Sample records for radiation graft polymerization

  1. Graft polymerization using radiation-induced peroxides and application to textile dyeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Ichiro; Katsumura, Yosuke; Kudo, Hisaaki; Soeda, Shin

    2011-02-01

    To improve the dyeing affinity of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber, surface treatment by radiation-induced graft polymerization was performed. Methyl methacrylate (MMA), acrylic acid (AA) and styrene (St) were used as the monomers. The grafting yields as a function of storage time after irradiation were examined. Although the grafting yield of St after the sulfonation processing was quite low compared with those of MMA and AA, it was successfully dyed to a dark color with a cationic dye. Some acid dyes can dye the grafted fiber with AA. The acid dye is distributed to the amorphous domains of the AA grafted fiber. The dyeing concentration depended on the grafting yield, and the higher the grafting yield the darker the dye color.

  2. The use of radiation-induced graft polymerization for modification of polymer track membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtanko, N. I.; Kabanov, V. Ya.; Apel, P. Yu.; Yoshida, M.

    1999-05-01

    Track membranes (TM) made of poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) and polypropylene (PP) films have a number of peculiarities as compared with other ones. They have high mechanical strength at a low thickness, narrow pore size distribution, low content of extractables. However, TM have some disadvantages such as low chemical resistance in alkaline media (PET TM), the low water flow rate due to the hydrophobic nature of their surface. The use of radiation-induced graft polymerization makes it possible to improve the basic characteristics of TM. In this communication our results on the modification of PET and PP TM are presented. The modified membranes were prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization from the liquid phase. Three methods of grafting were used: (a) the direct method in argon atmosphere; (b) the pre-irradiation of TM in air followed by grafting in argon atmosphere; (c) pre-irradiation in vacuum followed by grafting in vacuum without contacting oxygen. The aim of the work was to investigate some properties of TM modified by grafted poly(methylvinyl pyridine) (PMVP) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM). It was shown that the modification of TM with hydrophilic polymer results in the growth of the water flow rate. In the past few years many works have been devoted to the synthesis of new polymers - the so-called "intelligent" materials - such as PNIPAAM. However, it is very difficult to make thin membranes of this polymer. Recently, it has been proposed to manufacture composite membranes by grafting stimulus-responsive polymers onto TM. Following this principle, we prepared thermosensitive membranes by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAM) onto PET TM. PET TM with the pore size of about 1 ?m and pore density of 10 6 cm -2 were first inserted into a solution of NIPAAM containing inhibitor of homopolymerization (CuCl 2) and then exposed to the ?-rays from a 60Co source. The transport properties of the grafted TM were investigated. The permeation of water through the TM was controlled by temperature. The grafted TM exhibited almost the same transition temperature (about 33°C) as that of PNIPAAM.

  3. Molecular Design, Graft Polymerization and Performance Evaluation of Radiation Curable Flame Retardant Monomers Derived from Phosphorus-Nitrogen Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Brian Tyndall

    The textile industry is constantly seeking new technologies to make its production more efficient, economical and environmentally friendly. An exciting new strategy to impart value-added functional finishes to textiles is the use of radiation, such as ultraviolet (UV) light, to drive the polymerization of monomers onto the surface of the substrates. These grafted polymeric layers provide the fiber or fabric with interesting new properties, such as antimicrobial behavior, water and oil repellency or flame retardancy. With the aid of a photoinitiator, UV curing can take place very rapidly and the process is waterless and uses less energy than traditional textile wet processing. With these thoughts in mind, this research explores the molecular design, synthesis, UV induced graft polymerization and performance evaluation of nine phosphorus-based flame retardant monomers for cellulosic cotton substrates. All monomers in this work were easily prepared using one-pot reactions procedures. With the assistance of Irgacure 819 photoinitiator, seven of the nine monomers were shown to simultaneously graft and polymerize onto the surface of cotton fabrics under UV radiation. JMPRTM Pro 10 software was used to explore the effect of variables, such as monomer concentration, photoinitiator concentration and UV exposure time, on the yield of the grafted polymeric layer. Burn testing of the treated fabrics in the vertical, 45° and horizontal orientations showed that all nine monomers were effective flame retardants that function via the condensed phase mechanism by encouraging the formation of nonflammable char. These burn test results were validated by thermogravimetric analysis, which demonstrated quantitatively that all nine monomers strongly promote the generation of a protective char. Finally, scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the surface morphology of the treated fabrics and visualize the grafted polymeric layer.

  4. Graft copolymers of polyurethane with various vinyl monomers via radiation-induced miniemulsion polymerization: Influential factors to grafting efficiency and particle morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hua; Wang, Mozhen; Ge, Xuewu

    2009-02-01

    Graft copolymers of polyurethane (PU) with various vinyl monomers were synthesized through a one-pot but two-step miniemulsion polymerization process. Firstly, the polycondensation of isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) with hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) had been performed in aqueous miniemulsion at 40 °C in order to obtain PU dispersions. Consecutively, an in-situ graft copolymerization of the vinyl monomers with the synthesized PU was initiated by ?-ray radiation at room temperature. The grafting efficiency of PU with vinyl monomer ( GPU/monomer) was calculated from 1H NMR spectra and the particle morphology of the final hybrid latex was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As there was no monomer transferring in miniemulsion system, homogenous hybrid particles would be synthesized provided that the monomer was miscible with PU, such as styrene. With the increase of the polarity of the monomer, the compatibility of PU with monomer decreased. GPU/monomer varied as GPU/styrene(37%)> GPU/butyl acrylate (BA)(21%)> GPU/methyl methacrylate (MMA)(12%). The proportion of homogeneous nucleation would increase as the hydrophilicity of the monomer increased. High temperature would destabilize the miniemulsion so as to result in a less grafting efficiency. Compared to the phase separation during the seeded emulsion polymerization, the miniemulsion polymerization method facilitated the preparation of homogeneous materials owing to its monomer droplet nucleation mechanism.

  5. Desalination by electrodialysis with the ion-exchange membrane prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seong-Ho; Han Jeong, Young; Jeong Ryoo, Jae; Lee, Kwang-Pill

    2001-01-01

    Ion-exchange membranes modified with the triethylamine [-N(CH 2CH 3) 3] and phosphoric acid (-PO 3 H) groups were prepared by radiation-induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto the polyolefin nonwavon fabric (PNF) and subsequent chemical modification of poly(GMA) graft chains. The physical and chemical properties of the GMA-grafted PNF and the PNF modified with ion-exchange groups were investigated by SEM, XPS, TGA, and DSC. Furthermore, electrochemical properties such as specific electric resistance, transport number of K +, and desalination were examined. The grafting yield increased with increasing reaction time and reaction temperature. The maximum grafting yield was obtained with 40% (vol.%) monomer concentration in dioxane at 60°C. The content of the cation- and anion-exchange group increased with increasing grafting yield. Electrical resistance of the PNF modified with TEA and -PO 3 H group decreased, while the water uptake (%) increased with increasing ion-exchange group capacities. Transport number of the PNF modified with ion-exchange group were the range of ca. 0.82-0.92. The graft-type ion-exchange membranes prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization were successfully applied as separators for electrodialysis.

  6. The role of hydroperoxides as a precursor in the radiation-induced graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Ichiro; Katsumura, Yosuke; Kudo, Hisaaki; Sekiguchi, Masayuki

    2010-06-01

    A graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with Co-60 ?-ray irradiation in air at room temperature has been carried out. The grafting yields were measured as a function of the storage time (elapsed time from the end of irradiation to the start of grafting), and it was found that the yields reach at the maximum values at around several days since the end of irradiation. In order to clarify the precursor of the graft polymerization, changes of the radical yields and the carbonyl groups were measured as a function of storage time with ESR and microscopic FT-IR, respectively. From the similarities between the depth profiles of the hydroperoxide formation and the grafting products, it was concluded that the hydroperoxides can be main precursors of the grafting of the radiation-induced polymerization of MMA to UHMWPE under the given conditions.

  7. Simultaneous radiation induced graft polymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone onto polypropylene non-woven fabric for improvement of blood compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong; Wang, Hengdong; Wang, Wenfeng; Ye, Yin

    2013-07-01

    In this study, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) was grafted onto polypropylene non-woven fabric (PPNWF) through a simultaneous irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. Effect of the parameters of graft polymerization, i.e., monomer concentration, absorbed dose and dose rate, on the degree of grafting (DG) was investigated. The graft polymerization of NVP was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A contact angle goniometry was used to test water contact angle (WCA) of original PPNWF and modified samples. The in vitro blood compatibility, including hemolysis, protein adsorption, platelet adhesion and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of tested specimens, was evaluated. The results demonstrated that the hemocompatibility of PPNWF was improved via graft polymerization of NVP.

  8. Graft polymerization of glycidylmethacrylate onto coralline hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Murugan, R; Panduranga Rao, K

    2003-01-01

    Graft polymerization of glycidylmethacrylate (GMA) onto coralline hydroxyapatite (CHA) was carried out using potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) and sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O5) as initiators in aqueous medium. To optimize the reaction conditions for getting maximum grafting yield, the concentrations of backbone, monomer, initiator, temperature and time were varied. The percent grafting was found to increase initially and then gradually decrease with respect to reaction parameters. The results obtained imply that the optimum temperature and time was 60 degrees C and 180 min, respectively, to obtain higher grafting yield. The grafting results have been discussed and a mechanism involved in the grafting of GMA onto CHA is described. The grafted materials were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The results of FT-IR confirmed the presence of epoxy group on the grafted CHA. The XRD pattern showed that there was no secondary phase in the apatite lattice due to chemical modification. PMID:12807147

  9. Surface modification of magnetic metal nanoparticles through irradiation graft polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Zhi Rong; Ming Qiu Zhang; Hong Bing Wang; Han Min Zeng

    2002-01-01

    To tailor the interfacial interaction in magnetic metal nanoparticles filled polymer composites, the surfaces of iron, cobalt and nickel nanoparticles were grafted by irradiation polymerization. In the current report, effects of grafting conditions, including irradiation atmosphere, irradiation dose and monomer concentration, on the grafting reaction are presented. The interaction between the nanoparticles and the grafted polymer was studied by thermal

  10. Radiation graft modification of EPDM rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katbab, A. A.; Burford, R. P.; Garnett, J. L.

    N-Vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and acrylamide (AAm) have been grafted to the surface of rubber vulcanizates based on ethylene-propylene-terpolymer (EPDM) using the simultaneous radiation method to alter surface properties such as wettability and therefore biocompatibility. The effect of monomer concentration, solvent and EPDM structural factors on the grafting behavior have been investigated. The inhibitory effect upon homopolymerization of various salts has also been evaluated for the three monomers. NVP and HEMA could be grafted onto EPDM rubber in the presence of aqueous solutions of cupric nitrate at 0.005 M and 1.0 M concentrations respectively. Aqueous solutions of Mohr's salt (ammonium ferrous sulphate) at 0.05 M not only suppressed the homopolymerization of AAm but also increased grafting yield. The percentage grafting also increased with increasing AAm concentration. A mechanism has been proposed to explain the behaviour of these monomers. The inclusion of multifunctional acrylates in additive amounts (1.0 vol%) enhanced the graft degree. Modified samples were able to be efficiently stained, allowing the depth of the graft copolymerization to be determined by light microscopy. Water was found to have an accelerating effect on the polymerization of these monomers, but methanol prevented their polymerization completely. The effect of EPDM structural factors upon degree of grafting was found to vary, depending upon the monomer type.

  11. Graft polymerization of native chicken feathers for thermoplastic applications.

    PubMed

    Jin, Enqi; Reddy, Narendra; Zhu, Zhifeng; Yang, Yiqi

    2011-03-01

    Inexpensive and biodegradable thermoplastics were developed through graft polymerization of native chicken feather with methyl acrylate as a potential substitute for petroleum products. Poultry feathers are available in large quantities at a low price. However, natural chicken feathers have poor thermoplasticity, cannot be used to develop thermoplastic products, have very limited industrial applications, and are often considered as solid wastes. In this research, the effects of graft polymerization conditions, such as molar ratio of NaHSO(3) to K(2)S(2)O(8), initiator and monomer concentrations, pH, temperature and time of polymerization, on grafting parameters, that is, the conversion of monomer to polymer, grafting percentage, and grafting efficiency were evaluated. Methyl acrylate was found to be successfully grafted onto functional groups on the surfaces of the chicken feathers, and optimal graft polymerization conditions were also obtained. The feather-g-poly(methyl acrylate) developed showed good thermoplasticity, and feather films had substantially higher tensile properties than soy protein isolate and starch acetate films. PMID:21302951

  12. Radiation co-polymerization and its application in biotechnology

    E-print Network

    HaHongFei; Yi Min; Zhai Mao Lin

    1996-01-01

    The main results and achievements that have been done for the full duration of CRP reported as follows: (1) Radiation preparation of co-polymers, interpenetrating polymer networks and their applications in separation technology. (2) Preirradiation grafting co-polymerization of NIPAAm and other monomers on cotton cellulose fabric, silicone rubber etc and the discussion on mechanism. (3) UV-induced grafting and modification of polymers by high LET radiation.

  13. Characteristics of Heterophase Radical Graft Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate on Polymer Fibres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Bikkullova; T. V. Druzhinina; I. A. Abronin

    2005-01-01

    Graft copolymers with graft PMMA were synthesized using the Cu2+—H2O2 redox system. The conditions for obtaining graft PCA—PMMA and HC-PMMA of 40–60 composite composition with grafting efficiency at the 85% level are found. The effect of the polymer matrix on the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of graft polymerization of MMA is revealed. Possible schemes of the reactions of graft polymerization

  14. Surface modification of polypropylene membrane by polyethylene glycol graft polymerization.

    PubMed

    Abednejad, Atiye Sadat; Amoabediny, Ghasem; Ghaee, Azadeh

    2014-09-01

    Polypropylene hollow fiber microporous membranes have been used in a wide range of applications, including blood oxygenator. The hydrophobic feature of the polypropylene surface causes membrane fouling. To minimize fouling, a modification consisting of three steps: surface activation in H2 and O2 plasma, membrane immersion in polyethylene glycol (PEG) and plasma graft polymerization was performed. The membranes were characterized by contact angle measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), tensile test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Oxygen transfer of modified membranes was also tested. The stability of grafted PEG was measured in water and in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at 37°C. Blood compatibility of modified surfaces was evaluated by the platelet adhesion method. Water contact angel reduction from 110° to 72° demonstrates the enhanced hydrophilicity, and XPS results verify the presence of oxygenated functional groups due to the peak existence in 286 eV as a result of PEG grafting. The results clearly indicate that plasma graft-polymerization of PEG is an effective way for antifouling improvement of polypropylene membranes. Also, the results show that oxygen transfer changes in PEG grafted membranes are not significant. PMID:25063140

  15. Durable Nanolayer Graft Polymerization of Functional Finishes Using Atmospheric Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazloumpour, Maryam

    Various applications of atmospheric pressure plasma were investigated in conjunction with different chemistries on nonwoven materials including spunbond polyester (PET) and spunbod polypropylene for fuel separation and antimicrobial functionalities. Hydrophobic/Oleophobic properties were conferred on nonwoven polyester (PET) via plasma-induced graft polymerization of different hydrophobic non-C8 perfluorocarbon chemistry including perfluorohexylethylmethacrylate, perfluorohexylethylacrylate, allylpentafluorobenzene, pentafluorostyrene, or 1,3-divinyltetramethyldisiloxane in the vapor form using both in-situ and down-stream plasma configurations. Different nanolayers of the grafted polymer were furnished on nonwovens to generate surfaces with different level of wettabilities for medical applications and water/fuel separation. The effect of various hydrophobic chemistry, different plasma conditions, and plasma device parameters including plasma power and plasma exposure time were studied and the performance was characterized by measuring the contact angle and the wettability rating against liquids with broad range of surface tensions. Vapor deposition of 2-(perfluorohexyl)ethyl methacrylate and pentafluorostyrene on nonwoven PET followed by plasma-induced graft polymerization was investigated for possible use in water/fuel separation. Different nanolayer thicknesses (80-180nm) of the grafted polymer were achieved to generate surfaces with different wettabilities for water/fuel separation of different fuel compositions. The effect of different plasma conditions and device parameters including the flow rate of monomers, power of the device, and time of plasma exposure on the separation of different fuels was studied and characterized by measuring the surface energy of the treated substrates. The surface chemistry and morphology of the treated samples were characterized using XPS, SEM and TOF-SIMS techniques which confirmed the grafting of monomer onto the substrate. Furthermore, spunbond nonwoven polypropylene fabric, commonly used for hygienic products, was treated with diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC). Atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma was used to induce free radical chain polymerization of the ADMAC monomer, which conferred a graft polymerized network on the fabric with durable antimicrobial properties. The effect of different DADMAC concentration, and plasma conditions including the RF power and the time of plasma exposure were studied and the optimum treatment conditions were identified by calculating the surface charge density on the treated fabrics. The presence of poly-DADMAC on the polypropylene surface was confirmed using SEM, FT-IR and TOF-SIMS. Antibacterial performance was investigated using standard test methods (AATCC TM 100) for both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The antimicrobial results showed 6 log reductions in the bacterial activities of K. pneumoniae and S .aureus, which was unprecedented using a plasma-induced graft polymerization approach.

  16. Recovery of cadmium from waste of scallop processing with amidoxime adsorbent synthesized by graft-polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoyuki Shiraishi; Masao Tamada; Kyouichi Saito; Takanobu Sugo

    2003-01-01

    Fabric adsorbent having amidoxime function was synthesized by radiation-induced graft-polymerization. This adsorbent was applied to the removal of Cd from the scallop waste. The scallop waste was homogenized as a pre-treatment. The obtained top layer was used for the Cd absorption experiment at various pH conditions. At pH 6, the adsorbent showed the highest performance in Cd adsorption. The concentration

  17. Poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber from seeded emulsion polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro C. Oliveira; A. Guimarães; Jean-Yves Cavaillé; Laurent Chazeau; Robert G. Gilbert; Amilton M. Santos

    2005-01-01

    The grafting efficiency of dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate (DMAEMA) on to natural rubber (NR) has been studied. Grafting was by ‘topology-controlled’ emulsion polymerization, whereby polymerization is initiated by a redox couple where one component (tetraethylene pentamine) is hydrophilic and the other (cumene hydroperoxide) is hydrophobic. This should promote grafting at the interface between hydrophobic natural rubber particles and the hydrophilic DMAEMA. The effects

  18. Novel biodegradable polymeric flocculant based on polyacrylamide-grafted tamarind kernel polysaccharide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandipta Ghosh; Gautam Sen; U. Jha; Sagar Pal

    2010-01-01

    Novel biodegradable polymeric flocculants were produced by conventional redox grafting, microwave-initiated and microwave-assisted grafting of acrylamide to tamarind kernel polysaccharide (TKP). The graft copolymers were characterized by viscometry, elemental analysis, molecular weight determination using SLS analysis, and NMR spectroscopy. The flocculation efficiency of the grafting products in kaolin suspension, municipal sewage wastewater and textile industry wastewater was primarily dependent on

  19. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kepler, R. Glen (Albuquerque, NM); Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10.sup.15 to 10.sup.21 molecules of dopant/cm.sup.3. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  20. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Hughes, R.C.; Kepler, R.G.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1984-07-16

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 21/ molecules of dopant/cm/sup 3/. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  1. Cyclic Brush Polymers by Combining Ring-Expansion Metathesis Polymerization and the "Grafting from" Technique

    E-print Network

    Tew, Gregory N.

    Cyclic Brush Polymers by Combining Ring-Expansion Metathesis Polymerization and the "Grafting from route to cyclic brush polymers was developed by combining ring-expansion metathesis polymerization (REMP-opening polymerization to produce the cyclic brush polymers. Brush polymers have received considerable attention

  2. Radiation grafting on natural films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, M.; Khan, R.; Senna, M.; Sharmin, N.; Salmieri, S.; Safrany, A.

    2014-01-01

    Different methods of polymer grafting using gamma irradiation are reported in the present study for the preparation of newly functionalized biodegradable films, and some important properties related to their mechanical and barrier properties are described. Biodegradable films composed of zein and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were gamma-irradiated in presence of different ratios of acrylic acid (AAc) monomer for compatibilization purpose. Resulting grafted films (zein/PVA-g-AAc) had their puncture strength (PS=37-40 N mm-1) and puncture deformation (PD=6.5-9.8 mm) improved for 30% and 50% PVA in blend, with 5% AAc under 20 kGy. Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were irradiated in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or silane, in order to determine the effect of monomer grafting on the mechanical properties of films. It was found that grafted films (MC-g-HEMA and MC-g-silane) using 35% monomer performed higher mechanical properties with PS values of 282-296 N mm-1 and PD of 5.0-5.5 mm under 10 kGy. Compatibilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan composites were developed via grafting silane in chitosan films. Resulting trilayer grafted composite film (PCL/chitosan-g-silane/PCL) presented superior tensile strength (TS=22 MPa) via possible improvement of interfacial adhesion (PCL/chitosan) when using 25% silane under 10 kGy. Finally, MC-based films containing crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) as a filling agent were prepared and irradiated in presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a grafted plasticizer. Grafted films (MC-g-TMPTMA) presented superior mechanical properties with a TS of 47.9 MPa and a tensile modulus (TM) of 1792 MPa, possibly due to high yield formation of radicals to promote TMPTMA grafting during irradiation. The addition of CNC led to an additional improvement of the barrier properties, with a significant 25% reduction of water vapor permeability (WVP) of grafted films.

  3. Surface characterization and platelet adhesion studies on fluorocarbons prepared by plasma-induced graft polymerization.

    PubMed

    Lin, J C; Tiong, S L; Chen, C Y

    2000-01-01

    It is believed that the interactions between the biological environment and biomaterial surface are the key factors influencing its biocompatibility. Therefore, plasma processing, which can vary the surface properties without altering the bulk properties, has been considered as one of the important techniques for improving a materials' biocompatibility. In this investigation, plasma-induced grafting polymerization of vinylidene fluoride (VDF) and chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), instead of direct plasma polymerization, was attempted with an aim to improve the substrate blood compatibility. Contact angle measurement indicated both fluorocarbon-grafted Pdyethylenes (PEs) are hydrophobic. Due to the additional fluorine and chlorine atoms on the CTFE chain, the PCTFE-grafted PE exhibited a higher hydrophobicity than the PVDF-grafted one. ESCA analysis has revealed that these two plasma-induced fluorocarbon deposits contain almost no CFx (x > 2) binding on the surface layer, indicating the grafting polymerization mainly follows the free radical mechanism instead of the molecule-highly-fragmented reaction steps commonly seen in the direct plasma polymerization treatment. In addition, ATR-FTIR has shown the surface chemical configuration of these PVDF- and PCTFE-grafted PEs to be very similar to those of the bulk samples of PVDF and PCTFE. The surface roughness decreased after oxygen plasma treatment and was further reduced by VDF and CTFE grafting polymerization. In vitro platelet adhesion testing indicated these two fluorocarbon grafted PEs are less platelet-activating than the nontreated PE control and oxygen plasma activated one. PMID:11011768

  4. Surface modification of silica nanoparticles by UV-induced graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sooyeon Kim; Eunhye Kim; Sungsoo Kim; Woosik Kim

    2005-01-01

    In this study we modified the surface of silica nanoparticles with methyl methacrylate by UV-induced graft polymerization. It is a surface-initiated polymerization reaction induced by ultraviolet irradiation. The resulting organic–inorganic nanocomposites were near-monodisperse and fabricated without homopolymerization of the monomer. Substantial increase in mean particle size was observed by SEM image analysis after UV-induced grafting of methyl methacrylate onto pure

  5. Surface modification through atom transfer radical polymerization grafting for the preparation of protein-resistant materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Feng

    2007-01-01

    Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is a recently developed controlled\\/living radical polymerization technique for surface grafting of end-tethered polymer chains with controlled pattern, chain length, density, and functionality. These parameters are important in understanding the molecular mechanism of resistance to protein adsorption and cell adhesion to polymer grafted surfaces. The main focus of this thesis is the synthesis of

  6. Surface modification of aluminum foil and PTFE film by graft polymerization for adhesion enhancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C Zhang; E. T Kang; K. G Neoh; K. L Tan

    2001-01-01

    Modification of aluminum foils via surface graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) to promote their adhesion to the similarly modified poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films is reported. The properly cleaned surface of the aluminum foil was first silanized with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyl-methacrylate (APS). The silanized Al foil was pretreated with Ar plasma to generate peroxides and hydroperoxides before been subjected to UV-induced graft polymerization

  7. Surface modification of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fibers via the sequential photoinduced graft polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xinwei; Mai, Yongyi; Zhang, Yumei

    2011-06-01

    In this study, a sequential photoinduced graft polymerization process was proposed to improve the poor interfacial bonding property of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers. The polymerization was initiated by dormant semipinacol (SP) groups and carried out in a thin liquid layer. Methacrylic acid (MAA) and acryl amide (AM) were grafted stepwise onto the surface of UHMWPE fibers. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the grafting. The analysis result of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) indicated the structure of grafted chains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images revealed the apparent morphology changing, and the grafted layers were observed. Interfacial shear stress (IFSS) test of the modified fibers showed an extensively improved interfacial bonding property. The active groups grafted onto the fibers would supply enough anchor points for the chemical bonding with various resins or further reactions.

  8. Graft Copolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate on to Natural Rubber: Effect of Polymerization Conditions on Particle Morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benny George; S. N. Maiti; I. K. Varma

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) on to natural rubber (NR) by emulsion polymerization using cumene hydroperoxide and tetraethylene pentamine as redox initiators in NR latex. The effect of surfactants, cross-link density of NR, NR\\/MMA ratio, and mode of addition of monomer on particle morphology is investigated by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The percent grafting

  9. Graft polymerization of acrylic acid onto chitin nanofiber to improve dispersibility in basic water.

    PubMed

    Ifuku, Shinsuke; Iwasaki, Masayoshi; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

    2012-09-01

    Graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) on chitin nanofibers was carried out with potassium persulfate as a free radical initiator in an aqueous medium. The molar ratio of grafted AA increased with the AA concentration. The grafted chitin nanofibers were characterized by FT-IR, FE-SEM, UV-vis, XRD, and TGA. After polymerization, the characteristic morphology of chitin nanofibers was maintained. Chitin nanofibers grafted with AA were efficiently dissociated and dispersed homogeneously in basic water because of the electrostatic repulsion effect between nanofibers. AA was grafted on the surface and amorphous part of chitin nanofibers, and the original crystalline structure of ?-chitin was maintained. At 330 °C, the weight residue of the graft copolymer increased with the grafted AA content. PMID:24751085

  10. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto chrome-tanned pig skins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrucha, K.; P?kala, W.; Kroh, J.

    Graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto chrome-tanned pig skins was carried out by the irradiation with 60Co ?-rays. The grafted polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) chains were isolated by acid hydrolysis of the collagen backbone in order to characterize the graft copolymers. Proof of grafting was obtained through the detection of amino acid endgroups in the isolated grafts by reaction with ninhydrin. The grafting yield of MMA in aqueous emulsion was found to be higher than that for pure MMA and MMA in acetone. The degree of grafting increases with increasing monomer concentration in emulsion and reaches maximum at radiation dose ca 15 kGy. The yield of grafting is very high - ca 90% of monomer converts into copolymer and only 10% is converted into homopolymer. The present paper reports the physical properties of chrome-tanned pig skins after graft polymerization with MMA in emulsion. Modified leathers are more resistant against water absorption and abrasion in comparison with unmodified ones. They have more uniform structure over the whole surface, greater thickness and stiffness. The results reported seem to indicate that MMA may be used in the production of shoe upper and sole leathers. The mechanism of some of the processes occuring during radiation grafting of MMA in water emulsion on tanned leathers has been also suggested and discussed.

  11. Preparation for protein separation of an ion-exchange polymeric stationary phase presenting amino acid and amine units through surface graft polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong-Ho Choi; Kwang-Pill Lee; Chang-Ho Shin

    2005-01-01

    Ion-exchange polymeric stationary phases presenting amino acid and amino groups were prepared by the surface grafting of glycidyl\\u000a methacrylate onto a silica gel surface and subsequent amination. Three kinds of amino acids-l-arginine (Arg),d-lysine (Lys), andd-histine (His)-were used in this study. An ion-exchange polymeric stationary phase presenting ethylene diamine (EDA) was also\\u000a prepared by surface graft polymerization. Separation of the model

  12. Homogeneous grafting poly (methyl methacrylate) on cellulose by atom transfer radical polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Feng Zhong; Xin-Sheng Chai; Shi-Yu Fu

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) was homogeneous-grafted on a cellulose based macro-initiator, cellulose chloroacetyl chloride by the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) at a mild reaction temperature. The synthesized cellulose graft copolymers were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopies. The linear first-order kinetics of monomer conversion was determined by headspace gas chromatography. The molecular weights and their distributions of

  13. Biomimetic phosphorylcholine polymer grafting from polydimethylsiloxane surface using photo-induced polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuro Goda; Tomohiro Konno; Madoka Takai; Toru Moro; Kazuhiko Ishihara

    2006-01-01

    The biomimetic synthetic phospholipid polymer containing a phosphorylcholine group, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), has improved the surface property of biomaterials. Both hydrophilic and anti-biofouling surfaces were prepared on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with MPC grafted by surface-initiated photo-induced radical polymerization. Benzophenone was used as the photoinitiator. The quantity of the adsorbed initiator on PDMS was determined by UV absorption and ellipsometry. The poly(MPC)-grafted

  14. Comparison of surface modifications of poly(ether urethanes) by chemical infusion and graft polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Cash, D.L.; Hermes, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Our approach to surface modification uses the chemical infusion process to introduce materials into the outermost layer of the polymeric material, thereby altering the surface without changing the bulk properties of the polymer. The infused materials may slowly diffuse out of the infusion layer if they are volatile or highly mobile. However, if polymeric infusant materials are employed, they may become chain entangled with the host polymer and result in a permanently modified surface. A second approach utilizes photo-initiated graft polymerization of poly(ether urethanes) with an appropriate monomer. We have explored both of these methods by examining the infusion of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) into commercially available poly(ether urethanes) and the graft polymerization of N-vinyl pyrrolidone onto poly(ether urethanes). Results are presented here. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Corona-induced graft polymerization for surface modification of porous polyethersulfone membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li-Ping; Zhu, Bao-Ku; Xu, Li; Feng, Yong-Xiang; Liu, Fu; Xu, You-Yi

    2007-05-01

    Graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto porous polyethersulfone (PES) membrane surfaces was developed using corona discharge in atmospheric ambience as an activation process followed by polymerization of AA in aqueous solution. The effects of the corona parameters and graft polymerization conditions on grafting yield (GY) of AA were investigated. The grafting of AA on the PES membranes was confirmed by ATR-FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Porosimetry measurements indicate the average pore diameters and porosities of the modified membranes decrease with the increase of the GY. The hydrophilicity and surface wetting properties of the original and modified membranes were evaluated by observing the dynamic changes of water contact angles. It is found that the grafting of AA occurs not only on the membrane surfaces, but also on the pore walls of the cells inside the membrane. The permeability experiments of protein solution reveal that the grafting of PAA endows the modified membranes with enhanced fluxes and anti-fouling properties. The optimized GY of AA is in the range of 150-200 ?g/cm 2. In addition, the tensile experiments show the corona discharge treatment with the power lower than 150 W yields little damage to the mechanical strength of the membranes.

  16. Self-organization of dipeptide-grafted polymeric nanoparticles film: A novel method for surface modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingtian Han; Patrick Silcock; A. James McQuillan; Phil Bremer

    2010-01-01

    Novel dipeptide-grafted polymeric nanoparticles were prepared by grafting the dipeptide (Gly-Gly) to a block copolymer backbone, comprised of styrene-alt-(maleic anhydride) and styrene. In aqueous solution PSt130-b-P(St-alt-MAn)58-g-GlyGly26 formed stable dispersed spherical aggregates of ca. 75nm. The critical micelle concentration for the dipeptide-grafted block copolymer self-aggregates was 6.3×10?3mgmL?1. The zeta-potential of the aggregates was estimated experimentally. The dispersed polymer nanoparticles effectively self-organized

  17. Surface modification of dense membranes using radical graft polymerization enhanced by monomer filtration.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Roy; Belfer, Sofia; Freger, Viatcheslav

    2010-07-20

    Surface graft polymerization is a promising way to modify membranes for improved performance. Redox-initiated graft polymerization of vinyl monomers is a facile and inexpensive method carried out at room temperature in aqueous media; however, its use is often limited by slow kinetics, low surface specificity, and excessive consumption of chemicals on undesired homopolymerization. It is shown that in the case of RO or NF membranes these drawbacks may be eliminated by utilizing the selectivity of the membranes toward monomers and carrying out the polymerization while applying pressure, i.e., under filtration conditions. Concentration polarization that ensues raises the concentration of reagents near the membrane surface and thereby drastically increases the rate of reaction and preferentially directs it towards surface grafting. Grafting experiments using 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and other monomers and characterization of modified membranes using permeability measurements, ATR-FTIR, AFM, XPS, and contact angle demonstrate that the required monomer concentrations can be drastically reduced, particularly when a small fraction of a cross-linker is added. As an additional benefit, this approach enables broadening the spectrum of utilizable monomers to sparingly soluble hydrophobic, charged, and macro-monomers, as was demonstrated using sparingly soluble ethyl methacrylate and 2-ethoxyethyl methacrylate and other monomers. Even though the kinetics of the process is substantially complicated by evolution and concentration polarization of oligomeric and polymeric species, especially in the presence of a cross-linker, it is well offset by the benefits of higher rate, specificity, and reduced monomer consumption. PMID:20557084

  18. Surface modification and functionalization through the self-assembled monolayer and graft polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ruckenstein; Z. F. Li

    2005-01-01

    The modification of a surface at the molecular level with precise control of the building blocks generates an integrated molecular system. This field has progressed rapidly in recent years through the use of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) interfaces. Recent developments on surface-initiated chemical reactions, functionalization, and graft polymerization on SAM interfaces are emphasized in the present review. A number of surface

  19. R&D for graft adsorbents by radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seko, Noriaki; Tamada, Masao

    Fibrous adsorbent for removal and recovery of metal ions have been synthesized by graft polymerization. In the grafting, the functional groups which have high selectivity against for target metal ions such as Fe, Sc, As, and U are introduced onto nonwoven fabric. When the monomer has a chelate group which makes selective coordination bond to specific these ions, it was directly grafted on the trunk polymer. In the case of precursor monomer having functional groups such as epoxy ring, the grafted trunk fabric is chemically modified. The resultant fibrous adsorbent leads the swift adsorption of metal ions. This property by using fibrous material can reduce the column size of adsorbent in the purification of waste water. The size of purification equipment becomes quite compact and that implies total volume of equipment can reduce. Instead of organic solvent, emulsion system which disperses monomer micelles in water with assistance of surfactant was found to accelerate the graft polymerization. This means the air pollution from organic solvent can be avoided by water system grafting. Furthermore, since the emulsion grafting was highly efficient, the required irradiation dose was considerably lower compared to general organic solvent system. As a result, the emulsion grafting has enormous potential for natural polymer to use as a trunk material for grafting. If a natural polymer such as cellulose can be used, the dependence on petroleum resources, the amount of industrial waste and the generation of carbon dioxide will be reduced to some extent.

  20. Modification of polymeric substrates using surface-grafted nanoscaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Kimberlee Fay

    Surface grafting and modification of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were performed on nylon 6,6 carpet fibers to achieve permanent stain and soil resistance. PAA was grafted to nylon and modified with 1H, 1H-pentadecafluorooctyl amine (PDFOA) using an amidation agent, 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMTMM). The first goal was to optimize acrylamide modification of PAA in solution. Aqueous reactions with taurine, hydroxyethyl amine, and butyl amine progressed ˜100%, while PDFOA reactions in MeOH progressed ˜80%. Reaction products precipitated at 77% butyl or 52% PDFOA acrylamide contents. The second goal was to optimize the PAA grafting process. First, PAA was adsorbed onto nylon 6,6 films. Next, DMTMM initiated grafting of adsorbed PAA. PAA surface coverage was ˜78%, determined by contact angle analysis of the top 0.1--1 nm and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the top 3--10 nm. The third goal was to modify PAA grafted nylon films with butyl amine and PDFOA. Randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin (RAMEB) solubilized PDFOA in water. Contact angle detected ˜100% surface reaction for each amine, while XPS detected ˜77% butyl amine (H2O) and ˜50% for PDFOA (MeOH or H2O pH = 7) reactions. In H2O pH = 12, the PDFOA reaction progressed ˜89%, perhaps due to greater efficiency, access and solubility. The fourth goal was to perform surface depth profiling via angle-resolved XPS analysis (ARXPS). The PAA surface coverage from contact angle and XPS was confirmed. Further, adsorbed PAA was thicker than grafted PAA, supporting the theory that PAA adsorption occurs in thick layers onto nylon followed by DMTMM-activated spreading and grafting of thinner PAA layers across the surface. The PDFOA reaction in McOH produced a highly fluorinated but thin exterior and an unreacted PAA interior. The PDFOA reaction in H 2O pH = 12 produced a completely fluorinated exterior and highly fluorinated interior. Thus surface modification levels from contact angle and XPS were confirmed. The final goal was to PAA-graft and PDFOA-modify nylon 6,6 fabrics and carpets. PDFOA modification achieved significant water and oil repellency. Stainblocking was slightly improved for ionized PAA-g-nylon and greatly improved for PDFOA-modified PAA-g-nylon. However, traditional stainblockers may be necessary to completely prevent dye penetration into carpet tufts.

  1. The effects of early postoperative radiation on vascularized bone grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, H.B.; Brown, S.; Hurst, L.N. (Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

    1991-06-01

    The effects of early postoperative radiation were assessed in free nonvascularized and free vascularized rib grafts in the canine model. The mandibles of one-half of the dogs were exposed to a cobalt 60 radiation dose of 4080 cGy over a 4-week period, starting 2 weeks postoperatively. The patency of vascularized grafts was confirmed with bone scintigraphy. Histological studies, including ultraviolet microscopy with trifluorochrome labeling, and histomorphometric analyses were performed. Osteocytes persist within the cortex of the vascularized nonradiated grafts to a much greater extent than in nonvascularized, nonradiated grafts. Cortical osteocytes do not persist in either vascularized or nonvascularized grafts subjected to radiation. New bone formation is significantly retarded in radiated grafts compared with nonradiated grafts. Periosteum and endosteum remained viable in the radiated vascularized grafts, producing both bone union and increased bone turnover, neither of which were evident to any significant extent in nonvascularized grafts. Bone union was achieved in vascularized and non-vascularized nonradiated bone. In the radiated group of dogs, union was only seen in the vascularized bone grafts.

  2. Application of radiation-graft material for metal adsorbent and crosslinked natural polymer for healthcare product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamada, Masao; Seko, Noriaki; Yoshii, Fumio

    2004-09-01

    Graft polymerization and crosslinking in radiation processing are attractive techniques for modification of the chemical and physical properties of conventional polymers. The graft polymerization and subsequent chemical treatment can introduce a chelate agent function into a conventional polymer such as polyethylene. The obtained amidoxime fibrous adsorbent was applied to the recovery of uranium from seawater. Soaking of 350 kg adsorbent 12 times in seawater led to the collection of 1 kg of uranium. Natural polymers such as derivatives of starch and cellulose were radiation-crosslinked to form hydrogels. Mats of crosslinked carboxylmethyl cellulose were evaluated by 68 patients after surgical operation. No bedsore was observed in almost of all patients after operation. This product was commercialized as "Non-bedsore" in Japan.

  3. Integration of lignin and acrylic monomers towards grafted copolymers by free radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohuan; Xu, Yuzhi; Yu, Juan; Li, Shouhai; Wang, Jifu; Wang, Chunpeng; Chu, Fuxiang

    2014-06-01

    Three kinds of acrylic monomers (2,2,3,4,4,4-hexafluorobutyl methacrylate (HFBMA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BA)) were utilized to modify the lignin (BBL) by "grafting from" free radical polymerization (FRP), respectively. Calcium chloride/hydrogen peroxide (CaCl2/H2O2) was used as initiator. Effects of monomer type and concentration, initiator concentration and polymerization time on grafting from BBL were studied. Grafting of poly (acrylic monomers) onto BBL was verified by the following characterizations and this synthesis method was found to be high efficient and selective for grafting polymerization of BBL. The presence of the BBL moiety in the backbone also resulted in higher glass transition temperature compared with the homopolymer of each monomer, and some modified copolymers also improved its thermal stability. All modifications made BBL more hydrophobic and the static contact angles of these modified copolymers were above 80°. XPS analysis revealed that the surface of these modified BBL copolymers were dominated by acrylate monomer moiety. Additionally, the BBL-g-PBA copolymers can be used as dispersion modifiers in PLA-based materials to enhance UV absorption. PMID:24742785

  4. Enhanced Polymer Grafting from Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes through Living Anionic Surface-Initiated Polymerization.

    SciTech Connect

    Sakellariou, Georgios [ORNL; Ji, Haining [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Baskaran, Durairaj [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2008-01-01

    Anionic surface-initiated polymerization of ethylene oxide and styrene has been performed using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) functionalized with anionic initiators. The surface of MWNTs was modified via covalent attachment of precursor anions such as 4-hydroxyethyl benzocyclobutene (BCBEO) and 1-benzocyclobutene-1 -phenylethylene (BCB-PE) through Diels-Alder cycloaddition at 235 C. Surface-functionalized MWNTs-g-(BCB-EO)n and MWNTs-g-(BCB-PE)n with 23 and 54 wt % precursor initiators, respectively, were used for the polymerizations. Alkoxide anion on the surface of MWNTs-g-(BCB-EO)n was generated through reaction with potassium triphenylmethane for the polymerization of ethylene oxide in tetrahydrofuran and phenyl substituted alkyllithium was generated from the surface of MWNTs-g-(BCB-PE)n using sec-butyllithium for the polymerization of styrene in benzene. In both cases, the initiation was found to be very slow because of the heterogeneous reaction medium. However, the MWNTs gradually dispersed in the reaction medium during the polymerization. A pale green color was noticed in the case of ethylene oxide polymerization and the color of initiator as well as the propagating anions was not discernible visually in styrene polymerization. Polymer grafted nanocomposites, MWNTs-g-(BCB-PEO)n and MWNTs-g-(BCB-PS)n containing a very high percentage of hairy polymer with a small fraction of MWNTs (<1 wt %) were obtained. The conversion of ethylene oxide and the weight percent of PEO on the surface of the MWNTs increased with increasing reaction time indicating a controlled polymerization. The polymer-grafted MWNTs were characterized using FTIR, 1H NMR, Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Size exclusion chromatography of the polymer grafted MWNTs revealed broad molecular weight distributions (1.3 < Mw/Mn < 1.8) indicating the presence of different sizes of polymer nanocomposites. The TEM images showed the presence of thick layers of polymer up to 30 nm around the MWNTs. The living nature of the growing polystyryllithium was used to produce diblock copolymer grafts using sequential polymerization of isoprene on the surface of MWNTs.

  5. Polymerization Induced Self-Assembly of Alginate Based Amphiphilic Graft Copolymers Synthesized by Single Electron Transfer Living Radical Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kapishon, Vitaliy; Whitney, Ralph A; Champagne, Pascale; Cunningham, Michael F; Neufeld, Ronald J

    2015-07-13

    Alginate-based amphiphilic graft copolymers were synthesized by single electron transfer living radical polymerization (SET-LRP), forming stable micelles during polymerization induced self-assembly (PISA). First, alginate macroinitiator was prepared by partial depolymerization of native alginate, solubility modification and attachment of initiator. Depolymerized low molecular weight alginate (?12?000 g/mol) was modified with tetrabutylammonium, enabling miscibility in anhydrous organic solvents, followed by initiator attachment via esterification yielding a macroinitiator with a degree of substitution of 0.02, or 1-2 initiator groups per alginate chain. Then, methyl methacrylate was polymerized from the alginate macroinitiator in mixtures of water and methanol, forming poly(methyl methacrylate) grafts, prior to self-assembly, of ?75?000 g/mol and polydispersity of 1.2. PISA of the amphiphilic graft-copolymer resulted in the formation of micelles with diameters of 50-300 nm characterized by light scattering and electron microscopy. As the first reported case of LRP from alginate, this work introduces a synthetic route to a preparation of alginate-based hybrid polymers with a precise macromolecular architecture and desired functionalities. The intended application is the preparation of micelles for drug delivery; however, LRP from alginate can also be applied in the field of biomaterials to the improvement of alginate-based hydrogel systems such as nano- and microhydrogel particles, islet encapsulation materials, hydrogel implants, and topical applications. Such modified alginates can also improve the function and application of native alginates in food and agricultural applications. PMID:26068280

  6. Grafting from ramie fiber with poly(MMA) or poly(MA) via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Chen; Jie Yi; Ping Sun; Zhao-Tie Liu; Zhong-Wen Liu

    2009-01-01

    Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization was utilized to control the grafting of methyl methacrylate\\u000a (MMA) and methyl acrylate (MA) from natural ramie fibers substrate. The hydroxyl groups of ramie fibers were first converted\\u000a to 2-dithiobenzoyl isobutyrate as a RAFT chain transfer agent (CTA), which was further grafted with MMA or MA mediated by\\u000a the RAFT polymerization in a presence

  7. Gamma radiation-induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto water hyacinth fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrid, Jordan F.; Nuesca, Guillermo M.; Abad, Lucille V.

    2013-04-01

    Water hyacinth fibers (Eichhornia crassipes) were functionalized using radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate by ?-rays from 60Co source. The simultaneous grafting technique was employed wherein the water hyacinth fibers were irradiated in nitrogen atmosphere in the presence of glycidyl methacrylate dissolved in water/methanol solvent. The effects of different grafting parameters to the grafting yield were evaluated. The optimal values of solvent, absorbed dose, dose rate, and concentration of monomer were found to be 1:3 (volume/volume) water-methanol solvent, 10 kGy, 8 kGy h-1 dose rate and 5% volume/volume glycidyl methacrylate, respectively. Using the optimum conditions, degree of grafting of approximately 58% was achieved. The grafted water hyacinth fibers were characterized using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The results of these tests confirmed the successful grafting of glycidyl methacrylate onto water hyacinth fibers.

  8. Graft copolymers prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from cellulose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Meng; Xia Gao; Jun Zhang; Jinying Yuan; Yuzhu Zhang; Jiasong He

    2009-01-01

    A cellulose-based macro-initiator, cellulose 2-bromoisobutyrylate, for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was successfully synthesized by direct homogeneous acylation of cellulose in a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, without using any catalysts and protecting group chemistry. ATRP of methyl methacrylate and styrene from the macro-initiator was then carried out. The synthesized cellulose graft copolymers were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR

  9. Modification of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and copper foil surfaces by graft polymerization for adhesion improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Z. Wu; E. T. Kang; K. G. Neoh; C. Q. Cui; T. B. Lim

    2000-01-01

    Thermal graft polymerization-induced lamination of surface-modified copper foil to surface-modified poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) film was achieved in the presence of an epoxy resin adhesive and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomer, or in the presence of GMA and hexamethylenediamine (HEDA). The copper foil surfaces were pretreated with an organosilane coupling agent (SCA), such as (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysiane, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, or N1-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]diethylene-triamine. The silanized copper foils

  10. Graft Polymerization of Acrylic Acid on a Polytetrafluoroethylene Panel by an Inductively Coupled Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yan; You, Qingliang; Cheng, Cheng; Zhang, Suzhen; Ni, Guohua; Nagatsu, M.; Meng, Yuedong

    2011-02-01

    Surface modification on a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) panel was performed with sequential nitrogen plasma treatments and surface-initiated polymerization. By introducing COO- groups to the surface of the PTFE panel through grafting polymerization of acrylic acid (AA), a transparent poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) membrane was achieved from acrylic acid solution. Grafting polymerization initiating from the active groups was achieved on the PTFE panel surface after the nitrogen plasma treatment. Utilizing the acrylic acid as monomers, with COO- groups as cross link sites to form reticulation structure, a transparent poly (acrylic acid) membrane with arborescent macromolecular structure was formed on the PTFE panel surface. Analysis methods, such as fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), were utilized to characterize the structures of the macromolecule membrane on the PTFE panel surface. A contact angle measurement was performed to characterize the modified PTFE panels. The surface hydrophilicities of modified PTFE panels were significantly enhanced after the plasma treatment. It was shown that the grafting rate is related to the treating time and the power of plasma.

  11. Preparation of functional poly(ether–urethane) for immobilization of human living cells 1. Surface graft polymerization of poly(ether–urethane) with 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and quaternization of grafted membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Guan; Changyou Gao; Linxiang Feng; Jiacong Shen

    2000-01-01

    Functional Poly(ether–urethane) (PEU) was prepared by grafting 2-(dimethylamino)ethylmethacrylate(DMAEM) onto the membrane surface and quaternizing the grafted membrane. Graft polymerization was conducted by combining photo-oxidation and irradiation grafting. PEU membrane was photo-oxidized firstly in hydrogen peroxide solution and then grafted with DMAEM under UV light. The grafted membrane was quaternized with iodomethane. The results showed that the hydroperoxide groups content was

  12. Surface modification of microfluidic channels by UV-mediated graft polymerization of non-fouling and ‘smart’ polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Hoffman, John M.; Stayton, Patrick S.; Hoffman, Allan S.

    2007-08-01

    Microfluidic channels prepared from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have been modified by UV-mediated graft polymerization of temperature-responsive polymers (poly[ N-isopropyl acrylamide] or pNIPAAm), temperature- and pH-responsive copolymers (P[NIPAAm-co-acrylic acid (AAc)]), and a non-fouling hydrogel (polyethyleneglycol diacrylate, or PEGDA). This was done by presorbing a photosensitizer (PS) within the PDMS channel surface regions, contacting the different monomer solutions with the PS-containing surface under nitrogen, and irradiating with UV. The pNIPAAm-grafted surface was hydrophilic below its lower critical solution temperature (LCST), resisting non-specific adsorption, while it was hydrophobic above its LCST, now binding pNIPAAm-coated nanoparticles. Combined temperature- and pH-responsive surfaces were also prepared by UV radiation grafting a monomer mixture of pNIPAAm with AAc. The surfaces have been characterized by advancing water contact angle measurements. These smart microfluidic channels should be useful for many applications such as affinity separations and diagnostic assays.

  13. Polyglycerol dendrimers immobilized on radiation grafted poly-HEMA hydrogels: Surface chemistry characterization and cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higa, Olga Z.; Faria, Henrique Antonio Mendonça; de Queiroz, Alvaro A. A.

    2014-05-01

    Radiation induced grafting of poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (PHEMA) on low density polyethylene (LDPE) films and subsequent immobilization of poly(glycerol) dendrimer (PGLD) has been performed with the aim to improve cell adhesion and proliferation on the surface of the polymer, in order to enhance their properties for bone tissue engineering scaffolding applications. Radiation grafting of PHEMA onto LDPE was promoted by ?-ray radiation. The covalent immobilization of PGLD on LDPE-g-PHEMA surface was performed by using a dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC)/N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) method. The occurrence of grafting polymerization of PHEMA and further immobilization of PGLD was quantitatively confirmed by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fluorescence, respectively. The LDPE-g-PHEMA surface topography after PGLD coupling was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hydrophilicity of the LDPE-g-PHEMA film was remarkably improved compared to that of the ungrafted LDPE. The core level XPS ESCA spectrum of PHEMA-grafted LDPE showed two strong peaks at 286.6 eV (from hydroxyl groups and ester groups) and 289.1 eV (from ester groups) due to PHEMA brushes grafted onto LDPE surfaces. The results from the cell adhesion studies show that MCT3-E1 cells tended to spread more slowly on the LDPE-g-PHEMA than on the LDPE-g-PHEMA-i-PGLD.

  14. Surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization grafting of sodium styrene sulfonate from titanium and silicon substrates.

    PubMed

    Foster, Rami N; Keefe, Andrew J; Jiang, Shaoyi; Castner, David G

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates the grafting of poly-sodium styrene sulfonate (pNaSS) from trichlorosilane/10-undecen-1-yl 2-bromo-2-methylpropionate functionalized Si and Ti substrates by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The composition, molecular structure, thickness, and topography of the grafted pNaSS films were characterized with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. XPS and ToF-SIMS results were consistent with the successful grafting of a thick and uniform pNaSS film on both substrates. VASE and AFM scratch tests showed the films were between 25 and 49?nm thick on Si, and between 13 and 35?nm thick on Ti. AFM determined root-mean-square roughness values were ?2?nm on both Si and Ti substrates. Therefore, ATRP grafting is capable of producing relatively smooth, thick, and chemically homogeneous pNaSS films on Si and Ti substrates. These films will be used in subsequent studies to test the hypothesis that pNaSS-grafted Ti implants preferentially adsorb certain plasma proteins in an orientation and conformation that modulates the foreign body response and promotes formation of new bone. PMID:24482558

  15. Utilizing advanced polymerization techniques for simplifying polymer grafting from silica colloidal crystal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerneni, Charu K.

    Polyacrylamide has been well established as a biocompatible material when Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) came into existence in the 1960s. Under aqueous buffer conditions it becomes non-adsorptive to proteins and due to its molecular level pore forming nature could be used in size based biomolecule separations. Since then considerable research has been done to explore the non-adsorptive nature of polyacrylamide on a platform or substrate. Attempts were made to grow polyacrylamide chains from silica as a substrate which can then be used in various protein separation techniques. Based on an ionic polymerization method which was used for gel casting in PAGE, polymers were grown on silica gel. Though considerable thickness could be achieved, polymerization was not just confined to the surface. Therefore a rigid polymer brush layer could not be achieved. Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method showed the solution to this problem. Polymer brush layers with acceptable thickness could now be achieved for growing polyacrylamide from silica gel. Yet it still suffered from several disadvantages such as the need of an inert atmosphere for polymerization and limited thickness. Many developments have taken place in the past decade which led to improvements in substrate and polymerization methods. This research used non porous sub-micron silica as the substrate and AGET ATRP (Activator generated electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization) for surface grafting polyacrylamide. Non porous submicron silica has been shown to be a better stationary phase substrate for protein separations than conventional substrates. AGET ATRP enables polymerization to be performed under ambient conditions and in water based solutions which gives thicknesses much higher than conventional ATRP. Data from various analytical techniques showed that within the experimental range the polymerization is linear and has decent control. This means silica nanoparticles coated with polyacrylamide of varying thickness can be produced by varying the reaction time. Linear polymerization kinetics was studied using IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, ellipsometry, GPC etc. All of them closely agree with each other. Attempts were made to expand the applicability of this novel way of material synthesis. HILIC is known as a premium separation mode for polar analytes. Glycoproteins form an important class of analytes which need better separation columns. Polyacrylamide coated nonporous colloidal silica is shown here to be a better column packing material. Combined results show that AGET ATRP can be a better and simpler alternative to ATRP for grafting polyacrylamide onto silica based substrates. Future efforts can possibly lead to the expansion of the applicability of this method for making materials for many other separation methods.

  16. Preparation of acrylate IPN copolymer latexes by radiation emulsion polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Minghong; Zhou, Ruimin; Ma, Zue-Teh; Bao, Borong; Lei, Jianqiu

    1997-03-01

    Radiation-induced and chemical initiation are compared in the initiation of acrylate emulsion copolymer latexes. The particle diameter, distribution and microstructure are influenced by emulsifier concentration, radiation dose and temperature. The results show that the emulsion particle diameter of radiation polymerization is smaller and better distributed in comparison to using chemical polymerization. In addition, interlude polymer net (IPN) core-shell copolymer latexes are observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The bounding face of core-shell acrylate copolymmer texes of radiation polymerization is clearer. The morphology of acrylate IPN copolymer latexes is further investigated.

  17. DFT study of the ring opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone by grafted lanthanide complexes: 2--Effect of the initiator ligand.

    PubMed

    Del Rosal, Iker; Poteau, Romuald; Maron, Laurent

    2011-11-14

    The influence of the initiator ligand on the Ring Opening Polymerization (ROP) of ?-caprolactone by lanthanide complexes grafted on silica have been investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Three different initiator ligands (alkyl, dialkylamido and borohydride) and three grating modes (mono-grafted, bi-grafted or bi-grafted after breaking of a Si-O-Si bridge) have been considered. This study highlights that lanthanum grafted complexes (alkyl, amide or borohydride) are active in lactone polymerization. In any case the reaction process is demonstrated to be similar to the one found for homogeneous catalysts. However, even if the different grafting modes are energetically equivalent for the ?-caprolactone ROP initiation reaction, some differences are observed according to the ligand involved in the initiation reaction. In agreement with experimental data, grafted lanthanide amides rapidly polymerise the ?-caprolactone. The grafted alkyl lanthanum complexes are also predicted to be very efficient catalysts. The borohydride is thus predicted to be the least efficient due to the difficulties in the ring opening. Indeed, the rate-determining step is the nucleophilic attack for the methyl and dialkylamido ligands (occuring with a low barrier) whereas it is the ring opening for the borohydride ligands (highest barrier) and the formation of -CH(2)C(=O)(X) (X = CH(3) or NMe(2)) terminal group is more favorable than that of a -CH(2)OBH(2) end group. PMID:21918766

  18. Microwave CO 2 plasma-initiated vapour phase graft polymerization of acrylic acid onto polytetrafluoroethylene for immobilization of human thrombomodulin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Vasilets; G. Hermel; U. König; C. Werner; M. Müller; F. Simon; K. Grundke; Y. Ikada; H.-J. Jacobasch

    1997-01-01

    The functionalization of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) for human thrombomodulin (hTM) binding has been achieved by CO2 plasma activation and subsequent vapour phase graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA). The PTFE surfaces after CO2 plasma treatment, AA grafting and hTM immobilization were characterized by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy,

  19. Plasma graft-polymerization for synthesis of highly stable hydroxide exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chengxu; Jiang, Lin; Fang, Shidong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Xiangke; Meng, Yuedong

    2014-02-01

    A novel plasma graft-polymerization approach is adopted to prepare hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs) using cardo polyetherketone powders (PEK-C) and vinylbenzyl chloride. The benzylic chloromethyl groups can be successfully introduced into the PEK-C polymer matrix via plasma graft-polymerization. This approach enables a well preservation in the structure of functional groups and formation of a highly cross-linked structure in the membrane, leading to an improvement on the stability and performance of HEMs. The chemical stabilities, including alkaline and oxidative stability, are evaluated under severe conditions by measuring hydroxide conductivity and weight changes during aging. The obtained PGP-NOH membrane retains 86% of the initial hydroxide conductivity in 6 mol L-1 KOH solution at 60 °C for 120 h, and 94% of the initial weight in 3 wt% H2O2 solution at 60 °C for 262 h. The PGP-NOH membrane also possesses excellent thermal stability (safely used below 120 °C), alcohol resistance (ethanol permeability of 6.6 × 10-11 m2 s-1 and diffusion coefficient of 3.7 × 10-13 m2 s-1), and an acceptable hydroxide conductivity (8.3 mS cm-1 at 20 °C in deionized water), suggesting a good candidate of PGP-NOH membrane for HEMFC applications.

