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1

Investigation of radiative heat transfer in fixed bed biomass furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an investigation of the radiative heat transfer process in two fixed bed furnaces firing biomass fuels and the performance of several widely used models for calculation of radiative heat transfer in the free-room of fixed bed furnaces. The simple optically thin (OT) model, the spherical harmonic P1-approximation model, the grey gas model based on finite volume discretization

T. Klason; X. S. Bai; M. Bahador; T. K. Nilsson; B. Sundén

2008-01-01

2

Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Pieces of shredded tires are fed into the top of a vertical pyrolyzing furnace in a measured amount using a weighing hopper feed mechanism. Heated gas is introduced through inlet and pyrolyzing the tire pieces on a countercurrent flow principle to produce useful hydrocarbon volatiles and residues. The pyrolyzed residue including tire reinforcing wires are efficiently removed from the furnace by a plurality of downwardly inclined screw conveyors disposed in troughs. Each screw conveyor extends into an inclined conduit and discharges into a vertical branch conduit disposed at least partially within the cross-section of the furnace so that even discharge of the pyrolyzed residue is ensured by the combined action of gravity and the screw conveyors.

Cooke, J.C.; Tilley, F.H.

1983-06-14

3

Furnace  

SciTech Connect

A furnace is described. An elongate, cylindrical, combustion chamber is disposed horizontally in combination with a blower conduit means for creating a forced draft therein. The furnace is provided with an elongate water jacket surrounding the combustion chamber. The water jacket has a cylindrical outer wall and a heat-conducting, concentric, inner common wall, which forms the outer wall of the combustion chamber. An elongate water compartment is located entirely outside of the water jacket. A first heat transfer means comprises a first set of elongate, parallel fire-tubes axially-disposed in the water jacket in heat exchange relation with the water therein. Second heat transfer means comprising a second set of elongate, parallel fire-tubes axially-disposed in the water compartment in heat exchange relation with the water. Flow of water is directed through the inlet means, the first and second heat transfer means and the outlet means in succession, first into the water compartment in direct heat exchange with the second set of fire-tubes therein and then into the water jacket in direct heat exchange with the first set of fire-tubes therein and in indirect heat exchange with the combustion chamber through the common wall. The flow of combustion gases goes from the combustion chamber through the first and second sets of fire-tubes in succession. Conduit means is in heat exchange relation with the inlet which are air-filled, and from a closed pipe system. The thermally insulating layer rests on the pipes with sides of the thermally insulating layer carrying the lateral reflectors. The thermally insulating layer is provided with a dust lining on a side of the thermally insulating layer facing away from the pipes. Combustion air supplied to the burner is preheated together with a heating medium conveyed in the pipes, the heating medium consisting of the waste gases and the system air.

Walker, L.; Taylor, T.A.

1986-04-15

4

A Sensitivity Analysis for Radiative Heat Transfer in a Pulverized Coal-Fired Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is presented for the radiative transfer in a pulverized coal-fired furnace. The third order spherical harmonics approximation is used to model the radiative transfer equation (RTE) in an axisymmetric, cylindrical furnace. To account for the highly forward scattering of radiation by the particles, such as pulverized coal, char, and fly-ash, the delta-Eddington phase function approximation is employed. The

M. P. MENGÜC; R. VISKANTA

1987-01-01

5

Investigation of spectral radiation heat transfer and NO{sub x} emission in a glass furnace  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive radiation heat transfer model and a reduced NOx kinetics model were coupled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and then used to investigate the radiation heat transfer, pollutant formation and flow characteristics in a glass furnace. The radiation model solves the spectral radiative transport equation in the combustion space of emitting and absorbing media, i.e., CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and soot and emission/reflection from the furnace crown. The advanced numerical scheme for calculating the radiation heat transfer is extremely effective in conserving energy between radiation emission and absorption. A parametric study was conducted to investigate the impact of operating conditions on the furnace performance with emphasis on the investigation into the formation of NOx.

Golchert, B.; Zhou, C. Q.; Chang, S. L.; Petrick, M.

2000-08-02

6

Modeling Specular Exchange Between Concentric Cylinders in a Radiative Shielded Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research is to develop and validate mathematical models to characterize the thermal performance of a radiative shielded furnace, the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Isothermal Diffusion Oven. The mathematical models are validated against experimental data obtained from testing the breadboard oven in a terrestrial laboratory environment. It is anticipated that the validation will produce math models capable of predicting the thermal performance of the furnace over a wide range of operating conditions, including those for which no experimental data is available. Of particular interest is the furnace core temperature versus heater power parametric and the transient thermal response of the furnace. Application to a microgravity environment is not considered, although it is conjectured that the removal of any gravity dependent terms from the math models developed for the terrestrial application should yield adequate results in a microgravity environment. The UAH Isothermal Diffusion Oven is designed to provide a thermal environment that is conducive to measuring the diffusion of high temperature liquid metals. In addition to achieving the temperatures required to melt a sample placed within the furnace, reducing or eliminating convective motions within the melt is an important design consideration [1]. Both of these influences are reflected in the design of the furnace. Reducing unwanted heat losses from the furnace is achieved through the use of low conductivity materials and reflective shielding. As evidenced by the highly conductive copper core used to house the sample within the furnace, convective motions can be greatly suppressed by providing an essentially uniform thermal environment. An oven of this design could ultimately be utilized in a microgravity environment, presumably as a experiment payload. Such an application precipitates other design requirements that limit the resources available to the furnace such as power, mass, volume, and possibly even time. Through the experimental and numerical results obtained, the power requirements and thermal response time of the breadboard furnace are quantified.

Schunk, Richard Gregory; Wessling, Francis C.

2000-01-01

7

a Conceptual Model of Integrating Sensor Network and Radiative Heat Transfer Equation for Ethylene Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual model of integrating the sensor network and the radiative heat transfer equation is developed and presented in this paper. The idea is to present possible deployment of sensor networks in the Ethylene furnace so that valuable input in the form of boundary value can be generated in order to produce intensity distribution and heat flux distribution. Once the location of sensor deployment has been recommended, the mesh at the physical space between the furnace wall and the reactor tube is constructed. The paper concentrates only at 2D model with only 1 U-bend reactor tube in the ethylene furnace as an initial phase of constructing a complete simulation in real furnace design.

Abas, Z. Abal; Salleh, S.; Basari, A. S. Hassan; Ibrahim, Nuzulha Khilwani

2010-11-01

8

a Conceptual Model of Integrating Sensor Network and Radiative Heat Transfer Equation for Ethylene Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual model of integrating the sensor network and the radiative heat transfer equation is developed and presented in this paper. The idea is to present possible deployment of sensor networks in the Ethylene furnace so that valuable input in the form of boundary value can be generated in order to produce intensity distribution and heat flux distribution. Once the

Z. Abal Abas; S. Salleh; A. S. Hassan Basari; Nuzulha Khilwani Ibrahim

2010-01-01

9

A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF INTEGRATING SENSOR NETWORK AND RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER EQUATION FOR ETHYLENE FURNACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual model of integrating the sensor network and the radiative heat transfer equation is developed and presented in this paper. The idea is to present possible deployment of sensor networks in the Ethylene furnace so that valuable input in the form of boundary value can be generated in order to produce intensity distribution and heat flux distribution. Once the

Z. Abal Abas; S. Salleh; A. S. Hassan Basari; Nuzulha Khilwani Ibrahim

2010-01-01

10

RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PAKCAGES  

SciTech Connect

The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment.

Smith, A

2008-12-31

11

FURN3D: A computer code for radiative heat transfer in pulverized coal furnaces  

SciTech Connect

A computer code FURN3D has been developed for assessing the impact of burning different coals on heat absorption pattern in pulverized coal furnaces. The code is unique in its ability to conduct detailed spectral calculations of radiation transport in furnaces fully accounting for the size distributions of char, soot and ash particles, ash content, and ash composition. The code uses a hybrid technique of solving the three-dimensional radiation transport equation for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. The technique achieves an optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy by combining the discrete ordinate method (S[sub 4]), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P, approximation in different range of optical thicknesses. The code uses spectroscopic data for estimating the absorption coefficients of participating gases C0[sub 2], H[sub 2]0 and CO. It invokes Mie theory for determining the extinction and scattering coefficients of combustion particulates. The optical constants of char, soot and ash are obtained from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. A control-volume formulation is adopted for determining the temperature field inside the furnace. A simple char burnout model is employed for estimating heat release and evolution of particle size distribution. The code is written in Fortran 77, has modular form, and is machine-independent. The computer memory required by the code depends upon the number of grid points specified and whether the transport calculations are performed on spectral or gray basis.

Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

1992-08-01

12

FURN3D: A computer code for radiative heat transfer in pulverized coal furnaces  

SciTech Connect

A computer code FURN3D has been developed for assessing the impact of burning different coals on heat absorption pattern in pulverized coal furnaces. The code is unique in its ability to conduct detailed spectral calculations of radiation transport in furnaces fully accounting for the size distributions of char, soot and ash particles, ash content, and ash composition. The code uses a hybrid technique of solving the three-dimensional radiation transport equation for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. The technique achieves an optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy by combining the discrete ordinate method (S{sub 4}), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P, approximation in different range of optical thicknesses. The code uses spectroscopic data for estimating the absorption coefficients of participating gases C0{sub 2}, H{sub 2}0 and CO. It invokes Mie theory for determining the extinction and scattering coefficients of combustion particulates. The optical constants of char, soot and ash are obtained from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. A control-volume formulation is adopted for determining the temperature field inside the furnace. A simple char burnout model is employed for estimating heat release and evolution of particle size distribution. The code is written in Fortran 77, has modular form, and is machine-independent. The computer memory required by the code depends upon the number of grid points specified and whether the transport calculations are performed on spectral or gray basis.

Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

1992-08-01

13

Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 Hubei (China)

2011-02-15

14

New high temperature furnace for structure refinement by powder diffraction in controlled atmospheres using synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

A low thermal gradient furnace design is described which utilizes Debye{endash}Scherrer geometry for performing high temperature x-ray powder diffraction with synchrotron radiation at medium and high energies (35{endash}100 keV). The furnace has a maximum operating temperature of 1800 K with a variety of atmospheres including oxidizing, inert, and reducing. The capability for sample rotation, to ensure powder averaging, has been built into the design without compromising thermal stability or atmosphere control. The ability to perform high-resolution Rietveld refinement on data obtained at high temperatures has been demonstrated, and data collected on standard Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder is presented. Time-resolved data on the orthorhombic to rhombohedral solid state phase transformation of SrCO{sub 3} is demonstrated using image plates. Rietveld refinable spectra, collected in as little as 8 s, opens the possibility of performing time-resolved structural refinements of phase transformations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Margulies, L.; Kramer, M.J.; McCallum, R.W. [Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-3020 (United States)] [Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-3020 (United States); Kycia, S. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Haeffner, D.R.; Lang, J.C. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Goldman, A.I. [Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-3020 (United States)] [Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-3020 (United States)

1999-09-01

15

Feasibility study of a high temperature radiation furnace for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility was investigated of a high temperature general purpose furnace for use in space. It was determined that no commercial furnaces exist which could, even with extensive modifications, meet the goals of temperature, power, weight, volume, and versatility originally specified in the contract Statement of Work. A feasible furnace design which does substantially meet these goals while employing many of the advanced features of the commercial furnaces is developed and presented.

Eiss, A.; Dussan, B.; Shadis, W.; Frank, L.

1973-01-01

16

Measurements of the flame emissivity and radiative properties of particulate medium in pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnaces by image processing of visible radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the complicated processes for coal particles burning in industrial furnaces, their radiative properties, such as the absorption and scattering coefficients, which are essential to make reliable calculation of radiative transfer in combustion computation, are hard to be given exactly by the existing methods. In this paper, multiple color image detectors were used to capture approximately red, green, and

Chun Lou; Huai-Chun Zhou; Peng-Feng Yu; Zhi-Wei Jiang

2007-01-01

17

The Furnace combustion and radiation characteristics of methanol and a methanol\\/coal slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental facility has been built to study the combustion of methanol and a slurry of methanol plus 5% coal in an environment similar to industrial and utility boilers. The furnace is a horizontal water cooled cylinder, 20 cm in diameter by one meter long, with a firing rate of 60 kW. The measurements taken throughout the furnace include temperature

Grosshandler

1977-01-01

18

Combined solution of the problem of external heat transfer and heat transfer inside a gas radiation tube for thermal furnaces with a protective atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general mathematical model of external heat transfer and heat transfer inside radiation tubes for furnaces with protective atmospheres (conjugate problem) is developed. An algorithm for solving the conjugate problem is developed.

V. G. Lisienko; F. R. Sklyar; Yu. V. Kryuchenkov; L. N. Toritsyn; V. V. Volkov; A. I. Tikhotskii

1986-01-01

19

High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

Bates, Stephen C.

1997-01-01

20

Furnace Combustion and Radiation Characteristics of Methanol and a Methanol/Coal Slurry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental facility has been built to study the combustion of methanol and a slurry of methanol plus 5% coal in an environment similar to industrial and utility boilers. The furnace is a horizontal water cooled cylinder, 20 cm in diameter by one mete...

W. L. Grosshandler

1977-01-01

21

Infrared domestic furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This residential space-heating furnace generates infrared radiation in a sealed combustion chamber for improved heating efficiency, reduced air pollution (both nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide), and a lower fuel requirement (40-50% less natural gas) than conventional heaters. The burner comprises a hat-shaped fibrous matrix mounted on a cooling drum. The furnace 1) circulates only that air previously in the room,

1982-01-01

22

Application to Industrial Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter we go on to consider an industrial furnace situation. A furnace consists of a heat source (burner producing\\u000a a flame), a heat sink (the tube bank of a boiler or heat exchanger, or cooling tubes), and the refractory walls. The discussion\\u000a here is on application of the developed method to the classical radiative heat transfer problem in

Aristide Mbiock; Roman Weber

23

Prediction of a Turbulent Non-Premixed Natural Gas Flame in a Semi-Industrial Scale Furnace using a Radiative Flamelet Combustion Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixedness-reactedness flamelet combustion model coupled with a comprehensive radiation heat transfer model based on the\\u000a discrete transfer method of solution of the radiative transport equation is applied for the simulation of a 3 MW non-swirling\\u000a turbulent non-premixed natural gas flame in the experimental furnace at the International Flame Research Foundation. In the\\u000a calculation, turbulence is represented by the standard k????

T. Mahmud; S. K. Sangha

2010-01-01

24

Furnace seal  

SciTech Connect

A peripheral seal for a furnace, e.g., a soaking pit is disclosed that is of an elongate rectangular section fibre assembly mountable on the furnace roof or door such that a flat face of the assembly can bear on a mating face of the furnace wall, means being provided for advancing the assembly such that the flat face thereof can be maintained in contact with the wall face whereby to compensate for wear and erosion of the fibre assembly.

Payne, G.

1980-01-15

25

Furnace assembly  

DOEpatents

A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

1985-01-01

26

High temperature transparent furnace development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype transparent furnace was designed, fabricated, and tested at temperatures up to 1473 K. Radiation containment using an outer infrared mirror tube and convection elimination using vacuum insulation reduce electrical power consumption and heat loads on critical components. High vacuum was necessary to eliminate convection; even 0.001% atmosphere pressure caused large convective heat losses. A heat transfer model was developed to predict the behavior of the transparent furnace and permit projection of performance improvements resulting from design changes. The mirror tube that reflects infrared radiation and transmits some visible radiation was modified to eliminate radiation absorption in the mirror tube itself. Radiation shields were added to the ends of the furnace to further reduce radiative heat losses. Conductive heat losses were minimized by minimizing solid connections to the cooled furnace ends and by using quartz supports. All components were designed to survive high temperature operation. Extensive experiments were performed with a succession of preliminary prototypes, leading to a final prototype successfully tested at 1473 K.

Bates, Stephen C.; Knight, Kim S.; Yoel, David W.

1998-01-01

27

Quartz Liner Tube Inside Tube Furnace  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the American Physical Society, gives a brief description of a furnace at Kansas State University that is used in semiconductor research. An image shows heat radiation from the quartz liner in this furnace, which is used in silicon-doping experiments.

2008-09-10

28

Method for controlling combustion in industrial furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for controlling combustion of atomized fuel in industrial furnaces, in which flame radiation and temperature distributions in a furnace are controlled into optimum conditions in terms of heat efficiency by adjusting a feed rate of an atomizing medium and\\/or a distal end position of a burner.

T. Suzuki; K. Morimoto

1985-01-01

29

High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

Smith, James E., Jr.

1992-01-01

30

Temperature control of a solar furnace for material testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar furnace is a thermodynamic device that concentrates sun radiation in order to achieve high-temperatures at a focus, where a sample of the material to be tested is located. This article address the problem of designing a control architecture for solar furnaces. It is motivated by the use of a solar furnace as an instrument in material science research

B. Andrade Costa; J. M. Lemos; L. G. Rosa

2011-01-01

31

Designing modern furnace cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated multidisciplinary approach to furnace design that considers the interdependence between furnace cooling elements and other furnace systems, such as binding, cooling water, and instrumentation, is necessary to achieve maximum furnace production and a long refractory life. The retrofit of the BHP Hartley electric furnace and the Kidd Creek copper converting furnace are successful examples of an integrated approach to furnace cooling design.

Merry, J.; Sarvinis, J.; Voermann, N.

2000-02-01

32

Furnace with radiant burndown tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of burning combustible gas atmosphere in a furnace having at least one radiant burndown tube is described. The furnace has a furnace wall, a sealed furnace chamber, a conduit through the furnace wall, and the radiant burndown tube having a tube portion within the furnace chamber, the tube portion having a burner end and an exhast end, and

J. Conybear; K. Hemsath; A. Thekdi; F. Vereecke; S. Verhoff

1980-01-01

33

Electromelt furnace evaluation  

SciTech Connect

An electromelt furnace was designed, built, and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high.

Reimann, G.A.; Welch, J.M.

1981-09-01

34

[The electric furnace of Henri Moissan at one hundred years: connection with the electric furnace, the solar furnace, the plasma furnace?].  

PubMed

The trace of Henri Moissan's pioneer work 100 years ago is clearly evidenced by an overview of achievements in high temperature devices; 1987: "Le four électrique" by Henri Moissan; 1948-1952: "High temperature heating in a cavity rotary kiln using focusing of solar radiation" by Félix Trombe; 1962: "The cavity rotary kiln using focused solar radiation jointly with a plasma gun" by Marc Foëx; 1970: "The rotary kiln with two plasma guns and arc transfer" by Marc Foëx; 1984: "The plasma furnace" by Electricité de France (EDF) at Renardières; 1997: "The plasma furnace" by the Atomic Energy Center (CEA) at Cadarache, the VULCANO program. The first part of this contribution is devoted to Henri Moissan. Re-reading his early book on the electric furnace, especially the first chapter and the sections on silica, carbon vapor and experiments performed in casting molten metal--the conclusions are outstanding--provides modern readers with an amazing insight into future developments. The last two parts are devoted to Félix Trombe and Marc Foëx, tracing the evolution of high temperature cavity processus leading to the solar furnace and the present day plasma furnace at the CEA. Focus is placed on research conducted by the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) with the solar and plasma furnaces at Odeillo. The relationships with Henri Moissan's early work are amazing, offering a well deserved homage to this pioneer researcher. PMID:10365467

Royère, C

1999-03-01

35

Implement proper furnace safety interlocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cracking furnaces are among some of the most complex operations in chemical process industries (CPI) plants. Consider, for example, the cracking furnaces in ethylene plants. Furnace explosions can occur during the light-off process or from accumulations of unburned fuel, incomplete combustion, or introduction of flammable products into the combustion spaces of the furnace. Over half of all furnace explosions occur

C. D. Thomas; G. J. W. Schoenmaker

1996-01-01

36

Application of the Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases model (SLWSGG) to the calculation of radiative heat transfer in steel reheating furnaces firing on low heating value gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spectral Line-based Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (SLWSGG) model is applied to calculate the gaseous radiative properties of the aero- or oxy-combustion products of low heating value gases issued from steel making process such as Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) as well as of high heating value gases such as Coke Oven Gas (COG) and conventional Natural Gas (NG). The comparison of total emissivities shows that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is in very good agreement with the Hottel and Sarofim's database. The 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model is then integrated into AnsysFluent® Discrete Ordinates method under User Defined Function and CFD simulations are performed using these combined models. The simulations are done, with full combustion-radiation coupling, for steel reheating furnaces firing on three types of gases: BFG, COG and NG. The results are compared with the simulations realized with the 1-gray-gas WSGG model available in AnsysFluent®. The comparison shows that the 1-gray-gas WSGG model highly overestimates the steel discharging temperature as compared to the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model. Significant temperature differences are observed between the two radiative models, i.e. 116°C, 55°C and 67°C for the BFG, COG and NG cases, respectively. It can be concluded that the 3-gray-gases SLWSGG model should be used to calculate the radiation heat transfer in large industrial furnaces with more accuracy not only for low heating value gases such as BFG but also for high heating value gases such as COG and NG.

Nguyen, P. D.; Danda, A.; Embouazza, M.; Gazdallah, M.; Evrard, P.; Feldheim, V.

2012-06-01

37

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

38

Analise genetica da variacao induzida por radiacao gama em caracteres quantitativos de Caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). (Genetical analysis of the induced variation by gamma radiation in quantitative features of Caupi (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Genetical analysis procedures of the cobalt 60 gamma radiation effects in the induced mutations in quantitative characters of Caupi BR-1 Poty. The following characters were evaluated: day to first flower (FI), number of pods per plant (NVP), pod lenght (C...

J. P. P. Araujo

1987-01-01

39

Gas furnace system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus is disclosed for operating a gas furnace system having an air intake for supplying external air into a sealed chamber for input to a gas burner assembly. Exhaust air from within the combustion burning chamber is applied through an exhaust duct directly into an environment which is external to the furnace system but which is still within the environment

1984-01-01

40

Furnace for hazardous materials  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a continuous furnace for thoroughly treating hazardous materials to convert such materials to environmentally acceptable materials, the furnace including a continuous belt adapted to carry hazardous materials through at least one heated zone without release of noxious fumes or noxious solids to the environment.

McGinnis, F.K.; Enright, J.F. III

1989-02-07

41

Blast furnace burden detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for measuring the difference between coke and pellet layers in a blast furnace is described. The measurement is based on a high frequency magnetic proximity principle where coke, a conductor, causes a change in apparent coil resistance. Theoretical and experimental results are presented. The application of the system to No.5 Blast Furnace at Inland Steel (USA) is also

H. Gerber; P. Chaubal

1999-01-01

42

Heat-transfer simulation in a furnace for steam reformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses three-dimensional combined radiative and convective heat-transfer process in a furnace for LPG reforming which is simulated by introducing the radiosity concept into the radiative heat ray method for accurate radiative heat-transfer analysis. Together with an analysis of the chemical reaction in the reactor tubes of the furnace, the heat-transfer simulation gives the three-dimensional profile of the combustion

K. Kudo; H. Taniguchi; K. Guo; T. Katayama; T. Nagata

1991-01-01

43

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME 2. HEAVY-OIL AND COAL-FIRED FURNACES AND THE EVALUATION OF RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes Phase II of a research program, the overall objective of which was to specify burner design criteria for minimum pollutant emissions from both pulverized-coal- and residual-fuel-oil-fired combustors. Phase II included both furnace investigations and the evalu...

44

General purpose rocket furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multipurpose furnace for space vehicles used for material processing experiments in an outer space environment is described. The furnace contains three separate cavities designed to process samples of the widest possible range of materials and thermal requirements. Each cavity contains three heating elements capable of independent function under the direction of an automatic and programmable control system. A heat removable mechanism is also provided for each cavity which operates in conjunction with the control system for establishing an isothermally heated cavity or a wide range of thermal gradients and cool down rates. A monitoring system compatible with the rocket telemetry provides furnace performance and sample growth rate data throughout the processing cycle.

Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D. (inventors)

1979-01-01

45

Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) without the EAC internal support structure. Flown on USML-1 and USML-2. The Principal Investigators on these flights were: Larson, Lehoczky, Matthiesen, Wiedemeier. Processed 6 samples on USML-1 and 7 samples on USML-2.

1991-01-01

46

Franklin Furnace Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those not in the know, the phrase "Franklin Furnace" might sound like a type of 19th century heating device. In fact, the Franklin Furnace organization has been dedicated to the proposition that avant-garde art is a very worthwhile endeavor, and their delightful website presents fine information about their work, and about the world of avant-garde art more generally. Based in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, the organization started their work in 1976, and their website offers a nice timeline and introductory essay that documents their own history. Moving along, visitors will definitely want to look over their "Archives" area, which contain a number of online exhibitions and video interview with artists who have worked with Franklin Furnace over the years. Finally, the site also contains a "Scholarly Stuff" section, which features essays on the Furnace and some of the interesting archival techniques they have used to preserve avant-garde art for future generations.

47

High gradient directional solidification furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high gradient directional solidification furnace is disclosed which includes eight thermal zones throughout the length of the furnace. In the hot end of the furnace, furnace elements provide desired temperatures. These elements include Nichrome wire received in a grooved tube which is encapsulated y an outer alumina core. A booster heater is provided in the hot end of the furnace which includes toroidal tungsten/rhenium wire which has a capacity to put heat quickly into the furnace. An adiabatic zone is provided by an insulation barrier to separate the hot end of the furnace from the cold end. The old end of the furnace is defined by additional heating elements. A heat transfer plate provides a means by which heat may be extracted from the furnace and conducted away through liquid cooled jackets. By varying the input of heat via the booster heater and output of heat via the heat transfer plate, a desired thermal gradient profile may be provided.

Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D.

1985-10-01

48

High gradient directional solidification furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high gradient directional solidification furnace is disclosed which includes eight thermal zones throughout the length of the furnace. In the hot end of the furnace, furnace elements provide desired temperatures. These elements include Nichrome wire received in a grooved tube which is encapsulated y an outer alumina core. A booster heater is provided in the hot end of the furnace which includes toroidal tungsten/rhenium wire which has a capacity to put heat quickly into the furnace. An adiabatic zone is provided by an insulation barrier to separate the hot end of the furnace from the cold end. The old end of the furnace is defined by additional heating elements. A heat transfer plate provides a means by which heat may be extracted from the furnace and conducted away through liquid cooled jackets. By varying the input of heat via the booster heater and output of heat via the heat transfer plate, a desired thermal gradient profile may be provided.

Aldrich, B. R.; Whitt, W. D. (inventor)

1985-01-01

49

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace in Red Room Within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

50

Blast furnace reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vast a dvances h ave b een m ade in blast-furnace t echnology d uring t he p ast two decades through p lant t rials and plant d evelopments a ssisted by research to provide b etter u nderstanding of physical and chemical w orkings of the blast f urnace. T he f ields of research have i ncluded

E. T. Turkdogan

1978-01-01

51

Energy saving furnace construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A furnace shell has a fire pot centrally located therein, the walls of the shell and fire pot being spaced to form a fluid heat transfer chamber therebetween. Heat transfer is effected between the pot and the chamber to heat the fluid medium in the chamber. The shell is located in an interior to be heated, such as a building

McCarty

1979-01-01

52

Furnace ash air seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the present invention, a sealing chamber is provided into which a noncombustible residue from an incinerator, furnace or the like is moved. The residue may be sprayed with a liquid upon entering the sealing chamber to effect cooling and compaction of the residue. The sealing chamber is provided with a vibratory discharge mechanism which serves to convey the

Musschoot

1985-01-01

53

Arc furnace electrode control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control is described for positioning the electrodes of a poly-phase electric arc furnace energized by a poly-phase transformer having primary and secondary windings, and including control means for individually elevating and lowering each of the electrodes, the improvement comprising: first circuit means each coupled respectively to one of the primary phases of the transformer. Each is operable respectively to

J. A. Persson; R. E. Andrews; M. Maola

1986-01-01

54

CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN REROLL BAY. CAKES FROM THE CASTING SHOP ARE BROUGHT UP TO ROLLING TEMPERATURE IN ONE OF TWO (#130 AND 146) GAS-FIRED FURNACES. A RADIO-CONTROLLED OVERHEAD CRANE TRANSFERS CAKES FROM FLATCARS TO THE ROLLER LINE LEADING INTO THE FURNACE. CAKES ARE HEATED AT 900-1000 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT FOR THREE TO FOUR HOURS. RATED FURNACE CAPACITY IS 100,000 LBS.\\HOUR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

55

New possibilities of Consteel furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disadvantages of Consteel electric furnaces, which are mainly caused by the low efficiency of heating of a charged metal scrap by effluent furnace gases, are considered. A new concept of an electric-arc furnace with scrap heating on a conveyer by powerful burners, which provide fast scrap heating to 800°C, is proposed. As follows from calculations, the capacity of such a furnace increases substantially, the specific electric power consumption decreases, and the emission of toxic substances into the atmosphere decreases as compared to the existing Consteel furnaces.

