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1

Neutron radiation hardness of vacuum compatible two-component adhesives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the investigation of the irradiation dependent bonding strength of two-component glues which have low outgassing compatible with vacuum applications. The strength of the glue joints is compared before and after exposure to a thermal neutron fluence of 2.35×10 neutrons per cm. The goal of this work is to establish a glue which is applicable to join glass and metal parts of the ultra-cold neutron (UCN) guide system at the Paul Scherrer Institute's UCN source.

Bertsch, J.; Goeltl, L.; Kirch, K.; Lauss, B.; Zubler, R.

2009-04-01

2

MISTIC: Radiation hard ECRIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ISAC RIB facility at TRIUMF utilizes up to 100 ?A from the 500 MeV H - cyclotron to produce RIB using the isotopic separation on line (ISOL) method. In the moment, we are mainly using a hot surface ion source and a laser ion source to produce our RIB. A FEBIAD ion source has been recently tested at ISAC, but these ion sources are not suitable for gaseous elements like N, O, F, Ne, … , A new type of ion source is then necessary. By combining a high frequency electromagnetic wave and a magnetic confinement, the ECRIS [R. Geller, Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source and ECR Plasmas, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, 1996], [1] (electron cyclotron resonance ion source) can produce high energy electrons essential for efficient ionization of those elements. To this end, a prototype ECRIS called MISTIC (monocharged ion source for TRIUMF and ISAC complex) has been built at TRIUMF using a design similar to the one developed at GANIL [GANIL (Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds), www.ganil.fr], [2] The high level radiation caused by the proximity to the target prevented us to use a conventional ECRIS. To achieve a radiation hard ion source, we used coils instead of permanent magnets to produce the magnetic confinement. Each coil is supplied by 1000 A-15 V power supply. The RF generator cover a frequency range from 2 to 8 GHz giving us all the versatility we need to characterize the ionization of the following elements: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, C, O, N, F. Isotopes of these elements are involved in star thermonuclear cycles and, consequently, very important for researches in nuclear astrophysics. Measures of efficiency, emittance and ionization time will be performed for each of those elements. Preliminary tests show that MISTIC is very stable over a large range of frequency, magnetic field and pressure.

Labrecque, F.; Lecesne, N.; Bricault, P.

2008-10-01

3

Development of radiation hard scintillators  

SciTech Connect

Substantial improvements have been made in the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators. Cylinders of scintillating materials 2.2 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick have been exposed to 10 Mrads of gamma rays at a dose rate of 1 Mrad/h in a nitrogen atmosphere. One of the formulations tested showed an immediate decrease in pulse height of only 4% and has remained stable for 12 days while annealing in air. By comparison a commercial PVT scintillator showed an immediate decrease of 58% and after 43 days of annealing in air it improved to a 14% loss. The formulated sample consisted of 70 parts by weight of Dow polystyrene, 30 pbw of pentaphenyltrimethyltrisiloxane (Dow Corning DC 705 oil), 2 pbw of p-terphenyl, 0.2 pbw of tetraphenylbutadiene, and 0.5 pbw of UVASIL299LM from Ferro.

Markley, F.; Woods, D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Blackburn, R. (Michigan Univ., Nuclear Reactor Lab., Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

1992-05-01

4

Development of radiation hard scintillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substantial improvements have been made in the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators. Cylinders of scintillating materials 2.2 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick have been exposed to 10 Mrads of gamma rays at a dose rate of 1 Mrad/h in a nitrogen atmosphere. One of the formulations tested showed an immediate decrease in pulse height of only 4% and has remained stable for 12 days while annealing in air. By comparison a commercial PVT scintillator showed an immediate decrease of 58% and after 43 days of annealing in air it improved to a 14% loss. The formulated sample consisted of 70 parts by weight of Dow polystyrene, 30 pbw of pentaphenyltrimethyltrisiloxane (Dow Corning DC 705 oil), 2 pbw of p-terphenyl, 0.2 pbw of tetraphenylbutadiene, and 0.5 pbw of UVASIL299LM from Ferro.

Markley, F.; Woods, D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G.; Blackburn, R.

1993-01-01

5

Automated radiation hard ASIC design tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A commercial based, foundry independent, compiler design tool (ChipCrafter) with custom radiation hardened library cells is described. A unique analysis approach allows low hardness risk for Application Specific IC's (ASIC's). Accomplishments, radiation test results, and applications are described.

White, Mike; Bartholet, Bill; Baze, Mark

1993-01-01

6

Review of radiation hard electronics activities at European Space Agency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several Research and Development activities are ongoing at European Space Agency [1] to secure the supply of key electronic parts for current and future space avionics systems. Analogously to astro-particle and high-energy physics, the space missions radiation environment drives the radiation hardness requirements, which limits availability of suitable electronic components. In particular for the future ESA flagship Jupiter science mission, the necessary processing, reliability, mass, power performance requirements are difficult to meet with current components and systems with sufficient radiation tolerance margins. Improved radiation characterisation and modelling of the Jupiter radiation environment as well as operational radiation monitoring during the mission will be key in ensuring adequate margins for the operation of electronic components.

Furano, G.; Jansen, R.; Menicucci, A.

2013-02-01

7

Radiation Hardness Assurance for Space Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space radiation environment can lead to extremely harsh operating conditions for on-board electronic box and systems. The characteristics of the radiation environment are highly dependent on the type of mission (date, duration and orbit). Radiation accelerates the aging of the electronic parts and material and can lead to a degradation of electrical performance; it can also create transient phenomena on parts. Such damage at the part level can induce damage or functional failure at electronic box, subsystem, and system levels. A rigorous methodology is needed to ensure that the radiation environment does not compromise the functionality and performance of the electronics during the system life. This methodology is called hardness assurance. It consists of those activities undertaken to ensure that the electronic piece parts placed in the space system perform to their design specifications after exposure to the space environment. It deals with system requirements, environmental definitions, part selection, part testing, shielding and radiation tolerant design. All these elements should play together in order to produce a system tolerant to.the radiation environment. An overview of the different steps of a space system hardness assurance program is given in section 2. In order to define the mission radiation specifications and compare these requirements to radiation test data, a detailed knowledge of the space environment and the corresponding electronic device failure mechanisms is required. The presentation by J. Mazur deals with the Earth space radiation environment as well as the internal environment of a spacecraft. The presentation by J. Schwank deals with ionization effects, and the presentation by T. Weatherford deals with Single particle Event Phenomena (SEP) in semiconductor devices and microcircuits. These three presentations provide more detailed background to complement the sections 3 and 4. Part selection and categorization are discussed in section 5. Section 6 presents the organization of the hardness assurance within a project. Section 7 discusses emerging radiation hardness assurance issues.

Poivey, Christian; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

8

Radiation hardness assurances categories for COTS technologies  

SciTech Connect

A comparison of the radiation tolerance of three commercial, and one radiation hardened SRAM is presented for four radiation environments. This work has shown the difficulty associated with strictly categorizing a device based solely on its radiation response, since its category depends on the specific radiation environment considered. For example, the 3.3-V Paradigm SRAM could be considered a radiation-tolerant device except for its SEU response. A more useful classification depends on the methods the manufacturer uses to ensure radiation hardness, i.e. whether specific design and process techniques have been used to harden the device. Finally, this work has shown that burned-in devices may fail functionally as much as 50% lower in total dose environments than non-burned-in devices. No burn-in effect was seen in dose-rate upset, latchup, or SEE environments. The user must ensure that total dose lot acceptance testing was performed on burned-in devices.

Hash, G.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Winokur, P.S.

1997-03-01

9

Radiation-hard/high-speed data transmission using optical links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The silicon trackers of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva) use optical links for data transmission. An upgrade of the trackers is planned for the Super LHC (SLHC), an upgraded LHC with ten times higher luminosity. We investigate the radiation-hardness of various components for possible application in the data transmission upgrade. We study the radiation-hardness of VCSELs (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser) and GaAs and silicon PINs from various sources using 24 GeV/c protons at CERN. The optical power of VCSEL arrays decreases significantly after the irradiation but can be partially annealed with high drive currents. The responsivities of the PIN diodes also decrease significantly after irradiation, especially for the GaAs devices. We have designed the ASICs for the opto-link applications and find that the degradation with radiation is acceptable.

Gan, K. K.; Abi, B.; Fernando, W.; Kagan, H. P.; Kass, R. D.; Lebbai, M. R. M.; Moore, J. R.; Rizatdinova, F.; Skubic, P. L.; Smith, D. S.

2009-12-01

10

Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) for Space Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation discusses radiation hardness assurance (RHA) for space systems, providing both the programmatic aspects of RHA and the RHA procedure. RHA consists of all activities undertaken to ensure that the electronics and materials of a space system perform to their design specifications after exposure to the space radiation environment. RHA also pertains to environment definition, part selection, part testing, spacecraft layout, radiation tolerant design, and mission/system/subsystems requirements. RHA procedure consists of establishing mission requirements, defining and evaluating the radiation hazard, selecting and categorizing the appropriate parts, and evaluating circuit response to hazard. The RHA approach is based on risk management and is confined only to parts, it includes spacecraft layout, system/subsystem/circuit design, and system requirements and system operations. RHA should be taken into account in the early phases of a program including the proposal and feasibility analysis phases.

Poivey, Christian; Buchner, Stephen

2007-01-01

11

Radiation Hard AlGaN Detectors and Imager  

SciTech Connect

Radiation hardness of AlGaN photodiodes was tested using a 65 MeV proton beam with a total proton fluence of 3x10{sup 12} protons/cm{sup 2}. AlGaN Deep UV Photodiode have extremely high radiation hardness. These new devices have mission critical applications in high energy density physics (HEDP) and space explorations. These new devices satisfy radiation hardness requirements by NIF. NSTec is developing next generation AlGaN optoelectronics and imagers.

None

2012-05-01

12

Radiation hardness of the LHCb Outer Tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents results on the radiation hardness of the LHCb Outer Tracker (OT) during LHC operation in 2010 and 2011. Modules of the OT have shown to suffer from ageing effects that lead to gain loss, after irradiation in the laboratory. Under irradiation at moderate intensities an insulating layer is formed on the anode wire of the OT straw cells. This ageing effect is caused by contamination of the counting gas due to outgassing of the glue used in the construction of the OT modules. Two methods to monitor gain stability in the OT are presented: module scans with radioactive sources and the study of hit efficiency as a function of amplifier threshold. No gain loss is observed after receiving 1.3 fb-1 of integrated luminosity corresponding to an integrated charge of 0.055 C/cm in the hottest spot of the detector.

van Eijk, D.; Bachmann, S.; Bauer, Th.; Färber, Ch.; Bien, A.; Coco, V.; Deckenhoff, M.; Dettori, F.; Ekelhof, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Karbach, T. M.; Koopman, R.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Langenbruch, Ch.; Linn, Ch.; Merk, M.; Meissner, M.; Morawski, P.; Pellegrino, A.; Serra, N.; Seyfert, P.; Spaan, B.; Swientek, S.; Storaci, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Tuning, N.; Uwer, U.; Visser, E.; Wiedner, D.; Witek, M.

2012-09-01

13

Component mixers and a hardness result for counterfeiting quantum money  

E-print Network

In this paper we give the first proof that, under reasonable assumptions, a problem related to counterfeiting quantum money from knots [Farhi et al. 2010] is hard. Along the way, we introduce the concept of a component mixer, define three new classical query problems and associated complexity classes related to graph isomorphism and group membership, and conjecture an oracle separating QCMA from QMA.

Andrew Lutomirski

2011-07-01

14

High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells  

SciTech Connect

The direct gap of the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N alloy system extends continuously from InN (0.7 eV, in the near IR) to GaN (3.4 eV, in the mid-ultraviolet). This opens the intriguing possibility of using this single ternary alloy system in single or multi-junction (MJ) solar cells of the type used for space-based surveillance satellites. To evaluate the suitability of In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N as a material for space applications, high quality thin films were grown with molecular beam epitaxy and extensive damage testing with electron, proton, and alpha particle radiation was performed. Using the room temperature photoluminescence intensity as a indirect measure of minority carrier lifetime, it is shown that In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N retains its optoelectronic properties at radiation damage doses at least 2 orders of magnitude higher than the damage thresholds of the materials (GaAs and GaInP) currently used in high efficiency MJ cells. This indicates that the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N is well-suited for the future development of ultra radiation-hard optoelectronics. Critical issues affecting development of solar cells using this material system were addressed. The presence of an electron-rich surface layer in InN and In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N (0 < x < 0.63) was investigated; it was shown that this is a less significant effect at large x. Evidence of p-type activity below the surface in Mg-doped InN was obtained; this is a significant step toward achieving photovoltaic action and, ultimately, a solar cell using this material.

Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

2004-10-22

15

Test bench development for the radiation Hard GBTX ASIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development of the GBTX radiation hard ASIC test bench. Developed for the LHC accelerator upgrade programs, the GBTX implements a bidirectional 4.8 Gb/s link between the radiation hard on-detector custom electronics and the off-detector systems. The test bench was used for functional testing of the GBTX and to evaluate its performance in a radiation environment, by conducting Total Ionizing Dose and Single-Event Upsets tests campaigns.

Leitao, P.; Feger, S.; Porret, D.; Baron, S.; Wyllie, K.; Barros Marin, M.; Figueiredo, D.; Francisco, R.; Da Silva, J. C.; Grassi, T.; Moreira, P.

2015-01-01

16

Method for producing hard-surfaced tools and machine components  

DOEpatents

In one aspect, the invention comprises a method for producing tools and machine components having superhard crystalline-ceramic work surfaces. Broadly, the method comprises two steps: a tool or machine component having a ceramic near-surface region is mounted in ion-implantation apparatus. The region then is implanted with metal ions to form, in the region, a metastable alloy of the ions and said ceramic. The region containing the alloy is characterized by a significant increase in hardness properties, such as microhardness, fracture-toughness, and/or scratch-resistance. The resulting improved article has good thermal stability at temperatures characteristic of typical tool and machine-component uses. The method is relatively simple and reproducible.

McHargue, C.J.

1981-10-21

17

Sustainably Sourced, Thermally Resistant, Radiation Hard Biopolymer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This material represents a breakthrough in the production, manufacturing, and application of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and radiation shielding, as this represents the first effort to develop a non-metallic, non-ceramic, biomaterial-based, sustainable TPS with the capability to also act as radiation shielding. Until now, the standing philosophy for radiation shielding involved carrying the shielding at liftoff or utilizing onboard water sources. This shielding material could be grown onboard and applied as needed prior to different radiation landscapes (commonly seen during missions involving gravitational assists). The material is a bioplastic material. Bioplastics are any combination of a biopolymer and a plasticizer. In this case, the biopolymer is a starch-based material and a commonly accessible plasticizer. Starch molecules are composed of two major polymers: amylase and amylopectin. The biopolymer phenolic compounds are common to the ablative thermal protection system family of materials. With similar constituents come similar chemical ablation processes, with the potential to have comparable, if not better, ablation characteristics. It can also be used as a flame-resistant barrier for commercial applications in buildings, homes, cars, and heater firewall material. The biopolymer is observed to undergo chemical transformations (oxidative and structural degradation) at radiation doses that are 1,000 times the maximum dose of an unmanned mission (10-25 Mrad), indicating that it would be a viable candidate for robust radiation shielding. As a comparison, the total integrated radiation dose for a three-year manned mission to Mars is 0.1 krad, far below the radiation limit at which starch molecules degrade. For electron radiation, the biopolymer starches show minimal deterioration when exposed to energies greater than 180 keV. This flame-resistant, thermal-insulating material is non-hazardous and may be sustainably sourced. It poses no hazardous waste threats during its lifecycle. The material composition is radiation-tolerant up to megarad doses, indicating its use as a radiation shielding material. It is lightweight, non-metallic, and able to be mechanically densified, permitting a tunable gradient of thermal and radiation protection as needed. The dual-use (thermal and radiation shielding), sustainable nature of this material makes it suitable for both industrial applications as a sustainable/green building material, and for space applications as thermal protection material and radiation shield.

Pugel, Diane

2011-01-01

18

Emerging radiation hardness assurance (RHA) issues: a NASA approach for space flight programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacecraft performance requirements drive the utilization of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components and emerging technologies in systems. The response of these technologies to radiation is often complex. This engenders a set of emerging radiation hardness assurance (RHA) issues which include displacement damage in optocouplers, high-precision and hybrid devices, enhanced low dose rate (ELDR) and proton damage enhancement (PDE) in linear circuits, linear

Kenneth A. LaBel; Allan H. Johnston; Janet L. Barth; Robert A. Reed; Charles E. Barnes

1998-01-01

19

Conceptual Design of and Radiation Hardness  

E-print Network

mW/kg Maximum dose 0.07 MGy/1021p Neutron flux 1x1021 n/m2/1021p fast neutrons 6x1020 n/m2/1021p ( >0.1MeV) Neutrons penetrates thick 45cm tungsten shieldNeutrons penetrates thick 45cm tungsten shield proton beam pion production target radiation shield COMET Superconducting Magnet System

McDonald, Kirk

20

Electromagnetic Radiation Hardness of Diamond Detectors  

E-print Network

The behavior of artificially grown CVD diamond films under intense electromagnetic radiation has been studied. The properties of irradiated diamond samples have been investigated using the method of thermally stimulated current and by studying their charge collection properties. Diamonds have been found to remain unaffected after doses of 6.8 MGy of 10 keV photons and 10 MGy of MeV-range photons. This observation makes diamond an attractive detector material for a calorimeter in the very forward region of the proposed TESLA detector.

T. Behnke; M. Doucet; N. Ghodbane; A. Imhof; C. Martinez; W. Zeuner

2001-08-22

21

Curve Fitting Solar Cell Degradation Due to Hard Particle Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper investigates the suitability of the equation for accurately defining solar cell parameter degradation as a function of hard particle radiation. The paper also provides methods for determining the constants in the equation and compares results from this equation to those obtained by the more traditionally used.

Gaddy, Edward M.; Cikoski, Rebecca; Mekadenaumporn, Danchai

2003-01-01

22

Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points - three TLDs per point - to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T.; Rasouli, H.

2014-05-01

23

Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak.  

PubMed

In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points--three TLDs per point--to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak. PMID:24880371

Rasouli, C; Pourshahab, B; Hosseini Pooya, S M; Orouji, T; Rasouli, H

2014-05-01

24

Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak  

SciTech Connect

In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points – three TLDs per point – to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Rasouli, H. [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-05-15

25

Cryogenic Si detectors for ultra radiation hardness in SLHC environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation hardness up to 10 16 neq/cm 2 is required in the future HEP experiments for most inner detectors. However, 10 16 neq/cm 2 fluence is well beyond the radiation tolerance of even the most advanced semiconductor detectors fabricated by commonly adopted technologies: the carrier trapping will limit the charge collection depth to an effective range of 20-30 ?m regardless of depletion depth. Significant improvement of the radiation hardness of silicon sensors has been taken place within RD39. Fortunately the cryogenic tool we have been using provides us a convenient way to solve the detector charge collection efficiency (CCE) problem at SLHC radiation level (10 16 neq/cm 2). There are two key approaches in our efforts: (1) use of the charge/current injection to manipulate the detector internal electric field in such a way that it can be depleted at a modest bias voltage at cryogenic temperature range (?230 K); and (2) freezing out of the trapping centers that affects the CCE at cryogenic temperatures lower than that of the LN 2 temperature. In our first approach, we have developed the advanced radiation hard detectors using charge or current injection, the current injected diodes (CID). In a CID, the electric field is controlled by injected current, which is limited by the space charge, yielding a nearly uniform electric field in the detector, independent of the radiation fluence. In our second approach, we have developed models of radiation-induced trapping levels and the physics of their freezing out at cryogenic temperatures. In this approach, we intend to study the trapping effect at temperatures below LN 2 temperature. A freeze-out of trapping can certainly help in the development of ultra-radiation hard Si detectors for SLHC. A detector CCE measurement system using ultra-fast picosecond laser with a He cryostat has been built at CERN. This system can be used to find out the practical cryogenic temperature range that can be used to freeze out the radiation-induced trapping levels, and it is ready for measurements on extremely heavily irradiated silicon detectors. Initial data from this system will be presented.

Li, Zheng; Abreu, M.; Anbinderis, P.; Anbinderis, T.; Ambrosio, N. D.'.; de Boer, W.; Borchi, E.; Borer, K.; Bruzzi, M.; Buontempo, S.; Chen, W.; Cindro, V.; Dierlamm, A.; Eremin, V.; Gaubas, E.; Gorbatenko, V.; Grigoriev, E.; Hauler, F.; Heijne, E.; Heising, S.; Hempel, O.; Herzog, R.; Härkönen, J.; Ilyashenko, I.; Janos, S.; Jungermann, L.; Kalesinskas, V.; Kapturauskas, J.; Laiho, R.; Luukka, P.; Mandic, I.; De Masi, Rita; Menichelli, D.; Mikuz, M.; Militaru, O.; Niinikosky, T. O.; Shea, V. O.'.; Pagano, S.; Paul, S.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Pretzl, K.; Rato Mendes, P.; Rouby, X.; Ruggiero, G.; Smith, K.; Sonderegger, P.; Sousa, P.; Tuominen, E.; Tuovinen, E.; Verbitskaya, E.; Vaitkus, J.; Wobst, E.; Zavrtanik, M.

2007-09-01

26

A Radiation Hard Lut Block with Auto-Scrubbing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a Silicon-on-Insulator based Look-up Table and configuration memory for application within a radiation hard reconfigurable system. The configuration storage includes a non-volatile EEPROM built using a standard single polysilicon Silicon on Insulator CMOS process linked to a Schmitt sense amplifier and transmission gate LUT structure. A simple current detector of the type used in conventional RAM circuits allows

Kashfia Haque; Paul Beckett

2011-01-01

27

UV radiation hardness of silicon inversion layer solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For full utilization of the high spectral response of inversion-layer solar cells in the very-short-wavelength range of the solar spectrum, sufficient ultraviolet-radiation hardness is required. In addition to the charge-induced passivation achieved by incorporating cesium into the silicon nitride AR coating, the following means for further drastic reduction of UV-light-induced effects in inversion-layer solar cells without encapsulation are introduced and interpretations are given: increasing the nitride deposition temperature, silicon surface oxidation at low temperatures, texture etching, and using higher substrate resistivities. High UV radiation tolerance and improvement of the cell efficiency can be obtained simultaneously.

Hezel, R.

28

Development of a radiation-hard CMOS process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is recommended that various techniques be investigated which appear to have the potential for improving the radiation hardness of CMOS devices for prolonged space flight mission. The three key recommended processing techniques are: (1) making the gate oxide thin. It has been shown that radiation degradation is proportional to the cube of oxide thickness so that a relatively small reduction in thickness can greatly improve radiation resistance; (2) cleanliness and contamination control; and (3) to investigate different oxide growth (low temperature dry, TCE and HCL). All three produce high quality clean oxides, which are more radiation tolerant. Technique 2 addresses the reduction of metallic contamination. Technique 3 will produce a higher quality oxide by using slow growth rate conditions, and will minimize the effects of any residual sodium contamination through the introduction of hydrogen and chlorine into the oxide during growth.

Power, W. L.

1983-01-01

29

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detectors: Material parameters; radiation hardness; charge collection  

SciTech Connect

Properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes relevant to radiation detection applications were studied. The interest in using this material for radiation detection applications in physics and medicine was motivated by its high radiation hardness and the fact that it can be deposited over large area at relatively low cost. Thick, fully depleted a-Si:H diodes are required for sufficient energy deposition by a charged particle and better signal to noise ratio. A sizeable electric field is essential for charge collection in a -Si:H diodes. The large density of ionized defects that exist in the i layer when the diode is under DC bias causes the electric field to be uniform. Material parameters, namely carrier mobility and lifetime and the ionized defect density in thick a-Si:H p-i-n diodes were studied by the transient photoconductivity method. The increase in diode leakage current with reverse bias over the operating bias was consistent with the Poole-Frenkel effect, involving excitation of carriers from neutral defects. The diode noise over the operating voltage range was completely explained in terms of the shot noise component for CR-(RC){sup 4} (pseudo-Gaussian) shaping at 3 {mu}s shaping time and the noise component at 0 V bias (delta and thermal noise) added in quadrature. Irradiation with 1 Mev neutrons produced no significant degradation in leakage current and noise at fluences exceeding 4 {times} 10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}2}. Irradiation with 1.4 Mev proton fluence of 1 {times} 10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}2} decreased carrier lifetime by a factor of {approximately}4. Degradation in leakage current and noise became significant at proton fluence of {approximately}10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}2}.

Qureshi, S.

1991-01-01

30

Impact of Radiation Hardness and Operating Temperatures of Silicon Carbide Electronics on Space Power System Mass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of silicon carbide (SiC) electronics operating temperatures on Power Management and Distribution (PMAD), or Power Conditioning (PC), subsystem radiator size and mass requirements was evaluated for three power output levels (100 kW(e) , 1 MW(e), and 10 MW(e)) for near term technology ( i.e. 1500 K turbine inlet temperature) Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) power systems with a High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) heat source. The study was conducted for assumed PC radiator temperatures ranging from 370 to 845 K and for three scenarios of electrical energy to heat conversion levels which needed to be rejected to space by means of the PC radiator. In addition, during part of the study the radiation hardness of the PC electronics was varied at a fixed separation distance to estimate its effect on the mass of the instrument rated reactor shadow shield. With both the PC radiator and the conical shadow shield representing major components of the overall power system the influence of the above on total power system mass was also determined. As expected, results show that the greatest actual mass savings achieved by the use of SiC electronics occur with high capacity power systems. Moreover, raising the PC radiator temperature above 600 K yields only small additional system mass savings. The effect of increased radiation hardness on total system mass is to reduce system mass by virtue of lowering the shield mass.

Juhasz, Albert J.; Tew, Roy C.; Schwarze, Gene E.

1998-01-01

31

Radiation Hardness of PHENIX Muon Trigger Resistive Plate Chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of quark and anti-quark helicity distributions through parity violating single spin asymmetries in W-production with the PHENIX experiment at RHIC requires new fast muon trigger detectors. PHENIX utilizes Bakelite RPC technology that has been developed for the CMS experiment at LHC. These new detectors will collect data for many years, and it is important to understand the impact the constant radiation exposure in PHENIX will have on the performance of the detectors. Prototype RPCs were exposed to two 0.6 mCi Fe-55 sources that were embedded in the detector gas. The RPC efficiency for cosmic ray detection was measured as a function of the total radiation dose exposure using a cosmic ray tracking detector at UIUC. This poster will discuss the radiation hardness of PHENIX Bakelite RPC prototypes, and how the results compare to the requirements at RHIC.

Ide, Justine

2009-10-01

32

Wheat grain hardness results from highly conserved mutations in the friabilin components puroindoline a and b  

PubMed Central

“Soft” and “hard” are the two main market classes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and are distinguished by expression of the Hardness gene. Friabilin, a marker protein for grain softness (Ha), consists of two proteins, puroindoline a and b (pinA and pinB, respectively). We previously demonstrated that a glycine to serine mutation in pinB is linked inseparably to grain hardness. Here, we report that the pinB serine mutation is present in 9 of 13 additional randomly selected hard wheats and in none of 10 soft wheats. The four exceptional hard wheats not containing the serine mutation in pinB express no pinA, the remaining component of the marker protein friabilin. The absence of pinA protein was linked inseparably to grain hardness among 44 near-isogenic lines created between the soft variety Heron and the hard variety Falcon. Both pinA and pinB apparently are required for the expression of grain softness. The absence of pinA protein and transcript and a glycine-to-serine mutation in pinB are two highly conserved mutations associated with grain hardness, and these friabilin genes are the suggested tightly linked components of the Hardness gene. A previously described grain hardness related gene termed “GSP-1” (grain softness protein) is not controlled by chromosome 5D and is apparently not involved in grain hardness. The association of grain hardness with mutations in both pinA or pinB indicates that these two proteins alone may function together to effect grain softness. Elucidation of the molecular basis for grain hardness opens the way to understanding and eventually manipulating this wheat endosperm property. PMID:9600953

Giroux, Michael J.; Morris, Craig F.

1998-01-01

33

Study of hardness and roughness modification in explanted joint components.  

PubMed

The significant wear of the UHMWPE bearings of explanted knee prostheses is produced mainly by micrometric debris ("third-body" wear) that diffuse toward the mobile metal-polymer interface. Here debris is crushed during the movement producing scratches in the metal and in the polymeric surfaces. Mechanical stress and the biological effects change the physical polymeric properties. In order to evaluate the area of UHMWE bearings submitted to high load stresses, in this work physical investigations are performed on the explanted knee prosthesis. Particularly, the roughness profile analysis (RPA) and the micro-hardness measurements (MHM) resulted suitable for the localisation of the mechanical and biological wear area. In the stressed zone, surface treatments could be applied in order to improve the mechanical resistance of the polymeric material. Particularly, the ion implantation with heavy ions is proposed to enhance the polymeric wear resistance. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDX) and Infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques were also applied and results discussed. PMID:15299237

Torrisi, L; Visco, A M; Campo, N; Rizzo, D; Bombara, A

2004-01-01

34

Strategies for Radiation Hardness Testing of Power Semiconductor Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plans on the drawing board for future space missions call for much larger power systems than have been flown in the past. These systems would employ much higher voltages and currents to enable more powerful electric propulsion engines and other improvements on what will also be much larger spacecraft. Long term human outposts on the moon and planets would also require high voltage, high current and long life power sources. Only hundreds of watts are produced and controlled on a typical robotic exploration spacecraft today. Megawatt systems are required for tomorrow. Semiconductor devices used to control and convert electrical energy in large space power systems will be exposed to electromagnetic and particle radiation of many types, depending on the trajectory and duration of the mission and on the power source. It is necessary to understand the often very different effects of the radiations on the control and conversion systems. Power semiconductor test strategies that we have developed and employed will be presented, along with selected results. The early results that we have obtained in testing large power semiconductor devices give a good indication of the degradation in electrical performance that can be expected in response to a given dose. We are also able to highlight differences in radiation hardness that may be device or material specific.

Soltis, James V. (Technical Monitor); Patton, Martin O.; Harris, Richard D.; Rohal, Robert G.; Blue, Thomas E.; Kauffman, Andrew C.; Frasca, Albert J.

2005-01-01

35

Experimental study of hard photon radiation processes at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an experimental study of the ep? e?+ p and ep? e?+ X processes using data recorded by the H1 detector in 1993 at the electron-proton collider HERA. These processes are employed to measure the luminosity with an accuracy of 4.5 %. A subsample of the ep? e?+ X events in which the hard photon is detected at angles ?{?/'} ? 0.45 mrad with respect to the incident electron direction is used to verify experimentally the size of radiative corrections to the ep? eX inclusive cross section and to investigate the structure of the proton in the Q 2 domain down to 2 GeV2, lower than previously attained at HERA.

Ahmed, T.; Aid, S.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Baehr, J.; Bán, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Barth, M.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Beyer, R.; Biddulph, P.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Botterweck, F.; Boudry, V.; Braemer, A.; Brasse, F.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Buchholz, R.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Clerbaux, B.; Colombo, M.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormack, C.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cussans, D. G.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; di Nezza, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Droutskoi, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gellrich, A.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Gonzalez-Pineiro, B.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hess, M. F.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hiller, K. H.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Höppner, M.; Horisberger, R.; Hudgson, V. L.; Huet, Ph.; Hütte, M.; Hufnagel, H.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Janoth, J.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kant, D.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Katzy, J.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kazarian, S.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Köhne, J.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krämerkämper, T.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Krüner-Marquis, U.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kur?a, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lacour, D.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J.-F.; Lebedev, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; List, B.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lubimov, V.; Lüke, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Mara?ek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, T.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Moreau, F.; Morris, J. V.; Mroczko, E.; Müller, G.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Nicholls, T. C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg-Werther, M.; Oakden, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Panaro, E.; Panitch, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pitzl, D.; Pope, G.; Prell, S.; Prosi, R.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Reimer, P.; Reinshagen, S.; Ribarics, P.; Rick, H.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riess, S.; Rietz, M.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roloff, H. E.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rouse, F.; Royon, C.; Rüter, K.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Rylko, R.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Savitsky, M.; Schacht, P.; Schiek, S.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, G.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schuhmann, E.; Schwab, B.; Schwind, A.; Seehausen, U.; Sefkow, F.; Seidel, M.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Spiekermann, J.

1995-12-01

36

The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communication systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented, which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can help minimize the cost of a global satellite communications system. An important distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium, Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation at orbital altitudes within the earth's radiation belts (10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4)km) can reduce the total cost of a system by several hundred percent, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells can be used. A detailed evaluation of the predicted performance of photovoltaic arrays using several different planar solar cell technologies is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge, and InP/Si which is currently under development. Several examples of applying the program are given, which show that the end of life (EOL) power density of different technologies can vary by a factor of ten for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation-soft technology can usually provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact upon the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and hardware costs. In aggregate, these factors can account for more than a 10% increase in the total system cost. Since the estimated total costs of proposed global-coverage systems range from $1B to $9B, the availability of radiation-hard solar cells could make a decisive difference in the selection of a particular constellation architecture.

Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

1996-01-01

37

Radiation hardness of the storage phosphor europium doped potassium chloride for radiation therapy dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: An important property of a reusable dosimeter is its radiation hardness, that is, its ability to retain its dosimetric merits after irradiation. The radiation hardness of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu{sup 2+}), a storage phosphor material recently proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry, is examined in this study. Methods: Pellet-style KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The pellets were exposed by a 6 MV photon beam or in a high dose rate {sup 137}Cs irradiator. Macroscopic properties, such as radiation sensitivity, dose response linearity, and signal stability, were studied with a laboratory photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout system. Since phosphor performance is related to the state of the storage centers and the activator, Eu{sup 2+}, in the host lattice, spectroscopic and temporal measurements were carried out in order to explore radiation-induced changes at the microscopic level. Results: KCl:Eu{sup 2+} dosimeters retained approximately 90% of their initial signal strength after a 5000 Gy dose history. Dose response was initially supralinear over the dose range of 100-700 cGy but became linear after 60 Gy. Linearity did not change significantly in the 0-5000 Gy dose history spanned in this study. Annealing high dose history chips resulted in a return of supralinearity and a recovery of sensitivity. There were no significant changes in the PSL stimulation spectra, PSL emission spectra, photoluminescence spectra, or luminescence lifetime, indicating that the PSL signal process remains intact after irradiation but at a reduced efficiency due to reparable radiation-induced perturbations in the crystal lattice. Conclusions: Systematic studies of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} material are important for understanding how the material can be optimized for radiation therapy dosimetry purposes. The data presented here indicate that KCl:Eu{sup 2+} exhibits strong radiation hardness and lends support for further investigations of this novel material.

Driewer, Joseph P.; Chen, Haijian; Osvet, Andres; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 and Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, E4431 Lafferre Hall, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstrasse 7, Erlangen 91058 (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

2011-08-15

38

Radiation hardness of the storage phosphor europium doped potassium chloride for radiation therapy dosimetry  

PubMed Central

Purpose: An important property of a reusable dosimeter is its radiation hardness, that is, its ability to retain its dosimetric merits after irradiation. The radiation hardness of europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu2+), a storage phosphor material recently proposed for radiation therapy dosimetry, is examined in this study. Methods: Pellet-style KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters, 6 mm in diameter, and 1 mm thick, were fabricated in-house for this study. The pellets were exposed by a 6 MV photon beam or in a high dose rate 137Cs irradiator. Macroscopic properties, such as radiation sensitivity, dose response linearity, and signal stability, were studied with a laboratory photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout system. Since phosphor performance is related to the state of the storage centers and the activator, Eu2+, in the host lattice, spectroscopic and temporal measurements were carried out in order to explore radiation-induced changes at the microscopic level. Results: KCl:Eu2+ dosimeters retained approximately 90% of their initial signal strength after a 5000 Gy dose history. Dose response was initially supralinear over the dose range of 100–700 cGy but became linear after 60 Gy. Linearity did not change significantly in the 0–5000 Gy dose history spanned in this study. Annealing high dose history chips resulted in a return of supralinearity and a recovery of sensitivity. There were no significant changes in the PSL stimulation spectra, PSL emission spectra, photoluminescence spectra, or luminescence lifetime, indicating that the PSL signal process remains intact after irradiation but at a reduced efficiency due to reparable radiation-induced perturbations in the crystal lattice. Conclusions: Systematic studies of KCl:Eu2+ material are important for understanding how the material can be optimized for radiation therapy dosimetry purposes. The data presented here indicate that KCl:Eu2+ exhibits strong radiation hardness and lends support for further investigations of this novel material. PMID:21928642

Driewer, Joseph P.; Chen, Haijian; Osvet, Andres; Low, Daniel A.; Li, H. Harold

2011-01-01

39

Trace metal lung disease: in vitro interaction of hard metals with human lung and plasma components.  

PubMed

Hard metal pneumoconiosis is an occupational pulmonary disease caused by long-term exposure to dust produced in the hard metal industry. In vitro experiments have been carried out to study the solubility and metabolic behaviour in human lung tissue and plasma of hard metal alloy constituents such as cobalt, tungsten, tantalum, titanium and niobium. The experiments were carried out using 60Co, 187W, 182Ta, 44Ti and 95Nb radiotracers in combination with neutron activation, radio-release tests and gel filtration techniques. Leaching experiments from neutron-irradiated hard metal dust showed that cobalt was highly soluble, especially in the lung cytosol and plasma, in comparison with tantalum and tungsten. The gel filtration experiments showed three biochemical pools of cobalt in both lung and plasma components, in accordance with the hypothesis that cobalt represents the allergic factor in the development of hard metal disease. High affinity for proteins was observed for Nb, Ta and Ti, but not for W, in agreement with the dissimilar biological half-lives of these elements in the body. The different ability of the metals to interact with biochemical components and to be solubilized in biological media may explain the various degrees of retention in the lung, which would influence the metabolic pathways. This would explain the presence of Co, Ta and W in body fluids, as well as in the public hair and toenails of hard metal workers. PMID:2205918

Edel, J; Sabbioni, E; Pietra, R; Rossi, A; Torre, M; Rizzato, G; Fraioli, P

1990-06-01

40

Radiation-hard, charge-coupled devices for the extreme ultraviolet variability experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Extreme-Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) is a component of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite, aimed at measuring the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance with high spectral resolution, temporal cadence, accuracy, and precision. The required high EUV quantum efficiency (QE), coupled with the radiation dose to be experienced by the detectors during the five year mission (~1 Mrad), posed a serious challenge to the charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors. MIT Lincoln Laboratory developed the 2048 × 1024 pixel CCDs and integrated them into the detector system. The devices were back-side thinned and then back surface passivated using a thin, heavily boron-doped silicon layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at less than 450°C. Radiation-hardness testing was performed using the Brookhaven National Laboratory's National Synchrotron Light Source (BNL/NSLS). The MBE-passivated devices were compared against devices with back surfaces passivated with a silver charge chemisorption process and an ion-implant/furnace anneal process. The MBE devices provided both the highest QE at the required (-100°C) operating temperatures, and superior radiation hardness, exceeding the goals for the project. Several flight-ready devices were delivered with the detector system for integration with the satellite.

Westhoff, Richard C.; Rose, Micheal K.; Gregory, James A.; Berthiaume, Gregory D.; Seely, John F.; Woods, Thomas N.; Ucker, Gregory

2007-09-01

41

Vibro-acoustic interaction of components in hard disk drive under seek process  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing use of electro-mechanical systems such as hard disk drives, CD-Rom drives, and DVD drives in the consumer electronics industry, there is a growing demand for quieter products. The noise emitted from these devices may originate from the vibration of mechanical components in operation, such as bearings, gears and actuators. The vibration is then transmitted to other parts

F. Gao; Y. Yan; F. F. Yap

2003-01-01

42

Fault tolerant, radiation hard, high performance digital signal processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An architecture has been developed for a high-performance VLSI digital signal processor that is highly reliable, fault-tolerant, and radiation-hard. The signal processor, part of a spacecraft receiver designed to support uplink radio science experiments at the outer planets, organizes the connections between redundant arithmetic resources, register files, and memory through a shuffle exchange communication network. The configuration of the network and the state of the processor resources are all under microprogram control, which both maps the resources according to algorithmic needs and reconfigures the processing should a failure occur. In addition, the microprogram is reloadable through the uplink to accommodate changes in the science objectives throughout the course of the mission. The processor will be implemented with silicon compiler tools, and its design will be verified through silicon compilation simulation at all levels from the resources to full functionality. By blending reconfiguration with redundancy the processor implementation is fault-tolerant and reliable, and possesses the long expected lifetime needed for a spacecraft mission to the outer planets.

Holmann, Edgar; Linscott, Ivan R.; Maurer, Michael J.; Tyler, G. L.; Libby, Vibeke

1990-01-01

43

Fault tolerant, radiation hard, high performance digital signal processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An architecture has been developed for a high-performance VLSI digital signal processor that is highly reliable, fault-tolerant, and radiation-hard. The signal processor, part of a spacecraft receiver designed to support uplink radio science experiments at the outer planets, organizes the connections between redundant arithmetic resources, register files, and memory through a shuffle exchange communication network. The configuration of the network and the state of the processor resources are all under microprogram control, which both maps the resources according to algorithmic needs and reconfigures the processing should a failure occur. In addition, the microprogram is reloadable through the uplink to accommodate changes in the science objectives throughout the course of the mission. The processor will be implemented with silicon compiler tools, and its design will be verified through silicon compilation simulation at all levels from the resources to full functionality. By blending reconfiguration with redundancy the processor implementation is fault-tolerant and reliable, and possesses the long expected lifetime needed for a spacecraft mission to the outer planets.

Holmann, Edgar; Linscott, Ivan R.; Maurer, Michael J.; Tyler, G. L.; Libby, Vibeke

44

Radiation-hard/high-speed parallel optical links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed an ASIC for use in a parallel optical engine for a new layer of the ATLAS pixel detector in the initial phase of the LHC luminosity upgrade. The ASIC is a 12-channel VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) array driver capable of operating up to 5 Gb/s per channel. The ASIC is designed using a 130 nm CMOS process to enhance the radiation-hardness. A scheme for redundancy has also been implemented to allow bypassing of a broken VCSEL. The ASIC also contains a power-on reset circuit that sets the ASIC to a default configuration with no signal steering. In addition, the bias and modulation currents of the individual channels are programmable. The performance of the first prototype ASIC up to 5 Gb/s is satisfactory. Furthermore, we are able to program the bias and modulation currents and to bypass a broken VCSEL channel. We are currently upgrading our design to allow operation at 10 Gb/s per channel yielding an aggregated bandwidth of 120 Gb/s. Some preliminary results of the design will be presented.