  20. PEG Molecular Net-Cloth Grafted on Polymeric Substrates and Its Bio-Merits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Changwen; Lin, Zhifeng; Yin, Huabing; Ma, Yuhong; Xu, Fujian; Yang, Wantai

    2014-05-01

    Polymer brushes and hydrogels are sensitive to the environment, which can cause uncontrolled variations on their performance. Herein, for the first time, we report a non-swelling ``PEG molecular net-cloth'' on a solid surface, fabricated using a novel ``visible light induced surface controlled graft cross-linking polymerization'' (VSCGCP) technique. Via this method, we show that 1) the 3D-network structure of the net-cloth can be precisely modulated and its thickness controlled; 2) the PEG net-cloth has excellent resistance to non-specific protein adsorption and cell adhesion; 3) the mild polymerization conditions (i.e. visible light and room temperature) provided an ideal tool for in situ encapsulation of delicate biomolecules such as enzymes; 4) the successive grafting of reactive three-dimensional patterns on the PEG net-cloth enables the creation of protein microarrays with high signal to noise ratio. Importantly, this strategy is applicable to any C-H containing surface, and can be easily tailored for a broad range of applications.

  1. Radiation grafting of NIPAAm on PVDF nuclear track membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzei, Ruben; Smolko, Eduardo; Tadey, Daniel; Gizzi, Laura

    2000-10-01

    Polymer surface modifications are obtained by the application of radiation treatments and other physico-chemical methods: fragment fission (ff) or ion implantation, etching and grafting procedure. Poly vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) foils were irradiated during different times to produce pores of different diameters through the foils. In this way, nuclear track membranes (NTM) were produced with different track diameters and track numbers. Active sites were formed using a ?-ray Co-60 source and then contacted with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) to obtain a graft copolymer that responds to environmental conditions. The present work shows the grafting yield as a function of: ?-dose, NIPAAm concentration, pore diameter, track density, etc.

  2. Radiation-grafted PVDF anion exchange membrane for salt splitting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Tzanetakis; J. R. Varcoe; R. C. T. Slade; K. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Poly(vinylidenefluoride) (PVDF) was radiation grafted using vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) followed by amination with trimethylamine to yield a VBC-grafted PVDF anion-exchange membrane. Evaluation of the electrochemical characteristics of the anionic membrane is obtained from the electrohydrolysis of sodium sulphate in a two-compartment electrolysis cell. The influence of different experimental conditions on the behaviour of the new material is described. The electrochemical

  3. A mild strategy to encapsulate enzyme into hydrogel layer grafted on polymeric substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xing; Ma, Yuhong; Zhao, Changwen; Lin, Zhifeng; Zhang, Lihua; Chen, Ruichao; Yang, Wantai

    2014-12-23

    Although the hydrogel network has been widely investigated as a carrier for enzyme immobilization, to in situ encapsulate enzymes into a hydrogel network in an efficient, practical, and active way is still one of the great challenges in the field of biochemical engineering. Here, we report a new protocol to address this issue by encapsulating enzyme into poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel network grafted on polymeric substrates. In our strategy, isopropyl thioxanthone semipinacol (ITXSP) dormant groups were first planted onto the surface of a plastic matrix with low density polyethylene (LDPE) film as a model by a UV-induced abstracting hydrogen-coupling reaction. As a proof of concept, lipase, which could catalyze esterification of glucose with palmitic acid, then was in situ net-immobilized into a PEG-based hydrogel network layer through a visible light-induced surface controlled/living graft cross-linking polymerization. This strategy demonstrates the following novel significant merits: (1) in comparison with the UV irradiation or high temperature, the visible light and room temperature used provide a friendly condition to maintain activity of enzyme during immobilization; (2) the uniqueness of controlled/living cross-linking polymerization not only makes it easy to form a uniform PEG hydrogel network, which is a benefit to avoid the leakage of net-immobilizing enzyme, but also to tune the net-thickness or capacity to accommodate enzyme; and (3) as compared to systems of nanoparticles and porous matrixes, the flexible/robust end-products of the surface net-immobilizing enzyme with polymer film are more suitable to be applied in a bioreactor due to their features of easier separation and reuse. We confirmed that this catalytic film could retain almost all of its initial activity after seven batches of 24 h esterifications. The proposed strategy provides an extremely simple, effective, and flexible method for enzyme immobilization. PMID:25489918

  4. Strategies and Techniques to Enhance the In Situ Endothelialization of Small-Diameter Biodegradable Polymeric Vascular Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Hibino, Narutoshi; Fisher, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the lack of success in small-diameter (<6?mm) prosthetic vascular grafts, a variety of strategies have evolved utilizing a tissue-engineering approach. Much of this work has focused on enhancing the endothelialization of these grafts. A healthy, confluent endothelial layer provides dynamic control over homeo-stasis, influencing and preventing thrombosis and smooth muscle cell proliferation that can lead to intimal hyperplasia. Strategies to improve endothelialization of biodegradable polymeric grafts have encompassed both chemical and physical modifications to graft surfaces, many focusing on the recruitment of endothelial and endothelial progenitor cells. This review aims to provide a compilation of current and developing strategies that utilize in situ endothelialization to improve vascular graft outcomes, providing a context for the future directions of vascular tissue-engineering strategies that do not require preprocedural cell seeding. PMID:23252992

  5. Cell Fouling Resistance of Polymer Brushes Grafted from Ti Substrates by Surface-Initiated Polymerization: Effect of

    E-print Network

    -ATRP) to form POEGMEMA-4, -9, and -23 polymer brushes. The chemical composition, thickness, and wettabilityCell Fouling Resistance of Polymer Brushes Grafted from Ti Substrates by Surface-Initiated Polymerization: Effect of Ethylene Glycol Side Chain Length Xiaowu Fan, Lijun Lin, and Phillip B. Messersmith

  6. Charge tunable zwitterionic polyampholyte layers formed in cyclic olefin copolymer microchannels through photochemical graft polymerization.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xianglu; Zhao, Lei; Du, Gangfeng; Wei, Xuan; Guo, Jinxiu; Wang, Xiayan; Guo, Guangsheng; Pu, Qiaosheng

    2013-02-01

    Zwitterionic layers immobilized on various surfaces exhibit ideal biocompatibility and antifouling capability, but direct immobilization of zwitterionic molecules provides limited choice of surface charges. In this paper, the formation of charge tunable zwitterionic polyampholyte layers onto the surface of microfluidic channels of cyclic olefin copolymer by photochemical graft polymerization of mixed acrylic monomers, [2-(acryloyloxy) ethyl] trimethyl ammonium chloride and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic, under UV illumination was reported. With this method, surface charge of the resulting modification layers could be tailored through the initial monomer ratio and reaction conditions. The incorporation of both monomers into the grafted layers was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR). The results indicate that the modified layers are hydrophilic with contact angles of 33.0-44.3°, and the isoelectric points of the modified layers can be tuned from <3 to >9 simply by adjusting the monomer ratios. Elimination of the nonspecific adsorption of proteins on the zwitterionic layers thus formed was proved by fluorescent microscopy and streaming potential measurement. The uniformity of the modified layers was verified through a comparison of electrophoresis inside the modified and native microchannels. A whole blood coagulation time measurement was performed to show its applicability. PMID:23331535

  7. EUV lithographic radiation grafting of thermo-responsive hydrogel nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquet, Patrick; Padeste, Celestino; Solak, Harun H.; Gürsel, Selmiye Alkan; Scherer, Günther G.; Wokaun, Alexander

    2007-12-01

    Nanostructures of the thermoresponsive poly( N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and of PNIPAAm-block-poly(acrylic acid) copolymers were produced on poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-ethyelene) (ETFE) films using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic exposure with subsequent graft-polymerization. The phase transition of PNIPAAm nanostructures at the low critical solution temperature (LCST) at 32 °C was imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) phase contrast measurements in pure water. Results show a higher phase contrast for samples measured below the LCST temperature than for samples above the LCST, proving that the soft PNIPAAm hydrogel transforms into a much more compact conformation above the LCST. EUV lithographic exposures were combined with the reversible addition-fragment chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated polymerization using cyanoisopropyl dithiobenzoate (CPDB) as chain transfer agent to synthesize PNIPAAm block-copolymer nanostructures.

  8. Effect of hydroxyapatite whisker surface graft polymerization on water sorption, solubility and bioactivity of the dental resin composite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fengwei; Jiang, Xiaoze; Bao, Shuang; Wang, Ruili; Sun, Bin; Zhu, Meifang

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of poly bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (poly(Bis-GMA)) grafted hydroxyapatite whisker (PGHW) on water sorption, solubility and bioactivity of the dental resin composite. PGHW with different graft ratios was synthesized, by controlling grafting time, and filled into a dental resin matrix respectively. Fracture surface of the resin composites showed that PGHW-matrix interfacial compatibility and bonding were enhanced, and lower amounts of poly(Bis-GMA) on PGHW-1h (graft ratio: 8.5wt.%) could facilitate the dispersion of PGHW-1h in the composite. The PGHW-1h filled resin composite absorbed the lowest amount of water (27.16?g/mm(3), 7d), whereas the untreated hydroxyapatite whisker (HW) filled resin composite absorbed the highest. PGHW with higher graft ratios induced the decrease of the monomer conversion in the resulting composite, therefore, the PGHW-18h (graft ratio: 32.8wt.%) filled resin composite had the highest solubility. In vitro bioactivity of the studied resin composites in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed that a dense and continuous apatite layer was formed on the surface of the resin composite, and the surface graft polymerization on the whisker did not significantly affect the apatite forming ability of the resin composite. It was revealed that graft polymerization of an appropriate amount of Bis-GMA onto HW could be an effective method to improve the interfacial properties and stability in water of the dental resin composite without compromising the bioactivity. PMID:26042702

  9. Surface modification of microfluidic channels by UV-mediated graft polymerization of non-fouling and ‘smart’ polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuhiro Ebara; John M. Hoffman; Patrick S. Stayton; Allan S. Hoffman

    2007-01-01

    Microfluidic channels prepared from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have been modified by UV-mediated graft polymerization of temperature-responsive polymers (poly[N-isopropyl acrylamide] or pNIPAAm), temperature- and pH-responsive copolymers (P[NIPAAm-co-acrylic acid (AAc)]), and a non-fouling hydrogel (polyethyleneglycol diacrylate, or PEGDA). This was done by presorbing a photosensitizer (PS) within the PDMS channel surface regions, contacting the different monomer solutions with the PS-containing surface under nitrogen,

  10. Improvement of the antifouling characteristics for polypropylene microporous membranes by the sequential photoinduced graft polymerization of acrylic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai-Yin Yu; Zhi-Kang Xu; Qian Yang; Meng-Xin Hu; Shu-Yuan Wang

    2006-01-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene hollow fiber microporous membranes (PPHFMMs) was performed by a sequential photoinduced graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) from water solution. Structural and morphological changes on the membrane surface were characterized by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR\\/FT-IR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Water contact angles of the membrane surfaces were also measured by

  11. Amine functionalized radiation-induced grafted water hyacinth fibers for Pb2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrid, Jordan F.; Nuesca, Guillermo M.; Abad, Lucille V.

    2014-04-01

    An amine group containing fibrous adsorbent was prepared by reaction of grafted water hyacinth fibers with ethylenediamine. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was grafted onto water hyacinth fibers using gamma radiation induced graft polymerization through simultaneous grafting technique and this was used as base material for producing the amine type adsorbents. The conversion of the epoxy group from GMA into amine group was investigated. The concentration of ethylenediamine solution that gave the highest amine functional group density was 50% by volume in 2-propanol. The amine functionalized water hyacinth fibers were characterized using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). Information derived from these analyses confirms the successful conversion of the epoxy group. The amine-type adsorbent was evaluated for its uptake of Pb2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ from aqueous solutions. The initial concentration of the metal ions and pH of the solutions were found to influence the amount of metal ions adsorbed by the amine-type adsorbent. The kinetics of adsorption was observed to follow Lagergren's first order equation. Results of ion sorption studies indicate that gamma radiation-induced grafting and subsequent chemical modification improved the ion sorption behaviour of water hyacinth fibers.

  12. Modification on liquid retention property of cassava starch by radiation grafting with acrylonitrile. I. Effect of ?-irradiation on grafting parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatkamjornwong, S.; Chvajarernpun, J.; Nakason, C.

    1993-07-01

    Radiation modification on liquid retention properties of native cassava starch, gelatinized at 85°C, by graft copolymerization with acrylonitrile was carried out by mutual irradiation to gamma-rays. A thin aluminum foil was used to cover the inner wall of the reaction vessel, so that the homopolymer concentration was reduced to be less than 1.0% with a distilled water retention value of 665 g/g of the dry weight of the saponified grafted product. Confirmation of graft copolymerization and saponification reactions was made by the infrared spectrophotometric technique. The combined effect of radiation parameters in terms of an irradiation time and a dose rate to the total dose on the extent of the grafting reaction expressed in terms of grafting parameters which directly influenced liquid retention values was evaluated in conjunction with statistical analysis.

  13. Radiation-induced grafting of vinylbenzyltrimethylammonium chloride (VBT) onto cotton fabric and study of its anti-bacterial activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virendra Kumar; Y. K. Bhardwaj; K. P. Rawat; S. Sabharwal

    2005-01-01

    Mutual radiation grafting technique using 60Co gamma radiation has been used to carry out grafting of vinylbenzyltrimethylammonium chloride (VBT) onto cotton cellulose substrate. Grafting yield increased with radiation dose and decreased with dose rate but was adversely affected by the presence of O2 and salts of Fe2+ and Cu2+. However, the presence of an acid did not affect grafting in

  14. Polystyrene grafting from silica nanoparticles via Nitroxide-Mediated-Polymerization (NMP): synthesis and SANS analysis with contrast variation method

    E-print Network

    Chloé Chevigny; Didier Gigmes; Denis Bertin; Jacques Jestin; François Boué

    2010-05-10

    We present a new convenient and efficient "grafting from" method to obtain well defined polystyrene (PS) silica nanoparticles. The method, based on Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerization (NMP), consists to bind covalently the alkoxyamine, which acts as initiator controller agent, at the silica nanoparticles surface in two steps. The first step is a reaction between the aminopropylsilane and the silica particles in order to functionalize the particles surface with amino group. In a second step, the initiating-controlling alkoxyamine moiety is introduced via an over grafting reaction between the amino group and the N-hydroxysuccinimide based MAMA-SG1 activated ester. To simplify both their chemical transformation and the polymerization step, the native silica particles, initially dispersed in water, have been transferred in an organic solvent, the dimethylacetamide, which is also a good solvent for the polystyrene. The synthesis parameters have been optimized for grafting density, conversion rates, and synthesis reproducibility while keeping the colloidal stability and to avoid any aggregation of silica particles induced by the inter-particles interaction evolution during the synthesis. After synthesis, the final grafted objects have been purified and the non-grafted polymer chains formed in the solvent have been washed out by ultra filtration. Then the particles have been studied using Small angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) coupled to neutron contrast variation method. To optimize the contrast conditions, both hydrogenated and deuterated monomers have been used for the synthesis. A refined fitting analysis based on the comparison on two models, a basic core-shell and the Gaussian Pedersen model, enables us to fit nicely the experimental data for both the hydrogenated and deuterated grafted case. Differences are seen between grafting of normal or deuterated chains which can be due to monomer reactivity or to neutron contrast effect variations. The synthesis and the characterization method established in this work constitute a robust and reproducible way to design well defined grafted polymer nanoparticles. These objects will be incorporated in polymer matrices in a further step to create Nanocomposites for polymer reinforcement.

  15. Radiation-induced grafting of cellulose for adsorption of hazardous water pollutants: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnárovits, L.; Földváry, Cs. M.; Takács, E.

    2010-08-01

    This review paper briefly introduces the radiation chemistry of cellulose, the different grafting techniques used, and the methods of characterization of the grafted material. It shows the application of the grafted polymer for the removal of water pollutants and also the regeneration of the adsorbent.

  16. Space radiation resistant transparent polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, C.; Yamauchi, T.

    1977-01-01

    A literature search in the field of ultraviolet and charged particle irradiation of polymers was utilized in an experimental program aimed at the development of radiation stable materials for space applications. The rationale utilized for material selection and the synthesis, characterization and testing performed on several selected materials is described. Among the materials tested for ultraviolet stability in vacuum were: polyethyleneoxide, polyvinylnaphthalene, and the amino resin synthesized by the condensation of o-hydroxybenzoguanamine with formaldehyde. Particularly interesting was the radiation behavior of poly(ethyleneoxide), irradiation did not cause degradation of optical properties but rather an improvement in transparency as indicated by a decrease in solar absorptance with increasing exposure time.

  17. Development of hydrogels by radiation induced polymerization for use in slow drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Baljit; Bala, R.

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, in order to improve the drug release profile of indinavir sulfate, a potent inhibitor of HIV protease, controlled drug delivery systems in the form of hydrogels have been designed by a radiation graft polymerization method. These hydrogels have been prepared by using dietary fiber psyllium and binary monomers mixture of acrylamide (AAm) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPSA). These polymers have been characterized with cryo-SEMs, FTIR, XRD and swelling studies. The swelling of hydrogels has been determined in solution of different pH, temperature and [NaCl]. in vitro release studies of model drug indinavir sulfate in different pH have been carried out to determine the drug release mechanism. The release of dug occurred through non-Fickian mechanism.

  18. Crystal structure and mechanical properties of UHMWPE-g-PMA fiber prepared by radiation grafting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhe; Wang, Mouhua; liu, Weihua; Hu, Jiangtao; Wu, Guozhong

    2013-05-01

    Methyl acrylate (MA) monomer was grafted onto ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers by ?-ray pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization. The grafting of MA on UHMWPE fiber was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The degree of grafting (DG) increased with an increase in absorbed dose and reached a significantly high value (approximately 200%) at 100 kGy. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the surface of the UHMWPE-g-PMA fibers was covered by the MA grafting layer and became rough. The monoclinic crystalline and orientated intermediate phases were disordered by the grafting chains such that degree of orientation declined gradually with increasing DG. The tensile strength of UHMWPE-g-PMA fiber decreased with increasing dose but was independent of DG, whereas the fiber modulus declined with DG. UHMWPE-g-PMA fiber that possesses desirable mechanical properties could be obtained at a dose of less than 10 kGy.

  19. Enhancement of the grafting performance and of the water absorption of cassava starch graft copolymer by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Meechai, Nispa

    1997-06-01

    Enhancement of the gamma radiation grafting of acrylonitrile onto gelatinized cassava starch was investigated. Infrared spectrometry was used to follow the chemical changes in the grafting reaction and from saponification. The saponified starch- g-PAN (HSPAN) was then characterized in terms of grafting parameters to provide a guide for the optimum total dose (kGy) and the appropriate ratio of starch/acrylonitrile for a fixed dose rate of 2.5 × 10 -1 kGy/min. Other dose rates were also carried out to obtain the appropriate result of grafting copolymerization and of water absorption. A thin aluminium foil, covering the inner wall of the reaction vessel, was found to be far more effective than any other metal films in the enhancement of the grafting reaction and the water absorption as well. Nitric acid in the medium increases the grafting yield and the water absorption. Methyl ether hydroquinone inhibitor was evaluated for its ability to increase homopolymerization and decrease graft reaction. When styrene was used as a comonomer, it hampered the grafting of acrylonitrile onto starch backbone. The water absorption capacity was improved by freeze-drying the HSPAN. The treatment of the HSPAN with aluminium trichloride hexahydrate was found to enhance the degree of wicking, but to decrease the water absorbency.

  20. Colloidal interactions of inorganic nanoparticles grafted with zwitterionic polymer brushes and gels by surface-mediated seeded polymerization.

    PubMed

    An, Soyoun; Choi, Sang Koo; Cho, Jang Woo; Kim, Hyun Tae; Kim, Jin Woong

    2014-08-01

    A robust and straightforward approach is introduced to synthesize inorganic nanoparticles chemically grafted with a zwitterionic poly(2-methacryroyloxyethylphosphorylcholine) (PMPC) thin layers. The synthesis method is based on the surface-mediated seeded polymerization. In order to observe how the polymer chain architectures affect colloidal interactions, the zinc oxide nanoparticles are grafted with linear brushes and with a thin hydrogel layer, respectively. The thickness of PMPC shell layers spans a few nanometers. The studies on suspension rheology for the nanoparticles show that the nanoparticles with PMPC brushes show the stronger repulsive force than those with the PMPC gel shell due to the entropic stabilization. When the shear force is applied to the Pickering emulsion produced by assembly of the nanoparticles, it is noticeable that the presence of PMPC brushes on the particles rather enhances the drop-to-drop attraction, which presumably stems from the entanglement of polymer chains between the contacted interfacial planes of the emulsion droplets during shearing. PMID:24840728

  1. Functionalization of cotton fabrics by radiation induced grafting of quaternary salt to impart antibacterial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, N. K.; Kumar, Virendra; Rao, M. S.; Bhardwaj, Y. K.; Sabharwal, S.

    2011-11-01

    High energy gamma radiation has been used to covalently link polymer chains of a quaternary ammonium salt containing monomer, viz. [2-(Acryloyloxyethyl)]trimethylammonium chloride (AETC) to cotton fabric by mutual radiation grafting using 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) monomer as the grafting facilitator. Grafting yield was found to increase with the radiation dose and monomer concentration. The grafted samples have been characterized for water uptake, surface morphology and thermal stability and for their antibacterial efficacy against various bacteria and were found to possess significant antibacterial activity particularly against gram-positive bacteria.

  2. Novel Diblock Copolymer-Grafted Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes via a combination of Living and Controlled/Living Surface Polymerizations

    SciTech Connect

    Priftis, Dimitrios [ORNL; Sakellariou, Georgios [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hadjichristidis, Nikos [University of Athens, Athens, Greece

    2010-01-01

    Diels Alder cycloaddition reactions were used to functionalize multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with 1-benzocylcobutene-10-phenylethylene (BCB-PE) or 4-hydroxyethylbenzocyclobutene (BCB-EO). The covalent functionalization of the nanotubes with these initiator precursors was verified by FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). After appropriate transformations/additions, the functionalized MWNTs were used for surface initiated anionic and ring opening polymerizations of ethylene oxide and e-caprolactone (e-CL), respectively. The OH-end groups were transformed to isopropylbromide groups by reaction with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide, for subsequent atom transfer radical polymerization of styrene or 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate to afford the final diblock copolymers. 1H NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), TGA, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used for the characterization of the nanocomposite materials. TEM images showed the presence of a polymer layer around the MWNTs as well as the dissociation of MWNT bundles. Consequently, this general methodology, employing combinations of different polymerization techniques, increases the diversity of diblocks that can be grafted from MWNTs.

  3. Radiation-induced grafting of vinylbenzyl chloride onto a poly(ether ether ketone) film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Mi-Lim; Song, Ju-Myung; Ko, Beom-Seok; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Nho, Young-Chang; Shin, Junhwa

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the effects of various irradiation conditions including solvent, monomer concentration, total dose, and dose rate on the radiation grafting of a VBC monomer onto a PEEK aromatic hydrocarbon film for the preparation of a PVBC-grafted PEEK (PEEK-g-PVBC) film were investigated. The results show that the desired PVBC-grafted PEEK film can be prepared using a simultaneous irradiation grafting method, and that the degree of grafting (DOG) of the film is largely influenced by the irradiation conditions. Among the applied solvents, halogenated solvents, dichloromethane and chloroform, were found to be suitable for grafting. The successful preparation of the grafted film was confirmed using analytical instruments such as FT-IR, TGA, and SEM-EDX.

  4. Radiation-grafting of acrylamide onto silicone rubber films for diclofenac delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magaña, Hector; Palomino, Kenia; Cornejo-Bravo, Jose M.; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Concheiro, Angel; Bucio, Emilio

    2015-02-01

    This work focuses on the pre-irradiation grafting of acrylamide (AAm) onto silicone rubber films (SR) and evaluates the effect of gamma-ray radiation conditions on the grafting yield, which in turn may influence the performance of the grafted materials as components of drug-eluting devices. Pristine and modified SR were characterized using FTIR-ATR, DSC, TGA, swelling, and water contact angle analysis in order to elucidate the effects of AAm grafting onto SR. Grafted films with content in AAm ranging from 0.81% to 22.20% showed excellent cytocompatibility against fibroblasts, and capability to uptake the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Amount of drug loaded directly correlated with the grafting degree of the films. Drug release studies were performed at pH 7.4 and 37 °C (physiological conditions). Most grafted films released the drug in a sustained way for at least three hours.

  5. Photochemical modification of poly(ether sulfone) ultrafiltration membranes by UV-assisted graft polymerization for the prevention of biofouling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieracci, John Paul

    Membranes are widely used by the biotechnology industry in the separation and recovery of proteins from biological solutions. Fouling of membrane surfaces by irreversible protein adsorption during ultrafiltration causes loss of membrane permeability and can reduce membrane selectivity and lead to significant product loss through denaturation. In this work, low fouling poly(ether sulfone) (PES) ultrafiltration membranes were produced by ultraviolet (UV) assisted graft polymerization of hydrophilic vinyl monomers using a newly developed photochemical dip modification technique. This technique was developed to make the UV modification process more easily adaptable to continuous membrane manufacturing processes. A method was also developed to measure and track the degree of polymer grafting on the membrane surface using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR/ATR). Grafting the hydrophilic monomer N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NVP) onto the membrane surface increased surface wettability and produced membranes with the high wettability of regenerated cellulose membranes. The enhanced surface wettability significantly decreased irreversible adsorptive fouling during the filtration of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). In order to maintain the rejection of BSA after modification, PES chain scission was tightly controlled by regulating the UV wavelength range and the light intensity used. The UV reactor system was operated with 300 nm UV lamps and a benzene filter used to remove high energy wavelengths below 275 nm that were determined to cause severe loss of BSA rejection due to pore enlargement from extensive chain scission. Dip modification caused membrane permeability to decrease due to the grafted chains blocking the membrane pores. The use of a chain transfer agent during modification followed by ethanol cleaning increased modified membrane permeability, but BSA rejection was severely decreased. The resultant membranes produced by dip modification using this new UV reactor configuration exhibited higher rejection, similar permeability, and similar irreversible fouling as regenerated cellulose membranes, the lowest fouling commercial ultrafiltration membranes currently available. Therefore, these modified membranes can be used as an alternative to regenerated cellulose membranes in the ultrafiltration of protein solutions.

  6. Polymer–Metal Complexes Obtained by Radiation?Induced Grafting Process onto Polyester Fabrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Zohdy; M. Madani

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation of chelating copolymers via grafting of acrylic acid, and\\/or acrylamide onto polyester microfiber (PETMF) fabrics using a ??radiation technique. The effect of monomer concentration on the grafting process at irradiation dose 20?kGy was studied. The prepared graft chains (PETMF?g?AA), (PETMF?g?AAm), and (PETMF?g?PAAc\\/PAAm) acted as chelating sites for some selected transition metal ions. The effect of

  7. Characterization of methyl methacrylate grafting onto preirradiated biodegradable lignocellulose fiber by gamma-radiation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ferdous

    2005-01-14

    Gamma-radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto natural lignocellulose (jute) fiber was carried out by the preirradiation method in an aqueous medium by using octylphenoxy-polyethoxyethanol as an emulsifier. The different factors that influenced the graft copolymer reaction process were investigated. In the case of radiation-dose-dependent grafting, samples irradiated in the presence of air produced up to 73% graft weight compared to 53% obtained in the case of irradiation in a nitrogen environment. By assuming Arrhenius reaction kinetics, the activation energy (E(a)) of the grafting reaction process was evaluated for different reaction temperatures. Moreover, the graft copolymer reaction was controlled by incorporating a homopolymer-inhibiting agent and three different chain-transfer agents in the reaction medium. The mechanical and thermal properties of jute fiber 'as received' and jute-graft-poly(methyl methacrylate) were also investigated. The results showed that the percentage of grafting with jute fiber has a significant effect on the properties. The kinetic parameters were evaluated from TGA thermograms by using Broido's method in the temperature range 240-350 degrees C. Scanning electron micrographs show that the structural changes on the surface of jute fibers were induced by graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate monomer. Fiber-fiber surface friction was measured in terms of the average maximum load and the kinetic friction. SEM of jute-graft-poly(methyl methacrylate). PMID:15635719

  8. Utilization of textile loomwaste as a highly absorbent polymer through graft co-polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. T. Lokhande; V. D. Gotmare

    1999-01-01

    Loom waste from cotton textile mills, containing starch (? 30%) and cotton cellulose (? 70%) was utilized as a starting raw material for synthesizing a product called ‘Loomwaste-g-poly(AN)’ using a free radical initiation technique. Major factors affecting polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN), KMnO4, nitric acid, reaction time and temperature of polymerization reaction were studied. The product was saponified by boiling it

  9. Grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) monoacrylates on polycarbonateurethane by UV initiated polymerization for improving hemocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yakai; Zhao, Haiyang; Behl, Marc; Lendlein, Andreas; Guo, Jintang; Yang, Dazhi

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) monoacrylates (PEGMAs) with a molecular weight between 400 and 1,000 g mol(-1) were grafted by ultraviolet initiated photopolymerization on the surface of polycarbonateurethane (PCU) for increasing its hydrophilicity and improving its hemocompatibility. The surface-grafted PCU films were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, water contact angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy measurements. The surface properties of the modified films were studied in dry and wetted state. Blood compatibility of the surfaces was evaluated by platelet adhesion tests and adhered platelets were determined by SEM. The results showed that the hydrophilicity of the films had been increased significantly by grafting PEGMAs, and platelets adhesion onto the film surface was obviously suppressed. Furthermore, the molecular weight of PEGMAs had a great effect on the hydrophilicity and hemocompatibility of the PCU films after surface modification and increased with increasing molecular weight of PEGMAs. PMID:22661245

  10. Immobilization of enzymes and antibodies to radiation grafted polymers for therapeutic and diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Allan S.; Gombotz, Wayne R.; Uenoyama, Satoshi; Dong, Liang C.; Schmer, Gottfried

    Pre-irradiation and mutual radiation grafting were employed to produce poly(methacrylic acid) (MAAc) hydrogels on polypropylene/polyethylene (PP/PE) copolymer films, PP films and porous PP fibers of a plasma filter. A diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assay was developed to measure the surface peroxide concentration of the pre-irradiated PP/PE films prior to grafting. Mutually grafted porous PP fibers were used for subsequent immobilization of L-asparaginase while the mutually grafted PP/PE films were used to immobilize a schistosoma monoclonal antibody.

  11. Stearyl methacrylate-grafted-chitosan nanoparticle as a nanofiller for PLA: Radiation-induced grafting and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattanawongwiboon, Thitirat; Haema, Kamonwon; Pasanphan, Wanvimol

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a one-pot synthesis using radiation-induced grafting technique to modify biopolymer-based chitosan nanoparticles as a nanofiller for blending with poly(lactic acid) (PLA). Hydrophobic stearyl methacrylate (SMA) was grafted onto non-irradiated chitosan (CS0) and pre-irradiated chitosan with a ?-ray dose of 40 kGy (CS40) to obtain stearyl methacrylate-grafted-chitosan nanoparticles (SMA-g-CSNPs).The effects of the pre-irradiated CS, grafting doses and SMA concentrations on degree of grafting (DG) and particle formation were studied. FT-IR and XRD were used to characterize the chemical and packing structure of SMA-g-CSNPs. The particle formulation and size of SMA-g-CSNPs were observed by TEM and AFM. The spherical core-shell SMA-g-CSNPs with the size ranging from 50 to 140 nm were successfully prepared. The SMA-g-CSNPs from CS40 has higher DG and smaller particle size when compared with CS0. The SMA-g-CSNPs are able to improve the compatibility between CS and PLA.

  12. A study on the morphology of polystyrene-grafted poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films prepared using a simultaneous radiation grafting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ju-Myung; Ko, Beom-Seok; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Nho, Young Chang; Shin, Junhwa

    2014-04-01

    The morphology of polystyrene-grafted poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films prepared using a simultaneous radiation grafting method was investigated using DMA, DSC, XRD, and SAXS instruments. The DMA study indicates that the ETFE amorphous phase and PS amorphous phase are mixed well in the PS-grafted ETFE films while the ETFE crystalline phase and the PS amorphous phase are separated, suggesting that the PS chains are grafted mainly on the ETFE amorphous regions. The DSC and XRD data showed that the natural crystalline structures of ETFE in the grafted ETFE films are not affected by the degree of grafting. The SAXS profiles displayed that the inter-crystalline distance of the ETFE films increases with an increasing degree of grafting, which further implies that the PS graft chains formed by the simultaneous irradiation has a significant impact on the amorphous morphology of the resulting grafted ETFE film. Thus, these results indicate that the styrene monomers are mainly grafted on the ETFE amorphous regions during the simultaneous radiation grafting process.

  13. Development of functional adsorbent from PU foam waste via radiation induced grafting I: Process parameter standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, N. K.; Kumar, Virendra; Dubey, K. A.; Bhardwaj, Y. K.; Varshney, L.

    2013-01-01

    Mutual radiation grafting process has been used to covalently link polymer chains of poly(acrylic acid) to polyurethane foam waste using 60Co-gamma radiation source. Various experimental parameters were investigated in order to optimize the grafting process. The grafted samples have been characterized for water-uptake, surface morphology and thermal stability. Grafting extent increased with dose, dose rate and monomer concentration but decreased with increase in density of PU foam. The matrix grafted up to an extent of ˜90% showed uptake capacity of 220 mg/g (0.09 mol of dye/mol of acrylic acid) for a monovalent dye (basic red 29) within 3 h of contact time in a batch process.

  14. Cell engineering: nanometric grafting of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide onto polystyrene film by different doses of gamma radiation

    PubMed Central

    Biazar, Esmaeil; Zeinali, Reza; Montazeri, Naser; Pourshamsian, Khalil; Behrouz, Mahmoud Jabarvand; Asefnejad, Azadeh; Khoshzaban, Ahad; Shahhosseini, Gholamreza; Najafabadi, Mostafa Soleimannejad; Abyani, Reza; Jamalzadeh, Hamidreza; Fouladi, Mahdi; Hagh, Sasan Rahbar F; Khamaneh, Aylar Shams; Kabiri, Soudabeh; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Mansourkiaei, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Poly-N-isopropylacrylamide was successfully grafted onto a polystyrene cell culture dish and ?-preirradiated in air. In this study, the effect of a ?-pre-irradiation dose of radiation (radiation absorbed dosages of 10, 20, 30, 40 KGy) under appropriate temperature and grafting conditions was investigated. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed the existence of the graft poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAm) on the substrate. The optimal value of the dose for grafting was 40 KGy at 50°C. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images clearly showed that increasing the absorbed dose of radiation would increase the amount of grafting. Surface topography and graft thickness in AFM images of the radiated samples showed that the PNIPAAm at the absorbed dose of radiation was properly grafted. The thickness of these grafts was about 50–100 nm. The drop water contact angles of the best grafted sample at 37°C and 10°C were 55.3 ± 1.2° and 61.2 ± 0.9° respectively, which showed the hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of the grafted surfaces. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis also revealed the low critical solution temperature of the grafted sample to be 32°C. Thermoresponsive polymers were grafted to dishes covalently which allowed fibroblast cells to attach and proliferate at 37°C; the cells also detached spontaneously without using enzymes when the temperature dropped below 32°C. This characteristic proves that this type of grafted material has potential as a biomaterial for cell sheet engineering. PMID:20957116

  15. Aliphatic polyester-grafted starch composites by in situ ring opening polymerization*

    E-print Network

    Narayan, Ramani

    mechanical properties, mainly due to thermal decomposi- tion of starch before melting, strong water adequate activation of thc starch wrface arnylosc/amylopectin hydroxyl groups into aluminum alkoxides in aluminum alkoxides. The polymerization is conducted either in bulk (without solvent) or in i 10 wt

  16. Synthesis, modification and graft polymerization of magnetic nano particles for PAH removal in contaminated water

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were modified with 3-Mercaptopropytrimethoxysiline (MPTMS) and grafted with allyl glycidyl ether for coupling with beta naphtol as a method to form a novel nano-adsorbent to remove two poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated water. The modified MNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Results showed that the modified MNPs enhanced the process of adsorption. Tests were done on the adsorption capacity of the two PAHs on grafted MNPs; factors applied to the tests were temperature, contact time, pH, salinity and initial concentration of PAHs. Results revealed that adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 10 min, and the maximum adsorption capacity was determined as 4.15 mg/g at pH?=?7.0 and 20°C. The equilibrium adsorption data of the two PAHs by the modified MNPs were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models. Equilibrium adsorption data was determined from the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin constants from tests under conditions of pH?=?7 and temperature 20°C. Analysis of the adsorption-desorption process indicated that the modified MNPs had a high level of stability and good reusability. Magnetic separation in these tests was fast and this shows that the modified MNPs have great potential to be used as a new adsorbent for the two PAHs removal from contaminated water in water treatment. PMID:25101170

  17. Hyper-branched poly(poly(ethylene glycol)methacrylate)-grafted surfaces by photo-polymerization with iniferter for bioactive interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoon Ki Joung; Jong Hoon Choi; Jin Woo Bae; Ki Dong Park

    2008-01-01

    A new hyper-branched surface in which three species of architectures were constructed as stem chain, branched stem and twig chain-grafted branched chain of poly(poly(ethylene glycol)methacrylate) (poly(PEGMA)) by photo-polymerization using dithiocarbamyl group (DC) as iniferter was prepared and characterized. For these surfaces, radical copolymerization of styrene and an iniferter-activated chain that was previously synthesized was performed for using as base materials

  18. Photoinduced graft polymerization of acrylamide on polypropylene microporous membranes for the improvement of antifouling characteristics in a submerged membrane-bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai-Yin Yu; Zhi-Kang Xu; Hao Lei; Meng-Xin Hu; Qian Yang

    2007-01-01

    Polypropylene hollow fiber microporous membranes (PPHFMMs) were surface-modified by the photoinduced graft polymerization of acrylamide (AAm). Structural and morphological changes on the membrane surface were characterized by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR\\/ATR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Water contact angles of the membrane surfaces were also measured by the sessile drop method. Results of FT-IR\\/ATR indicated

  19. Bioresponse to polymeric substrates: Effect of surface energy, modulus, topography, and surface graft copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Leslie Hoipkemeier

    Biofouling is the accumulation of biological matter on a substrate. It is essential to elucidate and model the major factors that affect both biological settlement and adhesion to substrates in order to develop coatings that minimize initial fouling or ease the removal of this fouling. To date, models that have estimated adhesion strength to coatings primarily included bulk elastic modulus and surface energy. Topography, however, has been found to dominate both these terms in the reduction of settlement and has been found to affect the adhesion strength as well. Silicone foul release coatings have demonstrated moderate success in the prevention of marine biofouling because of their low modulus and low surface energy. Problems exist with durability and eventual fouling of the coating due to the overgrowth of foulants that prefer hydrophobic substrates. This research details the characterization and the surface and bulk modification of a commercially available silicone elastomer. The modifications include bulk additives, surface topography, and surface graft copolymers. The effect of these modifications on biological response was then assayed using the alga Ulva as a model for marine biofouling. The unmodified silicone elastomer has a bulk modulus of approximately 1 MPa. The addition of vinyl functional polydimethylsiloxane oils allowed for a greater than 200% increase or a 90% decrease in the bulk modulus of the material. The addition of non-reactive polydimethylsiloxane oils allowed for a change in the surface lubricity of the elastomer without a significant change in the mechanical properties. Topographical modifications of the surface show a profound effect on the bioresponse. Appropriately scaled engineered microtopographies replicated in the silicone elastomer can produce a 250% increase in algal zoospore fouling or an 85% reduction in settlement relative to a smooth silicone elastomer. Finally, the modification of the surface energy of this material was achieved by acid catalyzed surface hydrolysis and subsequent grafting of poly(ethylene glycol), polysulfone, or perfluoropolyether. The water contact angle could be increased by 16% or decreased by 60% relative to the silicone elastomer control. These surfaces were characterized by various contact angle techniques, ATR-FTIR, and XPS. These surface grafts were also combined with the topographical modifications to evaluate the relative significance of these two factors on bioresponse.

  20. The influence of crosslinker on the properties of radiation-grafted films and membranes based on ETFE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hicham Ben youcef; Selmiye Alkan Gürsel; Alexander Wokaun; Günther G. Scherer

    2008-01-01

    Crosslinked proton-exchange membranes were prepared by radiation-induced grafting of styrene into poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) and subsequent sulfonation. The influence of the crosslinker, divinylbenzene (DVB), on various film and membrane properties was investigated in detail. A series of grafted films and membranes were prepared at varying DVB concentrations at a fixed graft level (?25%) for this purpose. Grafting kinetics and kinetic parameters,

  1. Effects of Solvent on Gamma Radiation–Induced Graft Copolymerization of Acrylamide onto Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maykel González-Torres; Arllene M. Perez-González; Manuel González-Perez; César Santiago-Tepantlán; Silvia G. Solís-Rosales; Aurelio H. Heredia-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    In the present article the gamma radiation–induced graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) onto poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) has been carried out by the simultaneous irradiation method. The effect of different solvents on the graft reaction was investigated. The P(HB-g-AAm) thus synthesized were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron micrography (SEM), swelling behavior,

  2. Benzophenone absorption and diffusion in poly(dimethylsiloxane) and its role in graft photo-polymerization for surface modification.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marc H; Tran, Yvette; Tabeling, Patrick

    2011-02-01

    Following the great success of traditional microfluidic devices across many disciplines, a new class of microfluidic systems emerged in recent years, which features finely tuned, localized surface modifications within the microstructures in order to keep up with the demand for devices of ever increasing complexity (lab on chip, assay on chip, etc.). Graft photopolymerization has become a powerful tool for such localized surface modifications particularly in combination with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) devices, as it is compatible with many functional monomers and allows for high spatial resolution. However, application within enclosed PDMS microstructures and in particular well-controlled surface-directed polymerization remains challenging. Detailed understanding of the interaction between photoinitiator, benzophenone (BP), and polymer matrix is needed. We have developed a visualization technique, which allows for observation of reacted BP in situ within the PDMS matrix. We present a detailed study on solvent-driven BP diffusion providing results essential to successful surface treatment. We also identified and investigated photoinitiator inhibition by oxygen and provide appropriate mitigation strategies. PMID:21207954

  3. Characterization of Bonding Between Poly(dimethylsiloxane) and Cyclic Olefin Coplymer Using Corona Discharge Induced Grafting Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Gu, Pan; Hamaker, Kiri; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Thermoplastics have been increasingly used for fabricating microfluidic devices because of their low cost, mechanical/biocompatible attributes, and well-established manufacturing processes. However, there is sometimes a need to integrate such a device with components made from other materials such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Bonding thermoplastics with PDMS to produce hybrid devices is not straightforward. We have reported our method to modify the surface property of a cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) substrate by using corona discharge and grafting polymerization of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate; the modified surface enabled strong bonding of COC with PDMS. In this paper, we report our studies on the surface modification mechanism using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurement. Using this bonding method, we fabricated a three-layer (COC/PDMS/COC) hybrid device consisting of elastomer-based valve arrays. The microvalve operation was confirmed through the displacement of a dye solution in a fluidic channel when the elastomer membrane was pneumatically actuated. Valve-enabled microfluidic handling was demonstrated. PMID:21962541

  4. Modification of nylon-6 fibres by radiation-induced graft polymerisation of vinylbenzyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, T. M.; Nasef, Mohamed Mahmoud; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2015-04-01

    Modification of nylon-6 fibres by radiation-induced graft copolymerisation (RIGP) of vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) using the preirradiation method was investigated. A number of grafting parameters such as type of solvent, total dose, monomer concentrations, reaction temperature and reaction time were studied to obtain desired degree of grafting (DG). The DG was found to be a function of reaction parameters and achieved a maximum value of 130 wt% at 20 vol% VBC concentration in methanol, 300 kGy dose, 30 °C temperature and 3 h reaction time. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to evaluate the chemical, morphological and structural changes that occurred in the grafted fibres, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was also applied to determine the thermal stability, whereas differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and universal mechanical tester were used to analyse respective thermal and mechanical properties of the grafted fibres. The results of these analyses provide strong evidence for successful grafting of VBC onto nylon-6, and the variation in the properties of the grafted fibres depends on DG.

  5. Functional polymer brushes via surface-initiated atom transfer radical graft polymerization for combating marine biofouling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen Jing; Neoh, Koon-Gee; Kang, En-Tang; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; Teo, Serena Lay-Ming; Rittschof, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Dense and uniform polymer brush coatings were developed to combat marine biofouling. Nonionic hydrophilic, nonionic hydrophobic, cationic, anionic and zwitterionic polymer brush coatings were synthesized via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene, 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl trimethylammonium chloride, 4-styrenesulfonic acid sodium and N,N'-dimethyl-(methylmethacryloyl ethyl) ammonium propanesulfonate, respectively. The functionalized surfaces had different efficacies in preventing adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), adhesion of the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas sp. NCIMB 2021 and the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, and settlement of cyprids of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite (=Balanus amphitrite). The nonionic hydrophilic, anionic and zwitterionic polymer brushes resisted BSA adsorption during a 2 h exposure period. The nonionic hydrophilic, cationic and zwitterionic brushes exhibited resistance to bacterial fouling (24 h exposure) and cyprid settlement (24 and 48 h incubation). The hydrophobic brushes moderately reduced protein adsorption, and bacteria and cyprid settlement. The anionic brushes were least effective in preventing attachment of bacteria and barnacle cyprids. Thus, the best approach to combat biofouling involves a combination of nonionic hydrophilic and zwitterionic polymer brush coatings on material surfaces. PMID:22963034

  6. Modification of fiber properties through grafting of acrylonitrile to rayon by chemical and radiation methods

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Inderjeet; Sharma, Neelam; Kumari, Vandna

    2013-01-01

    Fibrous properties of rayon has been modified through synthesis of graft copolymers of rayon with acrylonitrile (AN) by chemical method using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN/HNO3) as a redox initiator and gamma radiation mutual method. Percentage of grafting (Pg) was determined as a function of initiator concentration, monomer concentration, irradiation dose, temperature, time of reaction and the amount of water. Maximum percentage of grafting (160.01%) using CAN/HNO3 was obtained at [CAN] = 22.80 × 10?3 mol/L, [HNO3] = 112.68 × 10?2 mol/L and [AN] = 114.49 × 10?2 mol/L in 20 mL of water at 45 °C within 120 min while in case of gamma radiation method, maximum Pg (90.24%) was obtained at an optimum concentration of AN of 76.32 × 10?2 mol/L using 10 mL of water at room temperature with total dose exposure of 3.456 kGy/h. The grafted fiber was characterized by FTIR, SEM, TGA and XRD studies. Swelling behavior of grafted rayon in different solvents such as water, methanol, ethanol, DMF and acetone was studied and compared with the unmodified rayon. Dyeing behavior of the grafted fiber was also investigated. PMID:25685464

  7. Achieving highly effective non-biofouling performance for polypropylene membranes modified by UV-induced surface graft polymerization of two oppositely charged monomers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Hong; Zhu, Xiao-Ying; Wee, Kin-Ho; Bai, Renbi

    2010-02-25

    A major problem in membrane technology for applications such as wastewater treatment or desalination is often the loss of membrane permeability due to biofouling initiated from protein adsorption and biofilm formation on the membrane surface. In this study, we developed a relatively simple and yet versatile approach to prepare polypropylene (PP) membrane with highly effective non-biofouling performance. Copolymer brushes were grafted to the surface of PP membrane through UV-induced polymerization of two oppositely charged monomers, i.e., [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (TM) and 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt (SA), with varying TM:SA molar ratios. Surface analysis with scanning electron microscope (SEM) clearly showed the grafted copolymer brushes on the membrane surfaces and that with X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) revealed a similar TM:SA ratio of the grafted copolymer brushes to that of the monomer solution used for the polymerization. Water contact angle measurements indicated that the hydrophilicity of the membrane surfaces was remarkably improved by the grafting of the TM/SA copolymer brushes, with the lowest water contact angle of 27 degrees being achieved at the TM:SA ratio of around 1:1. Experiments for antiprotein adsorption with bovine serum album (BSA) and lysozyme (LYZ) and antibiofilm formation with Escherichia coli (E. coli) demonstrated a great dependence of the membrane performance on the TM:SA ratios of the grafted copolymer brushes. It was found that the characteristics of the surface charges of the membrane surfaces played a very important role in the non-biofouling performance, and the membrane surface with balanced positive and negative charges showed the best non-biofouling performance for the proteins and bacteria tested in this study. PMID:20121056

  8. Radiation-grafting of thermo- and pH-responsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-acrylic acid) onto silicone rubber and polypropylene films for biomedical purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz, Caroline C.; Varca, Gustavo H. C.; Ruiz, Juan-Carlos; Lopes, Patricia S.; Mathor, Monica B.; Lugão, Ademar B.; Bucio, Emilio

    2014-04-01

    This work focuses on the effects of gamma-ray irradiation conditions on the stimuli-responsiveness of polypropylene (PP) films and silicone (SR) rubber substrates grafted with N-vinylcaprolactam (NVCL) and acrylic acid (AAc). PP films and SR rubber were modified by simultaneous polymerization and grafting of NVCL and AAc, using pre-irradiation oxidative method at a dose rate of 12.23 kGy h-1 and doses ranging from 5 to 70 kGy. NVCL and AAc solutions (1/1, v/v) at 50% monomer concentration (v/v) in toluene were added to the sample substrates, degassed, sealed and heated at 60 and 70 °C for 12 h. After grafting, the samples were soaked in ethanol and distilled water for 24 h successively, followed by drying under vacuum. Samples were characterized by FTIR-ATR, DSC and swelling measurements. Critical points (pH critical or LCST) of grafts were obtained in a pH-environment (pH ranges from 2.2 to 9) and in a thermo-environment (temperature ranges from 22 to 50 °C). Cytotoxicity evaluation was performed using fibroblast BALB/c 3T3 cells. The relationship between NVCL-co-AAc grafting and radiation dose was different for each substrate, PP and SR. At 50% NVCL/AAc concentration in toluene, grafting values were higher for SR than for PP. Despite the fact that PP-g-(NVCL-co-AAc) membrane presented a cytotoxic profile at the highest experimental concentration assayed, cytotoxicity evaluation revealed noncytotoxic profiles for the membranes synthesized highlighting their applications for biomedical purposes.

  9. Stability of SG1 nitroxide towards unprotected sugar and lithium salts: a preamble to cellulose modification by nitroxide-mediated graft polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Guillaume; Charles, Laurence; Major, Mohamed; Vacandio, Florence; Guillaneuf, Yohann

    2013-01-01

    Summary The range of applications of cellulose, a glucose-based polysaccharide, is limited by its inherently poor mechanical properties. The grafting of synthetic polymer chains by, for example, a “grafting from” process may provide the means to broaden the range of applications. The nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) method is a technique of choice to control the length, the composition and the architecture of the grafted copolymers. Nevertheless, cellulose is difficult to solubilize in organic media because of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. One possibility to circumvent this limitation is to solubilize cellulose in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) or N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) with 5 to 10 wt % of lithium salts (LiCl or LiBr), and carry out grafted polymerization in this medium. The stability of nitroxides such as SG1 has not been studied under these conditions yet, even though these parameters are of crucial importance to perform the graft modification of polysaccharide by NMP. The aim of this work is to offer a model study of the stability of the SG1 nitroxide in organic media in the presence of unprotected glucose or cellobiose (used as a model of cellulose) and in the presence of lithium salts (LiBr or LiCl) in DMF or DMA. Contrary to TEMPO, SG1 proved to be stable in the presence of unprotected sugar, even with an excess of 100 molar equivalents of glucose. On the other hand, lithium salts in DMF or DMA clearly degrade SG1 nitroxide as proven by electron-spin resonance measurements. The instability of SG1 in these lithium-containing solvents may be explained by the acidification of the medium by the hydrolysis of DMA in the presence of LiCl. This, in turn, enables the disproportionation of the SG1 nitroxide into an unstable hydroxylamine and an oxoammonium ion. Once the conditions to perform an SG1-based nitroxide-mediated graft polymerization from cellobiose have been established, the next stage of this work will be the modification of cellulose and cellulose derivatives by NMP. PMID:23946859

  10. Biocompatibility of polypropylene non-woven fabric membrane via UV-induced graft polymerization of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Lingjie; Zhao, Jie; Yang, Huawei; Jin, Jing; Li, Xiaomeng; Stagnaro, Paola; Yin, Jinghua

    2011-10-01

    This work described the graft polymerization of a sulfonic acid terminated monomer, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS), onto the surface of polypropylene non-woven (NWF PP) membrane by O 2 plasma pretreatment and UV-induced photografting method. The chemical structure and composition of the modified surfaces were analyzed by FTIR-ATR and XPS, respectively. The wettability was investigated by water contact angle and equilibrium water adsorption. And the biocompatibility of the modified NWF PP membranes was evaluated by protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. It was found that the graft density increased with prolonging UV irradiation time and increasing AMPS concentration; the water contact angles of the membranes decreased from 124° to 26° with the increasing grafting density of poly(AMPS) from 0 to 884.2 ?g cm -2, while the equilibrium water adsorption raised from 5 wt% to 75 wt%; the protein absorption was effectively suppressed with the introduction of poly(AMPS) even at the low grafting density (132.4 ?g cm -2); the number of platelets adhering to the modified membrane was dramatically reduced when compared with that on its virgin surface. These results indicated that surface modification of NWF PP membrane with AMPS was a facile approach to construct biocompatible surface.

  11. Modeling and optimization aspects of radiation induced grafting of 4-vinylpyridene onto partially fluorinated films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasef, Mohamed Mahmoud; Ahmad Ali, Amgad; Saidi, Hamdani; Ahmad, Arshad

    2014-01-01

    Modeling and optimization aspects of radiation induced grafting (RIG) of 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) onto partially fluorinated polymers such as poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethene) (ETFE) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films were comparatively investigated using response surface method (RSM). The effects of independent parameters: absorbed dose, monomer concentration, grafting time and reaction temperature on the response, grafting yield (GY) were correlated through two quadratic models. The results of this work confirm that RSM is a reliable tool not only for optimization of the reaction parameters and prediction of GY in RIG processes, but also for the reduction of the number of the experiments, monomer consumption and absorbed dose leading to an improvement of the overall reaction cost.

  12. Surface modification of nanofiltration membranes to improve the removal of organic micro-pollutants (EDCs and PhACs) in drinking water treatment: Graft polymerization and cross-linking followed by functional group substitution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Hyuk Kim; Pyung-Kyu Park; Chung-Hak Lee; Heock-Hoi Kwon

    2008-01-01

    A commercially available thin film composite (TFC) polyamide (PA) nanofiltration (NF) membrane was chemically modified to improve its rejection capacity for selected organic micro-pollutants categorized as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs): bisphenol-A (BPA), ibuprofen, and salicylic acid. The raw NF membrane was altered using the following modification sequence: graft polymerization (methacrylic acid (MA)-membrane); cross-linking of grafted

  13. Rapid Synthesis, Characterization, and Physicochemical Analysis of Biopolymer-Based Graft Copolymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Thakur; A. S. Singha

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose biofiber-based graft copolymers (cellulose-g-PMMA) were rapidly synthesized under the influence of microwave radiation (MWR) through free radical–induced graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto modified cellulosic biofibers in aqueous medium. The effect of different polymerization parameters such as reaction time, initiator molar ratio, monomer concentration, amount of solvent, and microwave power on grafting percentage was studied to get the

  14. Novel ETFE based radiation grafted poly(styrene sulfonic acid- co-methacrylonitrile) proton conducting membranes with increased stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hicham Ben youcef; Lorenz Gubler; Selmiye Alkan Gürsel; Dirk Henkensmeier; Alexander Wokaun; Günther G. Scherer

    2009-01-01

    Styrene radiation grafted ETFE based proton conducting membranes are subject to degradation under fuel cell operating conditions and show a poor stability. Lifetimes exceeding 250h can only be achieved with crosslinked membranes. In this study, a novel approach based on the increase of the intrinsic oxidative stability of uncrosslinked membranes is reported. Hence, the co-grafting of styrene with methacrylonitrile (MAN),

  15. Preparation of Modified Chitosan by Graft Polymerization and its Adsorption of Cd2+ and Co2+ from Binary Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Qiang; Xue, Juanqin; Guo, Yingjuan; Mao, Weibo; Wang, Yujie

    2013-07-01

    The grafting copolymerization of chitosan with acrylamide and acrylonitrile was studied which initiated by NaHSO3-K2S2O8. And the chitosan-acrylamide-acrylonitrile ternary graft copolymer was synthesized in N2 atmosphere. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the average graft ratio and the graft efficiency could up to 852.46% and 85.26%, respectively. The adsorption selectivity and influences to the adsorption by factors like adsorption time, adsorption temperature, initial concentration of metal ion and initial pH of the solution were studied. The results showed that: the adsorption selectivity was obtained of the ternary graft copolymer to Cd2+; under the same experimental conditions, the maximum difference of adsorption rate between Cd2+ and Co2+ by polymer would be 31.07%.

  16. Influence of Space Radiation on the Outgassing Rate of a Patterned Polymeric Composite in Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Khasanshin, R. H.; Timofeev, A. N. [Joint-stock company 'Kompozit' 4, Pionerskay str., 141070 Korolev, Moscow region, Russia, tel. 513-20-20 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, M. F. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-01-05

    Experimental results on outgassing rates of patterned polymeric composites preliminary subjected to separate and combined radiation have been analyzed and presented. Mathematical models describing the outgassing processes in these materials were used for interpretation of the experimental data. Numerical results found using the models are presented.

  17. Chemical and radiation crosslinked polymer electrolyte membranes prepared from radiation-grafted ETFE films for DMFC applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinhua Chen; Masaharu Asano; Tetsuya Yamaki; Masaru Yoshida

    2006-01-01

    To develop a highly chemically stable polymer electrolyte membrane for application in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), doubly crosslinked membranes were prepared by chemical crosslinking using bifunctional monomers, such as divinylbenzene (DVB) and bis(p,p-vinyl phenyl) ethane (BVPE), and by radiation crosslinking. The membranes were prepared by grafting of m,p-methylstyrene (MeSt) and p-tert-butylstyrene (tBuSt) into poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films and subsequent

  18. ?-Radiation Induced Polymerization of a Chiral Monomer: A New Way to Produce Chiral Amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, Franco; Brucato, John Robert; Keheyan, Yeghis

    2006-12-01

    The treatment of the terpene ?(-)pinene with ? radiation (at dose level: 150, 300 and 600 kGy) causes its polymerization into a resin and into a dimer. The yield of the resin and of the dimer appears to be linearly dependent to the radiation dose. The structure of the products was studied by FT IR spectroscopy also in comparison to a reference ?(-)pinene resin prepared by cationic polymerization. A highly ordered structure was found in the case of the radiopolymer in comparison to the resin from cationic polymerization. Polarimetric measurements have shown astonishing enhancement in the optical activity of the radiopolymer and radiodimer in comparison to the starting optical activity of the ?(-)pinene monomer. Also DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) data supports the unexpected highly ordered structure for the ?(-)pinene radiopolymer in comparison to the resin prepared by cationic polymerization. The results have been discussed in terms of amplification of chirality caused by ? radiation and the implications of this fact on the mechanism of chiral amplification on prebiotic molecules.

