave pyrometer with rotatable graphite waveguide/mirror optics inside the furnace has proven to be a robust, spatially resolved temperature monitor of the molten slag and refractory surfaces even during waste feeding operations when dense smoke is present. The active probe beam provides additional information on surface emissivities. A microwave plasma torch constructed of refractory materials has been implemented as part of the furnace exhaust duct up stream of the scrubbers to sample high temperature, >500 C, undiluted exhaust gases. It has proven to be a robust gas excitation device for sensitive in situ atomic emission spectroscopy (in the part per billion range) of metals entrained in the exhaust emissions.

Woskov, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Rhee, D.Y.; Thomas, P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center; Surma, J.E. [Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States); Titus, C.H. [T and R Associates, Wayne, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

313

Unique furnace system for high-energy-neutron experiments  

SciTech Connect

The low flux of high energy neutron sources requires optimum utilization of the available neutron field. A furnace system has been developed in support of the US DOE fusion materials program which meets this challenge. Specimens positioned in two temperature zones just 1 mm away from the outside surface of a neutron window in the furnace enclosure can be irradiated simultaneously at two independent, isothermal (+- 1/sup 0/C) temperatures. The temperature difference between these closely spaced isothermal zones is controllable from 0 to 320/sup 0/C and the maximum temperature is 400/sup 0/C. The design of the system also provides a controlled specimen environment, rapid heating and cooling and easy access to heaters and thermocouples. This furnace system is in use at the Rotating Target Neutron Source-II of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Panayotou, N F; Green, D R; Price, L S

1982-03-01

314

Semicoke production and quality at Chinese vertical SJ furnaces  

SciTech Connect

In Russia there has been little interest on the thermal processing of non-sintering coal. However it may be used to obtain many special types of coke and semicoke that are necessary for processes other than blast furnace smelting and employing small metallurgical coke fractions that do not meet the relevant quality requirements. China has recently made great progress in developing the thermal processing of coal (mainly energy coal) to obtain a highly effective product, semicoke, primarily used in metallurgy and adsorption process. The article considers the operation of a Chinese semicoking plant equipped with vertical SJ furnaces. The plant is in the Shenmu district of Shanxi province (Inner Mongolia). The enterprise includes two furnaces of total output of about 100,000 t/yr of semicoke.

V.M. Strakhov; I.V. Surovtseva; A.V. D'yachenko; V.M. Men'shenin [Kuznetsk Center, Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute (Russian Federation)

2007-05-15

315

Hot metal Si control at Kwangyang blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Studies of Si transfer in blast furnaces have shown that the Si level in pig iron is influenced more by the reaction of silicon oxide gas generation in the raceway than the chemical reaction between hot metal and slag at the drop zone. Specifications require a Si content of pig iron below 0.15% at the Kwangyang Works, but the use of soft coking coal in the blend for coke ovens, high pulverized coal injection rate into the blast furnace, and the application of lower grade iron ore has resulted in the need to develop methods to control Si in hot metal. In this paper, the results of in furnace Si control and the desiliconization skills at the casthouse floor are described.

Hur, N.S.; Cho, B.R.; Kim, G.Y.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, B.H. [POSCO, Cheollanamdo (Korea, Republic of). Kwangyang Works

1995-12-01

316

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2014-07-01

317

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2013-07-01

318

40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...  

...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2014-07-01

319

40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2012-07-01

320

40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2011-07-01

321

40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2010-07-01

322

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2012-07-01

323

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2011-07-01

324

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2010-07-01

325

40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory...Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory ...open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...

2013-07-01

326

40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack height...other fuels, and industrial furnace feed stocks...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack...

2013-07-01

327

40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack height...other fuels, and industrial furnace feed stocks...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack...

2012-07-01

328

40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack height...other fuels, and industrial furnace feed stocks...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack...

2011-07-01

329

40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack height...other fuels, and industrial furnace feed stocks...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack...

2010-07-01

330

40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...  

...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack height...other fuels, and industrial furnace feed stocks...other fuels, and industrial furnace feedstocks...stack height, good engineering practice stack...

2014-07-01

331

Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V/1000 A DC as an example, the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat loss of the furnace were analyzed based on the energy conservation law, so as to achieve the total heat information and energy balance during plasma processing, and to provide a theoretical basis for an optimized design of the structure and to improve energy efficiency.

Zhao, Peng; Meng, Yuedong; Yu, Xinyao; Chen, Longwei; Jiang, Yiman; Ni, Guohua; Chen, Mingzhou

2009-04-01

332

Adaptive temperature profile control of a multizone crystal growth furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intelligent measurement system is described which is used to assess the shape of a crystal while it is growing inside a multizone transparent furnace. A color video imaging system observes the crystal in real time, and determines the position and the shape of the interface. This information is used to evaluate the crystal growth rate, and to analyze the effects of translational velocity and temperature profiles on the shape of the interface. Creation of this knowledge base is the first step to incorporate image processing into furnace control.

Batur, C.; Sharpless, R. B.; Duval, W. M. B.; Rosenthal, B. N.

1991-01-01

333

DUCT RETROFIT STRATEGY TO COMPLEMENT A MODULATING FURNACE.  

SciTech Connect

Some recent work (Walker 2001, Andrews 2002) has indicated that installing a modulating furnace in a conventional duct system may, in many cases, result in a significant degradation in thermal distribution efficiency. The fundamental mechanism was pointed out nearly two decades ago (Andrews and Krajewski 1985). The problem occurs in duct systems that are less-than-perfectly insulated (e.g., R-4 duct wrap) and are located outside the conditioned space. It stems from the fact that when the airflow rate is reduced, as it will be when the modulating furnace reduces its heat output rate, the supply air will have a longer residence time in the ducts and will therefore lose a greater percentage of its heat by conduction than it did at the higher airflow rate. The impact of duct leakage, on the other hand, is not expected to change very much under furnace modulation. The pressures in the duct system will be reduced when the airflow rate is reduced, thus reducing the leakage per unit time. This is balanced by the fact that the operating time will increase in order to meet the same heating load as with the conventional furnace operating at higher output and airflow rates. The balance would be exact if the exponent in the pressure vs. airflow equation were the same as that in the pressure vs. duct leakage equation. Since the pressure-airflow exponent is usually {approx}0.5 and the pressure-leakage exponent is usually {approx}0.6, the leakage loss as a fraction of the load should be slightly lower for the modulating furnace. The difference, however, is expected to be small, determined as it is by a function with an exponent equal to the difference between the above two exponents, or {approx}0.1. The negative impact of increased thermal conduction losses from the duct system may be partially offset by improved efficiency of the modulating furnace itself. Also, the modulating furnace will cycle on and off less often than a single-capacity model, and this may add a small amount (probably in the range 1%-3%) to the thermal distribution efficiency. Nevertheless, the effect of furnace modulation on thermal distribution efficiency, both as calculated and as measured in the laboratory, is quite significant. Although exact quantification of the impact will depend on factors such as climate and the location of the ducts within the structure, impacts in the 15%-25% range are to be expected for ducts located outside the conditioned space, as most residential duct systems are. This is too large a handicap to ignore.

ANDREWS,J.W.

2002-10-02

334

Numerical model for the Programmable Multirole Furnace (PMZF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present account of the Programmable Multizone Furnace numerical model uses various examples to illustrate the ways in which the model serves as an optimization, test, prediction, and visualization tool; a numerical PID-control algorithm obtains the desired sample temperature distributions and allows the model to solve an inverse heat transfer problem where the desired sample temperature profile is the input and the required heater power distribution is the output of numerical simulations. Parametric studies show how the total power consumption of the furnace is affected by such design variables as the conductivity.

Kassemi, M.; Panzarella, C. H.; Destro-Sidik, K. E.; Krolikowski, C. R.; Licht, B. W.

1993-01-01

335

Characterization of Process Conditions in Industrial Stainless Steelmaking Electric Arc Furnace Using Optical Emission Spectrum Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission spectroscopy is a potential method for gaining information on electric arc furnace (EAF) process conditions. Previous studies published in literature on industrial EAF emission spectra have focused on a smaller scales and DC arc furnaces. In this study emission spectrum measurements were conducted for 140t AC stainless steelmaking EAF at Outokumpu Stainless Oy, Tornio Works, Finland. Four basic types of emission spectra were obtained during the EAF process cycle. The first one is obscured by scrap steel, the second is dominated by thermal radiation of the slag, the third is dominated by alkali peaks and sodium D-lines and the fourth is characterized by multiple atomic emission peaks. The atomic emission peaks were identified by comparing them to the NIST database for atomic emission lines and previous laboratory measurements on EAF slag emission spectra. The comparison shows that the optic emission of an arc is dominated by slag components. Plasma conditions were analyzed by deriving plasma temperature from optical emissions of Ca I lines. The analysis suggests that accurate information on plasma conditions can be gained from outer plasma having a plasma temperature below 7000 K (6727 °C).

Aula, Matti; Leppänen, Ahti; Roininen, Juha; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Vallo, Kimmo; Fabritius, Timo; Huttula, Marko

2014-06-01

336

Atomic and molecular spectra of vapours evolved in a graphite furnace. Part 1. Alkali halides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (MAS) with electrothermal vaporization was applied to the measurement of absorption by alkali halides. The MAS system, consisting of a deuterium lamp primary source, a tubular graphite furnace, a grating polychromator and a linear array of Charge-Coupled-Device (CCD) detectors, allowed the simultaneous determination of atomic and molecular absorption in the range 200-400 nm. Vaporization was carried out in a pyrocoated graphite tube and absorption was measured during the heating of the furnace from 500°C to 2000°C in 100 s. Alkali halides vaporize as molecular compounds which absorb radiation in the whole ultraviolet range. The complexity of the molecular bands as well as the extent of the absorption increases from fluorides to iodides. The limit of absorption at long wavelengths is 254 nm for NaF, 287 nm for NaCl, 320 nm for NaBr and 370 nm for NaI. The appearance of vapors was observed between 680°C (RbI) and 1220°C (LiF), while the maximum absorption was reached between 800°C (CsI) and 1440°C (LiF); the characteristic temperatures of the vaporization peak were shifted towards lower values going from fluorides to iodides.

Daminelli, G.; Katskov, D. A.; Mofolo, R. M.; Tittarelli, P.

1999-05-01

337

16 CFR Appendix G2 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Electric  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Furnaces-Electric G2 Appendix G2 to Part 305 Commercial... Appendix G2 to Part 305—Furnaces—Electric Manufacturer's rated heating capacities... Range of annual fuel utilization efficiencies (AFUE's) Low High All...