Tuluevskii, Yu. N.; Zinurov, I. Yu.; Shver, V. G.

2012-06-01

56

Modified Furnace Makes More Silicon Ribbon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple change in lid and heat shields makes faster growth rates possible. In modified furnace, slots in shields making up lid grow progressively wider from bottom to top of lid. Allows ribbon to cool faster by radiation. Result, crucible maintains at higher temperature, 5.8-cm-wide ribbon thicker, and ribbon is pulled faster. Used in pilot production line to demonstrate dendritic-web technology.

Piotrowski, Paul A.

1991-01-01

57

Blast furnace stove control  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

1998-12-31

58

High efficiency furnace  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

1985-12-31

59

High Efficiency Furnace  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

1985-08-27

60

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection  

SciTech Connect

Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

NONE

1998-09-30

61

A high-temperature furnace for applications in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology in the area of material processing and crystal growth has been greatly furthered by research in microgravity environments. The role of efficient, lightweight furnaces with reliable performance is crucial in these experiments. A need exists for the development of a readily duplicated, high-temperature furnace satisfying stringent weight, volume, and power constraints. A furnace was designed and is referred to as the UAH SHIELD. Stringent physical and operating characteristics for the system were specified, including a maximum weight of 20 kg, a maximum power requirement of 60 W, and a volume of the furnace assembly, excluding the batteries, limited to half a Get-Away-Special canister. The UAH SHIELD furnace uses radiation shield and vacuum technology applied in the form of a series of concentric cylinders enclosed on either end with disks. Thermal testing of a furnace prototype was performed in addition to some thermal and structural analysis. Results indicate the need for spacing of the shields to accommodate the thermal expansion during furnace operation. In addition, a power dissipation of approximately 100 W and system weight of approximately 30 kg was found for the current design.

1991-01-01

62

Non-carbon induction furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

1984-01-06

63

Water gas furnace  

SciTech Connect

A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

Gallaro, C.

1985-12-03

64

A thermal system model for a radiant-tube continuous reheating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal system mathematical model developed for a gas-fired radiant-tube continuous reheating furnace is discussed. The\\u000a mathematical model of the furnace integrates submodels for combustion and heat transfer within the radiant tube with models\\u000a for the furnace enclosure. The transport processes occurring in the radiant tube are treated using a one-dimensional scheme,\\u000a and the radiation exchange between the load, the

H. Ramamurthy; S. Ramadhyani; R. Viskanta

1995-01-01

65

Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model  

SciTech Connect

The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

Seymour Katz

2004-12-31

66

Two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

1998-05-05

67

Two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

Blaugher, R.D.

1998-05-05

68

Blast furnace injection symposium: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 14 papers related to blast furnace injection issues. Topics include coal quality, coal grinding, natural gas injection, stable operation of the blast furnace, oxygen enrichment, coal conveying, and performance at several steel companies. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1996-12-31

69

APPLICATION OF ROOF RADIANT BURNERS IN LARGE PUSHER-TYPE FURNACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the application of roof flat-flame burners in the pusher-type steel slab reheating furnaces, after furnace reconstruction and replacement of conventional torch burners, with the objective to increase the efficiency of radiative heat transfer from the refractory roof to the charge. Based on observations and on mea- surements of the construction and process parameters under operating conditions,

A. VARGA; M. TATI; L. LAZI

70

High pressure furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01

71

High pressure furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

Morris, D.E.

1993-09-14

72

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01

73

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOEpatents

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14

74

A new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more NMIs are realizing their primary scale themselves with fixed-point blackbodies as their reference standard. However, commercially available fixed-point blackbody furnaces of sufficient quality are not always easy to obtain. CHINO Corp. and NMIJ, AIST jointly developed a new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace. The new furnace has such features as 1) improved temperature uniformity when compared to previous products, enabling better plateau quality, 2) adoption of the hybrid fixed-point cell structure with internal insulation to improve robustness and thereby to extend lifetime, 3) easily ejectable and replaceable heater unit and fixed-point cell design, leading to reduced maintenance cost, 4) interchangeability among multiple fixed points from In to Cu points. The replaceable cell feature facilitates long term maintenance of the scale through management of a group of fixed-point cells of the same type. The compact furnace is easily transportable and therefore can also function as a traveling standard for disseminating the radiation temperature scale, and for maintaining the scale at the secondary level and industrial calibration laboratories. It is expected that the furnace will play a key role of the traveling standard in the anticipated APMP supplementary comparison of the radiation thermometry scale.

Hiraka, K.; Yamada, Y.; Ishii, J.; Oikawa, H.; Shimizu, T.; Kadoya, S.; Kobayashi, T.

2013-09-01

75

A new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace  

SciTech Connect

More and more NMIs are realizing their primary scale themselves with fixed-point blackbodies as their reference standard. However, commercially available fixed-point blackbody furnaces of sufficient quality are not always easy to obtain. CHINO Corp. and NMIJ, AIST jointly developed a new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace. The new furnace has such features as 1) improved temperature uniformity when compared to previous products, enabling better plateau quality, 2) adoption of the hybrid fixed-point cell structure with internal insulation to improve robustness and thereby to extend lifetime, 3) easily ejectable and replaceable heater unit and fixed-point cell design, leading to reduced maintenance cost, 4) interchangeability among multiple fixed points from In to Cu points. The replaceable cell feature facilitates long term maintenance of the scale through management of a group of fixed-point cells of the same type. The compact furnace is easily transportable and therefore can also function as a traveling standard for disseminating the radiation temperature scale, and for maintaining the scale at the secondary level and industrial calibration laboratories. It is expected that the furnace will play a key role of the traveling standard in the anticipated APMP supplementary comparison of the radiation thermometry scale.

Hiraka, K.; Oikawa, H.; Shimizu, T.; Kadoya, S.; Kobayashi, T. [CHINO CORPORATION, Itabashi, Tokyo (Japan)] [CHINO CORPORATION, Itabashi, Tokyo (Japan); Yamada, Y.; Ishii, J. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)] [National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

2013-09-11

76

Numerical Simulation of Thermal Process in an Industrial Rotary Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical simulation was performed for the complex thermal processes of heating steel bars in a rotary furnace, which involve both the momentum transfer and the energy transfer mainly by radiation and combustion. A CFD commercial software CFX was employed to solve the proposed 2-D mathematical model. The boundary conditions for the simulation were initially chosen basing on on-line measured

Zeyi Jiang

2005-01-01

77

Condensing furnaces: Lessons from a utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

for the last several years about 90% of the new natural gas furnaces installed in Wisconsin have been condensing furnaces and a number of lessons have been learned. If you avoid the common mistakes, condensing furnaces typically can deliver heating savings of 20-35 % assuming the old furnace was in the 60% AFUE range. This article describes the common mistakes

Beers

1994-01-01

78

Use of vacuum furnaces in heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum furnaces with a cylindrical chamber, with a rectangular-cross-section chamber, and special-purpose furnaces produced by SECO\\/WARWICK are considered. Examples of the use of vacuum furnaces for hardening, tempering, and carburizing are given. Prospects for improvement of the furnaces are considered.

J. Oleinik

2004-01-01

79

Furnace brazing under partial vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

Mckown, R. D.

1979-01-01

80

An Automatic Electric Annealing Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel technique for annealing corundum crystals consists in rapidly cooling the crystals to room temperature after growth is complete, transferring them to an automatically programmed electric furnace and reheating them to 1980 deg. C, and then cooling ...

J. A. Adamski W. A. Yasinski

1968-01-01

81

Fossil fuel furnace reactor  

DOEpatents

A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01

82

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

1994-06-14

83

Variable frequency microwave furnace system  

DOEpatents

A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

84

Pyrometer method for measuring slab temperature in a reheat furnace  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus to measure the temperature of a slab in a reheat furnace with increased accuracy using either a single or dual pyrometer system through use of a multiplicity of temperature correction functions involving temperatures of slab and wall, distance between a pyrometer and the slab at which it is aimed, a ratio of air and fuel supplying the furnace heat and radiation interferences. The functions are chosen by a micro-processor in the system dependent on temperature differentials, emissivity setting of the pyrometer, target distance between pyrometer and slab, and air and fuel flow rates existing and fluctuating in the system.

Rudzki, E.M.; Jackson, R.W.; Martocci, A.P.

1984-02-21

85

Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter\\/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter\\/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes

Paul P. Woskov; Daniel R. Cohn; Charles H. Titus; Jeffrey E. Surma

1998-01-01

86

Lead smelting in a submerged arc furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead is still principally produced in shaft and flame-fired furnaces. However, electric furnaces increase metal recovery, reduce environmental burdens and decrease energy consumption compared to conventional processes. Because lead has low melting and boiling points and aggressive slags, the design of the furnace, energy input, and slag conductivity and composition are very important. Secondary materials are easily handled in electric furnaces. Since additional amounts of lead will become available from secondary sources in the future, electric furnaces are expected to replace conventional smelting furnaces.

Rath, G.; Vlajcic, T.; Metelmann, O.

1990-06-01

87

Batch Preheat for glass and related furnace processing operations  

SciTech Connect

The objectives that our development work addressed are: (1) Establish through lab tests a salt eutectic with a melting point of about 250 F and a working range of 250 to 1800 F. (2) Establish the most economical material of construction for the screened salt eutectics identified in the first objective. (3) Establish the material of construction for the salt heater liner. Objectives 2 and 3 were determined through corrosion tests using selected metallurgical samples. Successful completion of the above-stated goals will be incorporated in a heat recovery design that can be used in high temperature processes and furnaces, typical of which is the glass melting process. The process design incorporates the following unit operations: a vertical batch heater (whereby the batch flows down through tubes in a shell and tube exchanger; a molten salt eutectic is circulated on the shell side); a molten salt heater utilizing furnace flue gas in a radiation type heater (molten salt is circulated in the annular space between the inner and outer shells of the vertical heater, and flue gas passes from the furnace exhaust through the inner shell of the heater); a cantilever type molten salt circulating pump; and a jacketed mixer/conveyor to drive off moisture from the batch prior to feeding the batch to the vertical batch heater. Historically, radiation heaters, when applied to glass or fiberglass furnace recuperation, have experienced failures due to uneven heat flux rates, which increases internal stresses and spot overheating conditions. Low heat transfer coefficients result in requirements for large heat transfer surface areas in gas to gas or gas to air exchangers. Fouling is another factor that results in lower unit availability and reduced performance. These factors are accommodated in this process by the incorporation of several design features. The salt heater will be a vertical double wall radiation design, similar to radiation air heaters used in high temperature heat recovery. The unit utilizes an inner shell that the furnace exhaust gas passes through: this provides essentially a self-cleaning surface. Utilization of radiation air heaters in fiberglass furnaces has demonstrated that the inner shell provides a surface from which molten ash can drain down. The molten salt eutectic will be pumped through the annulus between this inner wall and the outer wall of the unit. The annular space tempering via the molten salt will promote more uniform expansion for the unit, and thereby promote more uniform heat flux rates. Heat transfer would be via radiation mainly, with a minor convective contributor.

Energy & Environmental Resources, Inc

2002-08-12

88

Energy-Efficiency Directory of Oil Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this directory is to inform consumers about the energy costs of operating oil furnaces. Information contained in this directory includes the type of furnace, the output capacity, and the annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE). This direc...

T. G. Statt J. L. Coggins

1981-01-01

89

Energy-Efficiency Directory of Gas Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this directory is to inform consumers about the energy costs of operating natural gas or propane furnaces. Information contained in this directory includes the type of furnace, the output capacity, and the annual fuel utilization efficiency...

T. G. Statt J. L. Coggins

1981-01-01

90

Corrosion of furnace heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic investigations and field data indicate that corrosion of furnace heat exchangers is affected primarily by condensation tendencies caused by installation, design, and operating conditions and aggravated by the presence of contaminants, reports the Canadian Gas Research Institute. Designing for maximum heat-transfer efficiency can cause excessive chilling in some areas of the heat exchanger, resulting in condensation of combustion products

S. W. Khoo; F. D. Williamson

1976-01-01

91

Training Guidelines: Glass Furnace Operators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technological development in the glass industry is constantly directed towards producing high quality glass at low operating costs. Particularly, changes have taken place in melting methods which mean that the modern furnace operator has greater responsibilities than any of his predecessors. The complexity of control systems, melting rates, tank…

Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

92

Acoustical Measurement Of Furnace Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple probes withstand severe conditions, yet give spatially-resolved temperature readings. Prototype acoustical system developed to measure temperatures from ambient to 1,800 degree F in such structures as large industrial lime kilns and recovery-boiler furnaces. Pulses of sound reflected from obstructions in sensing tube. Speed of sound and temperature in each segment deduced from travel times of pulses.

Parthasarathy, Shakkottai; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

1989-01-01

93

Crystal growth and furnace analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermal analysis of Hg/Cd/Te solidification in a Bridgman cell is made using Continuum's VAST code. The energy equation is solved in an axisymmetric, quasi-steady domain for both the molten and solid alloy regions. Alloy composition is calculated by a simplified one-dimensional model to estimate its effect on melt thermal conductivity and, consequently, on the temperature field within the cell. Solidification is assumed to occur at a fixed temperature of 979 K. Simplified boundary conditions are included to model both the radiant and conductive heat exchange between the furnace walls and the alloy. Calculations are performed to show how the steady-state isotherms are affected by: the hot and cold furnace temperatures, boundary condition parameters, and the growth rate which affects the calculated alloy's composition. The Advanced Automatic Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), developed by NASA, is also thermally analyzed using the CINDA code. The objective is to determine the performance and the overall power requirements for different furnace designs.

Dakhoul, Youssef M.

1986-01-01

94

Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

95

Slot Forge Furnace demonstration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A Hague International Slot Forge Furnace was tested and installed to demonstrate a high performance energy conserving slot forge furnace in an industrial environment. This furnace was used to heat 2-1/2'' round x 31-1/8'' long bars in preparation for an upsetting operation. Each piece was heated twice, in separate operations, and upset on both ends. The Hague International Model IV Slot Forge Furnace used in the program was designed with a nominal throughput capacity of 3000 lbs/h. Due to production requirements the demonstration furnace was operated in the range of 3800 lbs/h. A base case furnace adjacent to the Hague furnace operated simultaneously. Fuel consumption and steel throughput data for both furnaces were collected and analyzed. A heating rate of 746 Btu/lb for the Hague furnace and 1620 Btu/lb for the base case furnace was demonstrated. Data demonstrated the Hague furnace's ability to save 54% of the fuel consumed by the base case furnace.

None

1981-02-01

96

Cogeneration from glass furnace waste heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In glass manufacturing 70% of the total energy utilized is consumed in the melting process. Three basic furnaces are in use: regenerative, recuperative, and direct fired design. The present paper focuses on secondary heat recovery from regenerative furnaces. A diagram of a typical regenerative furnace is given. Three recovery bottoming cycles were evaluated as part of a comparative systems analysis:

J. G. Hnat; J. S. Patten

1982-01-01

97

A thermal system model for a radiant-tube continuous reheating furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermal system mathematical model developed for a gas-fired radiant-tube continuous reheating furnace is discussed. The mathematical model of the furnace integrates submodels for combustion and heat transfer within the radiant tube with models for the furnace enclosure. The transport processes occurring in the radiant tube are treated using a one-dimensional scheme, and the radiation exchange between the load, the radiant-tube surfaces, and the furnace refractories are analyzed using the radiosity method. The continuous furnace operation is simulated under steady-state conditions. Model simulations of load surface temperature variation compare well with measurements in an industrial galvannealing furnace. The scope and flexibility of the model are assessed by performing extensive parametric studies using furnace geometry, material properties, and operating conditions as input parameters in the model and predicting the thermal performance of the furnace. The various parameters studied include the effects of load and refractory emissivities, load velocities, properties of the stock material, and variations in the radiant-tube designs.

Ramamurthy, H.; Ramadhyani, S.; Viskanta, R.

1995-10-01

98

The microwave processing of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ideal treatment for electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is to cost-effectively process the dust on site to generate high-value\\u000a products. Microwave heating has the potential to be the ideal approach. In this study, testing was conducted to evaluate the\\u000a feasibility of treating EAF dust under microwave radiation to produce iron metal and zinc metal instead of zinc oxides as

Xiang Sun; Jiann-Yang Hwang; Xiaodi Huang

2008-01-01

99

Glass melting furnace and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Leone International Sales Corp.'s new glass-melting furnace, heat transfer from the burning fuel to the melting glass is substantially increased by precisely adjusting the position of the burners to substantially reduce the excess-air requirement while maintaining an acceptable carbon monoxide level (35 to 50 ppM) in the flue gases, and to maximize flame coverage of the raw batch material

J. D. Nesbitt; D. H. Larson; M. E. Fejer

1974-01-01

100

Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Wittle, J. Kenneth (Chester Springs, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1996-01-01

101

Simple device measures solar radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple inexpensive thermometer, insolated from surroundings by transparent glass or plastic encasement, measures intensities of solar radiation, or radiation from other sources such as furnaces or ovens. Unit can be further modified to accomplish readings from remote locations.

Humphries, W. R.

1977-01-01

102

Hot-water-furnace supplemental heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a hot-water-furnace, supplemental water heater to be used with a furnace of the type having essentially parallel, vertically-oriented, multiple heating tubes surrounded by water for conveying combustion materials from a firebox to an exit area adjacent the multiple heating tubes. The hot-water furnace forms a flat support wall at the exit area. The supplemental water heater comprises:

1987-01-01

103

Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

1992-12-29

104

Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

Dosaj, Vishu D. (Midland, MI); May, James B. (Midland, MI)

1992-12-29

105

Condensing furnaces: Lessons from a utility  

SciTech Connect

for the last several years about 90% of the new natural gas furnaces installed in Wisconsin have been condensing furnaces and a number of lessons have been learned. If you avoid the common mistakes, condensing furnaces typically can deliver heating savings of 20-35 % assuming the old furnace was in the 60% AFUE range. This article describes the common mistakes and how to avoid them: outside air needed 100%; benefits of sealed combustion; follow the installation manual scrupulously; how to avoid potential problems; tips on venting.

Beers, J. [Madison Gas and Electric Company, WI (United States)

1994-11-01

106

Recent developments in electric arc furnace operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The provision of water cooled electric arc furnace walls and roofs, the increased use of iron pellets in the raw material charge, the use of solid state devices in electrode drive systems and the application of digital control are discussed. Integration of computer control of the separate aspects of arc furnace operation into an optimal direct digital control strategy for the furnace is considered. Use of dc plasma torches as an alternative to the ac electric arc as an energy source is forecast. Potential advantages of these include reduced energy costs, use of nonconsumable electrodes, and noncontamination of steel by electrodes. An operational 40 tonne dc plasma torch furnace is reported.

Morris, A. S.

1983-06-01

107

Influence of electric arc furnace pressure on power consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace steelmakers are aware of the fact that an over-evacuated furnace loses heat through the off-gas elbow. Quantitatively, how much energy can be lost by operating a furnace under too negative a pressure or how much can be gained by maintaining a positive pressure in the furnace is not known. Electric arc furnace emission regulation 40 CFR Part

M. Bender; R. Zemp; R. Ineichen

1996-01-01

108

Influence of electric arc furnace pressure on power consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace steelmakers are aware that an over-evacuated furnace loses heat through the off-gas elbow. Exactly how much energy can be lost by operating a furnace under too negative a pressure or how much can be gained by maintaining a positive pressure in the furnace is not known. Electric arc furnace emission regulations 40 CFR Part 60 AA and

M. Bender; R. Zemp; R. Ineichen

1995-01-01

109

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

Blaugher, Richard D. (Evergreen, CO)

1999-03-16

110

Vertical two chamber reaction furnace  

DOEpatents

A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

Blaugher, R.D.

1999-03-16

111

Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

112

Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

113

3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT LOOKING NORTH. DOROTHY SIX IS THE CLOSEST FURNACE IN THE PHOTOGRAPH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

114

56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

115

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

116

Zinc recovery from blast furnace flue dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace flue dusts are a mixture of oxides expelled from the top of the blast furnace, whose major components are iron oxides. They also contain zinc, silicon, magnesium and other minor element oxides in lesser amounts. The direct recycling of flue dust is not usually possible since it contains some undesirable elements (zinc and alkaline metals) that can cause

B. Asadi Zeydabadi; D. Mowla; M. H. Shariat; J. Fathi Kalajahi

1997-01-01

117

Blast furnace coal injection in China  

SciTech Connect

The development of blast furnace coal injection in China will be summarized. The improvements in the technical process for pneumatic conveying, injection feed control, distribution and combustion of pulverized coal will be covered. Ideas are also described concerning the use of oxy-coal technology in a blast furnace.

Zhou, J.G. (Ministry of Metallurgical Industry, Beijing (China). Central Iron and Steel Research Inst.)

1994-09-01

118

ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. umber of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total oil furnaces tested by the EPA in Roanoke, V...

119

Developmental testing of a programmable multizone furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multizone furnace was evaluated for its potential utilization for process experimentation on board the Space Shuttle. A temperature gradient can be created through the use of a series of connected temperature zones and can be translated by the coordinated sequencing of zone temperatures. The Bridgman-Stockbarger thermal configuration for directional solidification was implemented so that neither the sample nor furnace was translated. The thermal behavior of the furnace was measured and characterized. Limitations due to both thermal and electronic (computer) factors are identified. The results indicate that the multizone design is limited to low temperature gradients because of the indirect furnace-to-sample thermal coupling needed to blend the discrete thermal zones. The multizone furnace design inherently consumes more power than a similar (two temperature) conventional Bridgman type directional solidification furnace because every zone must be capable of the high cooling rates needed to produce the maximum desired temperature drop. Typical achievable static temperature gradients for the furnace tested were between 6 and 75 C/in. The maximum gradient velocity was approximately 10 in./hr. Several aspects of the tested system could be improved, but the dependence of the multizone design on high heat loss will limit Space Shuttle applications in the form tested unless additional power is available. The multizone furnace offers great flexibility but requires a high level of operator understanding for full advantage to be obtained.

Ting, E. Y.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

1986-01-01

120

Chaotic responses in electric arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the findings of ongoing research into the nature and extent of electric fluctuations occuring in electric arc furnaces (EAFs). These fluctuations are indicators of the state of the furnace system and may serve as precursors for use in predictive control of the system. Current and voltage wave forms taken from a small-scale, 200 lb capacity alternating current

Paul E. King; Thomas L. Ochs; Alan D. Hartman

1994-01-01

121

Recent developments in electric arc furnace operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The provision of water cooled electric arc furnace walls and roofs, the increased use of iron pellets in the raw material charge, the use of solid state devices in electrode drive systems and the application of digital control are discussed. Integration of computer control of the separate aspects of arc furnace operation into an optimal direct digital control strategy for

A. S. Morris

1983-01-01

122

Chaotic responses in electric arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the findings of ongoing research into the nature and extent of electric fluctuations occurring in electric arc furnaces (EAFs). These fluctuations are indicators of the state of the furnace system and may serve as precursors for use in predictive control of the system. Current and voltage wave forms taken from a small-scale, 200 lb capacity alternating current

Paul E. King; Thomas L. Ochs; Alan D. Hartman

1994-01-01

123

Crystal growth furnace safety system validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings are reported regarding the safe operation of the NASA crystal growth furnace (CGF) and potential methods for detecting containment failures of the furnace. The main conclusions are summarized by ampoule leak detection, cartridge leak detection, and detection of hazardous species in the experiment apparatus container (EAC).

Mackowski, D. W.; Hartfield, R.; Bhavnani, S. H.; Belcher, V. M.

1994-01-01

124

Gas Pressure Sintering Furnace for Structural Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The grant was initiated on February 1, 1998. A no-cost extension for one year was requested in January 1999. We have designed, purchased and received a gas pressure sintering furnace from Centorr Inc. (Model 2723EP). This furnace is in full operation. We ...

I. Chen

2001-01-01

125

Flame breaker for industrial furnace heating element  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a generally elongated tubular burner heating element for the furnace chamber of an industrial furnace there is provided within the heating element at an end thereof opposite the end at which the burner is located a flame breaker assembly arranged to extend along the length of the burner heating element comprising a plurality of generally circular baffle plates spaced

Stiasny

1979-01-01

126

Copper staves in the blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operational data for stave cooling systems for two German blast furnaces show good correlation with predicted thermal results. Copper staves have been installed in blast furnaces in the zones exposed to the highest thermal loads. The good operational results achieved confirm the choice of copper staves in the areas of maximum heat load. Both temperature measurements and predictions establish that

R. G. Helenbrook; W. Kowalski; K. H. Grosspietsch; H. Hille

1996-01-01

127

An intelligent ladle furnace control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an intelligent ladle furnace control system is presented. The main functions and system structure is introduced. The system applied combined artificial intelligent technology for ladle furnace heat balance calculation and steel temperature prediction, dynamic energy input optimization and intelligent electrode control. The application results achieved are given to demonstrate the capability or this intelligent control system

Sun Yanguang; Wang Daixian; Tao Baisheng; Yan Tao; Shi Yang; Fang Shubiao; Wang Yuanhou

2000-01-01

128

Silicon smelting in a closed furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode f...

V. Dosaj M. D. Brumels C. M. Haines J. B. May

1991-01-01

129

Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors  

SciTech Connect

The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

2003-02-28

130

Shougang No. 2 blast furnace enlargement  

SciTech Connect

Shougang is expanding to become a 10 million ton/year steel plant in 1995. In 1990, the capacity of Shougang No. 2 blast furnace was enlarged from 1,327 to 1,726 cu meters. The project consisted of building a new furnace on the old site while maintaining the operation of the old furnace. The project was completed in 188 calendar days, 3 days ahead of schedule. Shougang has a large, comprehensive technical force that includes design, construction and production. Most of the equipment and instrumentation, both mechanical and electrical, were fabricated by Shougang personnel. The future increase in capacity of No. 1, 3 and 4 blast furnaces will exceed that of No. 2 furnace.

Wang, Z.Z. (Shougang Iron and Steel Corp., Beijing (China))

1994-09-01

131

High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical, numerical and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing furnaces. The research concentrates on a commercially available high temperature furnace using zirconia as the heating element and an arc furnace based on a ST International tube welder. The zirconia furnace was delivered and work is progressing on schedule. The work on the arc furnace was initially stalled due to the unavailability of the NASA prototype, which is actively being tested aboard the KC-135 experimental aircraft. A proposal was written and funded to purchase an additional arc welder to alleviate this problem. The ST International weld head and power supply were received and testing will begin in early November. The first 6 months of the grant are covered.

Smith, James E., Jr.

1988-01-01

132

The d-c shaft furnace  

SciTech Connect

A recent projection of world steel production by process through the year 2000 illustrates a general consensus that electric arc furnace production will continue to increase and represent a greater proportion of total steel produced. State of the art technology is being applied to meet the increasing volume and quality demands with the continuing objectives being the production of high-quality product at the lowest possible cost. In this article, the integration of two state-of-the-art technologies into the d-c shaft furnace process is discussed: the direct current arc furnace; and scrap preheating. The d-c shaft furnace, with scrap preheating capability, provides the potential for not only major increases in production rate but also significant reductions in energy and electrode consumption in comparison with a conventional d-c furnace of similar physical and electrical characteristics.

Haissig, M. (Fuchs Systems Inc., Salisbury, NC (United States))

1994-05-01

133

A multi-zone muffle furnace design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Multi-Zone Muffle-Tube Furnace was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of providing an in-house experience base with tubular furnaces for materials processing in microgravity. As such, it must not only provide the desired temperatures and controlled thermal gradients at several discrete zones along its length but must also be capable of sustaining the rigors of a Space Shuttle launch. The furnace is insulated to minimize radial and axial heat losses. It is contained in a water-cooled enclosure for purposes of dissipating un-wanted residual heat, keeping the outer surfaces of the furnace at a 'touch-safe' temperature, and providing a rugged housing. This report describes the salient features of the furnace, testing procedures and results, and concluding remarks evaluating the overall design.