  19. Chemically and morphologically defined ultrafiltration membrane surfaces prepared by heterogeneous photo-initiated graft polymerization 1 Part 11 of the series: Photomodification of ultrafiltration membranes; for part 10 see Ref. [1]. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias Ulbricht; Klaus Richau; Helmut Kamusewitz

    1998-01-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with varied surface hydrophilicity and charge have been prepared by heterogeneous photo-initiated graft polymerization of various acrylates or methacrylates having polyethyleneglycol (PEG), carboxyl, sulfopropyl, dimethylaminoethyl or trimethylammoniumethyl side groups. A series of photo-modified membranes with about the same water permeabilities were obtained by selection of initial membrane pore size and appropriate modification conditions (monomer concentration

  20. Grafting of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Brushes from Magnetite Nanoparticles Using a Phosphonic Acid Based Initiator by Ambient Temperature Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATATRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, Kothandapani; Dhamodharan, Raghavachari

    2008-03-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) in the brush form is grown from the surface of magnetite nanoparticles by ambient temperature atom transfer radical polymerization (ATATRP) using a phosphonic acid based initiator. The surface initiator was prepared by the reaction of ethylene glycol with 2-bromoisobutyrl bromide, followed by the reaction with phosphorus oxychloride and hydrolysis. This initiator is anchored to magnetite nanoparticles via physisorption. The ATATRP of methyl methacrylate was carried out in the presence of CuBr/PMDETA complex, without a sacrificial initiator, and the grafting density is found to be as high as 0.90 molecules/nm2. The organic inorganic hybrid material thus prepared shows exceptional stability in organic solvents unlike unfunctionalized magnetite nanoparticles which tend to flocculate. The polymer brushes of various number average molecular weights were prepared and the molecular weight was determined using size exclusion chromatography, after degrafting the polymer from the magnetite core. Thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectra and diffused reflection FT-IR were used to confirm the grafting reaction.

  1. Thermal detector units for monitoring thin-film radiation-induced polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Wisnosky; R. M. Fantazier

    1981-01-01

    Detector cell units have been designed and fabricated to monitor radiation-induced polymerizations in neat, thin-film (4-10 mils) resin systems. The cells utilize rapid-response, thin-foil differential thermocouples to measure the heat evolved during a photopolymerization reaction. Analysis of reaction exotherm curves from the photopolymerization of common resin systems showed that the thermal response of the detector cells was comparable to that

  2. Fundamental investigation of ultraviolet radiation effects in polymeric film-forming materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, C.; Yamauchi, T.; Llewellen, P.; Gilligan, J.

    1974-01-01

    A literature search from 1958 to present was conducted on the effect of ultraviolet radiation on polymeric materials, with particular emphasis on vacuum photolysis, mechanisms of degradation, and energy transfer phenomena. The literature from 1958 to 1968 was searched manually, while the literature from 1968 to present was searched by using a computerized keyword system. The primary objective was to provide the necessary background information for the design of new or modified materials with improved stability to the vacuum-radiation environment of space.

  3. Polymer@MOF@MOF: "grafting from" atom transfer radical polymerization for the synthesis of hybrid porous solids.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kyle A; Feldblyum, Jeremy I; Koh, Kyoungmoo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J

    2015-07-14

    The application of a core-shell architecture allows the formation of a polymer-coated metal-organic framework (MOF) maintaining high surface area (2289-2857 m(2) g(-1)). The growth of a MOF shell from a MOF core was used to spatially localize initiators by post-synthetic modification. The confinement of initiators ensures that polymerization is restricted to the outer shell of the MOF. PMID:26120786

  4. Cell culture on polymers prepared by radiation-induced polymerization of various glass-forming monomers.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, F; Kaetsu, I

    1983-04-01

    The growth of cells on polymers prepared by the radiation polymerization of monomethacrylate and dimethacrylate was investigated. Cell growth was affected greatly by such properties of the polymers as water content, wettability, and porosity. Growth was promoted remarkably by rinsing the polymers with warm water at 60-70 degrees C and by irradiation of polymers with an electron beam. Cell growth decreased with increasing oxyethylene length (n) in the polymerized dimethacrylate of same series, CH2C(CH3)CO(OCH2CH2)nOCOC(CH3)CH2. A decrease in the hydrophilicity of the polymer increased cell growth rate. Formation of pore structures in the polymer films also increased the cell growth. PMID:6679189

  5. Synthesis and characterization of ?-CD-coated polystyrene microspheres by ?-ray radiation emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dezhi; Wang, Mozhen; Ge, Xuewu; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah

    2012-11-23

    Polystyrene (PS) microspheres coated with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) were fabricated via ?-ray-induced emulsion polymerization in a ternary system of styrene/?-CD/water (St/?-CD/water). The solid inclusion complex of St and ?-CD particles formed at the St droplets-water interface can stabilize the emulsion as the surfactant. TEM and XPS results showed that ?-CD remains on the surface of PS particles. The average size of the PS particles increases from 186 to 294 nm as the weight ratio of ?-CD to St rises from 5% to 12.5%. The water contact angle (CA) of PS latex film is lower than 90°, and reduces with the ?-CD content even to 36°. Thus, this work provides a new and one-pot strategy to surface hydrophilic modification on hydrophobic polymer particles with cyclodextrins through radiation emulsion polymerization. PMID:22887797

  6. Radiation Protection Effectiveness of Polymeric Based Shielding Materials at Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Stewart-Sloan, Charlotte R.; Wilson, John W.; Adams, Daniel O.

    2008-01-01

    Correlations of limited ionizing radiation measurements onboard the Space Transportation System (STS; shuttle) and the International Space Station (ISS) with numerical simulations of charged particle transport through spacecraft structure have indicated that usage of hydrogen rich polymeric materials improves the radiation shielding performance of space structures as compared to the traditionally used aluminum alloys. We discuss herein the radiation shielding correlations between measurements on board STS-81 (Atlantis, 1997) using four polyethylene (PE) spheres of varying radii, and STS-89 (Endeavour, 1998) using aluminum alloy spheres; with numerical simulations of charged particle transport using the Langley Research Center (LaRC)-developed High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN) algorithm. In the simulations, the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) component of the ionizing radiation environment at Low Earth Orbit (LEO) covering ions in the 1< or equals Z< or equals 28 range is represented by O'Neill's (2004) model. To compute the transmission coefficient for GCR ions at LEO, O'Neill's model is coupled with the angular dependent LaRC cutoff model. The trapped protons/electrons component of LEO environment is represented by a LaRC-developed time dependent procedure which couples the AP8min/AP8max, Deep River Neutron Monitor (DRNM) and F10.7 solar radio frequency measurements. The albedo neutron environment resulting from interaction of GCR ions with upper atmosphere is modeled through extrapolation of the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) measurements. With the validity of numerical simulations through correlation with PE and aluminum spheres measurements established, we further present results from the expansion of the simulations through the selection of high hydrogen content commercially available polymeric constituents such as PE foam core and Spectra fiber(Registered TradeMark) composite face sheet to assess their radiation shield properties as compared to generic PE.

  7. Immobilization of microbial cells by radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming monomers and immobilization of Streptomyces phaeochromogenes cells by polymerization of various hydrophobic monomers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minoru Kumakura; Masaru Yoshida; Isao Kaetsu

    1978-01-01

    The immobilization ofStreptomyces phaeochromogenes cells was studied by the radiation-induced polymerization of various hydrophobic glass-forming monomers at low temperatures.\\u000a The glucose isomerase activity of cells immobilized in hydrophobic polymers showed no decrease in activity with repeated use\\u000a (batch enzyme reaction). Activity increased with increasing monomer concentration in contrast to results with the immobilized\\u000a enzyme. The hydrophobic polymer composite was microspheric

  8. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted CdSe quantum dots by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization: Novel synthesis, characterization, properties, and cytotoxicity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Long Giang; Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Lee, Doh Chang; Lim, Kwon Taek

    2013-10-01

    A novel approach for the synthesis of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted CdSe quantum dot (QDs) (PGMA-g-CdSe) was developed. The PGMA-g-CdSe nanohybrids were synthesized by the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate from the surface of the strategic initiator, CdSe-BrIB QDs prepared by the interaction of 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BrIB) and CdSe-OH QDs. The structure, morphology, and optical property of the PGMA-g-CdSe nanohybrids were analyzed by FT-IR, XPS, TGA, XRD, TEM, and PL. The as-synthesized PGMA-g-CdSe nanohybrids having multi-epoxide groups were employed for the direct coupling of biotin via ring-opening reaction of the epoxide groups to afford the Biotin-f-PGMA-g-CdSe nanobioconjugate. The covalent immobilization of biotin onto PGMA-g-CdSe was confirmed by FT-IR, XPS, and EDX. Biocompatibility and imaging properties of the Biotin-f-PGMA-g-CdSe were investigated by MTT bioassay and PL analysis, respectively. The cell viability study suggested that the biocompatibility was significantly enhanced by the functionalization of CdSe QDs by biotin and PGMA.

  9. Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) monomethacrylate onto deoxycholate-chitosan nanoparticles as a drug carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanphan, Wanvimol; Rattanawongwiboon, Thitirat; Rimdusit, Pakjira; Piroonpan, Thananchai

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) monomethacrylate-grafted-deoxycholate chitosan nanoparticles (PEGMA-g-DCCSNPs) were successfully prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization. The hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) monomethacrylate was grafted onto deoxycholate-chitosan in an aqueous system. The radiation-absorbed dose is an important parameter on degree of grafting, shell thickness and particle size of PEGMA-g-DCCSNPs. Owing to their amphiphilic architecture, PEGMA-g-DCCSNPs self-assembled into spherical core-shell nanoparticles in aqueous media. The particle size of PEGMA-g-DCCSNPs measured by TEM varied in the range of 70-130 nm depending on the degree of grafting as well as the irradiation dose. Berberine (BBR) as a model drug was encapsulated into the PEGMA-g-DCCSNPs. Drug release study revealed that the BBR drug was slowly released from PEGMA-g-DCCSNPs at a mostly constant rate of 10-20% in PBS buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 °C over a period of 23 days.

  10. Preparation of thermosensitive membranes by radiation grafting of acrylic acid/ N-isopropyl acrylamide binary mixture on PET fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Bhuvanesh; Mishra, Swaiti; Saxena, Shalini

    2008-05-01

    Thermosensitive membranes were prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of monomers on PET fabrics. A binary mixture of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAm) and acrylic acid (AA) was grafted on polyester fabric as a base material to introduce thermosensitive poly( N-isopropyl acrylamide) pendant chains having LCST slightly higher than 37 °C in the membrane. The influence of ferrous sulfate, radiation dose and monomer composition on the degree of grafting was studied. The structure of the grafted fabric was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The thermosensitive nature of the fabric was monitored by swelling at different temperatures. The graft copolymerization of AA with NIPAAm enhanced the LCST of the resultant membrane to ˜37 °C. The moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR) and air permeability of the fabric decreased slightly, may be due to the slight blocking of the fabric pores. The immobilization of tetracycline hydrochloride as the model drug and its release characteristics at different temperatures were monitored.

  11. Synthesis of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogels by radiation polymerization and cross-linking

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, Noriyasu; Kubota, Hitoshi; Katakai, Ryoichi [Gunma Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry; Safranj, Agneza; Yoshida, Masaru; Omichi, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Gunma (Japan). Dept. of Material Development

    1993-12-20

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) [poly(NIPAAm)] shows a typical thermal reversibility of phase transition in aqueous solutions. That is, it precipitates from solution above a critical temperature called the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and dissolves below this temperature. When it is cross-linked, the obtained hydrogel collapses above LCST, while it swells and expands below LCST. This hydrogel has received much attention recently and has been used as a model system to demonstrate the validity of theories describing the coil-globule transition, swelling of networks, and folding and unfolding of biopolymers. It has also been proposed for various applications ranging from controlled drug delivery to solute separation. Poly(NIPAAm) hydrogel is usually synthesized at room temperature from an aqueous solution of the monomer by using a redox initiator composed of ammonium persulfate and N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetramethylethylenediamine in the presence of N,N{prime}-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linker. Since the LCST of poly(NIPAAm) is around 32 C, the polymerization at room temperature proceeds in a homogeneous solution. Recently, poly(NIPAAm) hydrogels were synthesized by starting the polymerization below the LCST and then elevating the temperature above it, by which method macroporous gels with fast temperature response were obtained. The idea is to apply a radiation--induced polymerization method for the synthesis of poly(NIPAAm) hydrogels. This method offers unique advantages for synthesis: it is a simple and additive-free process at all temperatures, and the degree of cross-linking can be easily controlled by irradiation conditions. Therefore, radiation methods are especially attractive for the synthesis of hydrogels with potential biomedical application where the residual chemical initiators may contaminate the product. It is possible to combine into one step the synthesis and sterilization of the product, and it is economically competitive.

  12. Kinetics and characterization of radiation-induced grafting of styrene on fluoropolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilmeau, I.; Esnouf, S.; Betz, N.; Le Moël, A.

    1997-08-01

    Grafting of styrene solution onto poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) was carried out by the pre-irradiation method. ETFE films were irradiated by 1.5 MeV electron beams in air. The influence of grafting temperature (50 to 80°C) has been investigated. It was found that the saturation grafting yield and the initial rate follow an Arrhenius law. The volume grafting yields were measured by FTIR spectroscopy in transmission and by weighing and the 'surface' grafting yields by FTIR-ATR. The results showed that grafting reaction is not monomer diffusion controlled in 30 ?m film, nevertheless heterogeneities are revealed. By in-situ ESR, the decay of peroxy radicals was recorded under various heating and grafting conditions. These experiments suggest that the peroxy radicals react rapidly with monomer, but do not initiate the grafting process. The propagating radicals were not detectable, which may indicate that polystyrene chains are very long.

  13. From microspheres to monoliths: Synthesis of porous supports with tailored properties by radiation polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasselli, Mariano; Smolko, Eduardo; Hargittai, Péter; Sáfrány, Ágnes

    2001-12-01

    Advanced functional materials, both in shape of beads and monoliths, are in high demand for a variety of applications ranging from catalysis, chromatography, diagnostics, sensors to combinatorial chemistry. Here we report the synthesis of functional supports of different size and shape by radiation co-polymerization in organic solvents using diethylene glycol dimethacrylate (DEGDMA) and glycidylmethacrylate (GMA) as co-monomers. With the increase in the GMA content, the particle diameter increases from 0.9 to about 3 ?m, while the yield decreases from 80% to 50%. The usefulness of the microspheres for immobilization was tested with histidine and lysosyme. Monoliths were prepared in situ as chromatographic columns. Our results showed that when a 30% monomer solution was irradiated, a 100% conversion of the monomer was obtainable with doses higher than 15 kGy. We showed the effect of dose and dose rate as well as the irradiation temperature on the pore size of the monoliths and the flux. The effect of such different solvents as tetrahydrofuran, ethylpropionate, acetone, methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol is also discussed. Our results showed that radiation synthesis of porous polymer supports with epoxy functionality is a viable alternative to either thermally initiated or photo polymerization.

  14. Development of Functional Adsorbent From Textile Cotton Waste by Radiation Induced Grafting Process: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Acid Dye Adsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virendra Kumar; N. K. Goel; Y. K. Bhardwaj; S. Sabharwal; Lalit Varshney

    2012-01-01

    An environment benign-aqueous solvent based-single step-radiation induced grafting process was used to graft Poly(vinylbenzyltrimethyl ammonium)chloride (PVBT) onto cellulosic cotton textile waste to transform it in to a valuable cationic adsorbent (PVBT-g-Cellulose). The PVBT-g-Cellulose adsorbent was characterized by grafting yield determination, elemental analysis, Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The PVBT-g-Cellulose adsorbent, investigated for removal of model

  15. Synthesis of CO2/N2-triggered reversible stability-controllable poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-grafted-AuNPs by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Yukiya; Takeuchi, Toshifumi

    2014-10-28

    CO2/N2-triggered stability-controllable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) grafted with poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDEAEMA) layers (PDEAEMA-g-AuNPs) were synthesized by the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of DEAEMA with AuNPs bearing the bis[2-(2-bromoisobutyryloxy)undecyl] layer (grafting from method). Extension of the PDEAEMA chain length increased the stability of the PDEAEMA-g-AuNPs in CO2-bubbled water because of the electrosteric repulsion of the protonated PDEAEMA layer. The chain-length-dependent stability of PDEAEMA-g-AuNPs was confirmed by DLS and UV-vis spectra by using the localized surface plasmon resonance property of the AuNPs, where the extinction wavelength was shifted toward shorter wavelength with increasing PDEAEMA chain length. The reversible stability change with the gas stimuli of CO2/N2 was also successfully demonstrated. Finally, the transfer across the immiscible interface between water and organic solvent was successfully demonstrated by N2-triggered insolubilization of PDEAEMA layer on AuNPs in the aqueous phase, leading to the successful collection of AuNPs using organic solvent from the aqueous phase. Our "grafting from" method of reversible stability-controllable AuNPs can be applied to develop advanced materials such as reusable optical AuNP-based nanosensors because the molecular recognition layer can be constructed by two-step polymerization. PMID:25268967

  16. Highly permselective membrane surface modification by cold plasma-induced grafting polymerization of molecularly imprinted polymer for recognition of pyrethroid insecticides in fish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongrong; Guo, Xiaoqing; Shi, Xizhi; Sun, Aili; Wang, Lin; Xiao, Tingting; Tang, Zigang; Pan, Daodong; Li, Dexiang; Chen, Jiong

    2014-12-01

    Specific molecularly imprinted membranes (MIMs) for pyrethroid insecticides were developed and characterized for the first time in this study by cold plasma-induced grafting polymerization using methacrylic acid as a functional monomer and cypermethrin (CYP) as a template. The nonimprinted membranes (NIMs) were also synthesized using the same procedure without the template. Meanwhile, AFM, XPS, ATR-FTIR, contact angle, and permselectivity experiments were conducted to elucidate the imprinting and recognition properties of MIMs. Results demonstrated that MIMs exhibited excellent imprinting effect and high permselectivity. A molecularly imprinted-membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MI-MASE) method based on the MIMs was established. The operating conditions were optimized for group-selective extraction of the five pyrethroid insecticides. Compared with NIMs, higher extraction recoveries (83.8% to 100.6%) of the five pyrethroid insecticides by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) were obtained using MIMs at three spiked levels in fish samples; the RSD values were lower than 8.3%. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) defined as the concentrations at which the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio is 3:1 and 10:1, respectively, were in the range of 0.26 to 0.42 ?g/kg and 0.77 to 1.27 ?g/kg, respectively. No matrix effect of the developed MI-MASE was observed by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). These results demonstrated a highly selective, efficient, and environment-friendly MI-MASE technique for preconcentration and purification of pyrethroid insecticides from seafood, followed by GC-ECD and GC/MS/MS. The excellent applicability and potential of MI-MASE for routine monitoring of pyrethroid pesticides in food samples has also been confirmed. PMID:25381696

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and morphology study of poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)-grafted-poly(styrene-co-methyl methacrylate) "raspberry"-shape like structure microgels by pre-emulsified semi-batch emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Ros Azlinawati; Hashim, Shahrir; Laftah, Waham Ashaier

    2013-02-01

    A novel microgels were polymerized using styrene (St), methyl methacrylate (MMA), acrylamide (AAm), and acrylic acid (AAc) monomers in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) cross-linker. Pre-emulsified monomer was first prepared followed by polymerizing monomers using semi-batch emulsion polymerization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) were used to determine the chemical structure and to indentify the related functional group. Grafting and cross-linking of poly(acrylamide-co-acrilic acid)-grafted-poly(styrene-co-methyl methacrylate) [poly(AAm-co-AAc)-g-poly(St-co-MMA)] microgels are approved by the disappearance of band at 1300 cm(-1), 1200 cm(-1) and 1163 cm(-1) of FTIR spectrum and the appearance of CH peaks at 5.5-5.7 ppm in (1)H NMR spectrum. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images indicated that poly(St-co-MMA) particle was lobed morphology coated by cross-linked poly(AAm-co-AAc) shell. Furthermore, SEM results revealed that poly(AAm-co-AAc)-g-poly(St-co-MMA) is composite particle that consist of "raspberry"-shape like structure core. Internal structures of the microgels showed homogeneous network of pores, an extensive interconnection among pores, thicker pore walls, and open network structures. Water absorbency test indicated that the sample with particle size 0.43 ?m had lower equilibrium water content, % than the sample with particle size 7.39 ?m. PMID:23123033

  18. Characterization of Network Structure of Polyacrylamide Based Hydrogels Prepared By Radiation Induced Polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmudi, Naim [State University of Tetovo, Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics, 1200 Tetovo (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Sen, Murat; Gueven, Olgun [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry Division, 06532, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Rendevski, Stojan [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics, University 'Ss Cyril and Methodius', Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2007-04-23

    In this study network structure of polyacrylamide based hydrogels prepared by radiation induced polymerization has been investigated. Polyacrylamide based hydrogels in the rod form were prepared by copolymerization of acrylamide(AAm) with hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate(HEMA) and methyl acrylamide(MAAm) in the presence of cross-linking agent and water by gamma rays at ambient temperature. Molecular weight between cross-links and effective cross-link density of hydrogels were calculated from swelling as well as shear modulus data obtained from compression tests. The results have shown that simple compression analyses can be used for the determination of effective cross-link density of hydrogels without any need to some polymer-solvent based parameters as in the case of swelling based determinations. Diffusion of water into hydrogels was examined by analyzing water absorption kinetics and the effect of network, structure on the diffusion type and coefficient was discussed.

  19. Hydrolysis behavior of regenerated celluloses with different degree of polymerization under microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jinping; Teng, Na; Chen, Haizhen; Wang, Jinggang; Zhu, Jin; Na, Haining

    2015-09-01

    This work studied the hydrolysis behavior of regenerated celluloses (RCs) with different degree of polymerization (DP) by using the catalyst of dilute acid under microwave radiation. Results showed that the DP had a considerable influence on hydrolysis of cellulose. The reactivity of RCs was significantly improved when DP was lower than 51. The highest sugar yield of 59.2% was achieved from RC with lowest DP of 23 at 160°C for 15min. But the lowest yield of 32.6% was obtained when RC with highest DP of 132 was used. Recrystallization of cellulose was found to hinder the further hydrolysis particularly with the high DP. The effect of recrystallization can be reduced by the decrease of DP of RCs. This research demonstrates that the DP of RCs plays a crucial role on hydrolysis and it provides a preliminary guide based on DP to find a suitable pretreatment method for cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:25997012

  20. Measurements of the temperature dependence of radiation induced conductivity in polymeric dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Jodie

    This study measures Radiation Induced Conductivity (RIC) in five insulating polymeric materials over temperatures ranging from ~110 K to ~350 K: polyimide (PI or Kapton HN(TM) and Kapton E(TM)), polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE or Teflon(TM)), ethylene-tetraflouroethylene (ETFE or Tefzel(TM)), and Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE). RIC occurs when incident ionizing radiation deposits energy and excites electrons into the conduction band of insulators. Conductivity was measured when a voltage was applied across vacuum-baked, thin film polymer samples in a parallel plate geometry. RIC was calculated as the difference in sample conductivity under no incident radiation and under an incident ~4 MeV electron beam at low incident dose rates of 0.01 rad/sec to 10 rad/sec. The steady-state RIC was found to agree well with the standard power law relation, sigmaRIC(D?) = kRIC(T) D?Delta(T) between conductivity, sigmaRIC and adsorbed dose rate, D?. Both the proportionality constant, kRIC, and the power, Delta, were found to be temperature-dependent above ~250 K, with behavior consistent with photoconductivity models developed for localized trap states in disordered semiconductors. Below ~250 K, kRIC and Delta exhibited little change in any of the materials.

  1. Cross-linked, ETFE-derived and radiation grafted membranes for anion exchange membrane fuel cell applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Fang; Yi-xu Yang; Xiao-huan Lu; Mei-ling Ye; Wei Li; Yan-mei Zhang

    To develop a series of cross-linked anion exchange membranes for application in fuel cells, poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films was radiation grafted with vinyl benzyl chloride (VBC), followed by quaternization and crosslinking with 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2,2,2]octane (DABCO), alkylation with p-Xylylenedichloride (DCX), and quaternization again with trimethylamine (TMA). These anion exchange membranes were characterized in terms of water uptake, ion-exchange capacity, ionic conductivity as well

  2. Radiation-Associated Fracture Nonunion of the Clavicle Treated with Locking Plate Fixation and Autologous Bone Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Yang; Nishida, Kotaro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of radiation-associated fracture nonunion of the clavicle, which was treated by locking plate fixation and autologous bone grafting. The patient was a 67-year old man who received 70?Gy radiation therapy to treat nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Eight years later, he suffered a pathological fracture of the right clavicle. One year after the fracture, surgical treatment was performed due to persistent pain and weakness. Radiographs demonstrated atrophic nonunion. Bone scan demonstrated hot uptake at both ends of the fractured bone. MRI demonstrated a formation of pseudoarthrosis with fluid collection and suggested bone marrow edema at both ends of the fracture fragments. In surgery, fibrous pseudoarthrosis tissue was excised and both ends of the fracture fragments were refreshed to identify bleeding. Open reduction and internal fixation using a 7-hole locking plate and autologous bone grafting were performed. Successful bony union was obtained 1 year postoperatively, and no adverse events were observed up to 52 months after the operation. Our case suggests that a locking plate provides sufficient fixation and autologous bone grafting is effective in enhancing bone healing in a radiation-associated fracture nonunion of the clavicle in which it is difficult to achieve bony union. PMID:23326273

  3. Optimization strategies for radiation induced grafting of 4-vinylpyridine onto poly(ethylene-co-tetraflouroethene) film using Box-Behnken design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud Nasef, Mohamed; Shamsaei, Ezzatollah; Ghassemi, Payman; Ahmed Aly, Amgad; Hamid Yahaya, Abdul

    2012-04-01

    The radiation induced grafting of 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) onto poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethene) (ETFE) was optimized using the Box-Behnken factorial design available in the response surface method (RSM). The optimized grafting parameters; absorbed dose, monomer concentration, grafting time and reaction temperature were varied in four levels to quantify their effect on the grafting yield (GY). The validity of the statistical model was supported by the small deviation between the predicted (GY=61%) and experimental (GY=57%) values. The optimum conditions for enhancing GY were determined at the following values: monomer concentration of 48 vol%, absorbed dose of 64 kGy, reaction time of 4 h and temperature of 68 °C. A comparison was made between the optimization model developed for the present grafting system and that for grafting of 1-vinylimidazole (1-VIm) onto ETFE to confirm the validly and reliability of the Box-Behnken for the optimization of various radiation induced grafting reactions. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to investigate the properties of the obtained films and provide evidence for grafting.

  4. Radiation-grafting of N-vinylimidazole onto silicone rubber for antimicrobial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meléndez-Ortiz, H. Iván; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Burillo, Guillermina; Magariños, Beatriz; Concheiro, Angel; Bucio, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    Poly(N-vinylimidazole) (PVIm) was grafted numbers onto silicone rubber (SR) with the aim of providing antimicrobial properties. The grafting was carried out by means of gamma rays using the direct method. The influence on the grafting yield of absorbed dose, monomer concentration, addition of FeSO4 salt, composition and type of solvent (H2O, MeOH, THF, and acetone) was investigated. Grafts onto SR between 10% and 90% were obtained at doses from 20 to 100 kGy and a dose rate 10.9 kGy h-1; grafting yield increased with monomer concentration and dose. The new graft copolymers were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) showed glass transition at 149 and 159 °C for 38% and 88% grafting respectively. Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) presented two decomposition temperatures for SR-g-VIm at 380 (PVIm) and 440 °C (SR). SR-g-VIm showed antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  5. Radiation grafting of acrylamide onto starch-filled low density polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Rouhallah; Naimian, Franak; Sheikh, Nassrin

    1997-04-01

    Acrylamide (AAm) was grafted on the surface of starch-filled low density polyethylene (SLDPE) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) films by the mutual irradiation technique at doses from 0.75 to 5 kGy. The effect of dose, solvents and dihydroxybenzoquinone on the degree of grafting was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the weight measurement method of extracted films at a constant monomer concentration (10% w/w). An ultraviolet spectrophotometer was also used to elucidate the results of the above methods. Grafting on SLDPE and LDPE samples reaches a maximum followed by a slight decrease with increasing dose. A higher degree of grafting was obtained on SLDPE samples compared with that on LDPE. An induction period was observed in the case of the samples prepared in tetrahdyrfuran (THF) as the solvent compared with those in chloroform. Addition of benzene to chloroform and THF (50% v/v) accelerates the rate of AAm grafting on the samples. Dihydroxybenzoquinone inhibits the grafting reactions of the samples especially in the THF solutions. The water uptake measurement of the samples correlates with the degree of grafting.

  6. Utilization of recycled polypropylene-acrylate grafted nonwoven for the removal of oil from water.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoning; Wei, Junfu; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ao; Yang, Hang; Nie, Yuexia

    2012-09-01

    To solve water pollution caused by oil spillage, a new sorbent was prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization. Acrylate monomer was introduced to polypropylene nonwoven and hydrophobic groups were introduced by the grafting method. The grafting degree of sorbent was determined as a function of monomer concentration and solvent solubility for monomer. Fourier transform-infrared spectra and static contact angle measurements were used to characterize the chemical changes of the polypropylene nonwoven surface. The grafted sorbent showed a fast sorption rate and a maximum sorption capacity of 13.56 g/g for diesel oil, while the original polypropylene nonwoven was only 7.48 g/g. In addition, retention measurement and the reusability test were conducted to evaluate the suitability of the polypropylene-acrylate grafted nonwoven for the treatment of oil spillage. PMID:23012771

  7. Fabrication and mechanical characterization of biodegradable and synthetic polymeric films: Effect of gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akter, Nousin; Khan, Ruhul A.; Salmieri, Stephane; Sharmin, Nusrat; Dussault, Dominic; Lacroix, Monique

    2012-08-01

    Chitosan (1 wt%, in 2% aqueous acetic acid solution) and starch (1 wt%, in deionised water) were dissolved and mixed in different proportions (20-80 wt% chitosan) then films were prepared by casting. Tensile strength and elongation at break of the 50% chitosan containing starch-based films were found to be 47 MPa and 16%, respectively. It was revealed that with the increase of chitosan in starch, the values of TS improved significantly. Monomer, 2-butane diol-diacrylate (BDDA) was added into the film forming solutions (50% starch-based), then casted films. The BDDA containing films were irradiated under gamma radiation (5-25 kGy) and it was found that strength of the films improved significantly. On the other hand, synthetic petroleum-based polymeric films (polycaprolactone, polyethylene and polypropylene) were prepared by compression moulding. Mechanical and barrier properties of the films were evaluated. The gamma irradiated (25 kGy) films showed higher strength and better barrier properties.

  8. Introduction of anticoagulation group to polypropylene film by radiation grafting and its blood compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Chun; Zhang, Can; Qiu, Yongzhi; Zhu, Aiping; Shen, Jian; Lin, Sicong

    2004-04-01

    Based on in vitro tests for an improvement of the blood compatibility of polypropylene (PP) films by grafting O-butyrylchitosan (OBCS), we prepared a novel biocompatible film. The immobilization was accomplished by irradiating with ultraviolet light, OBCS being coated on the film surface to photolyze azide groups, thus cross-linking OBCS and PP together. The grafted sample films were verified by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and the water contact angle measurements. The blood compatibility of the OBCS-grafted PP films was evaluated by platelet rich plasma (PRP) contacting experiments and protein adsorption experiments using blank PP film as the control. It demonstrated that blood compatibility of the OBCS-grafted surfaces is better than that of the blank PP. The suitable modifications could be carried out to tailor PP biomaterial to meet the specific needs of different biomedical applications. These results suggest that the photocrosslinkable chitosan developed here has the potential of serving as a new biomaterial in medical use.

  9. A mild method of amine-type adsorbents syntheses with emulsion graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate on polyethylene non-woven fabric by pre-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongjuan; Yao, Side; Li, Jingye; Cao, Changqing; Wang, Min

    2012-09-01

    A mild pre-irradiation method was used to graft glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto polyethylene (PE) non-woven fabric (NF). The polymer was irradiated by electron beam in air atmosphere at room temperature. The degree of grafting (Dg) was determined as a function of reaction time, absorbed dose, monomer concentration and temperature. After 30 kGy irradiation, with 5% GMA, surfactant Tween 20 (Tw-20) of 0.5% at 55 °C for 15 min, the trunk polymer was made grafted with a Dg of 150%. Selected PE-g-PGMA of different Dg was modified with aminated compounds such as ethylenediamine (EDA), diethylenetriamine (DETA), triethylenetetramine (TETA) and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA). The obtained amine-type adsorbents were prepared to remove copper and uranium ions from solution. It was shown that at least 90% of copper and 60% of uranium with the initial concentration from 3 to 1000 ppb can be removed from water.

  10. Surface modification of polyethylene by radiation-induced grafting for adhesive bonding. IV. Improvement in wet peel strength. [Gamma radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Yamakawa; F. Yamamoto

    1980-01-01

    Adhesive joints of hydrolyzed methyl acrylate grafts, bonded with epoxy adhesives, yield extremely high peel strength (adherend failure) in dry conditions. However, when the joints are exposed to humid environments, the peel strength rapidly decreases with exposure time and then reaches a constant value (wet peel strength). Since the locus of failure changes from the adherend to the homopolymer layer

  11. Surface modification of polyethylene by radiation-induced grafting for adhesive bonding. V. Comparison with other surface treatments. [Gamma radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Yamakawa; F. Yamamoto

    1980-01-01

    Helium gas plasma treatment of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) yields much lower peel strength than oxidative treatment using chromic acid and oxygen gas plasma. The practical adhesion, the bondability retention, and the bond durability of oxidatively treated LDPE sheets, bonded with epoxy adhesives, have been compared with those of partially hydrolyzed LDPE-methyl acrylate surface grafts. The oxidized surfaces easily lose the

  12. Effect of carbon-black treatment by radiation emulsion polymerization on temperature dependence of resistivity of carbon-black-filled polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaojin, Jia; Pingkai, Jiang; Zhicheng, Zhang; Zhongguang, Wang

    2006-04-01

    High dispersibility and stability of carbon black particles in low-density-polyethylene (LDPE) matrix were obtained by radiation emulsion polymerization on carbon particles surface, and electrical resistivities of its simple were examined. First carbon particles treatment on radiation emulsion polymerization on surface were synthesized by the reaction with a polymer-emulsion systems containing reactive group in the molecular unit, carbon particles and emulsifier. Then, the carbon particles treatment on radiation emulsion polymerization on surface was dispersed into LDPE, and its composites were prepared for electrical measurements. The effect of radiation crosslinking of the composite on the Positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) phenomenon was investigated. The experimental results showed that PTC and NTC effects of the composites were obviously influenced by the irradiation dose. Various microstructure-exploring means were used to study the conductive composite, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  13. Radiation-chemical polymerization of epichlorhydrin in the presence of initiators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Meleshevich; A. A. Kozlov; V. N. Doroshenko

    1984-01-01

    Chlorobenzene, methylene chloride, and dichloroethane were used as electron acceptors; diethylamine, =-naphthylamine, and pyridinewere used as positive charge acceptors; and nitrobenzene and benzoquinone were used as radical acceptors [4-6]. Ferrocene and onium salts were used to initiate the ionic polymerization [7, 8]. The ~pichlorohydrin was twice distilled and dried over type NaX zeolite [2]; the physical constants of the monomer

  14. High-energy radiation processing, a smart approach to obtain PVP-graft-AA nanogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaldi, N.; Sabatino, M. A.; Przybytniak, G.; Kaluska, I.; Bondì, M. L.; Bulone, D.; Alessi, S.; Spadaro, G.; Dispenza, C.

    2014-01-01

    Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-grafted-acrylic acid biocompatible nanogels (NGs) were prepared using an exiting industrial-type electron accelerator and setups, starting from semi-dilute aqueous solutions of a commercial PVP and the acrylic acid monomer. As a result, NGs with tunable size and structure can be obtained quantitatively. Sterility was also imparted at the integrated dose absorbed. The chemical structure of the NGs produced was confirmed through Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The molecular and physico-chemical properties of NGs, such as the hydrodynamic dimensions and surface charge densities, for various polymer and monomer concentrations in the irradiated solutions, are discussed here.

  15. Cyclopamine-loaded core-cross-linked polymeric micelles enhance radiation response in pancreatic cancer and pancreatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Wu, Chunhui; Abbruzzese, James; Hwang, Rosa F; Li, Chun

    2015-06-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers. Cyclopamine (CPA), a potent inhibitor for sonic hedgehog pathway (SHH), shows great promises in PDAC treatment, including the disruption of tumor-associated stroma, and enhancement of radiation therapy. However, CPA is insoluble in water and therefore requires a nanometric delivery platform to achieve satisfactory performance. We herein encapsulated CPA in a core-cross-linked polymeric micelle system (M-CPA). M-CPA was combined with Cs-137 radiation and evaluated in vitro in PDAC cell lines and a human pancreatic stellate cell line. The results showed that M-CPA had higher cytotoxicity than CPA, abolished Gli-1 expression (a key component of SHH), and enhanced the radiation therapy of Cs-137. M-CPA radiosensitization correlated with its ability to disrupt the repair of radiation-induced DNA damage. These findings indicate that the combination therapy of M-CPA and radiation is an effective strategy to simultaneously treat pancreatic tumors and tumor-associated stroma. PMID:25936695

  16. Synthesis, characterization and investigation of dielectric properties of two-armed graft copolymers prepared with methyl methacrylate and styrene onto PVC using atom transfer radical polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Co?kun; P?nar Seven

    2011-01-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride-co-vinyl diethanolamine) copolymers were synthesized by modification of PVC with diethanolamine. Acylation of OH groups in the copolymer with ?-bromoisobutirylbromide gave poly{vinyl chloride-co-vinyl-bis[2-(2-bromo-2-methylpropanoato)ethyl]amine} as two-armed macroinitiator. A series of grafting studies with methyl methacrylate and styrene was carried out in the presence of the macroinitiator and the catalyst CuBr\\/2,2?-bipyridyl (bpy) at 110°C. FT-IR Spectra of all the polymers were

  17. Dyeing, moisture regain and mechanical properties of wool fabric grafted with PMMA by chemical and radiation-initiated methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Naggar, A. M.; Marie, M. M.; El Gendy, E. H.; El Miligy, A. A.

    1996-04-01

    PMMA polymer has been grafted onto wool fabric by two methods of grafting preirradiation method and chemical initiation using KMnO 4/H 2SO 4 system. The grafted wool showed an enhancement in dyeability towards some basic dyes differing in size and chemical structure. Preirradiated grafted wool exhibited a relatively higher dyeing affinity than that prepared by the chemical method. Graft yield of up to 26% of PPMA did not have a noticeable effect on the moisture regain of wool fabric. Further increase in graft yield was found to cause a slight reduction in moisture regain. The tensile strength was reduced by the graft process, but elongation at break was not affected.

  18. Optimization of reaction parameters of radiation induced grafting of 1-vinylimidazole onto poly(ethylene-co-tetraflouroethene) using response surface method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasef, Mohamed Mahmoud; Aly, Amgad Ahmed; Saidi, Hamdani; Ahmad, Arshad

    2011-11-01

    Radiation induced grafting of 1-vinylimidazole (1-VIm) onto poly(ethylene-co-tetraflouroethene) (ETFE) was investigated. The grafting parameters such as absorbed dose, monomer concentration, grafting time and temperature were optimized using response surface method (RSM). The Box-Behnken module available in the design expert software was used to investigate the effect of reaction conditions (independent parameters) varied in four levels on the degree of grafting ( G%) (response parameter). The model yielded a polynomial equation that relates the linear, quadratic and interaction effects of the independent parameters to the response parameter. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the results of the model and detect the significant values for the independent parameters. The optimum parameters to achieve a maximum G% were found to be monomer concentration of 55 vol%, absorbed dose of 100 kGy, time in the range of 14-20 h and a temperature of 61 °C. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to investigate the properties of the obtained films and provide evidence for grafting.

  19. Chemically grafted polymeric filters for chemical sensors: Hyperbranched poly(acrylic acid) films incorporating {Beta}-cyclodextrin receptors and amine-functionalized filter layers

    SciTech Connect

    Dermody, D.L.; Peez, R.F.; Bergbreiter, D.E.; Crooks, R.M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-02-02

    The authors report a new molecular-filter approach for enhancing the selectivity of chemical sensors. Specifically, they describe electrochemical sensors prepared from Au electrodes coated with {beta}-cyclodextrin-functionalized, hyperbranched poly(acrylic acid)(PAA) films capped with a chemically grafted, ultrathin polyamine layer. The hyperbranched PAA film is a highly functionalized framework for covalently binding the {beta}-cyclodextrin molecular receptors. The thin, grafted polyamine overlayer acts as a pH-sensitive molecular filter that selectively passes suitably charged analytes. Poly(amidoamine) dendrimers or poly-D-lysine is used as 10--15-nm-thick filter layers. The results show that at low pH, when the polyamines are fully protonated, positively charged redox probe molecules, such as benzyl viologen (BV), do not permeate the filter layer. However, at high pH, when the filter layer is uncharged, BV penetrates the filter layer and is reduced at the electrode. The opposite pH dependence is observed for negatively charged redox molecules such as anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS). Both BV and AQS specifically interact with the {beta}-cyclodextrin receptors underlying the polyamine filter layers.

  20. Methods of fiber surface grafting for interphase design and tailored composite response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Jesse Judson

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this research was to develop methods of fiber surface grafting for interphase formation, and to experimentally evaluate and model these interphases in order to further elucidate their role in fiber-reinforced composites. Surface modification by sp{60}Co gamma irradiation was used initially to graft acrylic polymers on the surface of ultra-high modulus (UHMPE) fibers. This technique utilized low dose rates and low total doses, and achieved grafting with retention of the exceptional UHMPE properties. The surface properties of the fibers were evaluated using fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), and mechanical tests and dynamic mechanical spectrometry (DMS) of discontinuous fiber composites. Depending on the glass transition temperature, Tg, and chemical structure of the graft, the fiber/matrix adhesion and the interfacial failure mechanism was tailored to provide either enhanced reinforcement or toughening. Using a three-phase block model, the DMS characteristics of the composites were modeled and the reinforcement efficiencies extrapolated as a function of surface treatment. The model successfully predicts the tan delta response of the composite and the appearance of additional loss dispersions associated with the interphase. However, the interactions between the high-energy gamma radiation and the fiber and grafts yield interphases that are difficult to characterize and control. The hydroperoxidation grafting method was subsequently developed, which permitted the grafting of tethered, linear chains by a free radical-type polymerization. Poly(styrene-stat-acrylonitrile) was grafted initially, in which the nitrogen in acrylonitrile was used as a marker to verify grafting and to estimate the grafting efficiency by ESCA analysis. Tapping modesp{TM} atomic force microscopy (TMAFM) images of the grafted fibers revealed a nodular surface topography with dimensions that were correlated to the surface conformation of the grafts using a 'hard-sphere' model. Finally, three styrene/acrylonitrile/butyl acrylate interphases, each with a different copolymer composition, were grafted to evaluate the effect of interphase mechanics on the reinforcing and impact properties of woven-fiber-reinforced, three-phase composites. Accordingly, the interfacial and composite properties were tailored by varying the graft composition as well as the grafting efficiency. Moreover, the grafted interphases elicited a synergistic response in terms of the reinforcement and impact properties, a result previously unobtainable by oxidative-type surface treatments.

  1. Investigation of space radiation effects in polymeric film-forming materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Giori; T. Yamauchi; F. Jarke

    1975-01-01

    The literature search in the field of ultraviolet radiation effects that was conducted during the previous program, Contract No. NAS1-12549, has been expanded to include the effects of charged particle radiation and high energy electromagnetic radiation. The literature from 1958 to 1969 was searched manually, while the literature from 1969 to present was searched by using a computerized keyword system.

  2. Influence of radiation protocols on graft-vs-host disease incidence after bone-marrow transplantation in experimental models.

    PubMed

    Schwarte, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Matthias W

    2005-01-01

    Bone-marrow transplantation is an approved curative treatment for many hemato- and oncologic diseases. Nevertheless, the severe acute clinical course of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation is frequently fatal, and is to date not curable. Acute GVHD must, therefore, be prevented from the start of the bone-marrow transplantation by immunosuppressive medication, causing sometimes serious side effects. Therefore, new preventive strategies are tested, starting with animal experiments. Often mice are chosen for this kind of trial, and the clinical protocol of bone-marrow transplantation is transferred into the experimental settings. The first step to induce an acute GVHD is whole-body irradiation of the recipients. Several methods are available for this purpose: the most common is a 60cobalt source (gamma-irradiation); less common are a 137cesium source (gamma-irradiation) and a linear (particle) accelerator (photons). Differences between these radiation techniques can occur and can unexpectedly interfere with the results of the experiments. In this chapter, the materials and methods for bone-marrow transplantation in mice, with particular emphasis on the different radiation techniques, are explained; furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages in regard to the underlying physical principles will be discussed. PMID:15585937

  3. Development of high-productivity, strong cation-exchange adsorbers for protein capture by graft polymerization from membranes with different pore sizes.

    PubMed

    Chenette, Heather C S; Robinson, Julie R; Hobley, Eboni; Husson, Scott M

    2012-12-15

    This paper describes the surface modification of macroporous membranes using ATRP (atom transfer radical polymerization) to create cation-exchange adsorbers with high protein binding capacity at high product throughput. The work is motivated by the need for a more economical and rapid capture step in downstream processing of protein therapeutics. Membranes with three reported nominal pore sizes (0.2, 0.45, 1.0 ?m) were modified with poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate, potassium salt) tentacles, to create a high density of protein binding sites. A special formulation was used in which the monomer was protected by a crown ether to enable surface-initiated ATRP of this cationic polyelectrolyte. Success with modification was supported by chemical analysis using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and indirectly by measurement of pure water flux as a function of polymerization time. Uniformity of modification within the membranes was visualized with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Static and dynamic binding capacities were measured using lysozyme protein to allow comparisons with reported performance data for commercial cation-exchange materials. Dynamic binding capacities were measured for flow rates ranging from 13 to 109 column volumes (CV)/min. Results show that this unique ATRP formulation can be used to fabricate cation-exchange membrane adsorbers with dynamic binding capacities as high as 70 mg/mL at a throughput of 100 CV/min and unprecedented productivity of 300 mg/mL/min. PMID:23175597

  4. Development of high-productivity, strong cation-exchange adsorbers for protein capture by graft polymerization from membranes with different pore sizes

    PubMed Central

    Chenette, Heather C.S.; Robinson, Julie R.; Hobley, Eboni; Husson, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the surface modification of macroporous membranes using ATRP (atom transfer radical polymerization) to create cation-exchange adsorbers with high protein binding capacity at high product throughput. The work is motivated by the need for a more economical and rapid capture step in downstream processing of protein therapeutics. Membranes with three reported nominal pore sizes (0.2, 0.45, 1.0 ?m) were modified with poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate, potassium salt) tentacles, to create a high density of protein binding sites. A special formulation was used in which the monomer was protected by a crown ether to enable surface-initiated ATRP of this cationic polyelectrolyte. Success with modification was supported by chemical analysis using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and indirectly by measurement of pure water flux as a function of polymerization time. Uniformity of modification within the membranes was visualized with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Static and dynamic binding capacities were measured using lysozyme protein to allow comparisons with reported performance data for commercial cation-exchange materials. Dynamic binding capacities were measured for flow rates ranging from 13 to 109 column volumes (CV)/min. Results show that this unique ATRP formulation can be used to fabricate cation-exchange membrane adsorbers with dynamic binding capacities as high as 70 mg/mL at a throughput of 100 CV/min and unprecedented productivity of 300 mg/mL/min. PMID:23175597

  5. Radiation-grafted proton exchange membranes based on co-grafting from binary monomer mixtures into poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Joon-Yong; Sung, Hae-Jun; Song, Joo-Myung; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Young-Chang

    2012-08-01

    In this study, proton exchange membranes (PEMs) based on a poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) film were synthesized through the graft copolymerization of styrene and VTMS (vinyltrimethoxysilane), or styrene and TMSPM (3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate) binary monomer systems using a simultaneous irradiation method. The prepared membranes with the similar degrees of grafting were investigated by measuring ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity, water uptake, chemical stability, and dimensional stability. The results indicate that the silane-crosslinked proton exchange membrane (PEM) has not only lower water uptake and dimensional change but also high proton conductivity at low humidity condition compared to non-crosslinked poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene)-g-poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (ETFE-g-PSSA). Also, the chemical stability of silane-crosslinked fuel cell membranes was more improved than that of non-crosslinked fuel cell membrane.

  6. Surface modification of polyethylene by radiation-induced grafting for adhesive bonding. IV. Improvement in wet peel strength. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamakawa, S.; Yamamoto, F.

    1980-01-01

    Adhesive joints of hydrolyzed methyl acrylate grafts, bonded with epoxy adhesives, yield extremely high peel strength (adherend failure) in dry conditions. However, when the joints are exposed to humid environments, the peel strength rapidly decreases with exposure time and then reaches a constant value (wet peel strength). Since the locus of failure changes from the adherend to the homopolymer layer with decreasing peel strength, the decrease is due to a decrease in mechanical strength of the homopolymer layer itself, which results from its swelling by water absorption. Many attempts to reduce the swelling of the homopolymer layer or to strengthen the swollen homopolymer layer were unsuccessful except (1) priming with epoxy solutions consisting of a base epoxy resin and organic solvents which can dissolve not only epoxy resins but also hydrolyzed poly(methyl acrylate) and (2) partial etching of the homopolymer layer by photo-oxidative degradation. All the results on the improvement in wet peel strength can be explained in terms of the penetration of epoxy resins into the homopolymer layer and subsequent curing of the penetrated epoxy resin. 15 figures, 1 table.

  7. Investigation of space radiation effects in polymeric film-forming materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, C.; Yamauchi, T.; Jarke, F.

    1975-01-01

    The literature search in the field of ultraviolet radiation effects that was conducted during the previous program, Contract No. NAS1-12549, has been expanded to include the effects of charged particle radiation and high energy electromagnetic radiation. The literature from 1958 to 1969 was searched manually, while the literature from 1969 to present was searched by using a computerized keyword system. The information generated from this search was utilized for the design of an experimental program aimed at the development of materials with improved resistance to the vacuum-radiation environment of space. Preliminary irradiation experiments were performed which indicate that the approaches and criteria employed are very promising and may provide a solution to the challenging problem of polymer stability to combined ultraviolet/high energy radiation.

  8. Anionexchange supermacroporous monolithic matrices with grafted polymer brushes of N, N-dimethylaminoethyl-methacrylate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina N. Savina; Igor Yu. Galaev; Bo Mattiasson

    2005-01-01

    Graft polymerization using potassium diperiodatocuprate as initiator was found to be an effective and convenient method for grafting functional polymer of N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) onto superporous polyacrylamide gels, so-called cryogels (pAAm cryogels). It was possible to achieve grafting degrees up to 110% (w\\/w). The two-step graft polymerization i.e. first activation of the matrix followed by displacement of initiator solution with

  9. Synthesis of chemically cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol-co-poly (methacrylic acid) hydrogels by copolymerization; a potential graft-polymeric carrier for oral delivery of 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background of the Study The propose of the present work was to develop chemically cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol-co-poly(methacrylic acid) hydrogel (PVA-MAA hydrogel) for pH responsive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Methods PVA based hydrogels were prepared by free radical copolymerization. PVA has been cross-linked chemically with monomer (methacrylic acid) in aqueous medium, cross-linking agent was ethylene glycol di-methacrylate (EGDMA) and benzoyl peroxide was added as reaction initiator. 5-FU was loaded as model drug. FTIR, XRD, TGA and DSC were performed for characterization of copolymer. Surface morphology was studied by SEM. pH sensitive properties were evaluated by swelling dynamics and equilibrium swelling ratio at low and higher pH. Results FTIR, XRD, TGA and DSC studies confirmed the formation of new copolymer. Formulations with higher MAA contents showed maximum swelling at 7.4 pH. High drug loading and higher drug release has been observed at pH 7.4. Conclusions The current study concludes that a stable copolymeric network of PVA was developed with MAA. The prepared hydrogels were highly pH responsive. This polymeric network could be a potential delivery system for colon targeting of 5-FU in colorectal cancers. PMID:23721569

  10. Plant grafting.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Charles W; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2015-03-01

    Since ancient times, people have cut and joined together plants of different varieties or species so they would grow as a single plant - a process known as grafting (Figures 1 and 2). References to grafting appear in the Bible, ancient Greek and ancient Chinese texts, indicating that grafting was practised in Europe, the Middle East and Asia by at least the 5(th) century BCE. It is unknown where or how grafting was first discovered, but it is likely that natural grafting, the process by which two plants touch and fuse limbs or roots in the absence of human interference (Figure 3), influenced people's thinking. Such natural grafts are generally uncommon, but are seen in certain species, including English ivy. Parasitic plants, such as mistletoe, that grow and feed on often unrelated species may have also contributed to the development of grafting as a technique, as people would have observed mistletoe growing on trees such as apples or poplars. PMID:25734263

  11. ESR investigations on radiation-induced modifications of irradiated thin polymeric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipara, Mircea; Edwards, David L.; Beezhold, Wendland; Chipara, Magdalena; Nehls, Mary

    2004-10-01

    A parallel analysis of radiation-induced and thermal-induced degradation of polyethyleneterephtalate (PET) films is presented. The complexity of the degradation process is analyzed as a first step in a better understanding of the effect of combined temperature and radiation on PET. electron spin resonance spectrometry, DC electrical measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, and mechanical tests were used to analysze the effect of different ioninzing radiation (such as gamma, electrons, and accelerated ions) on thin films of PET. Data on the thermal analysis of PET are presented and analyzed. This study aims to a better understanding and modeling of complex degradation processes, required for a more reliable assessment of the behavior of polymers subjected to the space environment.

  12. Flash polymerization of silicone oils using gamma radiation for conserving waterlogged wood 

    E-print Network

    Gidden, Richmond Paul

    1996-01-01

    the SFD-I /SFD-5 mix. These bulked samples were exposed to gamma radiation emitted from a nuclear research reactor and received gamma doses ranging from 30 Gy to 228 Gy with dose rates ranging from 0.6 Gy/min to 5.1 Gy/min. Following irradiation, thin...

  13. Grafting of PEO to polymer surfaces using electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sofia, S J; Merrill, E W

    1998-04-01

    A new method was developed for binding poly-(ethylene oxide) (PEO) to polymer surfaces that involves the use of electron beam irradiation in two steps. In the first, methacrylic acid was grafted and polymerized to a polymer surface, changing it from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Exposure of this surface to aqueous PEO solutions resulted in strong hydrogen bonding of the PEO, which was covalently grafted in a second radiation step. The PEO grafts were stable; they could not be removed with extensive washing with water, soaking in basic solution, or gentle mechanical scraping. Both monolayers and multilayers of PEO were formed. The density of the monolayers were found to have little dependence on the molecular weight or concentration of the PEO solution; multilayers could be controlled by varying the viscosity of the PEO solution and the method of application. The PEO-grafted monolayers were tested for their ability to prevent protein adsorption of cytochrome-c, albumin, and fibronectin. Monolayers of star PEO were the most effective, at best showing a 60% decrease in adsorption from untreated controls. One million molecular wight linear PEO monolayers were almost as effective as star monolayers, and 35,000 g/mol linear PEO was bound too closely to the surface, owing to its small size, to have much impact in preventing protein adsorption. The reason for the continued protein adsorption was believed to be due to a close grafting of the PEO to the surface, as well as the grafted methacrylic acid chains being long enough to extend through the PEO monolayer, thus being accessible on the surface. PMID:9511110

  14. Temperature-responsiveness and biocompatibility of DEGMA/OEGMA radiation-grafted onto PP and LDPE films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Jiménez, Alejandro; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Concheiro, Angel; Bucio, Emilio

    2014-06-01

    Polypropylene (PP) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) were modified by ?-ray grafting of di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (DEGMA) and oligo (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA300 or OEGMA475 with Mn 300 and 475 respectively) with different monomer concentrations and mol ratios. The grafting percentage was evaluated as a function of the solvent, irradiation dose, reaction time, temperature, and monomers concentration. The grafted materials were more hydrophilic than the pristine polymers, as observed by contact angle and swelling in water. Temperature-responsive behavior was evaluated using DSC showing transitions between 34 and 48 °C. In vitro hemocompatibility, protein adsorption, cytotoxicity and bacteria adhesion tests were also carried out. Overall, the DEGMA/OEGMA grafting provides hemo and cytocompatible materials that exhibit temperature-responsive hydrophilic features and decreased protein adsorption.

  15. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan

    2013-11-01

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm-1 which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one.

  16. Immobilization of quaternary ammonium salts on grafting particle polystyrene\\/SiO 2 and preliminary study of application performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baojiao Gao; Changsheng Qi; Qing Liu

    2008-01-01

    Polystyrene (PSt) was grafted on the surface of silica gel particles in the manner of “grafting from” in a solution polymerization system, and grafting particles PSt\\/SiO2 was obtained. The chloromethylation reaction of the grafted polystyrene was performed using a novel chloromethylation reagent, 1,4-bis(chloromethyoxy)butane which is un-carcinogenic, and grafting particles CMPS\\/SiO2 was gained. Subsequently, grafted CMPS was quaternized (denoted as QPS)

  17. Preparation and application of chitosan\\/poly(methacrylic acid) graft copolymer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khaled F. El-Tahlawy; Safaa M. El-Rafie; Aly Sayed Aly

    2006-01-01

    2,2-Azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (AMPN) was investigated as initiator for the graft copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) onto chitosan. A number of variables in the grafting reaction were investigated, including AMPN and monomer concentration, material to liquor ratio, duration, and temperature of polymerization reaction. The graft copolymers were evaluated in terms of graft yield, homopolymer, monomer conversion percent, and grafting efficiency. The apparent

  18. Uranium Recovery from Seawater: Development of Fiber Adsorbents Prepared via Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Brown, Suree [ORNL; Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Kim, Jungseung [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Oyola, Yatsandra [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A novel adsorbent preparation method using atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) combined with radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP) was developed to synthesize an adsorbent for uranium recovery from seawater. The ATRP method allowed a much higher degree of grafting on the adsorbent fibers (595 2818%) than that allowed by RIGP alone. The adsorbents were prepared with varied composition of amidoxime groups and hydrophilic acrylate groups. The successful preparation revealed that both ligand density and hydrophilicity were critical for optimal performance of the adsorbents. Adsorbents synthesized in this study showed a relatively high performance (141 179 mg/g at 49 62 % adsorption) in laboratory screening tests using a uranium concentration of ~6 ppm. This performance is much higher than that of known commercial adsorbents. However, actual seawater experiment showed impeded performance compared to the recently reported high-surface-area-fiber adsorbents, due to slow adsorption kinetics. The impeded performance motivated an investigation of the effect of hydrophilic block addition on the graft chain terminus. The addition of hydrophilic block on the graft chain terminus nearly doubled the uranium adsorption capacity in seawater, from 1.56 mg/g to 3.02 mg/g. The investigation revealed the importance of polymer chain conformation, in addition to ligand and hydrophilic group ratio, for advanced adsorbent synthesis for uranium recovery from seawater.