2011-01-01

338

16 CFR Appendix G2 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Electric  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Furnaces-Electric G2 Appendix G2 to Part 305 Commercial... Appendix G2 to Part 305—Furnaces—Electric Manufacturer's rated heating capacities... Range of annual fuel utilization efficiencies (AFUE's) Low High All...

2010-01-01

339

16 CFR Appendix G2 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Electric  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Furnaces-Electric G2 Appendix G2 to Part 305 Commercial... Appendix G2 to Part 305—Furnaces—Electric Manufacturer's rated heating capacities... Range of annual fuel utilization efficiencies (AFUE's) Low High All...

2012-01-01

340

16 CFR Appendix G2 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Electric  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Furnaces-Electric G2 Appendix G2 to Part 305 Commercial... Appendix G2 to Part 305—Furnaces—Electric Manufacturer's rated heating capacities... Range of annual fuel utilization efficiencies (AFUE's) Low High All...

2013-01-01

341

10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or gas-fired furnace designed to supply heated air through ducts to spaces that require it and includes combination warm air furnace/electric air conditioning units but does not include unit heaters and...

2012-01-01

342

10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or gas-fired furnace designed to supply heated air through ducts to spaces that require it and includes combination warm air furnace/electric air conditioning units but does not include unit heaters and...

2011-01-01

343

10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or gas-fired furnace designed to supply heated air through ducts to spaces that require it and includes combination warm air furnace/electric air conditioning units but does not include unit heaters and...

2013-01-01

344

10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.  

...or gas-fired furnace designed to supply heated air through ducts to spaces that require it and includes combination warm air furnace/electric air conditioning units but does not include unit heaters and...

2014-01-01

345

10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or gas-fired furnace designed to supply heated air through ducts to spaces that require it and includes combination warm air furnace/electric air conditioning units but does not include unit heaters and...

2010-01-01

346

76 FR 61999 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and Boilers (Standby Mode and Off Mode); Correction AGENCY: Office...Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and Boilers. This correction provides the appropriate E-mail...

2011-10-06

347

Estimation of Fuel Savings by Recuperation of Furnace Exhausts to Preheat Combustion Air  

E-print Network

The recovery of waste energy in furnace exhaust gases is gaining in importance as fuel costs continue to escalate. Installation of a recuperator in the furnace exhaust stream to preheat the combustion air can result in considerable savings in fuel...

Rebello, W. J.; Kohnken, K. H.; Phipps, H. R., Jr.

1980-01-01

348

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD TO THE CENTER, HEYL & PATTERSON CAR DUMPER TO THE LEFT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

349

Thermal operation of the DSP-120 Consteel furnace in the Ashinsk metallurgical works  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat losses with waste gases in modern electric arc furnaces are 20-25%. Scrap heating by waste gases is performed in Fuchs Systemtechnik shaft furnaces and Consteel furnaces with conveyer charging. The results of balance heats conducted in the DSP-120 Consteel electric furnace located in the Ashinsk metallurgical works are presented, and measures for increasing the energy efficiency of its operation are proposed.

Evstratov, V. G.; Kiselev, A. D.; Zinurov, I. Yu.; Shakirov, Z. Kh.; Mamenko, Yu. F.; Shumakov, A. M.; Gindullin, M. T.

2013-06-01

350

Electric arc furnace modelling from a “power quality” point of view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arc furnaces are mainly used in steel production for the recycling of scrap. Due to the dynamic behaviour of the arc during the melting process, an arc furnace is a major source of perturbations on a high voltage network. Whether AC or DC is used to supply the furnace, the perturbations are of random nature and encompass a frequency range

I. Vervenne; K. Van Reusel; R. Belmans

2007-01-01

351

Compensation of waveform distortions and voltage fluctuations of DC arc furnaces: the decoupled compensator  

Microsoft Academic Search

DC arc furnaces are more and more applied in large industrial power systems. They represent a source of perturbations for the feeding system, in dependence on the available short-circuit power at the point of common coupling and on the arc furnace rating. This paper deals with the problem of the compensation of perturbations due to DC arc furnaces behavior; in

G. Carpinelli; F. lacovone; A. Russo

2002-01-01

352

A new concept of electrical power supply for AC arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical arc furnaces (EAFs) cause many power quality problems on the power network. Static var compensator or STATCOM are typically used for power quality requirements. In this paper the authors evaluate different STATCOM control strategy on the power system for two points of view: power quality requirements and furnace productivity enhancement. Simulation results, based on a new arc furnace electrical

G. Postiglione; P. Ladoux

2006-01-01

353

Multi-electrode arc furnace technology with improved metal processing capability using current driven mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a finite element solution for three-dimensional isothermal flow for DC arc furnace where low frequency AC component is added. Electrodes of the furnace are connected with independent supply sources. Current densities, magnetic flux densities, force densities and flow of molten metal are investigated in the case of two different furnace constructions. Methodology for supply source control described

Heigo Molder; Jaan Jarvik; Toomas Vaimann; Rauno Gordon

2012-01-01

354

Comparison of some active devices for the compensation of DC arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

DC arc furnaces are more and more applied in large industrial systems. They represent a source of perturbations for the feeding system, in dependence on the available short-circuit power at the point of common coupling and on the arc furnace rating. This work deals with the problem of the compensation of perturbations caused by the DC arc furnaces operation; in

G. Carpinelli; A. Russo

2003-01-01

355

Modelling of a DC arc furnace for optimal integration with the supply system  

Microsoft Academic Search

DC are furnaces have gained increasing favour with steel makers all over the world. DC arc furnaces have advantages over their conventional AC counterparts because of their greater supply-friendly nature. Although DC are furnaces still generate flicker, the stochastic component in their harmonics arc reduced and their demands on the supply network are much more compatible with the supply than

J. Bekker; P. H. Swart; C. F. Landy; D. A. Marshall

1995-01-01

356

AC and DC arc furnaces: a comparison on some power quality aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with a comparison between AC and DC arc furnaces taking into account power quality indices. The study is performed using computer simulation based on the ATP program, assuming as reference a real AC arc furnace plant. Flicker phenomenon, harmonic and interharmonic distortion are evaluated for both DC and AC arc furnaces

G. Carpinelli; M. DiManno; P. Verde; E. Tironi; D. Zaninelli

1999-01-01

357

Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements forResidential Gas Furnaces in the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents analysis of the life-cycle costs for individual households and the aggregate energy and economic impacts from potential energy efficiency improvements in U.S. residential furnaces. Most homes in the US are heated by a central furnace attached to ducts for distributing heated air and fueled by natural gas. Electricity consumption by a furnace blower is significant, comparable to

Alex Lekov; Victor Franco; Steve Meyers; James E. McMahon; Michael McNeil; Jim Lutz

2006-01-01

358

16 CFR Appendix G4 to Part 305 - Mobile Home Furnaces-Gas  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mobile Home Furnaces-Gas G4 Appendix G4...LABELING RULEâ) Appendix G4 to Part 305—Mobile Home Furnaces—Gas Type Range of...utilization efficiencies (AFUEs) Low High Mobile Home Gas Furnaces Manufactured...

2014-01-01

359

16 CFR Appendix G5 to Part 305 - Mobile Home Furnaces-Oil  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mobile Home Furnaces-Oil G5 Appendix G5...LABELING RULEâ) Appendix G5 to Part 305—Mobile Home Furnaces—Oil Type Range of...utilization efficiencies (AFUEs) Low High Mobile Home Oil Furnaces Manufactured...

2014-01-01

360

Modeling and Simulation of the billet's heating process in a furnace with rotary hearth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for the numerical simulation of the billets temperature into an industrial furnace. A very important aspect in approaching the problem was the fact that there were considered both the temperature variations from the exterior medium of the billet from the furnace and the temperature variations from its volume. I. INTRODUCTION HE furnace with rotary hearth

V. Muresan; M. Abrudean; T. Colosi

2011-01-01

361

Practical primer on design of electric arc furnace emission control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper will cover the methodology for designing environmentally acceptable and cost-effective emission control systems in modern electric arc furnace meltshops. Fundamental requirements for effective direct evacuation control (DEC) of electric and ladle furnace melting operations and canopy\\/local hood control of secondary emissions from electric arc furnace charging and tapping emissions will be addressed. The following topics will be included:

P. G. A. Brand; R. W. Manten

1994-01-01

362

An improved power and temperature control system for a rocket-borne space processing mirror furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operational experience with the mirror furnaces flown in the Texus 1 and 2 rockets led to the development of an improved mirror furnace system for thermal analysis of small samples. The furnace operates in two basic modes: constant optical power and sample temperature profile mode. In the constant power mode the control system maintains the same light output from the

S. Grahn; A. Nobinder; M. Sjoekvist; L. Stenmark

1980-01-01

363

Apparatus for raising or lowering the temperature of a laboratory furnace in a predetermined manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among other applications the apparatus can be used for the control of a furnace in which thermal analysis is conducted. A thermal curve (thermocouple E.M.F.\\/time) taken in such a controlled furnace, for a specimen devoid of thermal arrests, can be made to approximate closely to a straight line. These furnace conditions facilitate the interpretation of thermal curves obtained for specimens

Frank Adcock

1935-01-01

364

New methods for monitoring the technical state of blast furnace enclosure without stopping the technological process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of technical monitoring of the state of blast furnaces are considered in the context of extending the service\\u000a life of furnaces, and estimating the reliability of their structural elements. The method of videomonitoring of the technical\\u000a state of the blast furnace enclosure without stopping the process is described for the first time.