Rowe, Neil D.; Kisel, Martin

1993-01-01

134

Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

This study has been supported by a consortium of nine industrial and governmental sponsors. Work was initiated on May 1, 1985 and completed August 31, 1989. The central objective of this work was to develop, evaluate and apply a practical combustion model for utility boilers, industrial furnaces and gasifiers. Key accomplishments have included: Development of an advanced first-generation, computer model for combustion in three dimensional furnaces; development of a new first generation fouling and slagging submodel; detailed evaluation of an existing NO{sub x} submodel; development and evaluation of an improved radiation submodel; preparation and distribution of a three-volume final report: (a) Volume 1: General Technical Report; (b) Volume 2: PCGC-3 User's Manual; (c) Volume 3: Data Book for Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Combustion Models; and organization of a user's workshop on the three-dimensional code. The furnace computer model developed under this study requires further development before it can be applied generally to all applications; however, it can be used now by specialists for many specific applications, including non-combusting systems and combusting geseous systems. A new combustion center was organized and work was initiated to continue the important research effort initiated by this study. 212 refs., 72 figs., 38 tabs.

Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.

1989-08-01

135

Optimization of the thermogauge furnace for realizing high temperature fixed points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermogauge furnace was commonly used in many NMIs as a blackbody source for calibration of the radiation thermometer. It can also be used for realizing the high temperature fixed point(HTFP). According to our experience, when realizing HTFP we need the furnace provide relative good temperature uniformity to avoid the possible damage to the HTFP. To improve temperature uniformity in the furnace, the furnace tube was machined near the tube ends with a help of a simulation analysis by "ansys workbench". Temperature distributions before and after optimization were measured and compared at 1300 °C, 1700°C, 2500 °C, which roughly correspond to Co-C(1324 °C), Pt-C(1738 °C) and Re-C(2474 °C), respectively. The results clearly indicate that through machining the tube the temperature uniformity of the Thermogage furnace can be remarkably improved. A Pt-C high temperature fixed point was realized in the modified Thermogauge furnace subsequently, the plateaus were compared with what obtained using old heater, and the results were presented in this paper.

Wang, T.; Dong, W.; Liu, F.

2013-09-01

136

Optimization of the thermogauge furnace for realizing high temperature fixed points  

SciTech Connect

The thermogauge furnace was commonly used in many NMIs as a blackbody source for calibration of the radiation thermometer. It can also be used for realizing the high temperature fixed point(HTFP). According to our experience, when realizing HTFP we need the furnace provide relative good temperature uniformity to avoid the possible damage to the HTFP. To improve temperature uniformity in the furnace, the furnace tube was machined near the tube ends with a help of a simulation analysis by 'ansys workbench'. Temperature distributions before and after optimization were measured and compared at 1300 °C, 1700°C, 2500 °C, which roughly correspond to Co-C(1324 °C), Pt-C(1738 °C) and Re-C(2474 °C), respectively. The results clearly indicate that through machining the tube the temperature uniformity of the Thermogage furnace can be remarkably improved. A Pt-C high temperature fixed point was realized in the modified Thermogauge furnace subsequently, the plateaus were compared with what obtained using old heater, and the results were presented in this paper.

Wang, T.; Dong, W. [National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing (China)] [National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing (China); Liu, F. [AVIC China Precision Engineering Institute for Aircraft Industry, Beijing (China)] [AVIC China Precision Engineering Institute for Aircraft Industry, Beijing (China)

2013-09-11

137

Partnering and the WCI blast furnace reline  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, WCI Steel entered into a partnership agreement to perform a blast furnace reline. The reline included a complete rebrick from the tuyere breast to the furnace top including the tapholes. Also included was the replacement of the Paul Wurth top equipment from the receiving hoppers through the gearbox and distribution chute, a skip incline replacement, and installation of tilting runners and a casthouse roof. The bustle pipe and hot blast main were repaired. One stove was also replaced. The reline was accomplished in 36 days, wind to wind, which allowed for 29 days of construction inside the blast furnace proper.

Musolf, D.W. [WCI Steel, Inc., Warren, OH (United States)

1997-11-01

138

Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) with the Experimental Apparatus Container (EAC) removed flew during the USMP-2 mission. During USMP-2, the AADSF was used to study the growth of mercury cadmium telluride crystals in microgravity by directional solidification, a process commonly used on earth to process metals and grow crystals. The furnace is tubular and has three independently controlled temperature zones . The sample travels from the hot zone of the furnace (1600 degrees F) where the material solidifies as it cools. The solidification region, known as the solid/liquid interface, moves from one end of the sample to the other at a controlled rate, thus the term directional solidification.

1992-01-01

139

Uranium casting furnace automatic temperature control development  

SciTech Connect

Development of an automatic molten uranium temperature control system for use on batch-type induction casting furnaces is described. Implementation of a two-color optical pyrometer, development of an optical scanner for the pyrometer, determination of furnace thermal dynamics, and design of control systems are addressed. The optical scanning system is shown to greatly improve pyrometer measurement repeatability, particularly where heavy floating slag accumulations cause surface temperature gradients. Thermal dynamics of the furnaces were determined by applying least-squares system identification techniques to actual production data. A unity feedback control system utilizing a proportional-integral-derivative compensator is designed by using frequency-domain techniques. 14 refs.

Lind, R.F.

1992-05-31

140

Standard operating procedure: Gas atmosphere MELCO brazing furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrogen and argon gas atmosphere furnace facility using electric furnaces is located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). This furnace system was acquired to handle smaller jobs with a more rapid response time than was possible with the larger furnaces. Accelerator- and experimental-related components best assembled by atmosphere brazing techniques are routinely processed by this facility

Waller

1988-01-01

141

Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

1986-01-01

142

Low Cost Oxygen for Blast Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A low cost process is examined which provides oxygen enrichment of blast air for blast furnaces to increase steel production without increasing the steelmaking or final finishing facilities. The proposed process is designed to separate the oxygen from nit...

R. Jablin

1980-01-01

143

Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) with the Experimental Apparatus Container (EAC) attached flew during the USMP-2 mission. This assembly consists of a furnace module, a muffle tube assembly and a translation mechanism which are enclosed in the EAC. During USMP-2, the AADSF was used to study the growth of mercury cadmium telluride crystals in microgravity by directional solidification, a process commonly used on earth to process metals and grow crystals. The furnace is tubular and has three independently controlled temperature zone . The sample travels from the hot zone of the furnace (1600 degrees F) where the material solidifies as it cools. The solidification region, known as the solid/liquid interface, moves from one end of the sample to the other at a controlled rate, thus the term directional solidification.

1983-01-01

144

Reduced Electric Reactance for Electric Arc Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reduction of the high current circuit reactance of 3-phase electric arc furnaces which will increase the thermoelectric efficiency is discussed. The improvement is expected to result in savings of electricity and other consumables and in reduced netwo...

R. Kasper

1983-01-01

145

Magnetohydrodynamics in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines is conducting an on going research project to better understand the phenomena involved within electric arcs utilized in electric furnace steelmaking. With a better understanding of the physical and electrical characteristics involved, ...

P. E. King

1990-01-01

146

Design of an Experimental Electric Arc Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Instabilities in electric steelmaking furnace arcs cause electrical and acoustical noise, reduce operating efficiency, increase refractory erosion, and increase electrode usage. The U.S. Bureau of Mines has an ongoing research project investigating method...

A. D. Hartman T. L. Ochs

1992-01-01

147

Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide  

DOEpatents

A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

2012-03-13

148

Uranium casting furnace automatic temperature control development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of an automatic molten uranium temperature control system for use on batch-type induction casting furnaces is described. Implementation of a two-color optical pyrometer, development of an optical scanner for the pyrometer, determination of fur...

R. F. Lind

1992-01-01

149

Redesigned Electron-Beam Furnace Boosts Productivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Redesigned electron-beam furnace features carousel of greater capacity so more experiments conducted per loading, and time spent on reloading and vacuum pump-down reduced. Common mounting plate for electron source and carousel simplifies installation and reduces vibration.

Williams, Gary A.

1995-01-01

150

Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site - Administrative History.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nestled among the trees of the Schuylkill River Valley in Berks County, Pennsylvania, the restored historic buildings of Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site commemorate America's technological heritage. To many visitors of the National Parks, the idea...

L. Glaser

2005-01-01

151

A consortium approach to glass furnace modeling.  

SciTech Connect

Using computational fluid dynamics to model a glass furnace is a difficult task for any one glass company, laboratory, or university to accomplish. The task of building a computational model of the furnace requires knowledge and experience in modeling two dissimilar regimes (the combustion space and the liquid glass bath), along with the skill necessary to couple these two regimes. Also, a detailed set of experimental data is needed in order to evaluate the output of the code to ensure that the code is providing proper results. Since all these diverse skills are not present in any one research institution, a consortium was formed between Argonne National Laboratory, Purdue University, Mississippi State University, and five glass companies in order to marshal these skills into one three-year program. The objective of this program is to develop a fully coupled, validated simulation of a glass melting furnace that may be used by industry to optimize the performance of existing furnaces.

Chang, S.-L.; Golchert, B.; Petrick, M.

1999-04-20

152

Copper staves in the blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

Operational data for stave cooling systems for two German blast furnaces show good correlation with predicted thermal results. Copper staves have been installed in blast furnaces in the zones exposed to the highest thermal loads. The good operational results achieved confirm the choice of copper staves in the areas of maximum heat load. Both temperature measurements and predictions establish that the MAN GHH copper staves do not experience large temperature fluctuations and that the hot face temperatures will be below 250 F. This suggests that the copper staves maintain a more stable accretion layer than the cast iron staves. Contrary to initial expectations, heat flux to the copper staves is 50% lower than that to cast iron staves. The more stable accretion layer acts as an excellent insulator for the stave and greatly reduces the number of times the hot face of the stave is exposed to the blast furnace process and should result in a more stable furnace operation. In the future, it may be unnecessary to use high quality, expensive refractories in front of copper staves because of the highly stable accretion layer that appears to rapidly form due to the lower operating temperature of the staves. There is a balance of application regions for cast iron and copper staves that minimizes the capital cost of a blast furnace reline and provides an integrated cooling system with multiple campaign life potential. Cast iron staves are proven cooling elements that are capable of multiple campaign life in areas of the blast furnace which do not experience extreme heat loads. Copper staves are proving to be an effective and reliable blast furnace cooling element that are subject to virtually no wear and are projected to have a longer campaign service life in the areas of highest thermal load in the blast furnace.

Helenbrook, R.G. [ATSI, Inc., Amherst, NY (United States); Kowalski, W. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany); Grosspietsch, K.H. [Preussag Stahl AG, Saltzgitter (Germany); Hille, H. [MAN GHH AG, Oberhausen (Germany)

1996-08-01

153

Creating successful blast furnace refractory systems  

SciTech Connect

Successful lifetimes of the refractories utilized in the blast furnace are dependent on a variety of external factors such as operation, geometry, cooling capability, configuration and arrangement, as well as refractory properties. These external factors, as well as the properties required to withstand the main mechanisms of wear, combine to create the successful refractory system. These significant factors and properties are reviewed with the intention of providing guidelines required for successful refractory performance in the blast furnace.

Dzermejko, A.J. [UCAR Carbon Co., Inc., Columbia, TN (United States)

1995-07-01

154

Electric arc furnace impact on generator torque  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnaces draw power in pulses at approximately 5-6 Hz. This pulsing load is generally modeled as step-load-step-unload where the step is a complete load and complete unload. This step in power creates a step in the electrical torque of a generator supplying electricity to the electric arc furnace. This step in torque creates a torsional interaction that can

Mark W. Baldwin

2004-01-01

155

Translating Furnace For Fast Melting And Freezing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developmental translating-furnace apparatus used to make ceramic/metal composite materials during parabolic trajectories of KC-135 airplane simulating low gravity. Mathematical modeling shows apparatus able both to melt metal alloys and to solidify resulting composite specimens during 22-to-30-second low-gravity intervals. Furnace assembly moves along crucible in programmed manner to preheat, melt, and solidfy specimen during interval to less than 22 second.

Workman, F.; Suggs, R. J.; Curreri, P. A.; Ethridge, E. C.; Perkinson, D. T.; Tucker, S.; Smith, G. A.

1988-01-01

156

Firing temperature accuracy of four dental furnaces.  

PubMed

In spite of using recommended firing and displayed temperatures, low-fired dental porcelain more often demonstrates unsatisfactory results after firing than porcelain fired at higher temperatures. It could therefore be anticipated that temperatures shown on the display are incorrect, implying that the furnace does not render correct firing programs for low-fired porcelain. The purpose of this study is to investigate deviations from the real temperature during the firing process and also to illustrate the service and maintenance discipline of furnaces at dental laboratories. Totally 20 units of four different types of dental furnaces were selected for testing of temperature accuracy with usage of a digital temperature measurement apparatus, Therma 1. In addition,the staffs at 68 dental laboratories in Sweden were contacted for a telephone interview on furnace brand and on service and maintenance program performed at their laboratories. None of the 20 different dental furnaces in the study could generate the firing temperatures shown on the display, indicating that the hypothesis was correct. Multimat MCII had the least deviation of temperature compared with displayfigures. 62 out of 68 invited dental laboratories chose to participate in the interviews and the result was that very few laboratories had a service and maintenance program living up to quality standards. There is room for improving the precision of dental porcelain furnaces as there are deviations between displayed and read temperatures during the different steps of the firing process. PMID:21591597

Haag, Per; Ciber, Edina; Dérand, Tore

2011-01-01

157

Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1998-01-01

158

A numerical model including PID control of a multizone crystal growth furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a 2D axisymmetric combined conduction and radiation model of a multizone crystal growth furnace. The model is based on a programmable multizone furnace (PMZF) designed and built at NASA Lewis Research Center for growing high quality semiconductor crystals. A novel feature of this model is a control algorithm which automatically adjusts the power in any number of independently controlled heaters to establish the desired crystal temperatures in the furnace model. The control algorithm eliminates the need for numerous trial and error runs previously required to obtain the same results. The finite element code, FIDAP, used to develop the furnace model, was modified to directly incorporate the control algorithm. This algorithm, which presently uses PID control, and the associated heat transfer model are briefly discussed. Together, they have been used to predict the heater power distributions for a variety of furnace configurations and desired temperature profiles. Examples are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PID controlled model in establishing isothermal, Bridgman, and other complicated temperature profies in the sample. Finally, an example is given to show how the algorithm can be used to change the desired profile with time according to a prescribed temperature-time evolution.

Panzarella, Charles H.; Kassemi, Mohammad

1992-01-01

159

Optical emission from a small scale model electric arc furnace in 250-600 nm region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical emission spectroscopy has been for long proposed for monitoring and studying industrial steel making processes. Whereas the radiative decay of thermal excitations is always taking place in high temperatures needed in steel production, one of the most promising environment for such studies are electric arc furnaces, creating plasma in excited electronic states that relax with intense characteristic emission in the optical regime. Unfortunately, large industrial scale electric arc furnaces also present a challenging environment for optical emission studies and application of the method is not straightforward. To study the usability of optical emission spectroscopy in real electric arc furnaces, we have developed a laboratory scale DC electric arc furnace presented in this paper. With the setup, optical emission spectra of Fe, Cr, Cr2O3, Ni, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, and MgO were recorded in the wavelength range 250-600 nm and the results were analyzed with the help of reference data. The work demonstrates that using characteristic optical emission, obtaining in situ chemical information from oscillating plasma of electric arc furnaces is indeed possible. In spite of complications, the method could possibly be applied to industrial scale steel making process in order to improve its efficiency.

Mäkinen, A.; Niskanen, J.; Tikkala, H.; Aksela, H.

2013-04-01

160

A numerical model including PID control of a multizone crystal growth furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a 2D axisymmetric combined conduction and radiation model of a multizone crystal growth furnace. The model is based on a programmable multizone furnace (PMZF) designed and built at NASA Lewis Research Center for growing high quality semiconductor crystals. A novel feature of this model is a control algorithm which automatically adjusts the power in any number of independently controlled heaters to establish the desired crystal temperatures in the furnace model. The control algorithm eliminates the need for numerous trial and error runs previously required to obtain the same results. The finite element code, FIDAP, used to develop the furnace model, was modified to directly incorporate the control algorithm. This algorithm, which presently uses PID control, and the associated heat transfer model are briefly discussed. Together, they have been used to predict the heater power distributions for a variety of furnace configurations and desired temperature profiles. Examples are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PID controlled model in establishing isothermal, Bridgman, and other complicated temperature profies in the sample. Finally, an example is given to show how the algorithm can be used to change the desired profile with time according to a prescribed temperature-time evolution.

Panzarella, Charles H.; Kassemi, Mohammad

161

Radiation  

Cancer.gov

DCEG researchers carry out a broad-based research program designed to identify, understand, and quantify the risk of cancer in populations exposed to medical, occupational, or environmental radiation. They study ionizing radiation exposures (e.g., x-rays,

162

Standard operating procedure: Gas atmosphere MELCO brazing furnace  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogen and argon gas atmosphere furnace facility using electric furnaces is located at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). This furnace system was acquired to handle smaller jobs with a more rapid response time than was possible with the larger furnaces. Accelerator- and experimental-related components best assembled by atmosphere brazing techniques are routinely processed by this facility in addition to special heat treatment and bakeout heats. The detailed operation sequence and description of the MELCO furnace system are covered by this report. This document is to augment LA-10231-SOP, which describes the operation of the large furnace systems. 6 figs.

Waller, C.R.

1988-08-01

163

Computational simulations and experimental validation of a furnace brazing process  

SciTech Connect

Modeling of a furnace brazing process is described. The computational tools predict the thermal response of loaded hardware in a hydrogen brazing furnace to programmed furnace profiles. Experiments were conducted to validate the model and resolve computational uncertainties. Critical boundary conditions that affect materials and processing response to the furnace environment were determined. {open_quotes}Global{close_quotes} and local issues (i.e., at the furnace/hardware and joint levels, respectively) are discussed. The ability to accurately simulate and control furnace conditions is examined.

Hosking, F.M.; Gianoulakis, S.E.; Malizia, L.A.

1998-12-31

164

Cogeneration from glass furnace waste heat recovery  

SciTech Connect

In glass manufacturing 70% of the total energy utilized is consumed in the melting process. Three basic furnaces are in use: regenerative, recuperative, and direct fired design. The present paper focuses on secondary heat recovery from regenerative furnaces. A diagram of a typical regenerative furnace is given. Three recovery bottoming cycles were evaluated as part of a comparative systems analysis: steam Rankine Cycle (SRC), Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), and pressurized Brayton cycle. Each cycle is defined and schematicized. The net power capabilities of the three different systems are summarized. Cost comparisons and payback period comparisons are made. Organic Rankine cycle provides the best opportunity for cogeneration for all the flue gas mass flow rates considered. With high temperatures, the Brayton cycle has the shortest payback period potential, but site-specific economics need to be considered.

Hnat, J.G.; Cutting, J.C.; Patten, J.S.

1982-06-01

165

High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

1992-01-01

166

Electric arc-fired blast furnace system  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to an electric-arc fired blast furnace system for the reduction of iron-bearing material utilizing electric-arc heated air containing a reducing gas or carbon-containing fuel allowing for a decrease in the amount of coke normally used in the reduction process. The excess reducing gases exiting the furnace are utilized as a source of power via a system consisting of turbines, compressors and a heat exchanger to drive the electrical generators which are used to provide electricity to the arc heaters. This arrangement forms an essentially closed loop furnace system for metal reduction. Injection of finely-divided coal into the arc-heated air to provide reductants is also employed.

Fey, M. G.

1985-04-02

167

Chaotic responses in electric arc furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reports the findings of ongoing research into the nature and extent of electric fluctuations occuring in electric arc furnaces (EAFs). These fluctuations are indicators of the state of the furnace system and may serve as precursors for use in predictive control of the system. Current and voltage wave forms taken from a small-scale, 200 lb capacity alternating current EAF are used to characterize the motion of the arc column. Wave forms were analyzed using nonlinear dynamics and digital signal processing techniques. Analysis indicates that the observed system behavior is suggestive of chaotic dynamics, with phenomena occuring on several time scales.

King, Paul E.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Hartman, Alan D.

1994-08-01

168

Microprocessor controls for bagasse fired furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies of automatic controls for bagasse fired furnaces in Louisiana have shown the feasibility of automatic forced draft control systems. The paper presents the results of a study carried out during the 1984 Louisiana sugar crop to further develop the principles of automatic control of bagasse furnaces using a microprocessor-based programmable logic controller. The data obtained validate the concepts of draft control and show how fuel control can be accomplished, thus providing overall boiler control. A brief outline of the further development of the system is also given.

Keenliside, W.; Mc Grew, K.

1987-02-01

169

Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces  

DOEpatents

A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace. 5 figs.

Gorin, A.H.; Holcombe, C.E.

1994-07-26

170

Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces  

DOEpatents

A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace.

Gorin, Andrew H. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01

171

Possibilities for intensifying blast-furnace smelting  

Microsoft Academic Search

An article published earlier by I. E. Sperkach and I. F. Kurunov [Metallurg, No. 2 (2005)] presented additional information\\u000a in support of the author’s proposal that blast-furnace smelting practice be changed over to the use of 600 kPa top-gas pressure\\u000a and a high-parameter combination blast (oxygen content up to 42%, natural-gas consumption up to 250 m3\\/ton pig). A blast-furnace complex

G. Yu. Kryachko

2006-01-01

172

The Dlr Solar Furnace - A Facility For Astrophysical and Mineralogical Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy of solar radiation can be used to cause thermal or photochemical effects in the irradiated materials. The DLR Solar Furnace in Cologne is a facility that concentrates the direct solar radiation (concentration factor up to 5200 suns) for research experiments. It offers many different possibilities of using concentrated solar radiation to scientists and industrial users. For astrophysical and mineralogical applications a vacuum chamber with a special design and different instruments for measurements were developed, installed in the solar furnace and tested in experiments with small solid samples. The goal of the first project was to simulate the formation of so-called `chondrules' - constituents of meteorites - by "flash- heating" appropriate mineral samples with the concentrated beam of the solar furnace. The samples were melted and solidified subsequently by controlled cooling. The experiments had to be carried out under vacuum or controlled oxygen fugacity. Some results are presented as part of the paper "DYNAMIC CRYSTALLIZATION EXPERIMENTS USING CONVENTIONAL and SOLAR FURNACE TECHNIQUES - IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FORMATION of REFRACTORY FORSTERITE IN CHONDRITES", submitted to this conference. In a second series of experiments a slightly varied design was used to cause thermal reduction of samples of metal oxide and of lunar regolith simulate. The goal of this ongoing activity is to produce oxygen by pyrolysis. The process is conducted under high vacuum. The paper describes the facility with its properties and presents first results of the mentioned experiments. The two projects are co-operations between the High Flux Solar Furnace of DLR in Cologne (a department of the Solar Technology Division) and the Mission Architecture and Advanced Technologies Section (a department of the Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration of DLR). In the first experiments and in the sample analysis the Institute of Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the University of Cologne was also involved.

Sauerborn, M.; Neumann, A.; Seboldt, W.; Klerner, S.

173

13. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF CAST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF CAST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST FURNACE No. 1, AND HOIST HOUSE No. 1. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

174

55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX WITH LADLE HOUSE AND IRON DESULPHERIZATION BUILDING ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

175

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG RUNNERS & GATES IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

176

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSEUP, IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSE-UP, IRON NOTCH IN CENTER. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

177

59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

178

1. LOOKING EAST AT BLAST FURNACES NO. 3 AND No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. LOOKING EAST AT BLAST FURNACES NO. 3 AND No. 4 FROM CRAWFORD STREET IN THE CITY OF DUQUESNE. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

179

Looking east at blast furnace no. 5 between the hot ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking east at blast furnace no. 5 between the hot blast stoves (left) and the dustcatcher (right). - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

180

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE PIPE, CINDER NOTCH IN CENTER, SLAG RUNNER IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

181

58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED No. 3 IN FOREGROUND ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

182

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPENHEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPEN-HEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 AND CAST HOUSE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

183

31. VIEW OF TRIPPER CAR ON TOP OF BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW OF TRIPPER CAR ON TOP OF BLAST FURNACE STOCKING TRESTLE LOOKING EAST. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

184

70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE STOCKHOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

185

GENERAL VIEW OF TURBOBLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW OF TURBO-BLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND HOT BLAST STOVES (RIGHT). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Haselton Blast Furnaces, West of Center Street Viaduct, along Mahoning River, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

186

The intelligent supervisory control of submerged-arc furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the intelligent supervisory control of submerged-arc furnaces. Various aspects of such a system are illustrated, relating the metallurgical and electrical parameters to the control loops of the furnace.

Reuter, Markus A.; Pretorius, Carla; West, Chloë; Dixon, Peter; Oosthuizen, Morné

1996-12-01

187

15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

188

12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

189

13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

190

14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

191

Type 1 Hot Corrosion Furnace Testing and Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Furnace testing of superalloys and coating systems was conducted to determine if type 1 hot corrosion seen in operating gas turbine engines and burner rigs could be more simply reproduced. Furnace parameters were varied to determine optimum (most aggressi...

T. L. McGowen

1982-01-01

192

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF STEELMAKING FURNACE DUST DISPOSAL METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to examine the nature of steelmaking furnace residues and disposal techniques, and to assess potential problems associated with residue disposal, a potential multimedia environmental problem. Solubilization tests of 18 furnace residue samples s...

193

3. LOOKING WEST INSIDE ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON CHARGING FLOOR. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. LOOKING WEST INSIDE ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON CHARGING FLOOR. VIEW OF 7 1/2 TON CAPACITY ALLIANCE SIDE DOOR CHARGING MACHINE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

194

1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

195

4. LOOKING SOUTHEAST INSIDE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON GROUND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. LOOKING SOUTHEAST INSIDE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING ON GROUND FLOOR OF CHARGING AISLE. VIEW OF 50 TON CAPACITY CHARGING BUCKET. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

196

3. INSIDE BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT REGENERATIVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. INSIDE BATCH FURNACE BUILDING, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT REGENERATIVE BATCH FURNACES ON LEFT AND 5 TON CAPACITY CHARGING MACHINE ON RIGHT. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, 22-Inch Bar Mill, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

197

SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BACK SIDE OF FURNACE AND MOLDING BUILDINGS SHOWING CONNECTIONS TO LOCAL POWER GRID, PRIMARILY FOR ELECTRIC FURNACES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Bessemer Foundry, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

198

36. REDUCTION PLANT CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. REDUCTION PLANT - CLOSE VIEW OF FURNACE AND BOILER Reduction Plant furnace and boiler used to provide heat for drying the fish and fish offal, in their conversion to meal. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

199

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RETECH'S PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE - VOLUME I  

EPA Science Inventory

A demonstration of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) was conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The furnace uses heat gen...

200

Computational simulations and experimental validation of a furnace brazing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling of a furnace brazing process is described. The computational tools predict the thermal response of loaded hardware in a hydrogen brazing furnace to programmed furnace profiles. Experiments were conducted to validate the model and resolve computational uncertainties. Critical boundary conditions that affect materials and processing response to the furnace environment were determined. {open_quotes}Global{close_quotes} and local issues (i.e., at the

F. M. Hosking; S. E. Gianoulakis; L. A. Malizia

1998-01-01

201

Monitoring power system response to UHP arc furnace operations  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the use of a PC based data acquisition and analysis system for monitoring response of a power system to the operation of two electric arc furnaces. The topics of the article include a description of the steel complex, the data acquisition system, monitoring one furnace ramping up, monitoring loss of one furnace, monitoring loss of two furnaces, and the results of monitoring and analysis.

Sharma, C.; Julien, K.S. (Univ. of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

1994-01-01

202

Heat exchange pipes for a furnace system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes improvement in a flue products exhaust and preheated combustion air supply assembly for use in association with a heating furnace wherein an air intake pipe is provided outside of and around an exhaust product pipe and wherein each of the pipes extend horizontally to openings outside of a building. It comprises: an air intake pipe and exhaust

1991-01-01

203

Flame Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) is one of the most widespread traditional analytical techniques for trace element determination, but it often suffers from poor sensitivity due to the low nebulization efficiency and the short residence time of free atoms in the flame. On the basis of conventional FAAS, flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (FF-AAS) is developed with a tube (flame

Peng Wu; Shaopan He; Bin Luo; Xiandeng Hou

2009-01-01

204

APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspectsof the technology were examined. A...