  19. Effects of Electrons, Protons, and Ultraviolet Radiation on Thermophysical Properties of Polymeric Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Dennis A.; Connell, John W.; Fogdall, Lawrence B.; Winkler, Werner W.

    2001-01-01

    The response of coated thin polymer films to ultraviolet (UV), electron and proton radiation simultaneously has been evaluated, with selected measurements in situ. Exposure was intended to simulate the electron and proton radiation environment near the Earth-Sun Lagrangian points (LI and L2) for five years and approximately 1000 equivalent solar hours (ESH) UV. These orbital environments are relevant to several potential missions such as the Next Generation Space Telescope and Geomagnetic Storm Warning, both of which may use thin film based structures for a sunshade and solar sail, respectively. The thin film candidates (12.5 micrometers thick) consisted of commercially available materials (Kapton(R) E, HN, Upilex(R) S, CP-1, CP-2, TOR-RC, and TOR-LMBP) that were metalized on one side with vapor deposited aluminum. All of the films are aromatic polyimides, with the exception of TORLMBP, which is a copoly(arylene ether benzimidazole). The films were exposed as second surface mirrors and the effects of the exposure on solar absorptance, thermal emittance, and tensile properties were determined. The in situ changes in solar absorptance from Kapton(R) and Upilex(R) were less than 0. 1, whereas the solar absorptance of TOR and CP films increased by more than 0.3 without saturating. The thermal emittance measurements also showed that the Kapton(R) and Upilex(R) materials increased only 1-2%, but the remaining materials increased 5-8%. Based on tensile property measurements made in air following the test, the failure stress of every type of polymer film decreased as a result of irradiation. The polymers most stable in reflectance, namely Upilex(R) and Kapton(R), were also the strongest in tension before irradiation, and they retained the greatest percentage of tensile strength. The films less stable in reflectance were also weaker in tension, and lost more tensile strength as a result of irradiation. The apparent failure strain (as a percent of original gage length) of every type of polymer film except TOR-RC, decreased as a result of irradiation.

  20. Radiation synthesis of multifunctional polymeric hydrogels for oral delivery of insulin.

    PubMed

    Abou Taleb, Manal F

    2013-11-01

    Polyelectrolyte crosslinked hydrogel was synthesized using gamma radiation-induced copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA), N,N-dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) in aqueous solution to utilize for oral delivery of insulin. The influence of copolymer composition and pH value of the surrounding medium on the type of water diffusion in the glassy polymer was discussed. In addition, the swelling kinetics tests on MAA/DMAEMA (90/10) reveal that the swelling kinetics of the proposed hydrogel follows a Fickian diffusion process in media of pH 5, and an anomalous diffusion process in media of pH 1.5 and 7.2. The cross-linked three-dimensional polymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and FT-IR. In the matrices with increase in the content of MAA had shown increased bioadhesivity. Insulin was entrapped in these gels and the in vitro release profiles were established separately in both (SGF, pH 1.5) and (SIF, pH 7.2). The release profile of insulin showed negligible release in acidic media (SGF, pH 1.5) and sustained release in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, pH 7.2). Drug release studies showed that the increasing content of MAA in the copolymer enhances release in SIF to design and improve insulin release behavior from these carriers. PMID:24055698

  1. Controlled release of 5-fluorouracil or mitomycin-c from polymer matrix: Preparation by radiation polymerization and in vivo evaluation of the anticancer drug/polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ximing; Shen, Weiming; Liu, Chengjie; Nishimoto, Sei-Ichi; Kagiya, Tsutomu

    Polymer tablets containing anticancer drugs such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin-C (MMC) have been prepared to evaluate the drug-release characteristics in vitro and the effect on local control of mouse solid tumors in vivo. Radiation-induced polymerization of hydrophilic monomers (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and related monomers) at low temperature (-80°C) was performed to immobilize 5-FU or MMC in the polymer matrix. The drug was dispersed as microcrystallines within the polymer matrix. The rate of drug release in vitro in buffer solution (pH7.0, 37°C) increased with increase in hydrophilicity of polymer matrix. Appropriate amount of crosslinks within the polymer matrix, as formed by ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (2G) added in the polymerization system, was effective to control the rate of drug release. The drug release became faster upon the addition of increasing amount of water in the radiation-induced polymerization. The tablet consisting of drug/polymer was buried surgically near solid tumors of striate muscle sarcoma (S180) transplanted to Kunming mice and the therapeutic effect of slow releasing drugs was evaluated in vivo by reference to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the corresponding drugs. The slow releasing drugs led to high chemotherapeutic gain for local control of solid tumors with remarkable reduction of toxic side effect of the drugs.

  2. Nanofiltration membrane prepared from cardo polyetherketone ultrafiltration membrane by UV-induced grafting method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changquan Qiu; Fan Xu; Quang Trong Nguyen; Zhenghua Ping

    2005-01-01

    Hydrophilic nanofiltration membranes were prepared by graft polymerization of hydrophilic monomers onto the surface of ultrafiltration membranes made from cardo polyetherketone (PEK-C). The method consists of a UV irradiation in the presence of acrylic for an in situ graft polymerization of polyacrylic acid (PAA) on the surface of the UF membranes. The effect of UV intensity, irradiation time and monomer

  3. Grafting chitosan and polyHEMA on carbon nanotubes surfaces: "grafting to" and "grafting from" methods.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodian, Hossein; Moradi, Omid; Shariatzadeh, Behnam

    2014-02-01

    We report a simple method for engineering chitosan (CS) functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites with a biomedically important polymer, poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (polyHEMA), by chemical grafting HEMA monomers via free radical polymerization. Functionalization of CS and polyHEMA occurred in three steps. First, using microwave irradiation, CS was grafted onto the surface and sidewall of the carbon nanotubes. Second, HEMA monomers were grafted onto the polymeric matrix surface. The final step involved free radical polymerization of HEMA monomers. Composite synthesis was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Moreover, the presence of polyHEMA on the surface of the CS functionalized carbon nanotubes was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) analyses. Furthermore, in the aqueous phase, our novel composites exhibited higher dispersibility compared with pristine MWCNTs. Considering the biomedical importance of polyHEMA and CS polymers, we expect these materials to be useful in the pharmaceutical industry as novel biomaterial composites with potential applications in drug delivery. PMID:24183808

  4. Microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of polyacrylamide grafted co-polymers of Mimosa mucilage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Munish Ahuja; Sumit Kumar; Monika Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the microwave-assisted graft co-polymerization of acrylamide on Mimosa pudica seed mucilage. The effect of variables, microwave power and time of exposure, concentrations of acrylamide, mucilage and\\u000a ammonium persulfate on grafting efficiency of graft co-polymerization was screened using Plackett–Burman experimental design.\\u000a The results revealed that the concentration of acrylamide and mucilage are the most

  5. Synthesis and characterization of radiation grafted films for removal of arsenic and some heavy metals from contaminated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, M. N. K.; Khan, M. W.; Mina, M. F.; Beg, M. D. H.; Khan, Maksudur R.; Alam, A. K. M. M.

    2012-10-01

    Grafting of styrene/maleic anhydride and methyl methacrylate/maleic anhydride binary monomers onto the low density polyethylene film was performed using the ?-ray irradiation technique. Then, the synthesized grafted films were treated with different ammonia derivatives for developing chelating functionalization. These chelating products were characterized by the gravimetric method as well as by the Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic method, and were used for removal of arsenic and some heavy metals from aqueous solutions. The optimum absorbed dose of 30 kGy reveals the graft yielding of about 325% in the films. Uptake of arsenic and some heavy-metal ions (Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II)) from contaminated water by the chelating functionalized films (CFF) was examined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The maximum arsenic removal capacity of 5062 mg/kg has been observed for the film treated with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The CFF prepared by semicarbazide and thiol analogs show affinity toward the metal ions with an order: Cu(II)>Fe(III)>Mn(II) etc. The results obtained from this study indicate that the functionalized films show good chelating and ion-exchange property for metal ions.

  6. The time course of long-distance signaling in radiation-induced bystander effect in vivo in Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated using root micro-grafting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Li, Fanghua; Xu, Shuyan; Bian, Po; Wu, Yuejin; Wu, Lijun; Yu, Zengliang

    2011-08-01

    The radiation-induced bystander effect has been demonstrated in whole organisms as well as in multicellular tissues in vitro and single-cell culture systems in vitro. However, the time course of bystander signaling, especially in whole organisms, is not clear. Long-distance bystander/abscopal effects in vivo in plants have been demonstrated by our group. Plant grafting is a useful experimental tool for studying the root-shoot signaling of plants. In the present study, we developed a root micro-grafting technique with young seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana in which the bystander signaling communication of root-to-shoot could easily be stopped or started at specific times after root irradiation. Using this methodology, we demonstrated the time course of long-distance signaling in radiation-induced bystander effects at the level of the organism using the expression level of the AtRAD54 gene as a biological end point. Briefly, an 8-h accumulation of damage signals in bystander parts after irradiation was essential for eliciting a bystander response. The protraction of signal accumulation was not related to the transmission speed of signaling molecules in plants and did not result from the delayed initiation of bystander signals in targeted root cells. It was suggested that the bystander effect might be induced jointly by multiple bystander signals initiated at different stages after irradiation. Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to be implicated in the response process of bystander cells to radiation damage signals rather than in the generation of bystander signals in targeted cells. PMID:21574863

  7. Production of monodisperse, polymeric microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Rhim, Won-Kyu (Inventor); Hyson, Michael T. (Inventor); Chang, Manchium (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Very small, individual polymeric microspheres with very precise size and a wide variation in monomer type and properties are produced by deploying a precisely formed liquid monomer droplet, suitably an acrylic compound such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate into a containerless environment. The droplet which assumes a spheroid shape is subjected to polymerizing radiation such as ultraviolet or gamma radiation as it travels through the environment. Polymeric microspheres having precise diameters varying no more than plus or minus 5 percent from an average size are recovered. Many types of fillers including magnetic fillers may be dispersed in the liquid droplet.

  8. Laundering durable antibacterial cotton fabrics grafted with pomegranate-shaped polymer wrapped in silver nanoparticle aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanzhou; Lv, Ming; Deng, Bo; Li, Jingye; Yu, Ming; Huang, Qing; Fan, Chunhai

    2014-08-01

    To improve the laundering durability of the silver functionalized antibacterial cotton fabrics, a radiation-induced coincident reduction and graft polymerization is reported herein where a pomegranate-shaped silver nanoparticle aggregations up to 500 nm can be formed due to the coordination forces between amino group and silver and the wrapping procedure originated from the coincident growth of the silver nanoparticles and polymer graft chains. This pomegranate-shaped silver NPAs functionalized cotton fabric exhibits outstanding antibacterial activities and also excellent laundering durability, where it can inactivate higher than 90% of both E. coli and S. aureus even after 50 accelerated laundering cycles, which is equivalent to 250 commercial or domestic laundering cycles.

  9. Laundering durable antibacterial cotton fabrics grafted with pomegranate-shaped polymer wrapped in silver nanoparticle aggregations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanzhou; Lv, Ming; Deng, Bo; Li, Jingye; Yu, Ming; Huang, Qing; Fan, Chunhai

    2014-01-01

    To improve the laundering durability of the silver functionalized antibacterial cotton fabrics, a radiation-induced coincident reduction and graft polymerization is reported herein where a pomegranate-shaped silver nanoparticle aggregations up to 500?nm can be formed due to the coordination forces between amino group and silver and the wrapping procedure originated from the coincident growth of the silver nanoparticles and polymer graft chains. This pomegranate-shaped silver NPAs functionalized cotton fabric exhibits outstanding antibacterial activities and also excellent laundering durability, where it can inactivate higher than 90% of both E. coli and S. aureus even after 50 accelerated laundering cycles, which is equivalent to 250 commercial or domestic laundering cycles. PMID:25082297

  10. Highly hydrophilic and low-protein-fouling polypropylene membrane prepared by surface modification with sulfobetaine-based zwitterionic polymer through a combined surface polymerization method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Hong Zhao; Kin-Ho Wee; Renbi Bai

    2010-01-01

    Poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) [poly(SBMA)], a zwitterionic polymer, was successfully tethered in high density onto polypropylene (PP) membrane surface through a combined method consisting of UV-induced surface graft polymerization followed by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) was first immobilized onto PP membrane surface by UV-induced graft polymerization, and then each of the grafted poly(HEMA) chains, after coupled with

  11. Surface Modification of PET Fabric by Graft Copolymerization with Acrylic Acid and Its Antibacterial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Abdolahifard, M.; Bahrami, S. Hajir; Malek, R. M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics with the aid of benzoyl peroxide was carried out. The effect of polymerization parameters on the graft yield was studied. Percent grafting was enhanced significantly by increasing benzoyl peroxide (BP) concentrations up to 3.84?g/lit and then decreased upon further increase in initiator concentration. Preswelling of PET leads to changes in its sorption-diffusion properties and favors an increase in the degree of grafting. The antibiotics treated grafted fabrics showed antibacterial properties towards gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. FTIR and SEM were used to characterize AA-grafted polyester fabrics. PMID:24052819

  12. The influence of cross-linking and clustering upon the nanohole free volume of the SHI and ?-radiation induced polymeric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Paramjit; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Rajinder; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Das, D.

    2015-02-01

    The effects of swift heavy ions and gamma radiations upon the nano-scale free volume of the polymethylemethacrylate (PMMA) polymer were investigated using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The polymer samples were (a) irradiated by 50 MeV Li3+ ion beam to the fluences ranging from 1 × 1011 to 5 × 1012 ions/cm2 and (b) exposed to gamma radiation at various doses ranging from 250 to 1000 kGy. The amorphization was observed in XRD study after ion irradiation and gamma exposure. The absorption edge in the UV-visible study shifted towards the higher wavelength regime leading to decrease of the band gap energy in both cases of irradiations. The formation of new bands at positions 1570, 1560 and 1542 cm-1 were observed in FTIR study of gamma radiation exposed sample at 750 kGy. The cluster formation was seen in the SEM images. The nano-scale free volume (Vf) of the Li3+ ions irradiated PMMA samples was observed to be decreased at fluences of 1.0 × 1011, 5.0 × 1011 and 2.5 × 1012 ions/cm2 due to ion induced cross-linking of the polymeric chains. The values of hole radius (R) and Vf were increased at fluence of 5.0 × 1012 ions/cm2, it could be due to the clustering induced at higher fluences. The gamma exposures of the samples lead to decrease of the values of R and Vf.

  13. Fundamental and application of surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for surface modification of sheets and nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renxu Chen

    2009-01-01

    A recently developed surface grafting technique, surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), has the ability to directly graft polymer chains with controllable chain lengths, densities and functionalities from various kinds of surfaces. This thesis has two main focuses. First is to study the use of this technique in grafting monomers with special structures and functionalities. The other is to apply

  14. Polymeric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bolhassani, Azam; Javanzad, Shabnam; Saleh, Tayebeh; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Nanocarriers with various compositions and biological properties have been extensively applied for in vitro/in vivo drug and gene delivery. The family of nanocarriers includes polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based carriers (liposomes/micelles), dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and gold nanoparticles (nanoshells/nanocages). Among different delivery systems, polymeric carriers have several properties such as: easy to synthesize, inexpensive, biocompatible, biodegradable, non-immunogenic, non-toxic, and water soluble. In addition, cationic polymers seem to produce more stable complexes led to a more protection during cellular trafficking than cationic lipids. Nanoparticles often show significant adjuvant effects in vaccine delivery since they may be easily taken up by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Natural polymers such as polysaccharides and synthetic polymers have demonstrated great potential to form vaccine nanoparticles. The development of new adjuvants or delivery systems for DNA and protein immunization is an expanding research field. This review describes polymeric carriers especially PLGA, chitosan, and PEI as vaccine delivery systems. PMID:24128651

  15. Modulation of graft architectures for enhancing hydrophobic interaction of biomolecules with thermoresponsive polymer-grafted surfaces.

    PubMed

    Idota, Naokazu; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Jun; Sakai, Kiyotaka; Okano, Teruo

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes the effects of graft architecture of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm) brush surfaces on thermoresponsive aqueous wettability changes and the temperature-dependent hydrophobic interaction of steroids in silica capillaries (I.D.: 50 ?m). PIPAAm brushes were grafted onto glass substrates by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) that is one of the living radical polymerization techniques. Increases in the graft density and chain length of PIPAAm brushes increased the hydration of polymer brushes, resulting in the increased hydrophilic properties of the surface below the transition temperature of PIPAAm at 32 °C. More hydrophobic surface properties were also observed on surfaces modified with the block copolymers of IPAAm and n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) than that with IPAAm homopolymer-grafted surfaces over the transition temperature. Using PBMA-b-PIPAAm-grafted silica capillaries, the baseline separation of steroids was successfully achieved by only changing temperature. The incorporation of hydrophobic PBMA chains in grafted PIPAAm enhanced the hydrophobic interaction with testosterone above the transition temperature. The surface modification of hydrophobicity-enhanced thermoresponsive polymers is a promising method for the preparation of thermoresponsive biointerfaces that can effectively modulated their biomolecule and cell adsorption with the wide dynamic range of hydrophilic/hydrophobic property change across the transition temperature. PMID:22143027

  16. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

  17. An empirical study into the effect of long term storage (-36±2 °C) of electron-beamed ETFE on the properties of radiation-grafted alkaline anion-exchange membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizewski, Jamie Peter; Mudri, Nurul H.; Varcoe, John R.

    2013-08-01

    The application of alkaline anion-exchange membranes (AAEM) in solid alkaline fuel cells is growing in prominence mainly due to enhanced tolerance to carbon dioxide, compared to alkaline fuel cells containing aqueous electrolytes, and the potential for using non precious metal catalysts. Radiation grafting is a common methodology for the production of functional polymers and membranes. This statistical study examines the synthesis of radiation grafted AAEMs that are formed from electron beam irradiated poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene), EB-ETFE. It is shown that EB-ETFE can be cold stored for at least 16 months and still be used to produce ionically conductive AAEMs. The limitations of routine measurements of properties, such as dimensional increases, ion-exchange capacity, water uptakes and ionic conductivities, are also highlighted.

  18. Microwave initiated synthesis and application of polyacrylic acid grafted carboxymethyl cellulose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumit Mishra; G. Usha Rani; Gautam Sen

    An environmentally benign and efficient route of synthesis of polyacrylic acid grafted carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-g-PAA) is developed using microwave radiation alone to initiate the grafting reaction. The synthesis is optimized in terms of percentage grafting and intrinsic viscosity, by varying the microwave irradiation time and monomer (acrylic acid) concentration. The grafted product has been characterized by various physicochemical characterization techniques

  19. Humidity sensor using microporous film of polyethylene-graft-poly-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropyl trimethyl-ammonium chloride)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Sakai; Y. Sadaoka; M. Matsuguchi; V. L. Rao

    1989-01-01

    An hydrophilic monomer, 2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropyl trimethylammonium chloride, was graft-polymerized in a microporous polyethylene film using three different initiation methods, that is, with benzyl peroxide, pre-U.V. irradiation and mutual photo-initiation. Humidity dependence of the impedance was measured for the grafted microporous polyethylene films. Among the three graft polymers, the one prepared by pre photo-irradiation seems to have the most homogeneously grafted layer.

  20. Chronic graft-versus-host disease in the rat radiation chimera: I. clinical features, hematology, histology, and immunopathology in long-term chimeras

    SciTech Connect

    Beschorner, W.E.; Tutschka, P.J.; Santos, G.W.

    1982-04-01

    The clinical features, pathology, and immunopathology of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developing in the long-term rat radiation chimera are described. At 6 to 12 months post-transplant, the previously stable ACI/LEW chimeras developed patchy to diffuse severe hair loss and thickened skin folds, and had microscopic features resembling scleroderma, Sjogren's syndrome, and chronic hepatitis. Skin histology showed dermal inflammation and acanthosis with atrophy of the appendages, with progression to dermal sclerosis. The liver revealed chronic hepatitis with bile duct injury and proliferation and periportal piecemeal necrosis. The tongue had considerable submucosal inflammation, muscular necrosis, and atrophy and arteritis. The serous salivary glands, lacrimal glands, and bronchi had lymphocytic inflammation and injury to duct, acinar, and mucosal columnar epithelium. The thymus had lymphocyte depletion of the medulla with prominent epithelium. The spleen and lymph nodes had poorly developed germinal centers but increased numbers of plasma cells. IgM was observed along the basement membrane and around the basal cells of the skin and tongue and along the basement membrane of the bile ducts. IgM was present also in the arteries of the tongue. Immunoglobulins eluted from the skin, cross-reacted with the bile duct epithelium and usually with both ACI and Lewis skin. Increased titers of speckled antinuclear antibodies were present in the serum of rats with chronic (GVHD). Chronic GVHD in the long-term rat radiation chimera is very similar to human chronic GVHD and is a potentially excellent model for autoimmune disorders including scleroderma, Sjorgren's syndrome, and chronic hepatitis.

  1. Core-Clickable PEG-Branch-Azide Bivalent-Bottle-Brush Polymers by ROMP: Grafting-Through and Clicking-To

    E-print Network

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    Core-Clickable PEG-Branch-Azide Bivalent-Bottle-Brush Polymers by ROMP: Grafting)-branch-azide bivalent-brush polymers, facilitated by "graft-through" ring-opening metathesis polymerization time.10-12 Branched polymeric structures such as dendrimers, star poly- mers, bottle-brush polymers

  2. Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization from chitin nanofiber macroinitiator film.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuya; Yoshida, Sho; Kadokawa, Jun-Ichi

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports the preparation of chitin nanofiber-graft-poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (CNF-g-polyHEA) films by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of HEA monomer from a CNF macroinitiator film. First, a CNF film was prepared by regeneration from a chitin ion gel with an ionic liquid. Then, acylation of the CNF surface with ?-bromoisobutyryl bromide was carried out to obtain the CNF macroinitiator film having the initiating moieties (?-bromoisobutyrate group). The surface-initiated graft polymerization of HEA from the CNF macroinitiator film by ATRP was performed to produce the CNF-g-polyHEA film. The IR, XRD, and SEM measurements of the resulting film indicated the progress of the graft polymerization of HEA on surface of CNFs. The molecular weights of the grafted polyHEAs increased with prolonged polymerization times, which affected the mechanical properties of the films under tensile mode. PMID:25129725

  3. Improved polymer encapsulation on multiwalled carbon nanotubes by selective plasma induced controlled polymer grafting.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sunanda; Das, Tanya; Yue, C Y; Hu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Surface graft polymerization on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with several grafting mechanisms is nowadays a demanding field of nanocomposites in order to enhance the load carrying capacity, thus improving the overall performance of the composites. Here, we demonstrate the covalent grafting of a sulfonic acid terminated monomer, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid onto sidewalls of MWCNTs via a comparative study between oxygen plasma induced grafting (OPIG), nitrogen plasma induced grafting (NPIG), and nitrogen + oxygen plasma induced grafting (NOPIG) with the aim to identify the most effective process for the preparation of polymer encapsulated carbon nanotubes. From the detail surface analysis, it has been noticed that NOPIG offered much better surface grafting than that of the OPIG and NPIG. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that MWCNTs modified by NOPIG possess much thicker and uniform polymer coatings throughout. From thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the grafting degree was found to be ~80 wt % for the NOPIG sample. PMID:24191852

  4. Graft copolymerization of ethylacrylate onto xanthan gum, using potassium peroxydisulfate as an initiator.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sadanand; Mishra, Shivani B

    2011-11-01

    Graft copolymer of xanthan gum (XG) and ethylacrylate (EA) has been synthesized by free radical polymerization using potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS) as an initiator in an air atmosphere. The grafting parameters, i.e. grafting ratio and efficiency decrease with increase in concentration of xanthan gum from 0.050 mg/25 mL to 0.350 mg/25 mL, but these grafting parameters increase with increase in concentration of ethylacrylate from 9×10(-2) to 17×10(-2) ML(-1), and KPS from 15×10(-3) to 35×10(-3) ML(-1). The graft copolymer has been characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM analysis. The grafted copolymer was also evaluated as efficient Zn(2+) metal binder. The grafted copolymer shows improvement in the stability, solubility as well as their sorbing capacity. Thus graft copolymer formed could find applications in metal ion removal and in drug delivery. PMID:21693131

  5. PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM-GRAFTED-POLYACRYLONITRILE: SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ITS USE FOR SOLID REMOVAL FROM SEWAGE WASTEWATER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anuradha Mishra; Alpa Yadav; Monika Agarwal; Rajani Srinivasan

    Plantago psyllium mucilage (PSY), an anionic natural polysaccharide consisting of pentosan and uronic acid obtained from the seeds of Plantago psyllium (Plantago family), was grafted with acrylonitrile (AN). Graft copolymers were prepared by ceric ion initiated solution polymerization technique and were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. These copolymers are good flocculating agents for removal

  6. Styrene\\/Acrylonitrile Graft Natural Rubber as Compatibilizer in Rubber Blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siriya Angnanon; Pattarapan Prasassarakich; Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-01-01

    A graft copolymer of acrylonitrile (ACN) and styrene (ST) on natural rubber (NR) was prepared by solution polymerization initiated by benzoyl peroxide. The effect of graft NR (GNR) applied as a compatibilizer for NR\\/nitrile rubber (NBR) blends on their mechanical and physical properties was investigated. The results revealed that the tensile properties and oil-swelling resistance of the blends increased with

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF REACTION CONDITIONS ON THE PROPERTIES OF GRAFTED NATURAL RUBBER WITH ACRYLONITRILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charun Bunyakan; Jarun Phumnok

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto natural rubber was successfully prepared by emulsion polymerization process using cumene hydroperoxide and tetraethylene pentamine as an initiator. The influences of initial monomer concentration, initial initiator concentration and reaction temperature on particle size, particle size distribution, 300% modulus and swelling properties of grafted NR with AN have been investigated.. The results indicated that the

  8. Photoactivated surface grafting from PVDF surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelot, Thomas; Le, Xuan Tuan; Jégou, Pascale; Viel, Pascal; Boizot, Bruno; Baudin, Cécile; Palacin, Serge

    2011-09-01

    Economic and easy methods to tune surface properties of polymers as Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) without altering bulk properties are of major interest for different applications as biotechnological devices, medical implant device… UV irradiation appears as one of the simplest, easy and safe method to modify surface properties. In the case of self-initiated grafting, it is generally assumed that the pre-treatment of the PVDF surface with UV irradiation can yield alkyl and per-oxy radicals originating from breaking bonds and capable of initiating the subsequent surface grafting polymerizations. Surprisingly, the present work shows that it is possible to obtain polymer grafting using low energetic UV-A irradiation (3.1-3.9 eV) without breaking PVDF bonds. An EPR study has been performed in order to investigate the nature of involved species. The ability of the activated PVDF surface to graft different kinds of hydrophilic monomers using the initiated surface polymerization method has been tested and discussed on the basis of ATR FT-IR, XPS and NMR HRMAS results.

  9. Elucidating the graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto wood-fiber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Román-Aguirre; A. Márquez-Lucero; E. A. Zaragoza-Contreras

    2004-01-01

    Graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto wood-fiber, in dispersed media, was studied as function of temperature, concentration of redox initiator and surfactant. Results showed that grafting and emulsion polymerization processes were strongly related to those variables. In order to elucidate the actual grafting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) onto wood-fiber, series of analysis were carefully performed. Scanning electron microscopy showed the

  10. Structure, optical and thermal decomposition characters of LDPE graft copolymers synthesized by gamma irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Madani

    2010-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer was grafted onto low density polyethylene by the direct method of radiation grafting. The\\u000a effect of cohesive energy density of different organic solvents on the degree of grafting was investigated. It was found that\\u000a the extent of grafting depends largely on the kind of solvent, in which the highest degree of grafting was achieved in the

  11. Graft Copolymerization of Poly(methyl Methacrylate) onto Wool by the Potassium Persulfate-Thiomalic Acid Redox Couple in the Presence of Atmospheric Oxygen. Part I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Shukla; G. K. Sharma; R. K. Tewari; S. K. Shukla

    1984-01-01

    The graft copolymerization of poly (methyl methacrylate) [PMMA] onto wool initiated by the potassium persulfate-thiomalic acid (TMA) redox couple has been investigated in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. The percentage of grafting efficiency and polymerization as a function of initiator, activator, monomer, temperature, time, and wool was estimated. Evidence of grafting was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. It was observed that

  12. Preparation and characterization of chemically stable polymer electrolyte membranes by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of four monomers into ETFE films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinhua Chen; Masaharu Asano; Tetsuya Yamaki; Masaru Yoshida

    2006-01-01

    To develop a highly chemically stable polymer electrolyte membrane for application in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), four styrene derivative monomers, m,p-methylstyrene (MeSt), p-tert-butylstyrene (tBuSt), divinylbenzene (DVB) and bis(p,p-vinyl phenyl) ethane (BVPE) were graft copolymerized into poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films followed by sulfonation and hydrolysis. The latter two monomers were used as crosslinkers. The graft copolymerization was carried out by

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Eco-friendly Composite: Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Grafted Expanded Graphite\\/Polyaniline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mincong Zhu; Xin Qing; Kanzhu Li; Wei Qi; Ruijing Su; Jun Xiao; Qianqian Zhang; Dengxin Li; Yingchen Zhang; Ailian Liu

    \\u000a In this paper, synthesis and characterization of poly(ethylene glycol)- grafted expanded graphite\\/polyaniline (PEG-grafted\\u000a EG\\/PANi) as a novel ecofriendly composite material was reported. EG as substrate prepared from expandable graphite was firstly\\u000a synthesized by in-situ polymerization at the presence of aniline (An) to obtain EG\\/PANi, and then graft polymerization with\\u000a as-prepared PEG-grafted PANi (PEG-g-PANi) composite under no tough conditions. Structural characteristics

  14. The synthesis of CDA- g-PMMA copolymers through atom transfer radical polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawa Shen; Yong Huang

    2004-01-01

    Graft copolymer of cellulose diacetate (CDA) and PMMA was synthesized through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The residual hydroxyl groups on the diacetate cellulose reacted with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide to yield 2-bromoisobutyryl groups known to be an efficient initiator for ATRP. Then the functional CDA was used as macroinitiator in the ATRP of MMA. The polymerization was carried out in the

  15. Polymer Grafted Janus Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Priftis, Dimitrios [ORNL; Sakellariou, Georgios [ORNL; Baskaran, Durairaj [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Hadjichristidis, Nikos [University of Athens, Athens, Greece

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel and facile strategy to modify the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with two chemically different polymer brushes utilizing the grafting from technique. A [4 + 2] Diels Alder cycloaddition reaction was used to functionalize multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with two different precursor initiators, one for ring opening polymerization (ROP) and one for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The binary functionalized MWNTs were used for the simultaneous surface initiated polymerizations of different monomers resulting in polymer grafted MWNTs that can form Janus type structures under appropriate conditions. 1H NMR, FTIR and Raman spectra showed that the precursor initiators were successfully synthesized and covalently attached on the CNT surface. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the grafted polymer content varies when different monomer ratios and polymerization times are used. The presence of an organic layer around the CNTs was observed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) proved that the glass transition (Tg) and melting (Tm) temperatures of the grafted polymers are affected by the presence of the CNTs, while circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated that the PLLA ahelix conformation remains intact.

  16. Polymer Grafted Nanoparticle-based Oil Dispersants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daehak; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2015-03-01

    Particle-based oil dispersants mainly composed of inorganic nanoparticles such as silica nanoparticles are considered as environmentally friendly oil dispersants due to their biocompatibility and relatively low toxicity. The oil-water interfacial tension is reduced when nanoparticles segregate to the oil-water interface and this segregation is improved by grafting interfacially active polymer brushes. In this study, surfactant-like amphiphilic block copolymers were grafted from silica nanoparticles using an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method in order to increase their interfacial activity. We have studied the interfacial activity of such hybrid nanoparticles using pendant drop interfacial tension measurements, and their structure using small angle X-ray scattering. Amphiphilic copolymer grafted nanoparticles significantly reduced oil-water interfacial tension compared to the interfacial tension reduction induced by homopolymer grafted nanoparticles or the corresponding free ungrafted copolymer. Moreover, hard and stable oil-water emulsions were formed by applying the block copolymer grafted nanoparticles due to the formation of interparticle network structures, which were observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS)

  17. Synthesis of ethylene-propylene rubber graft copolymers by borane approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, T.C.; Janvikul, W.; Bernard, R.; Jiang, G.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new method to prepare graft copolymers which have an EP rubber backbone and several free radical polymerized polymers grafted thereto. The process involves hydroboration of commercial EPDM rubbers, such as poly(ethylene-co-propylene-co-1,4-hexadiene) and poly(ethylene-co-propylene-co-5-ethylidene-2-norbornene), with 9-borabicyclononane (9-BBN). The resulting secondary alkyl-9-BBN moieties in the EPDM copolymer were then exposed to oxygen in the presence of free radical polymerizable monomers. Under certain conditions, the selective autoxidation reaction of secondary alkyl-9-BBN took place to create desirable polymeric radicals which can in situ initiate free radical polymerization. High graft efficiency was observed with controllable copolymer compositions. The graft copolymer of EP-g-PMMA is used to show the chemistry as well as some of the physical properties.

  18. Preparation of poly(ether ether ketone)-based polymer electrolytes for fuel cell membranes using grafting technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin Hasegawa; Yasuyuki Suzuki; Yasunari Maekawa

    2008-01-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK)-based polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) was successfully prepared by radiation grafting of a styrene monomer into PEEK films and the consequent selective sulfonation of the grafting chains in the film state. Using milder sulfonation, the sulfonation reactions proceeded at the grafted chains in preference to the phenylene rings of PEEK main chains; as a result, the grafted

  19. Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of mixtures of styrene and acrylamide onto cellulose acetate. IV. Studies on some physical properties and structural characterization by means of scanning electron microscopy. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.N.; Maldas, D.

    1984-05-01

    Binary mixtures of monomers, e.g., styrene and acrylamide in 1:1 methanol:water solution, were grafted onto cellulose acetate film by taking recourse to preirradiation grafting procedure. The surface modification of the films due to grafting was examined by means of scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties, e.g., tensile strength elongation at break, and elasticity as well as water vapor permeability of the grafted films, were investigated. In the case of ungrafted films or when acrylamide was grafted to a low extent, the film surfaces were smooth and hence were not modified to any significant extent. But when acrylamide was grated appreciably, or when styrene was grafted singly or in binary mixture with acrylamide, the surfaces were found to be covered with fibrils. The pattern of the surface modification also changes with the increase of the extent of grafting. The observed properties of the grafted films were explained on the basis of the electron microscopic results. 18 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Preparation of functionalized polystyrene latexes by radiation-induced miniemulsion polymerization using a Y-type polymerizable surfactant as sole stabilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhicheng; Zhang, Qianfeng

    2009-11-01

    Functionalized polystyrene latexes were prepared by miniemulsion polymerization using a Y-type polymerizable surfactant bearing a carboxylic acid group as sole stabilizers. Kinetics analysis showed that there was no constant rate stage, which coincided with the kinetics mechanism of the typical miniemulsion polymerization. The latexes obtained were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that the latexes prepared by miniemulsion polymerization initiated by gamma-ray had more narrowly particle size distribution compared with by potassium persulfate. XPS and FTIR results indicated that the carboxyl group was present on the surface of the polymer particles.

  1. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of polymeric materials using lipases as catalysts: a review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jianxu; Wu, Di; Xing, Zhen; Zhou, Yulin; Shi, Wei; Li, Quanshun

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades, enzymatic polymerization has rapidly developed and become an important polymer synthesis technique. However, the range of polymers resulting from enzymatic polymerization could be further expanded through combination with chemical methods. This review systematically introduces recent developments in the combination of lipase-catalyzed polymerization with atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), kinetic resolution, reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT), click reaction and carbene chemistry to construct polymeric materials like block, brush, comb and graft copolymers, hyperbranched and chiral polymers. Moreover, it presents a thorough and descriptive evaluation of future trends and perspectives concerning chemoenzymatic polymerization. It is expected that combining enzymatic polymerization with multiple chemical methods will be an efficient tool for producing more highly advanced polymeric materials. PMID:24768887

  2. Polymeric Materials for Tissue Engineering of Arterial Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Swathi; Qu, Zheng; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. The limited availability of healthy autologous vessels for bypass grafting procedures has led to the fabrication of prosthetic vascular conduits. Synthetic polymeric materials, while providing the appropriate mechanical strength, lack the compliance and biocompatibility that bioresorbable and naturally occurring protein polymers offer. Vascular tissue engineering approaches have emerged in order to meet the challenges of designing a vascular graft with long-term patency. In vitro culture techniques that have been explored with vascular cell seeding of polymeric scaffolds and the use of bioactive polymers for in situ arterial regeneration have yielded promising results. This review describes the development of polymeric materials in various tissue engineering strategies for the improvement in the mechanical and biological performance of an arterial substitute. PMID:19426609

  3. Temperature-Sensitive Polypropylene Membranes Prepared by Plasma Polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Liang; Shi, Ming-Kun; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Peurrung, Loni M.; Young, James S.

    2000-08-30

    PolyN-isopropylacylamide (PNIPAAm) was grafted on polypropylene (PP) microfiltration membranes using plasma polymerization. The surface of the grafted membrane was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy pictures demonstrated that the PNIPAAm can be grafted either on the surface or in the pores of the membrane. The morphology of the grafted membrane can be adjusted through monomer concentration and polymerization time. Surface properties with a reversible response to temperature change were observed by measuring the dynamic contact angle. Below the LCST of PNIPAAm, the grafted PP membrane exhibited a hydrophilic surface (advancing contact angle < 40?). Above the LCST, the surface changed to hydrophobic properties (advancing contact angle > 90?). We investigated the on-off characteristics of the grafted membrane by measuring water flux through the grafted membrane at different temperatures. The water flux can be varied from 25 to 7 500 kg/m2 per hr, depending on the temperature and pressure drop. The swelling PNIPAAm chains block the pores of the microfiltration membrane, and the flux decreases (off status). The PNIPAAm chains shrink above the LCST and open the pores of the microfiltration membrane. Thus the water flux increases (on status). The effect of pressure drop on the water flux of the grafted PP membrane was discussed. The rapid and remarkable changes in the pore size of the membrane may make it possible to use the grafted PP membranes as the carrier for a drug-delivery system. They would also be used as multifunctional separation membranes, control valves, and actuators.

  4. Humidity sensor composed of a microporous film of polyethylene-graft-poly-(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonate)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Sakai; V. L. Rao; Y. Sadaoka; M. Matsuguchi

    1987-01-01

    Inside a microporous polyethylene film, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid was graft polymerized by ultraviolet irradiation. A humidity sensor was fabricated by depositing gold electrodes on both sides of the grafted film. The impedance was measured as a function of humidity for the acid and alkali salts of sulfonate. The sensor has long term stability and is resistant to water.

  5. Light-responsive polymer surfaces via postpolymerization modification of grafted polymer-brush structures.

    PubMed

    Dübner, Matthias; Spencer, Nicholas D; Padeste, Celestino

    2014-12-16

    Light-induced, spatially well-defined, reversible switching of surface properties enables the creation of remote-controlled smart surfaces. We have taken advantage of the unique high-resolution structuring capabilities of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) interference lithography to produce nanostructured photoresponsive polymer brushes. Patterns of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) were grafted from two different 100 ?m thick fluoropolymer substrates by means of a radiation-initiated, grafting-from approach based on free-radical polymerization (FRP). Photochromic properties were introduced via novel one- or two-step postpolymerization modifications with spiropyran (SP) derivatives, which allowed us to control the number of photochromic groups on the polymer brushes. Depending on the degree of functionalization and the local chemical environment, the SP moieties can open upon UV-light exposure to form zwitterionic, deeply colored, and fluorescent merocyanines (MCs) and reclose to the colorless SP configuration via thermal or visible light-induced relaxation. Switching kinetics were studied by means of time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and compared with kinetic measurements of the SP moiety in solution. The results indicated the importance, for the intensity of the switching, of the local chemical environment provided by both the polymer brush and added solvents, and showed the predominant influence on the ring-closing kinetics of polar solvents, which stabilize the MC form. To allow further characterization of the polymer-brush arrangements on a macroscopic scale, similar, but unstructured brush systems were grafted from fluoropolymers after large-area activation using EUV radiation or argon plasma. All steps of the postpolymerization modification were characterized in detail using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. Furthermore, a light-induced reversible static-contact-angle switch with a range of up to 15° for PGMA-SP brushes and up to 30° for PMA-SP brushes was demonstrated upon alternating UV- and visible-light irradiation. PMID:25419582

  6. Synthesis and properties of silane-fluoroacrylate grafted starch.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jia; He, Ling

    2013-10-15

    The latex of silane-fluoroacrylate grafted starch for coating materials, VTMS-starch/P(MMA/BA/3FMA), is obtained by two step grafting reactions. Vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS) is primarily grafted onto starch by condensation between Si-OH and C-OH at 120 °C, and then the copolymer of methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (3FMA) is grafted onto the VTMS-starch by emulsion polymerization. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to confirm the chemically grafting reactions in every step. The conversion percent, grafting percent and grafting efficiency for VTMS-starch/p(MMA/BA/3FMA) latex indicate that the optimum conditions should be controlled at 75 °C for 1h as VTMS-starch/P(MMA/BA/3FMA) in 1/3 weight ratio. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis have revealed that the latexes exhibit the uniform spherical particles of 40-60 nm in a narrow size distribution. The latex films perform the obvious hydrophobic (107°) property, lower surface free energy (25-35 mN/m) and the higher thermostability (330-440 °C) than starch (51°, 51.32 mN/m, 100-330 °C). Dynamic thermomechanical analysis (DMA) shows that the latex film could gain considerable toughness and strength with an elongation at break of 39.45% and a tensile strength of 11.97 MPa. PMID:23987447

  7. Grafting of polystyrene on nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Dehonor, Mariamne; Masenelli-Varlot, Karine; González-Montiel, Alfonso; Gauthier, Catherine; Cavaillé, Jean-Yves; Terrones, Mauricio

    2007-10-01

    Polymer grafting of polystyrene (PS) on nitrogen-doped multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNx) was successfully obtained by a "grafting from" technique. The production method involves the immobilization of initiators, using wet chemistry, onto the nanotube surface, followed by an in situ surface-initiated polymerization. The polymer-grafting carbon nanotubes synthesis includes the free radical functionalization of CNx and the "controlled/living" Nitroxide Mediated Radical Polymerization (NMRP). The obtained products were studied using several microscopic techniques as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The characterization also includes thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance (ESR), among others. The analyzed samples were also compared with solutions fabricated by physical blending of the polymer and CNx nanotubes. These results indicate that the nanotube radical functionalization, the chemical grafting, and the polymerization reaction were obtained over CNx when NMRP method was successfully used, giving rise to a uniform PS layer of several nanometers grafted on the outer surface of the CNx nanotubes. Several properties of the PS-grafted CNx nanotubes were also studied. It is shown that the production method leads to a narrower distribution of the external diameters. Moreover, their solubilization in organic solvents is greatly improved. Finally, the dispersion of PS-grafted CNx into a PS matrix is studied to determine the differences in filler dispersion and interfacial adhesion strength, in comparison with nanocomposites elaborated with as-produced CNx. PMID:18330156

  8. The graft polymers from different species of lignin and acrylic acid: synthesis and mechanism study.

    PubMed

    Ye, De zhan; Jiang, Li; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Ming-hua; Zhang, Xi

    2014-02-01

    The influence of lignin species on the grafting mechanism of lignosulfonate (from eucalyptus and pine, recorded as HLS and SLS, respectively) with acrylic acid (AA) was investigated. The graft polymers were confirmed by the absorption of carbonyl groups in the FTIR spectra. The decreasing phenolic group's content (Ph-OH) is not only due to its participation as grafting site but also to the negative effect of initiator. In the initial period (0-60 min), HLS and SLS both accelerate the polymerization of AA. Additionally, Ph-OH group's content is proportional to product yield (Y%), monomer conversion (C%) and grafting efficiency (GE%), strongly indicating that it acts as active center. Nevertheless, compared with HLS, Y% and C% in SLS grafting system are lower though it has higher Ph-OH group's content, which is due to the quinonoid structure formed by the self-conjugated of phenoxy radical in Guaiacyl unit. Finally, the lignosulfonate grafting mechanism was proposed. PMID:24076194

  9. The preparation of graft copolymers of cellulose and cellulose derivatives using ATRP under homogeneous reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Fanny; Musa, Osama M; Hodgson, David R W; Cameron, Neil R

    2014-01-01

    In this comprehensive review, we report on the preparation of graft-copolymers of cellulose and cellulose derivatives using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) under homogeneous conditions. The review is divided into four sections according to the cellulosic material that is graft-copolymerised; (i) cellulose, (ii) ethyl cellulose, (iii) hydroxypropyl cellulose and (iv) other cellulose derivatives. In each section, the grafted synthetic polymers are described as well as the methods used for ATRP macro-initiator formation and graft-copolymerisation. The physical properties of the graft-copolymers including their self-assembly in solution into nanostructures and their stimuli responsive behaviour are described. Potential applications of the self-assembled graft copolymers in areas such as nanocontainers for drug delivery are outlined. PMID:25016958

  10. Polymeric materials in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skurat, Vladimir

    Paper of short review type. It is the continuation of and addition to previous review papers "V. E. Skurat. Polymers in Space. In: Encyclopedia of aerospace engineering, vol. 4, Wiley and sons, 2010; Ibid., 2012 (on line)". Following topics are considered: (1) Destruction of polymers by solar radiation with various wavelengths in different spectral regions (visible-UV, vacuum UV (VUV), deep UV, soft and hard X-rays) are discussed. In difference with common polymer photochemistry induced by UV radiation, directions of various routs of polymer phototransformations and their relative yields are greatly dependent on wavelength of light (photon energy) during illuminations in VUV, deep UV and X-ray regions. During last twenty years, intensive spacecraft investigations of solar spectrum show great periodic and spontaneous variations of radiation intensities in short-wavelengths regions - up to one - two decimal orders of magnitude for X-rays. As a result, during solar flares the absorbed dose on the polymer surfaces from X-rays can be compared with absorbed dose from VUV radiation. (2) Some new approaches to predictions of reaction efficiencies of fast orbital atomic oxygen in their interaction with polymeric materials are considered. (3) Some aspects of photocatalitic destruction of polymers in vacuum conditions by full-spectrum solar radiation are discussed. This process can take place in enamels containing semiconducting particles (TiO2, ZnO) as pigments. (4) Contamination of spacecraft surfaces from intrinsic outer atmosphere play important role not only from the point of view of deterioration of optical and thermophysical properties. Layers of SiO2 contaminations with nanometer thicknesses can greatly diminish mass losses from perfluorinated polymers under VUV irradiation.

  11. PVDF multifilament yarns grafted with polystyrene induced by ?-irradition: Influence of the grafting parameters on the mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmey, P.; Porté, M. C.; Baquey, Ch.

    2003-08-01

    The development of alternative prosthetic materials for cardiovascular applications has found growing interest due to the failure to date to be able to implement functional patent small diameter vascular grafts (?<5 mm). For instance, the successful implantation of small diameter polyester (PET) and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFEe) vascular grafts has not been achieved in humans. Our stategy is to work with a new multifilament yarns biomaterial, produced from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which shows suitable mechanical properties, such as a lower tensile modulus than PET and PTFEe. The required biological properties sought for (i.e. low thrombogenicity) could be achieved by "heparin-like" surface modification treatments in order to modify the thrombogenicity levels of the polymeric materials [Ann. Biomed. Eng. 7 (1979) 429]. A four step method is necessary to achieve this "heparin-like" surface transformation [J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52 (2000) 119]. The first step consists in grafting polystyrene onto the PVDF surface by ? irradiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of grafting parameters on the mechanical properties: (i) ?-ray irradiation time and (ii) grafting time of styrene monomers, which polymerize and form polystyrene bound to the PVDF surface.

  12. Anticancer Polymeric Nanomedicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Tong; Jianjun Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Polymers play important roles in the design of delivery nanocarriers for cancer therapies. Polymeric nanocarriers with anticancer drugs conjugated or encapsulated, also known as polymeric nanomedicines, form a variety of different architectures including polymer?drug conjugates, micelles, nanospheres, nanogels, vesicles, and dendrimers. This review focuses on the current state of the preclinical and clinical investigations of polymer?drug conjugates and polymeric micelles.

  13. Grafting of zwitterion from cellulose membranes via ATRP for improving blood compatibility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping-Sheng; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Xiang; Yuan, Bo; Wu, Shi-Shan; Shen, Jian; Lin, Si-Cong

    2009-10-12

    A p-vinylbenzyl sulfobetaine was grafted from cellulose membrane (CM) using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for blood compatibility improvement. Surface structure, wettability, morphology, and thermal stability of the CM substrates before and after modification were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement, water contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The results showed that zwitterionic brushes were successfully fabricated on the CM surfaces, and the content of the grafted layer increased gradually with the polymerization time. The blood compatibility of the CM substrates was evaluated by protein adsorption tests and platelet adhesion tests in vitro. It was found that all the CMs functionalized with zwitterionic brush showed improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion, even though the grafting polymerization was conducted for several minutes. PMID:19743844

  14. A Versatile Star PEG Grafting Method for the Generation of Nonfouling and Nonthrombogenic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Thalla, Pradeep Kumar; Contreras-García, Angel; Fadlallah, Hicham; Barrette, Jérémie; De Crescenzo, Gregory; Merhi, Yahye; Lerouge, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) grafting has a great potential to create nonfouling and nonthrombogenic surfaces, but present techniques lack versatility and stability. The present work aimed to develop a versatile PEG grafting method applicable to most biomaterial surfaces, by taking advantage of novel primary amine-rich plasma-polymerized coatings. Star-shaped PEG covalent binding was studied using static contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Fluorescence and QCM-D both confirmed strong reduction of protein adsorption when compared to plasma-polymerized coatings and pristine poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET). Moreover, almost no platelet adhesion was observed after 15?min perfusion in whole blood. Altogether, our results suggest that primary amine-rich plasma-polymerized coatings offer a promising stable and versatile method for PEG grafting in order to create nonfouling and nonthrombogenic surfaces and micropatterns. PMID:23509823

  15. Monolithic molecularly imprinted polymeric capillary columns for isolation of aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Szumski, Micha?; Grzywi?ski, Damian; Prus, Wojciech; Buszewski, Bogus?aw

    2014-10-17

    Monolithic molecularly imprinted polymers extraction columns have been prepared in fused-silica capillaries by UV or thermal polymerization in a two-step process. First, a poly-(trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) (polyTRIM) core monolith was synthesized either by UV or thermal polymerization. Then it was grafted with the mixture of methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer, ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as a cross-linking agent, 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (DMC) as an aflatoxin-mimicking template, toluene as a porogen solvent and 2,2-azobis-(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN) as an initiator of the polymerization reaction. Different thermal condition of the photografting and different concentrations of the grafting mixture were tested during polymerization. The extraction capillary columns were evaluated in the terms of their hydrodynamic and chromatographic properties. Retention coefficients for aflatoxin B1 and DMC were used for assessment of the selectivity and imprinting factor. The obtained results indicate that the temperature of photografting and concentration of the grafting mixture are key parameters that determine the quality of the prepared MIPs. From the MIP columns characterized by the highest permeability the column of the highest imprinting factor was applied for isolation of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 from the model aqueous sample followed by on-line chromatographic separation. The process was performed using a micro-MISPE-microLC-LIF system of a novel design, which allowed for detection of the eluates from the sample preparation part as well as from the chromatographic separation. PMID:25218633

  16. Preparation and evaluation of inhalable itraconazole chitosan based polymeric micelles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the potential of chitosan based polymeric micelles as a nanocarrier system for pulmonary delivery of itraconazole (ITRA). Methods Hydrophobically modified chitosan were synthesized by conjugation of stearic acid to the hydrophilic depolymerized chitosan. FTIR and 1HNMR were used to prove the chemical structure and physical properties of the depolymerized and the stearic acid grafted chitosan. ITRA was entrapped into the micelles and physicochemical properties of the micelles were investigated. Fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic laser light scattering and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the physicochemical properties of the prepared micelles. The in vitro pulmonary profile of polymeric micelles was studied by an air-jet nebulizer connected to a twin stage impinger. Results The polymeric micelles prepared in this study could entrap up to 43.2±2.27??g of ITRA per milliliter. All micelles showed mean diameter between 120–200?nm. The critical micelle concentration of the stearic acid grafted chitosan was found to be 1.58×10-2?mg/ml. The nebulization efficiency was up to 89% and the fine particle fraction (FPF) varied from 38% to 47%. The micelles had enough stability to remain encapsulation of the drug during nebulization process. Conclusions In vitro data showed that stearic acid grafted chitosan based polymeric micelles has a potential to be used as nanocarriers for delivery of itraconazole through inhalation. PMID:23351398

  17. Free radical grafting kinetics of acrylamide onto a blend of starch/chitosan/alginate.

    PubMed

    Sorour, Mohamed; El-Sayed, Marwa; El Moneem, Nabil Abd; Talaat, Hala; Shaalan, Hayam; El Marsafy, Sahar

    2013-10-15

    Grafting of monomer onto polymer backbone is one of the effective and accessible methods for the chemical modification of polysaccharides. Grafting of acrylamide (AAm) onto polysaccharides blend (PsB) composed of starch, chitosan and alginate has been carried out using potassium persulfate (KPS) as an initiator. The kinetics of the grafting polymerization also has been studied. The grafting parameters have been evaluated by changing the initial concentrations of AAm from 8 to 16 g, PsB from 6 to 14 g and KPS from 0.2 to 1 g. Evidence of grafting has been obtained from FTIR, XRD and TGA. The kinetics of the grafting polymerization also has been studied. The grafting rate equation of the produced hydrogel (PsB-g-AAm) hydrogel has been expressed by: Rg=k[AAm] [PsB](0.5) [KPS](0.5). The grafting rate is a first order dependence to [AAm] initial concentration and square root to [PsB] and [KPS] initial concentrations in the used concentrations range. PMID:23987368

  18. Calcar bone graft

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, W.L.; Paul, H.A.; Merritt, K.; Sharkey, N.

    1986-01-01

    A canine model was developed to investigate the use of an autogeneic iliac bone graft to treat the calcar deficiency commonly found at the time of revision surgery for femoral component loosening. Five large male mixed-breed dogs had bilateral total hip arthroplasty staged at three-month intervals, and were sacrificed at six months. Prior to cementing the femoral component, an experimental calcar defect was made, and a bicortical iliac bone graft was fashioned to fill the defect. Serial roentgenograms showed the grafts had united with no resorption. Technetium-99 bone scans showed more uptake at three months than at six months in the graft region. Disulfine blue injection indicated all grafts were perfused at both three and six months. Thin section histology, fluorochromes, and microradiographs confirmed graft viability in all dogs. Semiquantitative grading of the fluorochromes indicated new bone deposition in 20%-50% of each graft at three months and 50%-80% at six months. Although the calcar bone graft was uniformly successful in this canine study, the clinical application of this technique should be evaluated by long-term results in humans.

  19. Controlled atom transfer radical polymerization of MMA onto the surface of high-density functionalized graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Chung, Jin Suk; Hur, Seung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    We report on the grafting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) onto the surface of high-density functionalized graphene oxides (GO) through controlled radical polymerization (CRP). To increase the density of surface grafting, GO was first diazotized (DGO), followed by esterification with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide, which resulted in an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator-functionalized DGO-Br. The functionalized DGO-Br was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, and XRD patterns. PMMA chains were then grafted onto the DGO-Br surface through a 'grafting from' technique using ATRP. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results revealed that polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) follows CRP. Thermal studies show that the resulting graphene-PMMA nanocomposites have higher thermal stability and glass transition temperatures (T g) than those of pristine PMMA. PMID:25114639

  20. Aspects of Thermal Graft Copolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate onto Ethyl Cellulose in Homogeneous Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Abdel-Razik

    1997-01-01

    Homogeneous graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto ethyl cellulose (EC) using radical initiators such as ammonium persulfate (APS), potassium persulfate (KPS), and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was carried out in benzene\\/DMSO (1\\/1 v\\/v) mixed-solvent system. The grafting yield (GY%) was determined as functions of the polymerization temperature and of the concentrations of a monomer, ethyl cellulose, and an initiator. Several

  1. ATRP of Amphiphilic Graft Copolymers Based on PVDF and Their Use as Membrane Additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Hester; P. Banerjee; Y.-Y. Won; A. Akthakul; M. H. Acar; A. M. Mayes

    2002-01-01

    The direct preparation of amphiphilic graft copolymers from commercial poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is demonstrated. Here, direct initiation of the secondary fluorinated site of PVDF facilitates grafting of the hydrophilic comonomer. Amphiphilic comb copolymer derivatives of PVDF having poly(methacrylic acid) side chains (PVDF-g- PMAA) and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) side chains (PVDF-g-POEM) are prepared using this method.

  2. Design of modified plastic surfaces for antimicrobial applications: Impact of ionizing radiation on the physical and mechanical properties of polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riquet, Anne-Marie; Delattre, Jennifer; Vitrac, Olivier; Guinault, Alain

    2013-10-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene (PP) sheets was carried out by radiation induced graft polymerization of hydrophilic functional molecules such as N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) and [2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride, which is a quaternary ammonium salt (QAS). Polypropylene sheets were activated prior to the grafting reaction by using electron beam radiation. The changes in morphology, crystallinity and tensile parameters like deformation and stress at yield and deformation at break of PP after irradiation were investigated. The results showed that a minor crystalline reorganization takes place during the irradiation of PP at 100 kGy. The grafting has been observed to be strongly dependent on the monomer dilution in the reaction medium. After grafting of QAS (40%) and DMA (20%) it was possible to develop highly hydrophilic surfaces (water contact angle comprised between 30 and 41°). The surfaces of virgin, irradiated and grafted PP were studied using polarized optical microscopy (POM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Spherical particles (i.e. polystyrene or silica beads) adhering to the modified samples were studied according to the surface parameters. Adhesion tests confirmed the strong influence of substrate type (mainly hydrophilicity and roughness) and to a lesser extent underlined the role of electrostatic interactions for the design of plastic surfaces for antimicrobial applications.

  3. Chemically induced graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto polyurethane surface for improving blood compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chunli; Wang, Miao; Cai, Xianmei; Huang, Xiaobo; Li, Li; Zhu, Haomiao; Shen, Jian; Yuan, Jiang

    2011-11-01

    To improve hydrophilicity and blood compatibility properties of polyurethane (PU) film, we chemically induced graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) onto the surface of polyurethane film using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. The effects of grafting temperature, grafting time, monomer and initiator concentrations on the grafting yields were studied. The maximum grafting yield value was obtained 0.0275 g/cm2 for HEMA. Characterization of the films was carried out by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), water contact angle measurements. ATR-FTIR data showed that HEMA was successfully grafted onto the PU films surface. Water contact angle measurement demonstrated the grafted films possessed a relatively hydrophilic surface. The blood compatibility of the grafted films was preliminarily evaluated by a platelet-rich plasma adhesion test and hemolysis test. The results of platelet adhesion experiment showed that polyurethane grafted polymerization with monomer of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate had good blood compatibility featured by the low platelet adhesion. Hemolysis rate of the PU-g-PHEMA films was dramatically decreased than the ungrafted PU films. This kind of new biomaterials grafted with HEMA monomers might have a potential usage for biomedical applications.