V. I. Bol’shakov; A. L. Chaika; S. P. Sushchev; A. A. Suslonov; A. B. Yur’yev; S. F. Bugaev; G. V. Panchokha; A. V. Borodulin

2007-01-01

365

Three dimensional analysis of an AC electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

AC electric arc furnaces (EAFs) highly reduce power quality of the network by generating disturbances such as flicker and harmonics. These disturbances are due to the nonlinear electromagnetic and thermal field behaviors of the AC arcs. Analysis of these nonlinear behaviors is required for improving power quality in the network. This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element modeling of the

Arash Kiyoumarsi; Abolfazl Nazari; Mohammad Ataei; Hamid Khademhosseini Beheshti; Houshang Karimi

2009-01-01

366

Analysis of interharmonics in DC arc furnace installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with interharmonic disturbances encountered during the operation of a DC arc furnace installation. The main cause of the flicker-like disturbances has been identified in a strong harmonic interaction between AC and DC sides of the thyristor converters. In order to analyze the effects of the various system parameters, the frequency response of the entire system has been

P. Mattavelli; L. Fellin; P. Bordignon; M. Perna

1998-01-01

367

Analysis of flicker generation in DC arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analytical method to evaluate instantaneous flicker sensation due to sinusoidal perturbation of arc parameters in DC electrical arc furnaces (EAF) including most of the important design and control parameters. The method is based on the modeling in the frequency domain of the linearized dynamic behavior of the main components of DC EAF, such as the AC\\/DC

P. Mattavelli; M. Perna

1999-01-01

368

Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V\\/1000 A DC as an example, the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat

Peng Zhao; Yuedong Meng; Xinyao Yu; Longwei Chen; Yiman Jiang; Guohua Ni; Mingzhou Chen

2009-01-01

369

Power line carrier interference caused by DC electric arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alabama Power Company has experienced problems with power line carrier equipment used on high voltage transmission systems resulting from the operation of DC electric arc furnaces. Problems experienced include tuning equipment and communication equipment failures, as well as false signal reception and signal interference. This paper describes the nature and causes of the problems, and discusses results from field measurements

Gregory A. Franklin; Shih-Min Hsu

2003-01-01

370

METALLURGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MEFOS 3 MW DC ARC FURNACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past twenty years the 3 MW DC arc furnace at MEFOS has been frequently used for development of new processes. These processes include recovery of valuable metals from slag, sludge and dust from steel and other metallurgical industry, treatment of ashes from power plant and incinerators, smelting reduction of minerals and zinc recovery from EAF dust. The process

G. Ye; J. Alexis; E. Burström

2004-01-01

371

Analysis of electrically induced flows in DC electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limitations of natural resources and environmental pollution problems have forced people to consider seriously about recycling of materials. As a means of recycling, DC arc furnaces can be used to recycle scrap materials and already some industries have started to use them in small scale production. An in depth understanding of the process involved is essential for optimal design and

H. N. Mondal; H. Kurimoto; T. Morisue

1996-01-01

372

Modelling of an ilmenite-smelting DC arc furnace process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ilmenite smelters must be operated with the slag bath contained in a freeze lining of solidified slag to prevent refractory damage and ensure feasible furnace life. This makes the process an interesting and challenging one to operate and control.The study focused on interactions between the freeze lining and slag bath. A mathematical model was developed to describe heat transfer, solidification

Johan H. Zietsman; P. Chris Pistorius

2006-01-01

373

51. LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM THE CLARK AVENUE BRIDGE. BLAST FURNACES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM THE CLARK AVENUE BRIDGE. BLAST FURNACES AND LOWER ORE DOCK CAN BE SEEN AT CENTER; COKE CONVEYOR IS AT LEFT; AT RIGHT, THE TERMINAL TOWER CAN BE SEEN IN THE DISTANCE. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

374

Ash melting treatment by rotating type surface melting furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of melting treatment of fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are described, and safety and an effective use of slag discharged from the melting treatment are studied. The fly ash has an average particle size of 22 ?m and a melting fluidity point of 1280–1330°C and was able to be melted by using a Kubota melting furnace without

Sei-ichi Abe; Fumiaki Kambayashi; Masaharu Okada

1996-01-01

375

LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

376

GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE IN THE RIGHT; THE CENTRAL COMPLEX WITH STOVES IN THE CENTER. ELECTRICAL POWER HOUSE IS ON THE LEFT BEYOND THE CONVEYOR LIFT. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

377

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND MACHINERY AND ARTIFACTS INCLUDING A STEAM ENGINE HUB MADE AT THE BRIERFIELD ROLLING MILL (INSCRIBED C.C. HUCKABEE AND DATED 1863) AND OTHER STEAM ENGINES. - Iron & Steel Museum of Alabama, 12632 Confederate Pkwy., Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

378

STATCOM for compensation of large electric arc furnace installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

High power electronic equipment, developed for the compensation of utility power transmission systems, has been successfully applied to the problem of flicker compensation in a large industrial arc furnace. Whereas conventional flicker compensation methods, using thyristor valves in conjunction with passive components, have generally failed to reduce flicker substantially the new STATCOM-based compensator provides a dramatic reduction in flicker, as

C. Schauder

1999-01-01

379

Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Shelmidine, Gregory J. (Tijeras, NM)

2007-02-20

380

Calcination of pulverized limestone particles under furnace injection conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcination behaviour of limestone particles (6–90 ?m) under furnace injection conditions (1073–1673 K) was determined. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of partially calcined particles revealed that calcination occurred over the total (internal and external) surface area with different calcination rates at different locations. A model consistent with experimental rate data indicated that the calcination rate was influenced by heat transfer,

Naiyi Hu; Alan W. Scaroni

1996-01-01

381

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE NO.25 IN VICINITY OF MIXERS (MACK HEMP) LADLE #1 DETAIL. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

382

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE NO. 25 IN VICINITY OF MIXERS (MACK HEMP) LADLE #2. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

383

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE NO. 25 IN VICINITY OF MIXERS, LOOKING NW. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

384

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF NO. 2 OPEN HEARTH WEST OF FORMER FURNACE NO. 25 IN VICINITY OF MIXERS (MACK HEMP) LADLE DETAIL. - Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh Works, Morgan Billet Mill Engine, 550 feet north of East Carson Street, opposite South Twenty-seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

385

APPLICABILITY OF NOX COMBUSTION MODIFICATIONS TO CYCLONE BOILERS (FURNACES)  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyclone furnaces are a significant source of stationary NOx emissions. It was estimated that 0.76 x 10 to the 6th power tonnes of NOx (over 6% of stationary source NOx) were emitted from all cyclone-coal-fired utility boilers in 1973. This represents from 19% to 22% of the total ...

386

Northwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Northwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 seamless line in bays 17 and 18 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Skelp Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

387

Southwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Southwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 seamless line in bays 17 and 18 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

388

Northwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Northwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 seamless line in bays 17 and 18 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

389

Southwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Southwest view of rotary hearth furnace of the no. 2 seamless line in bays 17 and 18 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Skelp Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

390

Integrated automatic control system for blast-furnace production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the existing automatic control system gives rise to a proposal for an integrated automated system regulating the\\u000a blast furnace, the thermoelectric generation center, and steam and air supply center. The benefits of this system are outlined.\\u000a Experience in automating the multifuel steam boiler at OAO Dneprovskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat is described.

A. V. Sadovoi; V. I. Romanenko; N. T. Tishchenko; R. S. Volyanski

2009-01-01

391

MULTIMEDIA ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRIC SUBMERGED ARC FURNACES PRODUCING FERROALLOYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of sampling and analysis at five ferroalloy plants to determine the amounts of particulates and organics generated during manufacture of several products, the effect of furnace type on the amounts generated, and the amounts of these materials escaping to ...

392

SIMULATION OF THE ELECTRIC FIELD IN A SUBMERGED ARC FURNACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents computations of the electric field inside a furnace. We first look at the effect of contact between two coke particles from an electrical point of view. We give values for the amount of contact resistance in the total resistance of the system formed by the two coke particles. We show that the effect of contact resistance decreases

M. Dhainaut

393

Valorization of Automotive Shredder Residues in metallurgical furnaces Project REFORBA  

E-print Network

be recycled. The current state of practice comprises four steps. Liquids from battery, gearboxes casing, brake and windows are then manually removed, prior to the shredding of the car. A magnetic separation is processed) and the electric arc furnace (EAF) routes, P1 could be used as substitute for coal or coke, and P2 could replace

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

394

No Furnaces but Heat Aplenty in âPassive Housesâ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly cogent feature from the The New York Time Europe, from December 28, 2008, describes the super efficient features of passive houses. These carefully engineered structures allow inhabitants to maintain comfortable temperatures inside and produce hot water in very cold climates without the need of a furnace.

Rosenthal, Elisabeth

395

MULTISTAGED APPROACH FOR IN-FURNACE NOX CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the evaluation of a multistaged combustion burner design on a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator for in-furnace nitrogen oxides (NOx) control and high combustion efficiency. The adiabatic precombustion chamber burner has been reduced in size by a factor of about ...

396

A high temperature furnace The Sample Environment Group  

E-print Network

- ing element in the form of a high resistance wire held onto ceramic insulators. Temperatures up to ca temperature insulators. The element has an effective diameter of 50 mm. The thyristor unit, which tolerates723 A high temperature furnace The Sample Environment Group Neutron Division, Rutherford Appleton

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

397

A Geologic Guide to the Cooper Furnace Day Use Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the day use area adjoining the Allatoona Dam on the Etowah River north of Atlanta and the geology of the three physiographic provinces which converge there. Included are a generalized geologic map of the area and maps of the visitor center, picnic areas, the abandoned pig iron furnace, the scenic overlooks, and the…

Crews, Patty

1991-01-01

398

CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED CAST HOUSE LIES IN BETWEEN TWO SKIP INCLINES. HIP ROOF AT RIGHT COVERS BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

399

GENERAL VIEW OF SITE OF BLAST FURNACE PLANT; THE BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW OF SITE OF BLAST FURNACE PLANT; THE BUILDING IN THE DISTANCE TO THE FAR RIGHT WAS LIKELY THE BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE. THE FUNCTION OF THE SMALL WOOD-FRAME BUILDING TO THE LEFT IS UNKNOWN - Kemble Coal & Iron Company, Riddlesburg Works, Riddlesburg, Bedford County, PA

400

COMBUSTION ENGINEERING'S FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION PROGRAMS FOR SO2 CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses three Combustion Engineering programs relating to the furnace sorbent injection process, a low-cost method for controlling sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from tangentially fired, coal burning boilers. The programs are: (1) pilot-scale investigations in the lab...

401

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: BABCOCK AND WILCOX CYCLONE FURNACE VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology is a treatment process for contaminated soils. he process was evaluated to determine its ability to destroy semivolatile organics and to isolate metals and simulated radionuclides into a non-leachable slag materi...