205

APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: RETECH PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Retech Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. oth the technical and economic aspects of the technology were exami...

206

Arc furnace flicker measurements and control  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the results of arc flicker investigations and harmonic measurements taken on a 55 MW arc furnace in Southern California Edison's area. The arc furnace has been in operation since 1976 and has a 65 MVAR Static Var System (SVS) installed to improve the customer's power factor, reduce the voltage fluctuations and arc furnace flicker. Although the SVS improved the power factor and reduced the voltage fluctuations and incandescent lamp flicker, it had caused considerable fluorescent flicker which was specially noticeable at some remote locations about ten miles away. Because of the excessive fluorescent flicker, the customer was asked to limit the arc furnace load to 40 MW. However, because of the growing demand for steel and the customer's need for additional power, studies and measurements in the field and laboratory were conducted to investigate the reasons for fluorescent flicker and ways to control the flicker at increased load so that additional power could be provided to the customer. The paper presents the results of these investigations and field measurements.

Bhargava, B.

1993-01-01

207

Vitrification of electric arc furnace dusts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace baghouse dust (EAFD), a waste by-product of the steelmaking process, contains the elements that are volatilized from the charge during the melting (Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd). The results of leaching tests show that the concentration of these elements exceeds the regulatory limits. Consequently, EAFD cannot be disposed of in ordinary landfill sites without stabilization of

M. Pelino; A. Karamanov; P. Pisciella; S. Crisucci; D. Zonetti

2002-01-01

208

Nitrogen control in electric arc furnace steelmaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace produced steels are usually characterized by relatively high nitrogen content. This restricts their use in applications requiring controlled nitrogen content, such as deep drawing quality products. This report presents the results of an EPRI Center for Materials Production and steel industry study of methods for controlling or reducing the nitrogen content of EAF steels. The study involved

J. Thomas; C. Scheid; G. Geiger; C. Czarnik; D. Teall

1992-01-01

209

Recycling of electric-arc-furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is one of the largest solid waste streams produced by steel mills, and is classified as a waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Successful recycle of the valuable metals (iron, zinc, and lead) present in the dust will result in resource conservation while simultaneously reducing

Sresty

1990-01-01

210

High-gradient continuous-casting furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High gradient allows rapid growth rates in directionally-solidified eutectic alloys. Furnace design permits cost reductions in directional solidification process through its increased solidification rates, which reduces melt/mold interaction. It produces structural engineering materials for any application requiring properties directionally-solidified eutectic materials.

Scheuermann, C. M.; Flemings, M. C.; Neff, M. A.; Rickinson, B. A.; Young, K. P.

1979-01-01

211

High Temperature Furnace Application of Cryopumps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need to provide a water-free and low oxygen content insulating material for a long life thermal device made necessary a super clean vacuum furnace. The high throughput, large water capacity, and cleanliness of the cryopump seemed to make it an ideal c...

G. B. McClellan

1980-01-01

212

GOI characterization of 300-mm furnace tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this characterization was to gain an initial understand of the gate oxide integrity (GOI) differences on wafers processed in the 300mm furnace tools at SC300, a joint venture between Motorola and Infineon Technologies for 300mm wafer, process and equipment development, compared to similarly processed 200mm wafers at Motorola. Measurements were done using mercury probe tools located at

Karl E. Mautz

2002-01-01

213

Suspended roof construction for industrial furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A refractory brick panel module and suspended roof construction for high temperature furnaces wherein the panel module has a refractory support frame of at least two substantially parallel support members with at least one end of the support members having extension and retraction means forming an extendable and retractable refractory support frame end portion. The refractory support frame end portion

Merkle

1984-01-01

214

Predictive modeling of cement decomposing furnace temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper researches and validates a predictive modeling method for complex industrial environment. Via combining industrial field data with system mechanism, the paper analyzes the technology of industrial data pretreatment and establishes the impulse response model of cement decomposing furnace temperature, then explores the model adjusting method. The paper compares the modeling performance between the regression method without constraints and

Jinfeng Zhang; Bo Pang; Ning Cai; Wenjun Yan

2010-01-01

215

Optimal Slab Heating Control for Reheating Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new optimal heating control has been developed for reheating furnaces into which both hot and cold slabs are charged in a mixed manner. The main features of the control system are as follows: 1) Online simulation with an analytic model (nonlinear, parameter-distributed model) 2) Optimization of reference trajectories of slab temperature by the steepest descent method using the above

N. Yoshitani; Y. Naganuma; T. Yanai

1991-01-01

216

Data acquisition from a crystal growth furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital acquisition from a furnace for growing the lead tin telluride crystal based on Asyst software is described. It is shown that the use of Asyst for the acquisition of experimental data makes it possible to handle large amounts of data and to drastically reduce the time required for displaying the data from several hours to less than 5 minutes.

Woodell, Glenn A.

1988-01-01

217

Protecting brazing furnaces from air leaks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inexpensive inert-atmosphere shielding protects vacuum brazing-furnace components that are likely to spring leak. Pipefittings, gages, and valves are encased in transparent plastic shroud inflated with argon. If leak develops, harmless argon will enter vacuum chamber, making it possible to finish ongoing brazing or heat treatment before shutting down for repair.

Armenoff, C. T.; Mckown, R. D.

1980-01-01

218

Assessment of Atmospheric Emissions from Quenching of Blast Furnace Slag with Blast Furnace Blowdown Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of 15 emission measurements made on a laboratory scale facility simulating typical plant slag quenching practice. The measurements were made to determine if a potential alternative to treatment prior to discharge of blast furnace ...

G. Annamraju W. Kemner P. J. Schworer

1984-01-01

219

VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) SHARING THE SAME CAST HOUSE WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. ORE BRIDGE & BLOWER HOUSE TO RIGHT, HULETT CAR DUMPER IS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

220

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE)/ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT, WITH SINTERING PLANT CONVEYORS & TRANSFER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

221

Holden gas-fired furnace baseline data. Revision 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Holden gas-fired furnace is used in the enriched uranium recovery process to dry and combust small batches of combustibles. The ash is further processed. The furnace operates by allowing a short natural gas flame to burn over the face of a wall of porous fire brick on two sides of the furnace. Each firing wall uses two main burners

Weatherspoon

1996-01-01

222

Application of temperature fuzzy controller in an indirect resistance furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the application results of a fuzzy controller of temperature and its rate of change in indirect resistance chamber furnaces. The method of an initial controller tuning based on the computer simulations is described, where the modelling of the furnace appears as a special problem. Further controller tuning was done based on tests performed on the real furnace.

Z. R. Radakovic; V. M. Milosevic; S. B. Radakovic

2002-01-01

223

Reactive power reduction in three-phase electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conventional three-phase electric arc furnace causes flicker at the point of common coupling with AC mains. This generally occurs with AC mains having a low short-circuit capacity. The flicker is caused by flucluating reactive power consumption of the furnace. This paper describes a way, through computer simulation, of increasing the dynamic performance of the furnace and keeping reactive power

Albrecht Wolf; Manoharan Thamodharan

2000-01-01

224

Power Usage and Electrical Circuit Analysis for Electric Arc Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power usage in ultrahigh-powered electric arc furnaces requires considerably more investigation into system parameters, furnace secondary circuit analysis, and operating characteristics than previously given to normal powered electric arc furnaces. The power input must be analyzed from the infinite electric utility bus to the arc at the electrode. All interested parties must participate in the analysis to assure a mutual

J. J. Trageser

1980-01-01

225

Investigations of voltage flicker in electric arc furnace power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issues of voltage flicker in electric utility power systems serving arc furnace loads are discussed with various limit curves, manual calculation methods, and field tests in this paper. The interaction of arc furnace power system harmonic filters is discussed to show a correlation between filter tuning and voltage flicker under certain operating conditions. Example systems consisting of multiple furnaces

S. R. Mendis; M. T. Bishop; J. F. Witte

1994-01-01

226

Characterization of directly sampled electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one part of a project to characterize electric arc furnace dust, direct sampling of particulates inside two furnaces has been undertaken. The sampled particles from two separate furnace runs were characterized by analytical electron microscopy. The elemental analyses were performed using energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Crystal structure determinations were made by convergent beam electron diffraction. The mechanism for particle

J. R. Porter; J. I. Goldstein; Y. W. Kim

1982-01-01

227

Energetically optimized control of an electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control concept described here is based on an existing control system for three phase arc furnaces that uses the impedances of the three phases as control variables. It calculates the impedance set points in such a way that the electrical energy is optimally transferred into the scrap without damaging the furnace vessel. To keep the abrasion of the furnace

Gregor Gortler; H. Peter Jorgl

2004-01-01

228

Proceedings of the 45th electric furnace conference  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings of the 46th Electric Furnace Conference. Topics included are: EAF Dust Decomposition and Metals Recovery at ScanDust, Optimization of Electric Arc Furnace Process by Pneumatic Stirring, and Melt Down Control for Electric Arc Furnaces.

Not Available

1988-01-01

229

Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of shop, showing the reheat furnaces; the vehicle in the center is a charging machine the operator of which manipulates steel ingots in the furnace, as well as in the adjacent forging hammers - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Tool Steel-Electric Furnace Shop, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

230

8. Copy of a photograph taken c. 1912 of Furnace ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Copy of a photograph taken c. 1912 of Furnace 'D' blown-in 17 July 1911, the fourth experimental 'thin-lined furnace' to be built in the United States. Photo courtesy Ralph A. Dise, Cleveland Heights, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

231

18. Furnace D, looking north. At far left is the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Furnace D, looking north. At far left is the 'tripper' car, which distributed ore and limestone into trestle bins below. The 'larryman' then weighed and discharged these materials into skip cars, which carried them to the top of the furnace. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

232

Development of automatic temperature control system in blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider automatic temperature control system which is the most important part in blast furnace operation. In general, automatic temperature control for blast furnace is very difficult and sensitive because it is affected by a number of factors. So firstly, this paper describes temperature control model for blast furnace by using Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model based on

Woosung Choi; Woojong Yoo; Sangchul Won

2006-01-01

233

Modeling and predictive control of a reheating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reheating furnaces in iron and steel industry are main facilities of hot charge rolling processes. The main objective of such a reheating furnace is to control billet temperature uniformly, thereby resulting in successful rolling process performance and high productivity. In this paper, a dynamic model of the reheating furnace is derived using material and energy balances. A multivariable controller design

Hyun Suk Ko; Jung-Su Kim; Tae-Woong Yoon; Mokeun Lim; Dae Ryuk Yang; Ik Soo Jun

2000-01-01

234

Application of multivariable technique in temperature control of reheating furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking account of reheating furnaces being multivariable systems with strong coupling and large time delay, the paper applied a decoupling technique and Smith compensation to control the furnace temperature. Experiments indicate that this proposed strategy can improve the performance of furnace temperature control greatly

Zhongjie Wang; Cheng Shao; Tianyou Chai

1999-01-01

235

46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the furnace and the diameter of a true circle at the same location. The diameter of the true circle may be taken as the original furnace diameter...necessary to force the furnace back to a true circle if the allowable pressure is reduced in...

2013-10-01

236

The microwave processing of electric arc furnace dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ideal treatment for electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is to cost-effectively process the dust on site to generate high-value products. Microwave heating has the potential to be the ideal approach. In this study, testing was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of treating EAF dust under microwave radiation to produce iron metal and zinc metal instead of zinc oxides as co-products. Microwave processing time and fixed carbon addition amounts were investigated. Different carbons with high fixed carbon contents were also tested and no significant influence was observed. Products of both metallic zinc-rich particles and metallic iron-rich residuals exhibited high purities, which satisfy recycling feedstock requirements.

Sun, Xiang; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Huang, Xiaodi

2008-10-01

237

[Multi-spectral measurement of Basic oxygen furnace flame temperature].  

PubMed

A multi-wavelength analysis method is introduced to measure the temperature of basic oxygen furnace flame. In this study, USB4000 spectrometer was applied to obtain radiation spectrum of flame within wavelength range 200-1 100 nm, from which the flame temperature and monochromatic emissivity was derived by Levenberg-Marquart modeling method. Wavelet neural network was applied to process the spectral measurement data, which could cancel the assumption model of emissivity and wavelengths. It is a kind of valid method to acquire the true temperature and spectral emissivity. Each neuron in the hidden layer of a feed-forward network is a combination of the sigmoidal activation function (SAF) and morlet wavelet activation function (WAF). The output of the hidden neuron is the product of the output from these two activation functions. PMID:23387150

Wang, Yong-Qing; Chen, Yan-Ru; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Fei-Nan; Chen, Jing-Jing

2012-11-01

238

The intelligent arc furnace controller: a neural network electrode position optimization system for the electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of power delivered to the scrap metal in an electric arc furnace is controlled by positioning three large electrodes. The authors present quantitative performance results of the intelligent arc furnace regulator and analyze qualitatively how a neural network improved furnace operation. A neural network control system can learn to predict the relationships between the electrode position and stability

William E. Staib; Robert B. Staib

1992-01-01

239

Stable operation for No. 1 blast furnace at Baosteel  

SciTech Connect

Until Sept. 1994, No. 1 blast furnace in Baoshan Steel (Group) Co. had been operating successfully with high productivity. At present, it still keeps its strong potential for production capacity. The philosophy and methodology of the efficient blast furnace operation will be described. The most important aspect for stable operation and long campaign life of a blast furnace is reasonable gas flow distribution in the furnace. The topics to be discussed include: introduction to ironmaking in Baosteel; operational results; experience of stable operation, philosophy, gas distribution control, stabilization raw material property, furnace maintenance and supervision system.

Cai, X.; Lu, S. [Baoshan Steel Corp., Shanghai (China)

1995-07-01

240

6. Photocopied August 1978. LINEUP OF HORRY ROTARY FURNACES ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Photocopied August 1978. LINE-UP OF HORRY ROTARY FURNACES ON THE SECOND FLOOR OF THE MICHIGAN LAKE SUPERIOR POWER COMPANY POWER HOUSE. THE HOPPERS WHICH FED THE RAW MATERIALS INTO THE FURNACES ARE SHOWN ABOVE THE FURNACES. AS THE 'SPOOL' OF THE FURNACE ROTATED PAST THE ELECTRODES PLATES WERE ADDED TO HOLD THE FINISHED PRODUCT AND THE DESCENDING RAW MATERIALS IN PLACE. THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION OF THE FURNACES SHOWN IN THIS PHOTO IS CLOCKWISE, (M). - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

241

Numerical simulation of the flow streams behavior in a self-regenerative crucible furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a three dimensional numerical simulation with experimental validation of a gas-fired self-regenerative crucible furnace. Turbulence, radiation and chemical reactions are simulated using the software Gambit V2 and Fluent V6.2. Different combustion models are used to assess their effects on the numerical results. Aerodynamics, temperature fields, species profiles and emissions are compared with the experimental data. The results

Francisco Cadavid; Bernardo Herrera; Andrés Amell

2010-01-01

242

Efficient use of gas by the employment of assembly-type radiant roofs in industrial furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with conventional flame burner heating systems, special burners such as radiant burners allow a more efficient utilization of gas in industrial furnaces in many cases of application. Practice has shown that the integration of radiant burners into assembly-type roof elements and the additional application of radiation-active ceramic protective layers permit an efficient design and employment of radiant roofs. Self-supporting

F. Borrmann; K. Hafner

1988-01-01

243

Radiation  

NASA Video Gallery

Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

244

Radiators  

SciTech Connect

A heat-exchange radiator is connected to a fluid flow circuit by a connector which provides one member of an interengageable spigot and socket pair for push-fit, fluid-tight, engagement between the connector and the radiator, with latching formations at least one of which is resilient. Preferably the connector carries the spigot which tapers and engages with a socket of corresponding shape, the spigot carrying an O-ring seal and either latching fingers or a resilient latching circlip.

Webster, D. M.

1985-07-30

245

Improved Blackbody Temperature Sensors for a Vacuum Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some improvements have been made in the design and fabrication of blackbody sensors (BBSs) used to measure the temperature of a heater core in a vacuum furnace. Each BBS consists of a ring of thermally conductive, high-melting-temperature material with two tantalum-sheathed thermocouples attached at diametrically opposite points. The name "blackbody sensor" reflects the basic principle of operation. Heat is transferred between the ring and the furnace heater core primarily by blackbody radiation, heat is conducted through the ring to the thermocouples, and the temperature of the ring (and, hence, the temperature of the heater core) is measured by use of the thermocouples. Two main requirements have guided the development of these BBSs: (1) The rings should have as high an emissivity as possible in order to maximize the heat-transfer rate and thereby maximize temperature-monitoring performance and (2) the thermocouples must be joined to the rings in such a way as to ensure long-term, reliable intimate thermal contact. The problem of fabricating a BBS to satisfy these requirements is complicated by an application-specific prohibition against overheating and thereby damaging nearby instrumentation leads through the use of conventional furnace brazing or any other technique that involves heating the entire BBS and its surroundings. The problem is further complicated by another application-specific prohibition against damaging the thin tantalum thermocouple sheaths through the use of conventional welding to join the thermocouples to the ring. The first BBS rings were made of graphite. The tantalum-sheathed thermocouples were attached to the graphite rings by use of high-temperature graphite cements. The ring/thermocouple bonds thus formed were found to be weak and unreliable, and so graphite rings and graphite cements were abandoned. Now, each BBS ring is made from one of two materials: either tantalum or a molybdenum/titanium/zirconium alloy. The tantalum-sheathed thermocouples are bonded to the ring by laser brazing. The primary advantage of laser brazing over furnace brazing is that in laser brazing, it is possible to form a brazed connection locally, without heating nearby parts to the flow temperature of the brazing material. Hence, it is possible to comply with the prohibition against overheating nearby instrumentation leads. Also, in laser brazing, unlike in furnace brazing, it is possible to exert control over the thermal energy to such a high degree that it becomes possible to braze the thermocouples to the ring without burning through the thin tantalum sheaths on the thermocouples. The brazing material used in the laser brazing process is a titanium-boron paste. This brazing material can withstand use at temperatures up to about 1,400 C. In thermal-cycling tests performed thus far, no debonding between the rings and thermocouples has been observed. Emissivity coatings about 0.001 in. (.0.025 mm) thick applied to the interior surfaces of the rings have been found to improve the performance of the BBS sensors by raising the apparent emissivities of the rings. In thermal-cycling tests, the coatings were found to adhere well to the rings.

Farmer, Jeff; Coppens, Chris; O'Dell, J. Scott; McKechnie, Timothy N.; Schofield, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

246

Danarc technology for electric arc furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Danarc electric arc furnace technology combines high-impedance technology with bottom tuyeres for oxygen and carbon injection. Together with lance injection and wall burners for both conventional operation and post-combustion, the concept provides full flexibility in the choice of energy sources. The basic philosophy of the concept is to have efficient systems for the supply of both electrical and alternative energy. Operational results from a Danarc furnace at Ferriere Nord show that it is possible to inject high specific amounts of oxygen and carbon as a substitute for electrical energy. The electrical power supply with a fixed or saturable reactor is beneficial because of the high voltage and low current operation. High-impedance operation results in low electrode consumption, reduced electrical losses and a reduction of the supply network disturbance, ie, flicker.

Samuelsson, P.; Gensini, G.; Mavridis [Danieli Centro Met, Buttrio (Italy)

1995-06-01

247

Heater assembly for molecular beam epitaxy furnace  

SciTech Connect

In a molecular beam epitaxy furnace, a heater is described for heating the interior of an effusion cell. The heater includes an outer cylindrical sleeve having one end connected to receive a vacuum, and an opposite end extending into the furnace. An inner sleeve is provided coaxial with the outer cylindrical sleeve, one end of the inner sleeve being sealed with the opposite end of the cylindrical sleeve. The inner sleeve extends along a portion of the outer cylindrical sleeve providing an interior vacuum chamber. A heating element is disposed between the cylindrical sleeve and inner sleeve which heats the interior crucible receiving chamber and a crucible therein bearing semiconductor constituent material such that the semiconductor constituent material effuses without contamination from the heating element.

Freeouf, J.L.; Jackson, T.N.

1985-05-21

248

Metal sorption on blast-furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of Cu, Ni and Zn-ions from water solution by ungranulated blast-furnace slag has been studied depending on contact time, initial ion concentration, pH and solution temperature. The polymineral composition and the slag specific properties determine its high sorption activity in metal salts solutions. In the range of the concentrations studied (10?4–10?3 M), the sorption data for Cu2+, Ni2+

S. V. Dimitrova

1996-01-01

249

The information furnace: consolidated home control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Information Furnace is a basement-installed PC-type device that integrates existing consumer home-control, infotainment, security, and communication tech- nologies to transparently provide accessible and value-added services. A modern home contains a large number of sophisticated devices and technologies. Access to these devices is currently provided through a wide variety of disparate inter- faces. As a result, end-users face a bewildering

Diomidis D. Spinellis

2003-01-01

250

Drying powders for crucibles of induction furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

UDC 666.762.2.047.75 Powders used for ramming the crucibles of induction furnaces in the melting of iron at automobile factories are prepared from quartzites from the Karaul mountains. The properties of the powders are: weight proportion of SiO 2 not less than 97.5%, A1203 not more than 1.3%, Fe203 not more than 0.6%, refractoriness not less than 1730~ and moisture content

I. P. Tsibin; M. Z. Shvartsman; G. V. Orlov; M. Z. Naginskii; E. M. Grishpun

1980-01-01

251

Hydrogen-Oxygen Vertical Brazing Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specially designed hydrogen-oxygen vertical flame furnace was constructed for brazing together the copper pieces of the accelerator structure for Stanford's Two-Mile Linear Electron Accelerator. To date, over 60 000 braze joints have been made without a leak appearing in any joint even though the brazed section operates at less than 10–8 Torr pressure. The accelerator structure is a disk

Arnold L. Eldredge

1965-01-01

252

Induction graphitizing furnace acceptance test report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The induction furnace was designed to provide the controlled temperature and environment required for the post-cure, carbonization and graphitization processes for the fabrication of a fibrous graphite NERVA nozzle extension. The acceptance testing required six tests and a total operating time of 298 hrs. Low temperature mode operations, 120 to 850 C, were completed in one test run. High temperature mode operations, 120 to 2750 C, were completed during five tests.

1972-01-01

253

Glassification of electric arc furnace dust  

SciTech Connect

The Glassification process is a unique system that treats hazardous materials such as electric arc furnace dust, slag, spent refractories, etc, and produces an inert, nontoxic marketable commodity. A wide variety of end products include: colored glasses; glass-ceramics that resemble natural rocks used for architectural purposes and decorative articles; roofing granules; abrasive grit; brick and tile colorants; and fillers. This paper describes the process.

Ek, R.B. (Roger B. Ek and Associates, Issaquah, WA (United States)); Schlobohm, J.E. (Oregon Steel Mills, Inc., Portland (United States))

1993-04-01

254

Carbon deposition on blast furnace raw mateials  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of various raw materials on the rate and amount of carbon deposition in the blast furnace. The isothermal deposition rate and the total carbon deposited in a simulated stack descent were measured for two lime-fluxed pellets, two dolomite-fluxed pellets, two pellets made from magnetite concentrates, one from hematite concentrate, two sinters, and an earthy hematite lump ore. The increasing carbon deposition rate with time, as the iron oxide substrate is reduced, is a powerful indication that metallic iron is the necessary catalyst for the carbon deposition reaction. Carbon deposits only on the exterior of the pellet, so carbon deposition does not depend on the internal structure of the pellet. The internal bonding in the pellet has no effect also. The study of the bulk chemical analysis of SiO/sub 2/ in the pellets to the rate of carbon deposition was given; also the correlation of the lime to magnesia ratio of the bulk chemical analysis to the total carbon deposited in the blast furnace simulation tests was included. There seemed to be a relationship between the isothermal rates of carbon deposition and the amount of carbon deposited in the blast furnace simulation. The 550/sup 0/C and 650/sup 0/C range will be the significant region when considering carbon deposition for the purpose of modeling the blast furnace, and the total amount deposited will depend on the time that a pellet spends between these two temperatures. 12 figures, 3 tables. (DP)

Geiger, G.H.; Lowry, M.L.

1981-01-01

255

Experimental control of a cupola furnace  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors present some final results from a research project focused on introducing automatic control to the operation of cupola iron furnaces. The main aim of this research is to improve the operational efficiency and performance of the cupola furnace, an important foundry process used to melt iron. Previous papers have described the development of appropriate control system architectures for the cupola. In this paper experimental data is used to calibrate the model, which is taken as a first-order multivariable system with time delay. Then relative gain analysis is used to select loop pairings to be used in a multiloop controller. The resulting controller pairs melt rate with blast volume, iron temperature with oxygen addition, and carbon composition with metal-to-coke ratio. Special (nonlinear) filters are used to compute melt rate from actual scale readings of the amount of iron produced and to smooth the temperature measurement. The temperature and melt rate loops use single-loop PI control. The composition loop uses a Smith predictor to discount the deadtime associated with mass transport through the furnace. Experiments conducted at the Department of Energy Albany Research Center`s experimental research cupola validate the conceptual controller design and provide proof-of-concept of the idea of controlling a foundry cupola.

Moore, K.L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Larsen, E.; Clark, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Abdelrahman, M.A. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; King, P. [Dept. of Energy, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

1998-08-01

256

Ultra-high vacuum compatible image furnace.  

PubMed

We report the design of an optical floating-zone furnace for single-crystal growth under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible conditions. The system is based on a commercial image furnace, which has been refurbished to be all-metal sealed. Major changes concern the use of UHV rotary feedthroughs and bespoke quartz-metal seals with metal-O-rings at the lamp stage. As a consequence, the procedure of assembling the furnace for crystal growth is changed completely. Bespoke heating jackets permit to bake the system. For compounds with elevated vapor pressures, the ultra-high vacuum serves as a precondition for the use of a high-purity argon atmosphere up to 10 bar. In the ferromagnetic Heusler compound Cu(2)MnAl, the improvements of purity result in an improved stability of the molten zone, grain selection, and, hence, single-crystal growth. Similar improvements are observed in traveling-solvent floating-zone growth of the antiferromagnetic Heusler compound Mn(3)Si. These improvements underscore the great potential of optical float-zoning for the growth of high-purity single crystals of intermetallic compounds. PMID:21280840

Neubauer, A; Boeuf, J; Bauer, A; Russ, B; Löhneysen, H v; Pfleiderer, C

2011-01-01

257

Torrefied biomasses in a drop tube furnace to evaluate their utility in blast furnaces.  

PubMed

Torrefaction and burning characteristics of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, bagasse, and Madagascar almond were studied and compared with a high-volatile bituminous coal using a drop tube furnace to evaluate the potential of biomass consumed in blast furnaces. Torrefaction at 250 and 300°C for 1h duration was carried out. Analysis using the ash tracer method indicated that the extent of atomic carbon reduction in the biomasses was less than that of atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Torrefaction also lowered the sulfur content in bamboo and oil palm over 33%. An examination of the R-factor and burnout of the samples suggests that more volatiles were released and a higher burnout was achieved with raw and torrefied biomasses at 250°C than at 300°C; however, torrefaction at 300°C is a feasible operating condition to transform biomass into a solid fuel resembling a high-volatile bituminous coal used for blast furnaces. PMID:22386202

Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Zhen-Yu

2012-05-01

258

Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

Not Available

2011-10-01

259

Modelling ironmaking blast furnace: Solid flow and thermochemical behaviours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ironmaking blast furnace is a counter-, co-, cross-current moving bed reactor, where solid particles are charged at the furnace top forming a downward moving bed while gas are introduced at the lower part of furnace and travels upward through the solid bed of varying porosity, reducing solid ore to liquid iron at the cohesive zone. These three phases interact intensely. In this paper, a three-dimensional mathematical model is developed. The model describes the motion of solid and gas, based on continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the liquid flow. The model is applied to a blast furnace, where raceway cavity is considered explicitly. The results demonstrate and characterize the key multiphase flow patterns of solid-gas-liquid at different regions inside the blast furnace, in particular solid flow and associated thermochemical behaviours of solid particles. This model offers a costeffective tool to understand and optimize blast furnace operation.