  4. Kinetics of surface grafting on polyisoprene latexes by reaction calorimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wiyong Kangwansupamonkon; Christopher M. Fellows; David J. Lamb; Robert G. Gilbert; Suda Kiatkamjornwong

    2004-01-01

    The two-component redox-initiation system, cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) and tetraethylene pentamine (TEPA), was used to polymerize dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) in the presence of synthetic polyisoprene latexes. The modified latex particles are postulated to possess a ‘hairy layer’ of surface-grafted poly(DMAEMA) chains formed via an abstraction reaction between cumyloxy radicals and the isoprene moieties present in the seed polymer. The modified latexes

  5. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) grafted with 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate for silyl functional membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingbo Chen; Hern Kim

    2008-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) was modified by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) directly from the secondary fluoride group of the PVDF backbone. 3-trimethoxysilyl propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA) was initiated to polymerization by copper (I) chloride (CuCl) and 4,4?-dimethyl-2,2?-dipyridyl (DMDP) in an N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP) solution. NMR, FTIR–ATR, and XRD spectra of the grafted polymers showed that the poly-(TMSPMA) (PTMSPMA) side chains were

  6. Polypeptoid Brushes by Surface-Initiated Polymerization of N-Substituted Glycine N-Carboxyanhydrides

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maximilian; Fetsch, Corinna; Amin, Ihsan; Jordan, Rainer; Luxenhofer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Polypeptoid brushes were synthesized by surface-initiated polymerization of N-substituted glycine N-carboxyanhydrides (NNCAs) on self assembled amine monolayers. Using the presented grafting from approach, polypeptoid brush thicknesses of approx. 40 nm could be obtained as compared previously reported brush thicknesses of 4 nm. Moreover, hydrophilic, hydrophobic and amphiphilic polymer brushes were realized which are expected to have valuable applic-tions as non-fouling surfaces and as model or references systems for surface grafted polypeptides. PMID:23663172

  7. Modification of Nanofiltration Membranes by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization for Produced Water Filtration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Namrata Tomer; Subrata Mondal; Daniel Wandera; S. Ranil Wickramasinghe; Scott M. Husson

    2009-01-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-block-ethylene glycol methacrylate) were grafted from commercial polyamide thin-film composite nanofiltration membranes using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. The results from Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the successful grafting of both polymers from the membrane surfaces. Contact angle measurements were done to illustrate the temperature responsive wettability of the modified membrane surfaces. Modified membranes were used in flux measurements

  8. Calcific stenotic jump graft.

    PubMed Central

    Padmakumar, R.; Krishnamoorthy, K. M.; Tharakan, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    A young lady with post-subclavian coarctation and cranial hypertension is discussed. She had a jump graft from left subclavian artery to descending aorta, and presented 18 years later with hypertension, calcification of the graft with a gradient of 40 mmHg across it. In the meantime, she also developed moderate aortic regurgitation on a bicuspid aortic valve. Management strategies including trans-catheter options are discussed. We present our reservations on trans-catheter options in an occluded dacron graft. PMID:16749963

  9. Calcium carbonate crystallization in the presence of modified polysaccharides and linear polymeric additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matahwa, H.; Ramiah, V.; Sanderson, R. D.

    2008-10-01

    Crystallization of calcium carbonate was performed in the presence of grafted polysaccharides, polyacrylamide (PAM) and polyacrylic acid (PAA). The grafted polysaccharides gave crystal morphologies that were different from the unmodified polysaccharides but similar to the ones given by homopolymers of the grafted chains. PAM-grafted ?-cellulose gave rectangular platelets that aggregated to form 'spherical' crystals on the surface of the fiber, whereas PAA grafted ?-cellulose gave spherical crystals on the surface of the fiber. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy showed that PAM-grafted ?-cellulose, PAM as well as the control (no polymeric additive) gave calcite crystals at both 25 and 80 °C. However, the PAA-grafted ?-cellulose and PAA homopolymer gave calcite and vaterite crystals at 25 °C with calcite and aragonite crystals along with traces of vaterite being formed at 80 °C. The fiber surface coverage by these crystals was more on the acrylic- and acrylamide-grafted cellulose than on the ungrafted ?-cellulose. The evolution of CaCO 3 polymorphs as well as crystal morphology in PAA-grafted starch was similar to that of PAA-grafted ?-cellulose at the two temperatures employed.

  10. Investigation of space radiation effects in polymeric film-forming materials. Technical report, 12 Jun 1974 - 11 Aug. 1975. [Literature search 1958 to present

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Giori; T. Yamauchi; F. Jarke

    1975-01-01

    The literature search in the field of ultraviolet radiation effects that was conducted during the previous program, Contract No. NAS1-12549, has been expanded to include the effects of charged particle radiation and high energy electromagnetic radiation. The literature from 1958 to 1969 was searched manually, while the literature from 1969 to present was searched by using a computerized keyword system.

  11. Fabrication of Thiol-Ene "Clickable" Copolymer-Brush Nanostructures on Polymeric Substrates via Extreme Ultraviolet Interference Lithography.

    PubMed

    Dübner, Matthias; Gevrek, Tugce N; Sanyal, Amitav; Spencer, Nicholas D; Padeste, Celestino

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a new approach to grafting thiol-reactive nanopatterned copolymer-brush structures on polymeric substrates by means of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) interference lithography. The copolymer brushes were designed to contain maleimide functional groups as thiol-reactive centers. Fluoropolymer films were exposed to EUV radiation at the X-ray interference lithography beamline (XIL-II) at the Swiss Light Source, in order to create radical patterns on their surfaces. The radicals served as initiators for the copolymerization of thiol-ene "clickable" brushes, composed of a furan-protected maleimide monomer (FuMaMA) and different methacrylates, namely, methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (EGMA), or poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA). Copolymerization with ethylene-glycol-containing monomers provides antibiofouling properties to these surfaces. The number of reactive centers on the grafted brush structures can be tailored by varying the monomer ratios in the feed. Grafted copolymers were characterized by using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The reactive maleimide methacrylate (MaMA) units were utilized to conjugate thiol-containing moieties using the nucleophilic Michael-addition reaction, which proceeds at room temperature without the need for any metal-based catalyst. Using this approach, a variety of functionalities was introduced to yield polyelectrolytes, as well as fluorescent and light-responsive polymer-brush structures. Functionalization of the brush structures was demonstrated via ATR-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy, and was also indicated by a color switch. Furthermore, grafted surfaces were generated via plasma activation, showing a strongly increased wettability for polyelectrolytes and a reversible switch in static water contact angle (CA) of up to 18° for P(EGMA-co-MaMA-SP) brushes, upon exposure to alternating visible and UV-light irradiation. PMID:25978723

  12. Radiation-induced solid-state polymerization in an acrylamide-water system: The effect of phase transformations of metastable high-pressure ice VIII

    SciTech Connect

    Kiryukhin, D.P.; Barkalov, I.M. [Institute of Chemical Physics in Chernogolovka, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Barkalov, O.I. [Institute of Solid-State Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-07-01

    A drastic suppression of the chain post polymerization process in the quenched high-pressure phase of an acrylamide-water eutectic mixture was observed upon warming of the samples irradiated with {gamma}-rays at 77 K. This effect is explained by dispersion of the samples in the temperature region of the transition of the quenched high-pressure phase into the equilibrium phase ({approximately}150K). The size of the resulting microcrystals of monomer was estimated to be approximately 0.1 {mu}m.

  13. Encapsulation of Inorganic Particles by Dispersion Polymerization in Polar Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elodie Bourgeat-Lami; Jacques Lang

    1998-01-01

    Polymer encapsulation of small silica particles, using dispersion polymerization of styrene in aqueous ethanol medium with poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as stabilizer, is described. Silica particles, directly synthesized by the Stöber process in an aqueous ethanol medium, are either unreacted (hydrophilic character) or coated with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MPS) (hydrophobic character), which is grafted at the silica particle surface. When the bare

  14. Coronary artery bypass grafting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Takazawa; Yasuyuki Hosoda; Taira Yamamoto; Shiori Kawasaki; Shiro Sasaguri

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term results of coronary artery bypass grafting in Japanese patients who were\\u000a followed more than 10 years after surgery, and, without resorting to actuarial methods, to determine the factors that influence\\u000a long-term survival.Subjects and Methods: From January 1984 through December 1986, 376 patients received coronary artery bypass grafting at the

  15. 21 CFR 872.6070 - Ultraviolet activator for polymerization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6070 ...ultraviolet radiation intended to polymerize (set) resinous dental pit and fissure sealants or restorative...

  16. 21 CFR 872.6070 - Ultraviolet activator for polymerization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6070 ...ultraviolet radiation intended to polymerize (set) resinous dental pit and fissure sealants or restorative...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6070 - Ultraviolet activator for polymerization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6070 ...ultraviolet radiation intended to polymerize (set) resinous dental pit and fissure sealants or restorative...

  18. 21 CFR 872.6070 - Ultraviolet activator for polymerization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6070 ...ultraviolet radiation intended to polymerize (set) resinous dental pit and fissure sealants or restorative...

  19. 21 CFR 872.6070 - Ultraviolet activator for polymerization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6070 ...ultraviolet radiation intended to polymerize (set) resinous dental pit and fissure sealants or restorative...

  20. synthesis of novel four armed PE-PCL grafted superparamagnetic and biocompatible nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Panja, Sudipta; Saha, Biswajit; Ghosh, S K; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2013-10-01

    Novel biocompatible polymer immobilized superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNP) are prepared by grafting four armed pentaerythritol poly(?-polycaprolactone) (PE-PCL) onto silane modified MNP. The MNPs are synthesized by hydrothermal process and its modification using (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (TMAS) coating is done by the sol-gel technique. The pentaerythritol (PE) initiated ring-opening polymerization (ROP) is carried out to prepare four armed PE-PCL. The reaction is shown to follow first order kinetics. The structure of PE-PCL is confirmed by NMR spectrum and MALDI-TOF analysis. The in situ grafting of PE-PCL onto modified MNP has been carried out by using 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) as an intermediate linker. The grafting density as determined by TGA analysis has been found to be significantly higher than previously reported linear PCL grafted MNPs in the literature. This leads to uniform dispersion of grafted MNPs which still is a challenging task in contemporary research. The effective dispersion of MNP into PE-PCL matrix is analyzed by HRTEM. The saturation magnetization of the PE-PCL grafted MNPs is significantly high and this can be tailored further by varying the grafting density. The biocompatibility of polymer grafted nanoparticles is confirmed by MTT assay using HeLa cell line. The superparamagnetic and biocompatible novel PE-PCL grafted MNP so prepared would have manifold potential applications including in therapy and targeted drug delivery. PMID:24041315

  1. Preparation and properties of plasma-initiated graft copolymerized membranes for blood plasma separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, M.; Shimura, K.; Seita, Y.; Yamashita, S.; Takahashi, A.; Masuoka, T.

    A hydrophilic composite membrane for blood plasma separation has been prepared by surface graft copolymerization initiated by low-temperature plasma (LTP). After short LTP pre-irradiation onto a microporous polypropylene (PP) membrane, N-N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA) vapor was introduced for grafting. The PP membrane had a 0.45 ?m effective pore size and a 130 ?m thickness. The rate of DMAA grafting onto PP was very high, even in vapor-solid phase reaction under reduced pressure; DMAA 1 mm Hg (133Pa). The percentage of grafted poly-DMAA (PDMAA) reached 15% within 5 min post graft polymerization, and the membrane surface, including the interior surface of pores, became completely hydrophilic. There was no apparent change observed in the membrane morphology in the dry state after the PDMAA-grafted layer was formed. However, water flux significantly decreased, probably due to swelling of the PDMAA-grafted layer. With a grafting yield below 17%, the PDMAA-grafted PP (PP-g-PDMAA) membrane showed a good separation capability of plasma from whole blood. The PP-g-PDMAA membrane exhibited low complement activating potential, high sieving coefficient for plasma proteins and high blood compatibility. Decreases in adsorption of blood cells, plasma proteins, and other biomolecules may be the reason for the membrane performance.

  2. Preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes grafted with N-vinyl imidazole\\/acrylic acid binary monomers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zaki Ajji; Ali M. Ali

    2005-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) films were grafted with two monomers using gamma radiation, acrylic acid and N-vinyl imidazole. The influence of different parameters on the grafting yield was investigated as: type of solvent and solvent composition, comonomer concentration and composition, addition of mineral acids, and irradiation dose. Water uptake in respect to the grafting yield was also evaluated.The ability of the grafted

  3. Synthesis of novel size exclusion chromatography support by surface initiated aqueous atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Coad, Bryan R; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Haynes, Charles A; Brooks, Donald E

    2007-11-01

    We report the use of aqueous surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) to grow polymer brushes from a "gigaporous" polymeric chromatography support for use as a novel size exclusion chromatography medium. Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) was grown from hydrolyzable surface initiators via SI-ATRP catalyzed by 1,1,4,7,10,10-hexamethyltriethylenetetramine (HMTETA)/CuCl. Grafted polymer was characterized semiquantitatively by ATR-FTIR and also cleaved and quantitatively characterized for mass, molecular weight, and polydispersity via analytical SEC/MALLS. The synthesis provides control over graft density and allows the creation of dense brushes. Incorporation of negative surface charge was found to be crucial for improving the initiation efficiency. As polymer molecular weight and density could be controlled through reaction conditions, the resulting low-polydispersity grafted polymer brush medium is shown to be suitable for use as a customizable size exclusion chromatography medium for investigating the principals of entropic interaction chromatography. All packed media investigated showed size-dependent partitioning of solutes, even for low graft density systems. Increasing the molecular weight of the grafts allowed solutes more access to the volume fraction in the column available for partitioning. Compared to low graft density media, increased graft density caused eluted solute probes to be retained less within the column and allowed for greater size discrimination of probes whose molecular weights were less than 10(4) kDa. PMID:17924673

  4. Treatment of oil in water emulsions by ceramic-supported polymeric membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.P.; Cohen, Y.; Monbouquette, H.G. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1994-12-31

    A novel membrane was developed by growing polymer chains from the surface of a porous ceramic support, resulting in a composite membrane which combines the mechanical properties of the inorganic membrane with the selective interactions of the polymer. The configuration of the grafted polymer brush layer is determined by solvent-polymer interactions, with a hydrophilic polymer being stretched away from the surface by aqueous solutions and collapsed against the surface by organic solvents. This behavior of the grafted chains provides Ceramic-Supported Polymeric (CSP) membranes with unique properties for certain water treatment applications. One application envisioned for these CSP membranes, in which the selectivity is influenced by interactions between the solvent and the grafted polymer, is the cross-flow filtration of an oil-in-water emulsion. In this case, a hydrophilic grafted Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) brush layer expanded into the pore volume due to the affinity of the polymer for water. These extended grafted chains preferentially allow the passage of water over oil, producing a permeate stream with a lower total organic carbon content compared to an unmodified membrane. Another advantage of the CSP membrane is in reducing permeate flux decline believed to be caused by the adsorption of oil onto the membrane surface. For the PVP-modified CSP membrane, the grafted polymer alters the membrane surface character from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, reducing the tendency for oil adsorption. This phenomenon was demonstrated by comparison of permeate flow rate behavior for both unmodified and graft polymerized (CSP) membranes.

  5. Solid state polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Vouyiouka; E. K. Karakatsani; C. D. Papaspyrides

    2005-01-01

    Polyesters and polyamides are commercially important polymers prepared by polycondensation. The conventional solution to melt polymerization techniques stop at a low or medium molecular weight product, due to problems arising from severe increase of the melt viscosity and operating temperatures. Higher molecular weights may be reached by Solid State Polymerization (SSP) at temperatures between the glass transition and the onset

  6. In vivo evaluation of hydroxyapatite nanocoating on polyester artificial vascular grafts and possibility as soft-tissue compatible material.

    PubMed

    Kadono, Hiroyuki; Furuzono, Tsutomu; Masuda, Miwa; Okada, Masahiro; Ueki, Mitsuki; Takamizawa, Keiichi; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Miyatake, Kunio; Koyama, Yoshihisa; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocoating on polyester vascular grafts was investigated in animal experiments. The HAp nanocrystals were covalently bonded separately between hydroxyl groups on a nanocrystal and alkoxysilyl groups in gamma-methacryloxypropyl triethoxysilane graft polymerized on a polyester substrate. Twelve HAp-coated polyester grafts and 10 control grafts of 20, 30, or 50 mm in length were implanted in canine common carotid arteries. Serious complications or occlusions were not observed in any of the dogs after implantation. A histologic evaluation was conducted by staining with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), the von Willebrand factor (vWf), and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) around the inner lumen of the grafts. The number of inflammation cells and giant cells in the HAp-coated group was significantly lower than that in the group receiving noncoated grafts (p < 0.05). PMID:20051831

  7. Surface properties and reduced biofouling of graft-copolymers that possess oppositely charged groups.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, Moshe; Sweity, Amer; Brami, Matan; Kaufman, Yair; Freger, Viatcheslav; Oron, Gideon; Belfer, Sophia; Kasher, Roni

    2011-04-11

    Microbial biofilms and their components present a major obstacle for ensuring the long-term effectiveness of membrane processes. Graft polymerization on membrane surfaces, in general, and grafting with oppositely charged monomers, have been shown to reduce biofouling significantly. In this study, surface forces and macromolecular properties of graft copolymers that possess oppositely charged groups were related to their potent antibiofouling behavior. Graft polymerization was performed using the negatively charged 3-sulphopropyl methacrylate (SPM) and positively charged [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-trimethylammonium (MOETMA) monomers to yield a copolymer layer on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) surface. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) technology was used to monitor the reduced adsorption of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment facility. Complemented measurements of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy provided evaluation of the antifouling properties of the surface. Increase in water content in grafted layer exposed to 100 mM aqueous NaCl solution was observed by QCM-D. Therefore, the grafted copolymer layer is swelled in the presence of 100 mM NaCl because of reversing of polymer self-association by counterions. Force measurements by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed an increased repulsion between a carboxylate-modified latex (CML) particle probe and a modified PVDF surface, especially in the presence of 100 mM NaCl. The hydration and swelling of the grafted polymer layer are shown to repel EPS and reduce their adsorption. Delineating the surface properties of antifouling grafted layers may lead to the design of novel antifouling surfaces. PMID:21361342

  8. Novel high performance photo-graft composite membranes for separation of organic liquids by pervaporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias Ulbricht; Hans-Hartmut Schwarz

    1997-01-01

    A new application of the ‘pore filling’ concept yielded high-performance composite membranes for the selective pervaporation (PV) separation of organic mixtures. Asymmetric polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes (average pore sizes of 7 or 12 nm) were used as matrix for polymeric PV separation phases which were in situ prepared by heterogeneous photoinitiated graft copolymerization. By this means, defect-free and stable layers were

  9. New graft copolymers of hyaluronic acid and polylactic acid: Synthesis and characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Salvatore Palumbo; Giovanna Pitarresi; Delia Mandracchia; Giuseppe Tripodo; Gaetano Giammona

    2006-01-01

    New graft copolymers have been synthesized, using hyaluronic acid (HA) as a hydrophilic backbone and polylactic acid (PLA) as an aliphatic polyester in order to obtain new polymeric derivatives of HA able to hydrophobically associate in an aqueous medium. Hyaluronic acid with low molecular weight was made soluble in organic solvent by transformation to its tetrabutylammonium (TBA) salt. Using the

  10. Graft flow as a predictor of thrombosis in hemodialysis grafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Bosman; Frans T. J. Boereboom; Bert C. Eikelboom; Hein A. Koomans; Peter J. Blankestijn

    1998-01-01

    Graft flow as a predictor of thrombosis in hemodialysis grafts.BackgroundThe effort to reduce the incidence of graft thrombosis is mainly based on predicting venous stenosis by measuring venous drip chamber pressures. In this study we evaluated whether graft flow measurements, using an ultrasound dilution technique, would be of additional value to identify patients at risk for thrombosis.MethodsIn fifty consecutive patients

  11. Grafting Technique to Eliminate Rootstock Suckering of Grafted Tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable grafting has been proposed as a technique for avoiding disease problems in tomatoes in open field production. In this study we investigated the current use of grafting in an open field scenario and found a serious problem with the grafting techniques. In the Fall of 2007, commercially pr...

  12. Controlled synthesis of photochromic polymer brushes by atom transfer radical polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcin Piech; Nelson Simmons Bell; Timothy Michael Long

    2005-01-01

    This work reports on the grafting of methyl methacrylate polymer brushes containing spirobenzopyran pendant groups from flat silica surfaces and colloidal particles utilizing atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The reaction conditions were optimized with respect to the kind of surface bound initiator, the type of halide and ligand used in the catalytic complex, the presence\\/absence of untethered initiator, and solvent

  13. Surface Modification of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes via Nitroxide-Mediated Radical Polymerization

    E-print Network

    Wan, Xin-hua

    )-grafted multiwalled carbon nano- tubes (MWNT­PS-b-P4VPs). In contrast to unmodified MWNTs, MWNT­PSs had rel- atively carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), polymer modification leaves less destruction of tube structure while achievingSurface Modification of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes via Nitroxide-Mediated Radical Polymerization

  14. Thermal and mechanical properties of biodegradable composites of poly(propylene carbonate) and starch–poly(methyl acrylate) graft copolymer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. C. Ge; Y. Xu; Y. Z. Meng; R. K. Y. Li

    2005-01-01

    Starch–g-poly(methyl acrylate) (S–g-PMA) copolymer was prepared by ceric ammonium nitrate-initiated polymerization of methyl acrylate onto corn starch (CS). Our analyses, including FTIR, DSC and TGA measurements confirmed the successful grafting of PMA onto starch and the grafting percentage of the copolymer was calculated. The S–g-PMA was subsequently mixed with biodegradable poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) at various proportions in a batch mixer.

  15. A highly stable nonbiofouling surface with well-packed grafted zwitterionic polysulfobetaine for plasma protein repulsion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung; Liao, Shih-Chieh; Higuchi, Akon; Ruaan, Ruoh-Chyu; Chu, Chih-Wei; Chen, Wen-Yih

    2008-05-20

    An ideal nonbiofouling surface for biomedical applications requires both high-efficient antifouling characteristics in relation to biological components and long-term material stability from biological systems. In this study we demonstrate the performance and stability of an antifouling surface with grafted zwitterionic sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA). The SBMA was grafted from a bromide-covered gold surface via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization to form well-packed polymer brushes. Plasma protein adsorption on poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (polySBMA) grafted surfaces was measured with a surface plasmon resonance sensor. It is revealed that an excellent stable nonbiofouling surface with grafted polySBMA can be performed with a cycling test of the adsorption of three model proteins in a wide range of various salt types, buffer compositions, solution pH levels, and temperatures. This work also demonstrates the adsorption of plasma proteins and the adhesion of platelets from human blood plasma on the polySBMA grafted surface. It was found that the polySBMA grafted surface effectively reduces the plasma protein adsorption from platelet-poor plasma solution to a level superior to that of adsorption on a surface terminated with tetra(ethylene glycol). The adhesion and activation of platelets from platelet-rich plasma solution were not observed on the polySBMA grafted surface. This work further concludes that a surface with good hemocompatibility can be achieved by the well-packed surface-grafted polySBMA brushes. PMID:18399670

  16. Surface-grafting of phosphates onto a polymer for potential biomimetic functionalization of biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Young Gun; Ma, Peter X.

    2009-01-01

    In the human body, phosphate groups play important roles in signaling and the biological functions of proteins and peptides. Despite the importance of phosphate groups, polymer surfaces have not been directly grafted with phosphate groups by chemical reactions because the usual organic solvents used to graft phosphate groups can dissolve or swell polymers. We focused this study on grafting phosphate groups onto a poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (PEAA) surface in an aqueous solution. O-phospho L-serine and O-phosphoethanolamine were grafted on PEAA surfaces to introduce phosphate groups by activating carboxylic acid groups of PEAA using N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) in an aqueous environment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to elucidate the process by which surface grafting occurs and the process that the phosphate group is cleaved into a phosphate ion and a hydrolyzed molecule at high pH. It was found that under appropriate reaction conditions the phosphate groups could be successfully grafted on the polymer surfaces. The phosphate-grafted polymer surfaces showed lower water contact angles than the initial polymer surfaces likely due to their highly mobile and hydrophilic phosphate-chains. This work demonstrates a technique to successfully graft phosphate groups onto organic polymer surfaces in a biocompatible aqueous environment, which may open new avenues to functionalizing synthetic polymeric and natural macromolecule derived biomaterials. PMID:18977490

  17. PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium, Sessions 'X. Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science' and 'Y. Frontier of Polymeric Nano-Soft-Materials - Precision Polymer Synthesis, Self-assembling and Their Functionalization'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahara, Atsushi; Kawahara, Seiichi

    2009-09-01

    Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science (Symposium X of IUMRS-ICA2008) Toshiji Kanaya, Kohji Tashiro, Kazuo Sakura Keiji Tanaka, Sono Sasaki, Naoya Torikai, Moonhor Ree, Kookheon Char, Charles C Han, Atsushi Takahara This volume contains peer-reviewed invited and contributed papers that were presented in Symposium X 'Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science' at the IUMRS International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA 2008), which was held on 9-13 December 2008, at Nagoya Congress Center, Nagoya, Japan. Structure analyses of soft materials based on synchrotron radiation (SR) and neutron beam have been developed steadily. Small-angle scattering and wide-angle diffraction techniques clarified the higher-order structure as well as time dependence of structure development such as crystallization and microphase-separation. On the other hand, reflectivity, grazing-incidence scattering and diffraction techniques revealed the surface and interface structural features of soft materials. From the viewpoint of strong interests on the development of SR and neutron beam techniques for soft materials, the objective of this symposium is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in research, development, and applications of SR and neutron beams to soft matter science. In this symposium, 21 oral papers containing 16 invited papers and 14 poster papers from China, India, Korea, Taiwan, and Japan were presented during the three-day symposium. As a result of the review of poster and oral presentations of young scientists by symposium chairs, Dr Kummetha Raghunatha Reddy (Toyota Technological Institute) received the IUMRS-ICA 2008 Young Researcher Award. We are grateful to all invited speakers and many participants for valuable contributions and active discussions. Organizing committee of Symposium (IUMRS-ICA 2008) Professor Toshiji Kanaya (Kyoto University) Professor Kohji Tashiro (Toyota Technological Institute) Professor Kazuo Sakurai(Kitakyushu University) Professor Keiji Tanaka (Kyushu University) Dr Sono Sasaki (JASRI/Spring-8) Professor Naoya Torikai (KENS) Professor Moonhor Ree (POSTECH) Professor Kookheon Char (Seoul National University) Professor Charles C Han (CAS) Professor Atsushi Takahara(Kyushu University) Frontier of Polymeric Nano-Soft-Materials, Precision Polymer Synthesis, Self-assembling and Their Functionalization (Symposium Y of IUMRS-ICA2008) Seiichi Kawahara, Rong-Ming Ho, Hiroshi Jinnai, Masami Kamigaito, Takashi Miyata, Hiroshi Morita, Hideyuki Otsuka, Daewon Sohn, Keiji Tanaka It is our great pleasure and honor to publish peer-reviewed papers, presented in Symposium Y 'Frontier of Polymeric Nano-Soft-Materials Precision Polymer Synthesis, Self-assembling and Their Functionalization' at the International Union of Materials Research Societies International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA2008), which was held on 9-13 December 2008, at Nagoya Congress Center, Nagoya, Japan. 'Polymeric nano-soft-materials' are novel outcomes based on a recent innovative evolution in polymer science, i.e. precision polymer synthesis, self-assembling and functionalization of multi-component systems. The materials are expected to exhibit specific functions and unique properties due to their hierarchic morphologies brought either by naturally-generated ordering or by artificial manipulation of the systems, e.g., crystallization and phase-separation. The emerging precision synthesis has brought out new types of polymers with well-controlled primary structures. Furthermore, the surface and interface of the material are recognized to play an important role in the outstanding mechanical, electrical and optical properties, which are required for medical and engineering applications. In order to understand structure-property relationships in the nano-soft-materials, it is indispensable to develop novel characterization techniques. Symposium Y aimed to provide recent advances in polymer synthesis, self-assembling processes and morpholog

  18. Electron Beam Technologies for Preparation of Polymeric Materials Used for Waste Water Treatment, Agriculture, and Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Martin; M. Radoiu; M. Dragusin; R. Cramariuc; I. Indreias; C. Oproiu; S. Marghitu; A. Manea; M. Toma; V. Bestea

    1999-01-01

    Radiation research results in the field of polymeric materials, obtained in the last few years by electron beam irradiation of aqueous solutions containing appropriate monomer mixtures, such as acrylamide, acrylic acid and vinyl acetate, are presented. Two types of polymeric flocculants for waste water treatment and three kinds of hydrogels for agriculture and medicine are described. The effects of radiation

  19. Synthesis of polyolefin graft copolymers by borane approach

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, G.J.; Rhubright, D.; Bernard, R.L.; Chung, T.C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper summarizes the new developments in the graft reaction of polyolefin by borane approach. It is becoming clear that the borane groups in polyolefins are valuable intermediates which not only can be quantitatively converted to a wide range of functional groups but also can be used as initiator or co-initiator for cationic or free radical polymerizations. Some interesting graft polymers, such as PP-g-PMMA, PP-g-PVA, PP-g-polycapolactone, EP-g-PMMA, and Butyl-g-PMMA, have been synthesized with controllable compositions and molecular microstructures. Most of them would be otherwise very difficult to prepare by the other existing methods. Several methods have been developed to incorporate borane groups to polyolefins, including both direct and post polymerizations. One unique feature of borane group is its excellent stability to transition metal catalysts, such as Ziegler-Natta, and good solubility in hydrocarbon solvents. These offer the possibility to prepare borane containing polyolefins with a broad range of copolymer composition and microstructure. In terms of application, graft copolymers are useful interfacial reagents in polyolefin blends and composites.

  20. Silicon tetrachloride plasma induced grafting for starch-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yonghui C.

    Non-modified virgin starch is seldom used directly in industrial applications. Instead, it is often physically and/or chemically modified to achieve certain enhanced properties. For many of the non-food applications, these modifications involve changing its hydrophilicity to create hydrophobic starch. In this study, the hydrophobic starch was produced through silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) plasma induced graft polymerization, so that it could be used as a renewable and biodegradable component of, or substitute for, the petrochemical-based plastics. It was suggested that this starch graft-copolymer might be used as reinforcing components in silicone-rubber materials for starch-based composites. To make this starch graft-copolymer, the ethyl ether-extracted starch powders were surface functionalized by SiCl4 plasma using a 13.56 MHz radio frequency rotating plasma reactor and subsequently stabilized by either ethylene diamine or dichlorodimethylsilane (DCDMS). The functionalized starch was then graft-polymerized with DCDMS to form polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers around the starch granules. The presence of this PDMS layer was demonstrated by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA/XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), thermo gravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and other analyses. It was shown that the surface morphology, thermal properties, swelling characteristic, and hydrophilicity of starch were all changed due to the existence of this protective hydrophobic PDMS layer. Several different procedures to carry out the functionalization and graft polymerization steps were evaluated to improve the effectiveness of the reactions and to prevent the samples from being hydrolyzed by the grafting byproduct HCl. Actinometry, GC-MS, and residual gas analyzer (RGA) were used to investigate the mechanisms of the SiCl4 discharge and to optimize the plasma modification. These plasma diagnostic results showed that, to achieve better plasma modification, higher plasma power and lower SiCl4 vapor pressure would be needed; however, it was found that the efficiency of the modification peaked at a certain point of plasma treatment time (˜10 minutes) and there was not much subsequent improvement with prolonged plasma treatment.

  1. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liubov Ben-Noun

    1999-01-01

    Long-term psychosocial outcomes were examined in 132 patients 7 to 22 years M = 9.4 years after coronary artery bypass grafting. The control group comprised 145 medically treated patients with coronary heart disease of 7 to 22 year duration M = 9.2. Significantly more medically than surgically treated patients were scored in the clinically significant range for anxiety, and for

  2. Concise polymeric materials encyclopedia

    SciTech Connect

    Salamone, J.C. [ed.

    1999-01-01

    This comprehensive, accessible resource abridges the ``Polymeric Materials Encyclopedia'', presenting more than 1,100 articles and featuring contributions from more than 1,800 scientists from all over the world. The text discusses a vast array of subjects related to the: (1) synthesis, properties, and applications of polymeric materials; (2) development of modern catalysts in preparing new or modified polymers; (3) modification of existing polymers by chemical and physical processes; and (4) biologically oriented polymers.

  3. On-demand degrafting of polymer brushes prepared by controlled radical polymerization on flat silica substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Rohan; Srogl, Jiri; Kiserow, Douglas; Genzer, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Polymer brush degrafting refers to the removal of grafted polymer chains from the substrate without harming the polymer chemical structure. We grow poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) brushes on flat silicon substrates using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and remove them from the surface by exposing the samples to tetrabutyl ammonium fluoride. We then analyze the polymer molecular weight of degrafted PMMA chains by size exclusion chromatography. The kinetics of PMMA brush degrafting exhibits double exponential behavior suggesting a transition from `brush' to `mushroom' regime. The dry brush thickness increases initially with increasing polymerization time. At longer reaction times, the thickness starts to plateau due to loss in the living nature of ATRP. We examine the relationship between the brush dry thickness and molecular weight and show that grafting density of the PMMA brush does not remain constant over the course of polymerization but reduces with time.

  4. Poly( l-lactide) brushes on magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes by in-situ ring-opening polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiangtao Feng; Wei Cai; Jiehe Sui; Zhiguo Li; Jiaqi Wan; Ali Nabipour Chakoli

    2008-01-01

    Biodegradable poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) has been covalently grafted onto the surface of magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (m-MWCNTs) by in-situ ring-opening polymerization of lactide. The content of grafting PLLA can be controlled by adjusting the feed ratio of monomer to m-MWCNTs. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy confirm that PLLA have been covalently attached to the sidewalls of m-MWCNTs. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates

  5. Bioinert membranes prepared from amphiphilic poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) graft copolymers.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajkumar; Patel, Madhumita; Ahn, Sung Hoon; Sung, Yong Kiel; Lee, Hyung-Keun; Kim, Jong Hak; Sung, Jung-Suk

    2013-04-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane was hydrophilically modified by grafting with poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM) using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The successful grafting of PVC main chain by POEM was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The molecular weight and hydrophilicity of membranes increased with the amount of POEM grafting, as characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and contact angle measurement, respectively. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis revealed the microphase-separated structure of PVC-g-POEM and the domain spacing increased from 59.3 to 86.1 nm with increasing grafting degree. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for the direct visualization of the mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell and bacteria adhesion on the membrane surface. Protein adsorption and eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell adhesion tests showed that the bioinert properties of membranes were significantly increased with POEM content. PMID:23827621

  6. A novel and simple procedure to synthesize chitosan-graft-polycaprolactone in an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaodong; Zheng, Liuchun; Li, Chuncheng; Zhang, Dong; Xiao, Yaonan; Guan, Guohu; Zhu, Wenxiang

    2013-04-15

    An ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc), was synthesized and employed as a homogeneous and green reaction media to prepare chitosan-graft-polycaprolactone (CS-g-PCL) via ring-opening polymerization, using stannous octoate (Sn(Oct)2) as a catalyst. The structures and compositions of copolymers could be facilely controlled by the reaction conditions and feed ratios. The grafting content of polycaprolactone (PCL) could reach as high as 630%. The chemical structures of the copolymers were systematically characterized by (1)H NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), while thermal properties were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal stability and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the graft copolymers vary regularly with the change of PCL grafting content. PMID:23544568

  7. ARGET ATRP for versatile grafting of cellulose using various monomers.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Susanne; Ostmark, Emma; Carlmark, Anna; Malmström, Eva

    2009-11-01

    In recent years, cellulose-based materials have attracted significant attention. To broaden the application areas for cellulose, polymers are often grafted to/from the surface to modify its properties. This study applies ARGET (activators regenerated by electron transfer) ATRP (atom transfer radical polymerization) when straightforwardly grafting methyl methacrylate (MMA), styrene (St), and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) from cellulose in the form of conventional filter paper in the presence of a sacrificial initiator. The free polymer, formed from the free initiator in parallel to the grafting, was characterized by (1)H NMR and SEC, showing that sufficient control is achieved. However, the analyses also indicated that the propagation from the surface cannot be neglected compared to the propagation of the free polymer at higher targeted molecular weights, which is an assumption often made. The grafted filter papers were evaluated with FT-IR, suggesting that the amount of polymer on the surface increased with increasing monomer conversion, which the FE-SEM micrographs of the substrates also demonstrated. Water contact angle (CA) measurements implied that covering layers of PMMA and PS were formed on the cellulose substrate, making the surface hydrophobic, in spite of low DPs. The CA of the PGMA-grafted filter papers revealed that, by utilizing either aprotic or protic solvents when washing the substrates, it was possible to either preserve or hydrolyze the epoxy groups. Independent of the solvent used, all grafted filter papers were essentially colorless after the washing procedure because of the low amount of copper required when performing ARGET ATRP. Nevertheless, surface modification of cellulose via ARGET ATRP truly facilitates the manufacturing since no thorough freeze-thaw degassing procedures are required. PMID:20356139

  8. Blood compatibility of AAc, HEMA, and PEGMA-grafted cellulose film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nho, Young Chang; Kwon, Oh Hyun

    2003-03-01

    To improve surface blood compatibility on cellulose film for hemodialysis, acrylic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and three kinds of polyethylene glycol methacrylates were grafted onto the cellulose film surface by radiation grafting technique. Heparin was introduced onto the grafted cellulose film surfaces. The grafting and heparinization were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflectance mode and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. The blood compatibility of the modified cellulose film was examined by the determination of platelet adhesion and thrombus formation.

  9. Dacron Graft Aneurysm Treated by Endovascular Stent-Graft

    SciTech Connect

    Ofer, Amos [Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Rambam Medical Center and Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, POB 9602 Haifa 31096 (Israel); Nitecki, Samy; Hoffman, Aaron [Department of Vascular Surgery, Rambam Medical Center and Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, POB 9602 Haifa 31096 (Israel); Engel, Ahuva [Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Rambam Medical Center and Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, POB 9602 Haifa 31096 (Israel)

    2001-01-15

    A 72-year old man who underwent aorto-bifemoral bypass with insertion of a Dacron graft 18 years previously presented with an aneurysm in the left limb of his graft. Angiography also demonstrated a bilateral occlusion of the popliteal arteries. Computed tomography (CT) angiography was performed and showed a localized dilation of 3 cm in the left limb of the graft, which had a diameter of 14 mm throughout. In view of the technical difficulties of a surgical procedure, an endovascular stent was considered. Through a left femoral arteriotomy, a stent graft was inserted and deployed in the left limb of the graft. This resulted in total exclusion of the Dacron graft aneurysm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such a procedure.

  10. Copolymer Synthesis and Characterization by Post-Polymerization Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, Casey James

    This PhD thesis examines the physical behavior of surface-grafted polymer assemblies (SGPAs) derived from post-polymerization modification (PPM) reactions in aqueous and vapor enriched environments, and offers an alternative method of creating SGPAs using a PPM approach. SGPAs comprise typically polymer chains grafted covalently to solid substrates. These assemblies show promise in a number of applications and technologies due to the stability imparted by the covalent graft and ability to modify interfacial properties and stability. SGPAs also offer a set of rich physics to explore in fundamental investigations as a result of confining macromolecules to a solid substrate. PPM reactions (also called polymer analogous reactions) apply small molecule organic chemistry reactions to the repeat units of polymer chains in order to generate new chemistries. By applying a PPM strategy to SGPAs, a wide variety of functional groups can be introduced into a small number of well-studied and well-behaved model polymer systems. This approach offers the advantage of holding constant other properties of the SGPA (e.g., molecular weight, MW, and grafting density, sigma) to isolate the effect of chemistry on physical behavior. Using a combination of PPM and fabrication methods that facilitate the formation of SPGAs with position-dependent gradual variation of sigma on flat impenetrable substrate, the influence of polymer chemistry and sigma is examined on the stability of weak polyelectrolyte brushes in aqueous environments at different pH levels. Degrafting of polymer chains in SGPAs exhibits a complex dependence on side chain chemistry, sigma, pH and the charge fraction (alpha) within the brush. Results of these experiments support a proposed mechanism of degrafting, wherein extension of the grafted chains away from the substrate generates tension along the polymer backbone, which activates the grafting chemistry for hydrolysis. The implications of these findings are important in developing technologies that use SGPAs in aqueous environments, and point to a need for potential alternative grafting chemistries. The behavior of SGPAs in vapor environments remains an underexplored phenomenon. By changing systematically the chemistry of SGPAs derived from a parent sample, the influence of side chain functional groups on the swelling of weak and strong polyelectrolyte brushes in the presence of water, methanol and ethanol vapors is explored. The extent of swelling and solvent uptake depends strongly on the chemistry in the polymer side chain and of the solvent. Despite bearing a permanent electrostatic charge in the side chain, the strong polyelectrolyte brushes exhibit no behavior typical of polyelectrolytes in water due to no dissociation of the counterion. Of particular interest is the behavior in humid environments of an SGPA bearing a zwitterionic group in its side chain, which results in exposure of electrostatic charges without counterions. Using substrates bearing the aforementioned sigma gradient of polymeric grafts, evidence of inter- and intramolecular complex formation is presented. Finally, a method of developing SGPAs by polymerizing bulk polymer chains through surface-grafted monomers (SGMs) is described. The SGMs are incorporated onto a solid substrate using the same PPM reaction employed in the degrafting and vapor swelling experiments, highlighting the versatility of PPM. The thickness of these SGPAs is correlated to the bulk polymer chains MW, suggesting this technique can be used in existing industrial bulk polymerization processes.

  11. Activity of polymerized trichloroacetic acid for highway vegetation control 

    E-print Network

    Wiedenfeld, R. P

    1974-01-01

    to 200 pW/cm of ultra. ? 2 violet light. Extensive degradation of the ester of picloram (96~/o) occured in open petri dishes after 72-hr exposure to ultraviolet light (Bovey, Ketchersid and Merkle, 1970) ~ Isensee, Plimmer and Turner ('IQ6$) showed... by ultraviolet radiation. Recovery also was greater from an asphaltic emulsion than from a cutback asphalt or an asphaltic cement. Polymerization increased the effectiveness of TCA in controlling vegetation. However, increased sucept- ibility of polymerized...

  12. Surface Grafted Polysarcosine as a Peptoid Antifouling Polymer Brush

    PubMed Central

    Lau, King Hang Aaron; Ren, Chunlai; Sileika, Tadas S.; Park, Sung Hyun; Szleifer, Igal; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(N-substituted glycine) “peptoids” are a class of peptidomimetic molecules receiving significant interest as engineered biomolecules. Sarcosine (i.e. poly(N-methyl glycine)) has the simplest sidechain chemical structure of this family. In this contribution, we demonstrate that surface-grafted polysarcosine (PSAR) brushes exhibit excellent resistance to non-specific protein adsorption and cell attachment. Polysarcosine was coupled to a mussel adhesive protein inspired DOPA-Lys pentapeptide, which enabled solution grafting and control of the surface chain density of the PSAR brushes. Protein adsorption was found to decrease monotonically with increasing grafted chain densities, and protein adsorption could be completely inhibited above certain critical chain densities specific to different polysarcosine chain-lengths. The dependence of protein adsorption on chain length and density was also investigated by a molecular theory. PSAR brushes at high chain length and density were shown to resist fibroblast cell attachment over a 7 wk period, as well as resist the attachment of some clinically relevant bacteria strains. The excellent antifouling performance of PSAR may be related to the highly hydrophilic character of polysarcosine, which was evident from high-pressure liquid chromatography measurements of polysarcosine and water contact angle measurements of the PSAR brushes. Peptoids have been shown to resist proteolytic degradation and polysarcosine could be produced in large quantities by N-carboxy anhydride polymerization. In summary, surface grafted polysarcosine peptoid brushes hold great promise for antifouling applications. PMID:23101930

  13. Siloxane-grafted membranes

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, D.T.; Obligin, A.S.

    1989-10-31

    Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional group. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

  14. Siloxane-grafted membranes

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Obligin, Alan S. (Catonville, MD)

    1989-01-01

    Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional groups. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

  15. Dead Sea Minerals loaded polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dessy, Alberto; Kubowicz, Stephan; Alderighi, Michele; Bartoli, Cristina; Piras, Anna Maria; Schmid, Ruth; Chiellini, Federica

    2011-10-15

    Therapeutic properties of Dead Sea Water (DSW) in the treatment of skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and photo aging UV damaged skin have been well established. DSW is in fact rich in minerals such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc and strontium which are known to exploit anti-inflammatory effects and to promote skin barrier recovery. In order to develop a Dead Sea Minerals (DSM) based drug delivery system for topical therapy of skin diseases, polymeric nanoparticles based on Poly (maleic anhydride-alt-butyl vinyl ether) 5% grafted with monomethoxy poly(ethyleneglycol) 2000 MW (PEG) and 95% grafted with 2-methoxyethanol (VAM41-PEG) loaded with DSM were prepared by means of a combined miniemulsion/solvent evaporation process. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized in terms of dimension, morphology, biocompatibility, salt content and release. Cytocompatible spherical nanoparticles possessing an average diameter of about 300 nm, a time controlled drug release profile and a high formulation yield were obtained. PMID:21676600

  16. Studies in reactive extrusion processing of biodegradable polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, Sunder

    Various reaction chemistries such as Polymerization, Polymer cross-linking and Reactive grafting were investigated in twin-screw extruders. Poly (1,4-dioxan-2-one) (PPDX) was manufactured in melt by the continuous polymerization of 1,4-dioxan-2-one (PDX) monomer in a twin-screw extruder using Aluminum tri-sec butoxide (ATSB) initiator. Good and accurate control over molecular weight was obtained by controlling the ratio of monomer to initiator. A screw configuration consisting of only conveying elements was used for the polymerization. The polymerization reaction was characterized by a monomer-polymer dynamic equilibrium, above the melting temperature of the polymer, limiting the equilibrium conversion to 78-percent. Near complete (˜100-percent) conversion was obtained on co-polymerizing PDX monomer with a few mol-percent (around 8-percent) Caprolactone (CL) monomer in a twin-screw extruder using ATSB initiator. The co-polymers exhibited improved thermal stability with reduction in glass transition temperature. The extruder was modeled as an Axial Dispersed Plug Flow Reactor for the polymerization of CL monomer using Residence Time Distribution (RTD) Analysis. The model provided a good fit to the experimental RTD and conversion data. Aliphatic and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters, namely Polycaprolactone (PCL) and Poly butylenes (adipate-co-terephthalate) (Ecoflex) were cross-linked in a twin-screw extruder using radical initiator to form micro-gel reinforced biodegradable polyesters. Cross-linked Ecoflex was further extrusion blended with talc to form blends suitable to be blown into films. A screw configuration consisting of conveying and kneading elements was found to be effective in dispersion of the talc particles (5--10 microns) in the polyester matrix. While the rates of crystallization increased for the talc filled polyester blends, overall crystallinity reduced. Mechanical, tear and puncture properties of films made using the talc filled polyester blends were comparable to linear low density Polyethylene (LDPE). Ecoflex-Thermoplastic Starch (TPS) graft co-polymers were continuously manufactured in melt with maleic acid catalyst using a twin-screw co-rotating extruder. The graft co-polymer was completely extractable in Dichloromethane and formed transparent films on solvent casting. Regular corn-starch was maleated in a twin-screw extruder using maleic anhydride or maleic acid, glycerol plasticizer and optional radical initiator. Confirmation of reactivity of maleic acid onto the starch backbone was confirmed by Fourier Transformed Infra Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  17. Poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) grafting and vitamin E blending for high wear resistance and oxidative stability of orthopedic bearings.

    PubMed

    Kyomoto, Masayuki; Moro, Toru; Yamane, Shihori; Watanabe, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Masami; Takatori, Yoshio; Tanaka, Sakae; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2014-08-01

    The ultimate goal in manipulating the surface and substrate of a cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE) liner is to obtain not only high wear resistance but also high oxidative stability and high-mechanical properties for life-long orthopedic bearings. We have demonstrated the fabrication of highly hydrophilic and lubricious poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) grafting layer onto the antioxidant vitamin E-blended CLPE (HD-CLPE(VE)) surface. The PMPC grafting layer with a thickness of 100 nm was successfully fabricated on the vitamin E-blended CLPE surface by using photoinduced-radical graft polymerization. Since PMPC has a highly hydrophilic nature, the water wettability and lubricity of the PMPC-grafted CLPE and HD-CLPE(VE) surfaces were greater than that of the untreated CLPE surface. The PMPC grafting contributed significantly to wear reduction in a hip-joint simulator wear test. Despite high-dose gamma-ray irradiation for cross-linking and further UV irradiation for PMPC grafting, the substrate modified by vitamin E blending maintained high-oxidative stability because vitamin E is an extremely efficient radical scavenger. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the substrate remained almost unchanged even after PMPC grafting or vitamin E blending, or both PMPC grafting and vitamin E blending. In conclusion, the PMPC-grafted HD-CLPE(VE) provided simultaneously high-wear resistance, oxidative stability, and mechanical properties. PMID:24836953

  18. Polymerization of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Mousetis, T.L.; Lloyd, L.

    1982-01-01

    The addition of antioxidants and dispersants is not sufficient to eliminate gum formation in vegetable oils. Even with relatively unsaturated oils like rapeseed the extent of unsaturation overwhelms these additives. Fuel deterioration during storage will be minimized in an anaerobic storage environment and, to a lesser extent, with a lower degree of oil unsaturation. Gum formation and carbon coking can also occur immediately preceding and during combustion. Thermal polymerization may be the dominant gum forming reaction under combustion conditions since thermal polymerization has a higher activation energy than oxidative polymerization and anaerobic conditions can occur within atomized fuel droplets. Carbon coking can be reduced with a lower degree of oil unsaturation and with better atomization of the fuel. 4 figures, 1 table.

  19. Understanding the grafting of telechelic polymers on a solid substrate to form loops

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ji, Haining [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies have demonstrated that relative to singly tethered chains, the presence of polymer loops at interfaces significantly improves interfacial properties such as adhesion, friction, and wettability. In the present study, a simple system was studied to examine the formation of polymeric loops on a solid surface, where the grafting of carboxylic acid terminated telechelic polystyrene from the melt to an epoxy functionalized silicon is chosen. The impact of telechelic molecular weight, grafting temperature, and surface functionality on the telechelic attachment process is studied. It was found that grafting of the telechelic to the surface at both ends to form loops is the primary product of this grafting process. Moreover, examination of the kinetics of the grafting process indicates that it is reaction controlled. Fluorescence tagging of the dangling ends of singly bound chains provides a mechanism to monitor their time evolution during grafting, and these results indicate that the grafting process is accurately described by recent Monte Carlo simulation work. The results also provide a method to control the extent of loop formation at interfaces and therefore provide an opportunity to further understand the role of the loops in the interfacial properties in multicomponent polymer systems.

  20. Grafting of GMA and some comonomers onto chitosan for controlled release of diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajeev Kr; Lalita; Singh, Anirudh P; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S

    2014-03-01

    In order to develop pH sensitive hydrogels for controlled drug release we have graft copolymerized glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) with comonomers acrylic acid, acrylamide and acrylonitrile, onto chitosan (Ch) by using potassium persulphate (KPS) as free radical initiator in aqueous solution. The optimum percent grafting for GMA was recorded for 1g chitosan at [KPS]=25.00 × 10(-3)mol/L, [GMA]=0.756 × 10(-3)mol/L, reaction temperature=60 °C and reaction time=1h in 20 mL H2O. Binary monomers were grafted for five different concentrations at optimum grafting conditions evaluated for GMA alone onto chitosan. The graft copolymers were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM. The swelling properties of chitosan and graft copolymers were investigated at different pH to define their end uses in sustained release of an anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac sodium. Percent drug release w.r.t. drug loaded in polymeric sample was studied as function of time in buffer solutions of pH 2.0 and 7.4. In vitro release data was analyzed using Fick's Law. Chitosan grafted with binary monomers, GMA-co-AAm and GMA-co-AN showed very good results for sustained release of drug at 7.4 pH. PMID:24374084

  1. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Illustrations: Jill Rhead, MA What is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)? What Can Happen When Blockages ... Condition be Like After CABG? WHAT IS CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING (CABG)? Coronary artery bypass grafting or " ...

  2. Influence of the polymeric interphase design on the interfacial properties of (fiber-reinforced) composites.

    PubMed

    Kuttner, Christian; Hanisch, Andreas; Schmalz, Holger; Eder, Michaela; Schlaad, Helmut; Burgert, Ingo; Fery, Andreas

    2013-04-10

    In fiber-reinforced composites, the interphase nanostructure (i.e., the extended region between two phases in contact) has a pronounced influence on their interfacial adhesion. This work aims at establishing a link between the interphase design of PS-based polymeric fiber coatings and their influence on the micromechanical performance of epoxy-based composite materials. Thiol-ene photochemistry was utilized to introduce a polymeric gradient on silica-like surfaces following a two-step approach without additional photoinitiator. Two complementary grafting-techniques were adapted to modify glass fibers: "Grafting-onto" deposition of PB-b-PS diblock copolymers for thin-film coatings (thickness<20 nm) at low grafting density (<0.1 chains/nm2)--and "grafting-from" polymerization for brush-like PS homopolymer coatings of higher thickness (up to 225 nm) and higher density. Polymer-coated glass fibers were characterized for polymer content using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and their nanostructural morphologies by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Model substrates of flat glass and silicon were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The change in interfacial shear strength (IFSS) due to fiber modification was determined by a single fiber pull-out experiment. Thick coatings (>40 nm) resulted in a 50% decrease in IFSS. Higher shear strength occurred for thinner coatings of homopolymer and for lower grafting densities of copolymer. Increased IFSS (10%) was found upon dilution of the surface chain density by mixing copolymers. We show that the interfacial shear strength can be increased by tailoring of the interphase design, even for systems with inherently poor adhesion. Perspectives of polymeric fiber coatings for tailored matrix-fiber compatibility and interfacial adhesion are discussed. PMID:23446425

  3. Chemical modification and photograft polymerization upon expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene).

    PubMed

    Noh, I; Goodman, S L; Hubbell, J A

    1998-01-01

    Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films were surface-modified by employing a reaction solution of benzophenone and sodium hydride in anhydrous dimethylformamide at a temperature of 150 degrees C for 12 h. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) showed defluorination, oxygen incorporation, and extensive unsaturation within the treated PTFE surfaces. The suitably of these reduced PTFE films as substrates for graft polymerization was initially assessed via photograft polymerization of the sodium salt of styrenesulfonic acid (SS-Na), which permitted unequivocal surface analysis by the introduction of a new atom, as well as poly(ethylene glycol) monoacrylate (PEG-Ac). All photograpt polymerization was performed employing ultraviolet irradiation with 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone as an initiator. Photograft polymerization of SS-Na was verified by further reduction of fluorine atomic content and the appearance of new sulfur and sodium atomic peaks on ESCA survey spectra, and that of PEG-Ac was verified by further reduction of fluorine atomic content and increase of atomic percent ratio of O/C from ESCA survey spectra as well as appearance of a new ester peak on high resolution ESCA C 1s spectra. Dynamic water contact angles on reduced and PEG-Ac photograft polymerized films were measured and showed that the PTFE film surface became more hydrophilic after reduction (from 120 to 89 deg) and the reduced film became more hydrophilic after photograft polymerization with PEG-Ac (from 89 to 36 deg). Modification of the complete surface of expanded PTFE (ePTFE), i.e. of the lumenal, outside and pore surfaces, was performed by employing the reaction described above, except at 105 degrees C for 1 day, followed by photograft polymerization of PEG-Ac. ESCA was performed on the superficial surfaces (i.e. the lumen and exterior) as well as on cross-sections of the ePTFE to permit analysis of the pore surfaces. This analysis showed that both the initial surface reduction and subsequent photograft polymerization were successful as indicated from F/C and O/C atomic percent ratios from ESCA survey spectra, from overall peaks shapes of high resolution ESCA C 1s spectra and from generation of new ester peaks on high resolution ESCA C 1s spectra of ePTFE graft polymerized with PEG-Ac, which demonstrated an O/C atomic percent ratio close to that of PEG-Ac homopolymer. Low voltage scanning electron microscopy confirmed minimal morphological damage to the ePTFE microstructure after reduction and graft polymerization. The approach explored thus provides a means for modulation of biological interactions at ePTFE surfaces with only minimal modification of material morphology, with some surface texture appearing on a length scale of 50-100 nm. PMID:9648024

  4. Polymerization in mixed crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Enkelmann; Hermann Staudinger Haus

    1980-01-01

    Suitably substituted diacetylenes can be co-crystallized to form substitutional solid solutions. By solid state polymerization of these mixed crystals macroscopic single crystals of statistical copolymers can be obtained. The co-crystallization is described and the influence of crystal composition on structure and reactivity in the solid state is discussed.

  5. Protein specific polymeric immunomicrospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Small, round, bio-compatible microspheres capable of covalently bonding proteins and having a uniform diameter below about 3500 A are prepared by substantially instantaneously initiating polymerization of an aqueous emulsion containing no more than 35% total monomer including an acrylic monomer substituted with a covalently bondable group such as hydroxyl, amino or carboxyl and a minor amount of a cross-linking agent.

  6. Flame retardant polymeric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, M.; Atlas, S.M.; Pearce, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The flame retardation of polyolefins is the focus of this volume. Methods for reduction of smoke and experimental evaluation of flammability parameters for polymeric materials are discussed. The flammability evaluation methods for textiles and the use of mass spectrometry for analysis of polymers and their degradation products are also presented.

  7. Photoradiation processes in combined polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, G. S.; Klinshpont, E. R.; Iskakov, L. I.

    2001-12-01

    The methods of ESR, optical and mass-spectroscopy have been used to study the formation and decay of active intermediates, radiation and photoradiation gas evolution in a series of combined polymeric materials. The investigated samples were films of polyimide (PI), one- or two-side coated PI-fluoroplast, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), PET coated with polyacryl on both sides, etc. Different coatings and polymeric substrates have been established to produce a mutual effect on the radiation- and photo-induced transformations of the combined polymers at the stage of radical formation and gas evolution. Thus, ?-irradiation of PI-fluoroplast films at 300 K intensifies the radiation-chemical processes in the fluorinated coatings, namely, the radiation-chemical yield of macroradicals in the coatings is several times higher than that in fluoro-containing polymers. In the PET film coated with polyacryl the yield of macroradicals related to polyacrylic acid is significantly lower than the value generally cited in the publications. A mutual effect of the coatings and substrates on the radiation and photoradiation-induced gas evolution is even more noticeable. Thus, a gas mixture of the PI-fluoroplast film contains lower amounts of carbon oxide and fluorinated products and no hydrogen at all. The interphase processes, distortion of the boundary layer structure, electronic equilibrium, mutual effect of the evolved gases, etc. can account for the reasons of such non-additivity.