402

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #1 BLAST FURNACE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #1 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST AND DUST CATCHER. STOCK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND, THE #2 CASTING SHED BEYOND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

403

36. View from southwest of No. 2 Furnace skiphoist with ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. View from southwest of No. 2 Furnace skip-hoist with skip-hoist engine house in left corner and dust catcher in background. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

404

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST, DUST CATCHER AND STOCK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

405

VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE FROM THE EAST, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE FROM THE EAST, SHOWING SKIP HOIST, DUST CATCHER AND STOCK BINS IN THE FOREGROUND. #2 CASTING SHED IS TO THE LEFT, HOT BLAST MAIN IS ON THE RIGHT. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

406

Experimenting with concentrated sunlight using the DLR solar furnace  

SciTech Connect

The high flux solar furnace that is operated by the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) at Cologne was inaugurated in June 1994 and we are now able to look back onto one year of successful operation. The solar furnace project was founded by the government of the State Northrhine Westfalia within the Study Group AG Solar. The optical design is a two-stage off-axis configuration which uses a flat 52 m{sup 2} heliostat and a concentrator composed of 147 spherical mirror facets. The heliostat redirects the solar light onto the concentrator which focuses the beam out of the optical axis of the system into the laboratory building. At high insolation levels (>800W/m{sup 2}) it is possible to collect a total power of 20 kW with peak flux densities of 4 MW/m{sup 2}. Sixteen different experiment campaigns were carried out during this first year of operation. The main research fields for these experiments were material science, component development and solar chemistry. The furnace also has its own research program leading to develop sophisticated measurement techniques like remote infrared temperature sensing and flux mapping. Another future goal to be realized within the next five years is the improvement of the performance of the furnace itself. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Neumann, A.; Groer, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt Linder Hoehe, Koeln (Germany)] [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt Linder Hoehe, Koeln (Germany)

1996-10-01

407

An analysis of lamp irradiation in ellipsoidal mirror furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The irradiation generated by halogen lamps in ellipsoidal mirror furnaces is analyzed, in configurations suited to the study of the floating-zone technique for crystal growth in microgravity conditions. A line-source model for the lamp (instead of a point source) is developed, so that the longitudinal extent of the filament is taken into account. With this model the case of defocussed

Damián Rivas; Carlos Vázquez-Esp??

2001-01-01

408

Development of an acoustic levitation device with a mirror furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic levitation in a transparent quartz tube with a mirror furnace was studied in a terrestrial environment. A sample (glass balloon, 500 mg) is levitated in stable conditions up to 600 C. A sample is continuously levitated during the increase and decrease of temperature by 150 C, or pressure change 250 Pa by controlling the reflector position and gas components,

Y. Ikegami; E. Mori; M. Saito

1983-01-01

409

Prospects for the construction of solar furnaces for industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various techniques and prototype installations employed to absorb and concentrate solar energy for use in applications requiring 100-4000 C temperatures are explored. Mention is made of the Pericles heliostat field and the THEK distributed parabolic concentrator installations, and attention is focused on viable concepts useful for industrial purposes. The Odeillo solar furnace provided design guidelines and requirements for industrial

Ch. H. La Blanchetais

1982-01-01

410

RECYCLING OF ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST: JORGENSEN STEEL FACILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an evaluation of the Ek Glassification Process to recycle and convert K061-tested waste (Electric Arc Furnace) and other by products of the steel-making industry into usable products. he process holds potential for replacing the need for expensive disposal costs ...

411

32. INTERIOR BOILER HOUSE Above the two furnaces, one ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. INTERIOR - BOILER HOUSE Above the two furnaces, one of the boilers can be seen to the upper left. The large pipes in the foreground are all that remain of the distribution system. Most of the pipe and tubing have been stripped from the room and sold for scrap. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

412

The Iron Blast Furnace: A Study in Chemical Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the furnace from a chemical thermodynamics perspective. Examines the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy change for each reaction of importance. These properties are interpreted on the molecular level then used to deduce the conditions necessary for each reaction to occur in its intended direction. Chemical kinetics is also discussed.…

Treptow, Richard S.; Jean, Luckner

1998-01-01

413

APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: BABCOCK AND WILCOX CYCLONE FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils contaminated with heavy metals, radionuclides, and organics. oth the technical and economic aspects of...

414

PERMEABILITY PROPERTIES OF FLY ASH FORM FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses tests of the applicability of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) waste solids for use as synthetic waste landfill liners by measuring the mechanical strength and permeability of moisture-cured samples. SI waste solids were received from the EPA-sponsored demonstr...

415

Coke quality for blast furnaces with coal-dust fuel  

SciTech Connect

Recently, plans have been developed for the introduction of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at various Russian metallurgical enterprises. The main incentive for switching to PCI is the recent price rises for Russian natural gas. The paper discusses the quality of coke for PCI into blast furnaces.

Y.A. Zolotukhin; N.S. Andreichikov [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01

416

9. VIEW OF FOUNDRY FURNACE, DEPLETED URANIUM INGOTS, BERYLLIUM INGOTS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF FOUNDRY FURNACE, DEPLETED URANIUM INGOTS, BERYLLIUM INGOTS, AND ALUMINUM SHAPES WERE PRODUCED IN THE FOUNDRY. (10/30/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

417

6. DETAIL VIEW OF SPIN FORM FURNACE FOR STAINLESS STEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL VIEW OF SPIN FORM FURNACE FOR STAINLESS STEEL FABRICATION. STAINLESS STEEL WAS MACHINED IN SIDE A OF THE BUILDING, BEGINNING IN 1957. (4/24/78) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

418

19. VIEW OF THE BAKEOUT FURNACE, WHERE PARTS WERE HEATED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. VIEW OF THE BAKE-OUT FURNACE, WHERE PARTS WERE HEATED UNDER A VACUUM TO HEAT TREAT OR TO BAKE OUT ANY IMPURITIES. (9/19/72) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

419

12. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND PARTS HEATING FURNACE. THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF THE MANIPULATOR AND PARTS HEATING FURNACE. THE METALS WERE HEATED PRIOR TO BEING PRESSED. THE ARM IS DRAPED WITH FIRE RESISTANT MATERIAL. (2/9/79) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

420

DC graphite arc furnace and diagnostic system for soils  

SciTech Connect

The need for systems to treat waste materials in a new manner has prompted the formation of an {open_quotes}Industry-National Laboratory-University{close_quotes} consortium to address the issue. The partners include Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. (EPI), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The program includes technology transfer from industry to the national laboratory and university technology transfer to the national laboratory. The national laboratory provides the problem and funding while transferring technology to industry and the university. The goal of the program is to apply EPI`s Arc Furnace to the processing of Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) waste from Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This is being facilitated through the Department of Energy`s Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. A second objective is to apply the diagnostics capability of MIT`s Plasma Fusion Center to the understanding of the high temperature processes taking place in the furnace. This diagnostics technology has promise for being applicable in other thermal treatment processes. The program has two parts, a test series in an engineering-scale DC arc furnace which was conducted in an EPI furnace installed at the Plasma Fusion Center and a pilot-scale unit which is under construction at MIT. This pilot-scale furnace will be capable of operating in a continuous feed and continuous tap mode. Included in this work is the development and implementation of diagnostics to evaluate high temperature processes such as DC arc technology. Results of the testing during the engineering test phase of the program are discussed. These results include a discussion of the superior product stability to leaching of the reduced glass products. 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Wittle, J.K.; Titus, C.H.; Hamilton, R.A. [Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc., Wayne, PA (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31

421

Process to eliminate hazardous components from the electric arc furnace flue dust and recovering of metals  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method to recover metals from flue dust generated in an electric arc furnace, the method comprising: charging pelletized or powder flue dust into an electric induction furnace between induction susceptors; sealing of the furnace top to prevent entry of air; injecting natural gas through the bottom of the electric induction furnace as a solitary reducing agent; heating the charge by electromagnetic induction of the susceptors to provide reduction energy; recovering of heavy metals as a zinclead-cadmium alloy in a condenser at the top of the furnace; burning and scrubbing exiting gases in the condenser; and melting the remaining iron to produce steel and slag.

Lazcano-Navarro, A.

1988-08-09

422

Status and Evaluation of Microwave Furnace Capabilities at NASA Glenn Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microwave (MW) furnace is a HY-Tech Microwave Systems, 2 kW 2.45 GHz Single Mode Microwave Applicator operating in continuous wave (CW) with variable power. It is located in Cleveland, Ohio at NASA Glenn Research Center. Until recently, the furnace capabilities had not been fully realized due to unknown failure that subsequently damaged critical furnace components. Although the causes of the problems were unknown, an assessment of the furnace itself indicated operational failure may have been partially caused by power quality. This report summarizes the status of the MW furnace and evaluates its capabilities in materials processing.

Lizcano, Maricela; Mackey, Jonathan A.

2014-01-01

423

Modelling of a DC arc furnace for optimal integration with the supply system  

SciTech Connect

DC arc furnaces have recently gained increasing favor with steel makers all over the world. DC arc furnaces have advantages over their conventional AC counterparts because of their greater supply-friendly nature. Although DC arc furnaces still generate flicker, the stochastic component in their harmonics are reduced and their demands on the supply network are much more compatible with the supply than that of AC arc furnaces. In spite of the relative advantages, however, the input characteristics of DC furnaces still need to be quantified in order to achieve optimal integration with the supply system. System measurements on a 25 MVA DC arc furnace with its filters are correlated with results obtained by numerical integration, and with that obtained through a frequency-domain analytical model that employs harmonic superposition. The behavior of induction motors is also investigated in this model, when they are subjected to the voltage distortion produced by a DC furnace.

Bekker, J.; Swart, P.H.; Landy, C.F.; Marshall, D.A.

1995-12-31

424

Identification and control of a multizone crystal growth furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an intelligent adaptive control system for the control of a solid-liquid interface of a crystal while it is growing via directional solidification inside a multizone transparent furnace. The task of the process controller is to establish a user-specified axial temperature profile and to maintain a desirable interface shape. Both single-input-single-output and multi-input-multi-output adaptive pole placement algorithms have been used to control the temperature. Also described is an intelligent measurement system to assess the shape of the crystal while it is growing. A color video imaging system observes the crystal in real time and determines the position and the shape of the interface. This information is used to evaluate the crystal growth rate, and to analyze the effects of translational velocity and temperature profiles on the shape of the interface. Creation of this knowledge base is the first step to incorporate image processing into furnace control.

Batur, C.; Sharpless, R. B.; Duval, W. M. B.; Rosenthal, B. N.; Singh, N. B.

1992-01-01

425

Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

2013-07-01

426

Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace  

DOEpatents

A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

2014-04-22

427

System design description for the whole element furnace testing system  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a detailed description of the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Whole Element Furnace Testing System located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory G-Cell (327 Building). Equipment specifications, system schematics, general operating modes, maintenance and calibration requirements, and other supporting information are provided in this document. This system was developed for performing cold vacuum drying and hot vacuum drying testing of whole N-Reactor fuel elements, which were sampled from the 105-K East and K West Basins. The proposed drying processes are intended to allow dry storage of the SNF for long periods of time. The furnace testing system is used to evaluate these processes by simulating drying sequences with a single fuel element and measuring key system parameters such as internal pressures, temperatures, moisture levels, and off-gas composition.