Shen, Yansong; Guo, Baoyu; Yu, Aibing; Chew, Sheng; Austin, Peter

2013-06-01

260

Harmonic and transient overvoltage analysis in arc furnace power systems  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents guidelines for analyzing harmonics and transient overvoltages generated by arc furnaces. Computer simulation techniques for creating accurate models for the analysis of arc furnace power systems are also discussed. Simulation guidelines are outlined in detail to assist the power systems engineer in performing a complete and accurate study of arc furnace power systems. These guidelines can be applied to melting and ladle furnace applications. General practices and designs encountered in arc furnace power systems are discussed. Possible solutions to common problems associated with arc furnace power systems are also discussed. Discussions of shunt capacitor bank arrangements, harmonic filter design, ferroresonance, virtual current chopping, the use of surge capacitors, and surge arresters are also included.

Mendis, S.R. (Systems Engineering Group, Cooper Power Systems, Franksville, WI (United States)); Gonzalez, D.A. (Components and Protective Equipment Plant, Cooper Power Systems, Pewaukee, WI (United States))

1992-04-01

261

Ground Control Setup of the (LIF) Large Isothermal Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large Isothermal Furnace (LIF) was flown on a mission in cooperation with the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan. LIF is a vacuum-heating furnace designed to heat large samples uniformly. The furnace consists of a sample container and heating element surrounded by a vacuum chamber. A crewmemeber will insert a sample cartridge into the furnace. The furnace will be activated and operations will be controlled automatically by a computer in response to an experiment number entered on the control panel. At the end of operations, helium will be discharged into the furnace, allowing cooling to start. Cooling will occur through the use of a water jacket while rapid cooling of samples can be accomplished through a controlled flow of helium. Data from experiments will help scientists better understand this important process which is vital to the production of high-quality semiconductor crystals.

1995-01-01

262

Design, performance, and experiment capabilities of the AGHF: ESA's advanced gradient furnace for spacelab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGHF is a Bridgman Furnace Facility for directional solidification experiments in microgravity environment with very well controlled heater temperatures up to 1400°C. A laboratory model and an engineering model exist, the flight model will be built at the end of 1991. The furnace uses heater elements made of W-Re wire wound on a solid TZM heat diffuser, diffuser temperature control by Pt/PtRh thermocouples to ±0.2 K, and a water cooled cooling zone regulated by a thermostatic valve to ±0.3 K. AGHF experiments use front loaded cartridges, which can use conductive coupling to the cooling zone by a liquid metal ring or radiative cooling. The laboratory model furnace, mounted in a dedicated vacuum chamber with peripherals controlled by a commercial computer, was intensively tested up to 1400°C, as specified for the AGHF by ESA, and at 1500°C in a life test under a technology development programme of ESA. Notable laboratory model results are gradients of 95 K/cm in solid Ni of 18 mm dia, with conductive cooling zone coupling by liquid metal, and 70 K/cm with radiative cooling in ZrO 2. EM test are not yet complete, but first tests indicate similar or better results, especially of gradient constancy vs pulling stroke over 140 mm. The first heater model sustained 400 h at 1000°C, 800 h at 1300°C, and 400 h at 1500°C.

Biemann, W.; Terracol, J.

263

5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, SHOWING INTERIOR ELECTRODES. THE RAW MATERIALS FOR CALCIUM CARBIDE PRODUCTION--LIMESTONE AND COKE--WERE FED BY HOPPERS PLACED BETWEEN THESE ELECTRODES INTO THE ELECTRIC ARC. THE REMOVABLE PLATES ON THE EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCE OF THE HORRY FURNACE ARE SHOWN ON THE FIRST THREE FURNACES. (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

264

In-service helium leak testing of vacuum furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helium leak detection of vacuum furnaces and equipments used for processing of nuclear material is generally carried out by utilizing vacuum spray technique. In this technique helium leak detector is connected to the furnace, back ground reading is noted and helium gas is sprayed on all the suspected joints. Any increase in back ground is noted as leak signal. Processing of Zirconium alloy cladded fuel pins is carried out in vacuum furnace of about 3 meter length and 500 mm inside diameter. Furnace is connected with two numbers of rotary vacuum pump and one number of diffusion pump for creating vacuum (1 × 10-6 torr) inside the furnace. It is desirable that furnace should have good vacuum and best possible leak tightness during dynamic and static vacuum. During dynamic vacuum at higher temperature although required vacuum is achieved the furnace may have fine leakage through which air may enter and cause oxidation of clad tube leading to change in its coloration. This change in coloration will cause rejection of fuel element. Such fine leakages may not be reflected in the dynamic vacuum of the system at high temperature. During trial run change in coloration of outside surface of clad tube was observed although dynamic vacuum of the furnace was in the range of 1×10-6 torr range. To eliminate such possibilities of oxidation due to fine leakages in the system, it was decided to carry out in-service leak testing of the furnace. Helium leak testing of the furnace was carried out by using vacuum spray method and leaks observed were repaired and furnace was retested to ensure the leak tightness. The in-service helium leak testing of the furnace helped in maintaining its leak tightness during service under dynamic vacuum and prevent oxidation of fuel element. This paper describes the techniques of in- service helium leak testing, it's importance for detection of fine leak under dynamic vacuum and discusses details of the testing method and result obtained.

Ahmad, Anis; Tripathi, S. K.; Sawant, P. S.; Mukharjee, D.; Shah, B. K.

2012-11-01

265

Comparison of Predictive Control Methods for High Consumption Industrial Furnace  

PubMed Central

We describe several predictive control approaches for high consumption industrial furnace control. These furnaces are major consumers in production industries, and reducing their fuel consumption and optimizing the quality of the products is one of the most important engineer tasks. In order to demonstrate the benefits from implementation of the advanced predictive control algorithms, we have compared several major criteria for furnace control. On the basis of the analysis, some important conclusions have been drawn.

2013-01-01

266

Improved Transparent Furnace For Crystal-Growth Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Novel design and fabrication process for transparent crystal-growing furnace developed. Design consists of one or more heater zones in which heating wire coiled around insides of quartz tubes. Ampoule of material supported inside furnace by guide wire. Crystal then grown by directional freezing of material in ampoule. Distinct feature of use of quartz is capability of direct visual observation of crystal-growth process during experiment. Study of transparent electronic materials conducted in new furnaces.

Rosenthal, Bruce N.; White, Steve; Kalinowski, Joseph M.

1989-01-01

267

Benefits of ceramic fiber for saving energy in reheat furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Refractory ceramic fiber products offer thermal insulation investment in reheat furnaces by helping to keep operating cost low and product quality high. These products are used in a range of applications that include: furnace linings; charge and discharge door insulation; skidpipe insulation; and furnace repair and maintenance. The many product forms (blankets, modules, boards, textiles, and coatings) provide several key benefits: faster cycling, energy savings and personnel protection.

Norris, A. (Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States))

1993-07-01

268

Mathematical modeling of sulfide flash smelting process: Part II. Quantitative analysis of radiative heat transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model has been developed to describe the rate processes in an axisymmetric copper flash smelting furnace shaft. A particular feature of the model is the incorporation of the four-flux model to describe the radiative heat transfer by combining the absorbing, emitting, and anisotropic scattering phenomena. The importance of various subprocesses of the radiative heat transfer in a flash smelting furnace has been studied. Model predictions showed that the radiation from the furnace walls and between the particles and the surrounding is the dominant mode of heat transfer in a flash smelting furnace.

Hahn, Y. B.; Sohn, H. Y.

1990-12-01

269

Mathematical modeling of sulfide flash smelting process. Part 2; Quantitative analysis of radiative heat transfer  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a mathematical model developed to describe the rate processes in an axisymmetric copper flash smelting furnace shaft. A particular feature of the model is the incorporation of the four-flux model to describe the radiative heat transfer by combining the absorbing, emitting, and anisotropic scattering phenomena. The importance of various subprocesses of the radiative heat transfer in a flash smelting furnace has been studied. Model predictions showed that the radiation from the furnace walls and between the particles and the surrounding is the dominant mode of heat transfer in a flash smelting furnace.

Hahn, Y.B. (Lucky Metals Corp., Seoul (KR)); Sohn, H.Y. (Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (US))

1990-12-01

270

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING QBOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING Q-BOP FURNACE IN BLOW. OXYGEN AND NATURAL GAS ARE BLOWN INTO THE FURNACE THROUGH THE TUYERES TO CHARGE 460,000 LBS. OF HOT METAL, 100,000 LBS. OF SCRAP WITH 30,000 LBS. OF LIME. BLOW TIME IS 16 MINUTES. THE TIME TO BLOW AND TAP THE FURNACES OF THE RESULTING 205,000 TONS OF STEEL AND SLAG IS 35 MINUTES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Q-Bop Furnace, North of Valley Road & West of Ensley, Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

271

Computationally Efficient Modeling of Wafer Temperatures in an LPCVD Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper,presents a new,first principles thermal,model,to predict wafer temperatures,within a hot-wall Low Pressure Chemical,Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) furnace based,on furnace,wall temperatures,as measured,by thermocouples.,This model,is based,on an energy,balance,of the furnace system,with the following features: (a) the model,is a transformed,linear model,which,captures,the nonlinear,relationship between,the furnace wall temperature distribution and the wafer temperature distribution, (b) the model can be solved with a direct algorithm

Qinghua He; S. Joe Qin; Anthony J. Toprac

272

Biological Kraft Chemical Recycle for Augmentation of Recovery Furnace Capacity  

SciTech Connect

The chemicals used in pulping of wood by the kraft process are recycled in the mill in the recovery furnace, which oxidizes organics while simultaneously reducing sulfate to sulfide. The recovery furnace is central to the economical operation of kraft pulp mills, but it also causes problems. The total pulp production of many mills is limited by the recovery furnace capacity, which cannot easily be increased. The furnace is one of the largest sources of air pollution (as reduced sulfur compounds) in the kraft pulp mill.

Stuart E. Strand

2001-12-06

273

Evaluation of Temperature Gradient in Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) by Numerical Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical model of heat transfer using combined conduction, radiation and convection in AADSF was used to evaluate temperature gradients in the vicinity of the crystal/melt interface for variety of hot and cold zone set point temperatures specifically for the growth of mercury cadmium telluride (MCT). Reverse usage of hot and cold zones was simulated to aid the choice of proper orientation of crystal/melt interface regarding residual acceleration vector without actual change of furnace location on board the orbiter. It appears that an additional booster heater will be extremely helpful to ensure desired temperature gradient when hot and cold zones are reversed. Further efforts are required to investigate advantages/disadvantages of symmetrical furnace design (i.e. with similar length of hot and cold zones).

Bune, Andris V.; Gillies, Donald C.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

1996-01-01

274

Analysis of the temperature field in compound samples heated in multizone resistance furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heating of cylindrical compound samples in multizone resistance furnaces is studied. A global model is considered where the temperature fields in the sample and the furnace are coupled through the radiation exchange between them; the input thermal data is the electric power supplied to the heaters. Graphite-silicon-graphite samples are considered; the melting of the silicon part and the temperature field in the melt are analyzed in dependence of different parameters, like the radius of the sample and the power distribution among the heaters. By changing this parameter different surface temperature distributions in the melt are obtained, which in turn define different thermocapillary flow patterns. The possibility of counterbalancing these flows by vibrating the two supporting graphite rods simultaneously is addressed.

Rivas, Damian; de Pablo, Valentin; Pérez-Grande, Isabel

2003-07-01

275

Mineralogical characteristics of electric arc furnace dusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflected light microscopy can contribute important information regarding the mineralogy, mineral abundance, internal textures, sizes and shapes of particles in electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis are useful to determine the chemical compositions of the specific mineral grains in the dust particles. Furthermore, the mineralogical reactions that have taken place during the pyro-metallurgical treatment of EAF dusts and the mineralogy and textural character of those treated dust samples can be directly observed by reflected light microscopy. Such studies are useful in monitoring the efficiency of experimental pyrometallurgical treatment of EAF dusts which are designed to render them nonhazardous.

Hagni, Ann M.; Hagni, Richard D.; Demars, Christelle

1991-04-01

276

Exothermic furnace module development. [space processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exothermic furnace module was developed to rapidly heat and cool a 0.820-in. (2.1 cm) diameter by 2.75-in. (7.0 cm) long TZM molybdenum alloy crucible. The crucible contains copper, oxygen, and carbon for processing in a low-g environment. Peak temperatures of 1270 C were obtainable 3.5 min after start of ignition, and cooling below 950 C some 4.5 min later. These time-temperature relationships were conditioned for a foam-copper experiment, Space Processing Applications Rocket experiment 77-9, in a sounding rocket having a low-g period of 5 min.

Darnell, R. R.; Poorman, R. M.

1982-01-01

277

Post combustion trials at Dofasco's KOBM furnace  

SciTech Connect

Post combustion trials were conducted at Dofasco's 300 tonne KOBM furnace as part of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program. The purpose of the project work was to measure the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) of the post combustion reaction in a full size steelmaking vessel. A method of calculating PCR and HTE using off gas analysis and gas temperature was developed. The PCR and HTE were determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE.

Farrand, B.L.; Wood, J.E.; Goetz, F.J.

1992-01-01

278

Molten metal holder furnace and casting system incorporating the molten metal holder furnace  

DOEpatents

A bottom heated holder furnace (12) for containing a supply of molten metal includes a storage vessel (30) having sidewalls (32) and a bottom wall (34) defining a molten metal receiving chamber (36). A furnace insulating layer (42) lines the molten metal receiving chamber (36). A thermally conductive heat exchanger block (54) is located at the bottom of the molten metal receiving chamber (36) for heating the supply of molten metal. The heat exchanger block (54) includes a bottom face (65), side faces (66), and a top face (67). The heat exchanger block (54) includes a plurality of electrical heaters (70) extending therein and projecting outward from at least one of the faces of the heat exchanger block (54), and further extending through the furnace insulating layer (42) and one of the sidewalls (32) of the storage vessel (30) for connection to a source of electrical power. A sealing layer (50) covers the bottom face (65) and side faces (66) of the heat exchanger block (54) such that the heat exchanger block (54) is substantially separated from contact with the furnace insulating layer (42).

Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

2003-02-11

279

Glass Furnace Model (GFM) development and technology transfer program final report.  

SciTech Connect

A Glass Furnace Model (GFM) was developed under a cost-shared R&D program by the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory in close collaboration with a consortium of five glass industry members: Techneglas, Inc., Owens-Corning, Libbey, Inc., Osram Sylvania, Inc., and Visteon, Inc. Purdue University and Mississippi State University's DIAL Laboratory were also collaborators in the consortium. The GFM glass furnace simulation model that was developed is a tool industry can use to help define and evaluate furnace design changes and operating strategies to: (1) reduce energy use per unit of production; (2) solve problems related to production and glass quality by defining optimal operating windows to reduce cullet generation due to rejects and maximize throughput; and (3) make changes in furnace design and/or operation to reduce critical emissions, such as NO{sub x} and particulates. A two-part program was pursued to develop and validate the furnace model. The focus of the Part I program was to develop a fully coupled furnace model which had the requisite basic capabilities for furnace simulation. The principal outcome from the Phase I program was a furnace simulation model, GFM 2.0, which was copyrighted. The basic capabilities of GFM 2.0 were: (1) built-in burner models that can be included in the combustion space simulation; (2) a participating media spectral radiation model that maintains local and global energy balances throughout the furnace volume; and (3) a multiphase (liquid, solid) melt model that calculates (does not impose) the batch-melting rate and the batch length. The key objectives of the Part II program, which overlapped the Part I program were: (1) to incorporate a full multiphase flow analytical capability with reduced glass chemistry models in the glass melt model and thus be able to compute and track key solid, gas, and liquid species through the melt and the combustion space above; and (2) to incorporate glass quality indices into the simulation to facilitate optimization studies with regard to productivity, energy use and emissions. Midway through the Part II program, however, at the urging of the industrial consortium members, the decision was made to refocus limited resources on transfer of the existing GFM 2.0 software to the industry to speed up commercialization of the technology. This decision, in turn, necessitated a de-emphasis of the development of the planned final version of the GFM software that had full multiphase capability, GFM 3.0. As a result, version 3.0 was not completed; considerable progress, however, was made before the effort was terminated. The objectives of the Technology Transfer program were to transfer the Glass Furnace Model (GFM) to the glass industry and to promote its widespread use by providing the requisite technical support to allow effective use of the software. GFM Version 2.0 was offered at no cost on a trial, six-month basis to expedite its introduction to and use by the industry. The trial licenses were issued to generate a much more thorough user beta test of the software than the relatively small amount completed by the consortium members prior to the release of version 2.0.

Lottes, S. A.; Petrick, M.; Energy Systems

2007-12-04

280

Control system of electrostatic levitation furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrostatic levitation furnace (ELF) is one of the experimental facilities for materials science research planned to be embarked on the International Space Station. The most significant feature of the ELF is that it creates a free-drifting space inside the furnace chamber by controlling the experimental materials not to collide against the chamber wall. The purposes of this paper are to introduce the control system of the ELF and to show the results of a flight test on a small sounding rocket, called TR-IA. By adopting high-speed position detectors and a field programmable gate array (FPGA) technique, rapid calculation of material's position up to 1000 Hz realized. The maximum control input (voltage) and the control cycle were chosen as 3 kV and 100 Hz, respectively. The flight data show that complete melting/solidification of the material ( 0.5 g BiFeO 3) was accomplished. Though the material's motion was fully controlled during the experiment, unexpected shaking occurred at high temperature due to a sudden drop of electrostatic charge. This phenomenon is understood as the most important issue to be solved.

Nakamura, Tai; Awa, Yuji; Shimoji, Haruhiko; Karasawa, Hiroki

2002-05-01

281

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2010-07-01

282

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2009-07-01

283

40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory....

2013-07-01

284

74 FR 8756 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities AGENCY: Environmental Protection...NESHAP) for Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities. These amendments were issued...NESHAP) for Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities Docket, EPA/DC, EPA...

2009-02-26

285

72 FR 74088 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities; Final Rule Federal Register...Area Sources: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Facilities AGENCY: Environmental Protection...emission standards for electric arc furnace steelmaking facilities that are area sources...

2007-12-28

286

10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. 431.72 Section 431.72...AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces § 431.72 Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. Link to an amendment...

2014-01-01

287

78 FR 53625 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Procedures for Residential Furnaces and Boilers; Correction AGENCY: Office of Energy...procedure for residential furnaces and boilers (78 FR 41265). Due to drafting errors...Email: residential_furnaces_and_boilers@ee.doe.gov. Mr. Eric Stas,...

2013-08-30

288

When Your Furnace Kicks On, Be Sure Poison Gas Isn't Coming Out  

MedlinePLUS

WHEN YOUR FURNACE KICKS ON, BE SURE POISON GAS ISN’T COMING OUT Every winter when the ... drops, your furnace can become a silent killer. Gas- and oil-burning furnaces produce carbon monoxide (CO). ...

289

46 CFR 59.15-5 - Stayed furnaces and combustion chambers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Stayed furnaces and combustion chambers. 59.15-5 Section 59.15-5... Stayed furnaces and combustion chambers. (a) Where the plate forming...of stayed furnaces or combustion chambers become bulged between...

2013-10-01

290

Implementation of the Finite Volume Method for Calculating Radiative Transfer in a Pulverized Fuel Flame  

Microsoft Academic Search

The newly developed Finite Volume Method (FVM) was incorporated into a general pulverized fuel (PF) flame model to predict radiative heat transfer in furnaces. The code was applied to a benchmark test case where exact radiative heat transfer solutions were available and to a pilot scale front-firing tunnel furnace where flame measurements had been taken. The FVM predictions were found

E. H. CHUI; P M. J. HUGHES; G. D. RAITHBY

1993-01-01

291

The Iron Blast Furnace: A Study in Chemical Thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The smelting of iron ore into metallic iron was first accomplished by primitive blast furnaces approximately three thousand years ago. Improvements in the process over many centuries eventually led to the mass production of iron and to the industrial revolution. The reactions of the blast furnace involve 1) combustion of the fuel and its conversion into carbon monoxide, 2) reduction

Richard S. Treptow; Luckner Jean

1998-01-01

292

RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACE SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION--PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the second of a two-phase investigation into ways to improve the air pollutant emission and thermal efficiency characteristics of residential oil furnaces. A prototype, low-emission, warm-air furnace (designed in Phase I to embody a number of burner and combu...

293

Improvements in blast furnace operation at AHMSA Monclova  

SciTech Connect

Following the privatization of Altos Hornos de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. (AHMSA) in Nov. 1991, four areas were chosen to improve blast furnace performance and hot metal costs. These areas included improvement of pellet quality, start of oil-gas co-injection, improved control of gas flow in the blast furnace and start of monitoring program to predict the remaining life of the hearth of No. 5 blast furnace. These efforts resulted in the following improvements in the first half of 1992: Production level increased to 2.4 tonnes/cu metre/24 hr with a 1992 annual production record from No. 5 furnace of 1.639 million tonnes; Coke rates decreased by 60 kg/tonne, half of which was due to process improvements and the other half to injection of oil; Silicon standard deviations decreased from 0.22% in 1991 to 0.20% in 1992; Hot metal costs decreased by 10.6%; and The major reline of No. 5 furnace postponed by at least 1.5 years. The improvement of the blast furnace process was not limited to the larger No. 5 furnace. Similar tends can be observed with No. 4 furnace which will also be equipped with oil injection. For the future, programs have been prepared to increase injection rates, improve casthouse operation and increase process stability.

Morales, J.M.; Dominguez, H. (Altos Hornos de Mexico S.A. de C.V., Monclova (Mexico). Monclova Works); Geerdes, M. (Hoogovens Technical Services B.V., Monclova (Mexico))

1994-10-01

294

17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 LOOKING EAST. THE BUSTLE PIPE IS VISIBLE ACROSS THE CENTER OF THE IMAGE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

295

Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential

Ensar Oguz

2004-01-01

296

5. SOUTHERN VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES No. 3, No. 4, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. SOUTHERN VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES No. 3, No. 4, AND No. 6, WITH ORE YARD IN THE FOREGROUND. BUILDING ON THE LEFT IS THE CENTRAL BOILER HOUSE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

297

15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 IN LOWER CENTER OF PHOTO AT THE BASE OF HOT BLAST STOVES. HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

298

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SEED ON THE LEFT, THE #1 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SHED ON THE RIGHT, AND THE STOVES, BOILERS, AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT IN THE CENTER. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

299

Blast furnace lining and cooling technology: experiences at Corus IJmuiden  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the blast furnace lining and cooling concept as originally developed and applied by Hoogovens (Corus IJmuiden). The technology has also been applied by Danieli Corus in all its blast furnace projects executed in the last 25 years. The technology has helped Corus increase its PCI rate to over 200 kg/thm. 4 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Stokman, R.; van Stein Cellenfels, E.; van Laar, R.

2004-11-01

300

Energy conserving process furnace system and components thereof  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy conserving process furnace has a recuperator to utilize heat derived from exhaust gases in order to reduce fossil fuel consumption of the furnace. Elongated, enhanced surface ceramic heat exchanger tubes are used in the recuperator to recover heat energy from the exhaust gas. A preferred sealing arrangement is used between the metal and ceramic tubes to contain the

P. G. LaHaye; J. W. Bjerklie; G. G. Jr. Gallant

1977-01-01

301

ELECTRIC FURNACES TILT AROUND A PIVOT UNDER THE SPOUT TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ELECTRIC FURNACES TILT AROUND A PIVOT UNDER THE SPOUT TO FILL BULL LADLES BELOW THE CHARGING DECK. THE REAR VIEW OF A POURING ELECTRIC FURNACE FROM THE CHARGING DECK IS SHOWN HERE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

302

A conveyer furnace for the reduction annealing of metal powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commissioned by the Sulinsk Metallurgical Plant, the Institute of Gas, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, has designed and constructed an experimental band belt conveyer furnace for the reduction annealing of metals powders. The furnace is now being used in a test program designed to establish the optimumprocessing parameters for the annealing of iron powders and provide a basis

V. F. Pekach; N. G. Krysov; B. I. Bondarenko; N. P. Kurganskii

1976-01-01

303

Modeling and control of submerged-arc ferrosilicon furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The occurrence of electric arcs plays an important role in a ferrosilicon furnace. As the arcs are the main source of electric power generation in the furnace, changes in the arcing conditions will affect the total process conditions significantly. In add...

A. Valderhaug

1992-01-01

304

Investigation and mitigation of harmonics from electric arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the harmonics produced from electric arc furnace (EAF) operation. It gives an example of arc furnace modeling as a harmonic voltage source. The total harmonic distortion of the voltage and the current at the point of common coupling (PCC) are addressed and the need to alleviate this distortion to cope with IEEE 519 recommended limits is discussed.

Emad E. Ahmed; M. Abdel-Aziz; E. El-Zahab; W. Xu

1999-01-01

305

Electrical Characteristics of an Arc-Furnace Circuit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A previously developed method of mathematical analysis related to the three phase arc furnace circuit has been updated and simplified. It has been applied to a variety of electric arc furnaces to define the magnitudes of arc voltage, ohmic resistances, re...

J. Persson

1984-01-01

306

Factors influencing the diffusion of electric arc furnace steelmaking technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the adoption of electric arc furnace steelmaking technology is examined within a growth model of technological diffusion. The results indicate that the trend rate of adoption of electric are furnace technology is well represented by the S-shaped growth curve. Further results indicate that the trend rate of adoption is, for the most part, stable with respect to

B. Stephen Labson; Peter Gooday

1994-01-01

307

Microwave caustic leaching of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is a waste product which is generated when steel scrap is melted in an electric arc furnace. It contains high concentrations of iron, zinc and lead. Numerous pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processes have been developed to treat this material. Only a limited number of these have reached commercialization and the majority have been pyrometallurgical. However, the

D. K. Xia; C. A. Picklesi

2000-01-01

308

Artificial neural networks in predicting current in electric arc furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a study of the possibility of using artificial neural networks for the prediction of the current and the voltage of Electric Arc Furnaces. Multi-layer perceptron and radial based functions Artificial Neural Networks implemented in Matlab were used. The study is based on measured data items from an Electric Arc Furnace in an industrial plant in Romania.

Panoiu, M.; Panoiu, C.; Iordan, A.; Ghiormez, L.

2014-03-01

309

Inexpensive high-temperature furnace for thermocouple calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New furnace calibrates unknown thermocouple by comparing its electrical output to a reference thermocouple /previously calibrated by optical pyrometry/, as both are heated simultaneously. Thermocouples may be radioactive, thus heat source must be accessible by remote manipulation and inspection measurements. Advantages of furnace operation are cited.

Gracey, C. M.; Hoff, R. G.

1971-01-01

310

Flicker characteristic estimation of an AC electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the estimation of the stochastic flicker characteristics for an electric arc furnace (EAF) over a complete heat. These characteristics include stationarity, normality and correlation. Besides, the basic statistical probability were assessed by varying sampling period, too. The estimation and the assessment were implemented by a microcomputer-based instrumentation system. The test results for a typical AC arc furnace

Chen-Wen Lu; Shyh-Jier Huang; Ching-Lien Huang

2000-01-01

311

Waveform Analysis of Electric Furnace Arcs as a Diagnostic Tool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines is investigating the fundamental behavior of electric arcs in electric-furnace operations. The electric arc is a poorly understood phenomenon. If the arc in a steelmaking furnace can be more carefully controlled, it should be possible ...

T. L. Ochs A. D. Hartman S. L. Witkowski

1986-01-01

312

Electric arc furnace power modeling for STATCOM Controller Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonlinear and time varying nature of electric arc furnaces (EAFs) creates flicker, harmonics, and voltage\\/current unbalances. Nowadays to improve the performance of EAFs and the power quality problems of electrical systems around them high speed compensators like STATCOM are needed. This paper uses a time domain model for electric arc furnaces and a new model is proposed for EAFs.

Y. Najafi Sarem; M. H. Amrollahi; M. Babanejad; S. Mounesirad; M. A. Layegh; D. Habibinia

2010-01-01

313

Direct digital control of the electric arc furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Control requirements for electric arc furnace electrode position control, voltage tap changing, least cost mix calculation and maximum demand control are discussed. Schemes for electrode position control are presented, and their performance is compared by digital simulation. Requirements for direct digital control are considered and a scheme for hardware and software implementation of furnace control algorithms is suggested.

Morris, A. S.