Gan, K. K.; Buchholz, P.; Kagan, H. P.; Kass, R. D.; Moore, J.; Smith, D. S.; Wiese, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

2014-11-01

45

Irradiation tests of critical components for remote handling in gamma radiation environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the fusion power core of a D-T fusion reactor will be highly activated once it starts operation, personnel access will be prohibited so that assembly and maintenance of the components in the reactor core will have to be totally conducted by remote handling technology. Fusion experimental reactors such as ITER require unprecedented remote handling equipments which are tolerable under gamma radiation of more than 10(exp 6) R/h. For this purpose, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing radiation hard components for remote handling purpose and a number of key components have been tested over 10(exp 9) rad at a radiation dose rate of around 10(exp 6) R/h, using Gamma Ray Radiation Test Facility in JAERI-Takasaki Establishment. This report summarizes the irradiation test results and the latest status of AC servo motor, potentiometer, optical elements, lubricant, sensors and cables, which are key elements of the remote handling system.

Obara, Henjiro; Kakudate, Satoshi; Oka, Kiyoshi; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Taguchi, Kou; Tada, Eisuke; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Ohkawa, Yoshinao; Morita, Yousuke; Yokoo, Noriko

1994-08-01

46

Radiation hard programmable delay line for LHCb calorimeter upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the implementation of a SPI-programmable clock delay chip based on a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) in order to shift the phase of the LHC clock (25 ns) in steps of 1ns, with less than 5 ps jitter and 23 ps of DNL. The delay lines will be integrated into ICECAL, the LHCb calorimeter front-end analog signal processing ASIC in the near future. The stringent noise requirements on the ASIC imply minimizing the noise contribution of digital components. This is accomplished by implementing the DLL in differential mode. To achieve the required radiation tolerance several techniques are applied: double guard rings between PMOS and NMOS transistors as well as glitch suppressors and TMR Registers. This 5.7 mm2 chip has been implemented in CMOS 0.35 ?m technology.

Mauricio, J.; Gascón, D.; Vilasís, X.; Picatoste, E.; Machefert, F.; Lefrancois, J.; Duarte, O.; Beigbeder, C.

2014-01-01

47

The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communications systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can minimize the cost of a global satellite communication system. The chief distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation within the earth's radiation belts can reduce the total system cost by as much as a factor of two, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells, can be used. A detailed evaluation of several types of planar solar cells is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge cells, and InP/Si cells which are under development. The computer program calculates the end of life (EOL) power density of solar arrays taking into account the cell geometry, coverglass thickness, support frame, electrical interconnects, etc. The EOL power density can be determined for any altitude from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous (GEO) and for equatorial to polar planes of inclination. The mission duration can be varied over the entire range planned for the proposed satellite systems. An algorithm is included in the program for determining the degradation of cell efficiency for different cell technologies due to proton and electron irradiation. The program can be used to determine the optimum configuration for any cell technology for a particular orbit and for a specified mission life. Several examples of applying the program are presented, in which it is shown that the EOL power density of different technologies can vary by an order of magnitude for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation soft technology can be made to provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact on the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and hardware costs. In aggregate these factors can account for more than a 10% increase in the total system cost. Since the estimated total costs of proposed global coverage systems range from $1 Billion to $9 Billion, the availability of radiation hard solar cells could make a decisive difference in the selection of a particular constellation architecture.

Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

1995-01-01

48

Hartmut Sadrozinski RD50 5/06/04 Development of Radiation-hard Front Electronics  

E-print Network

Hartmut Sadrozinski RD50 5/06/04 Development of Radiation-hard Front Electronics for s 5/06/04 Synergy of detectors and readout electronics. "Detectors and Electronics: Are These Two to sub-µm CMOS to make rad-hard BiCMOS Driven by communications industry: is here to stay Offered

California at Santa Cruz, University of

49

Experiences with shape memory alloy: robot grippers for submillimeter hard disk drive components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grippers for an automated assembly cell are being developed for handling individual sub-millimeter hard-disc drive components. Processing requirements dictate positive gripping with a strong actuator that meets clean room specifications. Proof-of-concept testing of shape memory alloy (SMA) as an actuator was performed. The response time of Ni-Ti 0.076 mm diameter shape memory wire was found to be 0.15 seconds under

Mark H. MacKenzie; Naomi M. An; Matthew D. Giere; James A. Stori; Paul Wright

1996-01-01

50

Influence of design variables on radiation hardness of silicon MINP solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal-insulator-N/P silicon (MINP) solar cells were fabricated using different substrate resistivity values, different N-layer designs, and different I-layer designs. A shallow junction into an 0.3 ohm-cm substrate gave best efficiency whereas a deeper junction into a 1 to 4 ohm-cm substrate gave improved radiation hardness. I-layer design variation did little to influence radiation hardness.

Anderson, W. A.; Solaun, S.; Rao, B. B.; Banerjee, S.

1985-01-01

51

Final report on LDRD project 52722 : radiation hardened optoelectronic components for space-based applications.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the research accomplishments achieved under the LDRD Project 'Radiation Hardened Optoelectronic Components for Space-Based Applications.' The aim of this LDRD has been to investigate the radiation hardness of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and photodiodes by looking at both the effects of total dose and of single-event upsets on the electrical and optical characteristics of VCSELs and photodiodes. These investigations were intended to provide guidance for the eventual integration of radiation hardened VCSELs and photodiodes with rad-hard driver and receiver electronics from an external vendor for space applications. During this one-year project, we have fabricated GaAs-based VCSELs and photodiodes, investigated ionization-induced transient effects due to high-energy protons, and measured the degradation of performance from both high-energy protons and neutrons.

Hargett, Terry W. (L& M Technologies, Inc.); Serkland, Darwin Keith; Blansett, Ethan L.; Geib, Kent Martin; Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Hawkins, Samuel D.; Wrobel, Theodore Frank; Keeler, Gordon Arthur; Klem, John Frederick; Medrano, Melissa R.; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Karpen, Gary D.; Montano, Victoria A. (L& M Technologies, Inc.)

2003-12-01

52

Transition radiation in metal-metal multilayer nanostructures as a medical source of hard x-ray radiation  

E-print Network

Transition radiation in metal-metal multilayer nanostructures as a medical source of hard x; accepted 20 July 2006; published online 31 August 2006 We show that a periodic metal-metal multilayer to medicine 30­50 keV changes dramatically compared with that for soft x-ray radiation. We show that one

Kaplan, Alexander

53

Radiation-Pattern Improvement of Patch Antennas Using a Compact Soft/Hard Surface (SHS) Structure  

E-print Network

Radiation-Pattern Improvement of Patch Antennas Using a Compact Soft/Hard Surface (SHS) Structure is employed to surround the patch antenna for blocking the surface- wave propagation, thus alleviating the effect of the edge diffraction and hence improving the radiation pattern. The operating frequency

Tentzeris, Manos

54

Application of spallation neutron sources in support of radiation hardness studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-power spallation neutron sources offer a unique opportunity to gather critical measurements on the very early transient displacement damage in semiconductors. This paper discusses the important attributes of spallation neutron facilities used for investigating the transient radiation hardness of semiconductors. By comparing the attributes of some different types of radiation facilities currently used for semiconductor damage characterization, a new and

Patrick Griffin; Donald King; Norm Kolb

2006-01-01

55

Optimum laboratory radiation source for hardness assurance testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and bulk-silicon transistors were irradiated using X-ray, Co-60 gamma, and proton radiation sources. Co-60 gamma irradiation generates larger radiation-induced threshold voltage shifts (by a factor of two) in SOI buried oxides and in parasitic field oxides under low-field conditions than X-ray or proton irradiation. For all devices examined, the radiation-induced threshold voltage shifts generated by X-ray irradiation were

J. R. Schwank; M. R. Shaneyfelt; P. Paillet; D. E. Beutler; V. Ferlet-Cavrois; B. L. Draper; R. A. Loemaker; P. E. Dodd; F. W. Sexton

2001-01-01

56

Radiation hardness studies of cooling fluids epoxies and capacitors for CMS pixel system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation hardness studies of C 6F 14 Fluorinert (FC72) fluid, some epoxies and tantalum capacitors were studied for the Compact Muon Solenoidal (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN. For a successful operation of Forward Silicon Pixel Tracker of the CMS, the cooling fluid, epoxies to be used and the filter capacitors of bias voltage supplies need to be radiation hard. It was also necessary to find out whether the cooling fluid would dissociate under the expected fluence and damage beryllium cooling channels of the Forward Silicon Pixel Discs. This paper is a report of our findings from the performed tests.

Atac, M.; Gobbi, B.; Cremaldi, L.; Hoffman, J.

2002-01-01

57

GaN-Based High Temperature and Radiation-Hard Electronics for Harsh Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We develop novel GaN-based high temperature and radiation-hard electronics to realize data acquisition electronics and transmitters suitable for operations in harsh planetary environments. In this paper, we discuss our research on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors that are targeted for 500 (sup o)C operation and >2 Mrad radiation hardness. For the target device performance, we develop Schottky-free AlGaN/GaN MOS transistors, where a gate electrode is processed in a MOS layout using an Al2O3 gate dielectric layer....

Son, Kyung-ah; Liao, Anna; Lung, Gerald; Gallegos, Manuel; Hatakeh, Toshiro; Harris, Richard D.; Scheick, Leif Z.; Smythe, William D.

2010-01-01

58

The response of Galileo aft cover components to laser radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aft region of the Galileo probe will be subjected to severe heat transfer rates dominated by the radiation contributions. To assess the response of several vehicle aft region components to thermal radiation, tests employing a 10 KW CO2 laser were conducted. The experiments evaluated the annulus/aft cover interface, the umbilical feedthrough assembly and the mortar cover seal assembly. Experimental evidence of the response of the phenolic nylon heatshield and quantitative measures of its effect on gap geometries of several vehicle components were acquired. In addition, qualitative measures of the survivability of the irradiated components were obtained.

Metzger, J. W.

1982-01-01

59

Radiation Hardness and Linearity Studies of CVD Diamonds  

E-print Network

We report on the behavior of CVD diamonds under intense electromagnetic radiation and on the response of the detector to high density of deposited energy. Diamonds have been found to remain unaffected after doses of 10 MGy of MeV-range photons and the diamond response to energy depositions of up to 250 GeV/cm^3 has been found to be linear to better than 2 %. These observations make diamond an attractive detector material for a calorimeter in the very forward region of the detector proposed for TESLA.

T. Behnke; M. Doucet; N. Ghodbane; A. Imhof

2002-12-09

60

Irradiation facility at the IBR-2 reactor for investigation of material radiation hardness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Description of the irradiation facility and available parameters of the neutron and gamma exposures including the maximal integrated doses are presented in the paper. The research capabilities for radiation hardness tests of materials in high intensity beam of fast neutrons at the IBR-2 reactor of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna (Russia) are outlined.

Bulavin, M.; Cheplakov, A.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulagin, E.; Kulikov, S.; Shabalin, E.; Verkhoglyadov, A.

2015-01-01

61

Gluon radiation off hard quarks in a nuclear environment: opacity expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the relation between the Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peigné-Schiff (BDMPS) and Zakharov formalisms for medium-induced gluon radiation off hard quarks, and the radiation off very few scattering centers. Based on the non-abelian Furry approximation for the motion of hard partons in a spatially extended colour field, we derive a compact diagrammatic and explicitly colour trivial expression for the N th order term of the k? -differential gluon radiation cross section in an expansion in the opacity of the medium. Resumming this quantity to all orders in opacity, we obtain Zakharov's path-integral expression (supplemented with a regularization prescription). This provides a new proof of the equivalence of the BDMPS and Zakharov formalisms which extends previous arguments to the k? -differential cross section. We give explicit analytical results up to third order in opacity for both the gluon radiation cross section of free incoming and of in-medium produced quarks. The N th order term in the opacity expansion of the radiation cross section is found to be a convolution of the radiation associated to N -fold rescattering and a readjustment of the probabilities that rescattering occurs with less than N scattering centers. Both informations can be disentangled by factorizing out of the radiation cross section a term which depends only on the mean free path of the projectile. This allows to infer analytical expressions for the totally coherent and totally incoherent limits of the radiation cross section to arbitrary orders in opacity.

Wiedemann, Urs Achim

2000-11-01

62

Radiation-hard power electronics for the ATLAS New Small Wheel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New Small Wheel (NSW) is an upgrade for the ATLAS detector to provide enhanced triggering and reconstruction of muons in the forward region. The large LV power demands of the NSW necessitate a point-of-load architecture with on-detector power conversion. The radiation load and magnetic field of this environment, while significant, are nevertheless still in the range where commercial-off-the-shelf power devices may suffice. We present studies on the radiation-hardness and magnetic-field tolerance of several candidate buck converters and linear regulators. Device survival and performance are characterized when exposed to gamma radiation, neutrons, protons and magnetic fields.

Ameel, J.; Amidei, D.; Baccaro, S.; Citterio, M.; Cova, P.; Delmonte, N.; Sekhon Edgar, K.; Edgar, R.; Fiore, S.; Lanza, A.; Latorre, S.; Lazzaroni, M.; Yang, Y.

2015-01-01

63

Radiation hardness test of preamplifier circuits composed of commercial bipolar transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, radiation-hardened transistors are very expensive and it is sometimes not easy to acquire proper ones for application. In this study, we designed a front-end electronic circuit for high-rate neutron counters installed in a high-level ?-radiation hot cell. All the transistors adopted for this circuit are not radiation-hardened ones, i.e. commercial ones not specifically processed for a radiation resistance. The aim of our study was to seek more radiation-resistant transistors from among the commercial ones and to verify the radiation hardness of the circuit composed of these transistors. The circuit includes a preamplifier, a comparator, and a monostable multivibrator. To realize the radiation hardness of this circuit with commercial transistors, the transistors were categorized into two groups: general speed and high-speed transistors. After a 100 Mrad irradiation from a 60Co ?-ray source, the reduction of the current gain of the general speed transistors was over 80% and that of the high-speed transistors was below 68%. The signal-to-noise ( S/ N) ratio of the preamplifier output voltage was reduced by 66% for the former and by 36% for the latter.

Lee, Tae-hoon; Kim, Ho-dong

2007-08-01

64

SOLAR RADIATION DURABILITY OF MATERIALS, COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS  

E-print Network

. Discussions at the NREL PV reliability workshop in 2011 came to the conclusion that while initial performanceSOLAR RADIATION DURABILITY OF MATERIALS, COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS Myles P. Murray 1 exposed photovoltaic materials, is defined as the rate of photodarkening or photobleaching of a material

Rollins, Andrew M.

65

Effects of lipophilic components on the compatibility of lipid-based formulations with hard gelatin capsules.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of lipophilic components on the compatibility of propylene glycol (PG)-containing lipid-based drug delivery system (LBDDS) formulations with hard gelatin capsules. The presence of a lipophilic active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) (log P approximately 6.1) and an additional lipophilic excipient (Capmul MCM) significantly affected the activity of PG in the fills and the equilibrium of PG between capsule shells and fills. These changes in activity and equilibrium of PG were furthermore correlated to the mechanical and thermal properties of the liquid-filled capsules and subsequently linked to the shelf-life of the capsules on stability with respect to capsule deformation. The present study also investigated the mechanism by which lipophilic component(s) might affect the activity of PG in the fill formulations and the equilibrium of PG between capsule shells and fills. The activities of PG in two series of "binary" mixtures with Capmul MCM and with Cremophor EL were measured, respectively. The mixtures of PG containing Capmul MCM were found to be more nearly ideal than those containing Cremophor EL. The observed negative deviation from Rauolt's law indicates that the excess free energies of mixing are less then zero indicating favorable interaction between PG and the other component. It is speculated that enhanced hydrogen bonding opportunities with Cremophor EL are responsible for the decreased excess free energy of mixing. Replacement of Cremophor EL with lipophilic API also reduces the hydrogen bonding opportunities for PG in the mixtures. This hypothesis may further explain the increased activity of PG in the fills and the shifted equilibrium of PG toward the capsule shells. Activity determination utilizing headspace gas chromatography (GC) using short 30 min incubation time seems to be a time-efficient approach for assessing capsule-fill compatibility. Direct measurements of PG migration and other physical properties of the capsules took much longer time (7 weeks) for ranking the predicted capsule deformation at 40 degrees C. Asides from the time savings, activity determination can be considered to be material sparing by offering capsule-fill compatibility assessment even without the need for preparing liquid-filled capsules once appropriate positive and negative references are established. With further optimization, this approach should enable high throughput screening of LBDDS for capsule-fill compatibility in liquid-filled capsule development. PMID:19455627

Chen, Feng-Jing; Etzler, Frank M; Ubben, Johanna; Birch, Amy; Zhong, Li; Schwabe, Robert; Dudhedia, Mayur S

2010-01-01

66

Experiences with shape memory alloy: robot grippers for submillimeter hard disk drive components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grippers for an automated assembly cell are being developed for handling individual sub-millimeter hard-disc drive components. Processing requirements dictate positive gripping with a strong actuator that meets clean room specifications. Proof-of-concept testing of shape memory alloy (SMA) as an actuator was performed. The response time of Ni-Ti 0.076 mm diameter shape memory wire was found to be 0.15 seconds under forced air convection conditions. Positioning accuracy was held to steady-state oscillations of 0.076 mm proving that SMA actuators meet performance requirements for a precision microactuator. SMA was then used for the actuation of several candidate gripper designs. One promising design consisted of a two-fingered gripper with integral spring sections at the arm base. SMA wire provided the closing actuation force and the spring sections returned the fingers to their rest position. Another design used an external spring to provide the gripping force, while the SMA wire provided the force required to open the gripper. The paper describes design methodologies and overall results. The addition of closed-loop control and improved heat dissipation mechanisms are needed before SMA materials can be used robustly as actuators for sub-mm robot grippers in high volume applications.

MacKenzie, Mark H.; An, Naomi M.; Giere, Matthew D.; Stori, James A.; Wright, Paul J.

1996-12-01

67

Radiation mitigating properties of the lignan component in flaxseed  

PubMed Central

Background Wholegrain flaxseed (FS), and its lignan component (FLC) consisting mainly of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), have potent lung radioprotective properties while not abrogating the efficacy of radiotherapy. However, while the whole grain was recently shown to also have potent mitigating properties in a thoracic radiation pneumonopathy model, the bioactive component in the grain responsible for the mitigation of lung damage was never identified. Lungs may be exposed to radiation therapeutically for thoracic malignancies or incidentally following detonation of a radiological dispersion device. This could potentially lead to pulmonary inflammation, oxidative tissue injury, and fibrosis. This study aimed to evaluate the radiation mitigating effects of FLC in a mouse model of radiation pneumonopathy. Methods We evaluated FLC-supplemented diets containing SDG lignan levels comparable to those in 10% and 20% whole grain diets. 10% or 20% FLC diets as compared to an isocaloric control diet (0% FLC) were given to mice (C57/BL6) (n=15-30 mice/group) at 24, 48, or 72-hours after single-dose (13.5 Gy) thoracic x-ray treatment (XRT). Mice were evaluated 4 months post-XRT for blood oxygenation, lung inflammation, fibrosis, cytokine and oxidative damage levels, and survival. Results FLC significantly mitigated radiation-related animal death. Specifically, mice fed 0% FLC demonstrated 36.7% survival 4 months post-XRT compared to 60–73.3% survival in mice fed 10%-20% FLC initiated 24–72 hours post-XRT. FLC also mitigated radiation-induced lung fibrosis whereby 10% FLC initiated 24-hours post-XRT significantly decreased fibrosis as compared to mice fed control diet while the corresponding TGF-beta1 levels detected immunohistochemically were also decreased. Additionally, 10-20% FLC initiated at any time point post radiation exposure, mitigated radiation-induced lung injury evidenced by decreased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine release at 16 weeks post-XRT. Importantly, neutrophilic and overall inflammatory cell infiltrate in airways and levels of nitrotyrosine and malondialdehyde (protein and lipid oxidation, respectively) were also mitigated by the lignan diet. Conclusions Dietary FLC given early post-XRT mitigated radiation effects by decreasing inflammation, lung injury and eventual fibrosis while improving survival. FLC may be a useful agent, mitigating adverse effects of radiation in individuals exposed to incidental radiation, inhaled radioisotopes or even after the initiation of radiation therapy to treat malignancy. PMID:23557217

2013-01-01

68

Radiation Specifications for Fission Power Conversion Component Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has been supporting design studies and technology development that could provide power to an outpost on the moon, Mars, or an asteroid. One power-generation system that is independent of sunlight or power-storage limitations is a fission-based power plant. There is a wealth of terrestrial system heritage that can be transferred to the design and fabrication of a fission power system for space missions, but there are certain design aspects that require qualification. The radiation tolerance of the power conversion system requires scrutiny because the compact nature of a space power plant restricts the dose reduction methodologies compared to those used in terrestrial systems. An integrated research program has been conducted to establish the radiation tolerance of power conversion system-component materials. The radiation limit specifications proposed for a Fission Power System power convertor is 10 Mrad ionizing dose and 5 x 10(exp 14) neutron per square centimeter fluence for a convertor operating at 150 C. Specific component materials and their radiation tolerances are discussed. This assessment is for the power convertor hardware; electronic components are not covered here.

Bowman, Cheryl L.; Shin, E. Eugene; Mireles, Omar R.; Radel, Ross F.; Qualls, A. Louis

2011-01-01

69

First study of radiation hardness of lead tungstate crystals at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electromagnetic calorimeter of PANDA at the FAIR facility will rely on the operation of lead tungstate (PbWO4, PWO) scintillating crystals at temperatures near -25?C to provide sufficient resolution for photons in the energy range from 8GeV down to 10MeV. The radiation hardness of PWO crystals was studied at the IHEP (Protvino) irradiation facility in the temperature range from +20?C

P. A. Semenov; A. V. Uzunian; A. M. Davidenko; A. A. Derevschikov; Y. M. Goncharenko; V. A. Kachanov; V. Y. Khodyrev; A. P. Meschanin; N. G. Minaev; V. V. Mochalov; Y. M. Melnick; A. V. Ryazantsev; A. N. Vasiliev; S. F. Burachas; M. S. Ippolitov; V. Manko; A. A. Vasiliev; A. V. Mochalov; R. Novotny; G. Tamulaitis

2007-01-01

70

Satellite project "CORONAS-PHOTON" for study of solar hard radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"CORONAS-PHOTON" is the Russian mission for study of the solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the very wide energy range from Extreme UV up to high-energy gamma - radiation. GOAL OF PROJECT: The investigation of energy accumulation and its transformation into energy of accelerated particles processes during solar flares; the study of the acceleration mechanisms, propagation and interaction of fast particles in the solar atmosphere; the study of the solar activity correlation with physical-chemical processes in the Earth upper atmosphere. SCIENTIFIC PAYLOAD CAPABILITY Radiation / Energy region / Detector type: Full solar disk X- radiation / 2keV - 2000MeV / Prop. counter; NaI(Tl); Full solar disk X- and ?-radiation / NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) phoswich; Full solar disk X- and ?-radiation and solar neutrons / 20 - 300MeV / YalO_3(Ce); CsI(Tl); Hard X-ray polarization in large flares / 20 - 150keV / p-terphenyl scatterer and CsI(Na) absorbers; Full solar disk EUV-radiation monitoring / 6 spectral windows in <10 - 130nm / Filtered photodiodes; Solar images in narrow spectral bands and monochromatic emission lines of hot plasma / Emission of HeII, SiXI, FeXXI, FeXXIII, MgXII ions / Multi-layer and Bregg spherical crystal quartz mirrors with CCDs; Additionally, the temporal and energy spectra of electrons (0.2-14MeV), protons (1-61MeV) and nuclei (Z<26, 2-50MeV/nuclon) at the satellite orbit will be registrated by several instruments. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF SPACECRAFT: Spacecraft weight: 1900 kg; Orbit type: Circular; Scientific payload weight: 540 kg; Height: 500 km; Orientation to the Sun [arc min]: better 5; Inclination: 82.5 degree; Instability of orientation [deg/s]: less 0.005; Solar - synchronous orbit is under study. Launching date of "CORONAS-PHOTON" spacecraft is 2006.

Kotov, Yu.; Cor-Phot Team

71

The X-ray emission from Nova V382 Velorum I. The hard component observed with BeppoSAX  

E-print Network

The X-ray emission from Nova V382 Velorum ­ I. The hard component observed with BeppoSAX M. Orio,1SAX observations of Nova Velorum 1999 (V382 Vel), carried out in a broad X-ray band covering 0:1­300 keV only 15 d after the discovery and again after 6 months. The nova was detected at day 15 with the Beppo

Greiner, Jochen

72

Plasma dynamics and generation of hard radiations in experiments with cylindrical Z-pinches  

SciTech Connect

A survey of experimental studies on the generation of hard ionizing radiations from dynamic cylindrical Z-pinches is presented. Comprehensive experimental data do not confirm the hypothesis that charged particles responsible for the generation of hard radiations (neutrons and X-rays) are accelerated in short-scale Z-pinch necks (m = 0). Analysis of the experimental data indicates that, in discharges in pure hydrogen and deuterium, these particles are most probably accelerated in the axial direction along H{sub {phi} {approx}} 0 lines by the induction electric field generated during the initiation of the secondary near-wall breakdown, which disconnects the pinch from the power supply. In discharges excited in heavy gases and at high initial current growth rates (I{sub 0} {>=} 10{sup 12} A/s) in experiments with hydrogen and deuterium contaminated with admixtures arriving from the chamber wall, there is an additional acceleration mechanism related to the growth of the resistance of a radiatively cooled Z-pinch.

Matveev, Yu. V. [Academy of Sciences of Abkhazia, Sukhum Physicotechnical Institute, Abkhazia (Georgia)

2010-03-15

73

Silicon Photo-Multiplier radiation hardness tests with a beam controlled neutron source  

E-print Network

We report radiation hardness tests performed at the Frascati Neutron Generator on silicon Photo-Multipliers, semiconductor photon detectors built from a square matrix of avalanche photo-diodes on a silicon substrate. Several samples from different manufacturers have been irradiated integrating up to 7x10^10 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons per cm^2. Detector performances have been recorded during the neutron irradiation and a gradual deterioration of their properties was found to happen already after an integrated fluence of the order of 10^8 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons per cm^2.

M. Angelone; M. Pillon; R. Faccini; D. Pinci; W. Baldini; R. Calabrese; G. Cibinetto; A. Cotta Ramusino; R. Malaguti; M. Pozzati

2010-06-08

74

Radiation hardness and ageing properties of small gap plus GEM chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large size small gap chambers (SGC) equipped with gas electron multiplier (GEM) were exposed to a low-energy hadron beam to characterize their hardness to highly ionizing radiations. During the test, rate and effect of discharges induced by highly ionizing particles were studied as a function of the cathode and GEM voltages. We propose an optimization of the voltages to safely operate the detectors at the largest signal-to-noise ratio. In a second test, the ageing properties of the chambers were measured up to a 5 mC/ cm integrated charge, induced by an X-ray beam. We conclude from the two measurements on the good reliability and possible improvements of the SG plus GEM Chambers for long term use in a harsh radiation environment.

Bouvet, D.; Chorowicz, V.; Contardo, D.; Haroutunian, R.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Smadja, G.

2002-06-01

75

Radiation Hardness of Silicon Detectors Manufactured on Epitaxial Material and FZ Bulk Enriched with Oxygen, Carbon, Tin and Platinum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent results on the radiation hardness of silicon detectors fabricated on epitaxial and float zone bulk silicon enriched by various impurities, such as carbon, oxygen, tin and platinum are reported. A new methodology of measurements of electrical properties of the devices has been utilized in the experiment. It has been shown that in the case of irradiation by protons, oxygen enriched silicon has better radiation hardness than standard float zone silicon. The carbon enriched silicon detectors, on the other hand, exhibited significantly inferior radiation hardness compared to standard detectors. This study shows for the first time, a violation of the widely used narmalization technique of the various particle irradiations by NIEL coefficients. The study has been carried out in the framework of the RD48 (ROSE) collaboration, which studies the radiation hardening of silicon detectors.

Ruzin, A.; Casse, G.; Glaser, M.; Lemeilleur, F.; Talamonti, R.; Watts, S.; Zanet, A.; ROSE Collaboration-RD48

1999-08-01

76

Radiation hardness of high resistivity magnetic Czochralski silicon detectors after gamma, neutron, and proton radiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resistivity magnetic Czochralski Si detectors were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays, neutrons, and protons to various doses\\/fluences, along with control float zone Si detectors. 1) It has been found that for gamma radiation, magnetic Czochralski Si detectors behave similarly to the high-temperature, long-time (HTLT) oxygenated float zone Si detectors. There is no space charge sign inversion and there is

Zheng Li; Jaakko Harkonen; Wei Chen; J. Kierstead; Panja Luukka; Eija Tuominen; Etuovine Tuovinen; Elea Verbitskaya; Vladimir Eremin

2004-01-01

77

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detectors: Material parameters, radiation hardness, charge collection  

SciTech Connect

For nearly two decades now hydrogenated amorphous silicon has generated considerable interest for its potential use in various device applications namely, solar cells, electrolithography, large-area electronics etc. The development of efficient and economic solar cells has been on the forefront of this research. This interest in hydrogenated amorphous silicon has been motivated by the fact that amorphous silicon can be deposited over a large area at relatively low cost compared to crystalline silicon. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon, frequently abbreviated as a-Si:H, used in solar-cell applications is a micron or less thick. The basic device structure is a p-i-n diode where the i layer is the active layer for radiation to interact. This is so because intrinsic a-Si:H has superior electrical properties in comparison to doped a-Si:H which serves the purpose of forming a potential barrier on either end of the i layer. The research presented in this dissertation was undertaken to study the properties of a-Si:H for radiation detection applications in physics and medicine.

Qureshi, S.

1991-01-01

78

Evidence for two hard X-ray components in double power-law fits to the 1980 June 7 flare  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The June 7, 1980 flare at 0312 UT was analyzed with double power-law fits on the basis of SMM hard X-ray burst spectrometer data. The flare is found to consist of seven peaks of characteristic time scale of about 8 sec followed by seven valleys which may contain significant peak components because of overlap. It is suggested that the possibility of thermal spectra for the peaks is unlikely. An investigation of the double power-law parameters through the third and fourth peaks revealed a hysteresis effect in the fourth peak. The present results have been interpreted in terms of a trap plus precipitation model.

Smith, Dean F.; Orwig, Larry E.

1988-01-01

79

RECENT ADVANCES IN MULTI-COMPONENT AM-FM IMAGE MODELING David S. Harding, Joseph P. Havlicek, and Alan C. Bovik  

E-print Network

RECENT ADVANCES IN MULTI-COMPONENT AM-FM IMAGE MODELING David S. Harding, Joseph P. Havlicek compute multi-component AM-FM representations for images using a new statistical component model The efficacy of AM-FM modeling techniques for analyz- ing and characterizing nonstationary images has been well

Havlicek, Joebob

80

X-ray silicon detectors for measuring hard x-ray radiation damage effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For high sensitivity hard x-ray detector applications there is a solid-state alternative using high purity silicon as starting material. The paper presents some original results concerning a radiation hardened technology to be used for obtaining x-ray silicon detectors and the behavior of the special designed devices in a specific radiation environment. Original processing sequences were experimentally tested and results concerning the most performant technology suited for this specific application are presented. Specially designed gettering steps were applied by backside ion implantation and annealing for enhancing the minority carriers lifetime in the substrate material and for reducing leakage currents at orders less than 10 nA. After a complete presentation of the specific characteristics of the as obtained detectors, they were exposed and completely characterized in x-ray ambient up to dose levels of 10(superscript 8) rad (E greater than 50 keV). Solutions for increasing the detector sensitivity and stability in radiation environments are proposed.

Wagner, Delia; Halmagean, Eugenia T.; Loukas, Dido Y.; Misiakos, K.; Tsoi, Elisabeth; Veron, A.; Ohanisian, M.

1997-07-01

81

Influence of different components in a TPV PP/EPDM based with low hardness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) are a class of polymeric material obtained by dynamic vulcanization of an elastomer in a melted thermoplastic matrix. This work intend to evaluate different variables in the production of low hardness TPVs made of polypropylene (PP) and ethylene propylene rubber (EPDM), as well the optimization of the variables looking for TPVs with improved performance. In the Study I the influence of PP crystallinity were evaluated, in the Study II the effects of different amounts of dicumyl peroxide (DCP) were evaluated and in the Study III the amount of the phenolic resin were evaluated. This extended abstract presents, in a more detailed way, the results considering the curative phenolic resin content (Study III). The others results and discussions are briefly described in the results and discussions section. The compounds were obtained in a closed mixing chamber and their processability properties, swelling, hardness and tensile strength were evaluated. With the results obtained were possible to evaluate the influence of different ingredients in the TPVs properties. The results were discussed and presented looking for a better understanding of the influence of this variable in the final product, as well the correlation between then.

Gheller, J.; Jacobi, M. M.

2014-05-01

82

Electromagnetic crystal based terahertz thermal radiators and components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents the investigation of thermal radiation from three-dimensional electromagnetic crystals (EMXT), as well as the development of a THz rapid prototyping fabrication technique and its application in THz EMXT components and micro-system fabrication and integration. First, it is proposed that thermal radiation from a 3-D EMXT would be greatly enhanced at the band gap edge frequency due to the redistribution of photon density of states (DOS) within the crystal. A THz thermal radiator could thus be built upon a THz EMXT by utilizing the exceptional emission peak(s) around its band gap frequency. The thermal radiation enhancement effects of various THz EMXT including both silicon and tungsten woodpile structures (WPS) and cubic photonic cavity (CPC) array are explored. The DOS of all three structures are calculated, and their thermal radiation intensities are predicted using Planck's Equation. These calculations show that the DOS of the silicon and tungsten WPS can be enhanced by a factor of 11.8 around 364 GHz and 2.6 around 406 GHz respectively, in comparison to the normal blackbody radiation at same frequencies. An enhancement factor of more than 100 is obtained in calculation from the CPC array. A silicon WPS with a band gap around 200 GHz has been designed and fabricated. Thermal emissivity of the silicon WPS sample is measured with a control blackbody as reference. And enhancements of the emission from the WPS over the control blackbody are observed at several frequencies quite consistent with the theoretical predictions. Second, the practical challenge of THz EMXT component and system fabrication is met by a THz rapid prototyping technique developed by us. Using this technique, the fabrications of several EMXTs with 3D electromagnetic band gaps in the 100-400 GHz range are demonstrated. Characterization of the samples via THz Time-domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) shows very good agreement with simulation, confirming the build accuracy of this prototyping approach. Third, an all-dielectric THz waveguide is designed, fabricated and characterized. The design is based on hollow-core EMXT waveguide, and the fabrication is implemented with the THz prototyping method. Characterization results of the waveguide power loss factor show good consistency with the simulation, and waveguide propagation loss as low as 0.03 dB/mm at 105 GHz is demonstrated. Several design parameters are also varied and their impacts on the waveguide performance investigated theoretically. Finally, a THz EMXT antenna based on expanding the defect radius of the EMXT waveguide to a horn shape is proposed and studied. The boresight directivity and main beam angular width of the optimized EMXT horn antenna is comparable with a copper horn antenna of the same dimensions at low frequencies, and much better than the copper horn at high frequencies. The EMXT antenna has been successfully fabricated via the same THz prototyping, and we believe this is the first time an EMXT antenna of this architecture is fabricated. Far-field measurement of the EMXT antenna radiation pattern is undergoing. Also, in order to integrate planar THz solid-state devices (especially source and detector) and THz samples under test with the potential THz micro-system fabricate-able by the prototyping approach, an EMXT waveguide-to-microstrip line transition structure is designed. The structure uses tapered solid dielectric waveguides on both ends to transit THz energy from the EMXT waveguide defect onto the microstrip line. Simulation of the transition structure in a back-to-back configuration yields about -15 dB insertion loss mainly due to the dielectric material loss. The coupling and radiation loss of the transition structure is estimated to be -2.115 dB. The fabrication and characterization of the transition system is currently underway. With all the above THz components realized in the future, integrated THz micro-systems manufactured by the same prototyping technique will be achieved, with low cost, high quality, self-sufficiency, and great customizability.

Wu, Ziran

83

Optimization of radiation hardness and charge collection of edgeless silicon pixel sensors for photon science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in active-edge technology of silicon sensors enables the development of large-area tiled silicon pixel detectors with small dead space between modules by utilizing edgeless sensors. Such technology has been proven in successful productions of ATLAS and Medipix-based silicon pixel sensors by a few foundries. However, the drawbacks of edgeless sensors are poor radiation hardness for ionizing radiation and non-uniform charge collection by edge pixels. In this work, the radiation hardness of edgeless sensors with different polarities has been investigated using Synopsys TCAD with X-ray radiation-damage parameters implemented. Results show that if no conventional guard ring is present, none of the current designs are able to achieve a high breakdown voltage (typically < 30 V) after irradiation to a dose of ~ 10 MGy. In addition, a charge-collection model has been developed and was used to calculate the charges collected by the edge pixels of edgeless sensors when illuminated with X-rays. The model takes into account the electric field distribution inside the pixel sensor, the absorption of X-rays, drift and diffusion of electrons and holes, charge sharing effects, and threshold settings in ASICs. It is found that the non-uniform charge collection of edge pixels is caused by the strong bending of the electric field and the non-uniformity depends on bias voltage, sensor thickness and distance from active edge to the last pixel (``edge space"). In particular, the last few pixels close to the active edge of the sensor are not sensitive to low-energy X-rays ( < 10 keV), especially for sensors with thicker Si and smaller edge space. The results from the model calculation have been compared to measurements and good agreement was obtained. The model can be used to optimize the edge design. From the edge optimization, it is found that in order to guarantee the sensitivity of the last few pixels to low-energy X-rays, the edge space should be kept at least 50% of the sensor thickness.

Zhang, J.; Tartarotti Maimone, D.; Pennicard, D.; Sarajlic, M.; Graafsma, H.

2014-12-01

84

Mechanical properties of lunar materials under anhydrous, hard vacuum conditions: applications of lunar glass structural components  

SciTech Connect

Lunar materials and derivatives such as glass may possess very high tensile strengths compared to equivalent materials on earth because of the absence of hydrolytic weakening processes on the moon and in the hard vacuum of free space. Hydrolyzation of Si-O bonds at crack tips or dislocations reduces the strength of silicates by about an order of magnitude in earth environments. However, lunar materials are extremely anhydrous and hydrolytic weakening will be suppressed in free space. Thus, the geomechanical properties of the moon and engineering properties of lunar silicate materials in space environments will be very different than equivalent materials under earth conditions where the action of water cannot be conveniently avoided. Possible substitution of lunar glass for structural metals in a variety of space engineering applications enhances the economic utilization of the moon. 26 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

Blacic, J.D.

1984-01-01

85

From Exploratory Synthesis to Hard Radiation Detection: Crystal Growth and Characterization of Chalcogenide and Chalcohalide Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first half of this thesis work, exploratory synthesis of materials using mixed polychalcogenide fluxes yielded four quaternary mixed Te/S compounds, with the respective chalcogen atoms residing in different crystallographic sites. Two-dimensional thiotellurite compounds (Ag2TeS3) 2·A2S6 (A = Rb, Cs), containing the trigonal pyramidal [TeS 3]2- unit, were synthesized and characterized. These structures are composed of layers of neutral [Ag2TeS3] alternating with charge-balanced salt layers containing the polysulfide chain [S6]2- and alkali metal ions. Using mixed Te/S polychalcogenide fluxes for compound discovery, we then investigated a new set of layered metal dichalcogenides, Ag2Te(MS2)3 (M = V, Nb) crystallizing in the P-62m space group. Ag2Te(MS2)3 contains layers of [Ag2Te] sandwiched between layers of [MS2] (M = V, Nb). The Ag and, more interestingly, Te atoms are linearly coordinated by S atoms in the [MS2] layers. This linear coordination of the Te atom by S atoms is unprecedented in the literature and stabilized by charge transfer within the [Ag2Te] layers. In the latter half, we report the bulk crystal growth and characterization of Tl-based chalcogenide and chalcohalide materials for hard radiation (X- and gamma-ray) detection, which requires high density, wide band gaps, and high resistivity. Lattice hybridization was applied to identify materials with optimal properties for hard radiation detection, resulting in the chalcohalide compound Tl6SI4. Tl6SI4 exhibits low effective mass of carriers, high resistivity, optimal band gap, and large hardness values. The figure of merit mutau products, (mutau) e = 2.1 x 10-3 cm2V-1 and (mutau)h = 2.3 x 10-5 cm2V -1, are comparable to state-of-the-art commercially used materials. Furthermore, high resolution detection of Ag X-rays by Tl6SI 4 was seen at 22 keV (2.6%). Dimensional reduction was used to identify Tl-based chalcogenide materials Tl2MS3 (M = Ge, Sn). Tl2MS3 show great potential for use as hard radiation detectors, with preliminary mutau values on the order of ˜10-4 cm2V -1. Tl2SnS3 shows effective room temperature detection of Ag X-rays with low leakage current in the || direction; this anisotropy indicates that optimization of orientation should increase detector performance. Improvements in crystal growth and processing of these Tl-based compounds should yield detector materials that rival or outperform currently used devices.

Nguyen, Sandy Linhsa

86

J. H. Scofield and D. M. Fleetwood, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science NS-38, 1567-77 (December 1991). PHYSICAL BASIS FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTS OF MOS RADIATION HARDNESS*  

E-print Network

1991). PHYSICAL BASIS FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTS OF MOS RADIATION HARDNESS* John H. Scofield Department noise and channel mobility measurements may be useful in defining nondestructive hardness assurance test. It is therefore useful to consider whether nondestructive methods can be defined to characterize the hardness

Scofield, John H.

87

Applications of Robust, Radiation Hard AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices in Space Exploration and High Energy Density Physics  

SciTech Connect

This slide show presents: space exploration applications; high energy density physics applications; UV LED and photodiode radiation hardness; UV LED and photodiode space qualification; UV LED AC charge management; and UV LED satellite payload instruments. A UV LED satellite will be launched 2nd half 2012.