Ritter, G.A. [Fluor Daniel Northwest (United States); Marschman, S.C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); MacFarlan, P.J. [Duke Engineering and Services Hanford, WA (United States); King, D.A. [SGN Eurisys Services Corp. (United States)

1998-05-01

428

Energy Conservation for Granular Coal Injection into a Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the lack of knowledge regarding the combustion of granular coal injected into a blast furnace, injection characteristics of granular coal were first studied through proximate analysis, element analysis, and research of explosivity, ignition point, meltability of ash, grindability, calorific value, etc. Using a sampling device in the raceway combined with petrographic analysis, during the combustion process of granular coal with high crystal water and volatile in raceway, cracks and bursts were found, leading to a reduction of particle size. Based on a model of mass control and dynamic theory of particle combustion, the transition dynamic model for cracking in combustion of granular coal was found, and the critical value of cracking ratio (?P) for granular coal combustion in the raceway was calculated. Finally, the utilization ratio and energy efficiency of granular coal used in the blast furnace were discussed, offering theoretical foundation and technical support for intensifying granular coal combustion and promoting granular coal injection.

Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Zhang, Jianliang; Shao, Jiugang; Zuo, Haibin; Ren, Shan

2012-08-01

429

Diagnostics for a waste processing plasma arc furnace (invited) (abstract)  

SciTech Connect

Maintaining the quality of our environment has become an important goal of society. As part of this goal new technologies are being sought to clean up hazardous waste sites and to treat ongoing waste streams. A 1 MW pilot scale dc graphite electrode plasma arc furnace (Mark II) has been constructed at MIT under a joint program among Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), MIT, and Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. (EPI)[sup c] for the remediation of buried wastes in the DOE complex. A key part of this program is the development of new and improved diagnostics to study, monitor, and control the entire waste remediation process for the optimization of this technology and to safeguard the environment. Continuous, real time diagnostics are needed for a variety of the waste process parameters. These parameters include internal furnace temperatures, slag fill levels, trace metals content in the off-gas stream, off-gas molecular content, feed and slag characterization, and off-gas particulate size, density, and velocity distributions. Diagnostics are currently being tested at MIT for the first three parameters. An active millimeter-wave radiometer with a novel, rotatable graphite waveguide/mirror antenna system has been implemented on Mark II for the measurement of surface emission and emissivity which can be used to determine internal furnace temperatures and fill levels. A microwave torch plasma is being evaluated for use as a excitation source in the furnace off-gas stream for continuous atomic emission spectroscopy of trace metals. These diagnostics should find applicability not only to waste remediation, but also to other high temperature processes such as incinerators, power plants, and steel plants.

Woskov, P.P. (Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States))

1995-01-01

430

DC Arc Plasma Furnace Melting of Waste Incinerator Fly Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was melted using a set of direct current (DC) arc plasma furnace system for the first time in China. At a feed-rate of flying ash of 80 kg\\/h, the temperature at the gas outlet was above 1300°C. Dioxins in the off-gas were recorded as 0.029 ng I-TEQ\\/Nm3 (international toxic equivalent, I-TEQ), well below

Mingzhou Chen; Yuedong Meng; Jiabiao Shi; Jing'an Kuang; Guohua Ni; Wei Liu; Yiman Jiang

2009-01-01

431

Investigations of voltage flicker in electric arc furnace power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation of rapidly varying loads such as AC and DC arc furnaces in large industrial power systems will cause voltage flicker on the utility system. System planning will help in determining the available short-circuit duty at the point-of-common-coupling to keep the voltage flicker within acceptable limits. Perceptible flicker limit curves are useful in determining the amount of flicker in a

S. R. Mendis; M. T. Bishop; J. F. Witte

1996-01-01

432

Hydrothermal solidification of blast furnace slag by formation of tobermorite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace water-cooled slag (BFWS) has been solidified using a hydrothermal processing method, in which the BFWS could\\u000a be solidified in an autoclave under saturated steam pressure (1.56 MPa) at 200 ?C for 12 h by the additions of quartz or coal\\u000a flyash. The tensile strength development was shown to depend on the formation of tobermorite and the packing state of the\\u000a formed

Zhenzi Jing; F. Jin; T. Hashida; N. Yamasaki; H. Ishida

2007-01-01

433

Recharging the Silicon Crucible in a Hot Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Melt recharger" adds raw silicon to crucible in crystal-growing furnace without disturbing inert-gas atmosphere or significantly lowering temperature of melt. Crucible-refill hopper is lowered into hot zone of crystal-pulling chamber through an isolation valve. Cable that supports hopper is fastened to cone-shaped stopper in bottom of hopper. Stopper moves out of opening in hopper, allowing part of polysilicon charge to drop into crucible.

Lane, R. L.

1982-01-01

434

Moving-Temperature-Gradient Heat-Pipe Furnace Element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In improved apparatus, ampoule of material directionally solidified mounted in central hole of annular heat pipe, at suitable axial position between heated and cooled ends. Heated end held in fixed position in single-element furnace; other end left in ambient air or else actively cooled. Gradient of temperature made to move along heat pipe by changing pressure of noncondensable gas. In comparison with prior crystal-growing apparatuses, this one simpler, smaller, and more efficient.

Gillies, Donald C.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Gernert, Nelson J.

1993-01-01

435

Apparatus for cleaning blast-furnace exhaust gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for cleaning the exhaust gas of a high-pressure blast furnace comprises a coarse-particle separator, a prewasher and a differential-pressure annular gap washer traversed in succession by the gases. The exhaust gases can be passed through a main duct provided with an expansion turbine or through a bypass duct around the expansion turbine. The expansion turbine unit controls the

K. R. Hegemann; G. Finger; A. Brinkmann; H. Weissert

1977-01-01

436

Determining residence time and hydrocarbon partial pressure in pyrolysis furnaces  

SciTech Connect

A method of calculating residence time and hydrocarbon partial pressure which is applicable to both pilot and commercial pyrolysis coils has been developed. This method allows direct comparison of pilot unit and plant sampler data. Experimental data obtained with ARCO's pilot unit and olefins plant sampling device demonstrate good agreement between the two units. This method has also been extended to ARCO's millisecond pyrolysis furnaces, with similar results.

Cozzone, G.E.; Vavra, F.J.

1987-01-01

437

Plumbrook Hypersonic Tunnel Facility Graphite Furnace Degradation Mechanisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recent rebuild revealed extensive degradation to the large graphite induction furnace in the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF). This damage to the graphite blocks and insulating felt is examined and modeled with thermochemical equilibrium codes. The primary reactions appear to be with water vapor and the nitrogen purge gas. Based on these conclusions, several changes are recommended. An inert purge gas (e.g. argon or helium) and controlling and monitoring water vapor to about 10 ppm should decrease the damage substantially.

Jacobson, Nathan S.

1999-01-01

438

Reducing heat loss in pusher-type continuous reheating furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the rolled-products shop at the Chelyabinsk combine has begun to use heat-insulating elements in the form of two half-rings\\u000a to line the glide tubes in its pusher-type continuous furnace. The half-rings are attached to the tubes by welding. The inner\\u000a layer of each element is made of 10-mm-thick refractory mullite-corundum panels of grade MKRKG-400, while the outer layer

A. V. Vereshchagin; R. S. Yakupov; S. V. Kul’dyakin

2007-01-01

439

Furnace wall lining composition and the use thereof  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved natural gas or heating oil fired furnace which furnace has tubes therein for the formation of super heated steam or for the carrying out of chemical reactions, and which furnace further comprises a chamber lined with an insulative material. The improvement described here comprises a combination of the insulative material, and an infrared ray reflecting composition thereupon. The reflecting composition is adapted to impede penetration of infrared rays through the insulative material, the composition comprising: 1 to 50% of an aqueous slurry having an acidic pH of a chromate-phosphate binder and dispersed aluminum particles, 50 to 90% of a coating cement comprised of about 38% of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, about 58% SiO/sub 2/, about 0.7% Na/sub 2/O, about 0.3% MgO, about 0.7% Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, about 1.5% TiO/sub 2/, and an trace organics bout 0.6% 1 to 5% of a suspended amorphous silica hardener the total being 100%.

Ellersick, R.R.

1986-12-23

440

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from joss paper furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified for two joss paper furnaces burning two kinds of joss papers (recycled paper made and virgin bamboo made). A cyclone and a wet scrubber were installed in series on one of the two furnaces. Particulate and gaseous PAHs were collected with a sampling system meeting the criteria of U.S. EPA Modified Method 5. Twenty-one species of PAH were analyzed by GC/MS. Individual PAH emission factors vary from less than 1 mg kg -1 fuel to several tens of mg kg -1 fuel. The total (sum of 21 compounds) and the carcinogenic PAH (benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3,-cd]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene) emission factors were not statistically different for the two furnaces and averaged 71.0 and 3.2 mg kg -1, respectively. The PAH profiles showed a predominance of naphthalene (58.1%), phenanthrene (11.7%) and fluorene (7.5%). Of the two joss papers examined, bamboo-made joss paper showed less emission in both particulate and gaseous PAHs. For particulate and gaseous PAHs, the removal efficiencies of total PAHs by the air pollution control devices were 42.5% and 11.7%, respectively. PAH emission factors in high airflow conditions were generally lower than those in low airflow condition.

Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Jung, Ray-Chen; Wang, Ya-Fen; Hsieh, Lien-Te

441

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

Gary M. Blythe

2000-12-01

442

Temperature and flow fields in samples heated in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature field in samples heated in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces will be analyzed. The radiation heat exchange between the sample and the mirror is formulated analytically, taking into account multiple reflections at the mirror. It will be shown that the effect of these multiple reflections in the heating process is quite important, and, as a consequence, the effect of the mirror reflectance in the temperature field is quite strong. The conduction-radiation model will be used to simulate the heating process in the floating-zone technique in microgravity conditions; important parameters like the Marangoni number (that drives the thermocapillary flow in the melt), and the temperature gradient at the melt-crystal interface will be estimated. The model will be validated comparing with experimental data. The case of samples mounted in a wall-free configuration (as in the MAXUS-4 programme) will be also considered. Application to the case of compound samples (graphite-silicon-graphite) will be made; the melting of the silicon part and the surface temperature distribution in the melt will be analyzed. Of special interest is the temperature difference between the two graphite rods that hold the silicon part, since it drives the thermocapillary flow in the melt. This thermocapillary flow will be studied, after coupling the previous model with the convective effects. The possibility of counterbalancing this flow by the controlled vibration of the graphite rods will be studied as well. Numerical results show that suppressing the thermocapillary flow can be accomplished quite effectively.

Rivas, D.; Haya, R.