1983-07-01

314

Direct digital control of the electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control requirements for electric arc furnace electrode position control, voltage tap changing, least cost mix calculation and maximum demand control are discussed. Schemes for electrode position control are presented, and their performance is compared by digital simulation. Requirements for direct digital control are considered and a scheme for hardware and software implementation of furnace control algorithms is suggested.

A. S. Morris

1983-01-01

315

Improvement of electrical arc furnace operation with an appropriate model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical arc furnaces are commonly employed in industry to produce molten steel by melting iron and scrap steel. Furnace control is a necessary operation for production optimization. The principal parameters to be controlled are: maximum productivity requirements, minimum power off time, good power quality and safety. The aim of this study is to achieve all these objectives. Hence, because of

Labar Hocine; Djeghader Yacine; Bounaya Kamel; Kelaiaia Mounia Samira

2009-01-01

316

The challenge of improving electric arc furnace efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace requirements for electrical energy are increasing more rapidly than generation and distribution capacity. Electric arc furnace technology is reviewed with respect to energy requirements. Although the use of water-cooled panels, increased power levels and higher oxygen inputs, for example, all increase the rate of energy loss, they do not necessarily result in an increase in energy losses

E. H. McIntyre; J. E. Goodwill; D. E. Klesser

1994-01-01

317

15. Photocopied June 1978. WHEEL HOUSE RUINS OF 'NEW' FURNACE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photocopied June 1978. WHEEL HOUSE RUINS OF 'NEW' FURNACE. SEGMENT GEAR REMNANTS VISIBLE STANDING IN WHEEL PIT IN FOREGROUND. SOURCE: MCINTYRE DEVELOPMENT, NL INDUSTRIES, TAHAWUS, N.Y. - Adirondack Iron & Steel Company, New Furnace, Hudson River, Tahawus, Essex County, NY

318

25. DETAIL OF FURNACE NO. 3, WHICH IS NO LONGER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. DETAIL OF FURNACE NO. 3, WHICH IS NO LONGER IN SERVICE. FURNACE NO. 3 WAS BLOWN IN ON MAY 13, 1916. IT WAS ERECTED BY THE VARIETY IRON & STEEL WORK OF CLEVELAND FOR THE CORRIGAN, McKINNEY COMPANY. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

319

Holden gas-fired furnace baseline data. Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Holden gas-fired furnace is used in the enriched uranium recovery process to dry and combust small batches of combustibles. The ash is further processed. The furnace operates by allowing a short natural gas flame to burn over the face of a wall of por...

K. A. Weatherspoon

1996-01-01

320

New Opportunities - Exhaustive Monitored Copper Coolers for Submerged Arc Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of water -cooled copper components as sidewall elements of submerged arc furnaces and other pyrometallurgical applications has become increasingly common. The high cooling efficiency of copper has made it possible to increase the service life of furnace refractories when compared to conventional refractory linings. However even the self-healing effect of 'freezing' worn areas of the lining does not

M. Hopf; E. Rossouw

321

11. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES No. 1 AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES No. 1 AND No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

322

Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking east at the basic oxygen furnace building with gas cleaning plants in foreground on the left and the right side of the furnace building. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

323

Carbon Reactivation by Externally-Fired Rotary Kiln Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An externally-fired rotary kiln furnace system has been evaluated for cost-effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The pilot scale rotary kiln furnace was operated within the range of 682 kg/day ...

C. Chen L. S. Directo

1980-01-01

324

46 CFR 164.009-13 - Furnace calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...thermocouple gives a steady reading of 750 ±10 °C. The wall temperature of the furnace tube is then measured by an optical micro-pyrometer at intervals of 10mm on 3 equally spaced vertical axes. The furnace is correctly calibrated if the temperature of the...

2013-10-01

325

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CYCLONE FURNACE SOIL VITRI- FICATION TECHNOLOGY - BABCOCK & WILCOX  

EPA Science Inventory

Babcock and Wilcox's (B&W) cyclone furnace is an innovative thermal technology which may offer advantages in treating soils containing organics, heavy metals, and/or radionuclide contaminants. The furnace used in the SITE demonstration was a 4- to 6-million Btu/hr pilot system....

326

Process for Reducing Molten Furnace Slags by Carbon Injection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process is provided for recovering metals from metal-containing slags such as iron-copper slags from copper smelting furnaces and iron-nickel slags produced in smelting nickel-bearing ores. The slag is fed to an electric-arc furnace wherein a molten met...

D. L. Paulson W. L. Hunter

1977-01-01

327

CARBON REACTIVATION BY EXTERNALLY-FIRED ROTARY KILN FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

An externally-fired rotary kiln furnace system has been evaluated for cost-effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The pilot scale rotary kiln furnace was operated within the range of 682 kg/day (1,500 lb/day) to 909 kg/...

328

Possibilities of intense resource saving in electric furnace steelmaking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of a secondary energy resource in the form of the heat of liquid steel is considered for melting metal scrap used in a charge in electric furnace steelmaking. Temperature-heat curves are plotted for cooling of steel and melting of metal scrap. The possibilities of using melted scrap in electric furnace steel-making are analyzed.

Platonov, I. V.; Kartavtsev, S. V.

2013-12-01

329

Establishment of legume trees on heaps of blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag is usually stored in open air deposits and it can be carried by the wind. This problem can be reduced using plant cover. This work aim to evaluate: a) the potential of A.angustissima and M.caesalpiniifolia to cover the heaps of blast furnace slag and b) the effect of hydrogel Stockosorb ® Agro on the establishment and growth

Michele O. Macedo; Eduardo E. F. C. Campello; Aluisio G. Andrade; Sérgio M. de Faria

2006-01-01

330

PAH emissions from combustion of coal liquids in industrial furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible environmental impact of substituting fuel oils derived from coal instead of petroleum was investigated using an industrial furnace. Emphasis was placed on the emissions of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The nonpetroleum fuel oil (ECLP-SS) was produced from Texas lignite coal by the Exxon Donor Solvent Process at the Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant. The effects of furnace loading

R. M. Schirmer; M. D. Gill; D. A. Nickeson

1983-01-01

331

Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Li, X. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1999-01-14

332

42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

333

7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

334

41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACE AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

335

8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH GREY IRON HOLDING FURNACES AND AN IRON POUR IN PROCESS, CUPOLA TENDER RICHARD SLAUGHTER SUPERVISING THE POUR. MOLTEN DUCTILE IRON IS POURED FROM THIS 25-TON HOLDING FURNACE INTO LADLES FOR TRANSPORT TO CASTING STATIONS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

336

Automatic Thermocouple Positioner for Use in Vacuum Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted ...

D. K. Mee A. E. Stephens

1980-01-01

337

EMISSIONS FROM OUTDOOR WOOD-BURNING RESIDENTIAL HOT WATER FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of measurements of emissions from a single-pass and a double-pass furnace at average heat outputs of 15,000 and 30,000 Btu/hr (4.4 and 8.8 kW) while burning typical oak cordwood fuel. One furnace was also tested once at each heat output while fitted with ...

338

Application of fuzzy predictive control in tubular heating furnace system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tubular heating furnace system is a complicated controlled object. In this paper, based on the fuzzy control fuzzy predictive control (FPC) is proposed and applied to the oil temperature control of the tube furnace. The results show that the stability and response speed of the control system applying fuzzy predictive control has improved compared with a simple fuzzy control system.

Wei Sun; Xin Li; Jialiang Ye

2010-01-01

339

Nonlinear predictive control of steel slab reheating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a steel plant, reheating furnaces are used for heating the steel slabs to a temperature of approximately 1200degC before rolling. Reheating furnaces consumes a lot of energy in steel plants. For competitive advantage it is important to improve the heating quality of slab and reduce the energy consumption as much as possible. This paper explores the potential of nonlinear

L. Balbis; J. Balderud; M. J. Grimble

2008-01-01

340

Multivariable predictive control of a laminated windshield bending furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laminated windshield bending furnaces have always been controlled manually. Previously, several attempts at automatic control have been unsuccessfully tried. This is essentially due to the fact that this kind of plant is a strongly coupled multivariable system, with non-linearities and a large time delay. Another serious problem of the furnace to be controlled is the fact that it produces, successively

J. Daoudi; E. Irving; N. Pons

1996-01-01

341

Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust  

DOEpatents

An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

Polcyn, Adam D. (Pittsburgh, PA) [Pittsburgh, PA

2010-12-28

342

A controlled atmosphere tube furnace was designed for thermal CVD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality materials were used for the fabrication of hi-tech tube furnace. The furnace was especially suitable for thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). High density alumina tube was used for the fabrication of furnace. The tube furnace was found to have three different temperature zones with maximum temperature at central zone was found to be 650°C. The flexible heating tape with capacity of 760°C was wrapped on the tube. To minimize the heat losses, asbestos and glass wool were used on heating tape. The temperature of the tube furnace was controlled by a digital temperature controller had accuracy of ±1°C. Methanol was taken as the representative of hydrocarbon sources, to give thin film of carbon. The a-C: H structure was investigated by conventional techniques using optical microscopy, FT-IR and SEM.

Rashid, M.; Bhatti, J. A.; Hussain, F.; Imran, M.; Khawaja, I. U.; Chaudhary, K. A.; Ahmad, S. A.

2013-06-01

343

29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange furnace and clarifier ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range furnace and clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the concentration, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the continous flue leaving this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifier lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

344

28. RW Sugar Mill: 18761889. Boilingrange Furnace and Clarifier position. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. RW Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Boiling-range Furnace and Clarifier position. View: In the boiling range all of the clarification, evaporation, and concentration of cane juice took place in open pans over the Continuous flue leading from this furnace. The furnace door through the exterior wall is at the end of the furnace. In the original installation, two copper clarifiers, manufactured by John Nott & Co. occupied this space directly above the furnace. In the clarifiers, lime was added to the cane juice so that impurities would coagulate into a scum on top of the near-boiling juice. The clarifiers have been removed since the closing of the mill. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

345

Experiences with a direct-fired P/E furnace  

SciTech Connect

General Housewares Corp., recognizing the need to reduce energy consumption to survive escalating energy costs and remain competitive, purchased and installed a Tempo Holden direct-gas-fired, continuous furnace for porcelain-enamel-on-steel production. The first of its kind installed in the US, the furnace features (1) prepiped and prebricked modular furnace sections to assist installation, (2) lightweight design requiring no special floor preparation, (3) control circuitry to provide constant temperature control, (4) flexible and portable design to allow the installation to fit most environments, (5) reduced energy consumption, (6) simple design for reliable performance with little or no maintenance, (7) efficient energy transfer with quick response to changing control conditions, and (8) the use of furnace exhaust to directly power the dryer. After nearly 3 years of operation, GHC has experienced a 60% energy consumption reduction and a doubled production capacity. The company recently purchased two additional furnaces, both of which are performing as designed.

Mayer, M.M.

1983-10-01

346

Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace  

DOEpatents

A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs.

Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

1998-03-24

347

Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace  

DOEpatents

A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4. Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3. Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater.

Kujawa, Stephan T. (Butte, MT); Battleson, Daniel M. (Butte, MT); Rademacher, Jr., Edward L. (Butte, MT); Cashell, Patrick V. (Butte, MT); Filius, Krag D. (Butte, MT); Flannery, Philip A. (Ramsey, MT); Whitworth, Clarence G. (Butte, MT)

1998-01-01

348

Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming  

SciTech Connect

The effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming generated in crucible has been studied with a specific goal to understand the impact of increased water content on foaming in oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass foams were generated in a fused-quartz crucible located in a quartz window furnace equipped with video recording. The present study showed that humidity in the furnace atmosphere destabilizes foam, while other gases have little effect on foam stability. This study suggests that the higher foaming in oxy-fired furnace compared to air-fired is caused by the effect of water on early sulfate decomposition, promoting more efficient refining gas generation from sulfate (known as “dilution effect”).

Kim, Dong-Sang; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

2006-12-01

349

Nitric oxide reductions in a multi-zone reheat furnace  

SciTech Connect

A reduced excess air combustion control technique was developed for an existing 3-zone reheat furnace that would reduce NO[sub x] emissions to conform with regulatory air quality requirements. The results indicate that reduced excess air combustion controls can be utilized for obtaining NO[sub x] reductions in a multi-zone steel reheat furnace. This study provides support for considering this control strategy as a possible first step toward reheat furnace NO[sub x] control. For new furnace installations, low NO[sub x] burners combined with other technologies provide the greatest benefit. However, for existing furnaces, a control system retrofit may be the most cost-effective short range option. Regarding actual NO[sub x] reduction costs after installation and testing were complete, this control methodology cost approximately $8,500/ton NO[sub x] reduction.

Harder, R.F. (George Fox Coll., Newberg, OR (United States))

1994-04-01

350

Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents CFB process analysis focused on combustion and NO profiles in pilot and industrial scale bituminous coal combustion.

Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

351

Horizontal vent air terminal for sealed combustion furnaces. [Design of fresh air intake for furnace with horizontal flue pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air terminal for a horizontal vent of a sealed combustion furnace includes a faceplate for mounting to an exterior vertical wall. A horizontal flue pipe extension, receiving the combustion products, is surrounded by an oval sleeve. Fresh air is communicated to the furnace through the space between the flue pipe and the sleeve. The outlet of the flue pipe

M. E. Winters; P. E. Proctor

1976-01-01

352

Promising trends in improving steelmaking and finishing in ac electric arc furnaces and ladle-furnace units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of laboratory and full-scale tests performed to reveal the factors that affect the appearance of a constant arc voltage component (CAVC) in an arc steel-melting furnace (ASF) and an ladle-furnace unit (LFU) are presented.

Nekrasov, I. V.; Sysolin, A. V.; Sheshukov, O. Yu.; Lutsenko, V. T.; Gulyakov, V. S.

2009-12-01

353

Mercury in dumped blast furnace sludge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste generated in the production of pig iron and was dumped in sedimentation ponds. As these wastes often contain high contents of zinc, lead, cadmium, and arsenic, significant hazards to environmental surroundings may arise from former BFS sedimentation ponds. Sixty-five samples from seven BFS locations in Europe were investigated regarding the toxic element mercury (Hg) for the first time. The charge material of the blast furnace operations (coke, iron ores, and additives such as olivine, bauxite, ilmenite and gravels) revealed Hg contents from 0.015 to 0.093 mg kg-1. In comparison, the Hg content of BFS varied between 0.006 and 20.8 mg kg-1 with a median of 1.63 mg kg-1, which indicates enrichment with Hg. For one site with a larger sample set (n = 31), Hg showed a stronger correlation with the total non-calcareous carbon (C) including coke and graphite (r = 0.695; n = 31; p < 0.001). It can be assumed that these C-rich compounds are hosting phases for Hg. The solubility of Hg was rather low and did not exceed 0.43% of total Hg. The correlation between the total Hg concentration and total amount of NH4NO3-soluble Hg was relatively poor (r = 0.496; n = 27; p = 0.008) indicating varying hazard potentials of the different BFS. Consequently, BFS is a mercury-containing waste and dumped BFS should be regarded as potentially mercury-contaminated sites.

Földi, Corinna

2014-05-01

354

Application of AI techniques to blast furnace operations  

SciTech Connect

It was during the first stages of application of artificial intelligence (AI) to industrial fields, that the ironmaking division of Mizushima works at Kawasaki Steel recognized its potential. Since that time, the division has sought applications for these techniques to solve various problems. AI techniques applied to control the No. 3 blast furnace operations at the Mizushima works include: Blast furnace control by a diagnostic type of expert system that gives guidance to the actions required for blast furnace operation as well as control of furnace heat by automatically setting blast temperature; Hot stove combustion control by a combination of fuzzy inference and a physical model to insure good thermal efficiency of the stove; and blast furnace burden control using neural networks makes it possible to connect the pattern of gas flow distribution with the condition of the furnace. Experience of AI to control the blast furnace and other ironmaking operations has proved its capability for achieving automation and increased operating efficiency. The benefits are very high. For these reasons, the applications of AI techniques will be extended in the future and new techniques studied to further improve the power of AI.

Iida, Osamu; Ushijima, Yuichi; Sawada, Toshiro [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Kurashiki (Japan)

1995-10-01

355

Electrical equipment for d-c arc furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Starting with a d-c ladle furnace in 1986 and using worldwide experience in supplying electrical equipment for more than 30 electrical steel plants, Siemens commissioned their first 70-Mw d-c arc furnace at the end of 1992. This article is divided into three parts: Siemens experience with their first d-c furnace: current improvements; and future considerations. Siemens first electrical installation for a d-c furnace has been in successful operation for more than a year. In spite of the special new construction of the thyristor rectifiers and the new digital open and closed-loop controls for this furnace, there have been no electrical failures. For new facilities, electrical components have been optimized based on the experience gained, taking into account the rapid innovations currently taking place. They are rated to accommodate the higher current requirements when graphite electrodes with a diameter of 800 mm or larger are available for the single electrode furnace or for a twin-electrode single shell furnace.

Schnapperelle, J. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Gandhi, V. [Siemens Energy and Automation, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

1995-09-01

356

Computer systems for controlling blast furnace operations at Rautaruukki  

SciTech Connect

Energy accounts for a significant portion of the total blast furnace production costs and, to minimize energy consumption, both technical and economical aspects have to be considered. Thus, considerable attention has been paid to blast furnace energy consumption and productivity. The most recent furnace relines were in 1985 and 1986. At that time, the furnaces were modernized and instrumentation was increased. After the relines, operation control and monitoring of the process is done by a basic automation systems (DCS`s and PLC`s) and a supervision system (process computer). The supervision system is the core of the control system combining reports, special displays, trends and mathematical models describing in-furnace phenomena. Low energy consumption together with high productivity and stable blast furnace operation have been achieved due to an improvement in raw materials quality and implementation of automation and computer systems to control blast furnace operation. Currently, the fuel rate is low and productivity is in excess of 3.0 tonnes/cu meter/day, which is one of the highest values achieved anywhere for long-term operation.

Inkala, P.; Karppinen, A. [Rautaruukki Oy, Raahe (Finland); Seppanen, M. [Rautaruukki Oy Engineering, Oulu (Finland)

1995-08-01

357

Holden gas-fired furnace baseline data. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Holden gas-fired furnace is used in the enriched uranium recovery process to dry and combust small batches of combustibles. The ash is further processed. The furnace operates by allowing a short natural gas flame to burn over the face of a wall of porous fire brick on two sides of the furnace. Each firing wall uses two main burners and a pilot burner to heat the porous fire brick to a luminous glow. Regulators and orifice valves are used to provide a minimum gas pressure of 4 in. water column at a rate of approximately 1,450 scf/h to the burners. The gas flow rate was calculated by determining the gas flow appropriate for the instrumentation in the gas line. Observed flame length and vendor literature were used to calculate pilot burner gas consumption. Air for combustion, purging, and cooling is supplied by a single blower. Rough calculations of the air-flow distribution in piping entering the furnace show that air flow to the burners approximately agrees with the calculated natural gas flow. A simple on/off control loop is used to maintain a temperature of 1,000 F in the furnace chamber. Hoods and glove boxes provide contamination control during furnace loading and unloading and ash handling. Fan EF-120 exhausts the hoods, glove boxes, and furnace through filters to Stack 33. A review of the furnace safety shows that safety is ensured by design, interlocks, procedure, and a safety system. Recommendations for safety improvements include installation of both a timed ignition system and a combustible-gas monitor near the furnace. Contamination control in the area could be improved by redesigning the loading hood face and replacing worn gaskets throughout the system. 33 refs., 16 figs.

Weatherspoon, K.A.

1996-11-01

358

Low pressure r.f. nitriding of austenitic stainless steel in an industrial-style heat-treatment furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitriding efficiency of a low pressure r.f. plasma is investigated in an industrial style hot-wall furnace in which the component is heated by thermal radiation from the walls of the vacuum chamber. The role of degassed impurities is also addressed. Samples of AISI 316 stainless steel were treated at a relatively low temperature of 400°C to avoid loss of

J. M. Priest; M. J. Baldwin; M. P. Fewell; S. C. Haydon; G. A. Collins; K. T. Short; J. Tendys

1999-01-01

359

Electric arc in three-phase metallurgical furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical and practical assumptions relative to the studies of electric arcs in steel-melting furnaces presented in journal Electrometallurgiya in 2011-2012 are subjected to a critical analysis. Based on classical concepts and the author experiments, the concept is presented regarding to the phases of the state and parameters of arc discharge in the ac electromagnetic field of a three-phase system. Industrial methods of eliminating the injurious effect of flash arc on furnace lining and the furnace efficiency are considered.

Vorob'ev, V. P.

2013-12-01

360

Characterization of directly sampled electric arc furnace dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As one part of a project to characterize electric arc furnace dust, direct sampling of particulates inside two furnaces has been undertaken. The sampled particles from two separate furnace runs were characterized by analytical electron microscopy. The elemental analyses were performed using energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Crystal structure determinations were made by convergent beam electron diffraction. The mechanism for particle formation as deduced from the experiments has been successfully incorporated into a theoretical model, which in turn predicts all of the observed features of the sampled particles and furthermore, provides new insights into control of particulate production and resource recovery.

Porter, J. R.; Goldstein, J. I.; Kim, Y. W.

1982-05-01

361

Designing sintering furnaces and atmospheres for energy savings  

SciTech Connect

The typical design of a furnace is briefly described; a belt conveyor design is used to illustrate the discussion; and the parts and operation of the furnace are described. Design features considered for maximum savings are pointed out. Sintering atmospheres commonly used are listed and real conservation measures to sharply reduce consumption of atmospheres listed include: maintain maximum tightness; keep furnace doors to a minimum size; use tight curtains; control the atmospheres; use the lowest Dew Point gas; blend gases; turn off the gases at the highest temperature possible. (MCW)

Holden, F.L.

1980-01-01

362

Modeling the DC electric arc furnace based on chaos theory and neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

DC electric arc furnace is an important nonlinear time-varying load in power system. Due to the adverse effects produced by the operation of arc furnace, it is important to build a practical model to described the behavior of electric arc furnace. The electrical fluctuations in the arc furnace voltage have proven to be chaotic in nature. Therefore, this paper deals

Fenghua Wang; Zhijian Jin; Zishu Zhu; Xusheng Wang

2005-01-01

363

Design and Prototype Development of a Mini-Electric Arc Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnaces (EAF) have the capabilities required for furnaces used for metallurgical research. An electric arc furnace was designed and constructed to melt approximately 5kg of steel\\/cast iron scraps, using locally produced Soderberg electrodes. Tests carried out showed that it required about 60 minutes to heat up the furnace to the melting temperature of cast iron (1150C - 1400C).

F. A. Oyawale; D. O. Olawale

364

Modeling and control of an electric arc furnace using a feedforward artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that the electric arc furnace is chaotic in nature and hence standard control techniques are not effective. However, human (heuristic) control is used every day on electric arc furnaces. A furnace operator assesses the performance of the furnace and makes judgments based on past experience and intuition. In order to improve the effectiveness of this control,

P. E. King; M. D. Nyman

1996-01-01

365

Process to eliminate hazardous components from the electric arc furnace flue dust and recovering of metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method to recover metals from flue dust generated in an electric arc furnace, the method comprising: charging pelletized or powder flue dust into an electric induction furnace between induction susceptors; sealing of the furnace top to prevent entry of air; injecting natural gas through the bottom of the electric induction furnace as a solitary reducing agent;

Lazcano-Navarro

1988-01-01

366

Chrome-containing refractories in the slag zone of the electrothermal furnace of zinc recovery plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In zinc recovery plant the zinc is extracted in vapor form from a slag pool in a rectang~alar electrothermal furnace with six electrodes arranged along the furnace axis at intervals of 1950 ram. The furnace is separated from the smelter by a water-cooled partition [1]. The roof of the furnace and the walls of the gas space are lined with

S. M. Zubakov; T. V. Demikhova; É. N. Yusupova; Z. K. Kairbaeva; I. V. Basina; M. I. Omarov

1974-01-01

367

The impact of oil burning on kraft recovery furnace SO sub 2 emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auxiliary fossil fuel, either natural gas or fuel oil, is burned in kraft recovery furnaces during furnace startups and shutdowns, furnace upsets, and periods of substantially reduced rates of black liquor firing. The efficiency of sulfur capture and retention during normal operation of a kraft recovery furnace is inherently high. Consequently, not all the SOâ from occasional burning of sulfur-containing

A. V. Someshwar; J. E. Pinkerton; A. L. Caron

1991-01-01

368

Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and Repossessed Uranium in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

369

DESIGN PROPOSAL2100 F BRAZING FURNACE, VACUUM OR HYDROGEN ATMOSPHERE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design proposal for a 2100 deg F brazing furnace for either a hydrogen ; atmosphere or a vacuum is presented. A cost estimate, elementary control ; circuit, and method used for heat transfer calculation are included. (auth);

S. E. Eckard; R. D. Etheridge; P. T. Ryan

1956-01-01

370

34. REDUCTION PLANT Furnace and boiler which provided steam heat ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. REDUCTION PLANT Furnace and boiler which provided steam heat required in converting fish, and fish offal, into meal and fish oil. Cone shaped tank at right held extracted oil. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

371

Voltage flicker prediction for two simultaneously operated ac arc furnaces  

SciTech Connect

An EMTP-based arc furnace model was developed for evaluation of flicker concerns associated with supplying a large integrated steel mill as they go from one to two furnace operation and as system changes are implemented that will affect the short circuit capacity at the 230 kV power supply substation. The model includes a dynamic arc representation which is designed to be characteristic of the initial portions of the melt cycle when the arc characteristics are the most variable (worst flicker conditions). The flicker calculations are verified using previous measurements with one furnace operation. Flicker simulations were then performed to evaluate a variety of different possible system strengths with both one and two furnaces in operation. The primary flicker measure used for this study is the unweighted rms value of the fluctuation envelope, expressed as a percentage of the rms line-to-ground voltage magnitude.

Tang, L. [ABB Power T and D Co., Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States)] [ABB Power T and D Co., Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States); Kolluri, S. [Entergy Services, New Orleans, LA (United States)] [Entergy Services, New Orleans, LA (United States); McGranaghan, M.F. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)] [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1997-04-01

372

26. Photocopy of photograph. IRON PLANT, BLAST FURNACE BEING TAPPED, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Photocopy of photograph. IRON PLANT, BLAST FURNACE BEING TAPPED, 1901. (From the university of Washington Northwest collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

373

29. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACES NEAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACES NEAR COMPLETION, 1910. (From the Jefferson County Historical society collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

374

28. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACES UNDER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACES UNDER CONSTRUCTION, 1909. (From the Robert Teagle Private collecton, Port Townsend, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

375

Design considerations for solar furnace focal zone apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Science Applications, Inc. has used the principal solar furnaces in conjunction with its study of the effect of high thermal fluxes and fluences on soil surfaces for the Defense Nuclear Agency. Apparatus to perform these tests has evolved from tests on the furnaces at the White Sands Missile Range, Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta; Centre National de Recherche Scientifique in Font Romeu, France; and Kirtland AFB, NM over the past 6 years. The apparatus is still evolving as it is adapted to additional furnaces and to obtain a greater variety of data. The evolution of the apparatus is traced to illustrate the interaction of experiment objectives; furnace capabilities, configuration, and support; apparatus design; data collection; and response to lessons learned.

Sievers, R.H. Jr.; Knasel, T.M.; McDonnell, M.; Gordon, B.; Woods, S.; Malinowski, R.

1981-01-01

376

38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, LANCES, AND FUME HOODS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

377

Correlation of geometric factor for slag resistance electric furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electric resistance of an industrial slag resistance furnace is an important factor in its design and operation. At a certain slag conductivity, the furnace resistance is dependent only on the furnace and electrode geometries; this geometric effect, usually called geometric factor, is a function of the electrode diameter, the depth of electrode immersion, the electrode spacing, and the total depth of slag layer. A correlation of the geometric factor to the above four geometric parameters was developed in this study on the basis of the measurements in a two-electrode salt-solution model. Comparison of the developed correlation to measurements in actual slag resistance electric furnaces shows good agreement between the calculated and measured values.

Jiao, Q.; Themelis, N. J.

1991-04-01

378

Characterization of Steelmaking Dusts from Electric Arc Furnaces .  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines characterized 32 bulk samples of electric arc furnace steelmaking dust for chemical, physical, and extraction procedure (EP) toxicity properties to provide a basis for resource recovery decisions. Surface areas, densities, weight loss ...