Sun, K.

2011-05-04

88

AlGaN UV LED and Photodiodes Radiation Hardness and Space Qualifications and Their Applications in Space Science and High Energy Density Physics  

SciTech Connect

This presentation provides an overview of robust, radiation hard AlGaN optoelectronic devices and their applications in space exploration & high energy density physics. Particularly, deep UV LED and deep UV photodiodes are discussed with regard to their applications, radiation hardness and space qualification. AC charge management of UV LED satellite payload instruments, which were to be launched in late 2012, is covered.

Sun, K. X.

2011-05-31

89

Qualitative Histological Evaluation of Hard and Soft Tissue Components of Human Permanent Teeth Using Various Decalcifying Agents - A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Decalcification is the commonly employed technique in histopathology laboratories as a part of calcified tissue preparation for the microscopic examination. Chemical agents are most commonly used for routine decalcification procedures, though some agents adversely affect the tissue integrity and staining properties. Aim: To compare the efficacy of various decalcifying agents by histological evaluation of hard and soft tissue components of teeth. Materials and Methods: The five decalcifying agents namely 10% Nitric acid (HNO3), 10% Formal nitric acid (FNA), 10 % Formic acid (FA), 8% Potassium formate (KF) + 8% Formic acid (FA) and Neutral Ethylenediamenetetracetic acid (EDTA) were used to decalcify 60 human permanent teeth. The specimens were subjected to routine processing, sectioning and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. The stained sections were observed under light microscope by three independent observers and grading was done. Statistical Analysis: Paired sample t-test was done for inter-observer variation. One-way-ANOVA and Post-hoc test was applied to compare the effects of different decalcifying agents. Results: Considering preservation and staining characteristics of both hard and soft tissues, superior results were obtained with 10% HNO3 followed by 10% FNA and EDTA which was according to the respective mean values obtained. But statistically significant difference was shown only with 10% FA & 8% KF + 8% FA. Conclusion: HNO3 was showing the most efficient result as it balances both tissue integrity and time factor suggesting that it can be used as a stable decalcifying agent for routine histopathological diagnosis. PMID:25386527

Jawanda, Manveen Kaur; SM, Manjunath; Bharti, Achla

2014-01-01

90

Pixel frontend electronics in a radiation hard technology for hybrid and monolithic applications  

SciTech Connect

Pixel detector readout cells have been designed in the radiation hard DMILL technology and their characteristics evaluated before and after irradiation to 14Mrad. The test chip consists of two blocks of six readout cells each. Two different charge amplifiers are implemented, one of them using a capacitive feedback loop, the other the fast signal charge transfer to a high impedance integrating node. The measured equivalent noise charge is 110e{sup {minus}}r.m.s. before and 150e{sup {minus}}r.m.s. after irradiation. With a discriminator threshold set to 5000e{sup {minus}}, which reduces for the same bias setting to 400e{sup {minus}} after irradiation, the threshold variation is 300e{sup {minus}}r.m.s. and 250e{sup {minus}}r.m.s. respectively. The time walk is 40ns before and after irradiation. The use of this SOI technology for monolithic integration of electronics and detector in one substrate is under investigation.

Pengg, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)] [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); [Johannes Kepler Univ. Linz (Austria); Campbell, M.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Snoeys, W. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)] [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

1996-06-01

91

Influence of nitrogen implantation into the buried oxide on the radiation hardness of silicon-on-insulator wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the total-dose radiation hardness of the buried oxide of separation by implanted oxygen silicon-on-insulator wafers, nitrogen ions were implanted into the buried oxide with a dose of 1016 cm-2, and subsequent annealing was performed at 1100 °C. The effect of annealing time on the radiation hardness of the nitrogen implanted wafers has been studied by the high frequency capacitance-voltage technique. The results suggest that the improvement of the radiation hardness of the wafers can be achieved through a shorter time annealing after nitrogen implantation. The nitrogen-implanted sample with the shortest annealing time 0.5 h shows the highest tolerance to total-dose radiation. In particular, for the 1.0 and 1.5 h annealing samples, both total dose responses were unusual. After 300-krad(Si) irradiation, both the shifts of capacitance-voltage curve reached a maximum, respectively, and then decreased with increasing total dose. In addition, the wafers were analysed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique, and some useful results have been obtained.

Tang, Hai-Ma; Zheng, Zhong-Shan; Zhang, En-Xia; Yu, Fang; Li, Ning; Wang, Ning-Juan

2010-10-01

92

Radiation hardening of components and systems for nuclear rocket vehicle applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the analysis of the S-2 and S-4B components, although incomplete, indicate that many Saturn 5 components and subsystems, e.g., pumps, valves, etc., can be radiation hardened to meet NRV requirements by material substitution and minor design modifications. Results of these analyses include (1) recommended radiation tolerance limits for over 100 material applications; (2) design data which describes the components of each system; (3) presentation of radiation hardening examples of systems; and (4) designing radiation effects tests to supply data for selecting materials.

Greenhow, W. A.; Cheever, P. R.

1972-01-01

93

Radiation induced loss properties and hardness enhancement technique for ErYb doped fibers for avionic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present radiation reliability properties and their enhancement of ErYb doped optical fibers in terms of induced loss and lifetime prediction via master curve analysis method. In this study, we are primarily concerned with the effects of ionizing radiation on the performance of double cladded ErYb doped optical fibers in an accelerated low dose ?-radiation environment (i.e. <120 rad/h rate) for high power optical amplifiers to be used in satellite communication systems. We demonstrate a novel method that utilizes pre-radiation exposure and thermal annealing, for enhancing radiation hardness of the fibers with respect to induced optical loss and lifetime prediction. Based on this method, we are able to modify radiation induced loss-rate properties of the fiber with an initial loss penalty, realizing overall loss-budget improvement for relatively long-term deployment (i.e. >5 years). In a direct comparison to non-hardened ErYb doped fibers, we demonstrate approximately 0.16 dB/m of radiation induced loss improvement including an initial loss penalty of 0.14 dB for radiation-hardened fibers over a 10-year duration in a natural low dose (i.e. <0.3 rad/h) radiation environment, i.e. low earth orbit.

Yeniay, A.; Gao, R. F.

2013-03-01

94

Radiation hardness evaluation of a 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS technology for high energy physics applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Final results for a comprehensive radiation hardness evaluation of a high performance, low cost, 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS technology are presented. After a survey of several available SiGe technologies, one was chosen in terms of performance, power consumption, radiation hardness, and cost and it is presented as a suitable technology for the future upgrades of the ATLAS detector of the High Luminosity LHC. Bipolar devices of different sizes and geometries have been evaluated, along with a prototype Front-End readout ASIC designed for binary readout of silicon microstrip detectors. Gamma, neutron and proton irradiations have been performed up to the expected doses and fluences of the experiment.

Díez, S.; Clark, T.; Grillo, A. A.; Kononenko, W.; Martinez-McKinney, F.; Newcomer, F. M.; Norgren, M.; Rescia, S.; Spencer, E.; Spieler, H.; Ullán, M.; Wilder, M.

2013-10-01

95

Radiative corrections for electron-proton elastic scattering taking into account high orders and hard-photon emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the effect of high-order radiative corrections in unpolarized electron proton elastic scattering and compare with the calculations at lowest order, which are usually applied to experimental data. Particular attention is devoted to the ? dependence of radiative corrections, which is directly related to the electric-proton form factor. We consider in particular the effects of the interference terms for soft- and hard-photon emission. The contribution from the emission of a hard photon from the scattered electron should be taken into account. The interference of this term with initial electron and proton emission is also important in leading and next to leading approximation. All these contributions may compensate each other in particular kinematical conditions.

Kuraev, E. A.; Bystritskiy, Yu. M.; Ahmadov, A. I.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.

2014-06-01

96

Optimal Threshold Policies for Hard-Kill of Enemy Radars With High Speed Anti-Radiation Missiles (HARMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern network centric warfare (NCW) there is a dedicated platform (airplane) assigned to every group of aircraft that specializes in the hard-kill of the enemy guidance-radars by deploying high speed anti-radiation missiles (HARM)s. In this paper we consider the problem of optimal launch control of the HARMs. We formulate the optimal trade-off between the cost of the HARMs and

Arsalan Farrokh; Vikram Krishnamurthy

2006-01-01

97

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Combined with Hard X-ray Microbeam of High Brilliance from Synchrotron Radiation Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with highly brilliant hard X-ray irradiation was enabled at SPring-8. To obtain a good signal-to-noise ratio for elemental analysis, an X-ray beam with a limited size of \\\\varphi 10 mum was aligned to a specially designed STM stage in ultrahigh vacuum. Despite various types of noises and a large radiation load around the STM

Akira Saito; Junpei Maruyama; Ken Manabe; Katsuyuki Kitamoto; Koji Takahashi; Kazuhiro Takami; Shinji Hirotsune; Yasumasa Takagi; Yoshihito Tanaka; Daigo Miwa; Makina Yabashi; Masahi Ishii; Megumi Akai-Kasaya; Shik Shin; Tetsuya Ishikawa; Yuji Kuwahara; Masakazu Aono

2006-01-01

98

Design of high-efficiency, radiation-hard, GaInP/GaAs solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recently years, Ga(0.5)In((0.5)P/GaAs cells have drawn increased attention both because of their high efficiencies and because they are well suited for space applications. They can be grown and processed as two-junction devices with roughly twice the voltage and half the current of GaAs cells. They have low temperature coefficients, and have good potential for radiation hardness. We have previously reported the effects of electron irradiation on test cells which were not optimally designed for space. From those results we estimated that an optimally designed cell could achieve 20 percent after irradiation with 10(exp 15) cm(exp -2) 1 MeV electrons. Modeling studies predicted that slightly higher efficiencies may be achievable. Record efficiencies for EOL performance of other types of cells are significantly lower. Even the best Si and InP cells have BOL efficiencies lower than the EOL efficiency we report here. Good GaAs cells have an EOL efficiency of 16 percent. The InP/Ga(0.5)In(0.5)As two-junction, two-terminal device has a BOL efficiency as high as 22.2 percent, but radiation results for these cells were limited. In this study we use the previous modeling and irradiation results to design a set of Ga(0.5)In(0.5)P/GaAs cells that will demonstrate the importance of the design parameters and result in high-efficiency devices. We report record AMO efficiencies: a BOL efficiency of 25.7 percent for a device optimized for BOL performance and two of different designs with EOL efficiencies of 19.6 percent (at 10(exp 15) cm(exp -2) 1MeV electrons). We vary the bottom-cell base doping and the top-cell thickness to show the effects of these two important design parameters. We get an unexpected result indicating that the dopant added to the bottom-cell base also increases the degradation of the top cell.

Kurtz, Sarah R.; Bertness, K. A.; Kibbler, A. E.; Kramer, C.; Olson, J. M.

1994-01-01

99

On the Barometer Effect on the Hard Component of the Cosmic Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interpretation of the observed partial correlation between the meson intensity at sea level and the barometric pressure, the other independent variables of the regression equation being the height of the 100 mb level and the stratospheric temperature, is discussed. It is shown that even though the decay effect due to changes in the height of the meson-producing layer is

H. Trefall

1955-01-01

100

The low Earth orbit radiation environment and its impact on the prompt background of hard x-ray focusing telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background minimization is a science-driven necessity in order to reach deep sensitivity levels in the hard X-ray band, one of the key scientific requirements for hard X-ray telescopes (e.g. NuSTAR, ASTRO-H). It requires a careful modeling of the radiation environment and new concepts of shielding systems. We exploit the Bologna Geant4 Multi-Mission Simulator (BoGEMMS) features to evaluate the impact of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) radiation environment on the prompt background level for a hybrid Si/CdTe soft and hard X-ray detection assembly and a combined active and passive shielding system. For each class of particles, the spectral distribution of the background flux is simulated, exploring the effect of different materials (plastic vs inorganic active scintillator) and configurations (passive absorbers enclosing or surrounded by the active shielding) on the background count rate. While protons are efficiently removed by the active shielding, an external passive shielding causes the albedo electrons and positrons to be the primary source of background. Albedo neutrons are instead weakly interactive with the active shielding, and they cause an intense background level below 10 keV via elastic scattering. The best shielding configuration in terms of background and active shielding count rates is given by an inorganic scintillator placed inside the passive layers, with the addition of passive material to absorb the intense fluorescence lines of the active shielding and avoid escape peaks on the CdTe detector.

Fioretti, V.; Bulgarelli, A.; Malaguti, G.; Bianchin, V.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.

2012-07-01

101

The impact of microwave stray radiation to in-vessel diagnostic components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave stray radiation resulting from unabsorbed multiple reflected ECRH / ECCD beams may cause severe heating of microwave absorbing in-vessel components such as gaskets, bellows, windows, ceramics and cable insulations. In view of long-pulse operation of WENDELSTEIN-7X the MIcrowave STray RAdiation Launch facility, MISTRAL, allows to test in-vessel components in the environment of isotropic 140 GHz microwave radiation at power load of up to 50 kW/m2 over 30 min. The results show that both, sufficient microwave shielding measures and cooling of all components are mandatory. If shielding/cooling measures of in-vessel diagnostic components are not efficient enough, the level of stray radiation may be (locally) reduced by dedicated absorbing ceramic coatings on cooled structures.

Hirsch, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Hathiramani, D.; Oosterbeek, J.; Baldzuhn, J.; Biedermann, C.; v d Brand, H.; Cardella, A.; Erckmann, V.; Jimenez, R.; König, R.; Köppen, M.; Parquay, S.; Zhang, D.; W7-X Team

2014-08-01

102

Space Radiation Shielding Studies for Astronaut and Electronic Component Risk Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dosimetry component of the Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration (CRESSE) will design, develop and characterize the response of a suite of radiation detectors and supporting instrumentation and electronics with three primary goals that will: (1) Use established space radiation detection systems to characterize the primary and secondary radiation fields existing in the experimental test-bed zones during exposures at particle accelerator facilities. (2) Characterize the responses of newly developed space radiation detection systems in the experimental test-bed zones during exposures at particle accelerator facilities, and (3) Provide CRESSE collaborators with detailed dosimetry information in experimental test-bed zones.

Fuchs, Jordan Robert

2010-01-01

103

Recent results from the CERN RD39 Collaboration on super-radiation hard cryogenic silicon detectors for LHC and LHC upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CERN RD39 Collaboration is developing super-radiation hard cryogenic Si detectors for applications in experiments of the LHC and the future LHC Upgrade. Radiation hardness up to the fluence of 10 16 n eq/cm 2 is required in the future experiments. Significant improvement in the radiation hardness of silicon sensors has taken place during the past years. However, 10 16 n eq/cm 2 is well beyond the radiation tolerance of even the most advanced semiconductor detectors made by commonly adopted technologies. Furthermore, at this radiation load the carrier trapping will limit the charge collection depth to the range of 20-30 ?m regardless of the depletion depth. The key of our approach is freezing the trapping that affects Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE).

Härkönen, J.; Abreu, M.; Anbinderis, P.; Anbinderis, T.; D'Ambrosio, N.; de Boer, W.; Borchi, E.; Borer, K.; Bruzzi, M.; Buontempo, S.; Chen, W.; Cindro, V.; Dezillie, B.; Dierlamm, A.; Eremin, V.; Gaubas, E.; Gorbatenko, V.; Granata, V.; Grigoriev, E.; Grohmann, S.; Hauler, F.; Heijne, E.; Heising, S.; Hempel, O.; Herzog, R.; Ilyashenko, I.; Janos, S.; Jungermann, L.; Kalesinskas, V.; Kapturauskas, J.; Laiho, R.; Li, Z.; Luukka, P.; Mandic, I.; De Masi, R.; Menichelli, D.; Mikuz, M.; Militaru, O.; Niinikoski, T. O.; Nuessle, G.; O'Shea, V.; Pagano, S.; Paul, S.; Perea Solano, B.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Rahman, M.; Rato Mendes, P.; Rouby, X.; Ruggiero, G.; Smith, K.; Sousa, P.; Tuominen, E.; Tuovinen, E.; Vaitkus, J.; Verbitskaya, E.; Da Viá, C.; Vlasenko, L.; Vlasenko, M.; Wobst, E.; Zavrtanik, M.

2004-12-01

104

RADECS Short Course Section 4 Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) for Space Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: Introduction. Programmatic aspects of RHA. RHA componens: requirements and specifications; mission radiation environment; and parts selection and radiation tolerance. Analysis at the function/subsystem/system level: TID/DD; SEE. Conclusion.

Poivey, Christian

2003-01-01

105

A national radiation oncology medical student clerkship survey: Didactic curricular components increase confidence in clinical competency  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Objectives Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete one or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. Methods and Materials An anonymous, internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012–2013 academic year. The survey was composed of three main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. Results The survey response rate was 37% (70/188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. 27% of respondents (19/70) completed at least one clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent’s confidence to function as a first- year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon rank-sum p = 0.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman’s rho p = 0.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman’s rho p = 0.43). Conclusions Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation oncology resident. These results support further development of structured didactic curricula for the radiation oncology clerkship. PMID:24331651

Jagadeesan, Vikrant S.; Raleigh, David R.; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J.; Golden, Daniel W.

2014-01-01

106

A National Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship Survey: Didactic Curricular Components Increase Confidence in Clinical Competency  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete 1 or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, Internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012-2013 academic year. The survey was composed of 3 main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. Results: The survey response rate was 37% (70 of 188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. Of the respondents, 27% (19 of 70) completed at least 1 clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent's confidence to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon rank–sum P=.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman ? P=.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman ? P=.43). Conclusions: Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation oncology resident. These results support further development of structured didactic curricula for the radiation oncology clerkship.

Jagadeesan, Vikrant S. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Raleigh, David R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of California–San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Golden, Daniel W., E-mail: dgolden@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

2014-01-01

107

Hard-X-ray magnetic microscopy and local magnetization analysis using synchrotron radiation.  

PubMed

X-ray measurement offers several useful features that are unavailable from other microscopic means including electron-based techniques. By using X-rays, one can observe the internal parts of a thick sample. This technique basically requires no high vacuum environment such that measurements are feasible for wet specimens as well as under strong electric and magnetic fields and even at a high pressure. X-ray spectroscopy using core excitation provides element-selectivity with significant sensitivities to the chemical states and atomic magnetic moments in the matter. Synchrotron radiation sources produce a small and low-divergent X-ray beam, which can be converged to a spot with the size of a micrometer or less using X-ray focusing optics. The recent development in the focusing optics has been driving X-ray microscopy, which has already gone into the era of X-ray nanoscopy. With the use of the most sophisticated focusing devices, an X-ray beam of 7-nm size has successfully been achieved [1]. X-ray microscopy maintains above-mentioned unique features of X-ray technique, being a perfect complement to electron microscopy.In this paper, we present recent studies on magnetic microscopy and local magnetic analysis using hard X-rays. The relevant instrumentation developments are also described. The X-ray nanospectroscopy station of BL39XU at SPring-8 is equipped with a focusing optics consisting of two elliptic mirrors, and a focused X-ray beam with the size of 100 × 100 nm(2) is available [2]. Researchers can perform X-ray absorption spectroscopy: nano-XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) using the X-ray beam as small as 100 nm. The available X-ray energy is from 5 to 16 keV, which allows nano-XAFS study at the K edges of 3d transition metals, L edges of rare-earth elements and 5d noble metals. Another useful capability of the nanoprobe is X-ray polarization tunability, enabling magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopy with a sub-micrometer resolution. Scanning XMCD imaging, XMCD measurement in local areas, and element-specific magnetometry for magnetic particles/magnetic devices as small as 100 nm can be performed. Nano-XAFS application includes visualization of the chemical state in a particle catalyst [3] and phase-change memory devices [4]. For magnetic microscopic study, magnetization reversal processes of an individual magnetic CoPt dot in bit-patterned media have directly been observed [2]. Imaging of the chemical distribution and magnetic domain evolution in a Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet in demagnetization processes is presented. PMID:25359804

Suzuki, Motohiro

2014-11-01

108

Penetrating radiation impact on NIF final optic components  

SciTech Connect

Goal of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is to achieve thermonuclear ignition in a laboratory environment in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). This will enable NIF to service the DOE stockpile stewardship management program, inertial fusion energy goals, and advance scientific frontiers. All of these applications will make use of the extreme conditions that the facility will create in the target chamber. In the case of a prospected 20 MJ yield scenario, NIF will produce 10{sup 19} neutrons with DT fusion 14 MeV energy per neutron. There will also be high-energy x rays as well as solid, liquid, and gaseous target debris produced either directly or indirectly by the inertial confinement fusion process. A critical design issue is the protection of the final optical components as well as sophisticated target diagnostics in such a harsh environment.

Marshall, C.D.; Speth, J.A.; DeLoach, L.D.; Payne, S.A.

1996-10-15

109

Energy and radiation balance components for three grass surfaces near Kursk, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy and radiation balance components were determined over three grass surfaces, located on the Streletskaya steppe during July 1991. The Bowen ratio energy balance method was used to determine the sensible and latent heat flux densities using six computer controlled systems. A total of 126 variables were sampled, including global, diffuse, and reflected solar radiation, long wave radiation (up and down), net radiation, photosynthetically active radiation above and below the vegetation, infrared surface temperatues, soil temperature and heat flow, air temperature and vapor pressure at two levels, wind speed and direction, and precipitation. The ranking of the sites from greatest to smallest for net radiation and latent heat flux density were preserve, mowed in 1990, and mowed in 1991. The ranking of the sites from greatest to smallest for sensible heat flux density were mowed in 1990, mowed in 1991, and preserve.

Fritschen, Leo J.

1992-01-01

110

Radiation-hard analog-to-digital converters for space and strategic applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the course of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's program to study radiation-hardened analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), numerous milestones have been reached in manufacturers' awareness and technology development and transfer, as well as in user awareness of these developments. The testing of ADCs has also continued with twenty different ADCs from seven manufacturers, all tested for total radiation dose and three tested for neutron effects. Results from these tests are reported.

Gauthier, M. K.; Dantas, A. R. V.

1985-01-01

111

A Radiation-Hard Silicon Drift Detector Array for Extraterrestrial Element Mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of x-rays from the surface of objects can tell us about the chemical composition Absorption of radiation causes characteristic fluorescence from material being irradiated. By measuring the spectrum of the radiation and identifying lines in the spectrum, the emitting element (s) can be identified. This technique works for any object that has no absorbing atmosphere and significant surface irradiation : Our Moon, the icy moons of Jupiter, the moons of Mars, the planet Mercury, Asteroids and Comets

Gaskin, Jessica; Chen, Wei; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Keister, Jeff; Li, Shaouri; Li, Zhen; Siddons, David P.; Smith, Graham

2011-01-01

112

Radiation tolerance of opto-electronic components proposed for space-based quantum key distribution  

E-print Network

Plasma in low earth orbit can damage electronic components and potentially jeopardise the scientific missions in space. Predicting the accumulated damage and understanding the components' radiation tolerance are important to mission planning. In this manuscript we report on the observed radiation tolerance of single photon detectors and a liquid crystal polarization rotator. We conclude that an uncooled Si APD could continue to operate from more than a month up to beyond the lifetime of the satellite depending on the orbit. The polarization rotator was also unaffected by the exposed dosage.

Chuan, Tan Yue; Cheng, Cliff; Ling, Alexander

2015-01-01

113

Fundamental measure theory for mixtures of parallel hard cubes. II. Phase behavior of the one-component fluid and of the binary mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previously developed fundamental measure functional [J. Chem. Phys. 107, 6379 (1997)] is used to study the phase behavior of a system of parallel hard cubes. The single-component fluid exhibits a continuous transition to a solid with an anomalously large density of vacancies. The binary mixture has a demixing transition for edge-length ratios below 0.1. Freezing in this mixture reveals that at least the phase rich in large cubes always lies in the region where the uniform fluid is unstable, hence suggesting a fluid-solid phase separation. A method is developed to study very asymmetric binary mixtures by taking the limit of zero size ratio at fixed solvent fugacity. With this procedure the mixture is exactly mapped onto a one-component fluid of parallel adhesive hard cubes. At any density and solvent fugacity the large cubes are shown to collapse into a close-packed solid. Nevertheless the phase diagram contains a large metastability region with fluid and solid phases. Upon introduction of a slight polydispersity in the large cubes, the system shows the typical phase diagram of a fluid with an isostructural solid-solid transition (with the exception of a continuous freezing). Consequences about the phase behavior of binary mixtures of hard core particles are then drawn.

Martínez-Ratón, Yuri; Cuesta, José A.

1999-07-01

114

FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 090510: A SHORT-HARD GAMMA-RAY BURST WITH AN ADDITIONAL, HARD POWER-LAW COMPONENT FROM 10 keV TO GeV ENERGIES  

SciTech Connect

We present detailed observations of the bright short-hard gamma-ray burst GRB 090510 made with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi observatory. GRB 090510 is the first burst detected by the LAT that shows strong evidence for a deviation from a Band spectral fitting function during the prompt emission phase. The time-integrated spectrum is fit by the sum of a Band function with E{sub peak} = 3.9 {+-} 0.3 MeV, which is the highest yet measured, and a hard power-law component with photon index -1.62 {+-} 0.03 that dominates the emission below {approx}20 keV and above {approx}100 MeV. The onset of the high-energy spectral component appears to be delayed by {approx}0.1 s with respect to the onset of a component well fit with a single Band function. A faint GBM pulse and a LAT photon are detected 0.5 s before the main pulse. During the prompt phase, the LAT detected a photon with energy 30.5{sup +5.8}{sub -2.6} GeV, the highest ever measured from a short GRB. Observation of this photon sets a minimum bulk outflow Lorentz factor, {Gamma}{approx_gt} 1200, using simple {gamma}{gamma} opacity arguments for this GRB at redshift z = 0.903 and a variability timescale on the order of tens of ms for the {approx}100 keV-few MeV flux. Stricter high confidence estimates imply {Gamma} {approx_gt} 1000 and still require that the outflows powering short GRBs are at least as highly relativistic as those of long-duration GRBs. Implications of the temporal behavior and power-law shape of the additional component on synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton, external-shock synchrotron, and hadronic models are considered.

Ackermann, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Asano, K. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro City, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Axelsson, M. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bhat, P. N. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Bissaldi, E. [Max-Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bonamente, E., E-mail: jchiang@slac.stanford.ed, E-mail: sylvain.guiriec@lpta.in2p3.f, E-mail: j.granot@herts.ac.u, E-mail: ohno@astro.isas.jaxa.j [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

2010-06-20

115

Disentangling the soft and hard components of the pp collisions using the sphero(i)city approach  

E-print Network

A new method to extract information from the pp data is proposed. The approach is based on the use of the event structure variables: sphericity and spherocity, to split the data into enhanced soft and hard processes samples corresponding to events with large and low numbers of multi-parton interactions, respectively. The present study was developed in the framework of Pythia 8.180 for inelastic pp collisions at sqrt(s) =7 TeV. As an application of the method, a study of the identified particle transverse momentum spectra and their ratios; is presented for soft (isotropic) and hard (jetty-like) events. The flow-like effect on these observables due to multi-parton interactions and color reconnection is relevant for soft events suggesting that partons inside the jet do not feel color reconnection and its flow-like consequences.

Eleazar Cuautle; Raul Jimenez; Ivonne Maldonado; Antonio Ortiz; Guy Paic; Edgar Perez

2014-04-09

116

Radiation hard polyimide-coated FBG optical sensors for relative humidity monitoring in the CMS experiment at CERN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates the performance and the radiation hardness capability of optical thermo-hygrometers based on Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBG) for humidity monitoring in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), one of the four experiments running at CERN in Geneva. A thorough campaign of characterization was performed on 80 specially produced Polyimide-coated RH FBG sensors and 80 commercial temperature FBG sensors. Sensitivity, repeatability and accuracy were studied on the whole batch, putting in evidence the limits of the sensors, but also showing that they can be used in very dry conditions. In order to extract the humidity measurements from the sensor readings, commercial temperature FBG sensors were characterized in the range of interest. Irradiation campaigns with ionizing radiation (?-rays from a Co60 source) at incremental absorbed doses (up to 210 kGy for the T sensors and up to 90 kGy for the RH sensors) were performed on sample of T and RH-Sensors. The results show that the sensitivity of the sensors is unchanged up to the level attained of the absorbed dose, while the natural wavelength peak of each sensor exhibits a radiation-induced shift (signal offset). The saturation properties of this shift are discussed.

Makovec, A.; Berruti, G.; Consales, M.; Giordano, M.; Petagna, P.; Buontempo, S.; Breglio, G.; Szillasi, Z.; Beni, N.; Cusano, A.

2014-03-01

117

In-situ minority carrier recombination lifetime measurements at radiation sources for rad-hard IR detector materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minority carrier recombination lifetime (MCRL) is a key material parameter for space-based infrared (IR) detector performance affecting both dark current and responsivity. Displacement damage due to energetic massive particles in space environments, such as protons, can significantly degrade the recombination lifetime, thereby reducing detector performance. Therefore, characterizing the change in MCRL with proton dose is of general interest from a radiation-hardness perspective. So-called "bag tests," or measurements taken prior to and following room temperature proton irradiation of the device, are often of limited value to MCRL characterization since thermal annealing effects may be present. Here, progress toward a portable MCRL measurement system employing time resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) is presented. This system can be taken to remote radiation sources where irradiation can be performed on samples followed by TRPL measurements while maintaining temperature throughout. Ideally, this system permits measurement of a lifetime radiation damage factor constant, or the change in lifetime with step-wise changes in proton dose, which is a measure of the defect introduction rate. The pulsed-laser driven TRPL measurement system is able to interrogate IR materials of interest mounted in an optical cryostat held indefinitely at a desired temperature. A system description is given and results of verification measurements are discussed for several IR detector materials.

Jenkins, Geoffrey D.; Morath, Christian P.; Cowan, Vincent M.

2014-09-01

118

Low-mass, intrinsically-hard high temperature radiator. Final report, Phase I  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the investigation of layered ceramic/metal composites in the design of low-mass hardened radiators for space heat rejection systems. The investigation is part of the Strategic Defence Initiative. This effort evaluated the use of layered composites as a material to form thin-walled, vacuum leaktight heat pipes. The heat pipes would be incorporated into a large heat pipe radiator for waste heat rejection from a space nuclear power source. Composite materials evaluations were performed on combinations of refractory metals and ceramic powders. Fabrication experiments were performed to demonstrate weldability. Two titanium/titanium diboride composite tubes were successfully fabricated into potassium heat pipes and operated at temperatures in excess of 700C. Testing and analysis for composite tubes are described in the report. The study has verified the feasibility of using layered composites for forming thin-walled, light weight heat pipe tubes for use in hardened space radiators.

NONE

1990-07-15

119

Radiation Hardness of High-Q Silicon Nitride Microresonators for Space Compatible Integrated Optics  

E-print Network

Integrated optics has distinct advantages for applications in space because it integrates many elements onto a monolithic, robust chip. As the development of different building blocks for integrated optics advances, it is of interest to answer the important question of their resistance with respect to ionizing radiation. Here we investigate effects of proton radiation on high-Q silicon nitride microresonators formed by a waveguide ring. We show that the irradiation with high-energy protons has no lasting effect on the linear optical losses of the microresonators.

Brasch, Victor; Schiller, Stephan; Kippenberg, Tobias J

2014-01-01

120

Radiation hardness of high-Q silicon nitride microresonators for space compatible integrated optics.  

PubMed

Integrated optics has distinct advantages for applications in space because it integrates many elements onto a monolithic, robust chip. As the development of different building blocks for integrated optics advances, it is of interest to answer the important question of their resistance with respect to ionizing radiation. Here we investigate effects of proton radiation on high-Q ((106)) silicon nitride microresonators formed by a waveguide ring. We show that the irradiation with high-energy protons has no lasting effect on the linear optical losses of the microresonators. PMID:25607027

Brasch, Victor; Chen, Qun-Feng; Schiller, Stephan; Kippenberg, Tobias J

2014-12-15

121

Separation of hard x-ray synchrotron radiation from electron beam slices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the electron beam slicing scheme1, 2 considered for National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, when a low energy electron bunch crosses from top of a high energy storage ring electron bunch, its coulomb force will kick a short slice (slicing bunch) from the core (core bunch) of the storage ring electron bunch. The short slice bunch and the long core bunch when passing through the 3 m long U20 in-vacuum undulator will radiate X-ray pulses with pulse length ~150 fs and 30 ps respectively. To separate the satellite radiation from the core radiation, we propose a conceptual optical scheme allowing for the separation. To get reliable estimates of the separation performances, we apply the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) physical optics computer code3, 4 to study the wavefront propagation. As calculations show, at 7.8 keV, the separation signal-to-noise ratio can reach 5~12 and the satellite photon flux per pulse at sample can be 5000~20000 photons/0.1%BW with x-ray pulse length 150 ~ 330 fs depending on the separation method and the crossing angle between the low energy electron bunch and the high energy storage ring bunch. Since the repetition rate of the electron beam slicing system can reach 100 kHz, the average flux per second can reach 5 x 108 ` 2 x 109 photons/sec/0.1%BW.

He, A.; Chubar, O.; Yu, L. H.

2014-09-01

122

Aging and Radiation Effects in Stockpile Electronics  

SciTech Connect

It is likely that aging is affecting the radiation hardness of stockpile electronics, and we have seen apparent examples of aging that affects the electronic radiation hardness. It is also possible that low-level intrinsic radiation that is inherent during stockpile life will damage or in a sense age electronic components. Both aging and low level radiation effects on radiation hardness and stockpile reliability need to be further investigated by using both test and modeling strategies that include appropriate testing of electronic components withdrawn from the stockpile.

Hartman, E.F.

1999-03-25

123

Estimation of neutron and other radiation exposure components in low earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of high-energy space radiation with spacecraft materials generates a host of secondary particles, some, such as neutrons, are more biologically damaging and penetrating than the original primary particles. Before committing astronauts to long term exposure in such high radiation environments, a quantitative understanding of the exposure and estimates of the associated risks are required. Energetic neutrons are traditionally difficult to measure due to their neutral charge. Measurement methods have been limited by mass and weight requirements in space to nuclear emulsion, activation foils, a limited number of Bonner spheres, and TEPCs. Such measurements have had limited success in quantifying the neutron component relative to the charged components. We will show that a combination of computational models and experimental measurements can be used as a quantitative tool to evaluate the radiation environment within the Shuttle, including neutrons. Comparisons with space measurements are made with special emphasis on neutron sensitive and insensitive devices. c2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Singleterry, R. C. Jr; Badavi, F. F.; Shinn, J. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Wilson, J. W.; Atwell, W.; Beaujean, R.; Kopp, J.; Reitz, G.

2001-01-01

124

Radiation studies of optical and electronic components used in astronomical satellite studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The synchronous orbit of the IUE carries the satellite through Earth's outer electron belt. A 40 mCi Sr90 source was used to simulate these electrons. A 5 mCi source of Co60 was used to simulate bremmstrahlung. A 10 MeV electron Linac and a 1.7 MeV electron Van de Graaf wer used to investigate the energy dependence of radiation effects and to perform radiations at a high flux rate. A 100 MeV proton cyclotron was used to simulate cosmic rays. Results are presented for three instrument systems of the IUE and measurements for specific components are reported. The three instrument systems were the ultraviolet converter, the fine error sensor (FES), and the SEC vidicon camera tube. The components were optical glasses, electronic components, silicon photodiodes, and UV window materials.

Becher, J.; Kernell, R. L.

1981-01-01

125

The correlation between soft and hard X-rays component in flares: from the Sun to the stars  

E-print Network

In this work we study the correlation between the soft (1.6--12.4 keV, mostly thermal) and the hard (20--40 and 60--80 keV, mostly non-thermal) X-ray emission in solar flares up to the most energetic events, spanning about 4 orders of magnitude in peak flux, establishing a general scaling law and extending it to the most intense stellar flaring events observed to date. We used the data from the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) spacecraft, a NASA Small Explorer launched in February 2002. RHESSI has good spectral resolution (~1 keV in the X-ray range) and broad energy coverage (3 keV--20 MeV), which makes it well suited to distinguish the thermal from non-thermal emission in solar flares. Our study is based on the detailed analysis of 45 flares ranging from the GOES C-class, to the strongest X-class events, using the peak photon fluxes in the GOES 1.6--12.4 keV and in two bands selected from RHESSI data, i.e.20--40 keV and 60--80 keV. We find a significant correlation between the soft and hard peak X-ray fluxes spanning the complete sample studied. The resulting scaling law has been extrapolated to the case of the most intense stellar flares observed, comparing it with the stellar observations. Our results show that an extrapolation of the scaling law derived for solar flares to the most active stellar events is compatible with the available observations of intense stellar flares in hard X-rays.

C. Isola; F. Favata; G. Micela; H. S. Hudson

2007-07-16

126

Threshold behavior of hard X-rays in resonant transition radiation from beryllium foils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral distributions of X-ray resonance transition radiation (RTR) generated by 300, 500 and 700 MeV electrons in a target consisting of as many as 125 Be foils have been measured. When the electron energy increased from 500 to 700 MeV, a rapid growth of photon yield was observed in the spectral region h?? = 5-30 keV, thus confirming the threshold effect of the on-set of the first harmonic of RTR.

Andreyashkin, M. Yu.; Kaplin, V. V.; Uglov, S. R.; Zabaev, V. N.; Endo, I.; Kobayashi, T.

1995-02-01

127

Low-mass, intrinsically-hard high-temperature radiator. Final report, Phase I  

SciTech Connect

Thermacore, Inc. of Lancaster, Pennsylvania has completed a Phase I SBIR program to investigate the use of layered ceramic/metal composites in the design of low-mass hardened radiators for space heat rejection systems. The program is being monitored by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO). This effort evaluated the use of layered composites as a material to form thin-walled, vacuum leaktight heat pipes. The heat pipes would be incorporated into a large heat pipe radiator for waste heat rejection from a space nuclear power source. This approach forms an attractive alternative to metal or silicon-carbon fiber reinforced metal heat pipes by offering a combination of low mass and improved fabricability. Titanium has been shown to have a yield strength too low at 875{degrees}K to be a useful radiator material. A silicon carbide fiber reinforced titanium material appears to have sufficient strength at 875{degrees}K. but cannot be welded due to the continuous fibers, and the preferred heat pipe working fluid (potassium) has been demonstrated to be incompatible with silicon carbide at 875{degrees}K. Moreover, titanium does not appear to be acceptable for radiators subjected to anticipated laser threats. As part of this effort, Thermacore performed composite material evaluations on combinations of refractory metals and ceramic powders. Layered composite tube samples with wall thicknesses as thin as 0.012 inches were developed. Fabrication experiments were performed that demonstrated the weldability of layered composites. Two titanium/titanium diboride composite tubes were successfully fabricated into potassium heat pipes and operated at temperatures in excess of 700{degrees}C. A hybrid composite tube was also fabricated into a potassium heat pipe. The tube was composed of alternating layers of niobium-1% zirconium foil and layers of a mixture of titanium powder and titanium diboride powder.

NONE

1990-06-15

128

On the problem of the radiation hardness of SiC nuclear radiation detectors at high working temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Owing to the radiation-induced pronounced conductivity compensation in silicon carbide, carrier localization (trapping) prevails over recombination in capture of nonequilibrium carriers. This makes it possible, by raising the temperature, to reduce the time of carrier retention by a trapping center to values shorter than the duration of signal shaping by electronic circuits. For structural defects created by 6.5-MeV protons, the temperature excluding degradation of the detector signal via carrier localization is estimated. The values of the appearing generation current the noise of which can restrict the operation of a detector in the spectrometric mode are determined.

Ivanov, A. M., E-mail: Alexandr.Ivanov@mail.ioffe.ru; Sadokhin, A. V.; Strokan, N. B.; Lebedev, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-10-15

129

Space radiation shielding studies for astronaut and electronic component risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space radiation environment is comprised of a complex and variable mix of high energy charged particles, gamma rays and other exotic species. Elements of this radiation field may also interact with intervening matter (such as a spaceship wall) and create secondary radiation particles such as neutrons. Some of the components of the space radiation environment are highly penetrating and can cause adverse effects in humans and electronic components aboard spacecraft. Developing and testing materials capable of providing effective shielding against the space radiation environment presents special challenges to researchers. Researchers at the Cen-ter for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration (CRESSE) at Prairie View AM University (PVAMU) perform accelerator based experiments testing the effectiveness of various materials for use as space radiation shields. These experiments take place at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the proton synchrotron at Loma Linda University Medical Center, and the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory where charged particles and neutrons are produced at energies similar to those found in the space radiation environment. The work presented in this paper constitutes the beginning phase of an undergraduate research project created to contribute to this ongoing space radiation shielding project. Specifically, this student project entails devel-oping and maintaining a database of information concerning the historical data from shielding experiments along with a systematic categorization and storage system for the actual shielding materials. The shielding materials referred to here range in composition from standard materi-als such as high density polyethylene and aluminum to exotic multifunctional materials such as spectra-fiber infused composites. The categorization process for each material includes deter-mination of the density thickness of individual samples and a clear labeling and filing method that allows immediate cross referencing with other material samples during the experimental design process. Density thickness measurements will be performed using a precision scale that will allow for the fabrication of sets of standard density thicknesses of selected materials for ready use in shielding experiments. The historical data from previous shielding experiments consists primarily of measurements of absorbed dose, dose equivalent and dose distributions from a Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) as measured downstream of various thicknesses of the materials while being irradiated in one of the aforementioned particle beams. This data has been digitally stored and linked to the composition of each material and may be easily accessed for shielding effectiveness inter-comparisons. This work was designed to facili-tate and increase the efficiency of ongoing space radiation shielding research performed at the CRESSE as well as serve as a way to educate new generations of space radiation researchers.

Fuchs, Jordan; Gersey, Brad; Wilkins, Richard

130

Principal Component-Based Radiative Transfer Model (PCRTM) for Hyperspectral Sensors. Part I; Theoretical Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modern infrared satellite sensors such as Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CrIS), Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) are capable of providing high spatial and spectral resolution infrared spectra. To fully exploit the vast amount of spectral information from these instruments, super fast radiative transfer models are needed. This paper presents a novel radiative transfer model based on principal component analysis. Instead of predicting channel radiance or transmittance spectra directly, the Principal Component-based Radiative Transfer Model (PCRTM) predicts the Principal Component (PC) scores of these quantities. This prediction ability leads to significant savings in computational time. The parameterization of the PCRTM model is derived from properties of PC scores and instrument line shape functions. The PCRTM is very accurate and flexible. Due to its high speed and compressed spectral information format, it has great potential for super fast one-dimensional physical retrievals and for Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) large volume radiance data assimilation applications. The model has been successfully developed for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Airborne Sounder Testbed - Interferometer (NAST-I) and AIRS instruments. The PCRTM model performs monochromatic radiative transfer calculations and is able to include multiple scattering calculations to account for clouds and aerosols.

Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen

2005-01-01

131

Radiation hardness evaluation of the commercial 150 nm CMOS process using 60Co source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of radiation effects on MOSFET transistors irradiated with a 60Co source to a total absorbed dose of 1.5 Mrad. The transistor test structures were manufactured using a commercial 150 nm CMOS process and are composed of transistors of different types (NMOS and PMOS), dimensions and insulation from the bulk material by means of deep n-wells. We have observed a degradation of electrical characteristics of both PMOS and NMOS transistors, namely a large increase of the leakage current of the NMOS transistors after irradiation.

Carna, M.; Havranek, M.; Hejtmanek, M.; Janoska, Z.; Marcisovsky, M.; Neue, G.; Tomasek, L.; Vrba, V.

2014-06-01

132

Radiative cooling of two-component wire-array Z-pinch plasma  

SciTech Connect

Wire-array two-component Z-pinch plasmas containing Al and other elements were studied experimentally and the observations interpreted with the help of theoretical modeling. Special attention was given to achieving reproducible implosions. Cascading implosions in star wire arrays mix components during the implosion phase and implosion dynamics were not affected by changes in concentration. A reduction in Al K-shell radiation and an increase in soft x-ray radiation emission were observed in Al-W plasma with 84% concentration of Al ions compared to only-Al plasma. Plasma with 84% of Al ions has radiative properties like those of W Z-pinches. The analysis of Al K-shell x-ray spectra with a collisional-radiative atomic kinetics model shows a drop of the electron temperature from 400?eV in pure Al plasma to below 300?eV in the Al-W mix. Al-Au Z-pinches present radiation features similar to Al-W plasma. This is indicative of a similar plasma cooling effect due to the presence of a high-Z element.

Ivanov, V. V.; Mancini, R. C.; Papp, D.; Hakel, P.; Durmaz, T. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Florido, R. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

2014-08-15

133

Radiative cooling of two-component wire-array Z-pinch plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wire-array two-component Z-pinch plasmas containing Al and other elements were studied experimentally and the observations interpreted with the help of theoretical modeling. Special attention was given to achieving reproducible implosions. Cascading implosions in star wire arrays mix components during the implosion phase and implosion dynamics were not affected by changes in concentration. A reduction in Al K-shell radiation and an increase in soft x-ray radiation emission were observed in Al-W plasma with 84% concentration of Al ions compared to only-Al plasma. Plasma with 84% of Al ions has radiative properties like those of W Z-pinches. The analysis of Al K-shell x-ray spectra with a collisional-radiative atomic kinetics model shows a drop of the electron temperature from 400 eV in pure Al plasma to below 300 eV in the Al-W mix. Al-Au Z-pinches present radiation features similar to Al-W plasma. This is indicative of a similar plasma cooling effect due to the presence of a high-Z element.

Ivanov, V. V.; Mancini, R. C.; Papp, D.; Hakel, P.; Durmaz, T.; Florido, R.

2014-08-01

134

Product assurance technology for procuring reliable, radiation-hard, custom LSI/VLSI electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced measurement methods using microelectronic test chips are described. These chips are intended to be used in acquiring the data needed to qualify Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC's) for space use. Efforts were focused on developing the technology for obtaining custom IC's from CMOS/bulk silicon foundries. A series of test chips were developed: a parametric test strip, a fault chip, a set of reliability chips, and the CRRES (Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite) chip, a test circuit for monitoring space radiation effects. The technical accomplishments of the effort include: (1) development of a fault chip that contains a set of test structures used to evaluate the density of various process-induced defects; (2) development of new test structures and testing techniques for measuring gate-oxide capacitance, gate-overlap capacitance, and propagation delay; (3) development of a set of reliability chips that are used to evaluate failure mechanisms in CMOS/bulk: interconnect and contact electromigration and time-dependent dielectric breakdown; (4) development of MOSFET parameter extraction procedures for evaluating subthreshold characteristics; (5) evaluation of test chips and test strips on the second CRRES wafer run; (6) two dedicated fabrication runs for the CRRES chip flight parts; and (7) publication of two papers: one on the split-cross bridge resistor and another on asymmetrical SRAM (static random access memory) cells for single-event upset analysis.

Buehler, M. G.; Allen, R. A.; Blaes, B. R.; Hicks, K. A.; Jennings, G. A.; Lin, Y.-S.; Pina, C. A.; Sayah, H. R.; Zamani, N.

1989-01-01

135

The Havemann-Taylor Fast Radiative Transfer Code: Exact fast radiative transfer for scattering atmospheres using Principal Components (PCs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Havemann-Taylor Fast Radiative Transfer Code (HT-FRTC) has been developed for the simulation of highly spectrally resolved measurements from satellite based (i.e. Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)) and airborne (i.e. Atmospheric Research Interferometer Evaluation System (ARIES)) instruments. The use of principle components enables the calculation of a complete spectrum in less than a second. The principal compoents are derived from a diverse training set of atmospheres and surfaces and contain their spectral characteristics in a highly compressed form. For any given atmosphere/surface, the HT-FRTC calculates the weightings (also called scores) of a few hundred principal components based on selected monochromatic radiative transfer calculations, which is far cheaper than thousands of channel radiance calculations. By intercomparison with line-by-line and other fast models the HT-FRTC has been shown to be accurate. The HT-FRTC has been successfully applied to simultaneous variational retrievals of atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, surface temperature and surface emissivity over land. This is the subject of another presentation at this conference. The HT-FRTC has now also been extended to include an exact treatment of scattering by aerosols/clouds. The radiative transfer problem is solved using a discrete ordinate method (DISORT). Modelling results at high-spectral resolution for non-clear sky atmospheres obtained with the HT-FRTC are presented.

Havemann, Stephan; Thelen, Jean-Claude; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Keil, Andreas

2009-03-01

136

Hard X-ray nanofocusing at low-emittance synchrotron radiation sources.  

PubMed

X-ray scanning microscopy relies on intensive nanobeams generated by imaging a highly brilliant synchrotron radiation source onto the sample with a nanofocusing X-ray optic. Here, using a Gaussian model for the central cone of an undulator source, the nanobeam generated by refractive X-ray lenses is modeled in terms of size, flux and coherence. The beam properties are expressed in terms of the emittances of the storage ring and the lateral sizes of the electron beam. Optimal source parameters are calculated to obtain efficient and diffraction-limited nanofocusing. With decreasing emittance, the usable fraction of the beam for diffraction-limited nanofocusing experiments can be increased by more than two orders of magnitude compared with modern storage ring sources. For a diffraction-limited storage ring, nearly the whole beam can be focused, making these sources highly attractive for X-ray scanning microscopy. PMID:25177988

Schroer, Christian G; Falkenberg, Gerald

2014-09-01

137

Effect of small flares in the neutral component of secondary cosmic radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of an investigation of the effect of small flares, scale divisions 1 and 1(+), in the neutron component of secondary cosmic radiation from the data of neutron supermonitors at the stations of Kiev, Bukhta Tiksi, and Deep River. It is shown that flares of scale divisions 1 and 1(+) are accompanied by an effect in the neutron component amounting to about 0.4%. A mechanism is presented for calculating the outflow of particles accelerated in small flares, owing to diffusion across the magnetic field of a trap.

Bondarenko, V. I.; Raychenko, L. V.; Yukhimuk, A. K.

1974-01-01

138

A Radiation Hard Multi-Channel Digitizer ASIC for Operation in the Harsh Jovian Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1995, the Galileo spacecraft arrived at Jupiter to conduct follow-up experiments on pathfinder Pioneer and key Voyager discoveries especially at Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. These new observations helped expand our scientific knowledge of the prominent Galilean satellites; studies revealed diversity with respect to their geology, internal structure, evolution and degree of past and present activity. Jupiter's diverse Galilean satellites, of which three are believed to harbor internal oceans, are central to understanding the habitability of icy worlds. Galileo provided for the first time compelling evidence of a near-surface global ocean on Europa. Furthermore, by understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling the history of its evolution from initial formation to the emergence of possible habitats and life, gives insight into how giant planets and their satellite systems form and evolve. Most important, new light is shed on the potential for the emergence and existence of life in icy satellite oceans. In 2009, NASA released a detailed Jupiter Europa Mission Study (EJSM) that proposed an ambitious Flagship Mission to understand more fully the satellites Europa and Ganymede within the context of the Jovian system. Key to EJSM is the NASA led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) and the ESA led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). JEO and JGO would execute a choreographed exploration of the Jovian system before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. The National Academies Planetary Decadal Survey, 2011 has listed the NASA-led JEO as the second highest priority mission for the decade 2013-2022, and if chosen it would be launched in 2020 with arrival at Jupiter in 2025. If the JEO mission is not chosen it is anticipated that there will be opportunities in future decadal cycles. Jupiter Orbit Insertion (JOI) begins a 30-month Jovian system tour followed by nine months of science mapping after Europa Orbit Insertion (EOI) in July 2028. The orbiter will ultimately impact the surface of Europa after the mission is completed. The current JEO mission concept includes a range of instruments on the payload, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiters atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. The payload includes a low mass (3.7 Kg) and low power (< 5 W) Thermal Instrument (TI) concept for measuring possible warm thermal anomalies on Europa s cold surface caused by recent (< 10,000 years) eruptive activity. Regions of anomalously high heat flow will be identified by thermal mapping using a nadir pointing, push-broom filter radiometer that provides far-IR imagery in two broad band spectral wavelength regions, 8-20 m and 20-100 m, for surface temperature measurements with better than a 2 K accuracy and a spatial resolution of 250 m/pixel obtained from a 100 Km orbit. The temperature accuracy permits a search for elevated temperatures when combined with albedo information. The spatial resolution is sufficient to resolve Europa's larger cracks and ridge axial valleys. In order to accomplish the thermal mapping, the TI uses sensitive thermopile arrays that are readout by a custom designed low-noise Multi-Channel Digitizer (MCD) ASIC that resides very close to the thermopile linear array outputs. Both the thermopile array and the MCD ASIC will need to show full functionality within the harsh Jovian radiation environment, operating at cryogenic temperatures, typically 150 K to 170 K. In the following, a radiation mitigation strategy together with a low risk Radiation-Hardened-By-Design (RHBD) methodology using commercial foundry processes is given for the design and manufacture of a MCD ASIC that will meet this challenge.

Aslam, Shahid; Aslam, S.; Akturk, A.; Quilligan, G.

2011-01-01

139

Radiation tests of key components of the ALICE TOF TDC Readout Module  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ALICE Time-of-Flight (TOF) system will be a large area (140 m 2 ) detector made by Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC). The read-out will be performed by a VME TDC Readout Module (TRM) hosting each 30 High Performance TDC chips (HPTDC). Radiation tests carried out at Zurich PSI with a 60 MeV proton beam line on key components of

A. Alici; P. Antonioli; A. Mati; S. Meneghini; M. Pieracci; M. Rizzi; C. Tintori

140

Convective and radiative components of wind chill in sheep: Estimation from meteorological records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind chill is defined as the excess of sensible heat loss over what would occur at zero wind speed with other conditions unchanged. Wind chill can be broken down into a part that is determined by air temperature and a radiative part that comprises wind-dependent effects on additional long-wave radiative exchange and on solar radiation (by reducing solar warming). Radiative exchange and gain from solar radiation are affected by changes that are produced by wind in both surface and fleece insulations. Coefficients are derived for (a) converting the components of sensible heat exchange (air-temperature-dependent including both convective and associated long-wave radiative, additional long-wave radiative and solar) into the components of the total heat loss that are associated with wind and (b) for calculating equivalent air temperature changes. The coefficients contain terms only in wind speed, wetting of the fleece and fleece depth; these determine the external insulation. Calculation from standard meteorological records, using Plymouth and Aberdeen in 1973 as examples, indicate that in April September 1973 at Plymouth reduction in effective solar warming constituted 28% of the 24-h total wind chill, and 7% in the other months of the year combined; at Aberdeen the corresponding percentages were 25% and 6%. Mean hour-of-day estimates for the months of April and October showed that at midday reduction in solar warming due to wind rose to the order of half the air-temperature-dependent component of wind chill, with a much smaller effect in January. For about six hours at midday in July reduction in solar warming due to wind was similar in magnitude to the air-temperature-dependent component. It is concluded that realistic estimates of wind chill cannot be obtained unless the effect of solar radiation is taken into account. Failure to include solar radiation results not only in omitting solar warming but also in omitting the effects of wind in reducing that warming. The exchange of sensible (non-evaporative) heat loss between a homeothermic animal and its environment can be divided into two parts: one part is due to the temperature difference between the animal and the surrounding air, and the other part is due to additional long-wave radiative exchange between animal and environment and to solar radiation. Both parts of the heat exchange are determined in magnitude by the animal's thermal insulation, which is itself affected by windspeed and wetting. Wind diminishes as animal's external insulation, so increasing heat loss under all conditions when the air temperature is lower than the animal's surface temperature: this effect is termed wind chill. Wind chill has previously been investigated more commonly in relation to man (Burton an Edholm, 1955; Smithson and Baldwin, 1978; Mumford, 1979; Baldwin and Smithson, 1979). This paper is concerned with the separate contributions to wind chill calculated for sheep that can be associated with convective and radiative heat exchanges.

Brown, D.; Mount, L. E.

1987-06-01

141

Artificial diamonds as radiation-hard detectors for ultra-fast fission-fragment timing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the construction of the double time-of-flight spectrometer VERDI, where we aim at measuring pre- and post-neutron masses directly and simultaneously, ultra-fast time pick-up detectors based on artificial diamond material were investigated for the first time with fission fragments from 252Cf (0.5 MeV/uradiation fluence was determined up to at least 109 fission-fragments/cm2 together with more than 3.5×109 neutrons/cm2 and 3×1010?-particles/cm2. This fluence is characteristic for fission experiments. The pre-requisite for the observed signal stability is the application of priming of the diamond material with a strong ?-source for about 48 h. The intrinsic timing resolution of a 100 ?m thick polycrystalline CVD diamond detector with a size of 1×1 cm2 was determined to ?int=(283±41) ps by comparison with Monte-Carlo simulations. Using broadband pre-amplifiers, 4-fold segmented detectors of same total size and with a thickness of 180 ?m show an intrinsic timing resolution of ?int=(106±21) ps. This is highly competitive with the best micro-channel plate detectors. Due to the limited and batch-dependent charge collection efficiency of poly-crystalline diamond material, the detection efficiency for fission fragments may be smaller than 100%.

Oberstedt, S.; Borcea, R.; Bry?, T.; Gamboni, Th.; Geerts, W.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, A.; Vidali, M.

2013-06-01

142

Summary of the effects of radiation upon the passive optical components of the Versatile Link  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LHC luminosity upgrade, known as the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will require high-speed optical links to read out data from its detectors. The ATLAS and CMS experiments in collaboration with CERN have developed the Versatile Link in order to address the technical issues of optical data transmission within the harsh radiation environment experienced by any experiment within the HL-LHC. Passive optical components can suffer damage in the form of reduced optical transparency (radiation induced absorption or RIA), reduced bandwidth, and mechanical damage to the components themselves and their connection hardware. This paper summarizes the results of the optical and mechanical tests that have been performed on the Versatile Link's passive optical components. The authors conclude that two single mode and two multimode fibres, as well as standard connector components, can be qualified for use in the HL-LHC environment. The qualifying fibers are: Corning SMF-28e, DrakaElite® SRH-SMF, Corning Clearcurve® OM4 multimode graded index, and DrakaElite® SRH-MMF.

Huffman, B. T.; Weidberg, A.

2014-01-01

143

Heat loads to divertor nearby components from secondary radiation evolved during plasma instabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental issue in tokamak operation related to power exhaust during plasma instabilities is the understanding of heat and particle transport from the core plasma into the scrape-off layer and to plasma-facing materials. During abnormal and disruptive operation in tokamaks, radiation transport processes play a critical role in divertor/edge-generated plasma dynamics and are very important in determining overall lifetimes of the divertor and nearby components. This is equivalent to or greater than the effect of the direct impact of escaped core plasma on the divertor plate. We have developed and implemented comprehensive enhanced physical and numerical models in the upgraded HEIGHTS package for simulating detailed photon and particle transport in the evolved edge plasma during various instabilities. The paper describes details of a newly developed 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport model, including optimization methods of generated plasma opacities in the full range of expected photon spectra. Response of the ITER divertor's nearby surfaces due to radiation from the divertor-developed plasma was simulated by using actual full 3D reactor design and magnetic configurations. We analyzed in detail the radiation emission spectra and compared the emission of both carbon and tungsten as divertor plate materials. The integrated 3D simulation predicted unexpectedly high damage risk to the open stainless steel legs of the dome structure in the current ITER design from the intense radiation during a disruption on the tungsten divertor plate.

Sizyuk, V.; Hassanein, A.

2015-01-01

144

MONOBOB: A radiation-hard and efficient 2.45-GHz ECRIS dedicated to radioactive ion production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MONOBOB, a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been designed to ionise the radioactive elements coming from the production target of the SPIRAL II project. The goal was to build a long-lived ECRIS to work in the hostile environment of the target while presenting good ionisation efficiencies for gases. The numerous constraints related to the operation in a facility classed as 'nuclear' have been taken into account during the design of the source. In this paper, however, we have concentrated in particular on (i) the radiation hardness of the magnetic structure, (ii) the injection of the RF power, (iii) the ionisation efficiency for noble gases, (iv) the ability of the source to work despite major outgassing and (v) the beam emittance. The first version of this source was tested to validate its principle by measurements of its performance. The results obtained with He, Ne and Ar permit us to predict ionisation efficiencies for Kr and Xe of the order of 80%, even with outgassing flows of the order of 1.2 × 10 16 particle s -1. Under the same working conditions, between 60% and 80% of the beam current is included within an emittance of 30? mm mrad at 20 kV, which could still be improved. Using the results obtained with the first version of the source, a second version respecting all the SPIRAL II constraints has now been designed and is under construction.

Huet-Equilbec, C.; Jardin, P.; Gorel, P.; Pacquet, J.-Y.; Gaubert, G.; Cornell, J.; Dubois, M.; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.

2005-11-01

145

A seven-crystal Johann-type hard x-ray spectrometer at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource  

SciTech Connect

We present a multicrystal Johann-type hard x-ray spectrometer ({approx}5-18 keV) recently developed, installed, and operated at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. The instrument is set at the wiggler beamline 6-2 equipped with two liquid nitrogen cooled monochromators - Si(111) and Si(311) - as well as collimating and focusing optics. The spectrometer consists of seven spherically bent crystal analyzers placed on intersecting vertical Rowland circles of 1 m of diameter. The spectrometer is scanned vertically capturing an extended backscattering Bragg angular range (88 Degree-Sign -74 Degree-Sign ) while maintaining all crystals on the Rowland circle trace. The instrument operates in atmospheric pressure by means of a helium bag and when all the seven crystals are used (100 mm of projected diameter each), has a solid angle of about 0.45% of 4{pi} sr. The typical resolving power is in the order of (E/{Delta}E){approx}10 000. The spectrometer's high detection efficiency combined with the beamline 6-2 characteristics permits routine studies of x-ray emission, high energy resolution fluorescence detected x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of very diluted samples as well as implementation of demanding in situ environments.

Sokaras, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Nordlund, D.; Velikov, P.; Wenger, D.; Garachtchenko, A.; George, M.; Borzenets, V.; Johnson, B.; Rabedeau, T. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Alonso-Mori, R.; Bergmann, U. [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

2013-05-15

146

Extension of Compressibility-Route Cubic Equations of State and the Radial Distribution Functions at Contact to Multi-Component Hard-Sphere Mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equation of state (EOS) for hard-sphere fluid derived from compressibility routes of Percus-Yevick theory (PYC) is extended. The two parameters are determined by fitting well-known virial coefficients of pure fluid. The extended cubic EOS can be directly extended to multi-component mixtures, merely demanding the EOS of mixtures also is cubic and combining two physical conditions for the radial distribution functions at contact (RDFC) of mixtures. The calculated virial coefficients of pure fluid and predicted compressibility factors and RDFC for both pure fluid and mixtures are excellent as compared with the simulation data. The values of RDFC for mixtures with extremely large size ratio 10 are far better than the BGHLL expressions in literature.

Sun, Jiu-Xun; Jin, Ke; Cai, Ling-Cang; Wu, Qiang

2014-08-01

147

Radiation environment on board Foton-M 3: the neutron component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recoverable capsule Foton-M 3 (ESA mission) was launched from Baikonur on 2007 September 14 and landed on the Russian-Kazakh border 12 days later. The spacecraft carried on board several ESA experiments. During this space mission a study has been performed on the neutron component of the radiation environment inside the capsule. Neutrons are a not avoidable component of the secondary radiation produced by interaction of primary radiation with the spacecraft shielding. Because of their high LET, neutrons could represent a main risk for both the electronic instruments and the health of the astronauts during space missions. Monte Carlo simulations performed by Geant4 code have been carried out using as input primary proton and alpha spectra, obtained by various tools (i.e. Creme 96, Omere, etc . . . ) and the neutron fluxes and doses, as a function of neutron energies, have been evaluated. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained by passive neutron detectors. In this study the effectiveness of various shielding materials useful in space mission has been also investigated.

Falzetta, Giuseppe; Zanini, Alba; Chiorra, Katia; Briccarello, Mauro; Belluco, Maurizio; Longo, Francesco; Jerse, Giovanna

148

Very fast X-ray spectral variability in Cygnus X-1: origin of the hard- and soft-state emission components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The way in which the X-ray photon index, ?, varies as a function of count rate is a strong diagnostic of the emission processes and emission geometry around accreting compact objects. Here we present the results from a study using a new, and simple, method designed to improve sensitivity to the measurement of the variability of ? on very short time-scales. We have measured ? in ˜2 million spectra, extracted from observations with a variety of different accretion rates and spectral states, on time-scales as short as 16 ms for the high-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 (and in a smaller number of spectra for the low-mass X-ray binary GX 339-4), and have cross-correlated these measurements with the source count rate. In the soft-state cross-correlation functions (CCFs), we find a positive peak at zero lag, stronger and narrower in the softer observations. Assuming that the X-rays are produced by Compton scattering of soft seed photons by high-energy electrons in a corona, these results are consistent with Compton cooling of the corona by seed photons from the inner edge of the accretion disc, the truncation radius of which increases with increasing hardness ratio. The CCFs produced from the hard-state observations, however, show an anti-correlation which is most easily explained by variation in the energy of the electrons in the corona rather than in variation of the seed photon flux. The hard-state CCFs can be decomposed into a narrow anti-correlation at zero lag, which we tentatively associate with the effects of self-Comptonization of cyclo-synchrotron seed photons in either a hot, optically thin accretion flow or the base of the jet, and a second, asymmetric component which we suggest is produced as a consequence of a lag between the soft and hard X-ray emission. The lag may be caused by a radial temperature/energy gradient in the Comptonizing electrons combined with the inward propagation of accretion rate perturbations.

Skipper, Chris J.; McHardy, Ian M.; Maccarone, Thomas J.

2013-09-01

149

The characterization of dressing component materials and radiation formation of PVA PVP hydrogel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of dressing component materials and radiation induced formation of PVA-PVP hydrogel have been carried out. It was found that the purity of PVA and PVP powders were 99.5% and 77.82% based on DSC measurement. The PVA-PVP hydrogels have the water content in the range of 60-80% and water absorption in the range of 40-250%. It was also found that the PVA-PVP hydrogel prepared by irradiation at 20 kGy shows a good barrier for microbes. This characterization are very important for PVA-PVP hydrogel to be used as wound dressing.

Razzak, M. T.; Zainuddin; Erizal; Dewi, S. P.; Lely, H.; Taty, E.; Sukirno

1999-06-01

150

A review on the effects of ionizing radiation on blood and blood components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major application of blood irradiation is for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease on immunodeficient patients by the abrogation of T-lymphocytes. Despite screening of blood donations, transfusion associated transmission of infections due to contaminated blood products is common. Hence, there is potential for the application of irradiation for the inactivation of pathogenic microbes in blood products. Literature on the effect of radiation on blood components is reviewed in order to make a rational decision on the feasibility of their irradiation.

Jacobs, Geoffrey P.

1998-11-01

151

Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI High Capacity Power Project  

SciTech Connect

The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

Shwarze, G.E. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Niedra, J.M. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States) Lewis Research Center Group; Frasca, A.J. [Wittenberg Univ., Springfield, OH (United States); Wieserman, W.R. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, Johnstown, PA (United States)

1994-09-01

152

Luminescence properties of a Lu2O3:Eu3+ nano-phosphor and radiation hardness measurements with a proton beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eu3+-doped Lu2O3 phosphors typically have an emission wavelength in the red region. The transition of Eu3+ is due to the 5D0 ? 7F2 transition at 610 nm. To produce the Lu2O3:Eu3+ phosphors, we used a co-precipitation method with lutetium nitrate hydrate (Lu(NO3)3·6H2O), europium nitrate hydrate (Eu(NO3)3·6H2O) and diethanolamine (C4H11NO2). The phosphors were sintered at temperatures from 1,100 °C to 1,700 °C by using an electric furnace in an air atmosphere. Then, we obtained the luminescence properties of the phosphors, such as emission and excitation spectra, Field-emission scanning electron microscopy images, X-ray diffraction patterns, radiation hardness, etc. Lu2O3:Eu3+ showed the highest efficiency when sintered at 1,600 °C with a 6%Eu3+ concentration. For the radiation hardness test, a 45-MeV, 10-nA proton beam (MC-50 cyclotron at the KIRMS) was used. Three samples were irradiated with the proton beam: 10, 20, and 40 minutes. The total irradiation dose was approximately 105 ˜ 106 Gy. We did not observe any remarkable changes in the intensity of the luminescence or in the range of the emission wavelength. Hence, we conclude that Lu2O3:Eu3+ phosphors are radiation hard.

Oh, Myeongjin; Kim, H. J.; Kim, Sunghwan; Cheon, ChongKyu

2012-07-01

153

Radiation hard vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

154

Low-dose ultraviolet radiation selectively degrades chromophore-rich extracellular matrix components.  

PubMed

Photoageing of human skin due to chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is characterized histologically by extensive remodelling of the dermal elastic fibre system. Whilst enzymatic pathways are thought to play a major role in mediating extracellular matrix (ECM) degeneration in UV-exposed skin, the substrate specificity of UVR-up-regulated and activated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is low. It is unclear, therefore, how such cell-mediated mechanisms alone could be responsible for the reported selective degradation of elastic fibre components such as fibrillin-1 and fibulin-5 during the early stages of photoageing. Here we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to demonstrate that physiologically attainable doses (20-100 mJ/cm(2)) of direct UV-B radiation can induce profound, dose-dependent, changes in the structure of, and mass distribution within, isolated fibrillin microfibrils. Furthermore, using reducing and native PAGE in combination with AFM, we show that, whilst exposure to low-dose UV-B radiation significantly alters the macromolecular and quaternary structures of both UV chromophore (Cys, His, Phe, Trp and Tyr)-rich fibrillin microfibrils (fibrillin-1, 21.0%) and fibronectin dimers (fibronectin, 12.9%), similar doses have no detectable effect on UV chromophore-poor type I collagen monomers (2.2%). Analysis of the published primary amino acid sequences of 49 dermal ECM components demonstrates that most elastic fibre-associated proteins, but crucially neither elastin nor members of the collagen family, are rich in UV chromophores. We suggest, therefore, that the amino acid composition of elastic fibre-associated proteins [including the fibrillins, fibulins, latent TGFbeta binding proteins (LTBPs) and the lysyl oxidase family of enzymes (LOK/LOXLs)] may predispose them to direct degradation by UVR. As a consequence, this selective acellular photochemical pathway may play an important role in initiating and/or exacerbating cell-mediated ECM remodelling in UVR-exposed skin. PMID:20552716

Sherratt, Michael J; Bayley, Christopher P; Reilly, Siobhan M; Gibbs, Neil K; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Watson, Rachel E B

2010-09-01

155

RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics  

SciTech Connect

A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-10-01

156

Simplified Techniques to Study Components of Solar Radiation Under Haze and Clouds.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of the global (G), diffuse (D) and direct-beam (I) irradiances at the surface of the earth can be obtained with a single instrument, the `dial' radiometer. The dial assembly intermittently shades a solid-state sensor on a continual automatic basis. This is a very simple instrument that does not require mechanical adjustments of the shade. When corrections for imperfect cosine response and excessive shading of sky radiation are performed, measurements averaged over 1 h should be accurate well within ±5%. Estimates of atmospheric turbidity or haziness can be expressed as an extinction coefficient, computed for I in reference to that obtained under cloudless clean skies for the same solar zenith angle. The uneven spectral response of silicon-cell and PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) sensors should be considered when comparing estimates of G, D or I to measurements of these components by a wide-band sensor. Linear relationships seem adequate for a variety of cloud conditions. This allows the use of a single dial silicon-cell radiometer, for example, to estimate quite accurately the values of G, D and I that would be seen by wide-band or PAR radiometers. An alternative, but less exact, means of obtaining estimates of hourly averages of D and I is to measure only G and use the ratio of G to that which would be obtained under clean, cloudless conditions as the sole determining factor.

Wesely, Marvin L.

1982-03-01

157

Occupational radiation exposure during removal of radioactive reactor components from GRR-1 pool.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to control occupational exposure during the removal of radioactive reactor components from a Greek research reactor pool. The method comprised the prediction of the radiation levels, the design of special shielding structures and the occupational dose assessment. Activation calculations were performed using the FISPACT code to predict the source term. Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP code were utilized to estimate the ambient dose equivalent rates. The results of the calculations were verified by measurements and were found to be in good agreement. Thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) and electronic personal dosemeter (EPD) were implemented to measure the radiation exposure of the workers. The total collective dose of 14 participating workers was 0.15 man mSv. The maximum individual effective dose was 0.02 mSv, and the maximum extremity equivalent dose was 0.09 mSv. The discussed method provides a useful tool enabling work planning during reactor decommissioning and renovation activities ensuring that exposures will be maintained ALARA. PMID:21051436

Kontogeorgakos, D; Tzika, F; Valakis, S; Stamatelatos, I E

2011-03-01

158

A Principal Component-Based Radiative Transfer Forward Model (PCRTM) for Vertically in Homogeneous Cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A principal-component based radiative transfer model (PCRTM) is developed for simulating the infrared spectral radiance at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The PCRTM approach removes the redundancy in radiative transfer calculation in high resolution infrared spectra, and saves significant amount of computational time with great accuracy. In PCRTM, both ice and water clouds are treated as effective transmissivity and reflectivity stored in a pre-calculated lookup tables. These quantities are calculated using cloud single scattering properties such as cloud optical depth, cloud particle size, cloud phase, etc. The cloud can be inserted into any pressure layer in the PCRTM model (up to 100 layers). The effective temperature of each cloud layer is treated as a function of its optical depth. To test the accuracy of this approximation, the results are compared with the more rigorous DISORT model, which treats cloud as a plane parallel layer. The root-mean-square error of PCRTM, with respect to DISORT results, is generally less than 0.5 K in brightness temperature. However, the CPU time required by PCRTM was approximately two orders of magnitude less than that required by DISORT.

Li, Hui; Liu, Xu; Yang, Ping; Kratz, David P.

2010-01-01

159

Holey fibre delivered radiation for laser curing and trimming of direct write components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we demonstrate how Holey Fibre (HF) technology can positively impact the field of materials processing and fabrication, specifically Direct Write (DW). DW is the large scale, patterned deposition of functional materials onto both flat and conformal surfaces. Currently, DW techniques involve thermal post-processing whereby the entire structure is enclosed inside an oven, so limiting the DW technique to small, heat resistant surfaces. Selectively laser curing the ink would allow the ink to be brought up to the required temperature without heating the surrounding substrate material. In addition the ability to trim components would allow miniature circuits to be written and devices to be tuned by changing the capacitance or resistance. HF technology enables in-situ curing and trimming of direct write components using the same rig and length of fibre. HF's with mode areas in excess of 450?m2 can be routinely fabricated allowing high power transmission whilst retaining the high beam quality of the radiation source. We will present results of curing and trimming trials which demonstrate that HF's provide a distinct advantage over standard multimode fibres by allowing both curing and machining to be achieved through a single delivery fibre.

Delmonte, T.; Raja, S.; McDonald, J.; Sidhu, J.; O'Driscoll, E. J.; Flanagan, J. C.; Hayes, J. R.; Petrovich, M. N.; Finazzi, V.; Polletti, F.; Richardson, D. J.; Hand, D. P.

2006-09-01

160

The underlying event in hard scattering processes  

SciTech Connect

The authors study the behavior of the underlying event in hard scattering proton-antiproton collisions at 1.8 TeV and compare with the QCD Monte-Carlo models. The underlying event is everything except the two outgoing hard scattered jets and receives contributions from the beam-beam remnants plus initial and final-state radiation. The data indicate that neither ISAJET or HERWIG produce enough charged particles (with p{sub T} > 0.5 GeV/c) from the beam-beam remnant component and that ISAJET produces too many charged particles from initial-state radiation. PYTHIA which uses multiple parton scattering to enhance the underlying event does the best job describing the data.

R. Field

2002-02-08

161

The radiative-adiabatic model of 2-component (2 + 2) greenhouse effect is applicable for wide range of planetary environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earlier works (1) it is shown that the radiative-adiabatic model make it possible the analytical solution for the 2-component (2 + 2) greenhouse effect in the case of the optical dense atmosphere (Earth, Venus). Now we have obtained the analytical estimation of greenhouse effect not only for the planets with the high optical density of atmosphere but also for

A. V. Karnaukhov

2004-01-01

162

The hard metal diseases  

SciTech Connect

Hard metal is a mixture of tungsten carbide and cobalt, to which small amounts of other metals may be added. It is widely used for industrial purposes whenever extreme hardness and high temperature resistance are needed, such as for cutting tools, oil well drilling bits, and jet engine exhaust ports. Cobalt is the component of hard metal that can be a health hazard. Respiratory diseases occur in workers exposed to cobalt--either in the production of hard metal, from machining hard metal parts, or from other sources. Adverse pulmonary reactions include asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and interstitial fibrosis. A peculiar, almost unique form of lung fibrosis, giant cell interstitial pneumonia, is closely linked with cobalt exposure.66 references.

Cugell, D.W. (Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States))

1992-06-01

163

Acoustic radiation from a pulsating spherical cap set on a spherical baffle near a hard\\/soft flat surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation of sound from a spherical piston, set in the side of a rigid sphere, undergoing harmonic radial surface vibrations in an acoustic halfspace is analyzed in an exact fashion using the classical method of separation of variables. The method of images in combination with the translational addition theorems for spherical wave functions is employed to take the presence of

Seyyed M. Hasheminejad; Mahdi Azarpeyvand

2004-01-01

164

Hardness assurance testing and radiation hardening by design techniques for silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors and digital logic circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocarbon exploration, global navigation satellite systems, computed tomography, and aircraft avionics are just a few examples of applications that require system operation at an ambient temperature, pressure, or radiation level outside the range covered by military specifications. The electronics employed in these applications are known as "extreme environment electronics." On account of the increased cost resulting from both process modifications and the use of exotic substrate materials, only a handful of semiconductor foundries have specialized in the production of extreme environment electronics. Protection of these electronic systems in an extreme environment may be attained by encapsulating sensitive circuits in a controlled environment, which provides isolation from the hostile ambient, often at a significant cost and performance penalty. In a significant departure from this traditional approach, system designers have begun to use commercial off-the-shelf technology platforms with built in mitigation techniques for extreme environment applications. Such an approach simultaneously leverages the state of the art in technology performance with significant savings in project cost. Silicon-germanium is one such commercial technology platform that demonstrates potential for deployment into extreme environment applications as a result of its excellent performance at cryogenic temperatures, remarkable tolerance to radiation-induced degradation, and monolithic integration with silicon-based manufacturing. In this dissertation the radiation response of silicon-germanium technology is investigated, and novel transistor-level layout-based techniques are implemented to improve the radiation tolerance of HBT digital logic.

Sutton, Akil K.

165

Remote detection of radioactive contamination in the atmosphere based on secondary optical and microwave radiation of atmospheric components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper analyzes secondary phenomena of atmospheric radioactive pollution caused by activity of the nuclear cycle enterprises. These effects being as indicators for remote diagnostics of a radio-activity are discussed. Excitation of a molecular and gas component in the air and various chemical reactions under the action of radiation have been considered. As a result of these reactions, new aerosol and gaseous components in the form of the excited atoms and ions appear in the atmosphere and relax with emission including microwave and optical wavelengths. The observable luminescence of the air during the emergency events at the nuclea power stations are long enough to be dedected by modern receivers. Intensity of such radiation in a radioactive plume is estimated for ecological monitoring of the atmosphere. Aerosols appearing, as a result of UF6 hydrolysis, in the atmosphere and their behavior have been also shown to be detectable with remote sensing.

Chistyakova, Liliya K.; Penin, Sergei T.

1999-12-01

166

Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of accessory cell function of Langerhans cells by Aloe vera gel components.  

PubMed

The active components of Aloe vera gel that can prevent ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced suppression of accessory cell function of Langerhans cells (LC) were purified by activity-guided sequential fractionation followed by in vitro functional assay. The functional assay was based on the fact that exposure of freshly isolated murine epidermal cells (EC) to UVB radiation resulted in impairment of accessory cell function of LC, as measured by their ability to support anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb)-primed T-cell mitogenesis. This UVB-suppressed LC accessory cell function was prevented by addition of partially purified Aloe gel components to cultures of UVB-irradiated EC. The Aloe gel components appeared to prevent events occurring within the first 24 h after UVB irradiation that lead to the impairment of accessory cell function. The Aloe gel components did not cause proliferation of anti-CD3 mAb-primed T-cells, nor did induce proliferation of normal EC. The activity-guided final purification of Aloe gel components resulted in the isolation of two components. Both of the components were small molecular weight (MW) substances with an apparent MW of less than 1,000 Da but different from each other in net charge characteristics at pH 7.4. These results suggest that Aloe vera gel contains at least two small molecular weight immunomodulators that may prevent UVB-induced immune suppression in the skin. PMID:9403333

Lee, C K; Han, S S; Mo, Y K; Kim, R S; Chung, M H; Park, Y I; Lee, S K; Kim, Y S

1997-10-01

167

Radiation tolerance qualification for maintenance tasks in the future fusion reactors: from fibre-optic components to robust data links  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) requires remote handling tools for its maintenance that will operate in a harsh environment. The numerous instrumentation cables for this maintenance equipment call for (de)multiplexing solutions, in order to reduce the umbilical size. Fibre-optic data links, using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components, are seriously considered as a radiation tolerant solution, offering wavelength encoded multiplexing possibilities.

M. Van Uffelen; A. Fernandez Fernandez; B. Brichard; F. Berghmans; M. Decréton

2003-01-01

168

Suppression of Corrugated Boundaries in Multilayer Fresnel Zone Plate for Hard X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation Using Cylindrical Slit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrugated zone roughness of a circular Cu\\/Al multilayer Fresnel zone plate (FZP) was successfully suppressed. Such a zone corrugation was often observed in the concentric multilayers prepared using a conventional sputtering apparatus. The zone corrugation is a consequence of the oblique component of the deposition flux (i.e. shadowing effect). We therefore set a cylindrical slit (a linear slit on the

Masato Yasumoto; Shigeharu Tamura; Nagao Kamijo; Yoshio Suzuki; Mitsuhiro Awaji; Akihisa Takeuchi; Hidekazu Takano; Yoshiki Kohmura; Katsumi Handa

2001-01-01

169

Contact and noncontact laser preparation of hard dental tissues by Er:YAG laser radiation delivered by hollow glass waveguide or articulated arm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differences between a contact and non-contact Er:YAG laser hard dental tissue preparation were verified. The influence of laser energy and number of pulses on a profile and depth of a drilled cavity was investigated. The delivery systems used were an articulated arm and a cyclic olefin polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguide with or without a special sapphire tip. In the case of the non-contact preparation, the laser radiation was directed onto the dental tissue by focusing optics (CaF2 lens) together with the cooling water spray in order to ensure that the tissues will not be burned. The water spray was also used during the preparation when the waveguide with a sapphire tip was used to deliver the radiation. For the evaluation of shapes, depth and profiles of the prepared cavities the metallographic microscope, photographs from the light microscope and scanning electron microsec were used. From the result it follows that great differences exist in the laser speed, value of energy, the profile, and depth of the cavities prepared by the contact and non-contact preparation. In the case of contact ablation the procedure is quicker, the energy fluence needed is lower and more precise cavities with larger diameters are produced.

Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Nemec, Michal; Hamal, Karel; Krejsa, Otakar

1999-05-01

170

Standard Practice for Application of Thermoluminescence-Dosimetry (TLD) Systems for Determining Absorbed Dose in Radiation-Hardness Testing of Electronic Devices  

E-print Network

1.1 This practice covers procedures for the use of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) to determine the absorbed dose in a material irradiated by ionizing radiation. Although some elements of the procedures have broader application, the specific area of concern is radiation-hardness testing of electronic devices. This practice is applicable to the measurement of absorbed dose in materials irradiated by gamma rays, X rays, and electrons of energies from 12 to 60 MeV. Specific energy limits are covered in appropriate sections describing specific applications of the procedures. The range of absorbed dose covered is approximately from 10?2 to 104 Gy (1 to 106 rad), and the range of absorbed dose rates is approximately from 10?2 to 1010 Gy/s (1 to 1012 rad/s). Absorbed dose and absorbed dose-rate measurements in materials subjected to neutron irradiation are not covered in this practice. Further, the portion of these procedures that deal with electron irradiation are primarily intended for use in parts testin...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01

171

Mathematical model of the solar radiation force and torques acting on the components of a spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General expressions for the solar radiation force and torques are derived in the vectorial form for any given reflecting surface, provided that the reflecting characteristics of the surface, as well as the value of the solar constant, are known. An appropriate choice of a spacecraft-fixed frame of reference leads to relatively simple expressions for the solar radiation forces and torques in terms of the functions of the sun-spacecraft-earth angle.