443

Effects of flexible power cables on harmonic generation of an arc furnace steel plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-phase dynamic arc furnace model is presented to investigate the effect of flexible power cables oscillations on harmonic generation of an arc-furnace steel plant. In this model, the flexible cables are presented by a varying three-phase inductor bank connected in series to the arc furnace. The self and mutual inductances of the inductors are calculated at each time step,

H. Khoshkhoo; S. H. H. Sadeghi; R. Moini; M. Jabbari

2008-01-01

444

Chaos control in DC arc furnaces powered by parallel DC-DC buck converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the effects of chaos based control of the DC arc furnace operation. The chaos models for DC arc furnace have been proposed in several papers(1,2,3), but until now there is no reference to a control strategy concerning chaotic voltage variation in DC arc furnace operation. There is some practical application of chaos suppression for DC-DC converters. However the

Gherman Lucian; Rusu Anghel Stela; Topor Marcel; Sergiu Mezinescu

2011-01-01

445

Current control of a three-phase submerged arc ferrosilicon furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of a 36MW submerged arc ferrosilicon (FeSi) furnace have been developed for the simulation and evaluation of different control schemes. The models developed, describing the present furnace controller, the electrode positioning equipment as well as the dynamics from the electrode positions to the electrode currents and the disturbance environment, effectively forming a FeSi furnace simulator, were then validated for

Anna Soff??a Hauksdóttir; Arnar Gestsson; Ari Vésteinsson

2002-01-01

446

Design, construction, and performance testing of an isothermal naphthalene heat pipe furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, an isothermal naphthalene heat pipe furnace was developed to achieve uniformly radiant heating at temperature up to 300 °C. The startup, stability, and thermography tests were carried out to evaluate the uniform temperature zone of the furnace. The temperature variance of the uniform temperature zone was observed to be within ±1 °C along the axis of the furnace. To illustrate its capabilities, the furnace was used to successfully sinter thin layers of copper nanoparticle on microporous copper wicks and form biporous wicks, materials of high interest to advanced heat pipe technologies.

Choi, Jeehoon; Yuan, Yuan; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana-Andrea; Kang, Hwankook

2014-09-01

447

Design, construction, and performance testing of an isothermal naphthalene heat pipe furnace.  

PubMed

In this work, an isothermal naphthalene heat pipe furnace was developed to achieve uniformly radiant heating at temperature up to 300?°C. The startup, stability, and thermography tests were carried out to evaluate the uniform temperature zone of the furnace. The temperature variance of the uniform temperature zone was observed to be within ±1?°C along the axis of the furnace. To illustrate its capabilities, the furnace was used to successfully sinter thin layers of copper nanoparticle on microporous copper wicks and form biporous wicks, materials of high interest to advanced heat pipe technologies. PMID:25273770

Choi, Jeehoon; Yuan, Yuan; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana-Andrea; Kang, Hwankook

2014-09-01

448

Modeling energy consumption of residential furnaces and boilers in U.S. homes  

SciTech Connect

In 2001, DOE initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is their cost-effectiveness to consumers. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This report describes calculation of equipment energy consumption (fuel and electricity) based on estimated conditions in a sample of homes that are representative of expected furnace and boiler installations. To represent actual houses with furnaces and boilers in the United States, we used a set of houses from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey of 1997 conducted by the Energy Information Administration. Our calculation methodology estimates the energy consumption of alternative (more-efficient) furnaces, if they were to be used in each house in place of the existing equipment. We developed the method of calculation described in this report for non-weatherized gas furnaces. We generalized the energy consumption calculation for this product class to the other furnace product classes. Fuel consumption calculations for boilers are similar to those for the other furnace product classes. The electricity calculations for boilers are simpler than for furnaces, because boilers do not provide thermal distribution for space cooling as furnaces often do.

Lutz, James; Dunham-Whitehead, Camilla; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James

2004-02-01

449

Theoretical and experimental foundations for preparing coke for blast-furnace smelting  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the preparation of coke for blast-furnace smelting by a method that most fully meets the requirements of blast-furnace technology: screening of the -36 mm fraction, the separation of nut coke of the 15-36 mm fraction, and its charging into the furnace in a mixture with the iron-ore-bearing charge components. An analysis is made of trial use of coke of the Premium class on blast furnace No. 5 at the Enakievo Metallurgical Plant. Use of this coke makes it possible to reduce the consumption of skip coke by 3.2-4.1%.

A.L. Podkorytov; A.M. Kuznetsov; E.N. Dymchenko; V.P. Padalka; S.L. Yaroshevskii; A.V. Kuzin [Enakievo Metallurgical Plant, Enakievo (Ukraine)

2009-05-15

450

FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

Gary M. Blythe

2000-12-01

451

Innovative Technologies for a Space Station Microgravity Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several Innovations were developed for a high gradient directional solidification vacuum furnace with quench capability, called the Quench Module Insert. The QMI hot zone employs advanced heater elements in a multiple zone configuration and uses a novel instrumentation approach for temperature control. A fiber interface material provides a low friction, high heat extraction interface between a reconfigurable cold zone and the science sample. The quench utilizes a metal phase change to provide rapid, resource efficient quenching of science samples. This paper provides conceptual details and performance data on these innovations.

Carswell, B.; Crouch, M.; Farmer, J.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

452

Vitrification of fly ash by swirling-flow furnace  

SciTech Connect

According to the amendment of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law of 1992, fly ash is regulated as Specially controlled waste and wide attention is now being paid to the melting and vitrification treatment of fly ash, which can reduce overall volume, detoxify and recover sources. Kobe Steel has demonstrated its operation using a swirling-flow furnace and has perfected a vitrification technique. The demonstration test has confirmed stable melting, high decomposition ratio of dioxins and the soundness of the slag. Kobe Steel has successfully developed a new technique for heightening the quality of slag and a new process for the heavy metals recovery from collected dust.

Ito, Tadashi [Kobe Steel Ltd., Nishi, Kobe (Japan). Engineering and Machinery Div.] [Kobe Steel Ltd., Nishi, Kobe (Japan). Engineering and Machinery Div.

1996-12-31

453

Heat Recovery From Arc Furnaces Using Water Cooled Panels  

E-print Network

, deter ioration, and erosion. Heavy wall seamless steel pipe is cast into each panel to form the water passages. This de sign provides 7 inch thick sections of cast iron that resist damage even when heavy scrap is charged into the furnace. Cooling... exchanger HE-l whose secondary side is connected to the heat/vent units via the glycol distribution piping. The primary water than passes through a water to water heat exchanger HE-2 (whose secondary side is connected to the cooling tower CT...

Darby, D. F.

454

Graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Graphite Electrode DC Arc Furnace (DC Arc) is a high-temperature thermal process, which has been adapted from a commercial technology, for the treatment of mixed waste. A DC Arc Furnace heats waste to a temperature such that the waste is converted into a molten form that cools into a stable glassy and/or crystalline waste form. Hazardous organics are destroyed through combustion or pyrolysis during the process and the majority of the hazardous metals and radioactive components are incorporated in the molten phase. The DC Arc Furnace chamber temperature is approximately 593--704 C and melt temperatures are as high as 1,500 C. The DC Arc system has an air pollution control system (APCS) to remove particulate and volatiles from the offgas. The advantage of the DC Arc is that it is a single, high-temperature thermal process that minimizes the need for multiple treatment systems and for extensive sorting/segregating of large volumes of waste. The DC Arc has the potential to treat a wide range of wastes, minimize the need for sorting, reduce the final waste volumes, produce a leach resistant waste form, and destroy organic contaminants. Although the DC arc plasma furnace exhibits great promise for treating the types of mixed waste that are commonly present at many DOE sites, several data and technology deficiencies were identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) regarding this thermal waste processing technique. The technology deficiencies that have been addressed by the current studies include: establishing the partitioning behavior of radionuclides, surrogates, and hazardous metals among the product streams (metal, slag, and offgas) as a function of operating parameters, including melt temperature, plenum atmosphere, organic loading, chloride concentration, and particle size; demonstrating the efficacy of waste product removal systems for slag and metal phases; determining component durability through test runs of extended duration, evaluating the effect of feed composition variations on process operating conditions and slag product performance; and collecting mass balance and operating data to support equipment and instrument design.

NONE

1999-05-01

455

Magnetic orientation of paraffin in a magnetic levitation furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Containerless melting of paraffin under a magnetic levitation condition has been performed by using a cryogen-free hybrid magnet and two kinds of laser furnaces. One is local irradiation of CO 2 laser light at the top of the sample. The other is homogeneous irradiation of YAG laser light with a concave ring mirror. In the latter case, reduction of the Marangoni convection on the surface of the sample and the magnetic orientation of paraffin molecules were observed. The magnetic anisotropy of the spherical sample was confirmed by the measurement of magnetization and X-ray diffraction.

Takahashi, K.; Umeki, C.; Mogi, I.; Koyama, K.; Awaji, S.; Motokawa, M.; Watanabe, K.

2004-04-01

456

Variation in coke properties within the blast-furnace shop  

SciTech Connect

In active production at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), samples of melt materials were taken during shutdown and during planned repairs at furnaces 1 and 8. In particular, coke was taken from the tuyere zone at different distances from the tuyere tip. The mass of the point samples was 2-15 kg, depending on the sampling zone. The material extracted from each zone underwent magnetic separation and screening by size class. The resulting coke sample was averaged out and divided into parts: one for determining the granulometric composition and mechanical strength; and the other for technical analysis and determination of the physicochemical properties of the coke.

E.N. Stepanov; I.I. Mel'nikov; V.P. Gridasov; A.A. Stepanova [OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), Magnitogorsk, (Russian Federation)

2009-04-15

457

Modeling of pulverized coal combustion processes in a vortex furnace of improved design. Part 1: Flow aerodynamics in a vortex furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some results of the complex experimental and numerical study of aerodynamics and transfer processes in a vortex furnace, whose design was improved via the distributed tangential injection of fuel-air flows through the upper and lower burners, were presented. The experimental study of the aerodynamic characteristics of a spatial turbulent flow was performed on the isothermal laboratory model (at a scale of 1 : 20) of an improved vortex furnace using a laser Doppler measurement system. The comparison of experimental data with the results of the numerical modeling of an isothermal flow for the same laboratory furnace model demonstrated their agreement to be acceptable for engineering practice.

Krasinsky, D. V.; Salomatov, V. V.; Anufriev, I. S.; Sharypov, O. V.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Anikin, Yu. A.

2015-02-01

458

A Rowland Circle, multielement graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simultaneous, multielement atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a graphite furnace atomizer was constructed and evaluated. The optical arrangement employs a concave grating to combine the spectral output from a deuterium lamp and four hollow cathode lamps that are placed on the perimeter of a Rowland Circle. A graphite furnace atomizer is positioned on the circle at the point of convergence of the five light sources. Background correction is performed by the continuum source method. Simultaneous detection of the analyte absorption signals is accomplished with a charged-coupled device. Four test elements were used for evaluation purposes: cadmium, lead, copper and chromium. Even though the elements differ greatly in volatility, the detection limits approach the values published for single element GFAAS: 4, 12, 14 and 12 pg for Cd, Pb, Cu and Cr, respectively. The characteristic masses (integrated absorbance) for the four metals are 3, 24, 14 and 7 pg, respectively. Three drinking water reference materials are analyzed: NIST SRM #1643b (Trace Elements in Water), Fisher Scientific “Metals Drinking Water Standard,” and High Purity Standards “Drinking Water Metals Solution A and B”. The determined amounts were within 10% of the certified values for each of the four elements for all three reference materials.