  8. Femoral impaction grafting

    PubMed Central

    Scanelli, John A; Brown, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Femoral impaction grafting is a reconstruction option applicable to both simple and complex femoral component revisions. It is one of the preferred techniques for reconstructing large femoral defects when the isthmus is non-supportive. The available level of evidence is primarily derived from case series, which shows a mean survivorship of 90.5%, with revision or re-operation as the end-point, with an average follow-up of 11 years. The rate of femoral fracture requiring re-operation or revision of the component varies between several large case series, ranging from 2.5% to 9%, with an average of 5.4%. PMID:23362469

  9. Grafting effects on vegetable quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable grafting began in the 1920s to control soil-borne disease. It is now a common practice in Asia, parts of Europe, and the Middle East. In Japan and Korea most of the cucurbits and tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) grown are grafted. This practice is rare in the U.S. and there have...

  10. Radiation Reactions of Unsaturated Polyesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Charlesby; V. Wycherley; T. T. Greenwood

    1958-01-01

    The polymerization of monomers containing more than one double bond may lead to the formation of crosslinked polymers. The monomers involved in this work were unsaturated polyesters. Ionizing radiation was found to initiate polymerization and, at the same time, lead to an insoluble network by causing crosslinking between the polyester chains. The effect of both low- and high-intensity radiation, additives,

  11. Efficient coating of N-doped carbon nanotubes with polystyrene using atomic transfer radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragneaud, Benjamin; Masenelli-Varlot, Karine; Gonzalez-Montiel, Alfonso; Terrones, Mauricio; Cavaillé, Jean-Yves

    2006-02-01

    We describe an efficient and novel route to graft covalently polystyrene (PS) on the external layers of nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CN x MWNTs) using atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The doped tubes did not require any acid treatment prior to the ATRP reaction. Samples were characterized using FTIR, thermogravimetric analyses, high resolution transmission microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All the tubes were coated with a uniform layer of PS (3-5 nm thick). These grafted tubes could behave as efficient fillers in the manufacture of reinforced polymers exhibiting outstanding mechanical properties.

  12. An ultra-sensitive microfluidic immunoassay using living radical polymerization and porous polymer monoliths.

    SciTech Connect

    Abhyankar, Vinay V.; Singh, Anup K.; Hatch, Anson V.

    2010-07-01

    We present a platform that combines patterned photopolymerized polymer monoliths with living radical polymerization (LRP) to develop a low cost microfluidic based immunoassay capable of sensitive (low to sub pM) and rapid (<30 minute) detection of protein in 100 {micro}L sample. The introduction of LRP functionality to the porous monolith allows one step grafting of functionalized affinity probes from the monolith surface while the composition of the hydrophilic graft chain reduces non-specific interactions and helps to significantly improve the limit of detection.

  13. Metallization of grafted silicon surfaces: Sputtering-related damage effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vita, Edoardo; Narducci, Dario

    2007-07-01

    Metal sputtering is known to affect metal-insulating-semiconductor (MIS) devices where the insulator is an organic monolayer grafted onto crystalline substrates. We comparatively discuss current-voltage characteristics in MIS devices, where the insulating layer is either a thin oxide layer or an organic monolayer covalently grafted onto single-crystal silicon. Variation of the sputtering geometry from on-axis to off-axis configuration is analyzed to compare differences between them, obtaining the reduction of damages in the oxide layer accordingly to the supposed conduction mechanism, but no changes in organic layer of aliphatic molecules. Effects of ultraviolet radiations, already present during metal deposition, are also discussed.

  14. pH-sensitive gating by conformational change of a polypeptide brush grafted onto a porous polymer membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Yoshihiro; Ochiai, Yasushi; Park, Y.S.; Imanishi, Yukio [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1997-02-19

    Benzyl glutamate NCA was graft-polymerized onto a porous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) membrane in order to study the effects of pH and ionic strength on permeation rate. The membrane was first glow-discharged in the presence of ammonia in order to produce amino groups on the surface. Following graft polymerization the graft chains were hydrolyzed to yield poly(glutamic acid). The rate of water permeation through this poly(glutamic acid)-grafted polymer membrane was pH-dependent and found to be slow under high-pH conditions and fast under low-pH conditions. Under high-pH conditions, randomly coiled graft chains extend to close the pores. The chains form a helix structure and open the pores under low-pH conditions. The magnitude of the permeation rate was dependent upon the length and density of graft chains. Ionic strength also affected the permeation rate. 39 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Synthesis and properties of biodegradable hydrogels of ?-carrageenan grafted acrylic acid-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid as candidates for drug delivery systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pourjavadi; Sh. Barzegar; F. Zeidabadi

    2007-01-01

    Novel types of highly swelling hydrogels were prepared by grafting crosslinked polyacrylic acid-co-poly-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (PAA-co-PAMPS) chains onto ?-carrageenan through a free radical polymerization method. Here, we propose a mechanism for ?-carrageenan-g-PAA-co-PAMPS formation and confirm the hydrogel structure using FTIR spectroscopy. The effect of grafting variables (i.e. concentration of methylenebisacrylamide (MBA), acrylic acid\\/-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AA\\/AMPS) weight ratio, ammonium persulfate (APS), ?-carrageenan,

  16. Chitosan\\/oligo L-lactide graft copolymers: Effect of hydrophobic side chains on the physico-chemical properties and biodegradability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gisha Elizabeth Luckachan; C. K. S. Pillai

    2006-01-01

    Graft copolymerization of L-lactide (LLA) onto chitosan (CS) was carried out by ring opening polymerisation using Ti(OBu)4 as catalyst in DMSO at 90°C in nitrogen atmosphere to obtain chitosan\\/oligo L-lactide graft copolymers (CL). The ring opening polymerisation of L-lactide using a covalent initiator would significantly reduce the risk of racemization even at high temperatures in comparison to other polymerization methods.

  17. Novel Synthesis of Surface-Grafted Radical Initiator With Improved Stability and Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Erich; Dawes, Keith; Hu, Xinfang; Gorman, Christopher; Srogl, Jiri; Genzer, Jan

    2012-02-01

    Polymers grafted at interfaces are attractive for applications including antifouling coatings, biologically functionalized materials, and responsive surfaces. The ``grafting from'' approach to form densely packed brushes involves functionalizing a substrate with initiating moieties, and carrying out polymerization, e.g., surface-inititated free-radical polymerization (SI-FRP). Azo initiators for SI-FRP are commonly synthesized by a low-yielding route requiring large amounts of potassium cyanide. Those initiators are linked to a substrate by means of an ester group, rendering tethered polymers susceptible to degrafting by hydrolysis. We present a novel synthetic route to an asymmetric azo initiator, whose yield is nearly double that of previous syntheses. Cyanide usage in the new method is reduced by 72 percent. The spacer linking the initiator to a substrate contains only carbon-carbon bonds, resulting in stable brushes. Results are demonstrated for SI-FRP as well as reverse ATRP and RAFT.

  18. Synthesis of poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate)-grafted chitosan under ?-ray irradiation for alamethicin assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan; Dong, Ping; Wei, Yanqi; Qian, Jun; Hua, Daoben

    2015-08-01

    Interaction between peptide and lipid membrane plays a major role in biological activity of membrane-active peptide. We describe here a new biocompatible polymeric assembly to support membrane peptide. Specifically, chitosan-graft-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (CS-g-PSBMA) was synthesized for alamethicin assembly by controlled polymerization under ?-ray irradiation. The graft copolymer could self-assemble into micelles in distilled water for supporting alamethicin. The assembly of alamethicin with CS-g-PSBMA micelles in aqueous solutions was related with the ratio of alamethicin/CS-g-PSBMA: the more alamethicin, the smaller sizes of the hybrid complex. Moreover, alamethicin penetrated into the hydrophobic cores of CS-g-PSBMA micelles while displayed secondary helical conformation in the complex. The results indicate that CS-g-PSBMA assemblies can be used to support membrane peptide. PMID:26037702

  19. Perivascular Nitric Oxide Delivery to Saphenous Vein Grafts Prevents Graft Stenosis after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Novel Sheep Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyomars Abbasi; Keivan Shalileh; Maryam Sotudeh Anvari; Shahram Rabbani; Abolfazl Mahdanian; Seyed Hosein Ahmadi; Naghmeh Moshtaghi; Namvar Movahedi; Abbasali Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Graft stenosis is a major complication of coronary artery bypass grafting with autologous saphenous vein grafts. Nitric oxide (NO) is believed to prevent this phenomenon. We studied the effect of perivascular application of an NO donor on the degree of stenosis of such grafts in an ovine model. Methods: Twenty white Iranian ewes were randomized to coronary artery bypass

  20. Plasma polymerization (review)

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradov, G.K.

    1986-11-01

    The term ''plasma (gaseous discharge) polymerization'' is widely used to denote the process of forming high molecular weight products in electrical discharges. The purpose of the present review is primarily to analyze the state and methodology of research on gaseous discharge polymerization and to clarify the main approaches and trends in the literature. Experimental apparatus, internal plasma parameters, and research on the structure of polymer films and surface processes are discussed. IR spectroscopy and ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) as methods of studying the structure and composition of a polymer film are examined. The proposed models presented here are based primarily on the kinetic behavior of polymer film formation and on general considerations about the relation between the external parameters of discharges and the fluxes of various particle species onto the surface of a growing film which provide for the formation of the film.

  1. Bioadhesive control of plasma proteins and blood cells from umbilical cord blood onto the interface grafted with zwitterionic polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu; Chang, Yung; Higuchi, Akon; Shih, Yu-Ju; Li, Pei-Tsz; Chen, Wen-Yih; Tsai, Eing-Mei; Hsiue, Ging-Ho

    2012-03-01

    In this work, bioadhesive behavior of plasma proteins and blood cells from umbilical cord blood (UCB) onto zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (polySBMA) polymer brushes was studied. The surface coverage of polySBMA brushes on a hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) well plate with surface grafting weights ranging from 0.02 mg/cm(2) to 0.69 mg/cm(2) can be effectively controlled using the ozone pretreatment and thermal-induced radical graft-polymerization. The chemical composition, grafting structure, surface hydrophilicity, and hydration capability of prepared polySBMA brushes were determined to illustrate the correlations between grafting properties and blood compatibility of zwitterionic-grafted surfaces in contact with human UCB. The protein adsorption of fibrinogen in single-protein solutions and at complex medium of 100% UCB plasma onto different polySBMA brushes with different grafting coverage was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal antibodies. The grafting density of the zwitterionic brushes greatly affects the PS surface, thus controlling the adsorption of fibrinogen, the adhesion of platelets, and the preservation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in UCB. The results showed that PS surfaces grafted with polySBMA brushes possess controllable hydration properties through the binding of water molecules, regulating the bioadhesive and bioinert characteristics of plasma proteins and blood platelets in UCB. Interestingly, it was found that the polySBMA brushes with an optimized grafting weight of approximately 0.1 mg/cm(2) at physiologic temperatures show significant hydrated chain flexibility and balanced hydrophilicity to provide the best preservation capacity for HSPCs stored in 100% UCB solution for 2 weeks. This work suggests that, through controlling grafting structures, the hemocompatible nature of grafted zwitterionic polymer brushes makes them well suited to the molecular design of regulated bioadhesive interfaces for use in the preservation of HSPCs from human UCB. PMID:22268580

  2. Preparation and mechanical behavior of modified epoxy resin with grafted silicon rubber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youming Cao; Jun Sun; Jingsheng Wu

    2002-01-01

    Epoxy resin (EP) was modified by grafted silicon rubbers (g-SRs) prepared by co-polymerization of methyl vinyl silicon rubber with vinyl acetate. The branched structure of the g-SRs has been identified by infrared spectrum. The mechanical properties of modified EP were examined and the related fracture surfaces were observed by a scanning electron microscope. The results indicated that the EPs have

  3. Stable Protein-Repellent Zwitterionic Polymer Brushes Grafted from Silicon Nitride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Nguyen; J. Baggerman; J. M. J. Paulusse; Rijn van C. J. M; H. Zuilhof

    2011-01-01

    Zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine acrylamide) (SBMAA) brushes were grafted from silicon-rich silicon nitride (SixN4, x > 3) surfaces by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and studied in protein adsorption experiments. To this aim ATRP initiators were immobilized onto SixN4 through stable Si?C linkages via three consecutive reactions. A UV-induced reaction of 1,2-epoxy-9-decene with hydrogen-terminated SixN4 surfaces was followed by conversion of the

  4. RAFT “grafting-through” approach to surface-anchored polymers: Electrodeposition of an electroactive methacrylate monomer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Grande; M. C. Tria; M. J. Felipe; F. Zuluaga; R. Advincula

    2011-01-01

    .  The synthesis of homopolymer and diblock copolymers on surfaces was demonstrated using electrodeposition of a methacrylate-functionalized\\u000a carbazole dendron and subsequent reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) “grafting-through” polymerization.\\u000a First, the anodically electroactive carbazole dendron with methacrylate moiety (G1CzMA) was electrodeposited over a conducting\\u000a surface (i.e. gold or indium tin oxide (ITO)) using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrodeposition process formed a crosslinked

  5. Effects of T cell depletion in radiation bone marrow chimeras. III. Characterization of allogeneic bone marrow cell populations that increase allogeneic chimerism independently of graft-vs-host disease in mixed marrow recipients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sykes; C. H. Chester; T. M. Sundt; M. L. Romick; K. A. Hoyles; D. H. Sachs

    1989-01-01

    The opposing problems of graft-vs-host disease vs failure of alloengraftment severely limit the success of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation as a therapeutic modality. We have recently used a murine bone marrow transplantation model involving reconstitution of lethally irradiated mice with mixtures of allogeneic and syngeneic marrow to demonstrate that an allogeneic bone marrow subpopulation, removed by T cell depletion with

  6. POLYMERIZATION OF MONOMERIC TO POLYMERIC VESICLES. CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constantinos N. Paleos

    1990-01-01

    The first reports on the polymerization of monomeric vesicles to their polymerized counterparts [1–18] appeared in the literature in the early 1980s. The primary goal of this early work was to stabilize the relatively unstable monomeric vesicles in order to stimulate the function of biological membranes. Triggered by these at-tempts and the prospects for utilization of polymerized vesicles as energy

  7. Synthesis and characterization of macromolecular layers grafted to polymer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtovyy, Oleksandr

    The composition and behavior of surfaces and interfaces play a pivotal role in dictating the overall efficiency of the majority of polymeric materials and devices. Surface properties of the materials can be altered using surface modification techniques. It is necessary to highlight that successful methods of surface modification should affect only the upper layer of the polymer material without changing bulk properties. The processes must introduce new functionalities to the surface, optimize surface roughness, lubrication, hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, adhesion, conductivity, and/or biocompatibility. Research presented in this dissertation is dedicated to the synthesis, characterization, and application of thin macromolecular layers anchored to polymer substrates. Specifically, attachment of functional polymers via a "grafting to" approach has been extensively studied using PET and nylon model substrates. First, poly(glycidyl methacrylate) was used to introduce permanent functionalities to the model substrates by anchoring it to model films. Then, three different functional polymers were grafted on top of the previous layer. As one part of this study, the temperature and time dependence of grafting functional layers were studied. The surface coverage by hydrophobic polymer was determined from experimental data and predicted by a model. In general, the model has a high degree of predictive capability. Next, surface modification of polymeric fibers and membranes is presented as an important application of the polymer thin layers targeted in the study. Specifically, the procedures developed for surface modification of model substrates was employed for modification of PET, nylon, and cotton fabrics as well as PET track-etched membranes. Since epoxy groups are highly reactive in various chemical reactions, the approach becomes virtually universal, allowing both various surfaces and end-functionalized macromolecules to be used in the grafted layer synthesis. PET membranes modified with a reactive anchoring layer can be successfully used to build membrane assemblies by incorporating silica, aluminum, or titanium oxide microparticles as spacers. It is expected that the proposed approaches for the surface modification of the membranes and for the generation of multilayered membrane assemblies can be employed straightforwardly to provide an efficient platform for fabrication of breathable protective materials. Characterization of modified membranes with a cantilever-based method, which can be used for prediction of properties and behavior of thin grafted films, is reported. This technique can be used as a method for fast screening of modified membranes. The method is very robust and capable of detecting very small quantities of substance adsorbed; kinetics of the process can be tracked, as well. This approach can be further developed as a handheld sensor for early warning of the presence of chemical vapors and nerve agents.

  8. Future Perspectives of Fat Grafting.

    PubMed

    Pu, Lee L Q; Yoshimura, Kotaro; Coleman, Sydney R

    2015-07-01

    Autologous fat grafting is an exciting part of plastic and reconstructive surgery. Fat serves as a filler and its role in tissue regeneration will likely play a more important role in our specialty. As we learn more about the basic science of fat grafting and the standardized techniques and instruments used for fat grafting, this procedure alone or in conjunction with invasive procedures may be able to replace many operations that we perform currently. Its minimally invasive nature will benefit greatly our cosmetic and reconstructive patients, and may even achieve better clinical outcomes. PMID:26116945

  9. Polymeric salt bridges for conducting electric current in microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Tichenor, Mark S. (San Diego, CA); Artau, Alexander (Humacao, PR)

    2009-11-17

    A "cast-in-place" monolithic microporous polymer salt bridge for conducting electrical current in microfluidic devices, and methods for manufacture thereof is disclosed. Polymeric salt bridges are formed in place in capillaries or microchannels. Formulations are prepared with monomer, suitable cross-linkers, solvent, and a thermal or radiation responsive initiator. The formulation is placed in a desired location and then suitable radiation such as UV light is used to polymerize the salt bridge within a desired structural location. Embodiments are provided wherein the polymeric salt bridges have sufficient porosity to allow ionic migration without bulk flow of solvents therethrough. The salt bridges form barriers that seal against fluid pressures in excess of 5000 pounds per square inch. The salt bridges can be formulated for carriage of suitable amperage at a desired voltage, and thus microfluidic devices using such salt bridges can be specifically constructed to meet selected analytical requirements.

  10. Immobilization of Xanthate Agent on Titanium Dioxide and Surface Initiated RAFT Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yanda; Wang, Tongxin; Mitchell, James W; Chow, Laurence C

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle is essential to control its surface properties, thereby to enhance its cell penetration capability, reduce its cytotoxicity, or improve its biocompatibility. In order to graft polyvinyl acetate onto TiO2 nanoparticles, xanthate was chemically immobilized on the surface of TiO2 by acylation followed by nucleophilic substitution with a carbodithioate salt. Reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization was conducted to graft vinyl acetate onto the surface of TiO2. Both the TiO2-xanthate and TiO2-polyvinyl acetate hybrids were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The chemical immobilization of xanthate on the surface of TiO2 and the subsequent controlled polymerization provide useful insight for decoration and modification of TiO2 and other nanoparticles. PMID:25717422

  11. PHEA-graft-polybutylmethacrylate copolymer microparticles for delivery of hydrophobic drugs.

    PubMed

    Licciardi, Mariano; Di Stefano, Mauro; Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Amato, Giovanni; Fontana, Giacomo; Cavallaro, Gennara; Giammona, Gaetano

    2012-08-20

    Polymeric microparticles encapsulating two model hydrophobic drugs, beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) and flutamide (FLU) were prepared by using the high pressure homogenization-solvent evaporation method starting from a oil-in-water emulsion. For the preparation of polymeric microparticles a ?,?-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-D,L-aspartamide (PHEA) graft copolymer with comb like structure was properly synthesized via grafting from atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technique, by using two subsequent synthetic steps. In the first step a polymeric multifunctional macroinitiator was obtained by the conjugation of a proper number of 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BIB) residues to the PHEA side chains, obtaining the PHEA-BIB copolymer. PHEA-BIB copolymer was then used as macroinitiator for the polymerization via ATRP of the hydrophobic monomer such as butyl methacrylate (BMA) to obtain the ?,?-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-D,L-aspartamide-co-(N-2-ethylen-isobutyrate)-graft-poly(butyl methacrylate) copolymer (PHEA-IB-p(BMA)). Spherical microparticles with 1-3 microns diameter were prepared. Microparticles loaded with BDP or FLU were also prepared. In vitro mucoadhesion and enzymatic degradation studies evidenced bioadhesive properties and biodegradability of prepared microparticles, while release studies showed a different release profiles for the two loaded drugs: BDP was totally released from nanoparticles until 24h in pulmonary mimicking conditions; differently a slower FLU release rate was observed in gastro-intestinal mimicking conditions. The in vitro cytotoxicity activity was assessed using 16HBE and Caco-2 cell lines. Results showed that exposure of both cell lines to BDP-loaded microparticles do not inhibited the cell growth; on the contrary FLU-loaded microparticles inhibited the cell growth, in particular of the Caco-2 cancer cell line, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Finally, uptake studies demonstrated that BDP-loaded microparticles and FLU-loaded microparticles effectively increased uptake of loaded drugs in a time-dependent manner, respectively on 16HBE and Caco-2 cell lines. PMID:22575755

  12. Visualization of critical pH-controlled gating of a porous membrane grafted with polyelectrolyte brushes

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Yoshihiro [PRESTO, Kyoto (Japan)] [PRESTO, Kyoto (Japan); [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Park, Y.S.; Imanishi, Yukio [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1997-03-19

    In the present study, the extension and contraction of the polymer chains in `polyelectrolyte brushes` grafted on a nanoporous polymeric membrane were visualized using atomic force microscopy, which enables direct microscopic observation in water. Pore size was estimated by measuring the rate of water permeation through the membrane. The rate of water permeation through an ungrafted membrane was independent of pH. The rate of permeation through the grafted membrane was found to be less than that of the ungrafted membrane, but was dependent upon pH. The rate was high at low pH, but was nearly zero at neutral pH. These changes in permeation were repeatedly carried out by pH changes, because the polyelectrolyte brush was covalently grafted on the membrane. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Binary mixed homopolymer brushes grafted on nanorod particles: A self-consistent field theory study

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xin; Yang, Yingzi; Tang, Ping, E-mail: pingtang@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: fengqiu@fudan.edu.cn; Qiu, Feng, E-mail: pingtang@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: fengqiu@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Macromolecular Science, The State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Key Laboratory of Computational Physical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [Department of Macromolecular Science, The State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Key Laboratory of Computational Physical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhu, Lei [Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7202 (United States)] [Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7202 (United States); Zhao, Bin [Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

    2013-12-07

    We employ the self-consistent field theory to study phase structures of brush-rod systems composed of two chemically distinct linear homopolymers. The polymer chains are uniformly grafted on the surface of a nanorod particle of finite length and comparable radius to the polymer radius of gyration. A “masking” technique treating the cylindrical boundary is introduced to solve the modified diffusion equations with an efficient and high-order accurate pseudospectral method involving fast Fourier transform on an orthorhombic cell. A rich variety of structures for the phase separated brushes is predicted. Phase diagrams involving a series of system parameters, such as the aspect ratio of the nanorod, the grafting density, and the chain length are constructed. The results indicate that the phase structure of the mixed brush-rod system can be tailored by varying the grafted chain length and/or the aspect ratio of the rod to benefit the fabrication of polymeric nanocomposites.

  14. Polysulfone functionalized with phosphonated poly(pentafluorostyrene) grafts for potential fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Takamuku, Shogo; Jankova, Katja; Jannasch, Patric; Hvilsted, Søren

    2012-08-28

    A multi-step synthetic strategy to polysulfone (PSU) grafted with phosphonated poly(pentafluorostyrene) (PFS) is developed. It involves controlled radical polymerization resulting in alkyne-end functional PFS. The next step is the modification of PSU with a number of azide side groups. The grafting of PFS onto PSU backbone is performed via the "click"-chemistry approach. In a final step, the PFS-grafts are subjected to the post phosphonation. The copolymers are evaluated as membranes for potential fuel cell applications through thermal analyses, water uptake, and conductivity measurements. The proposed synthetic route opens the possibility to tune copolymers' hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance to obtain membranes with an optimal balance between proton conductivity and mechanical properties. PMID:22623205

  15. Preparation of metal adsorbent from poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted-cassava starch via gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwanmala, Phiriyatorn; Hemvichian, Kasinee; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Seko, Noriaki

    2012-08-01

    Metal adsorbent containing hydroxamic acid groups was successfully synthesized by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate (MA) onto cassava starch. The optimum conditions for grafting were studied in terms of % degree of grafting (Dg). Conversion of the ester groups present in poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted-cassava starch copolymer into hydroxamic acid was carried out by treatment with hydroxylamine (HA) in the presence of alkaline solution. The maximum percentage conversion of the ester groups of the grafted copolymer, % Dg=191 (7.63 mmol/g of MA), into the hydroxamic groups was 70% (5.35 mmol/g of MA) at the optimum condition. The adsorbent of 191%Dg had total adsorption capacities of 2.6, 1.46, 1.36, 1.15 and 1.6 mmol/g-adsorbent for Cd2+, Al3+, UO22+, V5+ and Pb2+, respectively, in the batch mode adsorption.

  16. Modification of polysulfone membranes via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Han-Bang; Xu, You-Yi; Yi, Zhuan; Shi, Jun-Li

    2009-08-01

    Hydrophilic poly((poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (P(PEGMA)) and poly(glycidylmethacrylate) (PGMA) brushes were grafted from chloromethylated polysulfone (CMPSF) membrane surfaces via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Prior to ATRP, chloromethylation of PSF was performed beforehand and the obtained CMPSF was prepared into porous membranes by phase inversion process. It was demonstrated that the benzyl chloride groups on the CMPSF membrane surface afforded effective macroinitiators to graft the well-defined polymer brushes. 1H NMR was employed to confirm the structure of CMPSF. The grafting yield of P(PEGMA) and PGMA was determined by weight gain measurement. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the grafting of P(PEGMA) and PGMA chains. Water contact angle measurements indicated that the introduction of P(PEGMA) and PGMA graft chains promoted remarkably the surface hydrophilicity of PSF membranes. The effects of P(PEGMA) and PGMA immobilization on membrane morphology, permeability and fouling resistance were investigated. It was found that P(PEGMA) and PGMA grafts brought higher pure water flux, improved hydrophilic surface and better anti-protein absorption ability to PSF membranes after modification. And evidently, macromonomer P(PEGMA) brought much better properties to the PSF membranes than PGMA macromonomer.

  17. Polymerization Evaluation by Spectrophotometric Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunach, Jaume

    1985-01-01

    Discusses polymerization evaluation by spectrophotometric measurements by considering: (1) association degrees and molar absorptivities; (2) association degrees and equilibrium constants; and (3) absorbance and equilibrium constants. (JN)

  18. Modification of polysulfone membranes via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han-Bang Dong; You-Yi Xu; Zhuan Yi; Jun-Li Shi

    2009-01-01

    Hydrophilic poly((poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (P(PEGMA)) and poly(glycidylmethacrylate) (PGMA) brushes were grafted from chloromethylated polysulfone (CMPSF) membrane surfaces via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Prior to ATRP, chloromethylation of PSF was performed beforehand and the obtained CMPSF was prepared into porous membranes by phase inversion process. It was demonstrated that the benzyl chloride groups on the CMPSF membrane

  19. Bone Grafting the Cleft Maxilla

    MedlinePLUS

    ... graft; 2) prosthetic replacement (dental bridge); or 3) dental metallic bone implants. The best option for an individual patient is best decided by the dental specialists on the cleft palate team. (See Replacing ...

  20. Brush/gold nanoparticle hybrids: effect of grafting density on the particle uptake and distribution within weak polyelectrolyte brushes.

    PubMed

    Christau, Stephanie; Möller, Tim; Yenice, Zuleyha; Genzer, Jan; von Klitzing, Regine

    2014-11-01

    The effect of the brush grafting density on the loading of 13 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into stimuli-responsive poly(N,N-(dimethylamino ethyl) methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes anchored to flat impenetrable substrates is reported. Atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is used to grow polymer brushes via a "grafting from" approach from a 2-bromo-2-methyl-N-(3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl) propanamide (BTPAm)-covered silicon substrate. The grafting density is varied by using mixtures of initiator and a "dummy" molecule that is not able to initiate polymerization. A systematic study is carried out by varying the brush grafting density while keeping all of the other parameters constant. X-ray reflectivity is a suitable tool for investigating the spatial structure of the hybrid, and it is combined with scanning electron microscopy and UV/vis spectroscopy to study the particle loading and interpenetration of the particles within the polymer brush matrix. The particle uptake increases with decreasing grafting density and is highest for an intermediate grafting density because more space between the polymer chains is available. For very low grafting densities of PDMAEMA brushes, the particle uptake decreases because of a lack of the polymer matrix for the attachment of particles. The structure of the surface-grafted polymer chains changes after particle attachment. More water is incorporated into the brush matrix after particle immobilization, which leads to a swelling of the polymer chains in the hybrid material. Water can be removed from the brush by decreasing the relative humidity, which leads to brush shrinking and forces the AuNPs to get closer to each other. PMID:25275215

  1. Polymeric Side Chain Thioxanthone Photoinitiator for Free Radical Polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gokhan Temel; Nergis Arsu; Yusuf Yagci

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Side chain thioxanthone-containing polymer (PSt-TX) was synthesized and characterized by modification of polystyrene prepared\\u000a by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. PSt-TX exhibits absorption characteristics similar to that of the unsubstitued thioxanthone.\\u000a Its capability to act as initiator for the polymerization of methyl methacrylate was also examined.

  2. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

    1999-03-30

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  3. Bimorphic polymeric photomechanical actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S. (Inventor); Curley, Michael J. (Inventor); Adamovsky, Grigory (Inventor); Sarkisov, Jr., Sergey S. (Inventor); Fields, Aisha B. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A bimorphic polymeric photomechanical actuator, in one embodiment using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a photosensitive body, transmitting light over fiber optic cables, and controlling the shape and pulse duration of the light pulse to control movement of the actuator. Multiple light beams are utilized to generate different ranges of motion for the actuator from a single photomechanical body and alternative designs use multiple light beams and multiple photomechanical bodies to provide controlled movement. Actuator movement using one or more ranges of motion is utilized to control motion to position an actuating element in three dimensional space.

  4. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R. (Winchester, MA); Baumann, Robert (Cambridge, MA)

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  5. Electron energy loss processes in polymeric solids application to nano-lithography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piyush Pathak

    2009-01-01

    The interaction of energetic radiation with polymers has attracted considerable attention in the area of semiconductor manufacturing, where photosensitive polymeric films are used in the patterning of a silicon substrate. Photoresist are polymeric solids which undergo chemical transformation when exposed to energetic radiation such as Extreme Ultra-Violet lithography (EUV-L, ≈ 100eV), Electron-Beam (EBL, ≈ 20--100 keV), and X-ray (XRL, ≈

  6. Polymerization topochemistry of cellulose nanocrystals: a function of surface dehydration control.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chen; Fu, Shiyu; Habibi, Youssef; Lucia, Lucian A

    2014-12-01

    The activation (dehydration) of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) toward surface "brush" polymerization is accomplished either by freeze drying or solvent exchange. However, the question of which one of these protocols to choose over the other is generally open-ended. The current study attempts to shed light on this question by installing a standard polymer, polycaprolactone (PCL), onto the surface of both freeze-dried and solvent-exchanged CNCs by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and examining the differences in polymerization and final product properties. The work is the first to demonstrate that the efficiency of surface polymerization and final product properties are in fact influenced by the protocols. The differences between the two sample PCL-grafted CNCs were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), elemental analysis, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and contact-angle measurements. The freeze-dried samples had a significantly reduced PCL surface density. The crystallinity of the solvent-exchanged PCL-grafted CNCs (SECNC-g-PCL), however, was lower than that of either pure CNCs or freeze-dried PCL-grafted CNCs (FDCNC-g-PCL). It was determined that solvent exchange sufficiently modified the CNC surface to provide enhanced reactivity, an effect that was not as apparent for FDCNC-g-PCL. The solvent-exchanged CNCs tended to have more porous, nanotextured surfaces that were tended to be more responsive toward brush polymerization. In addition to the physical dissimilarities in surface morphology and surface accessibility contributing to topochemical differences between the two species, it was also found that the dispersibility, aggregation, and thermal stability were different. PMID:25387043

  7. Solid polymeric electrolytes obtained from modified natural polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Machado, G. O.; Guimaraes, K. V.; Dragunski, Douglas C.

    2003-10-01

    Polysaccharides like starch and cellulose derivatives, hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) or hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) were modified to obtain solid polymeric electrolytes. The chemical modifications were performed by the grafting of polymers with poly(ethylene oxide) mono and diisocyanates or JEFFAMINE (Shiff base). The physical modifications were made by the plasticization process of starch and cellulose derivatives with glycerol and ethylene glycol. All the samples obtained from polysaccharides were characterized by X-ray, thermal analysis (DSC) and impedance spectroscopy. The plasticized samples showed low glass transition temperatures (Tg); for HEC the value was about -60°C and for starch it was about -30°C. Tg values for grafted samples were of about -58°C for starch and -7°C for HPC. The low Tg values obtained are important to ensure good ionic conductivity that reached the values of about 10-5 Scm-1 for plasticized samples and 10-6 Scm-1 for grafted ones at room temperature. The good film forming and ionic conductivity properties of the samples of HEC, HPC and starch are very interesting candidates to be used as solid polymer electrolytes.

  8. Grafting titanium nitride surfaces with sodium styrene sulfonate thin films.

    PubMed

    Zorn, Gilad; Migonney, Véronique; Castner, David G

    2014-09-01

    The importance of titanium nitride lies in its high hardness and its remarkable resistance to wear and corrosion, which has led to its use as a coating for the heads of hip prostheses, dental implants and dental surgery tools. However, the usefulness of titanium nitride coatings for biomedical applications could be significantly enhanced by modifying their surface with a bioactive polymer film. The main focus of the present work was to graft a bioactive poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) (pNaSS) thin film from titanium nitride surfaces via a two-step procedure: first modifying the surface with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) and then grafting the pNaSS film from the MPS modified titanium through free radical polymerization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were used after each step to characterize success and completeness of each reaction. The surface region of the titanium nitride prior to MPS functionalization and NaSS grafting contained a mixture of titanium nitride, oxy-nitride, oxide species as well as adventitious surface contaminants. After MPS functionalization, Si was detected by XPS, and characteristic MPS fragments were detected by ToF-SIMS. After NaSS grafting, Na and S were detected by XPS and characteristic NaSS fragments were detected by ToF-SIMS. The XPS determined thicknesses of the MPS and NaSS overlayers were ?1.5 and ?1.7 nm, respectively. The pNaSS film density was estimated by the toluidine blue colorimetric assay to be 260?±?70 ng/cm(2). PMID:25280842

  9. Preparation of polystyrene brush film by radical chain-transfer polymerization and micromechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Chen, Miao; An, Yanqing; Liu, Jianxi; Yan, Fengyuan

    2008-12-01

    A radical chain-transfer polymerization technique has been applied to graft-polymerize brushes of polystyrene (PSt) on single-crystal silicon substrates. 3-Mercapto-propyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), as a chain-transfer agent for grafting, was immobilized on the silicon surface by a self-assembling process. The structure and morphology of the graft-functionalized silicon surfaces were characterized by the means of contact-angle measurement, ellipsometric thickness measurement, Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nanotribological and micromechanical properties of the as-prepared polymer brush films were investigated by frictional force microscopy (FFM), force-volume analysis and scratch test. The results indicate that the friction properties of the grafted polymer films can be improved significantly by the treatment of toluene, and the chemically bonded polystyrene film exhibits superior scratch resistance behavior compared with the spin-coated polystyrene film. The resultant polystyrene brush film is expected to develop as a potential lubrication coating for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

  10. Organometallic Polymeric Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    For aerospace applications, the use of polymers can result in tremendous weight savings over metals. Suitable polymeric materials for some applications like EMI shielding, spacecraft grounding, and charge dissipation must combine high electrical conductivity with long-term environmental stability, good processability, and good mechanical properties. Recently, other investigators have reported hybrid films made from an electrically conductive polymer combined with insulating polymers. In all of these instances, the films were prepared by infiltrating an insulating polymer with a precursor for a conductive polymer (either polypyrrole or polythiophene), and oxidatively polymerizing the precursor in situ. The resulting composite films have good electrical conductivity, while overcoming the brittleness inherent in most conductive polymers. The highest conductivities reported (approximately 4/Scm) were achieved with polythiophene in a polystyrene host polymer. The best films using a polyamide as base polymer were four orders of magnitude less conductive than the polystyrene films. The authors suggested that this was because polyimides were unable to swell sufficiently for infiltration of monomer as in the polystyrene. It was not clear, however, if the different conductivities obtained were merely the result of differing oxidation conditions. Oxidation time, temperature and oxidant concentration varied widely among the studies.

  11. Biocompatible Initiators for Lactide Polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel H. Platel; Linda M. Hodgson; Charlotte K. Williams

    2008-01-01

    The review summarizes recent developments in the preparation and use of new initiators for the ring opening polymerization of lactide. The review compares different classes of initiator including metal complexes, classed according to their group in the periodic table, and carbon?based initiators\\/organocatalysts. Emphasis is placed on the polymerization kinetics and the control exhibited by the different types of initiators. Where

  12. Outdoor high voltage polymeric insulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hackam

    1998-01-01

    Composite polymeric insulators are increasingly being accepted by the traditionally cautious electric utilities worldwide. They currently represent about 70% of installed new high voltage insulators in North America. The tremendous growth in the applications of non-ceramic insulators is due to their advantages over the traditional ceramic and glass insulators. However, because polymeric insulators are relatively new the expected lifetime is

  13. Coating of plasma polymerized film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morita, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma polymerized thin film coating and the use of other coatings is suggested for passivation film, thin film used for conducting light, and solid body lubrication film of dielectrics of ultra insulators for electrical conduction, electron accessories, etc. The special features of flow discharge development and the polymerized film growth mechanism are discussed.

  14. Should computed tomography angiography supersede invasive coronary angiography for the evaluation of graft patency following coronary artery bypass graft surgery?

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Joseph; Klimach, Stefan; Lang, Peter; Hildick-Smith, David

    2015-08-01

    Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) has long been the established gold standard in assessing graft patency following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Over the past decade or so however, improvements in computed tomography angiography (CTA) technology have allowed its emergence as a useful clinical tool in graft assessment. The recent introduction of 64-slice and now 128-slice scanners into widespread distribution, and the development of 320-detector row technology allowing volumetric imaging of the entire heart at single points in time within one cardiac cycle, has increased the potential of CTA to supersede ICA in this capacity. This study sought to examine the evidence surrounding this potential. A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The enquiry: In [patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery] is [computed tomography angiography or invasive coronary angiography] superior in terms of [graft patency assessment, stenosis detection, radiation exposure and complication rate]? Four hundred and twenty-four articles were identified from the search strategy. Four additional articles were identified from references of key articles. Seventeen articles selected as best evidence were tabulated. The reliability of CTA as a tool in the detection of graft patency and stenosis has continued to improve with each successive generation of multislice technology. The latest 64- and 128-slice CTA techniques are able to detect graft patency and stenosis with very high sensitivities and specificities comparable with ICA, while remaining non-invasive procedures associated with fewer complications (ICA carries a 0.08% risk of myocardial infarction and 0.7% risk of minor complications in clinically stable patients). Present limitations of the technology include the accurate visualization of distal anastomoses and clip artefacts. In addition, the capacity of diagnostic ICA to be combined simultaneously with percutaneous coronary interventions is an important advantage and a further limitation of CTA alone. Recent developments, however, including the derivation of fractional flow reserve and perfusion assessment from CTA as functional measures of stenosis severity have given CTA at present the capacity to become a first-line tool in the assessment of patients with suspected graft dysfunction. Novel computer-automated diagnostic software, though currently in infancy, has shown promise in facilitating and speeding image interpretation. With further improvements in scanning technologies, CTA is likely to supersede ICA for graft assessment in the near future. PMID:25924868

  15. Radiators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    A heat-exchange radiator is connected to a fluid flow circuit by a connector which provides one member of an interengageable spigot and socket pair for push-fit, fluid-tight, engagement between the connector and the radiator, with latching formations at least one of which is resilient. Preferably the connector carries the spigot which tapers and engages with a socket of corresponding shape,

  16. Radiation 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    State. s. ABSTRACT This study is an attempt to find a tentative atmospheric index of human comfort and to show its applications for the area of College Station~ Texas. Temperature, relative humidity~ air move- ment, and global short-wave radiation... (direct plus diffuse) were combined into a single numerical expression for outdoor human comfort. The contribution of global short-wave radiation to the heat load on man also is evaluated in a single numerical expression, and expressed as an equivalent...

  17. Enhancing antibiofouling performance of Polysulfone (PSf) membrane by photo-grafting of capsaicin derivative and acrylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Haijing; Gao, Xueli; Gao, Congjie

    2014-10-01

    Biofouling is a critical issue in membrane water and wastewater treatment. Herein, antibiofouling PSf membrane was prepared by UV-assisted graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and a capsaicin derivative, N-(5-methyl-3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy benzyl) acrylamide (MBHBA), on PSf membrane. AA and MBHBA were used as hydrophilic monomer and antibacterial monomer separately. The membranes were characterized by FTIR-ATR, contact angle, SEM, AFM, cross-flow filtration unit, antifouling and antibacterial measurements. Verification of MBHBA and AA that photo-chemically grafted onto the PSf membrane surface is confirmed by carbonyl stretching vibration at ?1655 cm-1 and ?1730 cm-1, separately. The increasing AA concentration accelerates the graft-polymerization of MBHBA and resulted in a more hydrophilic surface. Consequently, antifouling property of the membranes was improved on a large level. The flux recovery rate can achieve 100% during the cyclic test, which may be attributed to the more hydrophilic and smooth surface, as well as the decreased membrane pore size. Most importantly, the presence of AA in graft co-polymer does not affect the antibacterial activity of MBHBA. That may be induced by the increasing chain length and flexibility of the grafted polymer chains.

  18. [Plaque surgery for Peyronie's disease: heterologous grafts].

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Matteo; Sedigh, Omid; Milan, Gian Luca

    2003-06-01

    Surgical treatment of Induratio Penis Plastica includes conservative procedures (phalloplasty), substitutive procedures (prosthesis) and combined procedures (phalloplasty plus prosthesis). Our policy for conservative treatment is based on radical removal of the plaque and replacement with biological patches. During a 15 year experience we employed lyophilized dura mater, autologous dermal graft, preputial skin, cadaveric dermal graft (AlloDerm), venous graft and porcine SIS (Small Intestine Submucosa) graft. Our experience confirms the superiority of venous grafts, but preliminary results with SIS grafts are encouraging. PMID:12868152

  19. Switchable Adhesion from Bicomponent Polymeric Brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retsos, Haris; Gorodyska, Ganna; Creton, Costantino

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the adhesive and wetting properties of bicomponent polymeric brushes made from end functionalized hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer chains. The molecular organization of the mixed brush could be varied reversibly by exposure to selective solvents for the two polymers. Adhesive properties were tested by debonding a flat ended probe from soft pressure-sensitive-adhesives (hydrophobic & hydrophilic) and wetting properties were tested by contact angle measurements of water & diiodomethane droplets. The bicomponent brushes were chemically grafted on silicon wafers from end-functionalized chains. Wetting experiments were done directly on the wafers while for adhesion experiments, the wafers were glued on the flat end of the probe prior to the tests. In all cases the organization of the bicomponent brush could be modified reproducibly and reversibly by exposure to selective solvents. Following this strategy we succeeded to create remarkably stable adaptive polymer surfaces that can modify their adhesion and wetting reversibly and also tune them by varying the ratio of the bicomponent brush layer.

  20. Modification of a Membrane Surface Charge by a Low Temperature Plasma Induced Grafting Reaction and Its Application to Reduce Membrane Fouling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Zhan; Zheng Liu; Baoguo Wang; Fuxin Ding

    2004-01-01

    A low temperature plasma was used to graft a positively charged monomer to initiate polymerization on a hydrophilic polysulfone membrane of negative surface charge. The surface modification was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x?ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Changes in the membrane surface charge and ??potential before and after the modification were determined by measuring the electroosmotic flux across the membrane.

  1. Plant grafting: new mechanisms, evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Eliezer E.

    2014-01-01

    Grafting, an old plant propagation practice, is still widely used with fruit trees and in recent decades also with vegetables. Taxonomic proximity is a general prerequisite for successful graft-take and long-term survival of the grafted, composite plant. However, the mechanisms underlying interspecific graft incompatibility are as yet insufficiently understood. Hormonal signals, auxin in particular, are believed to play an important role in the wound healing and vascular regeneration within the graft union zone. Incomplete and convoluted vascular connections impede the vital upward and downward whole plant transfer routes. Long-distance protein, mRNA and small RNA graft-transmissible signals currently emerge as novel mechanisms which regulate nutritional and developmental root/top relations and may play a pivotal role in grafting physiology. Grafting also has significant pathogenic projections. On one hand, stock to scion mechanical contact enables the spread of diseases, even without a complete graft union. But, on the other hand, grafting onto resistant rootstocks serves as a principal tool in the management of fruit tree plagues and vegetable soil-borne diseases. The ‘graft hybrid’ historic controversy has not yet been resolved. Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic modification of DNA-methylation patterns may account for certain graft-transformation phenomena. Root grafting is a wide spread natural phenomenon; both intraspecific and interspecific root grafts have been recorded. Root grafts have an evolutionary role in the survival of storm-hit forest stands as well as in the spread of devastating diseases. A more fundamental evolutionary role is hinted by recent findings that demonstrate plastid and nuclear genome transfer between distinct Nicotiana species in the graft union zone, within a tissue culture system. This has led to the formation of alloploid cells that, under laboratory conditions, gave rise to a novel, alloploid Nicotiana species, indicating that natural grafts may play a role in plant speciation, under certain circumstances. PMID:25566298

  2. Surface grafting density analysis of high anti-clotting PU-Si-g-P(MPC) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chun-Yan; Zhou, Ning-Lin; Xiao, Ying-Hong; Tang, Yi-Da; Jin, Su-Xing; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Jun; Shen, Jian

    2012-02-01

    Well-defined zwitterionic polymer brushes with good blood compatibility were studied, grafted from polyurethane (PU) substrate (PU-Si-g-P(MPC)) by surface-initiated reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-RATRP). We found that the structure of polymer brushes and hence their properties greatly depend on the grafting density. To solve the problems of the normal method for grafting density measurement, i.e., more requirements for qualified and proficient instrument operator, we established an effective and feasible way instead of the conventional method of spectroscopic ellipsometer combined with gel permeation chromatograph (ELM/GPC) to calculate the grafting density of PU-Si-g-P(MPC) films by using a software named ImageJ 1.44e in combination with scanning electronic microscope (SEM) or atomic microscope (AFM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), SEM and AFM were employed to analyze the surface topography and changes of elements before and after graft modification of the synthetic PU-Si-g-P(MPC) biofilms.

  3. Upper limb grafts for hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Shemesh, David; Goldin, Ilya; Verstandig, Anthony; Berelowitz, Daniel; Zaghal, Ibrahim; Olsha, Oded

    2015-01-01

    Arteriovenous (AV) grafts are required for hemodialysis access when options for native fistulas have been fully exhausted, where they continue to play an important role in hemodialysis patients, offering a better alternative to central vein catheters. When planning autogenous accesses using Doppler ultrasound, adequate arterial inflow and venous outflow must be consciously preserved for future access creation with grafts. Efforts to improve graft patency include changing graft configuration, graft biology and hemodynamics. Industry offers early cannulation grafts to reduce central catheter use and a bioengineered graft is undergoing clinical studies. Although the outcome of AV grafts is inferior to fistulas, grafts can provide long-term hemodialysis access that is a better alternative to central venous catheters. AV grafts have significant drawbacks, mainly poor patency, infection and cost but also have some advantages: early maturation, ease of creation and needling and widespread availability. The outcome of AV graft surgery is variable from center to center. The primary patency rate for AV grafts is 58% at 6 months and the secondary patency rate is 76% at 6 months and 55% at 18 months. There are centers of excellence that report a 1 year secondary patency rate of up to 91%. In this review of the use of AV grafts for hemodialysis access in the upper extremities, technical issues involved in planning the access and performing the surgery in its different configurations are discussed and the role of surveillance and maintenance with their attendant surgical and radiological interventions is described. PMID:25751548

  4. On-demand degrafting and the study of molecular weight and grafting density of poly(methyl methacrylate) brushes on flat silica substrates.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rohan R; Turgman-Cohen, Salomon; Šrogl, Ji?í; Kiserow, Douglas; Genzer, Jan

    2015-03-01

    We report on degrafting of surface-anchored poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) brushes from flat silica-based substrates using tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) and determining their molecular weight distribution (MWD) using size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The grafted PMMA layer was synthesized using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of MMA for polymerization times ranging from 6 to 24 h. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry were employed in tandem to characterize the degrafting process. The SEC eluograms were fit to various polymer distributions, namely Zimm-Schulz, ATRP in continuous stirred tank reactor, Wesslau, Schulz-Flory, and Smith et al. The ATRP model gives the best fit to the experimental data. The dry PMMA brush thickness and the number-average molecular weight (obtained from the MWD) suggest that the grafting density of the PMMA grafts is independent of polymerization time, indicating well-controlled/living growth of MMA. The observed polydispersity index (PDI) was higher than that generally observed in bulk grown polymers under similar conditions, indicating an effect due to chain confinement and crowding. We detect small but noticeable dependence of the polymer brush grafting density on the inhibitor/catalyst ratio. Higher inhibitor/catalyst ratio offers better control with lower early terminations, which results in a small increase in the apparent grafting density of the chains. PMID:25654273

  5. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Choices

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, Alec A.; Perfetti, Dean C.; Levine, William N.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common surgical procedure; however, there is no consensus to what the best graft option is to replace the injured ACL. The main options available consist of allografts and autografts, which include patellar tendon, hamstring tendon, and quadriceps tendon autografts. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database was searched in August 2010 for English-language articles pertaining to ACL grafts. Results: Postoperative outcome variables were analyzed to determine similarities and differences among the different graft options. These variables include stability, strength, function, return to sports, patient satisfaction, complications, and cost. Conclusions: Both allografts and the 3 main options for autografts can provide excellent results in ACL reconstruction and lead to a high percentage of satisfied patients. However, differences exist among the graft choices. Both the similarities and the differences are important to discuss with a patient who will be undergoing ACL reconstruction so that he or she has the best information available when making a choice of graft. PMID:23016071

  6. Actin polymerization-enhancing drugs promote ovarian follicle growth mediated by the Hippo signaling effector YAP.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuan; Feng, Yi; Jansson, Lina; Sato, Yorino; Deguchi, Masashi; Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Hsueh, Aaron J

    2015-06-01

    Hippo signaling pathway consists of conserved serine/threonine kinases to maintain optimal organ sizes. Studies have demonstrated that fragmentation of murine ovaries increases actin polymerization and disrupts Hippo signaling, leading to nuclear translocation of Hippo signaling effector Yes-associated protein (YAP) in ovarian follicles and follicle growth. For patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome showing follicle arrest, ovarian wedge resection and laser drilling promote follicle growth. Because these damaging procedures likely involve actin polymerization, we tested whether actin polymerization-promoting drugs could promote YAP translocation and stimulate follicle growth. Treatment of murine ovaries with ?M Jasplakinolide (JASP), an actin polymerization-promoting cyclic peptide, or sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a follicular fluid constituent known to promote actin polymerization, increased the conversion of globular actin to the filamentous form, followed by increased nuclear YAP and expression of downstream connective tissue growth factor (CCN2). After short-term treatments with JASP or S1P, in vitro cultured and in vivo grafted ovaries showed follicle growth. Furthermore, induction of constitutively active YAP in ovarian grafts of transgenic mice enhanced follicle development, whereas treatment of human ovarian cortices with JASP or S1P increased CCN2 expression. Thus, JASP and S1P stimulate follicle growth and are potential therapeutic agents for treating polycystic ovarian syndrome and other ovarian disorders.-Cheng, Y., Feng, Y., Jansson, L., Sato, Y., Deguchi, M., Kawamura, K., Hsueh, A. J. Actin polymerization-enhancing drugs promote ovarian follicle growth mediated by the Hippo signaling effector YAP. PMID:25690654

  7. Integration of RAFT polymerization and click chemistry to fabricate PAMPS modified macroporous polypropylene membrane for protein fouling mitigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Wang, Li-Li; He, Xiao-Chun; Zhang, Zi-Jun; Yu, Hai-Yin; Gu, Jia-Shan

    2014-12-01

    A copper (I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) grafting-to method was used to tether alkyne-terminated poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid) (alkyne-PAMPS) to the azide functionalized macroporous polypropylene membrane (MPPM-N3). Alkyne-PAMPS was synthesized by the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) of AMPS with an alkyne-terminated trithiocarbonate served as a chain transfer agent. The combination of RAFT polymerization with click chemistry to graft polymer to the surface of polypropylene membrane produced relatively high grafting density and controllable grafting chain length. The structure and composition of the modified and unmodified MPPM surfaces were analyzed by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was employed to observe the morphological changes on the membrane surface. The permeation performances were tested by the filtration of protein dispersion. The experimental results show that with the grafting degree going up, the relative flux reduction decreases, while the relative flux recovery ratio increases, and the protein fouling is obviously mitigated by tethering PAMPS to the membrane surface. The modified membranes can be potentially applied for fouling reduction during the filtration of proteins. PMID:25217729

  8. POST CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFT STUDY (CABG)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relative effectiveness of moderate versus more aggressive lipid lowering, and of low dose anticoagulation versus placebo, in delaying saphenous vein coronary bypass graft atherosclerosis and preventing occlusion of saphenous grafts of patients with saphenous vein coronary bypass ...

  9. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is used to treat people ... or after a heart attack to treat blocked arteries. Your doctor may recommend CABG if other treatments, ...

  10. Recanalization of an Occluded Infrainguinal Vein Graft Complicated by Graft Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Kakani, Nirmal; Travis, Simon; Hancock, John [Royal Cornwall Hospital, Department of Clinical Imaging (United Kingdom)], E-mail: John.Hancock@rcht.cornwall.nhs.uk

    2007-11-15

    The technique of subintimal angioplasty has been described for the recanalisation of native vessels after occlusion of infrainguinal vascular bypass grafts. We report a case in which an attempt at such treatment resulted in inadvertent but successful recanalisation of the occluded vein graft instead. This was complicated by graft perforation and subsequent graft aneurysm which was successfully treated with a covered stent.

  11. Does off-pump total arterial grafting increase the incidence of intraoperative graft failure?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lognathen Balacumaraswami; Yasir Abu-Omar; Kyriakos Anastasiadis; Bikram Choudhary; David Pigott; David P. Taggart

    2010-01-01

    Methods: We performed a prospective observational study to assess intraoperative graft patency in patients undergoing off-pump and on- pump coronary artery bypass grafting, who also underwent total arterial grafting. We used an intraoperative imaging system, SPY (Novadaq Technologies Inc), based on the fluorescent properties of indocyanine green dye. Results: We assessed the intraoperative graft patency of 533 conduits in 200

  12. Studies of polymerization and crosslinking of aqueous acrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosiak, J.; Burczak, K.; P?kala, W.; Pi?lewski, N.; Idziak, S.; Charlesby, A.

    The two radiation-induced reactions of polymerization and crosslinking have been followed by various techniques including T2 pulsed NMR, solubility (conversion rate) and intrinsic viscosity [ ?]. The monomer is acrylamide (20%) in water (D 2O). Polymerization is largely completed at the very low dose of 0.03 kGy, and the molecular weight then further increases as shown by T2 and [ ?] measurements. The indirect effect due to water is clearly seen. The dose for incipient network formation is greater ( Dg = 0.18 kGy) and the soluble fraction then decreases according to the Charlesby-Pinner formula. The T2 relaxation time shows at first a rise due to the reduction in non-polymerized monomer, and then falls as the Mc between successive crosslinks diminishes with increasing dose. This behaviour is also shown in irradiated aqueous polyethylene oxide samples.

  13. VUV modification promotes endothelial cell proliferation on PTFE vascular grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cezeaux, J. L.; Romoser, C. E.; Benson, R. S.; Buck, C. K.; Sackman, J. E.

    1998-05-01

    Small diameter (?6 mm ID ) synthetic vascular grafts, used as lower-limb vessel replacements in patients without suitable autologous saphenous veins, have a failure rate of 53% after 4 yr. Graft failure is due to thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia, an increase in smooth muscle cells in the lumen of the vessel which leads to progressive closing and ultimate occlusion of the vessel. In an effort to increase patency rates of synthetic grafts, investigators have seeded vascular grafts with endothelial cells prior to implantation in an attempt to control both thrombosis and smooth muscle proliferation. This technique has been successful for the development of an endothelial monolayer in animal trials, but has met with limited success in humans. The hydrophobicity, low surface energy, and weak electrical charge of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) provides conditions which are not optimal for endothelial cell attachment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) modification of ePTFE on endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation. Pieces of ePTFE graft material were exposed to 10, 20 or 40 W VUV radiation for 10, 20 or 40 min using a UV excimer lamp. Prior to cell adhesion and proliferation experiments, the grafts pieces were autoclaved and cut into pledgets. Half of the pledgets were precoated with fibronectin ( 20 ?g/ml). Cell adhesion was measured by seeding 3H-thymidine labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) onto the pledgets for 60 min. The pledgets were then washed and the remaining radioactivity assayed using scintillation counting. For the cell proliferation experiments, pledgets were seeded with unlabeled HUVEC which were allowed to adhere to the graft material for 18 h. The cells were then exposed to 3H-thymidine ( 1 ?Ci/ml) for approximately 48 h and then washed to remove any unincorporated 3H-thymidine. Incorporation of 3H-thymidine was measured using scintillation counting. Four replicate samples each, with and without fibronectin, were evaluated for each power and exposure time for both the adhesion and proliferation experiments. VUV modification had no effect on cell adhesion for all power levels studied. In addition, it appears that cell adhesion is independent of the presence of fibronectin. Cell proliferation, on the other hand, is augmented by modification, especially in the presence of fibronectin. These results suggest that VUV modification may provide a better surface for endothelial cell colonization of synthetic vascular grafts.

  14. High temperature structural, polymeric foams from high internal emulsion polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Hoisington, M.A.; Duke, J.R.; Apen, P.G.

    1996-02-01

    In 1982, a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization process to manufacture microcellular, polymeric foam systems was patented by Unilever. This patent discloses a polymerization process that occurs in a water-in-oil emulsion in which the water represents at least 76% of the emulsion by volume. The oil phase consists of vinyl monomers such as styrene and acrylates that are crosslinked by divinyl monomers during polymerization. After polymerization and drying to remove the water phase, the result is a crosslinked polymer foam with an open cell microstructure that is homogeneous throughout in terms of morphology, density, and mechanical properties. Since 1982, numerous patents have examined various HIPE polymerized foam processing techniques and applications that include absorbents for body fluids, cleaning materials, and ion exchange systems. All the published HIPE polymerized foams have concentrated on materials for low temperature applications. Copolymerization of styrene with maleic anhydride and N-substituted maleimides to produce heat resistant thermoplastics has been studied extensively. These investigations have shown that styrene will free radically copolymerize with N-substituted maleimides to create an alternating thermoplastic copolymer with a Tg of approximately 200{degrees}C. However, there are many difficulties in attempting the maleimide styrene copolymerization in a HIPE such as lower polymerization temperatures, maleimide solubility difficulties in both styrene and water, and difficulty obtaining a stable HIPE with a styrene/maleimide oil phase. This work describes the preparation of copolymer foams from N-ethylmaleimide and Bis(3-ethyl-5-methyl-4-maleimide-phenyl)methane with styrene based monomers and crosslinking agents.