Georgevic, R. M.

1971-01-01

172

Impact of Bone Marrow Radiation Dose on Acute Hematologic Toxicity in Cervical Cancer: Principal Component Analysis on High Dimensional Data  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study the effects of increasing pelvic bone marrow (BM) radiation dose on acute hematologic toxicity in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy, using a novel modeling approach to preserve the local spatial dose information. Methods and Materials: The study included 37 cervical cancer patients treated with concurrent weekly cisplatin and pelvic radiation therapy. The white blood cell count nadir during treatment was used as the indicator for acute hematologic toxicity. Pelvic BM radiation dose distributions were standardized across patients by registering the pelvic BM volumes to a common template, followed by dose remapping using deformable image registration, resulting in a dose array. Principal component (PC) analysis was applied to the dose array, and the significant eigenvectors were identified by linear regression on the PCs. The coefficients for PC regression and significant eigenvectors were represented in three dimensions to identify critical BM subregions where dose accumulation is associated with hematologic toxicity. Results: We identified five PCs associated with acute hematologic toxicity. PC analysis regression modeling explained a high proportion of the variation in acute hematologicity (adjusted R{sup 2}, 0.49). Three-dimensional rendering of a linear combination of the significant eigenvectors revealed patterns consistent with anatomical distributions of hematopoietically active BM. Conclusions: We have developed a novel approach that preserves spatial dose information to model effects of radiation dose on toxicity, which may be useful in optimizing radiation techniques to avoid critical subregions of normal tissues. Further validation of this approach in a large cohort is ongoing.

Yun Liang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Messer, Karen [Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Rose, Brent S.; Lewis, John H.; Jiang, Steve B.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Mundt, Arno J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Mell, Loren K., E-mail: lmell@ucsd.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

2010-11-01

173

Suppression of Corrugated Boundaries in Multilayer Fresnel Zone Plate for Hard X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation Using Cylindrical Slit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrugated zone roughness of a circular Cu/Al multilayer Fresnel zone plate (FZP) was successfully suppressed. Such a zone corrugation was often observed in the concentric multilayers prepared using a conventional sputtering apparatus. The zone corrugation is a consequence of the oblique component of the deposition flux (i.e. shadowing effect). We therefore set a cylindrical slit (a linear slit on the surface of a stainless steel cylindrical shield) between the target and the substrate in order to eliminate the oblique flux. As a result, the zone corrugation was not observed using a scanning ion microscope (SIM).

Yasumoto, Masato; Tamura, Shigeharu; Kamijo, Nagao; Suzuki, Yoshio; Awaji, Mitsuhiro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Takano, Hidekazu; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Handa, Katsumi

2001-07-01

174

Modelling of multi-vortex convection of fine alloying components in the molten pool under the laser radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work is devoted to the mathematical modelling and numerical solution of the problems of conjugate micro-convection, which arises under the laser radiation action in the metal melt with surface-active refractory disperse components added for the modification, hardening, and doping of the treated surface. A multi-vortex structure of the melt flow has been obtained, the number of vortices in which depends on the surface tension variation, on the temperature and power of laser radiation. Special attention is paid to the numerical modelling of the behavior in the melt of the substrate of disperse admixture consisting of the tungsten carbide particles. The role of microconvection in the distribution of powder particles in the surface layer of the substrate after its cooling is shown.

Gurin, A. M.; Kovalev, O. B.

2013-06-01

175

Radiation pressure-assisted acceleration of ions using multi-component foils in high-intensity laser-matter interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results on the acceleration of protons and carbon ions from ultra-thin polymer foils at intensities of up to 6 × 1019 W cm-2 are presented revealing quasi-monoenergetic spectral characteristics for different ion species at the same time. For carbon ions and protons, a linear correlation between the cutoff energy and the peak energy is observed when the laser intensity is increased. Particle-in-cell simulations supporting the experimental results imply an ion acceleration mechanism driven by the radiation pressure as predicted for multi-component foils at these intensities.

Aurand, B.; Kuschel, S.; Jäckel, O.; Rödel, C.; Zhao, H. Y.; Herzer, S.; Paz, A. E.; Bierbach, J.; Polz, J.; Elkin, B.; Paulus, G. G.; Karmakar, A.; Gibbon, P.; Kuehl, T.; Kaluza, M. C.

2013-03-01

176

Feasibility of modifying the high resolution infrared radiation sounder (HIRS/2) for measuring spectral components of Earth radiation budget  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of adding four spectral channels to the 20 channel HIRS/2 instrument for the purpose of determining the origin and profile of radiant existence from the Earth's atmosphere is considered. Methods of addition of three channels at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.6 micron m to the present 0.7 micron m visible channel and an 18-25 micron m channel to the present 19 channels spaced from 3.7 micron m to 15 micron m are addressed. Optical components and physical positions were found that permit inclusion of these added channels with negligible effect on the performance of the present 20 channels. Data format changes permit inclusion of the ERB data in the 288 bits allocated to HIRS for each scan element. A lamp and collimating optic assembly may replace one of the on board radiometric black bodies to provide a reference source for the albedo channels. Some increase in instrument dimensions, weight and power will be required to accommodate the modifications.

Koenig, E. W.; Holman, K. A.

1980-01-01

177

Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity by Aloe vera gel components  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently reported that Aloe vera gel contains small molecular weight immunomodulators, G1C2F1, that restore ultraviolet B (UVB)-suppressed accessory cell function of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) in vitro. In the present study we evaluated the UVB-protective activity of G1C2F1 in vivo. Exposure of the shaved abdominal skin of mice to 2.4 KJ\\/m2 of UVB radiation resulted in suppression of contact

Chong Kil Lee; Seong Sun Han; Young Keun Shin; Myung Hee Chung; Young In Park; Seung Ki Lee; Yeong Shik Kim

1999-01-01

178

Experimental shielding evaluation of the radiation protection provided by the structurally significant components of residential structures.  

PubMed

The human health and environmental effects following a postulated accidental release of radioactive material to the environment have been a public and regulatory concern since the early development of nuclear technology. These postulated releases have been researched extensively to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency planning purposes. The objective of this investigation is to provide an updated technical basis for contemporary building shielding factors for the US housing stock. Building shielding factors quantify the protection from ionising radiation provided by a certain building type. Much of the current data used to determine the quality of shielding around nuclear facilities and urban environments is based on simplistic point-kernel calculations for 1950s era suburbia and is no longer applicable to the densely populated urban environments realised today. To analyse a building's radiation shielding properties, the ideal approach would be to subject a variety of building types to various radioactive sources and measure the radiation levels in and around the building. While this is not entirely practicable, this research analyses the shielding effectiveness of ten structurally significant US housing-stock models (walls and roofs) important for shielding against ionising radiation. The experimental data are used to benchmark computational models to calculate the shielding effectiveness of various building configurations under investigation from two types of realistic environmental source terms. Various combinations of these ten shielding models can be used to develop full-scale computational housing-unit models for building shielding factor calculations representing 69.6 million housing units (61.3%) in the United States. Results produced in this investigation provide a comparison between theory and experiment behind building shielding factor methodology. PMID:24487195

Dickson, E D; Hamby, D M

2014-03-01

179

Parallel detection and elimination of strongly connected components for radiation transport sweeps  

E-print Network

for useful discussions regarding this work. Also, I wish to thank Bruce Hendrickson, Steve Plimpton, and Kent Budge at Sandia National Laboratories; without their guidance this work would not have been accomplished. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I... to ensure scalable performance. In this thesis we will consider a prototypical radiation transport solver used in an ASCI multi-physics code, such as SnRad [11] from Sandia National Lab- oratories In this module the transport equations are solved using a...

McLendon, William Clarence

2012-06-07

180

Assessment of the Water Quality Components in Turbid Estuarine Waters Based on Radiative Transfer Approximations  

EPA Science Inventory

Bio-geo-optical data collected in the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA were used to develop a semi-empirical optical algorithm for assessing inherent optical properties associated with water quality components (WQCs). Three wavelengths (560, 665 and 709 nm) were explored ...

181

A novel hohlraum with ultrathin depleted-uranium-nitride coating layer for low hard x-ray emission and high radiation temperature  

E-print Network

An ultra-thin layer of uranium nitrides (UN) has been coated on the inner surface of the depleted uranium hohlraum (DUH), which has been proved by our experiment can prevent the oxidization of Uranium (U) effectively. Comparative experiments between the novel depleted uranium hohlraum and pure golden (Au) hohlraum are implemented on Shenguang III prototype laser facility. Under the laser intensity of 6*10^14 W/cm2, we observe that, the hard x-ray (> 1.8 keV) fraction of this uranium hohlraum decreases by 61% and the peak intensity of total x-ray flux (0.1 keV ~ 5 keV) increases by 5%. Two dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code LARED are exploited to interpret the above observations. Our result for the first time indicates the advantage of the UN-coated DUH in generating the uniform x-ray field with a quasi Planckian spectrum and thus has important implications in optimizing the ignition hohlraum design.

Guo, Liang; Xing, Peifeng; Li, Sanwei; Yi, Taimin; Kuang, Longyu; Li, Zhichao; Li, Renguo; Wu, Zheqing; Jing, Longfei; Zhang, Wenhai; Zhan, Xiayu; Yang, Dong; Jiang, Bobi; Yang, Jiamin; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Li, Yongsheng; Liu, Jie; Huo, Wenyi; Lan, Ke

2014-01-01

182

CLARO-CMOS: a fast, low power and radiation-hard front-end ASIC for single-photon counting in 0.35 micron CMOS technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CLARO-CMOS is a prototype ASIC designed for fast photon counting with multi-anode photomultiplier tubes (MaPMT). The CLARO features a 5 ns peaking time, a recovery time to baseline smaller than 25 ns, and a power consumption of less than 1 mW per channel. The chip was designed in 0.35 ?m CMOS technology, and was tested for radiation hardness with neutrons up to 1014 1 MeV neq/cm2, X-rays up to 40 kGy and protons up to 76 kGy. Its capability to read out single photons at high rate from a Hamamatsu R11265 MaPMT, the baseline photon detector for the LHCb RICH upgrade, was demonstrated both with test bench measurements and with actual signals from a R11265 MaPMT. The presented results allowed CLARO to be chosen as the front-end readout chip in the upgraded LHCb RICH detector.

Andreotti, M.; Baldini, W.; Calabrese, R.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fiorini, M.; Giachero, A.; Gotti, C.; Luppi, E.; Maino, M.; Malaguti, R.; Pessina, G.; Tomassetti, L.

2015-01-01

183

Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineralogy of desert dust is important due to its effect on radiation, clouds and biogeochemical cycling of trace nutrients. This study presents the simulation of dust radiative forcing as a function of both mineral composition and size at the global scale, using mineral soil maps for estimating emissions. Externally mixed mineral aerosols in the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4) and internally mixed mineral aerosols in the modal aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) embedded in the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.5 (CESM) are speciated into common mineral components in place of total dust. The simulations with mineralogy are compared to available observations of mineral atmospheric distribution and deposition along with observations of clear-sky radiative forcing efficiency. Based on these simulations, we estimate the all-sky direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere as + 0.05 Wm-2 for both CAM4 and CAM5 simulations with mineralogy. We compare this to the radiative forcing from simulations of dust in release versions of CAM4 and CAM5 (+0.08 and +0.17 Wm-2) and of dust with optimized optical properties, wet scavenging and particle size distribution in CAM4 and CAM5, -0.05 and -0.17 Wm-2, respectively. The ability to correctly include the mineralogy of dust in climate models is hindered by its spatial and temporal variability as well as insufficient global in situ observations, incomplete and uncertain source mineralogies and the uncertainties associated with data retrieved from remote sensing methods.

Scanza, R. A.; Mahowald, N.; Ghan, S.; Zender, C. S.; Kok, J. F.; Liu, X.; Zhang, Y.; Albani, S.

2015-01-01

184

Hardness variability in commercial technologies  

SciTech Connect

The radiation hardness of commercial Floating Gate 256K E{sup 2}PROMs from a single diffusion lot was observed to vary between 5 to 25 krad(Si) when irradiated at a low dose rate of 64 mrad(Si)/s. Additional variations in E{sup 2}PROM hardness were found to depend on bias condition and failure mode (i.e., inability to read or write the memory), as well as the foundry at which the part was manufactured. This variability is related to system requirements, and it is shown that hardness level and variability affect the allowable mode of operation for E{sup 2}PROMs in space applications. The radiation hardness of commercial 1-Mbit CMOS SRAMs from Micron, Hitachi, and Sony irradiated at 147 rad(Si)/s was approximately 12, 13, and 19 krad(Si), respectively. These failure levels appear to be related to increases in leakage current during irradiation. Hardness of SRAMs from each manufacturer varied by less than 20%, but differences between manufacturers are significant. The Qualified Manufacturer`s List approach to radiation hardness assurance is suggested as a way to reduce variability and to improve the hardness level of commercial technologies.

Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-01

185

Analysis of radiation risk from alpha particle component of soalr particle events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Particle Events (SPE) will contain a primary alpha particle component, representing a possible increase in the potential risk to astronauts during an SPE over the often studied proton component. We discuss the physical interactions of alpha particles important in describing the transport of these particles through spacecraft and body shielding. Models of light ion reactions are presented and their effects on energy and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra in shielding are discussed. We present predictions of particle spectra, dose, and dose equivalent in organs of interest for SPE spectra typical of those occurring in recent solar cycles. The large events of solar cycle 19 are found to have substantial increase in biological risk from alpha particles, including a large increase in secondary neutron production from alpha particle breakup.

Cucinotta, F. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Golightly, M. J.; Weyland, M.

1994-01-01

186

Analysis of radiation risk from alpha particle component of solar particle events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar particle events (SPE) will contain a primary alpha particle component, representing a possible increase in the potential risk to astronauts during an SPE over the often studied proton component. We discuss the physical interactions of alpha particles important in describing the transport of these particles through spacecraft and body shielding. Models of light ion reactions are presented and their effects on energy and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra in shielding discussed. We present predictions of particle spectra, dose, and dose equivalent in organs of interest for SPE spectra typical of those occurring in recent solar cycles. The large events of solar cycle 19 are found to have substantial increase in biological risk from alpha particles, including a large increase in secondary neutron production from alpha particle breakup.

Cucinotta, F. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Golightly, M. J.; Weyland, M.

1994-01-01

187

Inferring ultraviolet anatomical exposure patterns while distinguishing the relative contribution of radiation components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main causative factor for skin cancer. UV exposure depends on environmental and individual factors, but individual exposure data remain scarce. While ground UV irradiance is monitored via different techniques, it is difficult to translate such observations into human UV exposure or dose because of confounding factors. A multi-disciplinary collaboration developed a model predicting the dose and distribution of UV exposure on the basis of ground irradiation and morphological data. Standard 3D computer graphics techniques were adapted to develop a simulation tool that estimates solar exposure of a virtual manikin depicted as a triangle mesh surface. The amount of solar energy received by various body locations is computed for direct, diffuse and reflected radiation separately. Dosimetric measurements obtained in field conditions were used to assess the model performance. The model predicted exposure to solar UV adequately with a symmetric mean absolute percentage error of 13% and half of the predictions within 17% range of the measurements. Using this tool, solar UV exposure patterns were investigated with respect to the relative contribution of the direct, diffuse and reflected radiation. Exposure doses for various body parts and exposure scenarios of a standing individual were assessed using erythemally-weighted UV ground irradiance data measured in 2009 at Payerne, Switzerland as input. For most anatomical sites, mean daily doses were high (typically 6.2-14.6 Standard Erythemal Dose, SED) and exceeded recommended exposure values. Direct exposure was important during specific periods (e.g. midday during summer), but contributed moderately to the annual dose, ranging from 15 to 24% for vertical and horizontal body parts, respectively. Diffuse irradiation explained about 80% of the cumulative annual exposure dose.

Vuilleumier, Laurent; Milon, Antoine; Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Moccozet, Laurent; Vernez, David

2013-05-01

188

Successful Treatment of High Risk and Recurrent Pediatric Desmoids Using Radiation as a Component of Multimodality Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the role of radiation therapy (RT) as a component of multimodality therapy for pediatric desmoids. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one children diagnosed between 1987 and 2005 were identified. Median age at start of treatment was 13 years (range, 2-21). Primary therapy consisted of resection alone (10), resection + external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) (5), resection + chemotherapy (CT; 3), EBRT alone (1), and CT alone (2). Results: The median follow-up from start of treatment is 75.7 months (range, 16-162). Examining patients with gross total resections (GTRs) (-) margins and those who had GTRs (+) margins followed by EBRT, only 2 of 7 failed primary treatment. Conversely, 13 of 14 patients with other primary treatments failed locally. Of the 15 patients who recurred, only 1 patient had a GTR (-) margins. Seven of these patients had salvage therapy that did not include RT, and of these only 2 have no evidence of disease (NED) at last follow-up. In contrast, the remaining 8 patients received RT as a component of their final salvage therapy and 7 of these are NED at last follow-up. At last follow-up, no patient has died, although toxicities of therapy have occurred. Conclusions: Local control is difficult to achieve in pediatric patients with desmoids. In the setting in which negative surgical margins cannot be achieved, RT plays a key role in achieving NED status. Even after multiple recurrences, successful salvage is achievable, particularly when high-dose focal therapy is incorporated.

Jabbari, Siavash [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Andolino, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Department of Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Missett, Brian T. [Kaiser Permanente Medical Group, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Law, Jason [Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Wara, William M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); O'Donnell, Richard J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Matthay, Katherine K.; DuBois, Steven G.; Goldsby, Robert [Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Haas-Kogan, Daphne A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)], E-mail: dhaaskogan@radonc.ucsf.edu

2009-09-01

189

Decomposing aerosol cloud radiative effects into cloud cover, liquid water path and Twomey components in marine stratocumulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for separating the three components of the marine stratocumulus (MSC) aerosol cloud interactions radiative effects, i.e., the cloud cover, liquid water path (LWP) and cloud drop radius (Twomey), was developed and tested. It is based on the assumption that changes in MSC cloud regimes that occur at short distance in homogeneous meteorological conditions are related to respective changes in the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The method was applied to 50 cases of well defined transitions from closed to open cells. It was found that the negative cloud radiative effect (CRE) over the closed cells is on average higher by 109 ± 18 Wm- 2 than that over the adjacent open cells. This large negative CRE is composed of the cloud cover (42 ± 8%), LWP (32 ± 8%) and Twomey (26 ± 6%) effects. This shows that the Twomey effect, which is caused by change in droplet concentration for a given LWP, contributes only a quarter of the difference in CRE, whereas the rest is contributed by added cloud water to the open cells both in the horizontal (cloud cover effect) and in the vertical (LWP effect) dimensions. The results suggest the possibility that anthropogenic aerosols that affect MSC-regime-changes might incur large negative radiative forcing on the global scale, mainly due to the cloud cover effect.

Goren, Tom; Rosenfeld, Daniel

2014-03-01

190

Revealing a hard X-ray spectral component reverberating within one light hour of the central Supermassive Black Hole in Ark 564  

E-print Network

Ark 564 (z=0.0247) is an X-ray bright NLS1. By using advanced X-ray timing techniques, Legg et al. (2012) discovered an excess of "delayed" emission in the hard X-ray band (4-7.5 keV) following about 1000 seconds after "flaring" light in the soft X-ray band (0.4-1 keV). We report on the X-ray spectral analysis of eight XMM-Newton and one Suzaku observation of Ark 564. High-resolution spectroscopy was performed with the RGS in the soft X-ray band, while broad-band spectroscopy was performed with the EPIC-pn and XIS/PIN instruments. We analysed time-averaged, flux-selected, and time-resolved spectra. Despite the large variability in flux, the broad band spectral shape of Ark 564 is not dramatically varying and can be reproduced either by a superposition of a power law and a blackbody emission, or by a Comptonized power law emission model. High resolution spectroscopy revealed the presence of ionised gas along the line of sight at the systemic redshift of the source, with a low column density and a range of ioni...

Giustini, M; Reeves, J N; Miller, L; Legg, E; Kraemer, S B; George, I M

2015-01-01

191

Review: a major component of radiation action: interference with intracellular control of differentiation.  

PubMed

If genetic lesions were the sole reason of damage induced by ionizing radiation, an increase in the number of identical chromosome sets (polyploidy) may be expected to have a radioprotective effect. This effect is evident in terminally differentiated tissues when the reduction in remaining life span is used as the criterion. This effect is also evident in cells capable of proliferation if cytoplasmic growth during the period of mitotic delay is restricted and the criterion used is continuation of cell proliferation. Both instances demonstrate that polyploidy, in principle, can exert a radioprotective effect, although the genetic damage induced by a given dose increases in approximate proportion to ploidy. However, in mitotically active cells, without restrictions in cytoplasmic growth, differentiation enhancement dominates the effects of genetic lesions, and polyploidy does not protect. Enhancement of differentiation causes damage by eliminating amplification divisions normally passed through by cell progenies before terminal differentiation, thus reducing the number of differentiated cells produced. From its dependence on excess cytoplasmic growth it is concluded that the phenomenon is caused by the interference of ionizing radiation with a mechanism that provides intracellular signals needed to coordinate molecular interactions involved in the control of cell differentiation. This conclusion corresponds to experiments that suggest that intracellular control of differentiation depends on an increase in the ratio of essential cytoplasmic constituents, probably mitochondrial genomes, per nuclear genome. The action of chemical differentiation enhancing agents is similar and an outline of probable mechanisms is presented. Regarding late radiation damage it is concluded that non-specific genetic lesions can enhance differentiation by permanently prolonging the cell cycle, which causes an increased cytoplasmic growth rate per cycle. In this case polyploidy cannot protect because the induced genetic lesions are proportional to ploidy. Both the duration of mitotic delay, and the extent of genetic lesions increase with chromosome size, thus explaining the correlation between interphase chromosome volume and radio-sensitivity. Lack of substantial radioprotecting effect of polyploidy in neoplastically transformed mammalian cells indicates residual capabilities to cease cell proliferation by mechanisms related to terminal differentiation, thus offering clues to tumour therapy. PMID:7594962

von Wangenheim, K H; Peterson, H P; Schwenke, K

1995-10-01

192

Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mineralogy of desert dust is important due to its effect on radiation, clouds and biogeochemical cycling of trace nutrients. This study presents the simulation of dust radiative forcing as a function of both mineral composition and size at the global scale using mineral soil maps for estimating emissions. Externally mixed mineral aerosols in the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4) and internally mixed mineral aerosols in the modal aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) embedded in the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.5 (CESM) are speciated into common mineral components in place of total dust. The simulations with mineralogy are compared to available observations of mineral atmospheric distribution and deposition along with observations of clear-sky radiative forcing efficiency. Based on these simulations, we estimate the all-sky direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere as +0.05 W m-2 for both CAM4 and CAM5 simulations with mineralogy and compare this both with simulations of dust in release versions of CAM4 and CAM5 (+0.08 and +0.17 W m-2) and of dust with optimized optical properties, wet scavenging and particle size distribution in CAM4 and CAM5, -0.05 and -0.17 W m-2, respectively. The ability to correctly include the mineralogy of dust in climate models is hindered by its spatial and temporal variability as well as insufficient global in-situ observations, incomplete and uncertain source mineralogies and the uncertainties associated with data retrieved from remote sensing methods.

Scanza, R. A.; Mahowald, N.; Ghan, S.; Zender, C. S.; Kok, J. F.; Liu, X.; Zhang, Y.

2014-07-01

193

Polaradiometric pyrometer in which the parallel and perpendicular components of radiation reflected from an unpolarized light source are equalized with the thermal radiation emitted from a measured object to determine its true temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiation pyrometer for measuring the true temperature of a body is provided by detecting and measuring thermal radiation from the body based on the principle that the effects of angular emission I(sub 1) and reflection I(sub 2) on the polarization states p and s of radiation are complementary such that upon detecting the combined partial polarization state components I(sub p) =I(sub 1p) + I(sub 2p) and I(sub s)=I(sub 1s) + I(sub 2s) and adjusting the intensity of the variable radiation source of the reflected radiation I(sub 2) until the combined partial radiation components I(sub p) and I(sub s) are equal, the effects of emissivity as well as diffusivity of the surface of the body are eliminated, thus obviating the need for any post processing of brightness temperature data.

Abtahi, Ali A. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

194

Standard hardness conversion tables for metals relationship among brinell hardness, vickers hardness, rockwell hardness, superficial hardness, knoop hardness, and scleroscope hardness  

E-print Network

1.1 Conversion Table 1 presents data in the Rockwell C hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.2 Conversion Table 2 presents data in the Rockwell B hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of non-austenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.3 Conversion Table 3 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell superficial hardness, and Knoop hardness of nickel and high-nickel alloys (nickel content o...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2007-01-01

195

Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Progress report, 1980-1981  

SciTech Connect

One aim has been to see whether, in E.coli, the various phenomena which were ascribed to the induction of the recA gene produce (p-recA) are really manifestations of one process. It was concluded that this is true for septum inhibition, Weigle-reactivation, induced inhibition of post radiation DNA degradation, and with the additional concept of a premutational lesion, for uv mutagenesis. lambda prophage induction may perhaps be brought into line with p-recA induction with the consideration of the additional secondary aspects of (a) activation of p-recA to make it enzymatically active and (b) the need to have the concentration of activated p-recA high enough to keep up with the rate of production of lambda-repressors. Revertants seem to be in more than one class and two of these can not easily be explained by the idea that p-recA contains an error-prone repair enzyme that makes errors at mutagenic lesions.

Not Available

1981-01-01

196

Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity by Aloe vera gel components.  

PubMed

We have recently reported that Aloe vera gel contains small molecular weight immunomodulators, G1C2F1, that restore ultraviolet B (UVB)-suppressed accessory cell function of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) in vitro. In the present study we evaluated the UVB-protective activity of G1C2F1 in vivo. Exposure of the shaved abdominal skin of mice to 2.4 KJ/m2 of UVB radiation resulted in suppression of contact sensitization through the skin to 41.1%, compared to normal unirradiated skin. Topical application of G1C2F1 immediately after irradiation reduced this suppression significantly. The percentage recovery of UVB-suppressed contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response was 52.3, 77.3, and 86.6% when the irradiated skin was treated once with 0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 mg/ml of G1C2F1-containing cream, respectively. G1C2F1 did not show nonspecific stimulatory activity on CHS response. The present study, together with the previous observation, show that Aloe vera gel contains small molecular weight immunomodulators that prevent UVB-induced immune suppression in the skin by restoration of UVB-induced damages on epidermal LC. PMID:10408627

Lee, C K; Han, S S; Shin, Y K; Chung, M H; Park, Y I; Lee, S K; Kim, Y S

1999-05-01

197

A radiation hard vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

Boettcher, G.E.

1988-07-19

198

Physics-based modeling of power system components for the evaluation of low-frequency radiated electromagnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-frequency electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is an increasingly important aspect in the design of practical systems to ensure the functional safety and reliability of complex products. The opportunities for using numerical techniques to predict and analyze system's EMC are therefore of considerable interest in many industries. As the first phase of study, a proper model, including all the details of the component, was required. Therefore, the advances in EMC modeling were studied with classifying analytical and numerical models. The selected model was finite element (FE) modeling, coupled with the distributed network method, to generate the model of the converter's components and obtain the frequency behavioral model of the converter. The method has the ability to reveal the behavior of parasitic elements and higher resonances, which have critical impacts in studying EMI problems. For the EMC and signature studies of the machine drives, the equivalent source modeling was studied. Considering the details of the multi-machine environment, including actual models, some innovation in equivalent source modeling was performed to decrease the simulation time dramatically. Several models were designed in this study and the voltage current cube model and wire model have the best result. The GA-based PSO method is used as the optimization process. Superposition and suppression of the fields in coupling the components were also studied and verified. The simulation time of the equivalent model is 80-100 times lower than the detailed model. All tests were verified experimentally. As the application of EMC and signature study, the fault diagnosis and condition monitoring of an induction motor drive was developed using radiated fields. In addition to experimental tests, the 3DFE analysis was coupled with circuit-based software to implement the incipient fault cases. The identification was implemented using ANN for seventy various faulty cases. The simulation results were verified experimentally. Finally, the identification of the types of power components were implemented. The results show that it is possible to identify the type of components, as well as the faulty components, by comparing the amplitudes of their stray field harmonics. The identification using the stray fields is nondestructive and can be used for the setups that cannot go offline and be dismantled.

Barzegaranbaboli, Mohammadreza

199

A Technique Using Principal Component Analysis to Compare Seasonal Cycles of Earth Radiation from CERES and Model Computations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for quantitatively comparing the seasonal cycles of two global data sets is presented. The seasonal cycles of absorbed solar radiation (ASR) and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) have been computed from an eight-year data set from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometers and from a model data set produced by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Global Modeling and Assimilation Office. To compare the seasonal cycles from these two data sets, principal component (PC) analysis is used, where the PCs express the time variations and the corresponding empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) describe the geographic variations. Ocean has a long thermal response time compared to land, so land and ocean are separated for the analysis. The root-mean square values for the seasonal cycles of ASR and OLR are extremely close for the two data sets. The first three PCs are quite close, showing that the time responses and magnitudes over the globe are very similar. The agreement between the two sets of PCs is quantified by computing the matrix of inner products of the two sets. For ASR over land, the first PCs of CERES and the model agree to better than 99.9%. The EOF maps are similar for most of the globe, but differ in a few places, and the agreement of the EOF maps is likewise quantified. Maps of differences between the annual cycles show regions of agreement and disagreement.

Smith, G. Louis; Mlynczak, Pamela E.; Potter, Gerald L.

2012-01-01

200

Diagnostic Components in Harsh Radiation Environments: Possible Overlap in R&D Requirements of IC and MF Systems  

SciTech Connect

The next generation of large scale fusion devices--ITER/LMJ/NIF--will require diagnostic components to operate in environments far more severe than those encountered in present facilities. This harsh environment will be induced by fluxes of neutrons, gamma rays, energetic ions, electromagnetic radiation, and in some cases debris and shrapnel, at levels several orders of magnitude higher than those experienced in today's devices. For several years the question of possible synergy between inertial and the magnetic confinement research has been pursued by members of the respective communities. A first joint workshop specifically devoted to the identification and promotion of these synergies was organized in France, at Aix-en-Provence from June 27th to 29th, 2007. The workshop was attended by about 50 invited specialists. The participants identified a number of subject areas where common overlapping interests could benefit from additional interactions and meetings: windows, optical fibers, mirrors, cables, electronic components and 14 MeV neutron sources. In this paper we summarize the findings of these working groups. We put the discussion into context by including a brief description of the environments and the physical effects that have to be handled.

Bourgade, J L; Costley, A E; Reichle, R; Hodgson, E R; Hsing, W; Glebov, V; Decreton, M; Leeper, R; Leray, J L; Dentan, M; Hutter, T; Morono, A; Eder, D; Shmayda, W; Brichard, B; Baggio, J; Bertalot, L; Vayakis, G; Moran, M; Sangster, T C; Vermeeren, L; Stoeckl, C; Girard, S; Pien, G

2008-05-08

201

Coherent terahertz radiation from high-harmonic component of modulated free-electron beam in a tapered two-asymmetric grating structure  

SciTech Connect

Based on the mechanism of incoherent diffraction radiation excited by an electron bunch in a waveguide with periodic structure, this paper presents the concept of coherent terahertz (THz) radiation from the high-harmonic component of a modulated free-electron beam in a tapered two-asymmetric grating structure. The results show that in this mechanism 0.43 THz radiation can be generated with 10 A/cm{sup 2} current density, and the efficiency can reach 0.5%. Because of the low required current density and relative high efficiency, this concept shows the application potential for electron-beam-driven terahertz sources.

Zhang Yaxin; Zhou Yucong; Dong Liang; Liu Shenggang [Terahertz Science and Technology Research Center, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

2012-09-17

202

Considerations for IC and Component Selection for Space Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation addresses the integrated cycling and component selection technologies for aerospace systems. The topics include: 1) Semiconductors: The Evolution of ICs - Availability and Technology; 2) IC Selection Requirements - three fields of thought, "The Good", "The Bad" and "The Ugly"; 3) Reliability and Radiation; 4) Radiation Perspective-Four methods of selecting ICs for space systems, Guaranteed hardness, historical ground-based radiation data, historical flight usage, and unknown assurance; 5) Understanding Risk, including risk trade space and ASICs and FPGA sample selection criteria.

LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

2008-01-01

203

Radiation  

Cancer.gov

DCEG researchers carry out a broad-based research program designed to identify, understand, and quantify the risk of cancer in populations exposed to medical, occupational, or environmental radiation. They study ionizing radiation exposures (e.g., x-rays,

204

Growth enhancement of soybean (Glycine max) upon exclusion of UV-B and UV-B/A components of solar radiation: characterization of photosynthetic parameters in leaves.  

PubMed

Exclusion of UV (280-380 nm) radiation from the solar spectrum can be an important tool to assess the impact of ambient UV radiation on plant growth and performance of crop plants. The effect of exclusion of UV-B and UV-A from solar radiation on the growth and photosynthetic components in soybean (Glycine max) leaves were investigated. Exclusion of solar UV-B and UV-B/A radiation, enhanced the fresh weight, dry weight, leaf area as well as induced a dramatic increase in plant height, which reflected a net increase in biomass. Dry weight increase per unit leaf area was quite significant upon both UV-B and UV-B/A exclusion from the solar spectrum. However, no changes in chlorophyll a and b contents were observed by exclusion of solar UV radiation but the content of carotenoids was significantly (34-46%) lowered. Analysis of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence transient parameters of leaf segments suggested no change in the F v/F m value due to UV-B or UV-B/A exclusion. Only a small reduction in photo-oxidized signal I (P700+)/unit Chl was noted. Interestingly the total soluble protein content per unit leaf area increased by 18% in UV-B/A and 40% in UV-B excluded samples, suggesting a unique upregulation of biosynthesis and accumulation of biomass. Solar UV radiation thus seems to primarily affect the photomorphogenic regulatory system that leads to an enhanced growth of leaves and an enhanced rate of net photosynthesis in soybean, a crop plant of economic importance. The presence of ultra-violet components in sunlight seems to arrest carbon sequestration in plants. PMID:17665152

Guruprasad, Kadur; Kadur, Guruprasad; Bhattacharjee, Swapan; Swapan, Bhattacharjee; Kataria, Sunita; Sunita, Kataria; Yadav, Sanjeev; Sanjeev, Yadav; Tiwari, Arjun; Arjun, Tiwari; Baroniya, Sanjay; Sanjay, Baroniya; Rajiv, Abhinav; Abhinav, Rajiv; Mohanty, Prasanna

2007-01-01

205

The diffuse galactic gamma radiation: The Compton contribution and component separation by energy interval and galactic coordinates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiation to be expected from cosmic ray interactions with matter and photons was examined. Particular emphasis is placed on the Compton emission. Both the photon density in and near the visible region and that in the region are deduced from the estimates of the emission functions throughout the Galaxy. The blackbody radiation is also included in the estimate of the total Compton emission. The result suggests that the gamma ray Compton radiation from cosmic ray ineractions with galactic visible and infrared photons is substantially larger than previously believed.

Kniffen, D. A.; Fichtel, C.

1981-01-01

206

The reversal of the rotational modulation rates of the north and south components of Saturn kilometric radiation near equinox  

E-print Network

The reversal of the rotational modulation rates of the north and south components of Saturn; accepted 15 November 2010; published 17 December 2010. [1] It has been known for many years that Saturn of the northern and southern components reversed near Saturn's recent equinox, which occurred on 11 August 2009

Gurnett, Donald A.

207

Recombination dynamics of excitons with low non-radiative component in semi-polar (10-11)-oriented GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical properties of GaN/Al0.2Ga0.8N multiple quantum wells grown with semi-polar (10-11) orientation on patterned 7°-off Si (001) substrates have been investigated. Studies performed at 8 K reveal the in-plane anisotropic behavior of the QW photoluminescence (PL) intensity for this semi-polar orientation. The time resolved PL measurements were carried out in the temperature range from 8 to 295 K to deduce the effective recombination decay times, with respective radiative and non-radiative contributions. The non-radiative component remains relatively weak with increasing temperature, indicative of high crystalline quality. The radiative decay time is a consequence of contribution from both localized and free excitons. We report an effective density of interfacial defects of 2.3 × 1012 cm-2 and a radiative recombination time of ?loc = 355 ps for the localized excitons. This latter value is significantly larger than those reported for the non-polar structures, which we attribute to the presence of a weak residual electric field in the semi-polar QW layers.

Rosales, D.; Gil, B.; Bretagnon, T.; Guizal, B.; Izyumskaya, N.; Monavarian, M.; Zhang, F.; Okur, S.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.

2014-09-01

208

A radiation-hard dual channel 4-bit pipeline for a 12-bit 40 MS/s ADC prototype with extended dynamic range for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter readout electronics upgrade at the CERN LHC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a radiation-hard dual-channel 12-bit 40 MS/s pipeline ADC with extended dynamic range is presented, for use in the readout electronics upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The design consists of two pipeline A/D channels with four Multiplying Digital-to-Analog Converters with nominal 12-bit resolution each. The design, fabricated in the IBM 130 nm CMOS process, shows a performance of 68 dB SNDR at 18 MHz for a single channel at 40 MS/s while consuming 55 mW/channel from a 2.5 V supply, and exhibits no performance degradation after irradiation. Various gain selection algorithms to achieve the extended dynamic range are implemented and tested.

Kuppambatti, J.; Ban, J.; Andeen, T.; Kinget, P.; Brooijmans, G.

2013-09-01

209

Ultra-low power high temperature and radiation hard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) voltage reference.  

PubMed

This paper presents an ultra-low power CMOS voltage reference circuit which is robust under biomedical extreme conditions, such as high temperature and high total ionized dose (TID) radiation. To achieve such performances, the voltage reference is designed in a suitable 130 nm Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) industrial technology and is optimized to work in the subthreshold regime of the transistors. The design simulations have been performed over the temperature range of -40-200 °C and for different process corners. Robustness to radiation was simulated using custom model parameters including TID effects, such as mobilities and threshold voltages degradation. The proposed circuit has been tested up to high total radiation dose, i.e., 1 Mrad (Si) performed at three different temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C and 200 °C). The maximum drift of the reference voltage V(REF) depends on the considered temperature and on radiation dose; however, it remains lower than 10% of the mean value of 1.5 V. The typical power dissipation at 2.5 V supply voltage is about 20 ?W at room temperature and only 75 ?W at a high temperature of 200 °C. To understand the effects caused by the combination of high total ionizing dose and temperature on such voltage reference, the threshold voltages of the used SOI MOSFETs were extracted under different conditions. The evolution of V(REF) and power consumption with temperature and radiation dose can then be explained in terms of the different balance between fixed oxide charge and interface states build-up. The total occupied area including pad-ring is less than 0.09 mm2. PMID:24351635

Boufouss, El Hafed; Francis, Laurent A; Kilchytska, Valeriya; Gérard, Pierre; Simon, Pascal; Flandre, Denis

2013-01-01

210

Ultra-Low Power High Temperature and Radiation Hard Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Voltage Reference  

PubMed Central

This paper presents an ultra-low power CMOS voltage reference circuit which is robust under biomedical extreme conditions, such as high temperature and high total ionized dose (TID) radiation. To achieve such performances, the voltage reference is designed in a suitable 130 nm Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) industrial technology and is optimized to work in the subthreshold regime of the transistors. The design simulations have been performed over the temperature range of ?40–200 °C and for different process corners. Robustness to radiation was simulated using custom model parameters including TID effects, such as mobilities and threshold voltages degradation. The proposed circuit has been tested up to high total radiation dose, i.e., 1 Mrad (Si) performed at three different temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C and 200 °C). The maximum drift of the reference voltage VREF depends on the considered temperature and on radiation dose; however, it remains lower than 10% of the mean value of 1.5 V. The typical power dissipation at 2.5 V supply voltage is about 20 ?W at room temperature and only 75 ?W at a high temperature of 200 °C. To understand the effects caused by the combination of high total ionizing dose and temperature on such voltage reference, the threshold voltages of the used SOI MOSFETs were extracted under different conditions. The evolution of VREF and power consumption with temperature and radiation dose can then be explained in terms of the different balance between fixed oxide charge and interface states build-up. The total occupied area including pad-ring is less than 0.09 mm2. PMID:24351635

Boufouss, El Hafed; Francis, Laurent A.; Kilchytska, Valeriya; Gérard, Pierre; Simon, Pascal; Flandre, Denis

2013-01-01

211

Vulnerability and behavioral response to ultraviolet radiation in the components of a foliar mite prey-predator system.  

PubMed

Ambient ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation impacts plant-dwelling arthropods including herbivorous and predatory mites. However, the effects of UVB on prey-predator systems, such as that between the herbivorous spider mite and predatory phytoseiid mite, are poorly understood. A comparative study was conducted to determine the vulnerability and behavioral responses of these mites to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. First, we analyzed dose-response (cumulative irradiance-mortality) curves for the eggs of phytoseiid mites (Neoseiulus californicus, Neoseiulus womersleyi, and Phytoseiulus persimilis) and the spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) to UVB radiation from a UV lamp. This indicated that the phytoseiid mites were more vulnerable than the spider mite, although P. persimilis was slightly more tolerant than the other two phytoseiid mites. Second, we compared the avoidance behavior of adult female N. californicus and two spider mite species (T. urticae, a lower leaf surface user; Panonychus citri, an upper leaf surface user) in response to solar UV and visible light. N. californicus actively avoided both types of radiation, whereas P. citri showed only minimal avoidance behavior. T. urticae actively avoided UV as well as N. californicus but exhibited a slow response to visible light as well as P. citri. Such variation in vulnerability and avoidance behavior accounts for differences in the species adaptations to solar UVB radiation. This may be the primary factor determining habitat use among these mites on host plant leaves, subsequently affecting accessibility by predators and also intraguild competition. PMID:23093097

Tachi, Fuyuki; Osakabe, Masahiro

2012-12-01

212

RAD hard PROM design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a preliminary study on the design of a radiation hardened fusible link programmable read-only memory (PROM) are presented. Various fuse technologies and the effects of radiation on MOS integrated circuits are surveyed. A set of design rules allowing the fabrication of a radiation hardened PROM using a Si-gate CMOS process is defined. A preliminary cell layout was completed and the programming concept defined. A block diagram is used to describe the circuit components required for a 4 K design. A design goal data sheet giving target values for the AC, DC, and radiation parameters of the circuit is presented.