Wagner, KarlA.; Batchelor, JamesD.; Jones, BradleyT.

1998-11-01

459

Preparation of Ceramic-Bonded Carbon Block for Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional carbon blocks for blast furnaces are mainly produced with electrically calcined anthracite owing to its good hot metal corrosion resistance. However, this kind of material shows low thermal conductivity and does not meet the demands for cooling of the hearth and the bottom of blast furnaces. In this article, a new kind of a high-performance carbon block has been prepared via ceramic-bonded carbon (CBC) technology in a coke bed at 1673 K (1400 °C) using artificial graphite aggregate, alumina, metallic aluminum, and silicon powders as starting materials. The results showed that artificial graphite aggregates were strongly bonded by the three-dimensional network of ceramic phases in carbon blocks. In this case, the good resistance of the CBC blocks against erosion/corrosion by the hot metal is provided by the ceramic matrix and the high thermal conductivity by the graphite aggregates. The microstructure of this carbon block resembles that of CBC composites with a mean pore size of less than 0.1 ?m, and up to 90 pct of the porosity shows a pore size <1 ?m. Its thermal conductivity is higher than 30 W · m-1 · K-1 [293 K (20 °C)]. Meanwhile, its hot metal corrosion resistance is better than that of traditional carbon blocks.

Li, Yiwei; Li, Yawei; Sang, Shaobai; Chen, Xilai; Zhao, Lei; Li, Yuanbing; Li, Shujing

2014-01-01

460

Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition  

SciTech Connect

The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Nacional del Carbon; Sirgado, M. [ENSIDESA, Aviles (Spain)

1995-12-01

461

Characteristics of Molten Slag from Hospital Waste Incineration Ash by Electric Arc Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

To deal with the issue of hospital solid waste (HSW) incineration ash, ash melting treatment technology was developed in combination with electric arc furnace metallurgical processes. The lab-scale melting experiment of HSW incineration ash, using 2kg DC electric arc furnace, was carried out to provide physical and chemical property analyses of molten slag from the bottom ash alone and the

Liu Han-qiao; Wei Guo-xia; Ye Hui-hua; Zhang Shu-guang

2009-01-01

462

Development and study of out-of-furnace treatment of steel using DC arc heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of pilot studies performed to design dc ladle-furnace units are presented. The design, equipment composition, and technical characteristics of 15-t dc ladle-furnace units, which are intended for complex treatment of steel at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum and were designed by VNIIMETMASh, TsNIIChERMET, VNIIETO, and some other enterprises, are described.

Protasov, A. V.; Bershitskii, I. M.

2012-12-01

463

Harmonics, interharmonics and unbalances of arc furnaces: a new frequency domain approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of nonlinear models for simulating the dynamic behavior of arc furnaces is well known. For this reason, previous works are based on time domain solutions. In this paper, a new frequency domain approach for obtaining harmonics, interharmonics and unbalances of arc furnaces is proposed. The model assumes a dynamic and nonlinear u-i characteristic of the electric arc as

Luis F. Beites; Julio G. Mayordomo; Araceli Hernández; Rafael Asensi

2001-01-01

464

Load characteristics analysis of AC and DC arc furnaces using various power definitions and statistic method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various power definitions and statistics are used to investigate the load characteristics of AC and DC electric arc furnaces, which occupy a major percentage of the Taiwan power system. It is very important to note their effects on power quality. It is also desirable to have an alternative way to study their load behaviors. Since AC and DC arc furnaces

Tsu-Hsun Fu; Chi-Jui Wu

2002-01-01

465

Load Characteristics Analysis of AC and DC Arc Furnaces Using Various Power Definitions and Statistic Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various power definitions and statistics are used to investigate the load characteristics of ac and dc electric arc furnaces, which occupy a major percentage of the Taiwan power system. It is very important to note their effect on power quality. It is also desired to have an alternative way to study their load behaviors. Since ac and dc arc furnaces

T. H. Fu; C. J. Wu

2002-01-01

466

Generation of voltage fluctuations in power systems with DC arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing use of high-power DC arc furnaces for scrap melting all over the world. Onsite measurements in several steel plants with these furnaces have shown that flicker relevant voltage fluctuations cannot be prevented. The first reason is the time-varying need of reactive power. Also dynamic compensators like TCRs are often not able to avoid considerable flicker, particularly

D. Stade; H. Schau; M. Malsch; J. Hunermund; S. Prinz

1998-01-01

467

A control system for dc arc furnaces for power quality improvements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dc arc furnaces are highly disturbing loads for transmission and distribution networks. The present paper proposes and implements an ac–dc converter control system for power quality improvements taking into account both flicker levels and harmonics at the point of common coupling. Different set of parameters for the proportional–integral controller are investigated for optimizing the dc arc furnace power quality

G. C. Lazaroiu; D. Zaninelli

2010-01-01

468

Reduction of undesired harmonic components in a steel industrial plant with DC electric arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electric arc furnace is a nonlinear, time varying load with stochastic behavior, which gives rise to harmonics, interharminics and voltage flicker. Since a power system has finite impedance, the current distortion caused by a DC electric arc furnace load creates a corresponding voltage distortion in the supply lines. The current and voltage harmonic distortion causes several problems in electrical

Arash Dehestani Kolagar; Abbas Shoulaie

2011-01-01

469

An intelligent temperature control system for nature gas reheating furnace of titanium  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent temperature control strategy for different heating segments is proposed based on the characteristic analysis of natural gas reheating furnace of titanium. According to errors between the furnace temperature's measured value and the goal value, a fuzzy controller is used to regulate the nature gas flux. Then the number of the flame burner is determined with expert control method.

Lv Yan; Wu Min; Lei Qi

2010-01-01

470

Heat transfer to walls of a circulating fluidized-bed furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical review of information on heat transfer between the furnace and enclosing walls of a circulating fluidized-bed boiler is presented. A good understanding of the heat transfer process was impeded for some time by a lack of detailed information about the hydrodynamics of fast fluidization. With improvement in the understanding of the furnace hydrodynamics a clearer picture of the

P. K. Nag

1996-01-01

471

Study of chimney draft regulation relating to energy conservation in oil-burning residential furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made to study the performance of barometric dampers used with residential oil-burning furnaces to provide information that might lead to damper design improvements which would reduce energy usage or increase energy efficiency of oil-burning furnaces. Two commercially available dampers were used in this study. A force analysis of the dampers was developed and the information gained from

Afify

1980-01-01

472

Effect of chemical attack and operational parameters on the wear of blast furnace refractories  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of refractory behavior in a blast furnace has been made because refractory and furnace design problems associated with iron production may apply to coal gasification units. Iron is made in a cylindrical, refractory lined, steel shell that has an internal height of 80 to 90 feet and an internal diameter at tuyere level of 20 to 45 feet.

1976-01-01

473

High temperature furnaces for small and large angle neutron scattering of disordered materials  

E-print Network

725 High temperature furnaces for small and large angle neutron scattering of disordered materials and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments respectively. They are vacuum furnaces with a thin of the neutron scattering pattern. It also requests measure- ments at very high k values k= 4;sin 0, 2 0 being (1

Boyer, Edmond

474

Multipurpose electric furnace system. [for use in Apollo-Soyuz Test Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multipurpose electric furnace system of advanced design for space applications was developed and tested. This system is intended for use in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Program. It consists of the furnace, control package and a helium package for rapid cooldown.

Mazelsky, R.; Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Johnson, R. A.; Mchugh, J. P.; Foust, H. C.; Piotrowski, P. A.

1974-01-01

475

The Utilization and Recovery of Energy from Blast Furnaces and Converters  

E-print Network

The Bischoff Blast Furnace Top Gas Process for high pressure blast furnaces is presented as an example of a modern gas treatment process in the iron and steel industry: the work potential of the high pressure top gas is utilized in a plant...

Hegemann, K. R.; Niess, T.; Baare, R. D.

1979-01-01

476

Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI) Furnace Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents, in viewgraph form, QMI (Quench Module Insert) and DMI (Diffusion Module Insert) furnace development. The topics include: 1) Furnace Module in Rack; 2) Quench Module Insert; 3) QMI in MSL Core; 4) Diffusion Module Insert; 5) QMI; and 6) QMI Development and Testing.

Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, William; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul

2000-01-01

477

Predicting the performance of submerged arc furnace with varied raw material combinations using artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw materials play a vital role in the ferrochrome production using submerged arc furnace route. Optimized combination of different raw materials can improve the performance of furnace and minimize the power consumption. This process carries numerous process complexities as well as feed variation, which make it difficult to model mathematically. Artificial neural network known as a black box approach is

Veerendra Singh; Vilas Tathavadkar; S. Mohan Rao; K. S. Raju

2007-01-01

478

DESTRUCTION AND REMOVAL OF POHCS (PRINCPAL ORGANIC HAZARDOUS CONSTITUENTS) IN IRON MAKING BLAST FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

At least one steel company utilizes organic waste liquids as a heat and carbon content source to partially replace the coke that is used to charge the blast furnaces. The waste liquids fed to the blast furnace are likely to contain hazardous constituents. Temperature and residenc...

479

Pulverised Coal Combustion Under Transient Cloud Conditions in a Drop Tube Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low volatile coal was burned with oxygen-enriched air in a drop tube furnace at 1223 and 1523 K, either as single particles or as small batches added as a pulse. The particle temperatures and burnout times at the two furnace temperatures were recorded for each test. The ignition \\/ combustion processes were recorded by pyrometer and video camera. The

B. R. STANMORE; Y.-C. CHOI; R. GADIOU; O. CHARON; P. GILOT

2000-01-01

480

The Diffusion of Innovation among Steel Firms: The Basic Oxygen Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major innovation in the steel industry in the post-World War II period has been the replacement of the open hearth furnace by the basic oxygen furnace. This article examines the diffusion of this important innovation at a more micro level than previous studies by focusing on plant behavior. Wide differences in the characteristics of the plants owned by a

Sharon Oster

1982-01-01

481

Simultaneous data reconciliation and parameter estimation. Application to a basic oxygen furnace.  