S. L. Law W. F. Lowry J. G. Snyder G. W. Kramer

1983-01-01

379

8. VIEW OF BATCHING HOPPER ON SERVICE FLOOR OF FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF BATCHING HOPPER ON SERVICE FLOOR OF FURNACE AISLE IN BOP SHOP LOOKING SOUTH. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

380

SITE - DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY - MINERGY CORPORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) was developed by Minergy Corporation (Minergy), of Waukesha, Wisconsin. Minergy originally developed vitrification technologies to process wastewater sludge into glass aggregate that could be sold as a commercial product. Minergy modified a st...

381

POURING IRON FROM ELECTRIC FURNACE INTO BULL LADLE AFTER MAGNESIUM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

POURING IRON FROM ELECTRIC FURNACE INTO BULL LADLE AFTER MAGNESIUM HAD BEEN ADDED TO GENERATE DUCTILE IRON WHEN IT COOLS IN THE MOLD. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

382

39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. Detail view of No. 2 Furnace iron runner; rod or poker at right was used to unplug iron notch. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

383

38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Base of No. 2 Furnace showing iron runner to ladle car on floor of casting shed. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

384

High Pressure Furnace Growth of Mercury Cadmium Telluride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program involved the preparation of mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) for infrared detectors using high pressure furnace techology. The principal difference between this approach and other techniques is that there is no requirement to seal the ampou...

J. M. Parry

1976-01-01

385

25. Photocopy of photograph. IRON PLANT, BLAST FURNACE UNDER RENOVATION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Photocopy of photograph. IRON PLANT, BLAST FURNACE UNDER RENOVATION, 1901. (From the Asahel Curtis collection, Washington State Historical Societty, Tacoma, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

386

102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

102. Giullotine type gate (inclosed position to regulate furnace exhaust gases to stoves during heating cycle. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

387

Vitrification of electric arc furnace dusts.  

PubMed

Electric arc furnace baghouse dust (EAFD), a waste by-product of the steelmaking process, contains the elements that are volatilized from the charge during the melting (Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd). The results of leaching tests show that the concentration of these elements exceeds the regulatory limits. Consequently, EAFD cannot be disposed of in ordinary landfill sites without stabilization of the heavy metals. In this work, the vitrification of EAFD, from both carbon and stainless steel productions, were studied. The vitrification process was selected as the inertizing process because it permits the immobilization of the hazardous elements in the glass network and represents an environmentally acceptable method for the stabilization of this waste. Classes of various compositions were obtained by mixing EAFD with glass cullet and sand. The EAFD and the glass products were characterized by DTA, TG, X-ray analysis and by the TCLP test. The results show that the stability of the product is influenced by the glass structure, which mainly depends on the Si/O ratio. Secondary crystallization heat-treatment were carried out on some samples. The results highlighted the formation of spinel phases, which reduced the chemical durability in acid media. The possibility to recover Zn from carbon steel production EAFD was investigated and about 60-70% of metal recovery was obtained. The resulting glass show higher chemical stability than glasses obtained without metal recovery. PMID:12423059

Pelino, M; Karamanov, A; Pisciella, P; Crisucci, S; Zonetti, D

2002-01-01

388

Recycling of electric-arc-furnace dust  

SciTech Connect

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is one of the largest solid waste streams produced by steel mills, and is classified as a waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Successful recycle of the valuable metals (iron, zinc, and lead) present in the dust will result in resource conservation while simultaneously reducing the disposal problems. Technical feasibility of a novel recycling method based on using hydrogen as the reductant was established under this project through laboratory experiments. Sponge iron produced was low in zinc, cadmium, and lead to permit its recycle, and nontoxic to permit its safe disposal as an alternative to recycling. Zinc oxide was analyzed to contain 50% to 58% zinc by weight, and can be marketed for recovering zinc and lead. A prototype system was designed to process 2.5 tons per day (600 tons/year) of EAF dust, and a preliminary economic analysis was conducted. The cost of processing dust by this recycling method was estimated to be comparable to or lower than existing methods, even at such low capacities.

Sresty, G.C.

1990-05-01

389

SCR performance on a hydrogen reformer furnace.  

PubMed

In late 1993, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. began operating a new steam-methane reformer at the Tosco Refining Co.'s Avon refinery in Martinez, CA, to provide hydrogen and steam to the refinery under a long-term supply agreement. The hydrogen plant--owned, operated, and maintained by Air Products--includes a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit on the reformer-furnace flue gas for environmental control. SCR is a commercially proven process capable of abating emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) to extremely low levels; however, documented experience in a refinery setting has been limited. This paper discusses performance of the SCR, primarily during its first two years of operation; it incorporates theory and prior research findings sufficient to understand the relationship between key system variables and SCR performance. Test results demonstrate that NOx, ammonia (NH3) slip, and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are in compliance with permit limits. NOx removal efficiency is nearly linear with the inlet NH3:NOx molar ratio up to almost 90% NOx conversion, where ammonia slip begins to rise steeply. The stoichiometric reaction ratio of NH3 to NOx is close to the theoretical 1.0. Catalyst life is estimated at four years, in line with published figures for SCR catalysts in clean-gas service. PMID:15655995

Kunz, R G

1998-01-01

390

High Temperature Calibration Furnace System user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High Temperature Calibration Furnace System (HTCFS) was developed by Summitec Corporation. It is a high precision instrument providing a constant temperature which can be used to calibrate high temperature thermocouples. Incorporating the many recent technological advances from the fields of optical fiber thermometry, material science, computer systems interfacing, and process control, the engineers at Summitec Corporation have been able to create a system that can reach a steady operating temperature of 1700 C. The precision for the system requires the measurement of temperature to be within 1 C in two hours and within 2 C in 24 hours. As documented, the experimental result shows that this system has been able to stay within .5 C in 5 hours. No other systems commercially available have been able to achieve such high temperature precision. This manual provides an overview of the system design, instructions for instrument setup, and operation procedures. Also included are a vendor list and the source codes for the custom-designed software.

1994-01-01

391

Metallic Glass Cooling Inside The TEMPUS Furnace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sample of advanced metallic glass alloy cools down during an experiment with the TEMPUS furnace on STS-94, July 7, 1997, MET:5/23:35 (approximate). The sequence shows the sample glowing, then fading to black as scientists began the process of preserving the liquid state, but lowering the temperature below the normal solidification temperature of the alloy. This process is known as undercooling. (10 second clip covering approximately 50 seconds.) TEMPUS (stands for Tiegelfreies Elektromagnetisches Prozessiere unter Schwerelosigkeit (containerless electromagnetic processing under weightlessness). It was developed by the German Space Agency (DARA) for flight aboard Spacelab. The DARA project scientist was Igon Egry. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). DARA and NASA are exploring the possibility of flying an advanced version of TEMPUS on the International Space Station. (1.1MB, 9-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300188.html.

2003-01-01

392

13. Blast furnace plant embraces the east bank of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Blast furnace plant embraces the east bank of the Cuyahoga River. Plant was established in 1881 by the Cleveland Rolling Mill Co. It was absorbed by the American Steel and Wire Co. in 1899 and, two years later, by the U.S. Steel Corp., which closed it in 1978. View looking north. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

393

Glass-ceramic materials from electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) was vitrified with SiO2, Na2CO3 and CaCO3 powders in an electric furnace at ambient atmosphere. Vitreous products were transformed into glass-ceramic materials by two-stage heat treatment, at temperatures determined by differential thermal analysis. Both vitreous and glass-ceramic materials were chemically stable. Wollastonite (CaSiO3) was separated from the parent matrix as the dominant crystalline phase, verified

P. Kavouras; T. Kehagias; I. Tsilika; G. Kaimakamis; K. Chrissafis; S. Kokkou; D. Papadopoulos; Th. Karakostas

2007-01-01

394

Caustic roasting and leaching of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is produced when iron and steel scrap is remelted in an electric arc furnace. There are still significant problems associated with the pyrometallurgical and\\/or hydrometallurgical processes for the treatment of this dust. In the present research, the dust was roasted with caustic soda at low temperatures. It was found that the zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) in

D. K. Xia; C. A. Pickles

1999-01-01

395

Large Electric-Arc Furnaces-- Performance and Power Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March l940, a 25-ton Heroult 3-phase electric arc furnace using a 10,000-kva 1.5 volts (115-volt base) for the 66-kv system with fluctuations from 3 per hour up to 15 per minute. Precautions were taken in the design of the furnace transformer to include separate reactance to reduce the load swings. Subsequently, it was found that this additional reactance was

B. M. Jones; C. M. Stearns

1941-01-01

396

Design study for a 24-cm HTGR microsphere coating furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the conceptual design of a prototypic furnace for use in the fabrication of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel. The design is of a system capable of coating fuel particles in a remote hot-cell operation. The coater will be used to confirm equipment design for a commercial fuel refabrication facility. The coating system includes the furnace, batch unloading equipment,

R. R. Suchomel; R. J. Braatz; B. J. Bolfing; J. L. Heck

1978-01-01

397

Selection of the parameters of heating up of furnace linings  

SciTech Connect

The results of calculation of the allowable heat flow in heating of a 0.23-m-thick lining of periclase, chromite periclase, periclase spinellide and periclase chromite are shown. A method is proposed for obtaining, by numerical methods, the approximate values of the allowable heating rates of furnace linings. The use of the results makes it possible to heat furnaces without failure of linings as the result of thermal cracking of the refractories.

Gertsyk, N.B.; Gimpelman, E.Y.; Strekotin, V.V.

1986-05-01

398

Projective control design for multi-zone crystal growth furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of controlling the temperature profile inside a multi-zone crystal growth furnace. A minimal discrete-time state-space model of the furnace is determined by the least squares identification of a multi-input\\/multi-output (MIMO) model. An integral control structure for the discrete-time model is derived to allow reference tracking, and a state-feedback control is designed for the system by

A. Srinivasan; C. Batur; R. Veillette; B. N. Rosenthal; W. M. B. Duval

1994-01-01

399

Modelling of multiphase flow in ironmaking blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model for the four-phase (gas, powder, liquid, and solids) flow in a two-dimensional ironmaking blast furnace is presented by extending the existing two-fluid flow models. The model describes the motion of gas, solid, and powder phases, based on the continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the flow of liquids, such as metal and slag in a blast furnace. The model results demonstrate a solid stagnant zone and dense powder hold-up region, as well as a dense liquid flow region that exists in the lower part of a blast furnace, which are consistent with the experimental observations reported in the literature. The simulation is extended to investigate the effects of packing properties and operational conditions on the flow and the volume fraction distribution of each phase in a blast furnace. It is found that solid movement has a significant effect on powder holdup distribution. Small solid particles and low porosity distribution are predicted to affect the fluid flow considerably, and this can cause deterioration in bed permeability. The dynamic powder holdup in a furnace increases significantly with the increase of powder diameter. The findings should be useful to better understand and control blast furnace operations.

Dong, X.F.; Yu, A.B.; Burgess, J.M.; Pinson, D.; Chew, S.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School for Material Science and Engineering

2009-01-15

400

An Overview of the Thermal Challenges of Designing Microgravity Furnaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marshall Space Flight Center is involved in a wide variety of microgravity projects that require furnaces, with hot zone temperatures ranging from 300 C to 2300 C, requirements for gradient processing and rapid quench, and both semi-conductor and metal materials. On these types of projects, the thermal engineer is a key player in the design process. Microgravity furnaces present unique challenges to the thermal designer. One challenge is designing a sample containment assembly that achieves dual containment, yet allows a high radial heat flux. Another challenge is providing a high axial gradient but a very low radial gradient. These furnaces also present unique challenges to the thermal analyst. First, there are several orders of magnitude difference in the size of the thermal 'conductors' between various parts of the model. A second challenge is providing high fidelity in the sample model, and connecting the sample with the rest of the furnace model, yet maintaining some sanity in the number of total nodes in the model. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the challenges involved in designing and analyzing microgravity furnaces and how some of these challenges have been overcome. The thermal analysis tools presently used to analyze microgravity furnaces and will be listed. Challenges for the future and a description of future analysis tools will be given.

Westra, Douglas G.

2001-01-01

401

Space Station Furnace Facility. Volume 2: Summary of technical reports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Furnace Facility (SSFF) is a modular facility for materials research in the microgravity environment of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The SSFF is designed for crystal growth and solidification research in the fields of electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics, and will allow for experimental determination of the role of gravitational forces in the solidification process. The facility will provide a capability for basic scientific research and will evaluate the commercial viability of low-gravity processing of selected technologically important materials. In order to accommodate the furnace modules with the resources required to operate, SSFF developed a design that meets the needs of the wide range of furnaces that are planned for the SSFF. The system design is divided into subsystems which provide the functions of interfacing to the SSF services, conditioning and control for furnace module use, providing the controlled services to the furnace modules, and interfacing to and acquiring data from the furnace modules. The subsystems, described in detail, are as follows: Power Conditioning and Distribution Subsystem; Data Management Subsystem; Software; Gas Distribution Subsystem; Thermal Control Subsystem; and Mechanical Structures Subsystem.

1992-01-01

402

Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces  

DOEpatents

The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

Mee, D.K.; Stephens, A.E.

1980-06-06

403

Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces  

DOEpatents

The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

Mee, David K. (Knoxville, TN); Stephens, Albert E. (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01

404

Laboratory Evaluation of Residential Furnace BlowerPerformance  

SciTech Connect

A testing program was undertaken at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and an electric utility (Pacific Gas and Electric Co.) to compare the performance of furnace blowers. This laboratory testing program was undertaken to support potential changes to California Building Standards regarding in-field furnace blower energy use. This technical support includes identifying suitable performance metrics and target performance levels for use in standards. Five different combinations of blowers and residential furnaces were tested for air moving performance. Three different types of blower and motor combinations were tested in two different furnace cabinets. The blowers were standard forward--curved impellors and a prototype impeller with reverse-inclined blades. The motors were two 6-pole permanent split capacitor (PSC) single-phase induction motors, a brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motor and a prototype BPM designed for use with a prototype reverse-inclined impellor. The laboratory testing operated each blower and furnace combination over a range of air flows and pressure differences to determine air flow performance, power consumption and efficiency. Additional tests varied the clearance between the blower housing and the furnace cabinet, and the routing of air flow into the blower cabinet.

Walker, Iain S.; Lutz, Jim D.

2005-09-01

405

Electric furnaces. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning electric furnaces and devices to improve safety and efficiency. Arc melting furnaces and vertical lifted portable furnaces are among those described. Patents describing online monitoring and control of electric furnaces are included. Devices that exhaust gases and fumes and recycle furnace dust are also mentioned. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-05-01

406

Nitric oxide formation in an iron oxide pellet rotary kiln furnace.  

PubMed

A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate the effects of heat and mass transfer on the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in a rotary kiln furnace for iron oxide pellet induration. The modeled kiln has a length-to-diameter ratio of approximately seven. The principal mechanism of heat transfer is radiation from the flame, which was described by the net radiation method. The well known Zeldovich mechanism was used to predict thermal NOx generation. Temperature fluctuations in the vicinity of the flame were estimated with a clipped Gaussian probability density function. The thermal energy and mass balance model equations were solved numerically. The model is capable of predicting temperature profiles and NOx production rates in agreement with observed plant performance. The model was used to explore the effects of process changes on the total NOx formation in the kiln. It was concluded that the gas temperature as well as the partial pressure of oxygen in the process gases controls the rate of NOx formation. Lowering the temperature of the kiln gases by increasing the secondary air flow rates requires simultaneously decreasing the pellet production rate in order to maintain the pellet temperatures needed for blast furnace conditions. PMID:15655997

Davis, R A

1998-01-01

407

Non-contact charge temperature measurement on industrial continuous furnaces and steel charge emissivity analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous furnaces are commonly used for steel billet reheating before a rolling operation. It is necessary to perform a number of measurements to set-up and operate the optimization system of the furnaces correctly. A charge temperature measurement using infrared detectors can be one of the usable measurement techniques. This non-contact measurement method is based on the detection of infrared radiation emitted from a measured surface. The radiation intensity depends on the surface temperature and emissivity, which is one of the most important parameters for infrared measurements. Advantages of the non-contact temperature measurement, as well as some problems regarding the surface emissivity, are presented. The direct steel billet temperature measurement procedure using infra-red detectors, emissivity determination procedures, and example results are introduced. It is shown that steel emissivity can vary from approx. 0.17 to 0.8, depending on the surface state, scale formation, and wavelength interval. These problems are critical for the charge temperature measurement using the infra-red detectors, and are discussed in this paper.

Švantner, Michal; Vacíková, Petra; Honner, Milan

2013-11-01

408

The use of blast furnace slag and derived materials in the vitrification of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric arc furnace (EAF) dust was added to blast furnace granulated slag or a gel produced by dissolving slag in HNO3\\/EtOH followed by alkaline hydrolysis and gelification, and then it was vitrified. The proportion of EAF dust used was between\\u000a 5 and 30 wt pct. The physicochemical properties of the glasses produced were studied by the X-ray powder diffraction

F. A. López; E. Sáinz; A. López-delgado; L. Pascual; J. M. Fernández Navarro

1996-01-01

409

Feasibility of high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry in flame and furnace for sulphur determination in petroleum products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, high-resolution molecular absorption spectrometry with a high-intensity xenon lamp as radiation source has been applied for the determination of sulphur in crude oil and petroleum products. The samples were analysed as xylene solutions using vaporisation in acetylene-air flame or in an electrothermally heated graphite furnace. The sensitive rotational lines of the CS molecule, belonging to the ?? = 0 vibrational sequence within the electronic transition X 1? + ? A 1?, were applied. For graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry, the Pd + Mg organic modifier was selected. Strong interactions with Pd atoms enable easier decomposition of sulphur-containing compounds, likely through the temporal formation of Pd xS y molecules. At the 258.056 nm line, with the wavelength range covering central pixel ± 5 pixels and with application of interactive background correction, the detection limit was 14 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and 18 mg kg -1 in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. Meanwhile, application of 2-points background correction found a characteristic mass of 12 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and a characteristic concentration of 104 mg kg -1 in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. The range of application of the proposed methods turned out to be significantly limited by the properties of the sulphur compounds of interest. In the case of volatile sulphur compounds, which can be present in light petroleum products, severe difficulties were encountered. On the contrary, heavy oils and residues from distillation as well as crude oil could be analysed using both flame and graphite furnace vaporisation. The good accuracy of the proposed methods for these samples was confirmed by their mutual consistency and the results from analysis of reference samples (certified reference materials and home reference materials with sulphur content determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry).

Kowalewska, Zofia

2011-07-01

410

Modernization of USS/KOBE No. 3 blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

The USS/KOBE Steel Company was formed on July 1, 1989 as a joint venture between USS and KOBE Steel of Japan. A major premise of the joint venture was to use generated capital for the modernization of the plant's facilities. The first major project of the new company was the total renovation of No. 3 Blast Furnace. This furnace is to be the mainstay of quality hot metal production for the future of the new company. No. 3 Blast Furnace was last operated in 1982. An original reline was planned in 1981, but was deferred due to economic conditions. Subsequent dismantling and engineering were performed in 1985 but the facility basically laid dormant for ten years until 1991. This paper discusses the various systems installed during the furnace rebuild along with some of the construction aspects of the rebuild along with some of the construction aspects of the rebuild. Modernized USS/KOBE No. 3 Blast Furnace (Blow-in: May 4, 1992) introduced various improvements of equipment and technology, such as a Paul Wurth Top, coke screening, casthouse, gas cleaning, stoves, and automatic stockhouse in order to make it a world class competitor.

Diederich, D.J.; VanderSluis, F.H.; Yukubo, Y.; Bernarding, T.F.; Emoto, E. (Kobe Steel Co., Lorain, OH (United States). USS)

1993-01-01

411

A General Viscosity Model for Molten Blast Furnace Slag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast furnace slag is the most abundant slag in the steel industry. Its metallurgical properties are determined to a great extent by its viscosity. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a reliable viscosity model for blast furnace slag. In the current work, a simple, accurate, and physically meaningful viscosity model for a wide composition range of blast furnace slags is developed based on the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation: log ? = A + B/( T - C). The model is calibrated by a database containing 365 compositions and 1233 measurements of synthetic and industrial slags. The parameter A has a value of -3.10. The parameters B and C are related to the mass fraction ratio of (CaO + MgO) to (SiO2 + Al2O3) and liquidus temperature of the slag, respectively. Present viscosity model accurately predicts the viscosity of blast furnace slag with relative average error (?) of 0.211 (±0.180) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.239 Pa·s. A slight modification of this model can also predict the glass transition temperature of blast furnace slag satisfactorily.

Gan, Lei; Lai, Chaobin

2014-06-01

412

The challenge of improving electric arc furnace efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Electric arc furnace requirements for electrical energy are increasing more rapidly than generation and distribution capacity. Electric arc furnace technology is reviewed with respect to energy requirements. Although the use of water-cooled panels, increased power levels and higher oxygen inputs, for example, all increase the rate of energy loss, they do not necessarily result in an increase in energy losses per ton. The increase in loss rate (energy/hour) may be more than offset by a decrease in cycle time. This article attempts to summarize the impact of various process variable discussed in a recent report on electric arc furnace efficiency issued by the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) Center for Materials Production (CMP). These include meltshop logistics, operating practices, energy input, scrap preheating and pollution control.

McIntyre, E.H. (Tekon Services Ltd., Whitby, Ontario (Canada)); Goodwill, J.E.; Klesser, D.E. (EPRI, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Center for Materials Production)

1994-05-01

413

Semicoke production and quality at Chinese vertical SJ furnaces  

SciTech Connect

In Russia there has been little interest on the thermal processing of non-sintering coal. However it may be used to obtain many special types of coke and semicoke that are necessary for processes other than blast furnace smelting and employing small metallurgical coke fractions that do not meet the relevant quality requirements. China has recently made great progress in developing the thermal processing of coal (mainly energy coal) to obtain a highly effective product, semicoke, primarily used in metallurgy and adsorption process. The article considers the operation of a Chinese semicoking plant equipped with vertical SJ furnaces. The plant is in the Shenmu district of Shanxi province (Inner Mongolia). The enterprise includes two furnaces of total output of about 100,000 t/yr of semicoke.

V.M. Strakhov; I.V. Surovtseva; A.V. D'yachenko; V.M. Men'shenin [Kuznetsk Center, Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute (Russian Federation)

2007-05-15

414

Arc monitoring on a 100 kVA experimental furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three phase arc furnace with inclined electrodes and gas injection through the electrodes was commissioned by the melting and smelting of a variety of materials. The furnace is equipped with extensive measuring and control instrumentation and facilities for data capture and analysis. The effects of different materials, rates of feeding, temperature, and gas injection on the arcing characteristics were studied. Simple and theory adequately describes some of the phenemona observed, and the spectral decomposition of the voltage waveform provides additional information. The application of these results to smelting processes is discussed.

Rennie, M. S.

1983-02-01

415

Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate  

DOEpatents

An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the door or wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. The quartz for the diffuser plate is surface etched (to give the quartz diffusive qualities) in the furnace during a high intensity burn-in process.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1995-01-01

416

Furnace atmosphere effects on casting of eutectic superalloys  

SciTech Connect

Control of furnace atmosphere is a key factor in the use of silica-bonded alumina shell molds for the directional solidification of eutectic superalloys reinforced with tantalum monocarbide whiskers. The use of a furnace atmosphere which is simultaneously oxidizing to aluminum in the eutectic alloy and reducing to silica phases in the mold results in the formation of an alumina barrier layer in situ at the metal/mold interface and an absence of silica phases in the mold region adjacent to this barrier layer. The presence of this microstructure permits castings of eutectics at metal temperatures up to 1750/sup 0/C.

Gigliotti, M.F.X.; Greskovich, C.

1980-02-01

417

40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. ...industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. ...particulate matter, hydrogen chloride and chlorine...standards to control hydrogen chloride or chlorine...industrial furnaces burning low risk waste....

2009-07-01

418

40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. ...industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. ...particulate matter, hydrogen chloride and chlorine...standards to control hydrogen chloride or chlorine...industrial furnaces burning low risk waste....

2010-07-01

419

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution...Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air...

2010-07-01

420

40 CFR 424.10 - Applicability; description of the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. 424... Open Electric Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424...the open electric furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory....

2013-07-01

421

40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. 424...Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424...calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory....

2013-07-01

422

Characterization of Process Conditions in Industrial Stainless Steelmaking Electric Arc Furnace Using Optical Emission Spectrum Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission spectroscopy is a potential method for gaining information on electric arc furnace (EAF) process conditions. Previous studies published in literature on industrial EAF emission spectra have focused on a smaller scales and DC arc furnaces. In this study emission spectrum measurements were conducted for 140t AC stainless steelmaking EAF at Outokumpu Stainless Oy, Tornio Works, Finland. Four basic types of emission spectra were obtained during the EAF process cycle. The first one is obscured by scrap steel, the second is dominated by thermal radiation of the slag, the third is dominated by alkali peaks and sodium D-lines and the fourth is characterized by multiple atomic emission peaks. The atomic emission peaks were identified by comparing them to the NIST database for atomic emission lines and previous laboratory measurements on EAF slag emission spectra. The comparison shows that the optic emission of an arc is dominated by slag components. Plasma conditions were analyzed by deriving plasma temperature from optical emissions of Ca I lines. The analysis suggests that accurate information on plasma conditions can be gained from outer plasma having a plasma temperature below 7000 K (6727 °C).

Aula, Matti; Leppänen, Ahti; Roininen, Juha; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Vallo, Kimmo; Fabritius, Timo; Huttula, Marko

2014-06-01

423

CFD Modeling of Flow, Temperature, and Concentration Fields in a Pilot-Scale Rotary Hearth Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional mathematical model for simulation of flow, temperature, and concentration fields in a pilot-scale rotary hearth furnace (RHF) has been developed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software, FLUENT. The layer of composite pellets under the hearth is assumed to be a porous media layer with CO source and energy sink calculated by an independent mathematical model. User-defined functions are developed and linked to FLUENT to process the reduction process of the layer of composite pellets. The standard k-? turbulence model in combination with standard wall functions is used for modeling of gas flow. Turbulence-chemistry interaction is taken into account through the eddy-dissipation model. The discrete ordinates model is used for modeling of radiative heat transfer. A comparison is made between the predictions of the present model and the data from a test of the pilot-scale RHF, and a reasonable agreement is found. Finally, flow field, temperature, and CO concentration fields in the furnace are investigated by the model.

Liu, Ying; Su, Fu-Yong; Wen, Zhi; Li, Zhi; Yong, Hai-Quan; Feng, Xiao-Hong

2014-01-01

424

Characterization of Process Conditions in Industrial Stainless Steelmaking Electric Arc Furnace Using Optical Emission Spectrum Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emission spectroscopy is a potential method for gaining information on electric arc furnace (EAF) process conditions. Previous studies published in literature on industrial EAF emission spectra have focused on a smaller scales and DC arc furnaces. In this study emission spectrum measurements were conducted for 140t AC stainless steelmaking EAF at Outokumpu Stainless Oy, Tornio Works, Finland. Four basic types of emission spectra were obtained during the EAF process cycle. The first one is obscured by scrap steel, the second is dominated by thermal radiation of the slag, the third is dominated by alkali peaks and sodium D-lines and the fourth is characterized by multiple atomic emission peaks. The atomic emission peaks were identified by comparing them to the NIST database for atomic emission lines and previous laboratory measurements on EAF slag emission spectra. The comparison shows that the optic emission of an arc is dominated by slag components. Plasma conditions were analyzed by deriving plasma temperature from optical emissions of Ca I lines. The analysis suggests that accurate information on plasma conditions can be gained from outer plasma having a plasma temperature below 7000 K (6727 °C).

Aula, Matti; Leppänen, Ahti; Roininen, Juha; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Vallo, Kimmo; Fabritius, Timo; Huttula, Marko

2014-02-01

425

40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.66...boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. ...requirements for particulate matter, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas...720 hours operating time when burning hazardous waste, the...

2009-07-01

426

40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.66...boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. ...requirements for particulate matter, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas...720 hours operating time when burning hazardous waste, the...