1981-01-01

213

Resistance of Bacillus subtilis Spore DNA to Lethal Ionizing Radiation Damage Relies Primarily on Spore Core Components and DNA Repair, with Minor Effects of Oxygen Radical Detoxification  

PubMed Central

The roles of various core components, including ?/?/?-type small acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP), dipicolinic acid (DPA), core water content, and DNA repair by apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), in Bacillus subtilis spore resistance to different types of ionizing radiation including X rays, protons, and high-energy charged iron ions have been studied. Spores deficient in DNA repair by NHEJ or AP endonucleases, the oxidative stress response, or protection by major ?/?-type SASP, DPA, and decreased core water content were significantly more sensitive to ionizing radiation than wild-type spores, with highest sensitivity to high-energy-charged iron ions. DNA repair via NHEJ and AP endonucleases appears to be the most important mechanism for spore resistance to ionizing radiation, whereas oxygen radical detoxification via the MrgA-mediated oxidative stress response or KatX catalase activity plays only a very minor role. Synergistic radioprotective effects of ?/?-type but not ?-type SASP were also identified, indicating that ?/?-type SASP's binding to spore DNA is important in preventing DNA damage due to reactive oxygen species generated by ionizing radiation. PMID:24123749

Raguse, Marina; Reitz, Günther; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Li, Zuofeng; Klein, Stuart; Setlow, Peter; Nicholson, Wayne L.

2014-01-01

214

Resistance of Bacillus subtilis spore DNA to lethal ionizing radiation damage relies primarily on spore core components and DNA repair, with minor effects of oxygen radical detoxification.  

PubMed

The roles of various core components, including ?/?/?-type small acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP), dipicolinic acid (DPA), core water content, and DNA repair by apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), in Bacillus subtilis spore resistance to different types of ionizing radiation including X rays, protons, and high-energy charged iron ions have been studied. Spores deficient in DNA repair by NHEJ or AP endonucleases, the oxidative stress response, or protection by major ?/?-type SASP, DPA, and decreased core water content were significantly more sensitive to ionizing radiation than wild-type spores, with highest sensitivity to high-energy-charged iron ions. DNA repair via NHEJ and AP endonucleases appears to be the most important mechanism for spore resistance to ionizing radiation, whereas oxygen radical detoxification via the MrgA-mediated oxidative stress response or KatX catalase activity plays only a very minor role. Synergistic radioprotective effects of ?/?-type but not ?-type SASP were also identified, indicating that ?/?-type SASP's binding to spore DNA is important in preventing DNA damage due to reactive oxygen species generated by ionizing radiation. PMID:24123749

Moeller, Ralf; Raguse, Marina; Reitz, Günther; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Li, Zuofeng; Klein, Stuart; Setlow, Peter; Nicholson, Wayne L

2014-01-01

215

An energy-conserving two-temperature model of radiation damage in single-component and binary Lennard-Jones crystals.  

PubMed

Two-temperature models are used to represent the interaction between atoms and free electrons during thermal transients such as radiation damage, laser heating, and cascade simulations. In this paper, we introduce an energy-conserving version of an inhomogeneous finite reservoir two-temperature model using a Langevin thermostat to communicate energy between the electronic and atomic subsystems. This energy-conserving modification allows the inhomogeneous two-temperature model to be used for longer and larger simulations and simulations of small energy phenomena, without introducing nonphysical energy fluctuations that may affect simulation results. We test this model on the annealing of Frenkel defects. We find that Frenkel defect annealing is largely indifferent to the electronic subsystem, unless the electronic subsystem is very tightly coupled to the atomic subsystem. We also consider radiation damage due to local deposition of heat in two idealized systems. We first consider radiation damage in a large face-centered-cubic Lennard-Jones (LJ) single-component crystal that readily recrystallizes. Second, we consider radiation damage in a large binary glass-forming LJ crystal that retains permanent damage. We find that the electronic subsystem parameters can influence the way heat is transported through the system and have a significant impact on the number of defects after the heat deposition event. We also find that the two idealized systems have different responses to the electronic subsystem. The single-component LJ system anneals most rapidly with an intermediate electron-ion coupling and a high electronic thermal conductivity. If sufficiently damaged, the binary glass-forming LJ system retains the least permanent damage with both a high electron-ion coupling and a high electronic thermal conductivity. In general, we find that the presence of an electronic gas can affect short and long term material annealing. PMID:19708752

Phillips, Carolyn L; Crozier, Paul S

2009-08-21

216

An energy-conserving two-temperature model of radiation damage in single-component and binary Lennard-Jones crystals  

SciTech Connect

Two-temperature models are used to represent the interaction between atoms and free electrons during thermal transients such as radiation damage, laser heating, and cascade simulations. In this paper, we introduce an energy-conserving version of an inhomogeneous finite reservoir two-temperature model using a Langevin thermostat to communicate energy between the electronic and atomic subsystems. This energy-conserving modification allows the inhomogeneous two-temperature model to be used for longer and larger simulations and simulations of small energy phenomena, without introducing nonphysical energy fluctuations that may affect simulation results. We test this model on the annealing of Frenkel defects. We find that Frenkel defect annealing is largely indifferent to the electronic subsystem, unless the electronic subsystem is very tightly coupled to the atomic subsystem. We also consider radiation damage due to local deposition of heat in two idealized systems. We first consider radiation damage in a large face-centered-cubic Lennard-Jones (LJ) single-component crystal that readily recrystallizes. Second, we consider radiation damage in a large binary glass-forming LJ crystal that retains permanent damage. We find that the electronic subsystem parameters can influence the way heat is transported through the system and have a significant impact on the number of defects after the heat deposition event. We also find that the two idealized systems have different responses to the electronic subsystem. The single-component LJ system anneals most rapidly with an intermediate electron-ion coupling and a high electronic thermal conductivity. If sufficiently damaged, the binary glass-forming LJ system retains the least permanent damage with both a high electron-ion coupling and a high electronic thermal conductivity. In general, we find that the presence of an electronic gas can affect short and long term material annealing.

Phillips, Carolyn L. [Applied Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Crozier, Paul S. [Department of Multiscale Dynamic Materials Modeling, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS 1322, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1322 (United States)

2009-08-21

217

Monte Carlo simulation of radiative energy transfer in continuous elastic random media-three-component envelopes and numerical validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Monte Carlo solutions of the 3-D radiative transfer (RT) equations for energy transport in elastic media with randomly fluctuating velocity and density. It includes mode conversions from P- to S-wave energy and vice versa and considers angular-dependent scattering patterns following from the Born approximation. Synthesis of the space-time distribution of seismic energy emitted from point sources with arbitrary radiation patterns can be achieved. The method offers a unique way to model complete mean square envelopes of high-frequency wavefields in the presence of random heterogeneity starting from the first P-wave onset until the late S-wave coda. Validation of the method is achieved through a comparison of mean square envelopes from an isotropic P-wave radiation point source with full 3-D wavefield simulations for the whole envelope shape and with the analytical Markov approximation for small lapse times. RT yields accurate envelope shapes even for parameter ranges where strong and direction-dependent scattering occurs. Peak amplitudes, envelope broadening and coda decay at long lapse times are correctly modelled. A breakdown of RT with Born scattering coefficients only occurs in the vicinity of a point source: waveform modelling shows that even for a pure compressional source, some per cent of shear wave energy are generated by near-source scattering that are not explained within the framework of Born approximation.

Przybilla, Jens; Korn, Michael

2008-05-01

218

Irradiate-anneal screening of total dose effects in semiconductor devices. [radiation hardening of spacecraft components of Mariner spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive investigation of irradiate-anneal (IRAN) screening against total dose radiation effects was carried out as part of a program to harden the Mariner Jupiter/Saturn 1977 (MJS'77) spacecraft to survive the Jupiter radiation belts. The method consists of irradiating semiconductor devices with Cobalt-60 to a suitable total dose under representative bias conditions and of separating the parts in the undesired tail of the distribution from the bulk of the parts by means of a predetermined acceptance limit. The acceptable devices are then restored close to their preirradiation condition by annealing them at an elevated temperature. IRAN was used when lot screen methods were impracticable due to lack of time, and when members of a lot showed a diversity of radiation response. The feasibility of the technique was determined by testing of a number of types of linear bipolar integrated circuits, analog switches, n-channel JFETS and bipolar transistors. Based on the results of these experiments a number of device types were selected for IRAN of flight parts in the MJS'77 spacecraft systems. The part types, screening doses, acceptance criteria, number of parts tested and rejected as well as the program steps are detailed.

Stanley, A. G.; Price, W. E.

1976-01-01

219

Characterisation of the Spectral Radiation (sun irradiancei and sky radiance) and atmospheric components during the SIFLEX campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global and direct sun spectral irradiance above the canopy were measured using a Li-Cor 1800 spectroradiometer during the SIFLEX campaign. The purpose was to obtain the ratio diffuse / direct radiation incoming to the Scot pine. The direct irradiance measurements carried out with the Li-Cor 1800 were also used to obtain the aerosol optical depth and the aerosol size distrubution. An Optronic 754-O-PMT was used to measure the sky radiance in the almucantar plane of the sun. The aim was to obtain optical properties of the aerosols (refractive index, single scattering albedo, phase function as well as a size distribution in a wider range of radii). In the other hand such measurements were also used to obtain the depth of the oxygen band in order to know the diffuse radiation in the sky dome at 760 nm. The ozone colum was measured by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) using a Brewer MK-II spectrophotometer with a simple monochromator, a world standard for this type of measurement. The FMI also was in charge of radiosoundings and ozone soundings that were lauched during the whole campaign. Therefore the temperature, pressure and water vapour profiles are available twice a day and the ozono profile is also available once a week.

Pedrós, R.; Gómez-Amo, J. L.; Utrillas, M. P.; Martínez-Lozano, J. A.; Lakkala, K.; Turunen, T.; Laurila, T.

220

Weak solar flares with a detectable flux of hard X rays: Specific features of microwave radiation in the corresponding active regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of very weak flares was registered at the Suzaku X-ray observatory in 2005-2009. The photon power spectrum in the 50-110 keV range for a number of these phenomena shows that some electrons accelerate to energies higher than 100 keV. The corresponding flares originate in active regions (ARs) with pronounced sunspots. As in the case of AR 10933 in January 2007 analyzed by us previously (Grigor'eva et al., 2013), the thoroughly studied weak flares in May 2007 are related to the emergence of a new magnetic field in the AR and to the currents that originate in this case. A comparison of the Suzaku data with the RATAN-600 microwave observations indicates that a new polarized source of microwave radiation develops in the AR (or the previously existing source intensifies) one-two days before a weak flare in the emerging flux regions. Arguments in favor of recent views that fields are force-free in the AR corona are put forward. The development of weak flares is related to the fact that the free energy of the currents that flow above the field neutral line at altitudes reaching several thousand kilometers is accumulated and subsequently released.

Grigor'eva, I. Yu.; Livshits, M. A.

2014-12-01

221

Design and First Tests of a Radiation-Hard Pixel Sensor for the European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser  

E-print Network

The high intensity and high repetition rate of the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser, presently under construction in Hamburg, requires silicon sensors which can stand X-ray doses of up to 1 GGy for 3 years of operation at high bias voltage. Within the AGIPD Collaboration the X-ray-radiation damage in MOS Capacitors and Gate-Controlled Diodes fabricated by four vendors on high-ohmic n-type silicon with two crystal orientations and dif- ferent technological parameters, has been studied for doses between 1 kGy and 1 GGy. The extracted values of oxide-charge and surface-current densi- ties have been used in TCAD simulations, and the layout and technological parameters of the AGIPD pixel sensor optimized. It is found that the op- timized layout for high X-ray doses is significantly different from the one for non-irradiated sensors. First sensors and test structures have been de-livered in early 2013. Measurement results for X-ray doses of 0 to 10 MGy and their comparison to simulations are presented. They demons...

Schwandt, Joern; Klanner, Robert; Kopsalis, Ioannis; Zhang, Jiaguo

2014-01-01

222

Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement  

DOEpatents

The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part. 12 figs.

Good, M.S.; Schuster, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

1997-07-08

223

Improved neutron radiation hardness for Si detectors: application of low resistivity starting material and\\/or manipulation of Neff by selective filling of radiation-induced traps at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation-induced electrical changes in both space charge region (SCR) of Si detectors and bulk material (BM) have been studied for samples of diodes and resistors made on Si materials with different initial resistivities. The space charge sign inversion fluence (? inv) has been found to increase linearly with the initial doping concentration (the reciprocal of the resistivity), which gives improved

B. Dezillie; Z. Li; V. Eremin; M. Bruzzi; S. Pirollo; S. U. Pandey; C. J. Li

1999-01-01

224

How Hard is Chocolate?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hardness is probably a concept you are well familiar with. You already know that certain materials are harder than others; in fact, you prove it everyday when you chew your food and your teeth don’t break (because your teeth are harder than the foods you chew). Hardness can be defined as a material's ability to resist a change in shape. Modern hardness testers take a well-defined shape and press it into a material with a certain force, observing the indent it leaves in the material when it is removed. In this lesson, you will be performing hardness testing on different bars of chocolate.

2007-12-20

225

Ab initio Based Modeling of Radiation Effects in Multi-Component Alloys: Final Scientific/Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The project began March 13, 2006, allocated for three years, and received a one year extension from March 13, 2009 to March 12, 2010. It has now completed 48 of 48 total months. The project was focused on using ab initio methods to gain insights into radiation induced segregation (RIS) in Ni-Fe-Cr alloys. The project had the following key accomplishments • Development of a large database of ab initio energetics that can be used by many researchers in the future for increased understanding of this system. For example, we have the first calculations showing a dramatic stabilization effect of Cr-Cr interstitial dumbbells in Ni. • Prediction of both vacancy and interstitial diffusion constants for Ni-Cr and Ni-Fe for dilute Cr and Fe. This work included generalization of widely used multifrequency models to make use of ab initio derived energetics and thermodynamics. • Prediction of qualitative trends of RIS from vacancy and interstitial mechanisms, suggesting the two types of defect fluxes drive Cr RIS in opposite directions. • Detailed kinetic Monte Carlo modeling of diffusion by vacancy mechanism in Ni-Cr as a function of Cr concentration. The results demonstrate that Cr content can have a significant effect on RIS. • Development of a quantitative RIS transport model, including models for thermodynamic factors and boundary conditions.

Dane Morgan

2010-06-10

226

Study of metallic components of historical organ pipes using synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence imaging and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction.  

PubMed

A comparative study of the composition and microstructure of two different brass alloys from reed pipes, one from a Spanish baroque organ and the other from a modern one, was carried out. This study allowed us to determine the procedure followed to produce the brass used to make ancient reed pipes. Moreover the distribution and correlation of lead and other trace elements present into the main component of the brass, the copper and zinc phases, of the historical tongues and shallots were established. This chemical composition was compared with that of a tongue from a twentieth-century organ. The whole study was accomplished using a combination of laboratory and synchrotron radiation techniques. X-ray fluorescence was the technique used to obtain elemental and chemical imaging of the main phases and the trace elements at a sub-micrometer scale. PMID:19730830

Herrera, L K; Justo, A; Muñoz-Páez, A; Sans, J A; Martínez-Criado, G

2009-12-01

227

Radiation-Tolerant DC-DC Converters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A document discusses power converters suitable for space use that meet the DSCC MIL-PRF-38534 Appendix G radiation hardness level P classification. A method for qualifying commercially produced electronic parts for DC-DC converters per the Defense Supply Center Columbus (DSCC) radiation hardened assurance requirements was developed. Development and compliance testing of standard hybrid converters suitable for space use were completed for missions with total dose radiation requirements of up to 30 kRad. This innovation provides the same overall performance as standard hybrid converters, but includes assurance of radiation- tolerant design through components and design compliance testing. This availability of design-certified radiation-tolerant converters can significantly reduce total cost and delivery time for power converters for space applications that fit the appropriate DSCC classification (30 kRad).

Skutt, Glenn; Sable, Dan; Leslie, Leonard; Graham, Shawn

2012-01-01

228

Session: Hard Rock Penetration  

SciTech Connect

This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

1992-01-01

229

Memory Hard Drive Peripherals  

E-print Network

1! CSI3131 Topics CPU Memory Hard Drive Peripherals Computing Systems OS Overview StructureDeadlocks M em ory M anagem ent Basic Memory Managermtn Virtual Memory Storage and I/O File Systems Hard Drive Management Swap I/O Management 2 Module 7: Memory Management Reading: Chapter 8 § To provide a detailed

Stojmenovic, Ivan

230

Hard X-rays from Coma Cluster region  

SciTech Connect

A high-energy nonthermal component in the 18-130 keV energy band was detected by balloon-borne observations of the region containing the Coma Cluster of galaxies. The emitted photon spectrum is well-described by a single power law of photon index -1.77 and an intensity of 8.9 x 10 to the -5th photons/sq cm/s/KeV at 50 keV. The emission supports the presence of a hard tail, and could be due to the inverse Compton mechanism of relativistic electrons permeating the cluster off the 2.7 K background radiation or the presence in the field of an active galactic nucleus. 30 refs.

Bazzano, A.; Fusco-Femiano, R.; Ubertini, P.; Perotti, F.; Quadrini, E. (CNR, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati (Italy) CNR, Istituto di Fisica Cosmica, Milan (Italy))

1990-10-01

231

DCE-MRI defined subvolumes of a brain metastatic lesion by principle component analysis and fuzzy-c-means clustering for response assessment of radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop a pharmacokinetic modelfree framework to analyze the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data for assessment of response of brain metastases to radiation therapy. Methods: Twenty patients with 45 analyzable brain metastases had MRI scans prior to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and at the end of the 2-week therapy. The volumetric DCE images covering the whole brain were acquired on a 3T scanner with approximately 5 s temporal resolution and a total scan time of about 3 min. DCE curves from all voxels of the 45 brain metastases were normalized and then temporally aligned. A DCE matrix that is constructed from the aligned DCE curves of all voxels of the 45 lesions obtained prior to WBRT is processed by principal component analysis to generate the principal components (PCs). Then, the projection coefficient maps prior to and at the end of WBRT are created for each lesion. Next, a pattern recognition technique, based upon fuzzy-c-means clustering, is used to delineate the tumor subvolumes relating to the value of the significant projection coefficients. The relationship between changes in different tumor subvolumes and treatment response was evaluated to differentiate responsive from stable and progressive tumors. Performance of the PC-defined tumor subvolume was also evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in prediction of nonresponsive lesions and compared with physiological-defined tumor subvolumes. Results: The projection coefficient maps of the first three PCs contain almost all response-related information in DCE curves of brain metastases. The first projection coefficient, related to the area under DCE curves, is the major component to determine response while the third one has a complimentary role. In ROC analysis, the area under curve of 0.88 ± 0.05 and 0.86 ± 0.06 were achieved for the PC-defined and physiological-defined tumor subvolume in response assessment. Conclusions: The PC-defined subvolume of a brain metastasis could predict tumor response to therapy similar to the physiological-defined one, while the former is determined more rapidly for clinical decision-making support.

Farjam, Reza; Tsien, Christina I.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, SPC 5010, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5010 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, SPC 5010, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5010 (United States); Cao, Yue, E-mail: yuecao@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, SPC 5010, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5010 (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, SPC 5010, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5010 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Med Inn Building C478, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5842 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2099 (United States)

2014-01-15

232

DIELECTRIC SPECTROSCOPY OF HARD RED WINTER WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dielectric properties (components of the complex permittivity relative to free space) of ground hard red winter wheat of 11 to 25 percent moisture content were determined by dielectric spectroscopy measurements with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer over the frequency range...

233

Spherical reference systems for nonspherical hard interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented on three complex systems of hard molecules: linear triatomics, heteronuclear dumbbells, and two-component mixtures of dumbbells. In addition to studying the equation of state generated by the median potential, the Barker-Henderson reference system is also investigated and seen to give results nearly indistinguishable from those obtained from the median system. Both reference systems continue to reproduce the

G. O. Williams; J. L. Lebowitz; J. K. Percus

1984-01-01

234

A thin diffuse component of the Galactic ridge X-ray emission and heating of the interstellar medium contributed by the radiation of Galactic X-ray binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We predict a thin diffuse component of the Galactic ridge X-ray emission (GRXE) arising from the scattering of the radiation of bright X-ray binaries (XBs) by the interstellar medium. This scattered component has the same scale height as that of the gaseous disk (~80 pc) and is therefore thinner than the GRXE of stellar origin (scale height ~130 pc). The morphology of the scattered component is furthermore expected to trace the clumpy molecular and HI clouds. We calculate this contribution to the GRXE from known Galactic XBs assuming that they are all persistent. The known XBs sample is incomplete, however, because it is flux limited and spans the lifetime of X-ray astronomy (~50 years), which is very short compared with the characteristic time of 1000-10 000 years that would have contributed to the diffuse emission observed today due to time delays. We therefore also use a simulated sample of sources, to estimate the diffuse emission we should expect in an optimistic case assuming that the X-ray luminosity of our Galaxy is on average similar to that of other galaxies. In the calculations we also take into account the enhancement of the total scattering cross-section due to coherence effects in the elastic scattering from multi-electron atoms and molecules. This scattered emission can be distinguished from the contribution of low X-ray luminosity stars by the presence of narrow fluorescent K-? lines of Fe, Si, and other abundant elements present in the interstellar medium and by directly resolving the contribution of low X-ray luminosity stars. We find that within 1° latitude of the Galactic plane the scattered emission contributes on average 10 - 30% of the GRXE flux in the case of known sources and over 50% in the case of simulated sources. In the latter case, the scattered component is found to even dominate the stellar emission in certain parts of the Galactic plane. X-rays with energies ?1 keV from XBs should also penetrate deep inside the HI and molecular clouds, where they are absorbed and heat the interstellar medium. We find that this heating rate dominates the heating by cosmic rays (assuming a solar neighborhood energy density) in a considerable part of the Galaxy. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Molaro, Margherita; Khatri, Rishi; Sunyaev, Rashid A.

2014-04-01

235

Radiation hardness of the ZEUSMVD frontend chip  

E-print Network

: prof.dr. J.J. Engelen prof.dr. P.M. Kooijman Co­promotor: dr.ir. E.N. Ko#eman Faculteit der Natuurwetenschappen, Wiskunde en Informatica Cover photos: E.N. Ko#eman The work described in this thesis is part

236

Radiation Hard by Design Techniques for EEPROM  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and test results for a ra- diation hardened by design 2 k Byte EEPROM fabricated in a commercially available 0.5µm CMOS process. The EEPROM will be used in a small on-chip memory to store key instrument parameters and simple control programs for a microcontroller compatible with Martian surface temperatures on the low end ( 125 C)

Yanyi L. Wong; Mark N. Martin; Richard C. Meitzler; Martin E. Fraeman

2005-01-01

237

Statistical Modeling for Radiation Hardness Assurance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We cover the models and statistics associated with single event effects (and total ionizing dose), why we need them, and how to use them: What models are used, what errors exist in real test data, and what the model allows us to say about the DUT will be discussed. In addition, how to use other sources of data such as historical, heritage, and similar part and how to apply experience, physics, and expert opinion to the analysis will be covered. Also included will be concepts of Bayesian statistics, data fitting, and bounding rates.

Ladbury, Raymond L.

2014-01-01

238

The Effect of Total Ionizing Dose Degradation of Laptop Hard Disks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of total ionizing dose (TID) measurements were performed on commercial hard drives to explore the possible uses of the devices for the high radiation mission, and to help the understanding of the reliability of current hard drive technology. Three different models from three major manufacturers were tested with the aid of a commercial hard drive test system.

Nguyen, D. N.; Guertin, S. M.; Patterson, J. D.

2005-01-01

239

Hard Probes at RHIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of jets and heavy ?avour, the so called hard probes, play a crucial role in understanding properties of hot and dense nuclear matter created in high energy heavy-ion collisions. The measurements at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) showed that in central Au+Au collisons at RHIC energy ( ?sNN = 200 GeV) the nuclear matter created has properties close to those of perfect liquid, manifests partonic degrees of freedom and is opaque to hard probes. In order to draw quantitative conclusions on properties of this hot and dense nuclear matter reference measurements in proton-proton collisions and d+Au collisions are essential to estimate cold nuclear matter effects. In this proceedings a review of recent results on hard probes measurements in p+p, d+Au and A+A collisions as well as of beam energy dependence of jet quenching from STAR and PHENIX experiments at RHIC is presented.

Biel?íková, Jana

2014-04-01

240

Erosion testing of hard materials and coatings  

SciTech Connect

Erosion is the process by which unconstrained particles, usually hard, impact a surface, creating damage that leads to material removal and component failure. These particles are usually very small and entrained in fluid of some type, typically air. The damage that occurs as a result of erosion depends on the size of the particles, their physical characteristics, the velocity of the particle/fluid stream, and their angle of impact on the surface of interest. This talk will discuss the basics of jet erosion testing of hard materials, composites and coatings. The standard test methods will be discussed as well as alternative approaches to determining the erosion rate of materials. The damage that occurs will be characterized in genera1 terms, and examples will be presented for the erosion behavior of hard materials and coatings (both thick and thin).

Hawk, Jeffrey A.

2005-04-29

241

CSI: Hard Drive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acting on information from students who reported seeing a classmate looking at inappropriate material on a school computer, school officials used forensics software to plunge the depths of the PC's hard drive, searching for evidence of improper activity. Images were found in a deleted Internet Explorer cache as well as deleted file space.…

Sturgeon, Julie

2008-01-01

242

Work Hard. Be Nice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1994, fresh from a two-year stint with Teach for America, Mike Feinberg and Dave Levin inaugurated the Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) in Houston with an enrollment of 49 5th graders. By this Fall, 75 KIPP schools will be up and running, setting children from poor and minority families on a path to college through a combination of hard work,…

Mathews, Jay

2009-01-01

243

Running in Hard Times  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Roberta Stevens and Kent Oliver are campaigning hard for the presidency of the American Library Association (ALA). Stevens is outreach projects and partnerships officer at the Library of Congress. Oliver is executive director of the Stark County District Library in Canton, Ohio. They have debated, discussed, and posted web sites, Facebook pages,…

Berry, John N., III

2009-01-01

244

Hard Sphere Gas Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Hard Sphere Gas model displays a three-dimensional (ideal) gas made out of hard disks. Particles are initialized with a random speed and in a random direction and move with constant velocity until a collision occurs. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Hard Sphere Gas model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_newton_HardShpereGas.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for statistical mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-07-06

245

Olive leaf extract and its main component oleuropein prevent chronic ultraviolet B radiation-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis in hairless mice.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure to solar UV radiation damages skin, increasing its thickness and reducing its elasticity, and causes skin cancer. Our aim in this study was to examine the effects of an olive leaf extract and its component oleuropein on skin damage and the incidence of skin tumors caused by long-term UVB irradiation in hairless mice. Male hairless mice (5 wk old) were divided into 6 groups, including a non-UVB group, a vehicle-treated UVB group (control), 2 olive leaf extract-treated UVB groups, and 2 oleuropein-treated UVB groups. Five groups were UVB irradiated (36-180 mJ/cm(2)) 3 times each week for 30 wk and skin thickness and elasticity after UVB irradiation were measured every week. Olive leaf extract (300 and 1000 mg/kg) and oleuropein (10 and 25 mg/kg) were administered orally twice daily every day for 30 wk. The extract and oleuropein significantly inhibited increases in skin thickness and reductions in skin elasticity, and skin carcinogenesis and tumor growth. Furthermore, they prevented increases in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and MMP-13 as well as in levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the skin. Based on histological evaluation, they prevented increases in the expression of Ki-67 and CD31-positive cells induced by the irradiation. These results suggest that the preventative effects of the olive leaf extract and oleuropein on chronic UVB-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis and tumor growth may be due to inhibition of the expression of VEGF, MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-13 through a reduction in COX-2 levels. PMID:19776181

Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho

2009-11-01

246

Hard-on-Hard Lubrication in the Artificial Hip under Dynamic Loading Conditions  

PubMed Central

The tribological performance of an artificial hip joint has a particularly strong influence on its success. The principle causes for failure are adverse short- and long-term reactions to wear debris and high frictional torque in the case of poor lubrication that may cause loosening of the implant. Therefore, using experimental and theoretical approaches models have been developed to evaluate lubrication under standardized conditions. A steady-state numerical model has been extended with dynamic experimental data for hard-on-hard bearings used in total hip replacements to verify the tribological relevance of the ISO 14242-1 gait cycle in comparison to experimental data from the Orthoload database and instrumented gait analysis for three additional loading conditions: normal walking, climbing stairs and descending stairs. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearing partners show superior lubrication potential compared to hard-on-hard bearings that work with at least one articulating metal component. Lubrication regimes during the investigated activities are shown to strongly depend on the kinematics and loading conditions. The outcome from the ISO gait is not fully confirmed by the normal walking data and more challenging conditions show evidence of inferior lubrication. These findings may help to explain the differences between the in vitro predictions using the ISO gait cycle and the clinical outcome of some hard-on-hard bearings, e.g., using metal-on-metal. PMID:23940772

Sonntag, Robert; Reinders, Jörn; Rieger, Johannes S.; Heitzmann, Daniel W. W.; Kretzer, J. Philippe

2013-01-01

247

SUPER HARD SURFACED POLYMERS  

SciTech Connect

High energy ion beam surface treatments were applied to a selected group of polymers. Of the six materials in the present study, four were thermoplastics (polycarbonate, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene) and two were thermosets (epoxy and polyimide). The particular epoxy evaluated in this work is one of the resins used in formulating fiber reinforced composites for military helicopter blades. Measures of mechanical properties of the near surface regions were obtained by nanoindentation hardness and pin on disk wear. Attempts were also made to measure erosion resistance by particle impact. All materials were hardness tested. Pristine materials were very soft, having values in the range of approximately 0.1 to 0.5 GPa. Ion beam treatment increased hardness by up to 50 times compared to untreated materials. For reference, all materials were hardened to values higher than those typical of stainless steels. Wear tests were carried out on three of the materials, PET, PI and epoxy. On the ion beam treated epoxy no wear could be detected, whereas the untreated material showed significant wear.

Mansur, Louis K [ORNL] [ORNL; Bhattacharya, R [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH] [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL] [ORNL; Clemons, Art [ORNL] [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans, H B [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH] [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL] [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL; Lee, E H [Consultant, Milpitas, CA] [Consultant, Milpitas, CA; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL] [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL] [ORNL; Rivard, John D [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

248

Local hardness equalization and the principle of maximum hardness.  

PubMed

The chemical potential, hardness, and hyperhardnesses equalization principles are used to show that the leading term associated with charge transfer in the total interaction energy among the fragments in which a molecule is divided is directly proportional to minus the hardness of the molecule in its ground state, as established by the principle of maximum hardness. The additional terms in the interaction energy, associated with the changes in the external potential of the fragments, provide explanation for deviations between the point of maximum hardness and the point of minimum energy. It is also found that the dual descriptor plays a very important role in hardness equalization. PMID:23758354

Gázquez, José L; Vela, Alberto; Chattaraj, Pratim K

2013-06-01

249

Blood Components  

MedlinePLUS

Home > Learn About Blood > Blood Components Printable Version Blood Components How can one donation help multiple people? ... blood. The main transfusable blood components include: Whole Blood Whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and ...

250

Hard metal composition  

DOEpatents

A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

Sheinberg, H.

1983-07-26

251

Hard metal composition  

DOEpatents

A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

1986-01-01

252

Hard physics in PHENIX  

E-print Network

We review recent results on hard observables in p+p, d+A and A+A collisions obtained by the PHENIX experiment. Emphasis is put on those measurements that provide insight into the properties of hot QCD media expected to be created in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC energies. Direct photon spectra, jet properties and heavy quarks production measured in p+p and d+Au collisions are compared to the same observables extracted in heavy ion collisions to find modifications due to the presence of hot QCD matter.

D. Peressounko; for the PHENIX collaboration

2005-12-08

253

Hardness of Materials- Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan from Edmonds Community College will serve as an excellent introduction to the hardness of materials. The module illustrates the differences in properties between different materials. Students will determine property differences between different types of materials, observe property differences between materials of the same class, measure, record and report their results and observe differences in results due to operator error. Student, instructor and course evaluation questions are included. This document will serve as a framework for instructors and may be downloaded in PDF format.

2012-10-12

254

Self-diffusion in liquid gallium and hard sphere model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incoherent and coherent components of quasielastic neutron scattering have been studied in the temperature range of T = 313 K - 793 K aiming to explore the applicability limits of the hard-sphere approach for the microscopic dynamics of liquid gallium, which is usually considered as a non-hard-sphere system. It was found that the non-hard-sphere effects come into play at the distances shorter than the average interatomic distance. The longer range diffusive dynamics of liquid Ga is dominated by the repulsive forces between the atoms.

Blagoveshchenskii, Nikolay; Novikov, Arkady; Puchkov, Alexander; Savostin, Vadim; Sobolev, Oleg

2015-01-01

255

Microcircuit radiation effects databank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation test data submitted by many testers is collated to serve as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. Total dose damage information and single event upset cross sections, i.e., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup) are presented.

1983-01-01

256

Colony-stimulating factors for the treatment of the hematopoietic component of the acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS): a review.  

PubMed

One of the greatest national security threats to the United States is the detonation of an improvised nuclear device or a radiological dispersal device in a heavily populated area. As such, this type of security threat is considered to be of relatively low risk, but one that would have an extraordinary high impact on health and well-being of the US citizenry. Psychological counseling and medical assessments would be necessary for all those significantly impacted by the nuclear/radiological event. Direct medical interventions would be necessary for all those individuals who had received substantial radiation exposures (e.g., >1 Gy). Although no drugs or products have yet been specifically approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) to treat the effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and pegylated G-CSF have been used off label for treating radiation accident victims. Recent threats of terrorist attacks using nuclear or radiologic devices makes it imperative that the medical community have up-to-date information and a clear understanding of treatment protocols using therapeutically effective recombinant growth factors and cytokines such as G-CSF and GM-CSF for patients exposed to injurious doses of ionizing radiation. Based on limited human studies with underlying biology, we see that the recombinants, G-CSF and GM-CSF appear to have modest, but significant medicinal value in treating radiation accident victims. In the near future, the US FDA may approve G-CSF and GM-CSF as ‘Emergency Use Authorization’ (EUA) for managing radiation-induced aplasia, an ARS-related pathology. In this article, we review the status of growth factors for the treatment of radiological/nuclear accident victims. PMID:25215458

Singh, Vijay K; Newman, Victoria L; Seed, Thomas M

2015-01-01

257

STFC Cosmic Rays Poster additional notes for teachers Cosmic rays receive mention in school physics as a component of background radiation when tackling the  

E-print Network

! As a powerful way of visualising ionising radiation, a simple diffusion cloud chamber cannot be matched. Some found that thoriated tungsten welding rods, which are easy to purchase, work well in the home made kits://www.pasco.com/prodCatalog/SE/SE-7943_diffusion-cloud-chamber-15-cm-diameter/), and at the top end the German firm PHYWE sells

258

THE HARD X-RAY SPECTRUM OF NGC 1365: SCATTERED LIGHT, NOT BLACK HOLE SPIN  

SciTech Connect

Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) show excess X-ray emission above 10 keV compared with extrapolation of spectra from lower energies. Risaliti et al. have recently attempted to model the hard X-ray excess in the type 1.8 AGN NGC 1365, concluding that the hard excess most likely arises from Compton-scattered reflection of X-rays from an inner accretion disk close to the black hole. Their analysis disfavored a model in which the hard excess arises from a high column density of circumnuclear gas partially covering a primary X-ray source, despite such components being required in the NGC 1365 data below 10 keV. Using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer approach, we demonstrate that this conclusion is invalidated by (1) use of slab absorption models, which have unrealistic transmission spectra for partial covering gas, (2) neglect of the effect of Compton scattering on transmitted spectra, and (3) inadequate modeling of the spectrum of scattered X-rays. The scattered spectrum is geometry-dependent and, for high global covering factors, may dominate above 10 keV. We further show that, in models of circumnuclear gas, the suppression of the observed hard X-ray flux by reprocessing may be no larger than required by the ''light bending'' model invoked for inner disk reflection, and the expected emission line strengths lie within the observed range. We conclude that the time-invariant ''red wing'' in AGN X-ray spectra is probably caused by continuum transmitted through and scattered from circumnuclear gas, not by highly redshifted line emission, and that measurement of black hole spin is not possible.

Miller, L. [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Turner, T. J. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States)

2013-08-10

259

[Systemic effects of ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation in serial whole body irradiation. I. Oxygen utilization, flow properties of blood, hemodynamics, blood components and phagocytosis].  

PubMed

31 healthy volunteers at the age of 19 to 29 years underwent whole-body irradiations by either ultraviolet radiation (NARVA UVS 65-2; continuous sunshine-like emission, predominantly UVA plus 8% UVB; cumulative doses after 4 and 20 irradiations 8.8 J/cm2 and 51.0 J/cm2, respectively), or visible light (emission of a 3,500 Watt lamp HGMI 3500 DL, Tungsram CSSR, filtered through 6 mm window glass; cumulative dose 267.0 J/cm2 after 4 irradiations) or infrared radiation (250 Watt infrared lamps NARVA "Biotherm", emitting more than 70% infrared radiation; cumulative dose 159.0 J/cm2 after 4 irradiations). Before, during and after the irradiation series the following investigations were made: Arterial and venous oxygen pressure, oxygen utilization index; flow properties of peripheral blood (plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation kinetics, apparent blood viscosity); hemodynamics (veineal plethysmography, 133Xenon clearance, functional diameter of small blood vessels, peripheral blood pressure), phagocytotic capacity of polymorphonuclear white blood cells; hematological parameters (blood sedimentation rate, polymorphonuclear and eosinophilic blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit), serum proteins (IgG, IgA, IgM, complement C3, alpha-1-glycoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, transferrin); calcium and phosphate in serum. As far as irradiance, dose and treatment frequencies are concerned, the experimental conditions were very similar to those in phototherapeutical practice. Under these circumstances there were no hints for unwanted early effects after application of all the three kinds of optical radiation used in that study. Considerable systemic responses exclusively were found by use of ultraviolet radiation. Under these experimental conditions according to dermatological phototherapy it has been proven the following biopositive systemic responses are due to happen: increase of serum calcium and phosphate, improvement of blood oxygen utilization, improvement of blood flow properties, and enhanced phagocytic capacity of polymorphonuclear white blood cells. Regarding the parameters taken in that study, no early unwanted side effects are to expect after therapeutical application of rather large doses of visible light or infrared radiation. PMID:2687043

Meffert, H; Scherf, H P; Bäumler, H; Ziegler-Böhme, H; Gülke, L; Struy, H; Strangfeld, D; Siewert, H; Sönnichsen, N

1989-01-01

260

Measuring the Hardness of Minerals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

Bushby, Jessica

2005-01-01

261

Nanopatterned ferroelectrics for ultrahigh density rad-hard nonvolatile memories.  

SciTech Connect

Radiation hard nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM) is a crucial component for DOE and DOD surveillance and defense applications. NVRAMs based upon ferroelectric materials (also known as FERAMs) are proven to work in radiation-rich environments and inherently require less power than many other NVRAM technologies. However, fabrication and integration challenges have led to state-of-the-art FERAMs still being fabricated using a 130nm process while competing phase-change memory (PRAM) has been demonstrated with a 20nm process. Use of block copolymer lithography is a promising approach to patterning at the sub-32nm scale, but is currently limited to self-assembly directly on Si or SiO{sub 2} layers. Successful integration of ferroelectrics with discrete and addressable features of {approx}15-20nm would represent a 100-fold improvement in areal memory density and would enable more highly integrated electronic devices required for systems advances. Towards this end, we have developed a technique that allows us to carry out block copolymer self-assembly directly on a huge variety of different materials and have investigated the fabrication, integration, and characterization of electroceramic materials - primarily focused on solution-derived ferroelectrics - with discrete features of {approx}20nm and below. Significant challenges remain before such techniques will be capable of fabricating fully integrated NVRAM devices, but the tools developed for this effort are already finding broader use. This report introduces the nanopatterned NVRAM device concept as a mechanism for motivating the subsequent studies, but the bulk of the document will focus on the platform and technology development.

Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Stevens, Jeffrey; Scrymgeour, David; Gin, Aaron V.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew

2010-09-01

262

Handbook of radiation effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book emphasizes radiation effects on solid state devices from exposure to the types of radiation found outside the atmosphere (in space, or in the vicinity of an exploding nuclear device). It contains a basic study of radiation shielding of payload components for payloads in space and specifically covers radiation effects on minority and majority carriers, optical media and organic

A. Holmes-Siedle; L. Adams

1993-01-01

263

Influence of an oligodendroglial component on the survival of patients with anaplastic astrocytomas: A report of radiation therapy oncology group 83-02  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Seven percent of patients with high grade gliomas enrolled in RTOG 83-02 had mixed astrocytoma\\/oligodenroglial elements on central pathology review. It has often been assumed that the most aggressive histologic component of a tumor determines biologic behavior; however in this trial, the survival of patients who had mixed glioblastomas\\/oligodenrogliomas was significantly longer than that of patients with pure glioblastomas

Bernadine Donahue; Charles B. Scott; James S. Nelson; Marvin Rotman; Kevin J. Murray; Diana F. Nelson; Franklin L. Banker; John D. Earle; Jennifer A. Fischbach; Sucha O. Asbell; Laurie E. Gaspar; Arnold M. Markoe; Walter Curran

1997-01-01

264

Charpy Impact Energy and Microindentation Hardness of 60-NITINOL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

60-NITINOL (60 wt.% Ni 40 wt.% Ti) is being studied as a material for advanced aerospace components. The Charpy impact energy and microindentation hardness has been studied for this material, fabricated by vacuum induction skull melting (casting) and by hot isostatic pressing. Test specimens were prepared in various hardened and annealed heat treatment conditions. The average impact energy ranged from 0.33 to 0.49J for the hardened specimens while the annealed specimens had impact energies ranging from 0.89 to 1.18J. The average hardness values of the hardened specimens ranged from 590 to 676 HV while that of the annealed specimens ranged from 298 to 366 HV, suggesting an inverse relationship between impact energy and hardness. These results are expected to provide guidance in the selection of heat treatment processes for the design of mechanical components.

Stanford, Malcolm K.