  15. [Radioindication of bone graft healing].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, L B; Pavlova, L P; Kondrat'ev, V G; Khmelev, O N

    1977-01-01

    To control the state of transplanted bone in different terms following the plastic procedure a radioisotope study by strontium-85 was performed in 29 patients. The results of scannography (in 31 cases) and radiometry (in 42 cases) were analysed. The determination of the character of strontium-85 distribution and the intensity of its accumulation in the operated extremity makes it possible to assess the graft condition and the intensity of osteogenesis a greater precision and earlier than does roentgenography. Radioisotope investigation conducted dynamically enable the prognostication of the course of the graft healing process. PMID:333749

  16. Construction of a bioengineered cardiac graft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ren-Ke Li; Terrence M. Yau; Richard D. Weisel; Donald A. G. Mickle; Tetsuro Sakai; Angel Choi; Zhi-Qiang Jia

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Currently available graft materials for repair of congenital heart defects cause significant morbidity and mortality because of their lack of growth potential. An autologous cell-seeded graft may improve patient outcomes. We report our initial experience with the construction of a biodegradable graft seeded with cultured rat or human cells and identify their 3-dimensional growth characteristics. Methods: Fetal rat ventricular

  17. In situ grafting silica nanoparticles reinforced nanocomposite hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Han, Chun-Rui; Duan, Jiu-Fang; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-11-21

    Highly flexible nanocomposite hydrogels were prepared by using silica nanoparticles (SNPs) as fillers and multi-functional cross-links to graft hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) by free radical polymerization from an aqueous solution. The SNPs were collected by neighboring polymer chains and dispersed uniformly within a PAA matrix. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposite hydrogels were tailored by the concentration of SNPs according to the percolation model. It was proposed that covalent bonds of adsorbed chains on the filler surface resulted in the formation of a shell of an immobilized glassy layer and trapped entanglements, where the glassy polymer layer greatly enhanced the elastic modulus and the release of trapped entanglements at deformation contributed to the viscoelastic properties. PMID:24089085

  18. Gels from soft hairy nanoparticles in polymeric matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlassopoulos, Dimitris

    2013-03-01

    Hairy particles represent a huge class of soft colloids with tunable interactions and properties. Advances in synthetic chemistry have enabled obtaining well-characterized such systems for specific needs. In this talk we present two model hairy soft particles with diameters of the order of tens of nanometers, star polymers and polymerically grafted spherical particles. In particular, we discuss design strategies for dispersing them in polymeric matrices and eventually creating and breaking gels. Control parameters are the matrix molar mass, the grafting density (or functionality) and the size of the grafts (or arms). The linear viscoelastic properties and slow time evolution of the gels are examined in view of the existing knowledge from colloidal gels consisting of micron-sized particles, and compared. In the case of stars we start from a concentrated glassy suspension in molecular solvent and add homopolymer at increasing concentration, and as a result of the induced osmotic pressure the stars shrink and a depletion gel is formed. For the grafted colloidal particles, they are added at low concentration to a polymer matrix, and it has been shown that under certain conditions the anisotropy of interactions gives rise to network formation. We then focus on the nonlinear rheological response and in particular the effect of shear flow in inducing a solid to liquid transition. Our studies show that the yielding process is gradual and shares many common features with that of flocculated colloidal suspensions, irrespectively of the shape of the building block of the gel. Whereas shear can melt such a gel, it cannot break it into its constituent blocks and hence fully disperse the hairy nanoparticles. On the other hand, the hairy particles are intrinsically hybrid. We show how this important feature is reflected on the heating of the gels. In that case, the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients of core and shell appears to play a role on the particle response as it imposes and internal strain on the particle, which in turn changes the shell conformation and under some conditions can lead to thermal melting of the gel. These alternative avenues for manipulating the gel-to-liquid transition have potential implications in directing the properties of hairy nanoparticles and their assemblies in viscoelastic matrices. Parts of this work reflect collaboration with D. Truzzolillo (FORTH), J. F. Moll and S. K.Kumar (Columbia). R. H. Colby (Penn State), M. Gauthier (Waterloo) and B. C. Benicewicz (Univ. South Carolina).

  19. Polymerization of anionic wormlike micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; González, Yamaira I; Xu, Hangxun; Kaler, Eric W; Liu, Shiyong

    2006-01-31

    Polymerizable anionic wormlike micelles are obtained upon mixing the hydrotropic salt p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) with the reactive anionic surfactant sodium 4-(8-methacryloyloxyoctyl)oxybenzene sulfonate (MOBS). Polymerization captures the cross-sectional radius of the micelles (approximately 2 nm), induces micellar growth, and leads to the formation of a stable single-phase dispersion of wormlike micellar polymers. The unpolymerized and polymerized micelles were characterized using static and dynamic laser light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering, 1H NMR, and stopped-flow light scattering. Stopped-flow light scattering was also used to measure the average lifetime of the unpolymerized wormlike micelles. A comparison of the average lifetime of unpolymerized wormlike micelles with the surfactant monomer propagation rate was used to elucidate the mechanism of polymerization. There is a significant correlation between the ratio of the average lifetime to the monomer propagation rate and the average aggregation number of the polymerized wormlike micelles. PMID:16430253

  20. DNA-Grafted Supramolecular Polymers: Helical Ribbon Structures Formed by Self-Assembly of Pyrene-DNA Chimeric Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Vyborna, Yuliia; Vybornyi, Mykhailo; Rudnev, Alexander V; Häner, Robert

    2015-06-26

    The controlled arraying of DNA strands on adaptive polymeric platforms remains a challenge. Here, the noncovalent synthesis of DNA-grafted supramolecular polymers from short chimeric oligomers is presented. The oligomers are composed of an oligopyrenotide strand attached to the 5'-end of an oligodeoxynucleotide. The supramolecular polymerization of these oligomers in an aqueous medium leads to the formation of one-dimensional (1D) helical ribbon structures. Atomic force and transmission electron microscopy show rod-like polymers of several hundred nanometers in length. DNA-grafted polymers of the type described herein will serve as models for the development of structurally and functionally diverse supramolecular platforms with applications in materials science and diagnostics. PMID:25960306

  1. Synthesis of Externally Initiated Poly(3-alkylthiophene)s via Kumada Catalyst Transfer Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Avanzo, Antonella

    The ability of chemists to design and synthesize pi conjugated organic polymers with precise control over their physical and electronic properties remains the key to technological breakthroughs using polymeric material in electronic and photonic devices. Kumada catalyst transfer polymerization (KCTP) technique and Grignard metathesis (GRIM) method have enabled the synthesis of highly regioregular polymers with controlled molecular weights, narrow polydispersity index and uniform end groups. Applying this technique toward external initiation of polymers would enable the preparation of sophisticated and beneficial polymer architectures such as surface grafted polymers. This work presents an investigation of various mechanistic parameters for external initiation of poly(3-alkylthiophene). The effects of binding ligand variation on the Nickel catalyst were investigated utilizing a novel methodology allowing facile screening of ligands. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) was synthesized with high percentage initiator headgroup incorporation with triphenylphosphine ligand while the use of bidentate ligands such as diphenylphosphinopropane only resulted in quantitative initiation when ligand exchange followed initiation with the more active species. A variety of functionally substituted aryl and thiophene halides were explored for their potential to act as external small molecule initiators and the reaction intermediates were characterized via spectroscopic techniques as well as theoretical calculations. Aryl halides were found to be more stable than thiophene halides and the type and position of the initiator functionality has played a deciding role in the polymerization mechanism. Ortho substitution stabilized the aryl-Ni intermediate complex via favorable orbital overlap and kinetic effects as a result of steric hindrance were demonstrated to affect the success of the external initiation. Surface-grafted poly(3-methylthiophene) thin films were synthesized from indium tin oxide where polymer thin film thicknesses were regulated by the variation of monomer solution and polymerization time. Photoelectron spectroscopy analysis had demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of surface grafted thin films affords the ability to tune the work function and ionization potential. Such materials with controllable thicknesses and electronic properties have the potential to be useful as components in organic photovoltaic devices.

  2. Synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate)–silica nanocomposites using methacrylate-functionalized silica nanoparticles and RAFT polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavan S. Chinthamanipeta; Shuji Kobukata; Hiromichi Nakata; Devon A. Shipp

    2008-01-01

    Well-defined poly(methyl methacrylate)–silica nanocomposites were produced by “grafting through” using reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The surface of silica nanoparticle was modified covalently by attaching methacryl group to the surface using 3-methacryloxypropyldimethylchlorosilane. Polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) using the 4-cyano-4-(dodecylsulfanylthiocarbonyl)sulfanyl pentanoic acid RAFT agent, produced the PMMA–SiO2 nanocomposites. Characterization of these well-defined nanocomposites included FT-IR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermogravimetric analysis

  3. High-energy radiation and polymers: A review of commercial processes and emerging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    Ionizing radiation has been found to be widely applicable in modifying the structure and properties of polymers, and can be used to tailor the performance of either bulk materials or surfaces. Fifty years of research in polymer radiation chemistry has led to numerous applications of commercial and economic importance, and work remains active in the application of radiation to practical uses involving polymeric materials. This paper provides a survey of radiation-processing methods of industrial interest, ranging from technologies already commercially well established, through innovations in the active R&D stage which show exceptional promise for future commercial use. Radiation-processing technologies are discussed under the following categories: cross-linking of plastics and rubbers, curing of coatings and inks, heat-shrink products, fiber-matrix composites, chain-scission for processing control, surface modification, grafting, hydrogels, sterilization, natural product enhancement, plastics recycling, ceramic precursors, electronic property materials, ion-track membranes and lithography for microdevice production. In addition to new technological innovations utilizing conventional gamma and e-beam sources, a number of promising new applications make use of novel radiation types which include ion beams (heavy ions, light ions, highly focused microscopic beams and high-intensity pulses), soft X-rays which are focused, coherent X-rays (from a synchrotron) and e-beams which undergo scattering to generate patterns.

  4. Seawater degradation of polymeric composites 

    E-print Network

    Grant, Timothy Sean

    1991-01-01

    SEAWATER DEGRADATION OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITES A Thesis by TIMOTHY SEAN GRANT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major... Subject: Mechanical Engineering SEAWATER DEGRADATION OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITES A Thesis by TIMOTHY SEAN GRANT Approved as to style and content by: Walter L. Bradley (Chair of mmittee) lan Letton (Member) arry ogan (Member) r John Whitcomb...

  5. Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Seedhouse

    \\u000a It is more than forty years since astronauts ventured beyond Earth’s protective magnetic shield and travelled to the Moon.\\u000a Although the Apollo missions subjected astronauts to space radiation, the short duration minimized the risk, but an ECM will\\u000a subject astronauts to much longer exposure. In fact, astronauts will be in deep space for so long, they will run the risk

  6. Silver nanoparticle based antibacterial methacrylate hydrogels potential for bone graft applications

    PubMed Central

    González-Sánchez, M. Isabel; Perni, Stefano; Tommasi, Giacomo; Morris, Nathanael Glyn; Hawkins, Karl; López-Cabarcos, Enrique; Prokopovich, Polina

    2015-01-01

    Infections are frequent and very undesired occurrences after orthopedic procedures; furthermore, the growing concern caused by the rise in antibiotic resistance is progressively dwindling the efficacy of such drugs. Artificial bone graft materials could solve some of the problems associated with the gold standard use of natural bone graft such as limited bone material, pain at the donor site and rejections if donor tissue is used. We have previously described new acrylate base nanocomposite hydrogels as bone graft materials. In the present paper, we describe the integration of silver nanoparticles in the polymeric mineralized biomaterial to provide non-antibiotic antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Two different crosslinking degrees were tested and the silver nanoparticles were integrated into the composite matrix by means of three different methods: entrapment in the polymeric hydrogel before the mineralization; diffusion during the process of calcium phosphate crystallization and adsorption post-mineralization. The latter being generally the most effective method of encapsulation; however, the adsorption of silver nanoparticles inside the pores of the biomaterial led to a decreasing antibacterial activity for adsorption time longer than 2 days. PMID:25746278

  7. Chemical and Nanomechanical Analysis of Rice Husk Modified by ATRP-Grafted Oligomer

    PubMed Central

    Morsi, Samir M.; Pakzad, Anahita; Amin, Amal; Yassar, Reza S.; Heiden, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Rice husk (RH), an abundant agricultural residue, was reacted with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide, to convert it to a heterogeneous polyfunctional macroinitiator for Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). The number of active sites placed on the RH surface was small, but they were ATRP active. Non-polar methyl methacrylate (MMA) and polar acrylonitrile (AN) were polymerized from the RH, and a sequential monomer addition was used to prepare an amphiphilic PMMA-b-PAN copolymer on RH surface. FTIR qualitatively confirmed the grafting. Gravimetric and XPS analysis of the different RH surface compositions indicated thin layers of oligomeric PMMA, PAN, and PMMA-b-PAN. The modified surfaces were mapped by nanomechanical AFM to measure surface roughness, and adhesion and moduli using the Derjaguin-Muller-Toropov model. RH grafted with MMA possessed a roughness value of 7.92, and a hard and weakly adhering surface (13.1 GPa and 16.7 nN respectively) while RH grafted with AN yielded a roughness value of 29 with hardness and adhesion values of 4.0 GPa and 23.5 nN. The PMMA-b-PAN modification afforded a surface with a roughness value of 51.5 nm, with hardness and adhesion values of 3.0 GPa and .75.3 nN. PMID:21565356

  8. Intestinal graft versus host disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R L Bryan; G N Antonakopoulos; J Newman; D W Milligan

    1991-01-01

    An ileocolectomy specimen was examined from a patient with graft versus host disease (GvHD). In addition to the characteristic histological features of this condition, both the small and the large intestine showed extensive destruction of mucosal tissue with survival of clusters of enterochromaffin cells. This appearance has previously been described only in the large bowel. Endocrine cells seem to be

  9. Tissue engineering of vascular grafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Ratcliffe

    2000-01-01

    The challenge of tissue engineering blood vessels with the mechanical properties of native vessels, and with the anti-thrombotic properties required is immense. Recent advances, however, indicate that the goal of providing a tissue-engineered vascular graft that will remain patent in vivo for substantial periods of time, is achievable. For instance, collagen gels have been used to fabricate a tissue in

  10. Oktober 2008 Beating Heart Graft

    E-print Network

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    Organtransplantation Medizinische Hochschule Hannover #12;Graft survival rates for selected cadaveric organ transplant Transplant 2007;26: 769-781 2007ISHLT #12;Das Organ Care System #12;Organ Care System #12;#12;#12;Ergebnisse Transplantation Thorakale Organtransplantation Medizinische Hochschule Hannover #12;Chirurgische Technik #12

  11. Vascular grafting strategies in coronary intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Darryl; Gillies, Elizabeth; Mequanint, Kibret

    2014-06-01

    With the growing need for coronary revascularizations globally, several strategies to restore blood flow to the heart have been explored. Bypassing the atherosclerotic coronary arteries with autologous grafts, synthetic prostheses and tissue-engineered vascular grafts continue to be evaluated in search of a readily available vascular graft with clinically acceptable outcomes. The development of such a vascular graft including tissue engineering approaches both in situ and in vitro is herein reviewed, facilitating a detailed comparison on the role of seeded cells in vascular graft patency.

  12. Histoplasma infection of aortofemoral bypass graft.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nishit; Bronze, Michael S

    2014-05-01

    Histoplasma infection of vascular grafts is extremely rare. To our knowledge, there are only 4 cases reported with Histoplasma capsulatum infection of the aortic graft. All had previous disseminated histoplasmosis and atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease. They were treated surgically with explantation of the infected graft and reimplantation of new graft in extra-anatomic uninfected site. The authors present a new case of H capsulatum infection of aortofemoral bypass graft, but unlike the other cases, this case was managed without surgical intervention. PMID:23928546

  13. Radially and Axially Graded Multizonal Bone Graft Substitutes Targeting Critical-Sized Bone Defects from Polycaprolactone/Hydroxyapatite/Tricalcium Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Ergun, Asli; Yu, Xiaojun; Valdevit, Antonio; Ritter, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Repair and regeneration of critical sized defects via the utilization of polymeric bone graft substitutes are challenges. Here, we introduce radially and axially graded multizonal bone graft substitutes fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL), and PCL biocomposites with osteoconductive particles, that is, hydroxyapatite (HA), and ?-tricalcium phosphate (TCP). The novel bone graft substitutes should provide a greater degree of freedom to the orthopedic surgeon especially for repair of critically sized bone defects. The modulus of the graft substitute could be tailored in the axial direction upon the systematic variation of the HA/TCP concentration, while in the radial direction the bone graft substitute consisted of an outer layer with high stiffness, encapsulating a softer core with greater porosity. The biocompatibility of the bone graft substitutes was investigated using in vitro culturing of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells followed by the analysis of cell proliferation and differentiation rates. The characterization of the tissue constructs included the enzymatic alkaline phosphates (ALP) activity, microcomputed tomography imaging, and polymerase chain reaction analysis involving the expressions of bone markers, that is, Runx2, ALP, collagen type I, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, overall demonstrating the differentiation of bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs) via osteogenic lineage and formation of mineralized bone tissue. PMID:22764839

  14. Antifungal activity, biofilm-controlling effect, and biocompatibility of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone)-grafted denture materials

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xinbo; Cao, Zhengbing; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Sun, Yuyu

    2013-01-01

    Colonization and biofilm-formation of Candida species on denture surfaces cause Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS), a common, recurring disease affecting up to 67% of denture wearers. We developed poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone)-grafted denture materials that can be repeatedly recharged with various antifungal drugs to achieve long-term antifungal and biofilm-controlling effects. The monomer, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NVP), was grafted onto poly(methyl methacrylate) denture resins through plasma-initiated grafting polymerization. The physical properties and biocompatibility of the resulting resins were not negatively affected by the presence of up to 7.92% of grafted poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) (PNVP). Miconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate (CD) were used as model antifungal drugs. PNVP grafting significantly increased the drug absorption capability of the resulting denture materials. Further, the new materials showed sustained drug release and provided antifungal effects for weeks (in the case of CD) to months (in the case of miconazole). The drug-depleted resins could be recharged with the same or a different class of antifungal drug to further extend antifungal duration. If needed, drugs on the PNVP-grafted denture materials could be “washed out” (quenched) by treating with PNVP aqueous solutions to stop drug release. These results point to great potentials of the new materials in controlling biofilm-formation in a wide range of device-related applications. PMID:23708753

  15. One-pot reaction for the large-scale synthesis of hyperbranched polyglycerol-grafted Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Su, Dan; Zeng, Lintao; Liu, Ning; Jiang, Lai; Feng, Xuequan; Neoh, K G; Kang, E T

    2013-10-01

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles with surface hydroxyl groups (MNP-OH), prepared by the thermal decomposition of ferric oxalate pentahydrate in triethylene glycol, were grafted in situ with polyglycerol through the ring-opening polymerization of glycidol. By this method, hyperbranched polyglycerol-grafted Fe3O4 nanoparticles (HPG-grafted MNPs) can be obtained on an ultra-large scale of 50 g in a single reaction under laboratory conditions, and it is anticipated that the production of the HPG-grafted MNPs could be scaled up with the use of larger reaction vessels. The successful grafting of HPG onto the nanoparticles was confirmed by (1)H NMR and XPS analyses. The as-synthesized nanoparticles can be tuned from 8 to 24 nm in diameter by varying the reaction conditions. The size, morphology, and surface component of the nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, XPS, and XRD. The HPG-grafted MNPs are highly dispersible in aqueous media such as cell culture medium and serum. Since these magnetic nanoparticles possess desirable magnetic properties, controllable size, and can be produced by a facile inexpensive method, they can be potentially applied as a novel contrast agent for enhancing a MRI signal. PMID:23904070

  16. Multifunctional network-structured film coating for woven and knitted polyethylene terephthalate against cardiovascular graft-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Al Meslmani, Bassam M; Mahmoud, Gihan F; Sommer, Frank O; Lohoff, Michael D; Bakowsky, Udo

    2015-05-15

    Multifunctional network-structured polymeric coat for woven and knitted forms of crimped polyethylene terephthalate PET graft was developed to limit graft-associated infections. A newly synthesized antibacterial sulfadimethoxine polyhexylene adipate-b-methoxy polyethylene oxide (SD-PHA-b-MPEO) di-block copolymer was employed. Our figures of merit revealed that the formed coat showed a porous topographic architecture which manifested paramount properties, mostly bacterial anti-adhesion efficiency and biocompatibility with host cells. Compared to untreated grafts, the coat presented marked reduction of adhered Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis previously isolated from a patient's vein catheter by 2.6 and 2.3 folds for woven and knitted grafts, respectively. Similarly, bacterial anti-adhesion effect was observed for Staphylococcus aureus by 2.3 and 2.4 folds, and by 2.9 and 2.7 folds for Gram-negative Escherichia coli for woven and knitted grafts, respectively. Additionally, adhesion and growth characteristics of L929 cells on the modified grafts revealed no significant effect on the biocompatibility. In conclusion, coating of PET with (SD-PHA-b-MPEO) is a versatile approach offers the desired bacterial anti-adhesion effect and host biocompatibility. PMID:25796119

  17. A full evaporation headspace gas chromatographic method for determination of monomer conversion in cellulose graft poly-methyl methacrylate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Feng Zhong; Xin-Sheng Chai; Xiao-Li Qin; Shi-Yu Fu

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a full evaporation headspace gas chromatographic method for rapid determination of monomeric methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the cellulose graft poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) via an atom transfer radical polymerization process. The data show that a near-complete mass transfer of MMA from the very small liquid sample size (<30mg) to the vapor phase (headspace) was achieved within 5min

  18. Enhancing the hydrophilicity of polypropylene microporous membranes by the grafting of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate via a synergistic effect of photoinitiators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng-Xin Hu; Qian Yang; Zhi-Kang Xu

    2006-01-01

    Membrane surfaces modified with polymers based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) is promising for hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, and functionality. In this work, the UV-induced graft polymerization of HEMA onto polypropylene microporous membrane (PPMM) was studied using ferric chloride (FeCl3) and benzophenone (BP) as co-photoinitiators with different methods for the first time. It was found that the conventional photoinitiator, BP, could not initiate

  19. Development of a novel RAFT-UV grafting technique to modify polypropylene membrane used for NOM removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Zhou; Wei Li; Jia-Shan Gu; Hai-Yin Yu; Zhao-Qi Tang; Xian-Wen Wei

    2010-01-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene microporous membrane was conducted by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization under UV irradiation. Dibenzyltrithiocarbonate was used as a RAFT agent. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and filed emission scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the structural and morphological changes on the membrane surface. The degree of grafting of poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) on the

  20. Surface-initiated reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-RATRP) for blood-compatible polyurethane substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chunyan; Zhou, Ninglin; Xu, Dong; Tang, Yida; Jin, Suxing; Wu, Yue; Shen, Jian

    2011-10-01

    A well-defined polymer brushes (2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl phosphorylcholine, MPC) grafted from the polyurethane (PU) substrate by surface-initiated reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-RATRP) was studied. In this work, a kind of silane coupling agent (3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane, CPTM) was adopted to serve as a coupling agent as well as a ligand for the first time. Surface structure, wettability, morphology of the PU substrates before and after modification were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement (XPS), Atomic force microscope (AFM), Water contact angle measurement, respectively. The results showed that zwitterionic brushes were successfully fabricated on the PU surfaces, and the content of the grafted layer increased gradually with the polymerization time. The blood compatibility of the PU substrates was evaluated by protein adsorption tests and platelet adhesion tests in vitro. It was found that all the PU functionalized with zwitterionic brush showed improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion.

  1. Late failure of reversed vein bypass grafts.

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, H D; Greenstein, S; Barker, C F; Perloff, L J

    1989-01-01

    Late failure of reversed vein bypass grafts is preceded by the appearance of stenotic lesions, which progress to total occlusion. These lesions appear either as intrinsic graft lesions or as new arteriosclerotic lesions in contiguous arteries. The present study summarizes the University of Pennsylvania experience with these lesions in 521 vein grafts inserted from 1979 to 1985. The grafts were grouped according to the site of the distal anastomosis; 231 above-knee popliteal (FP AK), 171 below-knee popliteal (FP BK), and 119 tibial (FT). The overall incidence of stenotic lesions was essentially identical with the three grafts (21%), but the relative incidence of intrinsic graft to arterial lesions was higher with the more distal grafts. The most common graft lesions developed adjacent to the proximal anastomosis, which is the narrowest part of a reversed vein graft. The popliteal artery was the most common site of outflow stenosis. There was negligible incidence of tibial lesions. The most common inflow arterial lesion was located in the common femoral and iliac arteries. The superficial femoral artery (SFA) was a rare site of inflow stenosis, even though it was at risk because 96 grafts originated from the SFA or popliteal artery. Sixty-seven per cent of the graft and 52% of the arterial lesions were treated successfully by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty; the rest had minor surgical revisions. This resulted in a 19%, 10%, and 9% improvement in 5-year patency for the FT, FP BK, and FP AK bypasses. These results justify an aggressive policy of graft surveillance to identify and treat stenotic graft lesions before graft occlusion. PMID:2589891

  2. Transparent polymeric laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    Laminate prepared from epoxy-boroxine and phenolphthalein polycarbonate has high mechanical strength at elevated temperature and is resistant to impact, fire, and high-energy thermal radiation. Polycarbonate is prepared by reaction of phenolphthalein with phosgene in presence of amine catalyst and immiscible organic solvent phase.

  3. Polymeric materials for neovascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVolder, Ross John

    Revascularization therapies have emerged as a promising strategy to treat various acute and chronic wounds, cardiovascular diseases, and tissue defects. It is common to either administer proangiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), or transplant cells that endogenously express multiple proangiogenic factors. Additionally, these strategies utilize a wide variety of polymeric systems, including hydrogels and biodegradable plastics, to deliver proangiogenic factors in a sophisticated manner to maintain a sustained proangiogenic environment. Despite some impressive results in rebuilding vascular networks, it is still a challenging task to engineer mature and functional neovessels in target tissues, because of the increasing complexities involved with neovascularization applications. To resolve these challenges, this work aims to design a wide variety of proangiogenic biomaterial systems with tunable properties used for neovascularization therapies. This thesis describes the design of several biomaterial systems used for the delivery of proangiogenic factors in neovascularization therapies, including: an electrospun/electrosprayed biodegradable plastic patch used for directional blood vessel growth (Chapter 2), an alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system that biochemically stimulates cellular endogenous proangiogenic factor expression (Chapter 3), an enzyme-catalyzed alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system for VEGF delivery (Chapter 4), an enzyme-activated alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel system with systematically controllable electrical and mechanical properties (Chapter 5), and an alginate-g-pyrrole hydrogel that enables the decoupled control of electrical conductivity and mechanical rigidity and is use to electrically stimulate cellular endogenous proangiogenic factor expression (Chapter 6). Overall, the biomaterial systems developed in this thesis will be broadly useful for improving the quality of a wide array of molecular and cellular based revascularization therapies.

  4. Temperature-dependent conformational changes of PNIPAM grafted chains in water : effects of molecular weight and grafting density.

    SciTech Connect

    Satija, Sushil K. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); Mendez, Sergio (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Kent, Michael Stuart; Yim, Hyun; Lopez, Gabriel P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-03-01

    Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) is perhaps the most well known member of the class of responsive polymers. Free PNIPAM chains have a lower critical solution temperature in water at {approx}31 C. This very sharp transition ({approx}5 C) is attributed to alterations in the hydrogen bonding interactions of the amide group. Grafted chains of PNIPAM have shown promise for creating responsive surfaces. Examples include controlling the adsorption of proteins or bacteria, regulating the flow of liquids in narrow filaments or mesoporous materials, control of enzymatic activity, and releasing the contents of liposomes. Conformational changes of the polymer are likely to play a role in some of these applications, in addition to changes in local interactions. In this work we investigated the T-dependent conformational changes of grafted PNIPAM chains in D2O using neutron reflection and AFM. The molecular weight (M) and surface density of the PNIPAM brushes were controlled using atom-transfer radical polymerization. We discovered a strong effect of surface density. At lower surface densities, in the range typically achieved with grafting-to methods, we observed very little conformational change. At higher surface densities, significant changes with T were observed. The results will be compared with numerical SCF calculations employing an effective (conc.-dependent) Flory-Huggins chi parameter extracted from the solution phase diagram. For the case of high M and high surface density, a non-monotonic change in profile shape with T was observed. This will be discussed in the context of vertical phase separation predicted for brushes of water-soluble polymers within two-state models.

  5. Initial biocompatibility studies of a novel degradable polymeric bone substitute that hardens in situ.

    PubMed

    Bennett, S; Connolly, K; Lee, D R; Jiang, Y; Buck, D; Hollinger, J O; Gruskin, E A

    1996-07-01

    Clinical management of osseous defects often requires bone grafts. The standard for treatment is autogenous bone harvested from sites such as either the iliac crest or the outer table of the calvaria. In addition to the problem of donor site morbidity and the limited supply of graft material, there is the additional operating time associated with harvesting procedures. A synthetic, bone graft substitute that can match the clinical performance of autogenous bone could alleviate these deficiencies. Therefore, a polymeric bone substitute was developed that consists of a four-armed star polymer of poly(dioxanone-co-glycolide) endcapped at each termini with a biocompatible lysine-based diisocyanate crosslinker. The polymer can be mixed with inorganic fillers such as either hydroxyapatite or tricalcium phosphate to form either injectable or moldable putty. The addition of a catalyst (for example, diethylaminoethanol and water) to the polymer produces a crosslinking reaction causing the combination to harden. This reaction is nontoxic, normo-thermic and can be performed in situ. During the course of the polymerization, carbon dioxide is liberated, producing an interconnected porous network within the implant, suitable for bone ingrowth. This paper will describe a preliminary biocompatibility assay of the bone substitute. PMID:8831001

  6. Surface-initiated reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-RATRP) for blood-compatible polyurethane substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunyan Lu; Ninglin Zhou; Dong Xu; Yida Tang; Suxing Jin; Yue Wu; Jian Shen

    2011-01-01

    A well-defined polymer brushes (2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl phosphorylcholine, MPC) grafted from the polyurethane (PU) substrate by surface-initiated reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-RATRP) was studied. In this work, a kind of silane coupling agent (3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane, CPTM) was adopted to serve as a coupling agent as well as a ligand for the first time. Surface structure, wettability, morphology of the PU substrates

  7. Endovascular Stent-Graft Repair as a Late Secondary Procedure After Previous Aortic Grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Matsagas, Miltiadis I. [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Surgery - Vascular Surgery Unit (Greece)], E-mail: mimats@cc.uoi.gr; Anagnostopoulos, Constantine E. [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Greece); Papakostas, John C. [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Surgery - Vascular Surgery Unit (Greece); DeRose, Joseph J. [St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (United States); Siminelakis, Stavros [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Greece); Katsouras, Christos S. [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Cardiology (Greece); Toumpoulis, Ioannis K.; Drossos, George E. [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Greece); Michalis, Lampros K. [School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Department of Cardiology (Greece)

    2006-08-15

    Thoracic and abdominal aortic endovascular procedures as alternatives to aortic reoperations were studied in three different cases. An anastomotic aneurysm after previous thoracic aortic graft for coarctation, a second-stage elephant trunk repair (descending thoracic aortic aneurysm), and a secondary aneurysm proximal to a previous abdominal aortic graft were successfully treated with endovascular stent-grafts. During the follow-up period no lethal events or major aortic or graft-related complications were observed, except a type II endoleak in the anastomotic aortic aneurysm case. An endovascular stent-graft can be safely deployed into a previously implanted vascular graft, avoiding repeat surgery.

  8. The effects of the interaction of polymeric materials with the space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Orwoll, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Polymeric materials in low earth orbit will be exposed to a harmful environment mainly due to atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation. In geosynchronous earth orbit, the major hazards to such materials are energetic charged particles and ultraviolet radiation. The progress of studies on the effects of these hazards on a polyetherimide, a polyimide, and an epoxy adhesive is presented.

  9. Polypropylene grafted with smart polymers (PNIPAAm/PAAc) for loading and controlled release of vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Juan-Carlos; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Taboada, Pablo; Burillo, Guillermina; Bucio, Emilio; De Prijck, Kristof; Nelis, Hans J; Coenye, Tom; Concheiro, Angel

    2008-10-01

    New smart surface-modified polypropylene (PP) was prepared for improving the loading and the sustained delivery of vancomycin and, thus, reducing the risk of biofilm formation when used as component of biomedical devices. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) served for screening the most suitable monomers for grafting; the drug preferentially bonding to ionized acrylic acid (AAc). A net-PP-g-PNIPAAm-inter-net-PAAc was synthesized by first grafting and cross-linking of N-isopropylacrylamide onto PP films and then interpenetrating a second network by redox polymerization and cross-linking of AAc. PP-g-PAAc slabs were prepared by grafting AAc and, optionally, cross-linking. The amount and composition of grafted polymer (FTIR-ATR), morphology (SEM), temperature- and pH-responsiveness (swelling measurements), thermal behavior (DSC), friction coefficient (rheometry), drug loading and release rate, and effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilms (modified robbins device) were evaluated. Grafting of AAc notably decreased the friction coefficient from 0.28+/-0.03 to 0.05+/-0.02 and enhanced the vancomycin loading (up to 2.5mg/cm(2)). Drug-loaded films showed a pH-dependent release rate, sustaining the release in pH 7.4 aqueous media at 37 degrees C for several hours. All drug-loaded films reduced biofilm formation by MRSA; the anti-biofilm effect being statistically significant (91.7% reduction, alpha<0.05) for PP-g-PAAc with the thinnest grafting layer. PMID:18577453

  10. Mechanism study and molecular design in controlled\\/“living” radical polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YingFeng Tu; ZhenPing Cheng; ZhengBiao Zhang; Jian Zhu; Wei Zhang; NianChen Zhou; PeiHong Ni; XiuLin Zhu

    2010-01-01

    This tutorial review summarizes recent progress in the research field of controlled\\/“living” radical polymerization (CLRP)\\u000a from Soochow University. The present paper gives a broad overview of the mechanism study and molecular design in CLRP. The\\u000a mechanism study in CLRP aided by microwave, initiated by ?-radiation at low temperature, mediated by iron, in reversible addition-fragmentation\\u000a chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and the

  11. Universal surface-initiated polymerization of antifouling zwitterionic brushes using a mussel-mimetic peptide initiator.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Jinghao; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2012-05-01

    We report a universal method for the surface-initated polymerization (SIP) of an antifouling polymer brush on various classes of surfaces, including noble metals, metal oxides, and inert polymers. Inspired by the versatility of mussel adhesive proteins, we synthesized a novel bifunctional tripeptide bromide (BrYKY) that combines atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiating alkyl bromide with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and lysine. The simple dip-coating of substrates with variable wetting properties and compositions, including Teflon, in a BrYKY solution at pH 8.5 led to the formation of a thin film of cross-linked BrYKY. Subsequently, we showed that the BrYKY layer initiated the ATRP of a zwitterionic monomer, sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA), on all substrates, resulting in high-density antifouling pSBMA brushes. Both BrYKY deposition and pSBMA grafting were unambiguously confirmed by ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and goniometry. All substrates that were coated with BrYKY/pSBMA dramatically reduced bacterial adhesion for 24 h and also resisted mammalian cell adhesion for at least 4 months, demonstrating the long-term stability of the BrYKY anchoring and antifouling properties of pSBMA. The use of BrYKY as a primer and polymerization initiator has the potential to be widely employed in surface-grafted polymer brush modifications for biomedical and other applications. PMID:22506651

  12. Universal Surface-initiated Polymerization of Antifouling Zwitterionic Brushes Using A Mussel-Mimetic Peptide Initiator

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Jinghao; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2012-01-01

    We report a universal method for the surface-initated polymerization (SIP) of a antifouling polymer brush on various classes of surfaces, including noble metals, metal oxides and inert polymers. Inspired by the versatility of mussel adhesive proteins, we synthesized a novel bifunctional tripeptide bromide (BrYKY) which combines an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiating alkyl bromide with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and lysine. Simple dip-coating of substrates with variable wetting properties and compositions, including Teflon®, in a BrYKY solution at pH 8.5 led to formation of a thin film of cross-linked BrYKY. Subsequently, we showed that the BrYKY layer initiated the ATRP of a zwitterionic monomer, sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) on all substrates, resulting in high density antifouling pSBMA brushes. Both BrYKY deposition and pSBMA grafting were unambiguously confirmed by ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and goniometry. All substrates that were coated with BrYKY/pSBMA dramatically reduced bacterial adhesion for 24 h and also resisted mammalian cell adhesion for at least 4 months, demonstrating the long-term stability of the BrYKY anchoring and antifouling properties of pSBMA. The use of BrYKY as a primer and polymerization initiator has the potential to be widely employed in surface grafted polymer brush modifications for biomedical and other applications. PMID:22506651

  13. Synthesis of grafted phosphorylcholine polymer layers as specific recognition ligands for C-reactive protein focused on grafting density and thickness to achieve highly sensitive detection.

    PubMed

    Kamon, Yuri; Kitayama, Yukiya; Itakura, Akiko N; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Toshifumi

    2015-04-21

    We studied the effects of layer thickness and grafting density of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) thin layers as specific ligands for the highly sensitive binding of C-reactive protein (CRP). PMPC layer thickness was controlled by surface-initiated activators generated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization (AGET ATRP). PMPC grafting density was controlled by utilizing mixed self-assembled monolayers with different incorporation ratios of the bis[2-(2-bromoisobutyryloxy)undecyl] disulfide ATRP initiator, as modulated by altering the feed molar ratio with (11-mercaptoundecyl)tetra(ethylene glycol). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize the modified surfaces. PMPC grafting densities were estimated from polymer thickness and the molecular weight obtained from sacrificial initiator during surface-initiated AGET ATRP. The effects of thickness and grafting density of the obtained PMPC layers on CRP binding performance were investigated using surface plasmon resonance employing a 10 mM Tris-HCl running buffer containing 140 mM NaCl and 2 mM CaCl2 (pH 7.4). Furthermore, the non-specific binding properties of the obtained layers were investigated using human serum albumin (HSA) as a reference protein. The PMPC layer which has 4.6 nm of thickness and 1.27 chains per nm(2) of grafting density showed highly sensitive CRP detection (limit of detection: 4.4 ng mL(-1)) with low non-specific HSA adsorption, which was improved 10 times than our previous report of 50 ng mL(-1). PMID:25783194

  14. Hybrid Graft Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Predictable Graft for Knee Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Pinzon, Andres M; Barksdale, Leticia; Krill, Michael K; Leo, Brian M

    2015-06-01

    Trauma to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a season-ending injury and involves months of activity modification and rehabilitation. The annual incidence of ACL tears in the United States is approximately 200,000, which allows for a broad range of individualized treatment options. Various surgical techniques, including transtibial and independent tunnel drilling, allograft and autograft tissue, and various implants, have been described in the literature. This article describes the indications and technique for a hybrid soft tissue graft for ACL reconstruction. Autologous grafts eliminate the risk of disease transmission and have recently been shown to have a lower rerupture rate, particularly in younger, active patients; however, the harvesting of autologous hamstring grafts carries a risk of donor-site morbidity, iatrogenic injury of the graft, and inadequate graft size. In contrast to a traditional autologous soft tissue graft, the hybrid graft allows for graft size customization for a desired reconstruction, especially in cases where autograft hamstrings may be iatrogenically damaged or of inadequate size when harvested. The goal of a hybrid graft ACL reconstruction is to provide a favorable-sized graft with clinical outcomes comparable with autologous soft tissue grafts. In contrast to a traditional autologous soft tissue graft, this technique provides another option in the event of unforeseen deficiencies or complications associated with harvesting and preparation of the autologous gracilis and semitendinosis soft tissue graft. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(6):e473-e476.]. PMID:26091219

  15. Space environmental effects on polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Orwoll, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Polymeric materials that may be exposed on spacecraft to the hostile environment beyond Earth's atmosphere were subjected to atomic oxygen, electron bombardment, and ultraviolet radiation in terrestrial experiments. Evidence is presented for the utility of an inexpensive asher for determining the relative susceptibility of organic polymers to atomic oxygen. Kapton, Ultem, P1700 polysulfone, and m-CBB/BIS-A (a specially formulated polymer prepared at NASA Langley) all eroded at high rates, just as was observed in shuttle experiments. Films of Ultem, P1700 polysulfone, and m-CBB/BIS-A were irradiated with 85 keV electrons. The UV/VIS absorbance of Ultem was found to decay with time after irradiation, indicating free radical decay. The tensile properties of Ultem began to change only after it had been exposed to 100 Mrads. The effects of dose rate, temperature, and simultaneous vs. sequential electron and UV irradiation were also studied.

  16. Synthesis of antibacterial surfaces by plasma grafting of zinc oxide based nanocomposites onto polypropylene.

    PubMed

    de Rancourt, Yoann; Couturaud, Benoit; Mas, André; Robin, Jean Jacques

    2013-07-15

    Antibacterial polymer surfaces were designed using ZnO nanoparticles as a bactericide. Mineral encapsulated nanoparticles were grafted onto activated polymer surfaces through their shells. Polypropylene (PP) surfaces were treated using an innovative process coupling core-shell technology and plasma grafting, well-known techniques commonly used to obtain active surfaces for biomedical applications. First, ZnO nanoparticles were encapsulated by (co)polymers: poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) or a poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) copolymer [P(MMA-MA)]. Second, PP substrates were activated using plasma treatment. Finally, plasma-treated surfaces were immersed in solutions containing the encapsulated nanoparticles dispersed in an organic solvent and allowed to graft onto it. The presence of nanoparticles on the substrates was demonstrated using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, Scanning Electron Microspcopy (SEM)/Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) studies. Indeed, the ZnO-functionalized substrates exhibited an antibacterial response in Escherichia coli adhesion tests. Moreover, this study revealed that, surprisingly, native ZnO nanoparticles without any previous functionalization could be directly grafted onto polymeric surfaces through plasma activation. The antibacterial activity of the resulting sample was shown to be comparable to that of the other samples. PMID:23628200

  17. Particles Bridge the Gap -- Relevance of Polymer Graft Architecture on the Properties of Particle Brush Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockstaller, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Current interest in the assembly of ligand-coated nanoparticles into 2D and 3D array structures is driven by the opportunities for novel material technologies that derive from the interactions within nanoparticle superlattice structures. A common challenge in the solution-based assembly of particle superlattice structures is the propensity of hard-sphere type particle assemblies to crack formation and brittle fracture during solvent evaporation. Recent progress in controlled radical polymerization offers novel opportunities for polymer-stabilized particle systems (particle brushes) as building blocks of particle superlattice structures. This contribution will discuss synthetic strategies to realize particle brush systems with well defined polymer graft-architecture in the dense or semi-dilute brush regime and discuss the effect of polymer grafting on the structure formation and cohesive interactions in particle brush assemblies. In particular, it will be demonstrated chain entanglements between surface-grafted chains give rise to fracture through polymer-like crazing thus dramatically increasing the toughness and flexibility of the particle assembly. The modulus and toughness of polymer nanocomposites synthesized by self-assembly of particle brush systems will be shown to exceed those of ``conventional'' particle-filled polymer composites -- a result that will be interpreted as a consequence of the particular conformational constraints of surface grafted chains. The author acknowledges financial support by AFOSR and DTRA.

  18. Nitroxide polymer brushes grafted onto silica nanoparticles as cathodes for organic radical batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsiao-Chien; Li, Chia-Chen; Lee, Jyh-Tsung

    2011-10-01

    Nitroxide polymer brushes grafted on silica nanoparticles as binder-free cathodes for organic radical batteries have been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and electron spin resonance confirm that the nitroxide polymer brushes are successfully grafted onto silica nanoparticles via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. The thermogravimetric analysis results indicate that the onset decomposition temperature of these nitroxide polymer brushes is found to be ca. 201 °C. The grafting density of the nitroxide polymer brushes grafted on silica nanoparticles is 0.74-1.01 chains nm-2. The results of the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance indicate that the non-crosslinking nitroxide polymer brushes prevent the polymer from dissolving into organic electrolytes. Furthermore, the electrochemical results show that the discharge capacity of the polymer brushes is 84.9-111.1 mAh g-1 at 10 C and the cells with the nitroxide polymer brush electrodes have a very good cycle-life performance of 96.3% retention after 300 cycles.

  19. Tensile Properties of Polyimide Composites Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes-Grafted and Polyimide-Coated Carbon Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Kimiyoshi

    2014-09-01

    The tensile properties and fracture behavior of polyimide composite bundles incorporating carbon nanotubes-grafted (CNT-grafted) and polyimide-coated (PI-coated) high-tensile-strength polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based (T1000GB), and high-modulus pitch-based (K13D) carbon fibers were investigated. The CNT were grown on the surface of the carbon fibers by chemical vapor deposition. The pyromellitic dianhydride/4,4'-oxydianiline PI nanolayer coating was deposited on the surface of the carbon fiber by high-temperature vapor deposition polymerization. The results clearly demonstrate that CNT grafting and PI coating were effective for improving the Weibull modulus of T1000GB PAN-based and K13D pitch-based carbon fiber bundle composites. In addition, the average tensile strength of the PI-coated T1000GB carbon fiber bundle composites was also higher than that of the as-received carbon fiber bundle composites, while the average tensile strength of the CNT-grafted T1000GB, K13D, and the PI-coated K13D carbon fiber bundle composites was similar to that of the as-received carbon fiber bundle composites.

  20. High Surface Area Poly(3-hexylthiophenes) Thin Films from Cleavable Graft Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Sivanandan, Kulandaivelu; Chatterjee, Tirtha; Treat, Neil; Kramer, Edward J.; Hawker, Craig J. (UCSB)

    2010-03-30

    A strategy for the fabrication of high surface area poly(3-hexylthiophene) thin films by removal of nanoscale domains formed from graft copolymers is presented. This approach relies on the synthesis and characterization of cleavable graft copolymers based on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rr-P3HT) main chain and sacrificial poly(styrene) side chains. An alkoxyamine initiator based on 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) was incorporated at the 3-position of the functionalized thienyl repeat unit, 2, via a cleavable trityl ether linker. Grignard metathesis (GRIM) copolymerization of 2 and 2,5-dibromo-3-hexylthiophene afforded regioregular P3HT with randomly incorporated alkoxyamine groups. Polymerization of styrene from the P3HT backbone for different time periods afforded graft copolymers with controllable sacrificial chain lengths. These materials were characterized using an array of techniques such as {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). An approach to obtain nanoporous P3HT thin films by cleavage of the trityl ether linker followed by complete removal of poly(styrene) is reported with the as-cast graft copolymer thin films displaying an irregular microphase-separated structure with an average domain size {approx}30 nm as determined by grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements. Significantly, this length scale was conserved after removal of the sacrificial component which allows this strategy to have potential application in diverse fields such as organic photovoltaics.

  1. Sorption studies on Cr (VI) removal from aqueous solution using cellulose grafted with acrylonitrile monomer.

    PubMed

    Hajeeth, T; Sudha, P N; Vijayalakshmi, K; Gomathi, T

    2014-05-01

    Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile on to cellulosic material derived from sisal fiber can be initiated effectively with ceric ammonium nitrate. The grafting conditions were optimized by changing the concentration of initiator and monomer. The change in crystallinity of the grafted polymeric samples was concluded from the XRD patterns. The prepared cellulose grafted acrylonitrile copolymer was used as an adsorbent to remove Cr (VI) ions from aqueous solutions. The efficiency of the adsorbent was identified from the variation in the percentage of adsorption with contact time, adsorbent dose and pH. From the observed results it was evident that the adsorption of metal ions increases with the increase in contact time and metal ion concentration. An optimum pH was found to be 5.0 for the removal of Cr (VI) from the aqueous solution. The results of the Langmuir, Freundlich, and pseudo first- and second-order studies revealed that the adsorption was found to fit well with Freundlich isotherm and follows pseudo second-order kinetics. From the above results, it was concluded that the cellulose-g-acrylonitrile copolymer was found to be an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous waste generated from industries. PMID:24560947

  2. Frictional properties of the end-grafted polymer layer in presence of salt solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raftari, Maryam; Zhang, Zhenyu; Leggett, Graham J.; Geoghegan, Mark

    2012-02-01

    We have studied the frictional behaviour of grafted poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) films using friction force microscopy (FFM). The films were prepared on native oxide-terminated silicon substrates using the technique of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). These brushes had constant grafting density (1.18 nm2), and of a thickness of ˜66 nm, as measured by ellipsometry. We show that single asperity contact mechanics (Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) and Derjaguin-M"uller-Toporov (DMT) models) as well as a linear (Amontons) relation between applied load and frictional load all apply to these systems depending on the concentration of salt and the nature of the FFM probe. Measurements were made using gold-coating and polymer functionalized silicon nitride triangular probes. Polymer functionalized probe included growth the PDMAEMA with same method on tips. The frictional behaviour are investigated between PDMAEMA and gold coated and PDMAEMA tips immersed in different concentrations of KCl, KBr and KI.

  3. Skeletal Muscle Regeneration on Protein-Grafted and Microchannel-Patterned Scaffold for Hypopharyngeal Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhisen; Guo, Shanshan; Ye, Dong; Chen, Jingjing; Kang, Cheng; Qiu, Shejie; Lu, Dakai; Li, Qun; Xu, Kunjie; Lv, Jingjing

    2013-01-01

    In the field of tissue engineering, polymeric materials with high biocompatibility like polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid have been widely used for fabricating living constructs. For hypopharynx tissue engineering, skeletal muscle is one important functional part of the whole organ, which assembles the unidirectionally aligned myotubes. In this study, a polyurethane (PU) scaffold with microchannel patterns was used to provide aligning guidance for the seeded human myoblasts. Due to the low hydrophilicity of PU, the scaffold was grafted with silk fibroin (PU-SF) or gelatin (PU-Gel) to improve its cell adhesion properties. Scaffolds were observed to degrade slowly over time, and their mechanical properties and hydrophilicities were improved through the surface grafting. Also, the myoblasts seeded on PU-SF had the higher proliferative rate and better differentiation compared with those on the control or PU-Gel. Our results demonstrate that polyurethane scaffolds seeded with myoblasts hold promise to guide hypopharynx muscle regeneration. PMID:24175281

  4. Surface modification by grafted sensitive polymer brushes: An ellipsometric study of their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostruba, A.; Ohar, M.; Kulyk, B.; Zolobko, O.; Stetsyshyn, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Thickness, refractive index and composition of coatings consisting of polymer brushes of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide), fabricated with different polymerization times, and oligoperoxide, grafted to the glass surface with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, were determined using ellipsometry and AFM measurements at all the formation stages. Optimum grafting conditions were determined for each component of the composite film. Dry film measurements and in situ temperature depending swelling experiments were performed by multiple angle of incidence (MAI) ellipsometry. The temperature phase transition in water solution induced by collapse of the polymer brushes was detected using ellipsometry. The ability of coatings consisting of complex polymer brushes to modify physicochemical interfacial properties depending on temperature is demonstrated.

  5. Electrochemically switchable surfaces using polymer brush-grafted conducting polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yiwen; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Williams, David E.

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrate an electrochemical switching of conformation of surface-bound polymer brushes, by grafting environmentally sensitive polymer brushes from an electrochemically-active conducting polymer (ECP). Using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), we grafted zwitterionic polymer brushes, poly(3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)- dimethyl(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide) (MPDSAH), from a surface initiated poly(pyrrole-co-pyrrolyl butyric acid) film. The changes in ionic solution composition in electrical double layer at the surface resulting from oxidation and reduction of the ECP trigger a switch in conformation of surface-bound poly(MPDSAH), demonstrated here by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The switch is also dependent upon temperature. We speculate that the synergistic combination of properties embodied in these "smart" materials may find application in electrochemical control of surface wetting and of interaction with biomolecules and living cells.

  6. Stereospecific olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Bercaw, J.E.; Herzog, T.A.

    1998-01-13

    A metallocene catalyst system is described for the polymerization of {alpha}-olefins to yield stereospecific polymers including syndiotactic, and isotactic polymers. The catalyst system includes a metal and a ligand of the formula shown wherein: R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, and R{sup 3} are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, 5 to 7 membered cycloalkyl, which in turn may have from 1 to 3 C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyls as a substituent, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or arylalkyl in which two adjacent radicals may together stand for cyclic groups having 4 to 15 carbon atoms which in turn may be substituted, or Si(R{sup 8}){sub 3} where R{sup 8} is selected from the group consisting of C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or C{sub 3} to C{sub 10} cycloalkyl; R{sup 4} and R{sup 6} are substituents both having van der Waals radii larger than the van der Waals radii of groups R{sup 1} and R{sup 3}; R{sup 5} is a substituent having a van der Waals radius less than about the van der Waals radius of a methyl group; E{sup 1}, E{sup 2} are independently selected from the group consisting of Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}--Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Ge(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Sn(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}--C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, where R{sup 9} is C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or C{sub 3} to C{sub 10} cycloalkyl; and the ligand may have C{sub S} or C{sub 1}-symmetry. Preferred metals are selected from the group consisting of group III, group IV, group V or lanthanide group elements. The catalysts are used to prepare stereoregular polymers including polypropylene from {alpha}-olefin monomers.

  7. Stereospecific olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Bercaw, John E. (Pasadena, CA); Herzog, Timothy A. (Pasadena, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A metallocene catalyst system for the polymerization of .alpha.-olefins to yield stereospecific polymers including syndiotactic, and isotactic polymers. The catalyst system includes a metal and a ligand of the formula ##STR1## wherein: R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, 5 to 7 membered cycloalkyl, which in turn may have from 1 to 3 C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyls as a substituent, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or arylalkyl in which two adjacent radicals may together stand for cyclic groups having 4 to 15 carbon atoms which in turn may be substituted, or Si(R.sup.8).sub.3 where R.sup.8 is selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; R.sup.4 and R.sup.6 are substituents both having van der Waals radii larger than the van der Waals radii of groups R.sup.1 and R.sup.3 ; R.sup.5 is a substituent having a van der Waals radius less than about the van der Waals radius of a methyl group; E.sup.1, E.sup.2 are independently selected from the group consisting of Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Si(R.sup.9).sub.2 --Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Ge(R.sup.9).sub.2, Sn(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2 --C(R.sup.9).sub.2, where R.sup.9 is C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; and the ligand may have C.sub.S or C.sub.1 -symmetry. Preferred metals are selected from the group consisting of group III, group IV, group V or lanthanide group elements. The catalysts are used to prepare stereoregular polymers including polypropylene from .alpha.-olefin monomers.

  8. Free vascularized bone graft for nonunion of the scaphoid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuteru Doi; Tatsunori Oda; Tan Soo-Heong; Vipul Nanda

    2000-01-01

    We used a free vascularized small periosteal bone graft to treat scaphoid nonunion. The graft consisted of periosteum, full-thickness cortex, and the underlying cancellous bone and was harvested from the supracondylar region of the femur. The graft was nourished by the articular branch of the descending geniculate artery and vein. Unlike the currently used vascularized bone grafts, this graft can

  9. EVALUATION OF NURSERY PROCEDURES TO ELIMINATE GRAFT TAKE PROBLEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B N WOLSTENHOLME; P ALLAN

    Successful grafting is a vital step in the production of clonal avocado trees. Various types of graft failure occur, ranging from early scion death to scion buds that break, and then cease growing. Failure tends to be seasonal, but varies between nurseries. Statistically valid trials, testing numerous grafting treatments are difficult, but necessary. The main factors affecting graft-take are graft

  10. Reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (RATRP) for anti-clotting PU-LaCl3-g-P(MPC) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chunyan; Zhou, Ninglin; Xiao, Yinghong; Tang, Yida; Jin, Suxing; Wu, Yue; Shen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Low grafting density is a disadvantage both in reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (RATRP) and ATRP. In this work, the surfaces of polyurethane (PU) were treated by LaCl3·6H2O to obtain modified surfaces with hydrated layers. The reaction of surface-initiated RATRP was carried out easily, which may be attributed to the enriched hydroxyl groups on the hydrated layers. An innovation found in this work is that some free lanthanum ions (La3+) reacted with the silane coupling agent (CPTM) and the product served as mixed ligand complex. The mixed ligand complex instead of conventional 2,2?-bipyridine was adopted to serve as a ligand in the process of RATRP. As a result, PU surfaces grafted with well-defined polymer brushes (MPC) were obtained. PU substrates before and after modification were characterized by FTIR, XPS, AFM, SEM, SCA, respectively. The results showed that zwitterionic brushes were successfully fabricated on the PU surfaces (P(MPC)), and the content of the grafted layer increased gradually with polymerization time with the grafting density as high as 97.9%. The blood compatibility of the PU substrates was evaluated by plasma recalcification profiles test and platelet adhesion tests in vitro. It was found that all PU functionalized with zwitterionic brush showed improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion.

  11. Competition between side chain length and side chain distribution: Searching for optimal polymeric architectures for application in fuel cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorenbos, G.

    2015-02-01

    Microphase separation within 10 polymeric membranes of similar ion exchange capacity is studied by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). The polymers consist of hydrophobic A and hydrophilic C fragments. For 8 grafted architectures, the side chains ([C], [AC], [AAC], or [AAAC]) are distributed uniformly or pairwise along the hydrophobic backbone. For the other 2 (block type) architectures the C fragments are uniformly and pairwise distributed within the backbone, respectively. For the water containing pore networks the following trends are found: For the uniform architectures, the pore size is lowest for the block- and increases further for the grafted architectures with increase of side chain length, while for the pairwise architectures the reverse trend is observed. Water diffusion through the hydrophilic pore networks is deduced from Monte Carlo tracer diffusion calculations (through 800 snapshots). Among the uniform architectures diffusion is highest for the grafted architecture with long [AAAC] side chains. Interestingly, for the pairwise architectures diffusion is highest for the grafted polymers with the short ([C]) side chains. Side chain length and side chain distribution are thus predicted to be interesting design parameters in order to optimize proton and or solvent transport within flexible amphiphilic polymeric membranes.

  12. On-demand photoinitiated polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Boydston, Andrew J; Grubbs, Robert H; Daeffler, Chris; Momcilovic, Nebojsa

    2013-12-10

    Compositions and methods for adjustable lenses are provided. In some embodiments, the lenses contain a lens matrix material, a masking compound, and a prepolymer. The lens matrix material provides structure to the lens. The masking compound is capable of blocking polymerization or crosslinking of the prepolymer, until photoisomerization of the compound is triggered, and the compound is converted from a first isomer to a second isomer having a different absorption profile. The prepolymer is a composition that can undergo a polymerization or crosslinking reaction upon photoinitiation to alter one or more of the properties of the lenses.