E-print Network

oxygen furnace is a method of primary steelmaking in which carbon-rich molten iron is made into refined minutes. By blowing oxygen through molten pig iron, the carbon content of the alloy is lowered and changes the material into low-carbon steel. The basic oxygen furnace actions are scheduled as follows: molten iron from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

482

75 FR 64621 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces...Energy (DOE) is amending its test procedures for residential furnaces...Office of the General Counsel's Web site at http://www.gc...Today's final rule adopts test procedure provisions to...

2010-10-20

483

Space Station Furnace Facility. Experiment/Facility Requirements Document (E/FRD), volume 2, appendix 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The function of the Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is to support materials research into the crystal growth and solidification processes of electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics. To support this broad base of research requirements, the SSFF will employ a variety of furnace modules operated, regulated, and supported by a core of common subsystems. Furnace modules may be reconfigured or specifically developed to provide unique solidifcation conditions for each set of experiments. The SSFF modular approach permits the addition of new or scaled-up furnace modules to support the evolution of the facility as new science requirements are identified. The SSFF Core is of modular design to permit augmentation for enhanced capabilities. The fully integrated configuration of the SSFF will consist of three racks with the capability of supporting up to two furnace modules per rack. The initial configuration of the SSFF will consist of two of the three racks and one furnace module. This Experiment/Facility Requirements Document (E/FRD) describes the integrated facility requirements for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Integrated Configuration-1 (IC1) mission. The IC1 SSFF will consist of two racks: the Core Rack, with the centralized subsystem equipment, and the Experiment Rack-1, with Furnace Module-1 and the distributed subsystem equipment to support the furnace.

Kephart, Nancy

1992-01-01

484

Microstructure and durability of mortars modified with medium active blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical characteristics and durability properties of blast furnace slag cement composites largely depend on the hydraulic activity of the slag. In this paper, a Granulated Blast Furnace Slag with a low reactivity index is used in modifying mortar composition. Microstructure and durability of mixes containing 0%, 30% and 50% of slag as substitution to OPC are respectively compared and analyzed.

Ahmed Hadj-sadok; Said Kenai; Luc Courard; Anne Darimont

2011-01-01

485

Prediction of Three-Dimensional Flows in Utility Boiler Furnaces and Comparison with Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The turbulent flow field in large utility boiler furnaces is strongly affected hy heat release from combustion and by the heat extracted from the furnace through the boiler tube walls. To describe and predict these effects with reasonable engineering accuracy, a mathematical model termed COMpac has been developed at the University of Stuttgart. The series of codes is based on

K. GORNER; W. ZINSER

1988-01-01

486

Acoustic Positioning for Space Processing of Materials Science Samples in Mirror Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a review of the basic principles of levitation under special consideration of multiaxial positioning in cylindrical tubes, the adaptation of a tube levitator to the monoellipsoidal mirror furnace ELLI is reported. The levitator-furnace combination has been qualified for a sounding rocket experiment in the TEXUS program where the containerless processing of single materials science samples of 8-10 nun diameter

E. G. Lierke; R. Grossbach; K. Flogel; P. Clancy

1983-01-01

487

The solar furnaces of the 'Laboratoire Central de l'Armement'  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the principal solar furnace (42 kW) and the secondary solar furnace (400 W) of an installation for creating thermal flux impulses for materials testing. Conventional regulation of the mirrors of a heliostat is usually accomplished with the aid of a theodolite by the autocollimation method, but this calls for the installation of a large scaffolding in front

M. Jaymes

1975-01-01

488

Concept study of an automatic ellipsoidal mirror furnace facility, prephase A. Volume 2: Technical descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1500 C (max) mirror furnace for materials science experiments and for growing 40 mm crystals under microgravity in an add-on payload for a retrievable carrier is proposed. Parts of the Spacelab mirror furnaces which can be used are identified. Design solutions for modifications due to experimental requirements or to the automatic operation mode are developed. The complete new parts

J. Stapelmann

1982-01-01

489

Improving the Efficiency of Bell-Type Furnaces and the Quality of Annealed Rolled Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that the thermal regime of the furnaces used for the recrystallization annealing of cold-rolled products depends on the type of lining used for the covers of these furnaces. For example, the thermal conductivity of the fibrous insulating materials used by the companies Ebner and LOI is considerably (by an order of magnitude) lower [1, 2] than that

O. N. Shtekhno; V. A. Yatsenko; S. É. Dobrovol'skii

2002-01-01

490

First and second-law analyses of energy recoveries in blast-furnace regenerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine various systems for the recovery of thermal energy from waste gases and for preheating in blast-furnace Cowper stoves, with the basic aim of improving efficiencies when utilizing blast-furnace gas with low net heating value at constant peak temperature. Using first- and second-law analyses, with suitably defined exergetic quantities, numerical values are given to measure energy savings.

G. Bisio

1996-01-01

491

Chemistry and radiation in oxy-fuel combustion: A computational fluid dynamics modeling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the role of combustion chemistry and radiation heat transfer in oxy-fuel combustion modeling, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling study has been performed for two different oxy-fuel furnaces. One is a lab-scale 0.8MW oxy-natural gas flame furnace whose detailed in-flame measurement data are available; the other is a conventional 609MW utility boiler which is assumed to

Chungen Yin; Lasse A. Rosendahl; Sřren K. Kćr

2011-01-01

492

An Integrated Model of Coal/Coke Combustion in a Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional integrated mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed to simulate the operation of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates two parts: pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed and the coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements in terms of coal burnout and gas composition, respectively. The comprehensive in-furnace phenomena are simulated in the raceway and coke bed, in terms of flow, temperature, gas composition, and coal burning characteristics. In addition, underlying mechanisms for the in-furnace phenomena are analyzed. The model provides a cost-effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in-furnace flow-thermo-chemical characteristics of the PCI process in full-scale blast furnaces.

Shen, Y. S.; Guo, B. Y.; Yu, A. B.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P.

2010-03-01

493

A computational study of heterogeneous char reactions in a full-scale furnace  

SciTech Connect

Driven by the need for more efficient means of power generation, computational simulation of furnace operation has assumed an increasingly important role. Computational tools make it possible to predict trends in furnace performance characteristics, such carbon burnout, with reasonable accuracy. Char burnout in a furnace occurs primarily by reaction with molecular oxygen in the surrounding gas. Consequently, most models of carbon burnout used in furnace codes only consider the char-O[sub 2] reaction. However, char reactions with other gas phase species, such as carbon dioxide and water become important where oxygen concentrations are low. Using a numerical model of a full-scale tangentially fired furnace, this work quantifies the relative importance of these reactions.

Mann, A.P.; Kent, J.H. (Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1994-10-01

494

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15

495

Final report on the project entitled: Highly Preheated Combustion Air System with/without Oxygen Enrichment for Metal Processing Furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This work develops and demonstrates a laboratory-scale high temperature natural gas furnace that can operate with/without oxygen enrichment to significantly improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. The laboratory-scale is 5ft in diameter & 8ft tall. This furnace was constructed and tested. This report demonstrates the efficiency and pollutant prevention capabilities of this test furnace. The project also developed optical detection technology to control the furnace output.

Arvind Atreya

2007-02-16

496

Investigation of the activity level and radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in blast furnace slag.  

PubMed

The activity level and possible radiological impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on the health of workers and members of the public, as a result of utilisation of blast furnace slag (BFS) samples as a substitute for aggregate in road construction were investigated by using a gamma-ray spectrometer and potential exposure scenarios given in Radiation Protection 122. The mean activity concentrations of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in BFS samples were found to be 152.4, 54.9 and 183.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are compared with typical values measured in BFS samples from the European Union countries, which are 270, 70 and 240 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The values of radium equivalent activity index calculated for BFS samples were within the recommended safety limits. The highest total annual effective doses evaluated as 0.9 and 0.4 mSv y(-1) for members of the public and workers, respectively, were lower than the annual limit of 1 mSv y(-1). PMID:22826355

U?ur, F A; Turhan, S; Sahan, H; Sahan, M; Gören, E; Gezer, F; Ye?ingil, Z

2013-01-01

497

Heat recuperator and method for use with gas-fired furnace using nozzle or pre-mix burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat recuperator and a method for recuperating heat from a furnace having a nozzle-mix burner to enhance the efficiency of combustion of one or more burners associated with the furnace. The recuperator comprises an exhaust tube which is connectable to a furnace combustion chamber for receiving heated exhaust gas therethrough. The exhaust tube has an outer cylindrical wall and

Vider

1985-01-01

498

Unstable Arc Motion in an Atmospheric Pressure Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma Arc Furnaces are used extensively in metallurgical processing and hazardous waste remediation. Studies of arc equilibrium and stability are being carried out on an experimental 20 kW 250 A DC open air arc at PPPL. Intermittent arc motion in the frequency range of 200-1000 Hz has been observed on a steel and graphite anodes with a graphite cathode, with frequency varying approximately 10% within a burst. Arc motion is typically accompanied by ~10% rms current and ~3% rms voltage fluctuations and sometimes leads to arc extinction. Possible sources of the instability are being investigated, including the cathode jet, arc current, and anode geometry and composition effects. Stability measurements in the arc current, arc length parameter space as well as dependence on anode material and geometry will be compared with theoretical model predictions.

Karasik, Max; Zweben, S. J.

1998-10-01

499

Processing electric arc furnace dust into saleable chemical products  

SciTech Connect

The modern steel industry uses electric arc furnace (EAF) technology to manufacture steel. A major drawback of this technology is the production of EAF dust, which is listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The annual disposal of approximately 0.65 million tons of EAF dust in the United States and Canada is an expensive, unresolved problem for the steel industry. EAF dust byproducts are generated during the manufacturing process by a variety of mechanisms. The dust consists of various metals (e.g., zinc, lead, cadmium) that occur as vapors at 1,600{degrees}C (EAF hearth temperature); these vapors are condensed and collected in a baghouse. The production of one ton of steel will generate approximately 25 pounds of EAF dust as a byproduct, which is currently disposed of in landfills.

NONE

1998-04-01

500

Analysis of electrically induced flows in DC electric arc furnace  

SciTech Connect

Limitations of natural resources and environmental pollution problems have forced people to consider seriously about recycling of materials. As a means of recycling, DC arc furnace can be used to recycle scrap materials and already some industries have started to use it in small scale production. An in depth understanding of the process is essential for optimal design and efficient control. Therefore, in order to have a better understanding of the process, they developed a mathematical model and the model equations are numerically solved. Volume of fluid method is used to treat the free surface. Numerical results show that a single vortical region is generated within the melt when the bottom electrode diameter is large. When the bottom electrode diameter is small, two vortical regions are found with opposite rotation. It is also found that the volume of fluid method can give a more detailed picture of the flow near the surface below the top electrode.

Mondal, H.N.; Kurimoto, H.; Morisue, T. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-05-01