2012-01-01

265

Multi-component radiatively driven winds from A and B stars. I. The metallic wind of a main sequence A star.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multicomponent nature of the wind is a fundamental aspect of the wind of A and B stars. We first show that a radiatively driven wind can exist on main sequence A stars only if the wind is inhomogeneous. Using a multifluid approach, we present a model for radiatively driven winds on these objects. A detailed numerical simulation is performed for an A star, with T_eff_=10000K, on the ZAMS. We solve in a self-consistent way for the mass loss rate, for the energy balance in the wind and for the photospheric abundances. We obtain that only minor elements are expelled from the star and that H and He remain bound to the star. The mass loss rates obtained are very small, lower than ?(M)=10^-16^Msun_/yr but of metals only. These rates are in agreement with the existence of abundance anomalies on chemically peculiar (Cp) stars. The mass loss rate depends crucially on whether or not chemical separation occurs in the photosphere. This result indicates an interesting possible difference between normal A and Ap stars. Results are also obtained for the abundance of metals in the photosphere and could give a key to abundance anomalies on Cp stars. Another important point is on the energy balance of the wind. Our computations show that even on A stars, frictional heating is a major effect which could substantially heat the plasma and create UV or EUV excesses from these objects.

Babel, J.

1995-09-01

266

How do monomeric components of a polymer gel dosimeter respond to ionising radiation: A steady-state radiolysis towards preparation of a 3D polymer gel dosimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionising radiation-induced reactions of aqueous single monomer solutions and mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (Bis) in a steady-state condition are presented below and above gelation doses in order to highlight reactions in irradiated 3D polymer gel dosimeters, which are assigned for radiotherapy dosimetry. Both monomers are shown to undergo radical polymerisation and cross-linking, which result in the measured increase in molecular weight and radius of gyration of the formed polydisperse polymer coils. The formation of nanogels was also observed for Bis solutions at a low concentration. In the case of PEGDA-Bis mixtures, co-polymerisation is suggested as well. At a sufficiently high radiation dose, the formation of a polymer network was observed for both monomers and their mixture. For this reason a sol-gel analysis for PEGDA and Bis was performed gravimetrically and a proposition of an alternative to this method employing a nuclear magnetic resonance technique is made. The two monomers were used for preparation of 3D polymer gel dosimeters having the acronyms PABIG and PABIG nx. The latter is presented for the first time in this work and is a type of the formerly established PABIG polymer gel dosimeter. The elementary characteristics of the new composition are presented, underlining the ease of its preparation, low dose threshold, and slightly increased sensitivity but lower quasi-linear range of dose response in comparison to PABIG.

Kozicki, Marek

2011-12-01

267

Electronic Components  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Jim Lesurf of the University of St. Andrews explains common electronic components in an easily understood format. Resistors, capacitors, diodes, inductors and more are explained here. The difference between passive and active components is also explained. Information about conductors and semiconductors is provided as well.

Lesurf, Jim

2013-08-13

268

Vertical flow in heavily exploited hard rock and alluvial aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the flow in heavily exploited alluvial and hard rock aquifers and demonstrates that vertical components of flow are of great importance. In a typical example of an alluvial aquifer it is shown that most of the discharge from tube wells originates from the phreatic surface flowing vertically through clay layers to the well screens. A second study

K. R. Rushton

1986-01-01

269

Wear-resistant multicomponent carbide coatings based on hard alloys  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigate the formation of diffusion coatings on hard alloys of the groups VK and TK in two- and three-component saturation with chromium, zirconium, titanium, vanadium, and molybdenum, the structure and phase composition of the resulting carbide coatings, the adhesive strength between the substrates and coatings, as well as the comparative microhardness and wear resistance of the carbide-coated alloys.

Voroshnin, L.G.; Borisenok, G.V.; Poberezhnyi, S.V.; Vityaz', N.A.

1987-09-01

270

Research on overlaying welding rod of high hardness maraging steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new maraging steel overlaying welding rod, which contains Co, Mo, W and V alloy, solved the problems of\\u000a poor homogeneity of hardness and mechanical process, prolonged the service life of wear-resistant components and increased\\u000a the productive efficiency of repairing, greatly benefiting the national economy.

Yong-ming Pan; Shao-wei Chen

2006-01-01

271

Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them:

Heuze

1981-01-01

272

Active Noise Control Using Piezoelectric Actuators in Hard Disk Drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing use of electromechanical microsystems, such as hard disk drives, CD-ROM drives, and DVD drives in the consumer electronics industry, there is a growing demand for quieter products. The noise emitted from these devices may originate from the vibration of mechanical components in operation, such as bearings, gears, and actuators. The vibration is then transmitted to other parts

Feng Gao; Ying Yan; Fook Fah Yap

2003-01-01

273

Novel method for indirect sensing of hard disk drive imbalance  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, hard disk drives (HDD) are balanced using external balancing machine after all components of HDD are assembled. Therefore, company's throughput is limited by number of available balancing machines. Besides, imbalance is measured only once after assembly, and for this reason there is no possibility to measure if there is any change in imbalance of HDD during its operation.

Branislav Hredzak; Guoxiao Guo

2004-01-01

274

New Method for Sensorless Measurement of Hard Disk Drives Imbalance  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, hard disk drives (HDDs) are balanced using external balancing machine after all the components of the HDD are assembled. Therefore, company's throughput is limited by a number of available balancing machines. Besides, an imbalance is measured only once after assembly, and for this reason, there is no possibility to measure if there is any change in imbalance of

Branislav Hredzak; Guoxiao Guo; Jingliang Zhang

2006-01-01

275

STP Hard Disks Metropolis Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The STP Hard Disks Metropolis program is a Monte Carlo simulation of hard disks in two dimensions. The default initial condition is a rectangular configuration of N=64 particles in a box of length L = 40. You can slowly increase the density of the gas (by setting the minimum scale length between centers to a value slightly less than 1) to explore phase transitions. STP HardDisksMetropolis is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the stp_HardDisksMetropolis.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional programs can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2009-03-06

276

Hard Spheres Monte Carlo Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hard Sphere Monte Carlo Model performs canonical Monte Carlo simulations of 256 or 500 hard spheres covering the fluid and solid states. The results are analysed through the radial distributions functions from which the equation of state (EOS) is estimated. This is done by fitting a polynomial to the radial distribution functions in order to exrapolate them to the hard spheres distance of contact. The consistency of the simulations is assessed by the errors of the predicted compressibility factors relatively to the accurate EOS reported by Wu and Sadus. The Hard Sphere Monte Carlo Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the jar file will run the program if Java is installed. You can modify this simulation if you have EJS installed by right-clicking within the map and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item.

Fernandes, Fernando S.; Freitas, Filomena

2013-02-20

277

Confined Hard Disk System Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Confined Hard Disk System is an idealized statistical mechanics model that simulates a two-dimensional system of hard disks confined to a box with a constant temperature thermal reservoir at one end and a movable piston at the other. Slow-moving particles are color-coded as blue and fast particles are color-coded as yellow. The model computes and plots the time evolution of the kinetic energy K per particle, the pressure P, and the volume V. The model also displays histograms and mean values of these quantities. The Confined Hard Disk System was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_stp_hd_ConfinedHardDiskSystem.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2010-12-27

278

Brain components  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

279

Radiation-Hardened Solid-State Drive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is provided for a radiationhardened (rad-hard) solid-state drive for space mission memory applications by combining rad-hard and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) non-volatile memories (NVMs) into a hybrid architecture. The architecture is controlled by a rad-hard ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) or a FPGA (field programmable gate array). Specific error handling and data management protocols are developed for use in a rad-hard environment. The rad-hard memories are smaller in overall memory density, but are used to control and manage radiation-induced errors in the main, and much larger density, non-rad-hard COTS memory devices. Small amounts of rad-hard memory are used as error buffers and temporary caches for radiation-induced errors in the large COTS memories. The rad-hard ASIC/FPGA implements a variety of error-handling protocols to manage these radiation-induced errors. The large COTS memory is triplicated for protection, and CRC-based counters are calculated for sub-areas in each COTS NVM array. These counters are stored in the rad-hard non-volatile memory. Through monitoring, rewriting, regeneration, triplication, and long-term storage, radiation-induced errors in the large NV memory are managed. The rad-hard ASIC/FPGA also interfaces with the external computer buses.

Sheldon, Douglas J.

2010-01-01

280

Hard-phase engineering in hard/soft nanocomposite magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk SmCo/Fe(Co) based hard/soft nanocomposite magnets with different hard phases (1:5, 2:17, 2:7 and 1:3 types) were fabricated by high-energy ball-milling followed by a warm compaction process. Microstructural studies revealed a homogeneous distribution of bcc-Fe(Co) phase in the matrix of hard magnetic Sm-Co phase with grain size ?20 nm after severe plastic deformation and compaction. The small grain size leads to effective inter-phase exchange coupling as shown by the single-phase-like demagnetization behavior with enhanced remanence and energy product. Among the different hard phases investigated, it was found that the Sm2Co7-based nanocomposites can incorporate a higher soft phase content, and thus a larger reduction in rare-earth content compared with the 2:17, 1:5 and 1:3 phase-based nanocomposite with similar properties. (BH)max up to 17.6 MGOe was obtained for isotropic Sm2Co7/FeCo nanocomposite magnets with 40 wt% of the soft phase which is about 300% higher than the single-phase counterpart prepared under the same conditions. The results show that hard-phase engineering in nanocomposite magnets is an alternative approach to fabrication of high-strength nanocomposite magnets with reduced rare-earth content.

Poudyal, Narayan; Rong, Chuanbing; Vuong Nguyen, Van; Liu, J. Ping

2014-03-01

281

Response of nickel surface to pulsed fusion plasma radiations  

SciTech Connect

Nickel based alloys are being projected as suitable materials for some components of the next generation fusion reactor because of compatible thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. Pure nickel material is tested here for possibility of similar application purpose. Nickel samples (> 99.5 % purity) are exposed here to plasma radiations produced due to D-D fusion reaction inside an 11.5 kJ plasma focus device. The changes in the physical properties of the nickel surface at microscopic level which in turn change the mechanical properties are analyzed using scanning electron microscope, optical microscope, glancing incident X-ray diffractometer and Vicker's hardness gauge. The results are reported here.

Niranjan, Ram, E-mail: niranjan@barc.gov.in; Rout, R. K., E-mail: niranjan@barc.gov.in; Srivastava, R., E-mail: niranjan@barc.gov.in; Gupta, Satish C. [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Chakravarthy, Y. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Patel, N. N. [High Pressure and Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Alex, P. [Materials Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

2014-04-24

282

Exposure assessment in the hard metal manufacturing industry with special regard to tungsten and its compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo assess the exposure to tungsten, cobalt, and nickel in a plant producing hard metals. The main components of hard metals are tungsten carbide and cobalt metal. According to recent studies, these two components may be responsible for both fibrogenic and carcinogenic effects.METHODS87 workers were investigated (86 male, one female) with a median age of 42 (range 22–58) and a

T Kraus; P Schramel; K H Schaller; P Zöbelein; A Weber; J Angerer

2001-01-01

283

Detection of an Inner Gaseous Component in a Herbig Be Star Accretion Disk: Near- and Mid-Infrared Spectrointerferometry and Radiative Transfer modeling of MWC 147  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the geometry and the physical conditions in the inner (AU-scale) circumstellar region around the young Herbig Be star MWC 147 using long-baseline spectrointerferometry in the near-infrared (NIR) K-band, VLTI/AMBER observations, and PTI archive data, as well as the mid-infrared (MIR) N-band, VLTI/MIDI observations. The emission from MWC 147 is clearly resolved and has a characteristic physical size of ~1.3 and ~9 AU at 2.2 and 11 ?m, respectively (Gaussian diameter). The MIR emission reveals asymmetry consistent with a disk structure seen under intermediate inclination. The spectrally dispersed AMBER and MIDI interferograms both show a strong increase in the characteristic size toward longer wavelengths, much steeper than predicted by analytic disk models assuming power-law radial temperature distributions. We model the interferometric data and the spectral energy distribution of MWC 147 with two-dimensional, frequency-dependent radiation transfer simulations. This analysis shows that models of spherical envelopes or passive irradiated Keplerian disks (with vertical or curved puffed-up inner rim) can easily fit the SED, but predict much lower visibilities than observed; the angular size predicted by such models is 2-4 times larger than the size derived from the interferometric data, so these models can clearly be ruled out. Models of a Keplerian disk with optically thick gas emission from an active gaseous disk (inside the dust sublimation zone), however, yield a good fit of the SED and simultaneously reproduce the absolute level and the spectral dependence of the NIR and MIR visibilities. We conclude that the NIR continuum emission from MWC 147 is dominated by accretion luminosity emerging from an optically thick inner gaseous disk, while the MIR emission also contains contributions from the outer, irradiated dust disk. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program IDs 074.C-0181, 076.C-0138, and 078.C-0129. In addition, this work is based in part on archival data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA.

Kraus, Stefan; Preibisch, Thomas; Ohnaka, Keiichi

2008-03-01

284

Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness  

DOEpatents

A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis.

Prince, James M. (Kennewick, WA); Dodson, Michael G. (Richland, WA); Lechelt, Wayne M. (Benton City, WA)

1989-01-01

285

Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness  

DOEpatents

A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis. 14 figs.

Prince, J.M.; Dodson, M.G.; Lechelt, W.M.

1989-07-18

286

JPL Radiation Effects Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation Effects Group investigates the effects of space radiation on present and future microelectronic and optoelectronic technologies, evaluate the risk of using them in specific space missions, and recommend component and design techniques for JPL and NASA programs to reduce reliability risk from space radiation.

Thorbourn, Dennis

2013-01-01

287

Structure and biochemistry of mammalian hard keratin.  

PubMed

In this review, the structure and biological formation of hard alpha-keratin are drawn together. The hard keratins comprising wool, hairs, quills, hooves, horns, nails and baleen contain partly alpha-helical polypeptides which show homology with epidermal polypeptides only in the helical regions. These polypeptides (about 32 chains) are organized into intermediate filaments (IFs) of 7.5 nm diameter which are embedded in variable amounts of a matrix of non-helical cystine-rich proteins and glycine-tyrosine-rich proteins. The total number of proteins may exceed 100. In addition keratins contain a variety of lipid components. Wool and hair are produced in follicles in a multistep procedure. In the lower levels of the follicle, IFs without associated matrix are found. Subsequently matrix proteins are laid down between the IFs and further synthesis takes place concurrently. Finally the proteins are insolubilized by the oxidative formation of disulphide bonds. Keratinized fibres shows considerable complexity and diversity in the structural arrangement of IFs and matrix within cortical cells. Typically the IFs show hexagonal packing or give a whorl-like appearance in cross-section. PMID:1714783

Marshall, R C; Orwin, D F; Gillespie, J M

1991-01-01

288

Hard Work and Hard Data: Getting Our Message Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unless questions about student performance and student retention can be answered and unless educators are proactive in finding and publicizing such information, basic writing programs cannot determine if what they are doing is working. Hard data, especially from underrepresented groups, is needed to support these programs. At Arizona State…

Glau, Gregory R.

289

Biology of the hard clam Hard clams of the genus Mercenaria  

E-print Network

Biology of the hard clam Hard clams of the genus Mercenaria are found from the Gulf of St. Lawrence of the general- izations may apply to all hard clams. The hard clam is rarely found where salinities average less than 20 parts per thousand (ppt). Hard clams occu- py intertidal and subtidal habitats, where

Florida, University of

290

Hard X-rays from hybrid X pinches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X pinches are well known to produce very small, dense plasma pinches ("hot spots") that emit short bursts of 1.5-8 keV radiation. Hard X-ray radiation in the 8-100 keV range is also emitted, only a small portion of which is associated with the X-pinch hot spot. In hybrid X-pinches, the "long" X-ray pulse is terminated by fast closure of the gap between the two conical electrodes by rapidly expanding electrode plasmas. The temporal, spectral, and spatial properties of this higher energy radiation, 10 - 60 keV, have been studied. This radiation was used for point-projection imaging with magnification between 1.5 and 3, and spatial resolution less than100 micrometers was demonstrated.

Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Hoyt, C. L.; Cahill, A. D.; Hammer, D. A.; Tilikin, I. N.; Mingaleev, A. R.; Agafonov, A. V.

2014-12-01

291

Hard scattering in ?p interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the investigation of the final state in interactions of quasi-real photons with protons. The data were taken with the H1 detector at the HERA ep collider. Evidence for hard interactions is seen in both single particle spectra and jet formation. The data can best be described by inclusion of resolved photon processess as predicted by QCD.

Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Arpagaus, M.; Babayev, A.; Bärwolff, H.; Ban, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Beck, G. A.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Berthon, U.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besancon, M.; Biddulph, P.; Binder, E.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Bosetti, P. C.; Boudry, V.; Bourdarios, C.; Brasse, F.; Braun, U.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Colombo, M.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, C.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dann, A. W. E.; Dau, W. D.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; DelBuono, L.; Devel, M.; DeRoeck, A.; Dingus, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Drescher, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Eberle, M.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, N. N.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Feng, Y.; Fensome, I. F.; Ference, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flauger, W.; Fleischer, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Fuhrmann, P.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gellrich, A.; Gennis, M.; Gensch, U.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Gillespie, D.; Godfrey, L.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Goldberg, M.; Goodall, A. M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Greif, H.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Handschuh, D.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Harjes, J.; Hartz, P.; Haydar, R.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Hedberg, V.; Hedgecock, R.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladky, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Huet, Ph.; Hufnagel, H.; Huot, N.; Ibbotson, M.; Jabiol, M. A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kasarian, S.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Köhler, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurca, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Langkau, R.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J. F.; Lebedev, A.; Lenhardt, U.; Leuschner, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levin, D.; Levonian, S.; Ley, Ch.; Lindström, G.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lüers, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, A.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milone, V.; Monnier, E.; Moreau, F.; Moreels, J.; Morris, J. V.; Morton, J. M.; Müller, K.; Murin, P.; Murray, S. A.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newton, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Niebergall, F.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Orenstein, S.; Ould-Saada, F.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Peters, S.; Phillips, H. T.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pilgram, W.; Pitzl, D.; Prosi, R.; Raupach, F.; Rauschnabel, K.; Reimer, P.; Ribarics, P.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Rietz, M.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rudowicz, M.; Ruffer, M.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Ryseck, E.; Sacton, J.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P.; Savitsky, M.; Schacht, P.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitz, W.; Schröder, V.; Schulz, M.; Schwind, A.; Scobel, W.; Seehausen, U.; Sell, R.; Seman, M.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Smolik, L.; Soloviev, Y.; Spitzer, H.; Staroba, P.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Steiner, H.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, R. J.; Tichomirov, I.; Trenkel, C.; Truöl, P.; Tchernyshov, V.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Urban, L.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; VanEsch, P.; Vartapetian, A.; Vasdik, J.; Vecko, M.; Verrecchia, P.; Vick, R.; Villet, G.; Vogel, E.; Wacker, K.; Walker, I. W.; Walther, A.; Weber, G.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.

1992-12-01

292

Is Carbon Hard or Soft?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation shows differences in the arrangement of carbon atoms that make up diamonds and graphite. Through text and pictures, the resource describes the difference in arrangement of two different carbon allotropes. The text relates the differences in arrangements to differences in the hardness (properties) of the materials.

293

Hard and soft multifractal processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that multifractal notions encompass a wider variety of phenomena than often believed. Ranked by increasing highest order of singularities we have geometric, then microcanonical and finally canonical multifractals. They are respectively localized and ``calm'', delocalized and ``calm'', and delocalized and ``wild''. Canonical multifractals may also involve rare violent (``hard'') singularities which cause high order statistical moments to diverge.

D. Schertzer; S. Lovejoy

1992-01-01

294

FATIGUE OF BIOMATERIALS: HARD TISSUES  

PubMed Central

The fatigue and fracture behavior of hard tissues are topics of considerable interest today. This special group of organic materials comprises the highly mineralized and load-bearing tissues of the human body, and includes bone, cementum, dentin and enamel. An understanding of their fatigue behavior and the influence of loading conditions and physiological factors (e.g. aging and disease) on the mechanisms of degradation are essential for achieving lifelong health. But there is much more to this topic than the immediate medical issues. There are many challenges to characterizing the fatigue behavior of hard tissues, much of which is attributed to size constraints and the complexity of their microstructure. The relative importance of the constituents on the type and distribution of defects, rate of coalescence, and their contributions to the initiation and growth of cracks, are formidable topics that have not reached maturity. Hard tissues also provide a medium for learning and a source of inspiration in the design of new microstructures for engineering materials. This article briefly reviews fatigue of hard tissues with shared emphasis on current understanding, the challenges and the unanswered questions. PMID:20563239

Arola, D.; Bajaj, D.; Ivancik, J.; Majd, H.; Zhang, D.

2009-01-01

295

Radiation Assurance for the Space Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space radiation environment can lead to extremely harsh operating conditions for spacecraft electronic systems. A hardness assurance methodology must be followed to assure that the space radiation environment does not compromise the functionality and performance of space-based systems during the mission lifetime. The methodology includes a definition of the radiation environment, assessment of the radiation sensitivity of parts, worst-case analysis of the impact of radiation effects, and part acceptance decisions which are likely to include mitigation measures.

Barth, Janet L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Poivey, Christian

2004-01-01

296

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOEpatents

A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-30

297

Non-destructive component separation using infrared radiant energy  

DOEpatents

A method for separating a first component and a second component from one another at an adhesive bond interface between the first component and second component. Typically the method involves irradiating the first component with infrared radiation from a source that radiates substantially only short wavelengths until the adhesive bond is destabilized, and then separating the first component and the second component from one another. In some embodiments an assembly of components to be debonded is placed inside an enclosure and the assembly is illuminated from an IR source that is external to the enclosure. In some embodiments an assembly of components to be debonded is simultaneously irradiated by a multi-planar array of IR sources. Often the IR radiation is unidirectional. In some embodiments the IR radiation is narrow-band short wavelength infrared radiation.

Simandl, Ronald F. (Knoxville, TN); Russell, Steven W. (Knoxville, TN); Holt, Jerrid S. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN)

2011-03-01

298

Microcircuit radiation effects databank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This databank is the collation of radiation test data submitted by many testers and serves as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. It contains radiation sensitivity results from ground tests and is divided into two sections. Section A lists total dose damage information, and section B lists single event upset cross sections, I.E., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup).

1983-01-01

299

Mass loss from inhomogeneous hot star winds. III. An effective-opacity formalism for line radiative transfer in accelerating, clumped two-component media, and first results on theory and diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We provide a fast and easy-to-use formalism for treating the reduction in effective opacity associated with optically thick clumps in an accelerating two-component medium. Methods: We develop and benchmark effective-opacity laws for continuum and line radiative transfer that bridge the limits of optically thin and thick clumps. We then use this formalism to i) design a simple method for modeling and analyzing UV wind resonance lines in hot, massive stars, and ii) derive simple correction factors to the line force driving the outflows of such stars. Results: Using a vorosity-modified Sobolev with exact integration (vmSEI) method, we show that, for a given ionization factor, UV resonance doublets may be used to analytically predict the upward corrections in empirically inferred mass-loss rates associated with porosity in velocity space (a.k.a. velocity-porosity, or vorosity). However, we also show the presence of a solution degeneracy: in a two-component clumped wind with given inter-clump medium density, there are always two different solutions producing the same synthetic doublet profile. We demonstrate this by application to SiIV and PV in B and O supergiants and derive, for an inter-clump density set to 1% of the mean density, upward empirical mass-loss corrections of typically factors of either ~5 or ~50, depending on which of the two solutions is chosen. Overall, our results indicate that this solution dichotomy severely limits the use of UV resonance lines as direct mass-loss indicators in current diagnostic models of clumped hot stellar winds. We next apply the effective line-opacity formalism to the standard CAK theory of line-driven winds. A simple vorosity correction factor to the CAK line force is derived, which for normalized velocity filling factor fvel simply scales as fvel?, where ? is the slope of the CAK line-strength distribution function. By analytic and numerical hydrodynamics calculations, we further show that in cases where vorosity is important at the critical point setting the mass-loss rate, the reduced line force leads to a lower theoretical mass loss, by simply a factor fvel. On the other hand, if vorosity is important only above this critical point, the predicted mass loss is not affected, but the wind terminal speed is reduced, by a factor scaling as fvel?/(2-2?). This shows that porosity in velocity space can have a significant impact not only on the diagnostics, but also on the dynamics and theory of radiatively driven winds.

Sundqvist, J. O.; Puls, J.; Owocki, S. P.

2014-08-01

300

Weld cladding of hard surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A literature study about clad welding of hard surfaces on steel is performed. The purpose was to see what kind of methods are mainly used, and particular attention is paid to clad welding of rolls. The main impression from this study is that several methods are in use. Some of these must be considered as 'too exotic' for the aim of the program, such as laser build-up welding. However, clad welding of hard surfaces to rolls is widely used around the world, and there is no need for particularly advanced welding methods to perform the work. The welding consumables and the way the welding is carried out is of more important character. The report will give some comments to this, and hopefully will give a short review of the current technology in this field.

Habrekke, T.

1993-02-01

301

Computational Modeling Develops Ultra-Hard Steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glenn Research Center's Mechanical Components Branch developed a spiral bevel or face gear test rig for testing thermal behavior, surface fatigue, strain, vibration, and noise; a full-scale, 500-horsepower helicopter main-rotor transmission testing stand; a gear rig that allows fundamental studies of the dynamic behavior of gear systems and gear noise; and a high-speed helical gear test for analyzing thermal behavior for rotorcraft. The test rig provides accelerated fatigue life testing for standard spur gears at speeds of up to 10,000 rotations per minute. The test rig enables engineers to investigate the effects of materials, heat treat, shot peen, lubricants, and other factors on the gear's performance. QuesTek Innovations LLC, based in Evanston, Illinois, recently developed a carburized, martensitic gear steel with an ultra-hard case using its computational design methodology, but needed to verify surface fatigue, lifecycle performance, and overall reliability. The Battelle Memorial Institute introduced the company to researchers at Glenn's Mechanical Components Branch and facilitated a partnership allowing researchers at the NASA Center to conduct spur gear fatigue testing for the company. Testing revealed that QuesTek's gear steel outperforms the current state-of-the-art alloys used for aviation gears in contact fatigue by almost 300 percent. With the confidence and credibility provided by the NASA testing, QuesTek is commercializing two new steel alloys. Uses for this new class of steel are limitless in areas that demand exceptional strength for high throughput applications.

2007-01-01

302

Hard Disk PVT System Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hard Disk PVT System simulates a two-dimensional system of particles confined between a thermal reservoir and a piston. This computer model is designed to study the equation of state for hard disks without other interactions. Slow-moving particles are color-coded as blue and fast particles are color-coded as yellow. Users can set the initial particle energy, the initial particle separation, and the thermal reservoir temperature Tr. The thermal conductivity parameter ? determines the probability that a collision with the thermal wall will affect (thermalize) the colliding particle. If the conductivity is one, the particle velocity after a reservoir collision is set according to Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. If the conductivity is zero, all reservoir collisions are elastic and the internal energy E of the system is conserved.   Particles in this model have unit mass and interact through contact forces. Collision times are computed analytically because particles and pistons move with constant velocity between collisions. The time evolution algorithm advances the particle and piston positions from collision to collision until the requested time step ?t is achieved. The time evolution is then paused, data is accumulated, and the screen is redrawn. The Hard Disk PVT model is a supplemental simulation for the article "Pressure Oscillations in Adiabatic Compression" by Roland Stout in The Physics Teacher 49(5), 280-281 (2011) and has been approved by the author and The Physics Teacher editor. The model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_stp_hd_HardDiskPVTSystem.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2011-03-12

303

Hardness of Electrodeposited Nano-Nickel Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, hardness measurements on nanocrystalline metals were limited to Vickers microhardness and nano-indentation tests, mainly due to sample size/thickness limitations. On the other hand, most industries require hardness values on the Rockwell scale and make extensive use of hardness conversion relationships for various hardness scales. However, hardness conversions currently do not exist for nanocrystalline metals. With recent advances in electrodeposition technology, thicker specimens with a wide range of grain sizes can now be produced. In this study, the relationships between Vickers and Rockwell hardness scales have been developed for such materials. In addition, hardness indentations were used to gain further insight into the work hardening of nanocrystalline and polycrystalline nickel. Vickers microhardness and nano-indentation profiles below large Rockwell indentations showed that polycrystalline nickel exhibited considerable strain hardening, as expected. On the other hand, for nanocrystalline nickel the micro-Vickers and nano-indentations hardness profile showed low strain hardening capacity.

Tang, Bill Tsz Fai

304

Measurements of the hard-x-ray reflectivity of iridium  

SciTech Connect

In connection with the design of a hard-x-ray telescope for the Constellation X-Ray Observatory we measured the reflectivity of an iridium-coated zerodur substrate as a function of angle at 55, 60, 70, and 80 keV at the National Synchrotron Light Source of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The optical constants were derived from the reflectivity data. The real component of the index of refraction is in excellent agreement with theoretical values at all four energies. However, the imaginary component, which is related to the mass attenuation coefficient, is 50% to 70% larger at 55, 60, and 70 keV than theoretical values.

Romaine, S.; Bruni, R.; Gorenstein, P.; Zhong, Z

2007-01-10

305

A first-principles approach to total-dose hardness assurance  

SciTech Connect

A first-principles approach to radiation hardness assurance was described that provides the technical background to the present US and European total-dose radiation hardness assurance test methods for MOS technologies, TM 1019.4 and BS 22900. These test methods could not have been developed otherwise, as their existence depends not on a wealth of empirical comparisons of IC data from ground and space testing, but on a fundamental understanding of MOS defect growth and annealing processes. Rebound testing should become less of a problem for advanced MOS small-signal electronics technologies for systems with total dose requirements below 50--100 krad(SiO{sub 2}) because of trends toward much thinner gate oxides. For older technologies with thicker gate oxides and for power devices, rebound testing is unavoidable without detailed characterization studies to assess the impact of interface traps on devices response in space. The QML approach is promising for future hardened technologies. A sufficient understanding of process effects on radiation hardness has been developed that should be able to reduce testing costs in the future for hardened parts. Finally, it is hoped that the above discussions have demonstrated that the foundation for cost-effective hardness assurance tests is laid with studies of the basic mechanisms of radiation effects. Without a diligent assessment of new radiation effects mechanisms in future technologies, one cannot be assured that the present generation of radiation test standards will continue to apply.

Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Radiation Technology and Assurance Dept.

1995-11-01

306

Hard?to?cook phenomenon in legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard?to?cook legumes (HTCL) have been observed for centuries. Different types of HTCL are recognized in freshly harvested crops or are developed during storage. Two types of hard shell, which is due to seed coat impermeability to water, are identified: (1) the reversible hard shell that occurs in freshly harvested seeds and disappear during storage; (2) the other type is the

1992-01-01

307

7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seeds. 201.57 Section 201.57 Agriculture...Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.57 Hard seeds. Seeds which remain hard at the end of the prescribed test because they...

2010-01-01

308

30 CFR 57.15002 - Hard hats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hard hats. 57.15002 Section 57.15002 Mineral...Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15002 Hard hats. All persons shall wear suitable hard hats when in or around a mine or plant where...

2010-07-01

309

7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture...REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed, if any is present, for any seed...

2010-01-01

310

7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture... Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed, if any is present, for any seed...

2010-01-01

311

30 CFR 56.15002 - Hard hats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hard hats. 56.15002 Section 56.15002 Mineral...MINES Personal Protection § 56.15002 Hard hats. All persons shall wear suitable hard hats when in or around a mine or plant where...

2010-07-01

312

Artificially soft and hard surfaces in electromagnetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transversely corrugated surface as used in corrugated horn antennas represents a soft boundary. A hard boundary is made by using longitudinal corrugations filled with dielectric material. The concept of soft and hard surfaces is treated in detail, considering different geometries. It is shown that both the hard and soft boundaries have the advantage of a polarization-independent reflection coefficient for

Per-Simon Kildal

1990-01-01

313

Online Diagnosis of Hard Faults in Microprocessors  

E-print Network

Online Diagnosis of Hard Faults in Microprocessors FRED A. BOWER Duke University and IBM Systems Paper: Fred A. Bower, Daniel J. Sorin, and Sule Ozev. "A Mechanism for Online Diagnosis of Hard Faults. Online diagnosis of hard faults in microprocessors. Architec. Code Optim. 4, 2, Article 8 (June 2007),

Sorin, Daniel J.

314

Warren G. Harding and the Press.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many parallels between the Richard M. Nixon administration and Warren G. Harding's term: both Republicans, both touched by scandal, and both having a unique relationship with the press. But in Harding's case the relationship was a positive one. One of Harding's first official acts as president was to restore the regular White House news…

Whitaker, W. Richard

315

Silicon Refractive optics for hard X-rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-rays refractive optics has made a real success in a hard radiation domain promising for many applications. An analysis made of refractive materials properties, which are most suitable for this new kind of X-ray focusing optics shows that in silicon refraction effects prevail on attenuation. A wide variety of technologies dedicated to microstructure formation on Si make it as a most suitable one. Using electron beam lithography and deep plasma etching planar parabolic profiles are produced with the focal distance 1 m on 17.4 keV radiation. They are tested on synchrotron radiation at beamline X47 SPRING-8. Experiments carried out open the way to construct kinoform refracting profiles, which exceed simple parabolas in gain and aperture. A number of kinoform profiles on silicon is created for energies up to 50 keV, which at apertures 2 mm have calculated gain up to 5000. Some focusing properties of such planar refracting profiles are discussed.

Aristov, V.; Firsov, A.; Grigoriev, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Kikuta, S.; Kohmura, Y.; Kuznetsov, S.; Shabelnikov, L.; Yunkin, V.

2000-05-01

316

Hard body amphiphiles at a hard wall JOSEPH M. BRADER1y  

E-print Network

Hard body amphiphiles at a hard wall JOSEPH M. BRADER1y , CHRISTIAN VON FERBER2 and MATTHIAS 2003) We investigate the structure of amphiphilic molecules exposed to a substrate that is modelled by a hard wall. Our simple model amphiphiles consist of a hard sphere head group to which a vanishingly thin

Ott, Albrecht

317

Development of a fast radiation detector based on barium fluoride scintillation crystal  

SciTech Connect

Barium fluoride (BaF{sub 2}) is an inorganic scintillation material used for the detection of X/gamma radiation due to its relatively high density, equivalent atomic number, radiation hardness, and high luminescence. BaF{sub 2} has a potential capacity to be used in gamma ray timing experiments due to the prompt decay emission components. It is known that the light output from BaF{sub 2} has three decay components: two prompt of those at approximately 195 nm and 220 nm with a decay constant around 600-800 ps and a more intense, slow component at approximately 310 nm with a decay constant around 630 ns which hinders fast timing experiments. We report here the development of a fast radiation detector based on a BaF{sub 2} scintillation crystal employing a special optical filter device, a multiple reflection multi-path ultraviolet region short-wavelength pass light guides (MRMP-short pass filter) by using selective reflection technique, for which the intensity of the slow component is reduced to less than 1%. The methods used for this study provide a novel way to design radiation detector by utilizing scintillation crystal with several emission bands.

Han, Hetong [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, NINT, Xi'an 710024, Shaanxi (China) [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, NINT, Xi'an 710024, Shaanxi (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, XJTU, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Zhang, Zichuan; Weng, Xiufeng; Liu, Junhong; Zhang, Kan; Li, Gang [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, NINT, Xi'an 710024, Shaanxi (China)] [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, NINT, Xi'an 710024, Shaanxi (China); Guan, Xingyin [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, XJTU, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi (China)] [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, XJTU, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

2013-07-15

318

Development of a fast radiation detector based on barium fluoride scintillation crystal.  

PubMed

Barium fluoride (BaF2) is an inorganic scintillation material used for the detection of X?gamma radiation due to its relatively high density, equivalent atomic number, radiation hardness, and high luminescence. BaF2 has a potential capacity to be used in gamma ray timing experiments due to the prompt decay emission components. It is known that the light output from BaF2 has three decay components: two prompt of those at approximately 195 nm and 220 nm with a decay constant around 600-800 ps and a more intense, slow component at approximately 310 nm with a decay constant around 630 ns which hinders fast timing experiments. We report here the development of a fast radiation detector based on a BaF2 scintillation crystal employing a special optical filter device, a multiple reflection multi-path ultraviolet region short-wavelength pass light guides (MRMP-short pass filter) by using selective reflection technique, for which the intensity of the slow component is reduced to less than 1%. The methods used for this study provide a novel way to design radiation detector by utilizing scintillation crystal with several emission bands. PMID:23902059

Han, Hetong; Zhang, Zichuan; Weng, Xiufeng; Liu, Junhong; Guan, Xingyin; Zhang, Kan; Li, Gang

2013-07-01

319

Development of a fast radiation detector based on barium fluoride scintillation crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barium fluoride (BaF2) is an inorganic scintillation material used for the detection of X/gamma radiation due to its relatively high density, equivalent atomic number, radiation hardness, and high luminescence. BaF2 has a potential capacity to be used in gamma ray timing experiments due to the prompt decay emission components. It is known that the light output from BaF2 has three decay components: two prompt of those at approximately 195 nm and 220 nm with a decay constant around 600-800 ps and a more intense, slow component at approximately 310 nm with a decay constant around 630 ns which hinders fast timing experiments. We report here the development of a fast radiation detector based on a BaF2 scintillation crystal employing a special optical filter device, a multiple reflection multi-path ultraviolet region short-wavelength pass light guides (MRMP-short pass filter) by using selective reflection technique, for which the intensity of the slow component is reduced to less than 1%. The methods used for this study provide a novel way to design radiation detector by utilizing scintillation crystal with several emission bands.

Han, Hetong; Zhang, Zichuan; Weng, Xiufeng; Liu, Junhong; Guan, Xingyin; Zhang, Kan; Li, Gang

2013-07-01

320

Communication: Radial distribution functions in a two-dimensional binary colloidal hard sphere system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional hard disks are a fundamentally important many-body model system in classical statistical mechanics. Despite their significance, a comprehensive experimental data set for two-dimensional single component and binary hard disks is lacking. Here, we present a direct comparison between the full set of radial distribution functions and the contact values of a two-dimensional binary colloidal hard sphere model system and those calculated using fundamental measure theory. We find excellent quantitative agreement between our experimental data and theoretical predictions for both single component and binary hard disk systems. Our results provide a unique and fully quantitative mapping between experiments and theory, which is crucial in establishing the fundamental link between structure and dynamics in simple liquids and glass forming systems.

Thorneywork, Alice L.; Roth, Roland; Aarts, Dirk G. A. L.; Dullens, Roel P. A.

2014-04-01

321

Hardness ratio evolutionary curves of gamma-ray bursts expected by the curvature effect  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) pulses with a fast rise and an exponential decay phase, assumed to arise from relativistically expending fireballs, and found that the curvature effect influences the evolutionary curve of the corresponding hardness ratio (hereafter HRC). We find, due to the curvature effect, the evolutionary curve of the pure hardness ratio (when the background count is not included) would peak at the very beginning of the curve, and then would undergo a drop-to-rise-to-decay phase. In the case of the raw hardness ratio (when the background count is included), the curvature effect would give rise to several types of evolutionary curve, depending on the hardness of a burst. For a soft burst, an upside down pulse of its raw HRC would be observed; for a hard burst, its raw HRC shows a pulselike profile with a sinkage in its decaying phase; for a very hard burst, the raw HRC possesses a pulselike profile without a sinkage in its decaying phase. For a pulselike raw HRC as shown in the case of the hard and very hard bursts, its peak would appear in advance of that of the corresponding light curve, which was observed previously in some GRBs. For illustration, we have studied here the HRC of GRB 920216, GRB 920830, and GRB 990816 in detail. The features of the raw HRC expected in the hard burst are observed in these bursts. A fit to the three bursts shows that the curvature effect alone could indeed account for the predicted characteristics of HRCs. In addition, we find that the observed hardness ratio tends to be harder at the beginning of the pulses than what the curvature effect could predict and be softer at the late time of the pulses. We believe this is an evidence showing the existence of intrinsic hard-to-soft radiation which might be due to the acceleration-to-deceleration mode of shocks.

Qin, Y.-P. [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Physics Department, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Su, C.-Y. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Department of Physics, Guangdong Industry University, Guangzhou 530004 (China); Fan, J. H. [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Gupta, A. C. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

2006-09-15

322

The Hard Problem of Cooperation  

PubMed Central

Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the “hard problem of cooperation” as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior. PMID:22792282

Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

2012-01-01

323

Novel radiation hard microfabricated scintillation detectors with high spatial resolution  

E-print Network

of a single channel with a serpentine geometry. The operation of such a device is very simple as it has only one inlet and one outlet. Once filled with liquid scintillator it comes to be a densely packed array

Dalang, Robert C.

324

Space Radiation Effects and Hardness Assurance for Linear Integrated Circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New effects that complicate the application of linear devices in space are discussed, including enhanced damage at low dose rate and proton damage, which cause permanent degradation. Transients produced by protons and heavy ions are also discussed.

Johnston, A. H.

2000-01-01

325

A Bayesian Treatment of Risk for Radiation Hardness Assurance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

They construct a Bayesian risk metric with a method that allows for efficient and systematic use of all relevant information and provides rational basis for RHA decisions in terms of costs and mission requirements

Ladbury, R.; Gorelick, J. L.; Xapsos, M. A.; O'Connor, T.; Demosthenes, Sandor

2005-01-01

326

Physical basis for nondestructive tests of MOS radiation hardness  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was found that the 1\\/f noise and channel resistance of unirradiated nMOS transistors from a single lot with various gate-oxide splits closely correlate with the oxide-trap and interface trap charge, respectively, following irradiation. The 1\\/f noise is explained by scattering from interface-trap precursor defects. It appears that both noise and channel mobility measurements may be useful in defining nondestructive

John H. Scofield; D. M. Fleetwood

1991-01-01

327

Hard Scattering Studies at Jlab  

SciTech Connect

We present current activities and future prospects for studies of hard scattering processes using the CLAS detector and the CEBAF polarized electron beam. Kinematic dependences of single and double spin asymmetries have been measured in a wide kinematic range at CLAS with a polarized NH{sub 3} and unpolarized liquid hydrogen targets. It has been shown that the data are consistent with factorization and observed target and beam asymmetries are in good agreement with measurements performed at higher energies, suggesting that the high energy-description of the semi-inclusive DIS process can be extended to the moderate energies of JLab measurements.