  13. Cure Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Vinyltriethoxysilane Grafted Styrene-Butadiene Rubber\\/Silica Blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changjie Yin; Qiuyu Zhang; Junwei Gu; Zhichao Zhao; Jucheng Zheng; Guangbi Gong; Tao Liang; Hepeng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Graft polymerization of vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) onto styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) was carried out in latex using potassium peroxydisulfate as an initiator. Then SBR-g-VTES\\/silica, SBR\\/TESPT\\/silica and SBR-g-VTES\\/TESPT\\/silica were prepared by mechanical mixing with different silica loading. The silica particles dispersed uniformly in the SBR-g-VTES networks. Among the three composites, the SBR-g-VTES\\/Silica blends show the highest of all. The t90 of SBR-g-VTES\\/TESPT\\/Silica composites

  14. Laser surface modification of polymers to improve biocompatibility: HEMA grafted PDMS, in vitro assay—III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorasani, M. T.; Mirzadeh, H.; Sammes, P. G.

    1999-08-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface modifications were carried out using CO 2-pulsed laser, without photosensitizer at ambient condition, to introduce peroxide groups onto the PDMS surface. Such peroxides were capable of initiating graft polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) onto the PDMS. The modified surfaces were characterized using a variety of techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-FTIR) and the water drop contact angle measurements. Data from in vitro assays indicated a significant reduction of the platelet adhesion and aggregation for the modified surfaces.

  15. Microwave plasma induced grafting of oleic acid on cotton fabric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrales, Luis; Abidi, Noureddine

    2012-03-01

    Cotton fabric surface was successfully functionalized with microwave plasma (2.45 GHz, 500 W) to impart water repellency. The hydrophobic agent used was oleic acid (CH3(CH2)7CHdbnd CH(CH2)7COOH), a fatty acid derived from various plant seed oils. Non-polymerizing gas (Argon) was used to create the plasma. The exposure of the cellulose to Ar-plasma generated radicals, which were subsequently used to initiate co-polymerization reactions with oleic acid. The FTIR spectra showed the presence of additional vibrations located at 2918, 2849, and 1707 cm-1 in the functionalized samples. Dynamic contact angle measurements were performed to assess the hydrophobic properties of the functionalized cotton fabric. The grafted cotton fabric showed excellent water repellency. In addition, the use of plant-derived monomers and biopolymers provides a different approach to use renewable resources to create functionalized biopolymeric substrates.

  16. Blocked bacteria escape by ATRP grafting of a PMMA shell on PVA microparticles.

    PubMed

    Knierim, Christian; Greenblatt, Charles L; Agarwal, Seema; Greiner, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports on the preparation and characterization of living composites consisting of poly(vinylalcohol) (PVA) hydrogel microparticles with living bacteria and a shell of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The grafting of the PMMA shell is accomplished in the presence of living bacteria by surface polymerization of PMMA using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The PMMA shell prevents the uncontrolled bacterial escape from the hydrogel microparticles, which otherwise marks a major problem of these composites. The encapsulation of microparticles with living bacteria by PMMA retards bacteria escape upon contact to water for >20 d. The functionality of the PMMA shell is proven both by the release of fluorescein in buffer and an altered release time of bacteria in buffer solution. PMID:24288167

  17. Segmentation strategies for polymerized volume data sets 

    E-print Network

    Doddapaneni, Venkata Purna

    2006-04-12

    A new technique, called the polymerization algorithm, is described for the hierarchical segmentation of polymerized volume data sets (PVDS) using the Lblock data structure. The Lblock data structure is defined as a 3dimensional isorectangular block...

  18. POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Targeted polymeric nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Targeted polymeric nanoparticles: From discovery to clinical trials" Dr, IMS Room 20 A variety of organic and inorganic materials have been utilized to generate nanoparticles for drug delivery applications, including polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, nanoshells, liposomes

  19. Thermally Stable, Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Polymeric Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joycely O. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A thermally stable, piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrate was prepared. This thermally stable, piezoelectric and pyroelectric polymeric substrate may be used to prepare electromechanical transducers, thermomechanical transducers, accelerometers. acoustic sensors, infrared sensors, pressure sensors, vibration sensors, impact sensors, in-situ temperature sensors, in-situ stress/strain sensors, micro actuators, switches, adjustable fresnel lenses, speakers, tactile sensors. weather sensors, micro positioners, ultrasonic devices, power generators, tunable reflectors, microphones, and hydrophones. The process for preparing these polymeric substrates includes: providing a polymeric substrate having a softening temperature greater than 1000 C; depositing a metal electrode material onto the polymer film; attaching a plurality of electrical leads to the metal electrode coated polymeric substrate; heating the metal electrode coated polymeric substrate in a low dielectric medium; applying a voltage to the heated metal electrode coated polymeric substrate to induce polarization; and cooling the polarized metal electrode coated polymeric electrode while maintaining a constant voltage.

  20. Prevention of vascular graft infection by rifampin bonding to a gelatin-sealed dacron graft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Goëau-Brissonnière; Catherine Leport; François Bacourt; Claude Lebrault; Raymonde Comte; Jean-Claude Pechère

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of rifampin bonding to a gelatin-sealed knitted Dacron graft to prevent perioperative bacteremic vascular graft infection. Antibiotic bonding was obtained by soaking grafts for 15 minutes in a 1 mg\\/ml saline solution of rifampin at 37°C. Nineteen dogs had thoracoabdominal aortic bypass: seven (group I) received a rifampin treated graft; six (group II) received an

  1. Tissue engineering of small caliber vascular grafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon P Hoerstrup; Gregor Zünd; Ralf Sodian; Andrea M Schnell; Jürg Grünenfelder; Marko I Turina

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Previous tissue engineering approaches to create small caliber vascular grafts have been limited by the structural and mechanical immaturity of the constructs. This study uses a novel in vitro pulse duplicator system providing a ‘biomimetic’ environment during tissue formation to yield more mature, implantable vascular grafts. Methods: Vascular grafts (I.D. 0.5 cm) were fabricated from novel bioabsorbable polymers (polyglycolic-acid\\/poly-4-hydroxybutyrate)

  2. Organosiloxane-grafted natural polymer coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1998-12-01

    A new family of polysaccharide graft polymers are provided as corrosion resistant coatings having antimicrobial properties which are useful on light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and their alloys. Methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers are also included. The methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers involve reacting a polysaccharide source with an antimicrobial agent under conditions of hydrolysis-condensation. 17 figs.

  3. Polymerization of safflower and rapeseed oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger A. Korus; Traci L. Mousetis

    1984-01-01

    Rates of polymerization of oils from 2 safflower and 2 rapeseed varieties were measured in the air and under vacuum. Thermal\\u000a polymerization rates showed a stronger dependence on the degree of unsaturation than on oxidative polymerization. Molecular\\u000a weight distributions of polymerized oils were determined by size exclusion chromatography, and the relationship between viscosity\\u000a and weight-average molecular weight was determined.

  4. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsooodi, S; Yi Pang.

    1993-10-19

    A polymeric material is described which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl[sub 5] or W(CO)[sub 6].

  5. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1992-05-19

    A polymeric material which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl[sub 5] or W(CO)[sub 6]/hv.

  6. Membrane rigidity induced by grafted polymer brush.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhen; Yang, Shuang; Chen, Er-Qiang

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of neutral polymer brush to the curvature elasticity of the grafting surface is investigated theoretically. Using self-consistent field theory, we accurately evaluate the dependence of bending modulus on parameters including chain length, Flory-Huggins parameter and grafting density and reveal the importance of solvent. The results show that the brush-induced bending modulus follows a complex dependence on grafting density and Flory-Huggins parameter, while it obeys a simple power law with chain length as N(3). The method is further applied to calculate the polymer brush's contribution to the elastic properties of PEG-grafted lipid monolayers. PMID:25575082

  7. Cardiomyocyte Grafting for Cardiac Repair: Graft Cell Death and Anti-Death Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Zhang; Danielle Methot; Veronica Poppa; Yasushi Fujio; Kenneth Walsh; Charles E. Murry

    2001-01-01

    M. Zhang, D. Methot, V. Poppa, Y. Fujio, K. Walsh and C. E. Murry. Cardiomyocyte Grafting for Cardiac Repair: Graft Cell Death and Anti-Death Strategies. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology (2001) 33, 907–921. Recent studies indicate that cardiomyocyte grafting forms new myocardium in injured hearts. It is unknown, however, whether physiologically significant amounts of new myocardium can be generated.

  8. Molecularly Oriented Polymeric Thin Films for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, Catharine C.; Stoakley, Diane M.; St.Clair, Anne K.

    1997-01-01

    The increased commitment from NASA and private industry to the exploration of outer space and the use of orbital instrumentation to monitor the earth has focused attention on organic polymeric materials for a variety of applications in space. Some polymeric materials have exhibited short-term (3-5 yr) space environmental durability; however, future spacecraft are being designed with lifetimes projected to be 10-30 years. This gives rise to concern that material property change brought about during operation may result in unpredicted spacecraft performance. Because of their inherent toughness and flexibility, low density, thermal stability, radiation resistance and mechanical strength, aromatic polyimides have excellent potential use as advanced materials on large space structures. Also, there exists a need for high temperature (200-300 C) stable, flexible polymeric films that have high optical transparency in the 300-600nm range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Polymers suitable for these space applications were fabricated and characterized. Additionally, these polymers were molecularly oriented to further enhance their dimensional stability, stiffness, elongation and strength. Both unoriented and oriented polymeric thin films were also cryogenically treated to temperatures below -184 C to show their stability in cold environments and determine any changes in material properties.

  9. All polymeric transducers for energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Di Pasquale; S. Graziani; F. Pagano; E. Umana

    2010-01-01

    The power harvesting properties of a new class of all polymeric ionic electroactive materials, named Ionic Polymer-Polymer composites (IP2Cs) from vibrating sources are introduced and experimentally investigated. Obtained results show that the proposed technology gives better results with respect to other ionic polymeric transducers and allow to foresee the possibility to use in the future all polymeric transducers to power

  10. Initiator Effects in Reactive Extrusion of Starch Graft Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Graft copolymers of starch with water-soluble polymers such as polyacrylamide have potential applications including hydrogels, superabsorbents, and thickening agents. Reactive extrusion is a rapid, continuous method for production of starch graft copolymers with high reaction and grafting efficienc...

  11. POLYMERIC INTERFACES FOR STACK MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has been performed on the use of polymeric interfaces for in situ continuous stack monitoring of gaseous pollutants. Permeabilities of candidate interface materials to SO2 were measured at temperatures from ambient to 200C, and the results were used to design interfaces ...

  12. Outdoor HV composite polymeric insulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hackam

    1999-01-01

    HV composite polymeric insulators are being accepted increasingly for use in outdoor installations by the traditionally cautious electric power utilities worldwide. They currently represent ~60 to 70% of newly installed HV insulators in North America. The tremendous growth in the applications of non-ceramic composite insulators is due to their advantages over the traditional ceramic and glass insulators. These include light

  13. Copper Substrate Catalyzes Tetraazaperopyrene Polymerization

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Wolf Gero

    Copper Substrate Catalyzes Tetraazaperopyrene Polymerization W.G. Schmidt, E. Rauls, U. Gerstmann-up approach, appears to be a very promising way to fabricate functional systems with nanometer dimensions [1 found that the copper substrate is crucial for the formation of the various aggregates they observed, i

  14. Mechanisms of polymeric film formation.

    PubMed

    Felton, Linda A

    2013-12-01

    Polymeric films are applied to solid dosage forms for decorative, protective, and functional purposes. These films are generally applied by a spray atomization process, where the polymer is sprayed onto the solid substrate. The mechanism by which films are formed is dependent on whether the polymer is in the dissolved or dispersed state. For solutions, film formation occurs as the solvent evaporates, since the polymer chains are intimately mixed. Film formation from polymeric dispersions, however, requires the coalescence of individual polymer spheres and interpenetration of the polymer chains. Films prepared from polymeric dispersions exhibit a minimum film forming temperature and processing conditions must exceed this temperature in order to form the film. In addition, these systems generally require post-coating storage in temperature and humidity controlled environments to ensure complete polymer coalescence. Incomplete coalescence can lead to significant changes in drug release over time. This review article highlights the basic science principles involved in film formation from both polymeric solutions and dispersions and the variables that influence these film formation processes. PMID:23305867

  15. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas B. Adolf; Mohsen Shahinpoor; Daniel J. Segalman; Walter R. Witkowski

    1993-01-01

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel

  16. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Adolf; M. Shahinpoor; D. J. Segalman; W. R. Witkowski

    1993-01-01

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles are described capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in

  17. Irradiation of the skin and systemic graft-versus-host disease synergize to produce cutaneous lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Desbarats, J.; Seemayer, T. A.; Lapp, W. S.

    1994-01-01

    In this report, the relationship between irradiation and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-induced cutaneous injury was investigated. Unirradiated F1 hybrid mice were grafted with irradiated skin and then injected with parental strain lymphoid cells to induce GVHD. Although low grade dermal lymphoid infiltrates were observed in unirradiated skin grafts of some GVH-reactive mice, and irradiated grafts of normal animals showed occasional fibrosis, only the irradiated grafts of GVH-reactive mice developed lesions consisting of vacuolar degeneration of the epidermal-dermal junction and necrotic keratinocytes accompanied by pronounced epidermal infiltrates, characteristic of clinical cutaneous GVHD. The results suggest that cutaneous irradiation exerts a permissive effect on lesion formation in the skin of mice undergoing GVHD. Furthermore, systemic irradiation, known to exacerbate the severity of GVHD, is not required. Cutaneous lesions may be triggered by radiation injury of keratinocytes, up-regulation of adhesion molecules on irradiated endothelium, destruction of protective radiosensitive intraepithelial lymphocytes, and radiation-induced priming of intradermal macrophages. Images Figure 1 PMID:8178940

  18. Grafting of carboxybetaine brush onto cellulose membranes via surface-initiated ARGET-ATRP for improving blood compatibility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Yuan, Jiang; Huang, Xiaobo; Cai, Xianmei; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Grafting-from has proven to be a very effective way to create high grafting densities and well-controlled polymer chains on different kinds of surfaces. In this work, we aim to graft zwitterionic brush from cellulose membrane (CM) via ARGET-ATRP (Activator Regenerated by Electron Transfer ATRP) method indirectly for blood compatibility improvement. Characterization of the CM substrates before and after modification was carried out by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The results demonstrated zwitterionic brushes were successfully grafted on the CM surfaces, and the content of the grafted layer increased gradually with the polymerization time. The platelet adhesion, hemolytic test and plasma protein adsorption results indicated the cellulose membrane had significantly excellent blood compatibility featured on lower platelet adhesion and protein adsorption without causing hemolysis. The functionalized cellulose substrate could have a great potential usage for biomedical applications. PMID:23201719

  19. Thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-grafted hollow fiber membranes for osteoblasts culture and non-invasive harvest.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Meiling; Liu, Tianqing; Song, Kedong; Ge, Dan; Li, Xiangqin

    2015-10-01

    Hollow fiber membrane (HFM) culture system is one of the most important bioreactors for the large-scale culture and expansion of therapeutic cells. However, enzymatic and mechanical treatments are traditionally applied to harvest the expanded cells from HFMs, which inevitably causes harm to the cells. In this study, thermo-responsive cellulose acetate HFMs for cell culture and non-invasive harvest were prepared for the first time via free radical polymerization in the presence of cerium (IV). ATR-FTIR and elemental analysis results indicated that the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was covalently grafted on HFMs successfully. Dynamic contact angle measurements at different temperatures revealed that the magnitude of volume phase transition was decreased with increasing grafted amount of PNIPAAm. And the amount of serum protein adsorbed on HFMs surface also displayed the same pattern. Meanwhile osteoblasts adhered and spread well on the surface of PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs at 37°C. And Calcein-AM/PI staining, AB assay, ALP activity and OCN protein expression level all showed that PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs had good cell compatibility. After incubation at 20°C for 120min, the adhering cells on PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs turned to be round and detached after being gently pipetted. These results suggest that thermo-responsive HFMs are attractive cell culture substrates which enable cell culture, expansion and the recovery without proteolytic enzyme treatment for the application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:26117772

  20. Synthesis and structure-property studies of polysiloxane polyurethane isocyanate-functional polymeric silanes

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Z.

    1993-01-01

    A novel type of polymeric isocyanate-functional silane of polysiloxane was synthesized for the first time from an acrylate-functional silane. Also employed were acrylate-functional isocyanates, acrylate-functional polyether or polyester urethane isocyanates and polyhydrogen methyl siloxane which reacted Si-H with a vinyl group. The synthetic yields of the polymers were studied by HPLC and found to be higher than 96%. The molecular weights obtained were acceptable. The density and the intrinsic viscosity of the graft copolymers were measured by standard methods. The surface chemical structure of the graft copolymers was investigated by ATR-FTIR. Shown are the special structures for a 60% silane side chain especially for the polyether urethane polyisocyanate-functional polymers. The morphology of the graft copolymers was investigated by FTIR and DSC. Hydrogen bonding between NH and C[double bond]O groups resulted in a special arrangement of the polymeric isocyanate-functional silanes of polysiloxane. These graft copolymers had a high percentage of strong hydrogen bonding between NH and C[double bond]O groups. DSC showed the crystallization morphology of silane on the polysiloxane chain and a lot of phase separation. The SEM results supported surface morphology which had a roller-like crystallization or regular arrangement. Kinetic studies confirmed that the functional groups had a reactivity similar to that of monomeric groups. As coupling agents used in composite and adhesive systems, these polymers were superior to those formed form monomeric silanes. This strength of coupling can be explained by a three-component interpenetrating polymer network adhesion theory.

  1. Assessment of palmitoyl and sulphate conjugated glycol chitosan for development of polymeric micelles

    PubMed Central

    Ullah Khan, Ikram; Ayub, Gohar; Ranjha, Nazar M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction:Amphiphilic copolymers are capable of forming core shell-like structures at the critical micellar concentration (CMC); hence, they can serve as drug carriers. Thus, in the present work, polymeric micelles based on novel chitosan derivative were synthesized. Methods:Block copolymer of palmitoyl glycol chitosan sulfate (PGCS) was prepared by grafting palmitoyl and sulfate groups serving as hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions, respectively. Then, fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and spectral changes in iodine/iodide mixture were carried out. Results:FTIR studies confirmed the formation of palmitoyl glycol chitosan sulfate (PGCS) and spectral changes in iodine/iodide mixture indicated CMC which lies in the range of 0.003-0.2 mg/ml. Conclusion: Therefore, our study indicated that polymeric micelles based on palmitoyl glycol chitosan sulphate could be used as a prospective carrier for water insoluble drugs. PMID:23878793

  2. Design and development of multilayer vascular graft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, Krishna

    2011-07-01

    Vascular graft is a widely-used medical device for the treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and aneurysm as well as for the use of vascular access and pediatric shunt, which are major causes of mortality and morbidity in this world. Dysfunction of vascular grafts often occurs, particularly for grafts with diameter less than 6mm, and is associated with the design of graft materials. Mechanical strength, compliance, permeability, endothelialization and availability are issues of most concern for vascular graft materials. To address these issues, we have designed a biodegradable, compliant graft made of hybrid multilayer by combining an intimal equivalent, electrospun heparin-impregnated poly-epsilon-caprolactone nanofibers, with a medial equivalent, a crosslinked collagen-chitosan-based gel scaffold. The intimal equivalent is designed to build mechanical strength and stability suitable for in vivo grafting and to prevent thrombosis. The medial equivalent is designed to serve as a scaffold for the activity of the smooth muscle cells important for vascular healing and regeneration. Our results have shown that genipin is a biocompatible crosslinker to enhance the mechanical properties of collagen-chitosan based scaffolds, and the degradation time and the activity of smooth muscle cells in the scaffold can be modulated by the crosslinking degree. For vascular grafting and regeneration in vivo, an important design parameter of the hybrid multilayer is the interface adhesion between the intimal and medial equivalents. With diametrically opposite affinities to water, delamination of the two layers occurs. Physical or chemical modification techniques were thus used to enhance the adhesion. Microscopic examination and graft-relevant functional characterizations have been performed to evaluate these techniques. Results from characterization of microstructure and functional properties, including burst strength, compliance, water permeability and suture strength, showed that the multilayer graft possessed properties mimicking those of native vessels. Achieving these FDA-required functional properties is essential because they play critical roles in graft performances in vivo such as thrombus formation, occlusion, healing, and bleeding. In addition, cell studies and animal studies have been performed on the multilayer graft. Our results show that the multilayer graft support mimetic vascular culture of cells and the acellular graft serves as an artery equivalent in vivo to sustain the physiological conditions and promote appropriate cellular activity. In conclusion, the newly-developed hybrid multilayer graft provides a proper balance of biomechanical and biochemical properties and demonstrates the potential for the use of vascular tissue engineering and regeneration.

  3. Microwave induced synthesis of graft copolymer of binary vinyl monomer mixtures onto delignified Grewia optiva fibre: Application in dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vinod; Pathania, Deepak; Priya, Bhanu; Singha, A. K.; Sharma, Gaurav

    2014-08-01

    Grafting method, through microwave radiation technique is very effective in terms of time consumption, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness. Via this method, delignified Grewia optiva identified as a waste biomass, was graft copolymerized with methylmethacrylate (MMA) as an principal monomer in a binary mixture of ethyl methacrylate (EMA) and ethyl acrylate (EA) under microwave irradiation (MWR) using ascorbic acid/H2O2 as an initiator system. The concentration of the comonomer was optimized to maximize the graft yield with respect to the primary monomer. Maximum graft yield (86.32%) was found for dGo-poly(MMA-co-EA) binary mixture as compared to other synthesized copolymer. The experimental results inferred that the optimal concentrations for the comonomers to the optimized primary monomer was observed to be 3.19 mol/L×10-1 for EMA and 2.76 mol/L×10-1 for EA. Delignified and graft copolymerized fibre were subjected to evaluation of physicochemical properties such as swelling behaviour and chemical resistance. The synthesized graft copolymers were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction techniques. Thermal stability of dGo-poly(MMA-co-EA) was found to be more as compared to the delignified Grewia optiva fibre and other graft copolymers. Although the grafting technique was found to decrease percentage crystallinity and crystallinity index among the graft copolymers but there was significant increase in their acid/base and thermal resistance properties. The grafted samples have been explored for the adsorption of hazardous methylene dye from aqueous system.

  4. Intestinal graft versus host disease.

    PubMed

    Bryan, R L; Antonakopoulos, G N; Newman, J; Milligan, D W

    1991-10-01

    An ileocolectomy specimen was examined from a patient with graft versus host disease (GvHD). In addition to the characteristic histological features of this condition, both the small and the large intestine showed extensive destruction of mucosal tissue with survival of clusters of enterochromaffin cells. This appearance has previously been described only in the large bowel. Endocrine cells seem to be less vulnerable to the effects of GvHD than epithelial cells, resulting in their being spared, which is not seen in other types of crypt destruction. PMID:1960223

  5. Intestinal graft versus host disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, R L; Antonakopoulos, G N; Newman, J; Milligan, D W

    1991-01-01

    An ileocolectomy specimen was examined from a patient with graft versus host disease (GvHD). In addition to the characteristic histological features of this condition, both the small and the large intestine showed extensive destruction of mucosal tissue with survival of clusters of enterochromaffin cells. This appearance has previously been described only in the large bowel. Endocrine cells seem to be less vulnerable to the effects of GvHD than epithelial cells, resulting in their being spared, which is not seen in other types of crypt destruction. Images PMID:1960223

  6. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Trochimcznk, A.W.; Gatrone, R.C.; Alexandratos, S.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1997-04-08

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorus. The pendent groups have the formula as shown in the patent wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R{sup 1} is hydrogen or an C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

  7. Nanotribological study of grafted polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhacina, T.; Aimé, J. P.; Attias, A. J.

    1998-06-01

    The frictional forces between grafted layers, organosilanes and polymer, on silica and a nanotip have been investigated as a function of the tip velocity. From the interpretation of these results and one gets a step forward for more quantitative information. Les forces de friction entre des couches greffées sur silice et une nanopointe ont été étudiées en fonction de la vitesse de la pointe. À partir de l'interprétation de ces résultats on s'avance vers plus d'infor mations quantitatives.

  8. Mouse models for graft arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lingfeng; Yu, Luyang; Min, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Graft arteriosclerois (GA), also called allograft vasculopathy, is a pathologic lesion that develops over months to years in transplanted organs characterized by diffuse, circumferential stenosis of the entire graft vascular tree. The most critical component of GA pathogenesis is the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells within the intima. When a human coronary artery segment is interposed into the infra-renal aortae of immunodeficient mice, the intimas could be expand in response to adoptively transferred human T cells allogeneic to the artery donor or exogenous human IFN-? in the absence of human T cells. Interposition of a mouse aorta from one strain into another mouse strain recipient is limited as a model for chronic rejection in humans because the acute cell-mediated rejection response in this mouse model completely eliminates all donor-derived vascular cells from the graft within two-three weeks. We have recently developed two new mouse models to circumvent these problems. The first model involves interposition of a vessel segment from a male mouse into a female recipient of the same inbred strain (C57BL/6J). Graft rejection in this case is directed only against minor histocompatibility antigens encoded by the Y chromosome (present in the male but not the female) and the rejection response that ensues is sufficiently indolent to preserve donor-derived smooth muscle cells for several weeks. The second model involves interposing an artery segment from a wild type C57BL/6J mouse donor into a host mouse of the same strain and gender that lacks the receptor for IFN-? followed by administration of mouse IFN-? (delivered via infection of the mouse liver with an adenoviral vector. There is no rejection in this case as both donor and recipient mice are of the same strain and gender but donor smooth muscle cells proliferate in response to the cytokine while host-derived cells, lacking receptor for this cytokine, are unresponsive. By backcrossing additional genetic changes into the vessel donor, both models can be used to assess the effect of specific genes on GA progression. Here, we describe detailed protocols for our mouse GA models. PMID:23712086

  9. Fat grafting in facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Marten, Timothy J; Elyassnia, Dino

    2015-04-01

    Patients with significant facial atrophy and age-related loss of facial fat generally achieve suboptimal improvement from both surface treatments of facial skin and surgical lifts. Restoring lost facial volume by fat grafting is a powerful technique that is now acknowledged by most plastic surgeons and other physicians engaged in treating the aging face as one of the most important advances in aesthetic surgery. Properly performed, the addition of fat to areas of the face that have atrophied because of age or disease can produce a significant and sustained improvement in appearance that is unobtainable by other means. PMID:25827566

  10. A novel strategy to synthesize well-defined PS brushes on silica particles by combination of lithium-iodine exchange (LIE) and surface-initiated living anionic polymerization (SI-LAP).

    PubMed

    Min, Jiakang; Lin, Yichao; Zheng, Jun; Tang, Tao

    2015-04-01

    Core-shell hybrid particles, possessing a hard core of silica particles (SiPs) and a soft shell of brushlike polystyrene (PS), were successfully prepared by the combination of lithium-iodine exchange (LIE) and surface-initiated living anionic polymerization (SI-LAP). The molecular weight, graft density and brush thicknesses of the PS brushes were controllable. PMID:25732042

  11. Using grafted transplants in watermelon production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grafting of watermelon is not new. It has been practiced in other parts of the world for hundreds of years. With a prevalence of root diseases, and restrictions that are currently in place for the use of methyl bromide, grafting may soon become an economically feasible practice for watermelon produ...

  12. Impaction bone grafting for total hip revision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R. Gore

    2002-01-01

    We used impaction bone grafting for total hip revision on 26 hips in 25 patients. Average patient age was 68 (34-89) years, and average duration from last surgery was 9 years. In all cases morselized allograft bone was used for the graft, and the femoral component was a collarless, polished, tapered stem. Average duration of surgery was 2.4 h, intraoperative

  13. Venous neointimal hyperplasia in polytetrafluoroethylene dialysis grafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prabir Roy-Chaudhury; Burnett S. Kelly; Mary Ann Miller; Anita Reaves; Janice Armstrong; Nuwan Nanayakkara; Sue C. Heffelfinger

    2001-01-01

    Venous neointimal hyperplasia in polytetrafluoroethylene dialysis grafts.BackgroundVascular access dysfunction is the most important cause of morbidity and hospitalization in the hemodialysis population in the United States at a cost of $1 billion per annum. Venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH) characterized by stenosis and subsequent thrombosis accounts for the overwhelming majority of pathology resulting in polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) dialysis graft failure. Despite the

  14. Cellulose Graft Copolymers for Potential Adhesive Applications

    E-print Network

    Narayan, Ramani

    Chapter 24 Cellulose Graft Copolymers for Potential Adhesive Applications Bonding of Plastics covalent bonds to the graft polymer backbone. The net result of this improved adhesion is a finer Resources Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907 Bonding of hydrophobic plastic materials to wood

  15. Reversible electrochemical switching of polymer brushes grafted onto conducting polymer films.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yiwen; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka; Williams, David E

    2012-05-29

    We demonstrate the electrochemical switching of conformation of surface-bound polymer brushes, by grafting environmentally sensitive polymer brushes from an electrochemically active conducting polymer (ECP). Using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), we grafted zwitterionic betaine homopolymer and block copolymer brushes of poly(3-(methacryloylamido)propyl)-N,N'-dimethyl(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide) (PMPDSAH) and poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-PMPDSAH, from an initiator, surface-coupled to a poly(pyrrole-co-pyrrolyl butyric acid) film. The changes in ionic solution composition in the surface layer, resulting from oxidation and reduction of the ECP, trigger a switch in conformation of the surface-bound polymer brushes, demonstrated here by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and in a change of wettability. The switch is dependent upon temperature in a way that is analogous to the temperature-dependent solubility and aggregation of similar betaine polymers in aqueous solution but has a quite different dependence on salt concentration in solution. The switch is fully reversible and reproducible. We interpret the switching behavior in terms of a transition to a "supercollapsed" state on the surface that is controlled by ions that balance the charge state of the ECP and are adsorbed to the opposite charges of the zwitterionic graft, close to the graft-ECP interface. The behavior is significantly modified by hydrophobic interactions of the block copolymer graft. We speculate that the synergistic combination of properties embodied in these "smart" materials may find applications in electrochemical control of surface wetting and in the interaction with biomolecules and living cells. PMID:22551237

  16. An investigation on the biotribocorrosion behaviour of CoCrMo alloy grafted with polyelectrolyte brush.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhu, Yu-Jiao; Hu, Xiang-Yu; Sun, Yan-Fang; Sun, Yu-Long; Han, Jian-Min; Yan, Yu; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Surface grafting of polyelectrolyte brush, such as 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt (SPMK), on hip implant materials has been reported to reduce the wear of the orthopaedic bearing surface. However, the biotribocorrosion behaviour of the SPMK brush has not been taken into consideration in previous research. In the present study, SPMK was grafted on Co28Cr6Mo alloy through photo-induced polymerization, and the biotribocorrosion behaviour was investigated by a series of frictional-electrochemical tests using a universal materials tester combined with an electrochemical measurement (three-electrode) system. Co28Cr6Mo disk and polyethylene (PE) pin were used as the contact pair, and the lubricants were 0.9% saline solution (NaCl) and 0.9% saline solution coupled with 25% bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results showed that SPMK was successfully grafted on Co28Cr6Mo alloy, which was confirmed by the comparison of Raman spectroscopy and static contact angle of the samples before and after surface modification. The greatly reduced electrochemical parameters such as corrosion current and pitting potential indicated that the corrosion rate of Co28Cr6Mo alloy was significantly reduced following SPMK grafting. Additionally, the frictional-electrochemical coupled measurement performed under reciprocating sliding demonstrated that the lowest corrosion current was obtained for the SPMK-grafted Co28Cr6Mo disk, with 0.9% NaCl coupled with 25% BSA as the electrolyte. It is indicated from the present study that SPMK polyelectrolyte brush can greatly improve the anti-biotribocorrosion properties of Co28Cr6Mo alloy, and thus has potential application on surface modification of hip implant materials. PMID:25226913

  17. Behavior of Surface-Anchored Poly(acrylic acid) Brushes with Grafting Density Gradients on Solid Substrates: 1. Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wu,T.; Gong, P.; Szleifer, I.; Vicek, P.; Subr, V.; Genzer, J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe experiments pertaining to the formation of surface-anchored poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes with a gradual variation of the PAA grafting densities on flat surfaces and provide detailed analysis of their properties. The PAA brush gradients are generated by first covering the substrate with a molecular gradient of the polymerization initiator, followed by the 'grafting from' polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate (tBA) from these substrate-bound initiator centers, and finally converting the PtBA into PAA. We use spectroscopic ellipsometry to measure the wet thickness of the grafted PAA chains in aqueous solutions at three different pH values (4, 5.8, and 10) and a series of ionic strengths (IS). Our measurements reveal that at low grafting densities, s, the wet thickness of the PAA brush (H) remains relatively constant, the polymers are in the mushroom regime. Beyond a certain value of s, the macromolecules enter the brush regime, where H increases with increasing s. For a given s, H exhibits a nonmonotonic behavior as a function of the IS. At large IS, the H is small because the charges along PAA are completely screened by the excess of the external salt. As IS decreases, the PAA enters the so-called salt brush (SB) regime, where H increases. At a certain value of IS, H reaches a maximum and then decreases again. The latter is a typical brush behavior in so-called osmotic brush (OB) regime. We provide detailed discussion of the behavior of the grafted PAA chains in the SB and OB regimes.

  18. Polyhomologation. A living C1 polymerization.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Shea, Kenneth J

    2010-11-16

    The physical properties of synthetic macromolecules are strongly coupled to their molecular weight (MW), topology, and polydispersity index (PDI). Factors that contribute to their utility include the control of functionality at the macromolecule termini and copolymer composition. Conventional polymerization reactions that produce carbon backbone polymers (ionic, free radical, and coordination) provide little opportunity for controlling these variables. Living polymerizations, sometimes referred to as controlled polymerizations, have provided the means for achieving these goals. Not surprisingly, these reactions have had a profound impact on polymer and materials science. Three basic reaction types are used for the synthesis of most carbon backbone polymers. The first examples of "living" polymerizations were developed for ionic polymerizations (cationic and anionic). These reactions, which can be technically challenging to perform, can yield excellent control of molecular weight with very low polydispersity. The second reaction type, free radical polymerization, is one of the most widely used polymerizations for the commercial production of high molecular weight carbon backbone polymers. Nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP), reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT), and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) have emerged as three of the more successful approaches for controlling these reactions. The third type, transition metal mediated coordination polymerization, is the most important method for large-scale commercial polyolefin production. Simple nonfunctional hydrocarbon polymers such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene, poly-?-olefins, and their copolymers are synthesized by high pressure-high temperature free radical polymerization, Ziegler-Natta or metallocene catalysts. Although these catalysts of exceptional efficiency that produce polymers on a huge scale are in common use, control that approaches a "living polymerization" is rare. Although the controlled synthesis of linear "polyethylene" described in this Account is not competitive with existing commercial processes for bulk polymer production, they can provide quantities of specialized materials for the study of structure-property relationships. This information can guide the production of polymers for new commercial applications. We initiated a search for novel polymerization reactions that would produce simple hydrocarbon polymers with the potential for molecular weight and topological control. Our research focused on polymerization reactions that employ nonolefin monomers, more specifically the polymerization of ylides and diazoalkanes. In this reaction, the carbon backbone is built one carbon at a time (C1 polymerization). These studies draw upon earlier investigations of the Lewis acid catalyzed polymerization of diazoalkanes and build upon our discovery of the trialkylborane initiated living polymerization of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide 1. PMID:20825177

  19. Electrostrictive Graft Elastomers and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, J.; Harrison, J. S.; St.Clair, T. L.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Leary, S.

    1999-01-01

    Efficient actuators that are lightweight, high performance and compact are needed to support telerobotic requirements for future NASA missions. In this work, we present a new class of electromechanically active polymers that can potentially be used as actuators to meet many NASA needs. The materials are graft elastomers that offer high strain under an applied electric field. Due to its higher mechanical modulus, this elastomer also has a higher strain energy density as compared to previously reported electrostrictive polyurethane elastomers. The dielectric, mechanical and electromechanical properties of this new electrostrictive elastomer have been studied as a function of temperature and frequency. Combined with structural analysis using x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry on the new elastomer, structure-property interrelationship and mechanisms of the electric field induced strain in the graft elastomer have also been investigated. This electroactive polymer (EAP) has demonstrated high actuation strain and high mechanical energy density. The combination of these properties with its tailorable molecular composition and excellent processability makes it attractive for a variety of actuation tasks. The experimental results and applications will be presented.

  20. [Autologous fat grafting and rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P S; Baptista, C; Casanova, D; Bardot, J; Magalon, G

    2014-12-01

    Revision rhinoplasty can be very challenging especially in cases of thin skin. Autologous fat graft is utilized in numerous applications in plastic surgery; however, its use relative to the nasal region remains uncommon. Adipose tissue, by virtue of its volumetric qualities and its action on skin trophicity, can be considered to be a gold standard implant. From 2006 until 2012, we have treated patients by lipofilling in order to correct sequelae of rhinoplasty. The mean quantity of adipose tissue injected was 2.1cm(3) depending on the importance of the deformity and the area of injection: irregularity of the nasal dorsum, visible lateral osteotomies, saddle nose. Following the course of our practice, we conceived micro-cannulas that allow a much greater accuracy in the placement of the graft and enable to perform interventions under local anesthesia. These non-traumatic micro-cannulas do not cause post-operative ecchymosis and swelling which shorten the recovery time for the patient. On patients who have undergone multiple operations, lipofilling can be a simple and reliable alternative to correct imperfections that may take place after a rhinoplasty. PMID:24997796

  1. Primary anastomotic bonding in polytetrafluoroethylene grafts?

    PubMed

    Quiñones-Baldrich, W J; Ziomek, S; Henderson, T; Moore, W S

    1987-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that standard knitted and woven fabric grafts are forever dependent on the suture material for anastomotic tensile strength. Clinical experience with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and double velour knitted grafts have shown that there is extensive fibrous capsular bonding between the graft and the surrounding tissues. This would lead to increased anastomotic tensile strength. To test this theory, 34 mongrel dogs underwent replacement of their infrarenal aortas with grafts made of PTFE (10 dogs), of double velour knitted Dacron (DVD, 11 dogs), of single velour knitted Dacron (SVD, 5 dogs), and of woven Dacron (WD, 8 dogs). One anastomosis was constructed with 5-0 Prolene and the opposite anastomosis was constructed with 5-0 Dexon (average absorption time, 21 days). In five grafts each of PTFE and DVD, as well as in all eight WD grafts, the midgraft was divided and resutured with 5-0 Dexon. All grafts were harvested together with adjacent proximal and distal aorta between 3 and 10 months from the time of implantation. The tensile strength of each anastomosis was measured with a tensiometer. The mean graft-to-artery (absorbable suture) anastomotic tensile strength, in pounds, for PTFE (14.3) and DVD (12.6) was significantly higher than that for SVD (6.9) or WD (7.2) (p less than 0.003). Graft-to-graft anastomotic tensile strength for PTFE (mean 17.3) was significantly better than that for DVD (mean 9.0; p less than 0.03) or WD (mean 7.9; p less than 0.001). Analysis of anastomotic tensile strength as a function of time revealed continued increase in PTFE in contrast to a slow decline with time in DVD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2950244

  2. Polymeric anti-HIV therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Danial, Maarten; Klok, Harm-Anton

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this review is to highlight the application of polymer therapeutics in an effort to curb the transmission and infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following a description of the HIV life cycle, the use of approved antiretroviral drugs that inhibit critical steps in the HIV infection process is highlighted. After that, a comprehensive overview of the structure and inhibitory properties of polymeric anti-HIV therapeutic agents is presented. This overview will include inhibitors based on polysaccharides, synthetic polymers, dendritic polymers, polymer conjugates as well as polymeric DC-SIGN antagonists. The review will conclude with a section that discusses the applications of polymers and polymer conjugates as systemic and topical anti-HIV therapeutics. PMID:25185484

  3. Polymeric cationic substituted acrylamide surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, E.C.Y.

    1983-11-15

    A new composition of matter comprises a copolymer of a surface active quaternary ammonium monomer salt and from 50 to 97% by wt of acrylamide. The new copolymers can have molecular weights substantially greater than 10,000 and still remain water soluble and surface active. Copolymers are prepared by polymerization techniques known in the art. The quaternary ammonium monomer is dispersed under inert atmosphere in aqueous solution which may additionally contain dissolved therein a low molecular weight alcohol such as ethanol, isopropanol, and the like. Acidic polymerization initiator such as the azo initiators, organic peroxides, or redox initiators such as the sulfite- persulfate system is then added in an amount calculated to yield a polymer product of desired molecular weight. (14 claims.

  4. Ultralow fouling polyacrylamide on gold surfaces via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingsheng; Singh, Anuradha; Lalani, Reza; Liu, Lingyun

    2012-04-01

    In this work, polyacrylamide is investigated as an ultralow fouling surface coating to highly resist protein adsorption, cell adhesion, and bacterial attachment. Polyacrylamide was grafted on gold surfaces via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Protein adsorption from a wide range of biological media, including single protein solutions of fibrinogen, bovine serum albumin, and lysozyme, dilute and undiluted human blood serum, and dilute and undiluted human blood plasma, was studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Dependence of the protein resistance on polyacrylamide film thickness was examined. With the optimal film thickness, the adsorption amount of all three single proteins on polyacrylamide-grafted surfaces was <3 pg/mm(2), close to the detection limit of SPR. The average nonspecific adsorptions from 10% plasma, 10% serum, 100% plasma, and 100% serum onto the polyacrylamide-grafted surfaces were 5, 6.5, 17, and 28 pg/mm(2), respectively, comparable (if not better) than the adsorption levels on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) surfaces, the best antifouling materials known to date. The polyacrylamide-grafted surfaces were also shown strongly resistant to adhesion from bovine aortic endothelial cells and two bacterial species, Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis ( S. epidermidis ) and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa ). Strong hydrogen bond with water is considered the key attribute for the ultralow fouling properties of polyacrylamide. This is the first work to graft gold surfaces with polyacrylamide brushes via ATRP to achieve ultralow fouling surfaces, demonstrating that polyacrylamide is a promising alternative to traditional PEG-based antifouling materials. PMID:22385371

  5. Aneurysm formation in arteriovenous grafts: associations and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Siedlecki, Andrew; Barker, Jill; Allon, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Aneurysms are a common complication of arteriovenous grafts in hemodialysis patients, resulting from repetitive needle sticks in the graft material. Although aneurysms are thought to contribute to graft failure, there are no prospective studies evaluating their risk factors or impact on graft survival. The present study evaluated aneurysms in 117 hemodialysis outpatients with upper extremity grafts at a university-affiliated dialysis center. An arterial aneurysm was defined as a cannulation site defect diameter (difference between arterial cannulation site diameter and normal graft diameter) above the median value for the study population (0.63 cm). Subsequent graft outcomes were determined by retrospective analysis of a prospective vascular access database. Thrombosis-free graft survival was compared among patient subgroups using Cox proportional hazards models. Patients with an arterial aneurysm had significantly longer median graft age, when compared with those not having a aneurysm (888 vs. 588 days, p = 0.01). However, the two groups did not differ in patient age, sex, diabetes, body mass index, or graft location. The hazard ratio for graft thrombosis was 0.45 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.82, p = 0.009) for grafts with an arterial aneurysm, when compared with those without a defect (1-year graft survival of 71 vs. 50%). Graft age was not associated with the likelihood of graft thrombosis (p = 0.12). In contrast to the prevailing wisdom, arterial aneurysms are associated with improved graft survival. PMID:17244126

  6. Treatment of stable vitiligo with autologous epidermal grafting and PUVA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung Kyung Hann; Sungbin Im; Ha Wook Bong; Yoon-Kee Park

    1995-01-01

    Background: Previous reports have shown the benefits of epidermal grafting for vitiligo.Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of epidermal grafting in combination with PUVA on stable vitiligo refractory to conventional treatments.Methods: In 100 patients with stable refractory vitiligo we performed epidermal grafting with suction blisters followed by PUVA treatment. The grafted sites were examined for repigmentation

  7. Radiation degradation of plastic insulating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoní?ek, B.; Hnát, V.; Janovský, I.; Pejša, R.

    1995-02-01

    Several types of polymeric compounds, used as insulating and sheathing materials of cables, were subjected to accelerated thermal and radiation ageing and to LOCA test. The stability of materials was evaluated via their mechanical properties, namely strain at break.

  8. Polymerization of pyrrole into track membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitariuk, N. I.; Le Moël, A.; Mermilliod, N.; Trautmann, C.

    1995-11-01

    The kinetics of pyrrole (Py) polymerization onto polymeric track membranes and the morphology of obtained composite materials have been investigated. Diaphragmatic method was used. The rate of polymerization depends on the pore size of the membrane and there is an optimum pore size for which the initial polymerization rate is maximum. The appearance of the limiting yield is connected with the filling of the pores by PPy that leads to the formation of microtubules inside the pores. This was revealed by means of SEM study. During polymerization of Py the deposition of PPy occurs both on the pore walls and on the face surfaces of the membrane. The pore size gradually decreases during polymerization. The texture of PPy on the face surfaces and on the pore walls and the formation of microfibers connecting the neighbouring pores are discussed.

  9. Sepsis after autologous fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Simon G; Parrett, Brian M; Yaremchuk, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Autologous fat grafting is an increasingly popular technique, with numerous examples of excellent results. Adherence to key principles, including sterile technique and low-volume injection throughout layers of tissue, appears to be critical to obtaining good results. Reports of adverse outcomes are infrequent, but several case reports document both infectious and aesthetic complications. This case report represents an extreme complication, including abscess formation, life-threatening sepsis, and residual deformity. It serves as yet another reminder that early adoption of surgical procedures by those without a sound understanding of the underlying principles and techniques can have disastrous consequences. Furthermore, physicians operating on any patient must understand the potential for complications and be able to manage these appropriately when they occur. PMID:20885205

  10. Regenerative Approach to Scleroderma with Fat Grafting.

    PubMed

    Magalon, Guy; Daumas, Aurélie; Sautereau, Nolwenn; Magalon, Jérémy; Sabatier, Florence; Granel, Brigitte

    2015-07-01

    Grafted fat has many qualities of ideal filler; it is autologous, easily available, and naturally integrated into the host tissues. From a lipoaspirate, the adipose-tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction can be isolated, which is an excellent source of stem/stromal cells, endothelial progenitors, and immune cells. Fat grafting is being increasingly applied in autoimmune diseases, and this article focuses on systemic sclerosis, a rare autoimmune disease characterized by skin fibrosis and microvascular damage. The authors' approach of using fat graft in the face and adipose-tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction for hands is presented as innovative and promising therapy for patients with systemic sclerosis. PMID:26116941

  11. Combination of magnetic and enhanced mechanical properties for copolymer-grafted magnetite composite thermoplastic elastomers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Yaqiong; Wang, Zhongkai; Wang, Wentao; Xu, Zhaohua; Wang, Zhigang

    2015-05-20

    Composite thermoplastic elastomers (CTPEs) of magnetic copolymer-grafted nanoparticles (magnetite, Fe3O4) were synthesized and characterized to generate magnetic CTPEs, which combined the magnetic property of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the thermoplastic elasticity of the grafted amorphous polymer matrix. Fe3O4 nanoparticles served as stiff, multiple physical cross-linking points homogeneously dispersed in the grafted poly(n-butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) rubbery matrix synthesized via the activators regenerated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization method (ARGET ATRP). The preparation technique for magnetic CTPEs opened a new route toward developing a wide spectrum of magnetic elastomeric materials with strongly enhanced macroscopic properties. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure the glass transition temperatures, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to examine thermal stabilities of these CTPEs. The magnetic property could be conveniently tuned by adjusting the content of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in CTPEs. Compared to their linear copolymers, these magnetic CTPEs showed significant increases in tensile strength and elastic recovery. In situ small-angle X-ray scattering measurement was conducted to reveal the microstructural evolution of CTPEs during tensile deformation. PMID:25954980

  12. Preparation and biocompatibility of grafted functional ?-cyclodextrin copolymers from the surface of PET films.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Hongwen; Zhang, Weiwei; Tu, Shanshan

    2014-08-01

    The hydrophobic inert surface of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film has limited its practical bioapplications, in which case, better biocompatibility should be achieved by surface modification. In this work, the copolymer of functional ?-cyclodextrin derivatives and styrene grafted surfaces was prepared via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) on initiator-immobilized PET. The structures, composition, properties, and surface morphology of the modified PET films were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle measurement, and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results show that the surface of PET films was covered by a thick targeted copolymer layer, and the hydrophobic surface of PET was changed into an amphiphilic surface. The copolymer-grafted surfaces were also shown good biocompatibility on which SGC-7901 A549 and A549/DDP cells readily attached and proliferated, demonstrating that the functional copolymer-grafted PET films could be a promising alternative to biomaterials especially for tissue engineering. PMID:24907730

  13. Characterization of evolving biomechanical properties of tissue engineered vascular grafts in the arterial circulation.

    PubMed

    Udelsman, Brooks V; Khosravi, Ramak; Miller, Kristin S; Dean, Ethan W; Bersi, Matthew R; Rocco, Kevin; Yi, Tai; Humphrey, Jay D; Breuer, Christopher K

    2014-06-27

    We used a murine model to assess the evolving biomechanical properties of tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) implanted in the arterial circulation. The initial polymeric tubular scaffold was fabricated from poly(lactic acid)(PLA) and coated with a 50:50 copolymer of poly(caprolactone) and poly(lactic acid)(P[PC/LA]). Following seeding with syngeneic bone marrow derived mononuclear cells, TEVGs (n=50) were implanted as aortic interposition grafts in wild-type mice and monitored serially using ultrasound. A custom biaxial mechanical testing device was used to quantify the in vitro circumferential and axial mechanical properties of grafts explanted at 3 or 7 months. At both times, TEVGs were much stiffer than native tissue in both directions. Repeated mechanical testing of some TEVGs treated with elastase or collagenase suggested that elastin did not contribute significantly to the overall stiffness whereas collagen did contribute. Traditional histology and immunostaining revealed smooth muscle cell layers, significant collagen deposition, and increasing elastin production in addition to considerable scaffold at both 3 and 7 months, which likely dominated the high stiffness seen in mechanical testing. These results suggest that PLA has inadequate in vivo degradation, which impairs cell-mediated development of vascular neotissue having properties closer to native arteries. Assessing contributions of individual components, such as elastin and collagen, to the developing neovessel is needed to guide computational modeling that may help to optimize the design of the TEVG. PMID:24702863

  14. Surface and statistical analysis of CaCO 3 crystals synthesized in the presence of fluorescein-tagged starch grafted with polyacrylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matahwa, H.; Sanderson, R. D.

    2009-02-01

    Crystallization of CaCO 3 was carried out in the presence of fluorescein-tagged starch grafted with polyacrylic acid (PAA) as polymeric additive. The crystal morphology at high polymeric additive concentration was spherical, with vaterite and calcite polymorphs. Mixed crystal morphologies were obtained at lower concentration of the polymeric additive and calcite was obtained. The CaCO 3 crystals obtained fluoresced under UV irradiation showing the presence of grafted starch expected on the surface of CaCO 3. The zeta potentials of the synthesized crystals were negative and addition of cationic starch lead to inversion of the zeta potential. Rodamine B-tagged cationic starch was successfully deposited onto the surface of the anionic-grafted starch-coated CaCO 3 crystals. Statistical analysis of the crystals showed that the fluorescence intensities of the crystals increased with increasing granularity and size of the CaCO 3 crystals. The high granularity and large-size crystals were due to aggregation of secondary crystals as observed with fluorescence microscopy.

  15. P(HPMA/EGDMA) beads grafted with fibrous chains by SI-ATRP method: agmatine functionalized affinity beads for selective separation of serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Yakup Arica, M

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, novel core-shell polymeric affinity beads based on fibrous grafting and functionalization with a salt resistance affinity ligand were developed to separate and deplete serum albumin (SA) from human serum. Poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylate/ethyleneglycole dimethacrylate), p(HPMA/EGDMA), beads were prepared via suspension polymerization, and were grafted with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (p(GMA)) via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method. The grafted p(GMA) fibrous chains on the beads were modified with an affinity ligand (i.e., agmatine). The binding capacity of the affinity beads to SA was determined using aqueous solution of SA in a batch system. Batch adsorption studies showed that the amount of adsorbed SA was found to be 156.7 mg/g at 25 °C. The maximum adsorption capacity for affinity beads was observed at around pH 5.5. Adsorption of SA onto affinity beads significantly increased with increasing temperature, and reached a value 177.8 mg/g beads at 35 °C. The equilibrium data were found to be well described by Langmuir model, while the kinetic data were well fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic. The degree of the purity of SA was determined by using HPLC. Before and after adsorption, the peak areas of SA were used in the calculation of separated SA. PMID:23754324

  16. Size and charge characterization of polymeric drug delivery systems by Taylor dispersion analysis and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Amal; Meyrueix, Rémi; Pouliquen, Gauthier; Chan, You Ping; Cottet, Hervé

    2013-06-01

    In this work, Taylor dispersion analysis and capillary electrophoresis were used to characterize the size and charge of polymeric drug delivery nanogels based on polyglutamate chains grafted with hydrophobic groups of vitamin E. The hydrophobic vitamin E groups self-associate in water to form small hydrophobic nanodomains that can incorporate small drugs or therapeutic proteins. Taylor dispersion analysis is well suited to determine the weight average hydrodynamic radius of nanomaterials and to get information on the size polydispersity of polymeric samples. The effective charge was determined either from electrophoretic mobility and hydrodynamic radius using electrophoretic modeling (three different approaches were compared), or by indirect UV detection in capillary electrophoresis. The influence of vitamin E hydrophobicity on the polymer effective charge has been studied. The presence of vitamin E leads to a drastic decrease in polymer effective charge in comparison to non-modified polyglutamate. Finally, the electrophoretic behavior of polyglutamate backbone grafted with hydrophobic vitamin E (pGVE) nanogels according to the ionic strength was investigated using the recently proposed slope plot approach. It was deduced that the pGVE nanogels behave electrophoretically as polyelectrolytes which is in good agreement with the high water content of the nanogels. PMID:23624952

  17. Functionalized carbon nanotube via distillation precipitation polymerization and its application in nafion-based composite membranes.

    PubMed

    He, Guangwei; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Shen; Li, Lingqiao; Li, Zongyu; Li, Yifan; Li, Zhen; Wu, Hong; Yang, Xinlin; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2014-09-10

    The objective of this study is to develop a novel approach to in situ functionalizing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and exploring their application in Nafion-based composite membranes for efficient proton conduction. Covalent grafting of acrylate-modified MWCNTs with poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), poly(vinylphosphonic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), and sulfonated poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) was achieved via surface-initiated distillation precipitation polymerization. The formation of core-shell structure was verified by TEM images, and polymer layers with thickness around 30 nm were uniformly covered on the MWCNTs. The graft yield reached up to 93.3 wt % after 80 min of polymerization. The functionalized CNTs (FCNTs) were incorporated into the Nafion matrix to prepare composite membranes. The influence of various functional groups (-COOH, -PO3H2, and -SO3H) in FCNTs on proton transport of the composite membranes was studied. The incorporation of FCNTs afforded the composite membranes significantly enhanced proton conductivities under reduced relative humidity. The composite membrane containing 5 wt % phosphorylated MWCNTs (PCNTs) showed the highest proton conductivity, which was attributed to the construction of lower-energy-barrier proton transport pathways by PCNTs, and excellent water-retention and proton-conduction properties of the cross-linked polymer in PCNTs. Moreover, the composite membranes exhibited an enhanced mechanical stability. PMID:25109828

  18. Chitosan based heterogeneous catalyses: chitosan-grafted-poly(4-vinylpyridne) as an efficient catalyst for Michael additions and alkylpyridazinyl carbonitrile oxidation.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Khaled D; Al-Matar, Hamad M

    2013-01-01

    Chitosan-grafted-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (Cs-PVP) copolymers could be synthesized under heterogeneous conditions in presence of a potassium persulfate and sodium sulfite redox system. The synthesized graft copolymer could be utilized effectively, in the form of beads, as an efficient catalyst for Michael additions of active methylenes to functionally substituted alkenes. Moreover, methyl moiety oxidation in methyl pyridazinyl carbonitriles by H?O? in the presence of chitosan-g-polyvinyl pyridine-supported iron (III) complex, Cs-PVP/Fe, could be affected. A variety of pyrans, naphthopyrans, and thiopyrans could be synthesized efficiently in the presence of these graft copolymer beads by novel catalytic routes. These polymeric catalysts could be used instead of the old toxic commercial organic basic catalysts, piperidine or pyridine, and could be readily isolated from the reaction mixture and recycled several times without significant loss of catalytic activity. PMID:23698043

  19. Redox-switchable supramolecular graft polymer formation via ferrocene-cyclodextrin assembly.

    PubMed

    Szillat, Florian; Schmidt, Bernhard V K J; Hubert, Artur; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Ritter, Helmut

    2014-07-01

    The redox switchable formation of very well-defined supramolecular graft polymers in aqueous solution driven by host-guest interactions between ferrocene (Fc) and cyclodextrin (CD) is presented. The Fc-containing acrylic backbone copolymer (PDMA-stat-Fc) is prepared via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) copolymerization of N,N-dimethyl-acrylamide (DMA) and the novel monomer N-(ferrocenoylmethyl)acrylamide (NFMA). Via the RAFT process, copolymers containing variable Fc ratios (5-10 mol%) are prepared, affording polymers of molecular masses of close to 11,000 g mol(-1) and molar mass dispersities (?) of 1.2. The ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) containing building block is synthesized via RAFT-polymerization, too, in order to afford a polymer with well-defined molecular mass and low dispersity (Mn = 10 300 g mol(-1) , ? = 1.1), employing a propargyl-functionalized chain transfer agent for the polymerization of N,N-diethylacrylamide (DEA). The polymerization product is subsequently terminated with ?-CD via the regiospecific copper (I)-catalyzed 1,3-cycloaddition (PDEA-?CD). Host-guest interactions between Fc and CD lead to the formation of supramolecular graft-polymers, verified via nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY). Importantly, their redox-responsive character is clearly confirmed via cyclic voltammetry (CV). The self-assembly of the statistical Fc-containing lateral polymer chain in aqueous solution leads to mono- and multi-core micelle-aggregates evidenced via TEM. Only diffused cloud-like, non-spherical nanostructures are observed after addition of PDEA-?CD (TEM). PMID:24753002

  20. Comparison of standard coronary artery bypass grafting and minimary invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhide Okawa; Hiroshi Baba; Masaki Hashimoto; Tsuneo Tanaka; Masahiko Toyama; Kouji Matsumoto; Kenichiro Azuma

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: We studied indications and problems involved in minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (MIDCAB)Methods: We compared patients profiles, graft patency, stenosis severity, morbidity, mortality, long-term survival and freedom from\\u000a cardiac accidents in 174 patients undergoing elective standard coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and 128 undergoing between\\u000a January 1996 and March 1999.Results: No statiscally difference was seen in gender, diabetes