2010-07-01

427

Rebuilding and modernization of blast furnace B'' at Cockerill-Sambre Ougree  

SciTech Connect

Blown in for the first time in 1962, the B blast furnace of Cockerill-Sambre was relined for the fourth time in 1989. The furnace produced 8,649,000 tons during the last campaign (1980 - 1989). Gunning repairs were carried out in 1985 and 1987. The blast furnace was blow down on June 30 and the burden level was lowered to the tuyere level. Afterwards a salamander of 350 tons was cast in open ladles. The relining of the blast furnace was performed on schedule and the furnace was blown in on the 4th of December 1989. The paper describes the relining goals and the main modifications. The specifications of the blast furnace are listed. Then the paper describes the modifications to the following systems: the charging computer system; the cooling system; the refractory materials; the hot stoves; blast furnace gas system; instrumentation and regulation; the blast furnace computer system; the pollution control equipment; and the cast floor.

Neuville, J.; Lecomte, P.; Massin, J.P.; Drimmer, D. (Cockerill-Sambre, Liege (Belgium))

1993-01-01

428

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST,BLAST FURNACE TO THE RIGHT, ORE YARD TO THE CENTER, HEYL & PATTERSON CAR DUMPER TO THE LEFT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

429

Energy Measurements for an Electric Arc Steelmaking Furnace. Poster N.2.2.7.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The energy and material balance of an electric arc steelmaking furnace are quantified with reference both to the overall tap-to-tap cycle and to furnace operation stages. Each energy input and output is analyzed (assumptions, measurements made, numerical ...

A. Borroni G. Nano B. Mazza C. M. Joppolo

1984-01-01

430

Simulations of a Furnace Brazing Process Using Tera-Scale Computing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal responses in a production brazing furnace can be very difficult to predict or measure due to changing loading and heating conditions. An efficient approach to determining acceptable furnace brazing cycles is to apply computational models that can ...

F. M. Hosking S. E. Gianoulakis

2000-01-01

431

Study of voltage stresses in arc furnace transformers due to switching operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present thesis is concerned with the possibility of calculating transient voltages at the terminals of an arc furnace transformer due to switching operations of the circuit breaker in front of the arc furnace transformer. Sufficient accurate models of...

S. Frydenlund

1994-01-01

432

78 FR 7681 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...of Energy (DOE) proposes to revise its test procedure for residential furnaces and...standard incorporated by reference in the DOE test procedure. DATES: Meeting: DOE...

2013-02-04

433

Thermal operation of the DSP-120 Consteel furnace in the Ashinsk metallurgical works  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat losses with waste gases in modern electric arc furnaces are 20-25%. Scrap heating by waste gases is performed in Fuchs Systemtechnik shaft furnaces and Consteel furnaces with conveyer charging. The results of balance heats conducted in the DSP-120 Consteel electric furnace located in the Ashinsk metallurgical works are presented, and measures for increasing the energy efficiency of its operation are proposed.

Evstratov, V. G.; Kiselev, A. D.; Zinurov, I. Yu.; Shakirov, Z. Kh.; Mamenko, Yu. F.; Shumakov, A. M.; Gindullin, M. T.

2013-06-01

434

Blast furnace slags as sorbents of phosphate from water solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is focused on the sorption of phosphorus from aqueous solutions by crystalline and amorphous blast furnace slags. Slag sorption kinetics were measured, adsorption tests were carried out and the effect of acidification on the sorption properties of slags was studied. The kinetic measurements confirmed that the sorption of phosphorus on crystalline as well as amorphous slags can be

Bruno Kostura; Hana Kulveitová; Juraj Leško

2005-01-01

435

Phosphate removal using blast furnace slags and opoka-mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abiotic sorption efficiency of on-site wastewater treatment systems can be improved by using a strongly sorbing filter material that, if it retains phosphorus (P) in a plant available way, can be used as fertiliser when P saturation is achieved. Two materials, blast furnace slag and the siliceous sedimentary rock opoka, have shown a high P sorption capacity and were

Lena Johansson; Jon Petter Gustafsson

2000-01-01

436

Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous

Daphne Mirabile; Maria Ilaria Pistelli; Marina Marchesini; Roberta Falciani; Lisa Chiappelli

2002-01-01

437

Durability of Portland blast-furnace slag cement concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results of studies carried out at the Building Research Establishment in the UK, on the performance and long-term durability of concrete where ground glassy blast-furnace slag (granulated and pelletized) has been used as a cementitious material. Using data from tests on site structures and laboratory and exposure site studies, comparisons are made of the properties and

G. J. Osborne

1999-01-01

438

Video Monitoring System for Enriched Uranium Casting Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A closed-circuit television (CCTV) system was developed to upgrade the remote-viewing capability on two oralloy (highly enriched uranium) casting furnaces in the Y-12 Plant. A silicon vidicon CCTV camera with a remotely controlled lens and infrared filter...

P. C. Turner

1978-01-01

439

Trap assembly for a condensing fossil fuel furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a furnace of the type including a heat exchanger with a combustion chamber for combusting a fuel and air mixture; means for introducing a fuel and air mixture to the chamber; means for igniting the fuel and air mixture; a combustion product plenum connected to the chamber for directing combustion products from the combustion chamber to a

Shellenberger

1988-01-01

440

VIEW OF FINISHING STANDS #710 FROM FURNACE SIDE OF TRAIN, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF FINISHING STANDS #7-10 FROM FURNACE SIDE OF TRAIN, LOOKING TOWARD STRANDING TROUGHS AND HOT BEDS. STEEL IS LOOPED OR CAUGHT BY HAND ON THE PASSES THROUGH THESE STANDS. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

441

Metal diffusion from furnace tubes depends on location  

SciTech Connect

Studies of metal samples from an ethylene furnace on the Texas Gulf Coast, using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX), reveal preferential diffusion of chromium, titanium, and aluminum in the coil wall to the surfaces of the tube where they form metal oxides. These elements are gradually depleted from the tube wall. Complicated surface reactions that include the formation of several metal oxides, metal sulfides, and metal-catalyzed coke also occur. Several mechanisms can be postulated as to how metal fines or compounds are formed and transferred in the coil and transfer lines exchanger (TLX) of ethylene units. These surface reactions directly or indirectly affect coke formation in the tube. Finally, creep in the coils is likely a factor in promoting corrosion. Such creep is promoted by variable temperature-time patterns to which a coil is exposed during pyrolysis, and then decoking. Periods of stress and compression occur in the coil walls. Knowledge of the diffusion and reactions that take place can result in better furnace operations and decoking procedures to extend the life of the furnace tubes. In this second installment of a four-part series, photomicrographs of four pyrolysis tube samples from the ethylene furnace indicate that significant differences existed between the outer surfaces, inner surfaces, and cross-sectional areas of the samples. The first installment of the series dealt with coke.

Albright, L.F.

1988-08-15

442

Fabrication and leak-tight furnace brazing of intricate objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extremely compact crossflow heat exchanger has been constructed by hydrogen furnace brazing together a stack of hundreds of chemically milled stainless-steel sheets. The resulting structure is leak tight and very strong, but fluid channels as small as 51 ?m are not plugged by excess brazing material. The construction technique is easily adapted to mass production and should be useful

G. W. Swift; A. Migliori; John Wheatley; C. R. Waller; G. Suazo

1984-01-01

443

Design of tank furnaces for producing sheet glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

excellent melting of the glass in the quantities specified by the project; the possibility of making rational use of the fuel supplied to it with the minimum damage to the refractories; excellent evacuation of flue gases from the furnaces and the setting up of the required hydraulic cycle; the possibility of regulating the temperature cycle over the length of the

A. G. Perov

1970-01-01

444

Multiple heat exchange in a model furnace with direct heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

in this paper results are given for studies of multiple heat exchange during the combustion of natural gas in a standard model furnace in order to determine the convection component fraction in the multiple heat exchange. Besides the measurements taken during the study of the convection heat emission, the natural gas eonsumptiou, its pressure, and temperature were also measured in

V. I. Lebedev; V. A. Sokolov

1980-01-01

445

FRACTIONAL EFFICIENCY OF AN ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE BAGHOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the performance of a fabric filter system controlling emissions from either one or two 30-ton electric arc furnaces producing a high-strength, low-alloy specialty steel. The evaluation involved measuring the system's total mass collect...

446

Modeling and control of an electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAFs) are widely used in steelmaking and in smelting of nonferrous metals. The EAF is the central process of the so-called mini-mills, which produce steel mainly from scrap. The power level is directly related to production throughput, so it is important to control the EAF at the highest possible average power with a low variance to avoid

B. Boulet; G. Lalli; M. Ajersch

2003-01-01

447

Reduction of electric arc furnace dust with solid iron powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust contains, on average, about 19mass% zinc and 3mass% lead. Due to the presence of this lead, as well as small amounts of cadmium and hexavalent chromium, EAF dust has been classified as a hazardous waste by various government regulatory agencies. Currently, most dust treatment processes employ carbon as a reducing agent for the zinc oxide

J. R. Donald; C. A. Pickles

1996-01-01

448

Numerical evaluation of electromagnetic field effects in electric arc furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a 3D numerical modeling of electromagnetic and thermal fields in three-phase electric arc furnaces. The thermal effect of the foamy slag is studied in the first part of the paper. The Joule power density is calculated with an AC electromagnetic analysis and is transferred to the steady state thermal problem as heat source. The second part of

Florin David; Tiberiu Tudorache; Virgiliu Firteanu

2001-01-01

449

Mineral phases of weathered and recent electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

A weathered and a recent sample of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), generated in a southern Brazilian steel industry, were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) probe and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A quantitative phase composition model, that accounts for the observed data

Fernanda Machado Martins; José Manoel dos Reis Neto; Carlos Jorge da Cunha

2008-01-01

450

A Method of Examining in Detail Electric Arc Furnace Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of data acquisition and analysis is described that has been developed to assess in detail the performance of electric arc furnaces. The method has been implemented on a small single user minicomputer (a PDP 11\\/40) and on a large mainframe (an IBM 3033). The method was specifically developed in order to determine reliable statistical parameters that can be

J. D. Lavers; Behnam Danai; P. P. Biringer; Donald J. Chee-Hing

1985-01-01

451

Dust formation in Electric Arc Furnace: Birth of the particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) dust shows that bubble burst at the liquid steel surface is the principal source of dust emission. We have therefore developed an experimental device for studying this phenomenon. As in the case of the air–water system, the bubble-burst gives birth to two types of droplets: film drops and jet drops. The jet drop

Anne-Gwénaëlle Guézennec; Jean-Christophe Huber; Fabrice Patisson; Philippe Sessiecq; Jean-Pierre Birat; Denis Ablitzer

2005-01-01

452

Understanding environmental leachability of electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust from production of steel in an electric arc furnace (EAF) contains a mixture of elements that pose a challenge for both recovery and disposal. This paper relates the leachability of six Canadian EAF dusts in four leaching tests [distilled water, Ontario Regulation 347 Leachate Extraction Procedure, Amount Available for Leaching (AALT), and pH 5 Stat] to their mineralogy. Chromium

Julia A. Stegemann; Amitava Roy; Robert J. Caldwell; Paul J. Schilling; Roland Tittsworth

2000-01-01

453

STATCOM for compensation of large electric arc furnace installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

High power electronic equipment, developed for the compensation of utility power transmission systems, has been successfully applied to the problem of flicker compensation in a large industrial arc furnace. Whereas conventional flicker compensation methods, using thyristor valves in conjunction with passive components, have generally failed to reduce flicker substantially the new STATCOM-based compensator provides a dramatic reduction in flicker, as

C. Schauder

1999-01-01

454

Development of Enhanced Electric Arc Furnace Models for Transient Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) are a main cause of voltage flicker due to the interaction of the high demand currents of the loads with the supply system impedance. In order to adequately understand and analyze the effects on the power system from these loads, obtaining an accurate representation of the characteris- tics of the loads is crucial. In this paper,

Gilsoo Jang

455

Variable Structure System for Electric Arc Furnace Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable structure controllers that can be effectively applied to control an electric arc furnace are investigated in this paper. A gereral formulation and solution of the variable structure system design problem is presented together with some guidlines for the choice of a suitable model following. A state space reduction method is applied to reduce the dominant dynamic order and hence

M. A. Zohdy; Jun Liu

1988-01-01

456

Analysis of electrically induced flows in DC electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limitations of natural resources and environmental pollution problems have forced people to consider seriously about recycling of materials. As a means of recycling, DC arc furnaces can be used to recycle scrap materials and already some industries have started to use them in small scale production. An in depth understanding of the process involved is essential for optimal design and

H. N. Mondal; H. Kurimoto; T. Morisue

1996-01-01

457

Control of NonFerrous Electric Arc Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect of non-ferrous metal production is the separation process known as smelting, in which the concentrated ore is melted and separated into two components of different densities: the slag and the matte. The smelting process is carried out through high-power heating in electric arc furnaces. In order to maintain a constant desired matte production rate and constant matte

Benoit Boulet; Vit Vaculik; Geoff Wong

458

Modelling, optimization and control of an electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research was to develop methods to optimally operate an industrial electric arc furnace (EAF). EAFs are widely used in the steel industry to recycle scrap steel. Simply stated, steel recycling involves melting down the scrap metal using both chemical and electrical energy sources and making adjustments to the chemistry. EAFs are complex processes involving limited

Richard MacRosty

2005-01-01

459

Efficient electric arc furnace control at Nueva Montana Quijano SA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 1991, ABB commissioned a process control system for Nueva Montana Quijano's (NMQ) electric arc furnace in Santander, Spain. The installation consists of a system for controlled scrap meltdown and an electrode regulator. This paper presents the improvements that have been achieved during the first year of production. The improvements have included: Electrode consumption decrease of approximately 14%. Power-on

L. Hultin; P. A. Vazques

1993-01-01

460

A computer simulator for steel plant electrical arc furnace regulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of the simulator is to imitate the behavior of the regulator loop, which is the main component of the Electrical Arc Furnace (EAF) control systems. In the past, the use of artificial intelligence methods, and in particular, the Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) were successfully applied in the modeling and control of the EAF components individually. This

Behzad Jorjani

2006-01-01

461

Coke mineral transformations in the experimental blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

Blast furnace efficiency may be improved by optimizing coke reactivity. Some but not all forms of mineral matter in the coke modify its reactivity, but changes in mineral matter that occur within coke while in the blast furnace have not been fully quantified. To determine changes in mineral matter forms in the blast furnace, coke samples from a dissection study in the LKAB experimental blast furnace (EBF) were characterized using SEM/EDS analysis, EPMA (microprobe), and low-temperature ashing/quantitative XRD analysis. Variations in alkali concentration, particularly potassium, dominated the compositional changes. At high concentrations of potassium, the mineral matter was largely potassium-bearing but even more potassium was diffused throughout the coke and not associated with mineral matter. There was little difference in potassium concentration between the core and surface of the coke pieces, suggesting that potassium diffused rapidly through the whole coke. Iron, calcium, silicon, and aluminum concentrations were relatively constant in comparison, although the mineralogy of all elements changed significantly with changing temperature. 23 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

Kelli Kazuberns; Sushil Gupta; Mihaela Grigore; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Mats Hallin; Bo Lindblom; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development (CCSD)

2008-09-15

462

LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

463

A Geologic Guide to the Cooper Furnace Day Use Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the day use area adjoining the Allatoona Dam on the Etowah River north of Atlanta and the geology of the three physiographic provinces which converge there. Included are a generalized geologic map of the area and maps of the visitor center, picnic areas, the abandoned pig iron furnace, the scenic overlooks, and the…

Crews, Patty

1991-01-01

464

Removal of chloride from electric arc furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust with high chloride content increases the threat of dioxin emissions and the high chloride content reduces the value of recycled zinc oxide produced by EAF dust recycling plants. This study conducts a number of laboratory experiments to determine the technical feasibility of a new dechlorination method. These methods consist of a series of roasting processes

Wei-Sheng Chen; Yun-Hwei Shen; Min-Shing Tsai; Fang-Chih Chang

2011-01-01

465

METALLURGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MEFOS 3 MW DC ARC FURNACE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past twenty years the 3 MW DC arc furnace at MEFOS has been frequently used for development of new processes. These processes include recovery of valuable metals from slag, sludge and dust from steel and other metallurgical industry, treatment of ashes from power plant and incinerators, smelting reduction of minerals and zinc recovery from EAF dust. The process

G. Ye; J. Alexis; E. Burström

2004-01-01

466

Processing electric arc furnace dust into saleable chemical products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The modern steel industry uses electric arc furnace (EAF) technology to manufacture steel. A major drawback of this technology is the production of EAF dust, which is listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a hazardous waste under the Resour...

1998-01-01

467

Dust formation in electric arc furnace : birth of the particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) dust shows that bubble burst at the liquid steel surface is the principal source of dust emission. We have therefore developed an experimental device for studying this phenomenon. As in the case of the air-water system, the bubble-burst gives birth to two types of droplets: film drops and jet drops. The jet drop

A. G. Guézennec; J. C. Huber; F. Patisson; P. Sessiecq; J. P. Birat; D. Ablitzer

2007-01-01

468

Recycling of Electric Arc Furnace Dust: Jorgensen Steel Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is an evaluation of the Ek Glassification(TM) Process to recycle and convert K061-listed waste (Electric Arc Furnace or EAF dust) and other byproducts of the steel-making industry into usable products. The Process holds potential for replaci...

T. W. Jackson J. S. Chapman

1995-01-01

469

MULTISTAGED BURNER DESIGN FOR IN-FURNACE NOX CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a multistage combustion modification design, combining two advanced NOx control technologies, on a pilot-scale (0.9 MW) package boiler simulator for in-furnace NOx control of high nitrogen fuel combustion applications. A low NOx precomb...

470

No Furnaces but Heat Aplenty in âPassive Housesâ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly cogent feature from the The New York Time Europe, from December 28, 2008, describes the super efficient features of passive houses. These carefully engineered structures allow inhabitants to maintain comfortable temperatures inside and produce hot water in very cold climates without the need of a furnace.

Rosenthal, Elisabeth

471

Better VPS Fabrication of Crucibles and Furnace Cartridges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation has shown that by (1) vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) of suitable refractory metal alloys on graphite mandrels, and then (2) heat-treating the VPS alloy deposits under suitable conditions, it is possible to fabricate improved crucibles and furnace cartridges that could be used at maximum temperatures between 1,400 and 1,600 C and that could withstand chemical attack by the materials to be heated in the crucibles and cartridges. Taken by itself, the basic concept of fabricating furnace cartridges by VPS of refractory materials onto graphite mandrels is not new; taken by itself, the basic concept of heat treatment of VPS deposits for use as other than furnace cartridges is also not new; however, prior to this investigation, experimental crucibles and furnace cartridges fabricated by VPS had not been heat treated and had been found to be relatively weak and brittle. Accordingly, the investigation was directed toward determining whether certain combinations of (1) refractory alloy compositions, (2) VPS parameters, and (3) heat-treatment parameters could result in VPS-fabricated components with increased ductility.

Holmes, Richard R.; Zimmerman, Frank R.; O'Dell, J. Scott; McKechnie, Timothy N.

2003-01-01

472

Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Shelmidine, Gregory J. (Tijeras, NM)

2007-02-20

473

RECYCLE OF MODIFIED FLY ASH FROM FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses technical and economic studies to assess the impact of recycle on the furnace sorbent injection process. Levelized costs of various recycle schemes were compared to baseline (non-recycle) costs using the EPA LIMB Cost Model and the LIMB Recycle Model. Laborato...

474

CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

475

Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate  

DOEpatents

An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1996-01-01

476

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING DISPLAY OF INSIDE OF BLAST FURNACE AND MACHINERY AND ARTIFACTS INCLUDING A STEAM ENGINE HUB MADE AT THE BRIERFIELD ROLLING MILL (INSCRIBED C.C. HUCKABEE AND DATED 1863) AND OTHER STEAM ENGINES. - Iron & Steel Museum of Alabama, 12632 Confederate Pkwy., Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

477

Computational fluid dynamics simulations of a glass melting furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glass production industry is one of the major users of natural gas in the US, and approximately 75% of the energy produced from natural gas is used in the melting process. Industrial scale glass melting furnaces are large devices, typically 5 or more meters wide, and twice as long. To achieve efficient heat transfer to the glass melt below,

A. Egelja; S. A. Lottes

2000-01-01

478

Measurement and control of combustion process of industrial furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies a kind of combustion control strategy based on the power spectral distribution property of the minute pressure pulsation signal (MPPS) of flame. The experiment research shows that the power spectral distribution property of MPPS can describe the combustion state of industrial furnaces and the MPPS can be fastly obtained by direct detection. The proposed method can provide

Liu Wenjiang; Zhang Shuming; Ye Hongwei; Feng Shiping

1993-01-01

479

Computational fluid dynamics simulations of a glass melting furnace  

SciTech Connect

The glass production industry is one of the major users of natural gas in the US, and approximately 75% of the energy produced from natural gas is used in the melting process. Industrial scale glass melting furnaces are large devices, typically 5 or more meters wide, and twice as long. To achieve efficient heat transfer to the glass melt below, the natural gas flame must extend over a large portion of the glass melt. Therefore modern high efficiency burners are not used in these furnaces. The natural gas is injected as a jet, and a jet flame forms in the flow of air entering the furnace. In most current glass furnaces the energy required to melt the batch feed stock is about twice the theoretical requirement. An improved understanding of the heat transfer and two phase flow processes in the glass melt and solid batch mix offers a substantial opportunity for energy savings and consequent emission reductions. The batch coverage form and the heat flux distribution have a strong influence on the glass flow pattern. This flow pattern determines to a significant extent the melting rate and the quality of glass.

Egelja, A.; Lottes, S. A.

2000-05-09

480

Numerical Simulation of Transfer and Reaction Processes in Ethylene Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex transfer and reaction processes happened in ethylene furnaces were taken into consideration. A comprehensive mathematical model was developed with CFD technique based on the following knowledge: (1) basic transport equations of hydrodynamics, (2) k–? turbulence model, (3) cracking reaction kinetic model developed by Wang, (4) presumed probability-density-function model for turbulent diffusion combustion, and (5) discrete ordinates method for

X. Lan; J. Gao; C. Xu; H. Zhang

2007-01-01

481

SIDE VIEW OF #61 HOLDING FURNACE AT #02 STATION. CASTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SIDE VIEW OF #61 HOLDING FURNACE AT #02 STATION. CASTER JIM DURFEE IS POURING BRASS ALLOY INTO MOLDS. ALSO SHOWN IS THE FLAME-RETARDANT ROPE THAT HAS REPLACED ASBESTOS FOR PACKING AROUND THE MOLDS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

482

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: THE PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE RETECH, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The plasma centrifugal furnace is a thermal technology which uses the heat generated from a plasma torch to decontaminate metal and organic contaminated waste. This is accomplished by melting metal-bearing solids and, in the process, thermally destroying organic contaminants. The...

483

CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED CAST HOUSE LIES IN BETWEEN TWO SKIP INCLINES. HIP ROOF AT RIGHT COVERS BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

484

Fire-resistant geopolymer produced by granulated blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes research into the use of granulated blast furnace slag as an active filler in the making of geopolymers. During this work it was found that geopolymer setting time correlates well with temperature, potassium hydroxide concentration, metakaolinite and sodium silicate addition. The physical and mechanical properties of the geopolymer also correlated well with the concentration of alkaline solution

T. W. Cheng; J. P. Chiu

2003-01-01

485

PERMEABILITY PROPERTIES OF FLY ASH FORM FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses tests of the applicability of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) waste solids for use as synthetic waste landfill liners by measuring the mechanical strength and permeability of moisture-cured samples. SI waste solids were received from the EPA-sponsored demonstr...

486

Multistaged Approach for In-Furnace NOx Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses the evaluation of a multistaged combustion burner design on a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator for in-furnace nitrogen oxides (NOx) control and high combustion efficiency. The adiabatic precombustion chamber burner has been reduced in s...

R. K. ivastava J. A. Mulholland

1987-01-01

487

Multistaged Burner Design for In-Furnace NOx Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a multistage combustion modification design, combining two advanced NOx control technologies, on a pilot-scale (0.9 MW) package boiler simulator for in-furnace NOx control of high nitrogen fuel combustion applic...

J. A. Mulholland R. K. ivastava

1986-01-01

488

Recovery of Copper from Granulated Blast Furnace Slag.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines conducted bench and small-scale continuous studies to recover a recyclable copper product from a waste granulated blast furnace slag. The slag contained from 5 to 7 percent total copper, of which from 3 to 4.5 percent was metallic copp...

C. E. Jordan G. V. Sullivan E. D. Scott

1978-01-01

489

9. VIEW OF FOUNDRY FURNACE, DEPLETED URANIUM INGOTS, BERYLLIUM INGOTS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF FOUNDRY FURNACE, DEPLETED URANIUM INGOTS, BERYLLIUM INGOTS, AND ALUMINUM SHAPES WERE PRODUCED IN THE FOUNDRY. (10/30/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

490

Detail of screened door to furnace room 11 near the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of screened door to furnace room 1-1 near the southeast main entrance, view is to the east, through the doorway to the lounge - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

491

GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE IN THE RIGHT; THE CENTRAL COMPLEX WITH STOVES IN THE CENTER. ELECTRICAL POWER HOUSE IS ON THE LEFT BEYOND THE CONVEYOR LIFT. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

492

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE EAST, SHOWING THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST, DUST CATCHER AND STOCK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

493

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #1 BLAST FURNACE WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #1 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST AND DUST CATCHER. STOCK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS ARE IN THE FOREGROUND, THE #2 CASTING SHED BEYOND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

494

REACTIVATION OF GRANULAR CARBON IN AN INFRARED TRAVELING BELT FURNACE  

EPA Science Inventory

An all-electrical Shirco carbon regeneration furnace and its air pollution control system have been evaluated for cost and process effectiveness in carbon reactivation at the Pomona Advanced Wastewater Treatment Research Facility. The granular activated carbon used for the Shirco...

495

Electrode Arrangement As Substitute Bottom For An Electrothermic Slag Smelting Furnace.  

DOEpatents

The electrode arrangement uses vertically oriented electrodes with side wall contacts for an electrothermic smelting furnace for aluminum production. The side wall contacts are radially moveable into the furnace to compensate for wear on the contacts. The side wall contacts can be hollow to allow a slag forming charge to be fed to the furnace.

Aune, Jan Arthur (Enebakk, NO); Brinch, Jon Christian (Oslo, NO); Johansen, Kai (Kristiansand, NO)

2005-12-27

496

A predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon content in pig iron has long been used as one of the most important indices to represent the thermal state of a blast furnace. In this paper, a predictive system for blast furnaces by integrating a neural network with qualitative analysis is presented. The qualitative trend of the process in blast furnace is predicted through causal analysis and qualitative

Jian Chen

2001-01-01

497

Outline of Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industry -- Suspension-Heater Flash-Furnace Clinker Burning Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suspension-preheater flash-furnace (SF) process for cement clinkering introduces a calcining flash furnace operating as an integral portion of a suspension preheater, rotary kiln, and clinker cooler system. Preheated raw meal from the suspension preheater is calcined in the flash furnace to 80 to 90 percent decarbonation. The capacity of the SF rotary kiln is increased thereby, since its function

Toshihiro Kobayashi

1975-01-01

498

Complex reconstruction of a direct-heating glass-melting furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex reconstruction of direct-heating glass-melting furnace No. 4, heated with natural gas, at the Kamyshinsk Glass Container Plant had the purpose of first, converting the furnace previously designed for production of glass tiles, to production of silicate blocks and second, increasing the thermal efficiency of the furnace by more than two times. The complete reconstruction project includes two stages. The

O. N. Popov; I. B. Smulyanskii; A. V. Khobotov; V. M. Zolotarev; V. S. Shevchenko

1994-01-01

499

Model predictive control of an electric arc furnace off-gas process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that an electric arc furnace off-gas system can provide valuable manipulated variables for feedback control which can improve furnace efficiency and contribute to safety in the workplace. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to illustrate this concept using practically motivated control objectives. An initial verification of a non-linear furnace model with plant data is shown. The design

J. G Bekker; I. K Craig; P. C Pistorius

2000-01-01

500

Minimization of the effects of harmonics and voltage dip caused by electric arc furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the thermal efficiency of the operation of arc furnace and the effects of harmonics and voltage dips of a factory located near Bangkok. It also attempts to find ways to improve the performance of the arc furnace operation and minimize the effects of both harmonics and voltage dips. A dynamic model of the arc furnace has been

C. Surapong; C. Y. Yu; D. Thukaram; T. Nipon; K. Damrong

2000-01-01