Harutyun Avagyan; Peter Bosted; Volker Burkert; Latifa Elouadrhiri

2005-09-01

328

Tool-wear mechanisms in hard turning with polycrystalline cubic boron nitride tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard turning is a turning operation performed on high strength alloy steels (45hard turning has so far addressed several fundamental questions concerning chip formation mechanisms, tool-wear, surface integrity and geometric accuracy of the machined components. The major consideration for the user

G. Poulachon; A. Moisan; I. S. Jawahir

2001-01-01

329

Influence of water layer thickness on hard tissue ablation with pulsed CO2 laser.  

PubMed

The theory of hard tissue ablation reported for IR lasers is based on a process of thermomechanical interaction, which is explained by the absorption of the radiation in the water component of the tissue. The microexplosion of the water is the cause of tissue fragments being blasted from hard tissue. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the interdependence of water layer thickness and incident radiant exposure on ablation performance. A total of 282 specimens of bovine shank bone were irradiated with a pulse CO(2) laser. Irradiation was carried out in groups: without a water layer and with a static water layer of thickness ranging from 0.2 to 1.2 mm. Each group was subdivided into five subgroups for different radiant exposures ranging from 18 to 84 J/cm(2), respectively. The incision geometry, surface morphology, and microstructure of the cut walls as well as thermal injury were examined as a function of the water layer thickness at different radiant exposures. Our results demonstrate that the additional water layer is actually a mediator of laser-tissue interaction. There exists a critical thickness of water layer for a given radiant exposure, at which the additional water layer plays multiple roles, not only acting as a cleaner to produce a clean cut but also as a coolant to prevent bone heating and reduce thermal injury, but also helping to improve the regularity of the cut shape, smooth the cut surface, and enhance ablation rate and efficiency. The results suggest that desired ablation results depend on optimal selection of both water layer thickness and radiant exposure. PMID:22502584

Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhan, Zhenlin; Liu, Haishan; Zhao, Haibin; Xie, Shusen; Ye, Qing

2012-03-01

330

Radiation Climatology of the Greenland Ice Sheet Derived from Greenland Climate Network Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnitude of shortwave and longwave dative fluxes are critical to surface energy balance variations over the Greenland ice sheet, affecting many aspects of its climate, including melt rates, the nature of low-level temperature inversions, the katabatic wind regime and buoyant stability of the atmosphere. Nevertheless, reliable measurements of the radiative fluxes over the ice sheet are few in number, and have been of limited duration and areal distribution (e.g. Ambach, 1960; 1963, Konzelmann et al., 1994, Harding et al., 1995, Van den Broeke, 1996). Hourly GC-Net radiation flux measurements spanning 1995-2001 period have been used to produce a monthly dataset of surface radiation balance components. The measurements are distributed widely across Greenland and incorporate multiple sensors

Steffen, Konrad; Box, Jason

2003-01-01

331

Molecular Dynamics in Principal Component Space Servaas Michielssens,*,  

E-print Network

Molecular Dynamics in Principal Component Space Servaas Michielssens,*, Titus S. van Erp,¶ Carsten dynamics algorithm in principal component space is presented. It is demonstrated that sampling can, is notoriously hard to probe experimentally. Therefore, molecular simulations are used routinely to study

de Groot, Bert

332

Analysis of Compositional Conflicts in Component-Based Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, incompatibilities in component specifications make their composition hard to handle in practical terms. Incompatibilities can be classified into three conflict categories: type conflicts, behavioral conflicts, and property conflicts. This paper describes a framework for the identification of compositional conflicts in component-based systems that analyses conflicts of all three categories. Furthermore, the framework supports conflict analysis from within the software

Andreas Leicher; Susanne Busse; Jörn Guy Süß

2005-01-01

333

30 CFR 77.1710-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...Miscellaneous § 77.1710-1 Distinctively colored hard hats or hard caps; identification for newly...

2010-07-01

334

30 CFR 75.1720-1 - Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly employed, inexperienced...Miscellaneous § 75.1720-1 Distinctively colored hard hats, or hard caps; identification for newly...

2010-07-01

335

Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories  

SciTech Connect

The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them: basalt, granite, and tuff. Their behavior is governed by geological discontinuities. Salt and shale, which exhibit behavior closer to that of a continuum, are not considered here. This paper discusses both the generic rock mechanics R and D, which are required for repository design, as well as examples of projects related to hard rock waste storage. The examples include programs in basalt (Hanford/Washington), in granitic rocks (Climax/Nevada Test Site, Idaho Springs/Colorado, Pinawa/Canada, Oracle/Arizona, and Stripa/Sweden), and in tuff (Nevada Test Site).

Heuze, F.E.

1981-09-01

336

Thermal hard-photons from hot fragmenting nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Hard-photon (E{sub {gamma}}{>=}30 MeV) production has been studied in four different heavy-ion reactions ({sup 36}Ar+{sup 197}Au,{sup 107}Ag,{sup 58}Ni,{sup 12}C at 60A MeV) with TAPS electromagnetic calorimeter, in coincidence with LCPs (Z{<=}2) and IMFs (3{<=}Z{<=}20) detected by two phoswich multidetectors. Aside from the main known emission mechanism, pn bremsstrahlung during the first high-density stage, the existence of a component of lower energy bremsstrahlung photons emitted in secondary pn collisions from a thermalizing source is demonstrated. Thermal hard photons arise as a promising probe of the thermodynamical properties of nuclear systems undergoing multifragmentation.

D'Enterria, D. G. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Subatech, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Martinez, G. [Subatech, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

1999-11-16

337

Studies of the Performance of Radiatino Hard GaAs Photodetectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) photodetectors are a type of semiconducting photodetector that should be able to withstand much higher levels of radiation than commonly used silicon photomultipliers (SIPMs). At the University of Virginia we are characterizing GaAs devices as compared to SIPMs by studying the I/V curve in breakdown region, the breakdown voltage, dark noise, and response to photons. Measurements of single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) and PMC (multiple SPAD chips) are being made focusing on the breakdown region for hardness tests. The SPADs and PMCs will be exposed to high levels of radiation in test beam environments so that post-irradiation performance can be characterized as well. Ultimately GaAs photodetectors could prove to be effective radiation-hard detectors with applications in high radiation environments like those found at the upgraded high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

Goodell, Joseph

2011-10-01

338

Total dose hardness assurance techniques for new generation COTS devices  

SciTech Connect

Hardness assurance techniques and total dose radiation characterization data for new generation linear and COTS devices from various manufacturers are presented. A bipolar op amp showed more degradation at high dose rate than at low dose rate, which is opposite to the behavior of many other bipolar linear devices. New generation low-power op amps showed more degradation in electrical parameters with total power supply voltage of 3V than at higher voltages. Minimum operating voltage is an important characterization parameter for newer low-power linear circuit designs.

Lee, C.I.; Rax, B.G.; Johnston, A.H. [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.] [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

1996-12-01

339

Water hardness control by detergent builders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial detergent additives to control water hardness are of three main types, sequestrant, precipitant or ion-exchange\\u000a builders. These builders lower the free hardness ion (Ca+2, Mg+2) concentration in a wash system by different mechanisms. An electrometric experimental method was used to evaluate the relative\\u000a water hardness control performances of different builder-types under conditions closely simulating those of detergent’s end-use.\\u000a Experimental

M. K. Nagarajan; H. L. Paine

1984-01-01

340

Rad-hard electronics study for SSC detectors  

SciTech Connect

The radiation environment in a SSC detector operating at a luminosity of 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} will put stringent requirements on radiation hardness of the electronics. Over the expected 10 year life-time of a large detector, ionizing radiation doses of up to 20 MRad and neutron fluences of 10{sup 16} neutrons/cm{sup 2} are projected. At a luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} even higher total doses are expected. the effect of this environment have been simulated by exposing CMOS/bulk and CMOS/SOS devices from monolithic processes to neutrons and ionizing radiation. leakage currents, noise variations, and DC characteristics have been measured before and after exposure in order to evaluate the effects of the irradiations. As expected the device characteristics remained virtually unchanged by neutron irradiation, while ionizing radiation caused moderate degradation of performance. 5 refs., 6 figs.

Ekenberg, T.; Dawson, J.; Stevens, A.; Haberichter, W.

1991-01-01

341

Electromagnetic Scattering from Foliage Camouflaged Hard Targets,  

E-print Network

Electromagnetic Scattering from Foliage Camouflaged Hard Targets, in VHF-band Mojtaba Dehmollaian. Then using this formulation, and single scattering theory the backscattered field from a camouflaged complex

Sarabandi, Kamal

342

Conductivity and hardness changes in aged compacts.  

PubMed

Batches of sodium, potassium, and ammonium chloride tablets containing no excipients and spray-dried lactose tablets containing 0.5% magnesium stearate were stored at 20 and 76% relative humidity. Electrical resistance and hardness measurements were made within 1 hr after compression and at intervals during a 45-day period. Hardness values of sodium, potassium, and ammonium chloride tablets stored at 20% relative humidity increased from 70 to 200% at 45 days, while conductances decreased 10-fold. Tablets stored at 76% relative humidity showed no increases or slight decreases in hardness with slight increases in conductance. Lactose tablets decreased slightly in hardness with corresponding increases in conductance. PMID:458612

Bhatia, R P; Lordi, N G

1979-07-01

343

The interpretation of hard X-ray polarization measurements in solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of polarization of moderately hard X-rays in solar flares are reviewed and compared with the predictions of recent detailed modeling of hard X-ray bremsstrahlung production by non-thermal electrons. The recent advances in the complexity of the modeling lead to substantially lower predicted polarizations than in earlier models and more fully highlight how various parameters play a role in determining the polarization of the radiation field. The new predicted polarizations are comparable to those predicted by thermal modeling of solar flare hard X-ray production, and both are in agreement with the observations. In the light of these results, new polarization observations with current generation instruments are proposed which could be used to discriminate between non-thermal and thermal models of hard X-ray production in solar flares.

Leach, J.; Emslie, A. G.; Petrosian, V.

1983-01-01

344

Design Issues for Using Magnetic Materials in Radiation Environments at Elevated Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the challenges of designing motors and alternators for use in nuclear powered space missions is accounting for the effects of radiation. Terrestrial reactor power plants use distance and shielding to minimize radiation damage but space missions must economize volume and mass. Past studies have shown that sufficiently high radiation levels can affect the magnetic response of hard and soft magnetic materials. Theoretical models explaining the radiation-induced degradation have been proposed but not verified. This paper reviews the literature and explains the cumulative effects of temperature, magnetic-load, and radiation-level on the magnetic properties of component materials. Magnetic property degradation is very specific to alloy choice and processing history, since magnetic properties are very much entwined with specific chemistry and microstructural features. However, there is basic theoretical as well as supportive experimental evidence that the negative impact to magnetic properties will be minimal if the bulk temperature of the material is less than fifty percent of the Curie temperature, the radiation flux is low, and the demagnetization field is small. Keywords: Magnets, Permanent Magnets, Power Converters, Nuclear Electric Power Generation, Radiation Tolerance.

Bowman, Cheryl L.

2013-01-01

345

Spectral features in solar hard x-ray and radio events and particle acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard x-ray and radio intensities of two major solar outbursts are found to anticorrelate in time with their spectral indices, which, furthermore, are in satisfactory correlation with each other. The radio emission must be synchrotron radiation from the same electron population that causes the x-ray bremsstrahlung. A delay of temporal features, increasing with energy, is clearly observed in one of

A. O. Benz

1977-01-01

346

Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources  

SciTech Connect

A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms.

Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

1996-08-01

347

Plasma focus based repetitive source of fusion neutrons and hard x-rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plasma focus device capable of operating at 0.2 pulses per second during several minutes is used as a source of hard x-rays and fast neutrons. An experimental demonstration of the use of the neutrons emissions for radiation probing of hydrogenated substances is presented, showing a particular application in detecting water concentrations differences in the proximity of the device by

V. Raspa; F Di Lorenzo; P. Knoblauch; A. Lazarte; A. Tartaglione; A. Clausse; C. Moreno

2008-01-01

348

Modeling and Prediction of Structure-Borne Seek Noise of Hard Disk Drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical approach is presented for modeling and predicting the structure-borne seek noise in hard disk drives (HDDs) in time-domain. Rayleigh integral is adopted to relate the transient acceleration of top cover to its radiated sound pressure. A finite element modeling and simulation technique is employed to arrive at the transient vibration response, which is further used as the input

H. Zheng; J. Q. Mou; W. Z. Lin; E. H. Ong

2009-01-01

349

Explaining the High Energy Spectral Component in GRB 941017  

E-print Network

The gamma-ray burst (GRB) of October 17, 1994 (941017), showed a distinct high energy spectral component extending from $\\lesssim$ a few MeV to $\\gtrsim$ 200 MeV, in addition to the typical GRB emission which peaked at $\\lesssim$ a few hundred keV. The high energy component carried at least $\\sim$ 3 times more energy than the lower energy component. It displayed an almost constant flux with a rather hard spectrum ($F_\

Jonathan Granot; Dafne Guetta

2003-10-08

350

System for inspecting large size structural components  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a system for inspecting large scale structural components such as concrete walls or the like. The system includes a mobile gamma radiation source and a mobile gamma radiation detector. The source and detector are constructed and arranged for simultaneous movement along parallel paths in alignment with one another on opposite sides of a structural component being inspected. A control system provides signals which coordinate the movements of the source and detector and receives and records the radiation level data developed by the detector as a function of source and detector positions. The radiation level data is then analyzed to identify areas containing defects corresponding to unexpected variations in the radiation levels detected.

Birks, Albert S. (Columbus, OH); Skorpik, James R. (Kennewick, WA)

1990-01-01

351

Consciousness in Robots: The Hard Problem and Some Less Hard Problems  

E-print Network

1 Consciousness in Robots: The Hard Problem and Some Less Hard Problems (Extended Version discuss important func- tions that can be served by consciousness in autonomous robots. We distinguish intrinsic intentionality from consciousness, but argue it is also important. Fi- nally we explore the Hard

Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

352

Density functional for ternary non-additive hard sphere mixtures  

E-print Network

Based on fundamental measure theory, a Helmholtz free energy density functional for three-component mixtures of hard spheres with general, non-additive interaction distances is constructed. The functional constitutes a generalization of the previously given theory for binary non-additive mixtures. The diagrammatic structure of the spatial integrals in both functionals is of star-like (or tree-like) topology. The ternary diagrams possess a higher degree of complexity than the binary diagrams. Results for partial pair correlation functions, obtained via the Ornstein-Zernike route from the second functional derivatives of the excess free energy functional, agree well with Monte Carlo simulation data.

Matthias Schmidt

2011-08-31

353

Rosenfeld functional for non-additive hard spheres  

E-print Network

The fundamental measure density functional theory for hard spheres is generalized to binary mixtures of arbitrary positive and moderate negative non-additivity between unlike components. In bulk the theory predicts fluid-fluid phase separation into phases with different chemical compositions. The location of the accompanying critical point agrees well with previous results from simulations over a broad range of non-additivities and both for symmetric and highly asymmetric size ratios. Results for partial pair correlation functions show good agreement with simulation data.

Matthias Schmidt

2004-07-01

354

Systematics of compression of hard materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard materials have the remarkable property that relatively little internal energy of shock compression is deposited as temperature and associated thermal pressure. As a result, the Hugoniot curve is nearly coincident with the 0-K isotherm. Since the isentrope is intermediate between isotherm and Hugoniot, all three curves of a given hard material are nearly coincident. Published data for diamond and

W J Nellis

2008-01-01

355

Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2009 Crop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thirteen hard spring wheat lines that were developed by breeders throughout the spring wheat region of the U. S. were grown at up to five locations in 2009 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Samples of wheat were milled at the USDA Hard Red ...

356

Matrix of Hard and Soft Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document was developed by Access Tech Careers to support successful course completion for students with learning disabilities. This matrix displays intersections between hard skills, including reading, writing, oral communication, and math, with soft skills, including critical thinking, teamwork, professionalism, and adaptability. It can help instructors integrate hard and soft skills in course planning.

357

Classic Nintendo Games are (Computationally) Hard  

E-print Network

video games [1,4,5,6], but the most well-known classic Nintendo games have yet to be included amongClassic Nintendo Games are (Computationally) Hard Greg Aloupis1 , Erik D. Demaine2 , Alan Guo2, Canada, viglietta@gmail.com Abstract. We prove NP-hardness results for five of Nintendo's largest video

Demaine, Erik

358

Hard Metal Alveolitis Accompanied by Rheumatoid Arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard metal lung diseases (HML) are rare, and complex to diagnose. We describe the case of a patient with allergic alveolitis accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis. A sharpener of hard metal by trade, our patient was a 45-year-old, nonsmoking Caucasian female who experienced symptoms of cough and phlegm, and dyspnea on exertion. Preliminary lung findings were inspiratory rales in both basal

Paula A. Hahtola; Ritva E. Järvenpää; Kari Lounatmaa; Jorma J. Mattila; Immo Rantala; Jukka A. Uitti; Seppo Sutinen

2000-01-01

359

Monodispersed hard carbon spherules with uniform nanopores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard carbon with perfect spherical morphology was prepared for the first time by a hydrothermal method. It has controllable monodispersed particle size and a smooth surface. Transmission electron microscopy shows that there are a large quantity of uniform nanopores of about 0.4 nm in diameter and only very few parallel graphene sheets exist within the spherules. This hard carbon material

Qing Wang; Hong Li; Liquan Chen; Xuejie Huang

2001-01-01

360

Preliminary Health Assessment of Cultured Hard Clams,  

E-print Network

Preliminary Health Assessment of Cultured Hard Clams, Mercenaria mercenaria, in Florida Ruth for cultured hard clams in Floridaclams in Florida #12;Health Monitoring Program: SamplingSampling · 60 animals Density lease area Indian River Aquaculture Use Zone represent the majority of the clam production Sand

Florida, University of

361

HARD CLAM HYBRIDS FOR FLORIDAAQUACULTURE: HATCHERY CULTURE  

E-print Network

HARD CLAM HYBRIDS FOR FLORIDAAQUACULTURE: HATCHERY CULTURE John Scarpa: Harbor Branch Oceanographic and Aquatic Sciences, Gainesville, FL 32653 Introduction The hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria notata) is the dominant molluscan species in Florida aquaculture (~$10 million in 2005). Clam production in Florida has

Florida, University of

362

7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...percentage of hard seed, if any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. [24 FR 3953, May 15,...

2013-01-01

363

7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...percentage of hard seed, if any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. [32 FR 12779, Sept. 6,...

2013-01-01

364

7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...percentage of hard seed, if any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. [32 FR 12779, Sept. 6,...

2014-01-01

365

7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...percentage of hard seed, if any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. [24 FR 3953, May 15,...

2012-01-01

366

7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...percentage of hard seed, if any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. [24 FR 3953, May 15,...

2014-01-01

367

7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...percentage of hard seed, if any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. [32 FR 12779, Sept. 6,...

2012-01-01

368

7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...percentage of hard seed, if any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. [24 FR 3953, May 15,...

2011-01-01

369

7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...percentage of hard seed, if any is present, for any seed required to be labeled as to the percentage of germination, and the percentage of hard seed shall not be included as part of the germination percentage. [32 FR 12779, Sept. 6,...

2011-01-01

370

Solving Hard ASP Programs Efficiently Wolfgang Faber  

E-print Network

Solving Hard ASP Programs Efficiently Wolfgang Faber and Francesco Ricca Department of Mathematics research on answer set programming (ASP) systems, has mainly focused on solving NP problems more. In this paper we focus on improving the evaluation of P 2 /P 2 -hard ASP programs. To this end, we define a new

Faber, Wolfgang

371

MAKING JAVA HARD REALTIME Peter Puschner  

E-print Network

MAKING JAVA HARD REAL­TIME Peter Puschner Institut fË?ur Technische Informatik Technische Universit,andyg@cs.york.ac.uk ABSTRACT Due to its portability and security the Java program­ ming language has become very popular. Standard Java is however not suited for programming hard real­time sys­ tems. To overcome this limitation

372

New approaches to hard bubble suppression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of a new double-layer method for the suppression of hard bubbles that is more versatile than previously reported suppression techniques. It is shown that it may be possible to prevent hard bubble generation without recourse to exchange coupling of multilayer films.

Henry, R. D.; Besser, P. J.; Warren, R. G.; Whitcomb, E. C.

1973-01-01

373

Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-?m-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation.

Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

2007-01-01

374

Thermal spray coatings replace hard chrome  

SciTech Connect

Hard chrome plating provides good wear and erosion resistance, as well as good corrosion protection and fine surface finishes. Until a few years ago, it could also be applied at a reasonable cost. However, because of the many environmental and financial sanctions that have been imposed on the process over the past several years, cost has been on a consistent upward trend, and is projected to continue to escalate. Therefore, it is very important to find a coating or a process that offers the same characteristics as hard chrome plating, but without the consequent risks. This article lists the benefits and limitations of hard chrome plating, and describes the performance of two thermal spray coatings (tungsten carbide and chromium carbide) that compared favorably with hard chrome plating in a series of tests. It also lists three criteria to determine whether plasma spray or hard chrome plating should be selected.

Schroeder, M.; Unger, R. [TAFA Inc., Concord, NH (United States)

1997-08-01

375

Thermal hard-photons probing multifragmentation in nuclear collisions around the Fermi energy  

E-print Network

Hard-photon (E$_{\\gamma} >$ 30 MeV) emission issuing from proton-neutron bremsstrahlung collisions is investigated in four different heavy-ion reactions at intermediate bombarding energies ($^{36}$Ar+$^{197}$Au, $^{107}$Ag, $^{58}$Ni, $^{12}$C at 60{\\it A} MeV) coupling the TAPS photon spectrometer with two charged-particle multidetectors covering more than 80% of the solid angle. The hard-photon spectra of the three heavier targets result from the combination of two distinct exponential distributions with different slope parameters, a result which deviates from the behaviour expected for hard-photon production just in first-chance proton-neutron collisions. The thermal origin of the steeper bremsstrahlung component is confirmed by the characteristics of its slope and angular distribution. Such thermal hard-photons convey undisturbed information of the thermodynamical state of hot and excited nuclear systems undergoing multifragmentation.

D. G. d'Enterria; G. Martínez

2000-07-06

376

Hard breakup of the deuteron into two Delta-isobars  

E-print Network

We study high energy photodisintegration of the deuteron into two $\\Delta$-isobars at large center of mass angles within the QCD hard rescattering model (HRM). According to the HRM, the process develops in three main steps: the photon knocks the quark from one of the nucleons in the deuteron; the struck quark rescatters off a quark from the other nucleon sharing the high energy of the photon; then the energetic quarks recombine into two outgoing baryons which have large transverse momenta. Within the HRM, the cross section is expressed through the amplitude of $pn\\rightarrow \\Delta\\Delta$ scattering which we evaluated based on the quark-interchange model of hard hadronic scattering. Calculations show that the angular distribution and the strength of the photodisintegration is mainly determined by the properties of the $pn\\rightarrow \\Delta\\Delta$ scattering. We predict that the cross section of the deuteron breakup to $ \\Delta^{++}\\Delta^{-}$ is 4-5 times larger than that of the breakup to the $ \\Delta^{+}\\Delta^{0}$ channel. Also, the angular distributions for these two channels are markedly different. These can be compared with the predictions based on the assumption that two hard $\\Delta$-isobars are the result of the disintegration of the preexisting $\\Delta\\Delta$ components of the deuteron wave function. In this case, one expects the angular distributions and cross sections of the breakup in both $ \\Delta^{++}\\Delta^{-}$ and $ \\Delta^{+}\\Delta^{0}$ channels to be similar.

Carlos G. Granados; Misak M. Sargsian

2011-04-20

377

Hard breakup of the deuteron into two ? isobars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study high-energy photodisintegration of the deuteron into two ? isobars at large center of mass angles within the QCD hard rescattering model (HRM). According to the HRM, the process develops in three main steps: the photon knocks a quark from one of the nucleons in the deuteron; the struck quark rescatters off a quark from the other nucleon sharing the high energy of the photon; then the energetic quarks recombine into two outgoing baryons which have large transverse momenta. Within the HRM, the cross section is expressed through the amplitude of pn??? scattering which we evaluated based on the quark-interchange model of hard hadronic scattering. Calculations show that the angular distribution and the strength of the photodisintegration is mainly determined by the properties of the pn??? scattering. We predict that the cross section of the deuteron breakup to ?++?- is 4-5 times larger than that of the breakup to the ?+?0 channel. Also, the angular distributions for these two channels are markedly different. These can be compared with the predictions based on the assumption that two hard ? isobars are the result of the disintegration of the preexisting ?? components of the deuteron wave function. In this case, one expects the angular distributions and cross sections of the breakup in both ?++?- and ?+?0 channels to be similar.

Granados, Carlos G.; Sargsian, Misak M.

2011-05-01

378

Hard breakup of the deuteron into two ? -isobars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodisintegration of the deuteron into two ?-isobars at large center of mass angles is studied within the QCD hard rescattering model (HRM). According to the HRM, the reaction proceeds in three main steps: the photon knocks the quark from one of the nucleons in the deuteron; the struck quark rescatters off a quark from the other nucleon sharing the high energy of the photon; then the energetic quarks recombine into two outgoing baryons emerging at large transverse momenta. Within the HRM, the cross section is expressed through the amplitude of pn->?? scattering which we evaluated based on the quark-interchange model of hard hadronic scattering. We predict that the cross section of the deuteron breakup to &++circ;&-circ; is 4-5 times larger than that of the breakup to the &+circ;0? channel. Also, the angular distributions for these two channels are markedly different. These can be compared with the predictions based on the assumption that two hard ?-isobars are the result of the disintegration of initial ?? components of the deuteron wave function. In this case, the angular distributions and cross sections of the breakup in both &++circ;&-circ; and &+circ;0? channels are expected to be similar.

Granados, Carlos; Sargsian, Misak

2011-04-01

379

Hard-body models of bulk liquid crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hard models for particle interactions have played a crucial role in the understanding of the structure of condensed matter. In particular, they help to explain the formation of oriented phases in liquids made of anisotropic molecules or colloidal particles and continue to be of great interest in the formulation of theories for liquids in bulk, near interfaces and in biophysical environments. Hard models of anisotropic particles give rise to complex phase diagrams, including uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases, discotic phases and spatially ordered phases such as smectic, columnar or crystal. Also, their mixtures exhibit additional interesting behaviours where demixing competes with orientational order. Here we review the different models of hard particles used in the theory of bulk anisotropic liquids, leaving aside interfacial properties and discuss the associated theoretical approaches and computer simulations, focusing on applications in equilibrium situations. The latter include one-component bulk fluids, mixtures and polydisperse fluids, both in two and three dimensions, and emphasis is put on liquid-crystal phase transitions and complex phase behaviour in general.

Mederos, Luis; Velasco, Enrique; Martínez-Ratón, Yuri

2014-11-01

380

Hard-body models of bulk liquid crystals  

E-print Network

Hard models for particle interactions have played a crucial role in the understanding of the structure of condensed matter. In particular, they help to explain the formation of oriented phases in liquids made of anisotropic molecules or colloidal particles, and continue to be of great interest in the formulation of theories for liquids in bulk, near interfaces and in biophysical environments. Hard models of anisotropic particles give rise to complex phase diagrams, including uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases, discotic phases, and spatially ordered phases such as smectic, columnar or crystal. Also, their mixtures exhibit additional interesting behaviours where demixing competes with orientational order. Here we review the different models of hard particles used in the theory of bulk anisotropic liquids, leaving aside interfacial properties, and discuss the associated theoretical approaches and computer simulations, focusing on applications in equilibrium situations. The latter include one-component bulk fluids, mixtures and polydisperse fluids, both in two and three dimensions, and emphasis is put on liquid-crystal phase transitions and complex phase behaviour in general.

Luis Mederos; Enrique Velasco; Yuri Martinez-Raton

2014-08-05

381

Hard-body models of bulk liquid crystals.  

PubMed

Hard models for particle interactions have played a crucial role in the understanding of the structure of condensed matter. In particular, they help to explain the formation of oriented phases in liquids made of anisotropic molecules or colloidal particles and continue to be of great interest in the formulation of theories for liquids in bulk, near interfaces and in biophysical environments. Hard models of anisotropic particles give rise to complex phase diagrams, including uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases, discotic phases and spatially ordered phases such as smectic, columnar or crystal. Also, their mixtures exhibit additional interesting behaviours where demixing competes with orientational order. Here we review the different models of hard particles used in the theory of bulk anisotropic liquids, leaving aside interfacial properties and discuss the associated theoretical approaches and computer simulations, focusing on applications in equilibrium situations. The latter include one-component bulk fluids, mixtures and polydisperse fluids, both in two and three dimensions, and emphasis is put on liquid-crystal phase transitions and complex phase behaviour in general. PMID:25335432

Mederos, Luis; Velasco, Enrique; Martínez-Ratón, Yuri

2014-11-19

382

Young's modulus and hardness of shark tooth biomaterials.  

PubMed

To date, the majority of studies on feeding mechanics in sharks have focused on the movement of cranial components and muscle function, with little attention to tooth properties or function. Attributes related to mechanical properties, such as structural strength, may also be subjected to natural selection. Additionally it is necessary to characterize these properties in order to construct biomechanical models of tooth function. The goal of this study was to determine hardness and elastic modulus for the shark tooth materials enameloid, osteodentine, and orthodentine. Five teeth each from one carcharhiniform species, the bonnethead Sphyrna tiburo, and one lamniform, the sand tiger shark Carcharias taurus, were utilized for nanoindentation testing. Each tooth was sectioned transversely, air-dried, and polished. Both enameloid and dentine were tested on each tooth via a Berkovich diamond tip, with nine 2 microm deep indentations per material. t-Tests were used to determine if there were differences in hardness and Young's modulus between the tooth materials of the two species. There was no significant difference between the two species for the material properties of enameloid, however both hardness and Young's modulus were higher for osteodentine than for orthodentine. This may be due to differences in microanatomy and chemical composition, however this needs to be studied in greater detail. PMID:20102762

Whitenack, Lisa B; Simkins, Daniel C; Motta, Philip J; Hirai, Makoto; Kumar, Ashok

2010-03-01

383

Revisit of interfacial free energy of the hard sphere system near hard wall  

E-print Network

We propose a simple Monte Carlo method to calculate the interfacial free energy between the substrate and the material. Using this method we investigate the interfacial free energys of the hard sphere fluid and solid phases near a smooth hard wall. According to the obtained interfacial free energys of the coexisting fluid and solid phases and the Young equation we are able to determine the contact angle with high accuracy, cos$\\theta$ = 1:010(31), which indicates that a smooth hard wall can be wetted completely by the hard sphere crystal at the interface between the wall and the hard sphere fluid.

Mingcheng Yang; Hongru Ma

2008-06-23

384

An Algorithm for the Optimization of Insertion Devices to Increase Useful Flux and to Decrease Useless Radiation Power  

SciTech Connect

A continuous spectrum of synchrotron radiation in the hard x-ray region, 5-20 keV, is necessary for the special demand of users, but the high radiation power in that continuous spectrum adversely affects the design of optical components in the beam line. A compromise between photon flux and radiation power of insertion devices should hence be considered. An algorithm and code for spectrum optimization was hence developed using program Mathematica. A wiggler-like undulator with a continuous spectrum was investigated with this code. An optimization algorithm for continuous spectra in the energy range 5-20 keV is presented, and features of the wiggler-like undulator with a continuous spectrum are discussed herein.

Chen, S. D. [Department of of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hwang, C. S. [NSRRC, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Liang, K. S. [Department of of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); NSRRC, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

2010-06-23

385

Fractured Whiteside Ortholoc II knee components.  

PubMed

A comprehensive failure analysis was performed on 6 femoral components and 1 tibial component that fractured in service. All were Whiteside Ortholoc II total knee arthroplasty components, manufactured from cast cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy and porous coated. Fracture surface analysis revealed fatigue-induced failure in all cases. Most fractures occurred at regions of high stress concentration, such as sharp corners, sintered beads, and thin sections. Metallurgical examination showed significant variation in grain size, interdendritic carbides, and hardness between samples. In some cases, continuous carbide networks and voids were prominent at the bead-substrate interface. Patient weight and surgical placement were identified as contributory factors in component failure. Limitations of cast cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy in weight-bearing applications must be emphasized, particularly when important determinants, such as design, metallurgy, and specific clinical factors, are less than optimal. PMID:11607912

Swarts, E; Miller, S J; Keogh, C V; Lim, G; Beaver, R J

2001-10-01

386

Reconfigurable, Bi-Directional Flexfet Level Shifter for Low-Power, Rad-Hard Integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two prototype Reconfigurable, Bi-directional Flexfet Level Shifters (ReBiLS) have been developed, where one version is a stand-alone component designed to interface between external low voltage and high voltage, and the other version is an embedded integrated circuit (IC) for interface between internal low-voltage logic and external high-voltage components. Targeting stand-alone and embedded circuits separately allows optimization for these distinct applications. Both ReBiLS designs use the commercially available 180-nm Flex fet Independently Double-Gated (IDG) SOI CMOS (silicon on insulator, complementary metal oxide semiconductor) technology. Embedded ReBiLS circuits were integrated with a Reed-Solomon (RS) encoder using CMOS Ultra-Low-Power Radiation Tolerant (CULPRiT) double-gated digital logic circuits. The scope of the project includes: creation of a new high-voltage process, development of ReBiLS circuit designs, and adjustment of the designs to maximize performance through simulation, layout, and manufacture of prototypes. The primary technical objectives were to develop a high-voltage, thick oxide option for the 180-nm Flexfet process, and to develop a stand-alone ReBiLS IC with two 8-channel I/O busses, 1.8 2.5 I/O on the low-voltage pins, 5.0-V-tolerant input and 3.3-V output I/O on the high-voltage pins, and 100-MHz minimum operation with 10-pF external loads. Another objective was to develop an embedded, rad-hard ReBiLS I/O cell with 0.5-V low-voltage operation for interface with core logic, 5.0-V-tolerant input and 3.3-V output I/O pins, and 100-MHz minimum operation with 10- pF external loads. A third objective was to develop a 0.5- V Reed-Solomon Encoder with embedded ReBilS I/O: Transfer the existing CULPRiT RS encoder from a 0.35-micron bulk-CMOS process to the ASI 180-nm Flexfet, rad-hard SOI Process. 0.5-V low-voltage core logic. 5.0-V-tolerant input and 3.3-V output I/O pins. 100-MHz minimum operation with 10- pF external loads. The stand-alone ReBiLS chip will allow system designers to provide efficient bi-directional communication between components operating at different voltages. Embedding the ReBiLS cells into the proven Reed-Solomon encoder will demonstrate the ability to support new product development in a commercially viable, rad-hard, scalable 180-nm SOI CMOS process.

DeGregorio, Kelly; Wilson, Dale G.

2009-01-01

387

Solid-state radiation-emitting compositions and devices  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation, wherein a first substance functions as a source of exciting radiation, and a second substance interacts with the exciting radiation to provide a second radiation. The compositions comprise a porous substrate which is loaded with: a source of exciting radiation, a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with the exciting radiation, or both. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with both a source of exciting radiation, such as tritium, and a component capable of interacting with the exciting radiation, e.g., a phosphor, to produce radiation of a second energy. 4 figs.

Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.; Reed, S.; Walko, R.J.

1992-08-11

388

Solid-state radiation-emitting compositions and devices  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation, wherein a first substance functions as a source of exciting radiation, and a second substance interacts with the exciting radiation to provide a second radiation. The compositions comprise a porous substrate which is loaded with: a source of exciting radiation, a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with the exciting radiation, or both. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with both a source of exciting radiation, such as tritium, and a component capable of interacting with the exciting radiation, e.g., a phosphor, to produce radiation of a second energy.

Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott (Albuquerque, NM); Walko, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

389

An Abstract Interpretation-Based Timing Validation of Hard Real-Time Avionics Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard real-time avionics systems like flight control software are expected to always react in time. Consequently, it is essential for the timing validation of the software that the worst-case execution time (WCET) of all tasks on a given hardware configuration be known. Modern processor components like caches, pipelines, and branch prediction complicate the determination of the WCET considerably since the

Stephan Thesing; Jean Souyris; Reinhold Heckmann; Famantanantsoa Randimbivololona; Marc Langenbach; Reinhard Wilhelm; Christian Ferdinand

2003-01-01

390

Detections of hard X-ray emissions from bright early-type galaxies with ASCA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five bright elliptical galaxies in the Virgo Cluster, NGC 4365, NGC 4374 (M84), NGC 4406 (M86), NGC 4472 (M49), and NGC 4636, were observed with ASCA. In addition to the extended thermal X-ray emission of temperature kT approximately 1 keV, harder X-rays with color temperature kT greater than or equal to 2 keV were detected from all of them. The 2-10 keV luminosities of this hard component for the five galaxies, integrated within 5 min, are distributed within a relatively narrow range of (1-4) x 10(exp 40) ergs/s. The hard X-ray component is primarily attributed to the integrated emission from discrete X-ray sources. In NGC 4406 and NGC 4374 the data indicate that the hard component is contributed additionally by foreground/background emission from the hot intracluster medium (ICM) of the Virgo Cluster. The hard component of NGC 4472 seems also contributed by the Virgo ICM emission, but in this case there is evidence that the ICM brightness is locally enhanced within approximately 10 min of NGC 4472.

Matsushita, K.; Makishima, K.; Awaki, H.; Canizares, C. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Fukazawa, Y.; Loewenstein, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Mihara, T.; Mushotzky, R. F.

1994-01-01

391

Thermal and heat-flow aspects of actuators for hard disk drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal, heat-flow, and airflow characteristics of actuators for hard disk drives (HDDs) were investigated. The major mode of actuator cooling comes from conductive heat transfer, which is caused by the close proximity of components in the actuator. The temperature data was used to deduce the thermal distortion in the actuator. Tracking errors predicted by the actuator model agreed reasonably well

W. Prater; H. M. Tzeng

1994-01-01

392

Isolation of Cholesterol from Egg Yolk Preparation: Bring a hard-boiled egg yolk to lab!  

E-print Network

Isolation of Cholesterol from Egg Yolk Preparation: Bring a hard-boiled egg yolk to lab! Cholesterol (1) is a major component of cell membranes. An egg yolk contains about 200 milligrams of cholesterol, much of it bound as complex lipid. In this experiment, you will purify cholesterol from an egg

Taber, Douglass

393

Experience in Manufacture of Hard Waxes. Combined Dewaxing and Deoiling Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the country's oil units are primarily oriented toward production of lube oils. The by–products formed are used as components of furnace residual fuel oil. Even the slack wax obtained in dewaxing of selectively refined raffinates goes into furnace residual fuel oil. The slack wax contains from 80 to 90% hard waxes which, like dewaxed oil, are a valuable

I. N. Kachlishvili; T. F. Filippova

2003-01-01

394

Hard diffraction results using D0  

SciTech Connect

The preliminary results on the search for hard diffraction in pp collisions with the D0 detector at Fermilab are presented. The presence of forward rapidity gaps is observed in events with high transverse momentum jet production at the center of mass energies 1800 and 630 GeV. The fraction of events with rapidity gaps is significantly higher than that expected due to multiplicity fluctuations and is consistent with predictions for hard single diffractive jet production. A class of events containing central dijets and two forward rapidity gaps is observed at {radical}s = 1800 GeV consistent with a hard double pomeron exchange event topology.

Shabalina, E. [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Nauchno-Issledovatel`skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; D0 Collaboration

1997-06-01

395

NNLO hard functions in massless QCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the hard functions for all 2 ? 2 processes in massless QCD up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in the strong coupling constant. By employing the known one- and two-loop helicity amplitudes for these processes, we obtain analytic expressions for the ultraviolet and infrared finite, minimally subtracted hard functions, which are matrices in color space. These hard functions will be useful in carrying out higher-order resummations in processes such as dijet and highly energetic top-quark pair production by means of soft-collinear effective theory methods.

Broggio, Alessandro; Ferroglia, Andrea; Pecjak, Ben D.; Zhang, Zhibai

2014-12-01

396

Radiation enteritis  

MedlinePLUS

Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

397

Plasma focus based repetitive source of fusion neutrons and hard x-rays  

E-print Network

A plasma focus device capable of operating at 0.2 pulses per second during several minutes is used as a source of hard x-rays and fast neutrons. An experimental demonstration of the use of the neutrons emissions for radiation probing of hydrogenated substances is presented, showing a particular application in detecting water concentrations differences in the proximity of the device by elastic scattering. Moreover, the device produces ultrashort hard x-rays pulses useful for introspective images of small objects, static or in fast motion, suitable for the identification of internal submillimetric defects. Clear images of metallic objects shielded by several millimeters iron walls are shown.

Raspa, V; Knoblauch, P; Lazarte, A; Tartaglione, A; Clausse, A; Moreno, C; 10.1186/1754-0410-2-5

2009-01-01

398

Hard X-ray spatial array diagnostics on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak.  

PubMed

A spatially distributed hard X-ray detection array has been developed to diagnose the loss of runaway electron with toroidal and poloidal resolution. The hard X-ray radiation in the energy ranges of 0.3-1 MeV resulted from runaway electrons can be measured. The detection array consists of 12 CdTe detectors which are arranged surrounding the tokamak. It is found that most runaway electrons which transport to plasma boundary tend to loss on limiters. The application of electrode biasing probe resulted in enhancement of local runaway loss. Resonant magnetic perturbations enhanced the runaway electrons diffusion and showed an asymmetric poloidal loss rate. PMID:25430258

Huang, D W; Chen, Z Y; Luo, Y H; Tong, R H; Yan, W; Jin, W; Zhuang, G

2014-11-01

399

Hard X-ray spatial array diagnostics on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamaka)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spatially distributed hard X-ray detection array has been developed to diagnose the loss of runaway electron with toroidal and poloidal resolution. The hard X-ray radiation in the energy ranges of 0.3-1 MeV resulted from runaway electrons can be measured. The detection array consists of 12 CdTe detectors which are arranged surrounding the tokamak. It is found that most runaway electrons which transport to plasma boundary tend to loss on limiters. The application of electrode biasing probe resulted in enhancement of local runaway loss. Resonant magnetic perturbations enhanced the runaway electrons diffusion and showed an asymmetric poloidal loss rate.

Huang, D. W.; Chen, Z. Y.; Luo, Y. H.; Tong, R. H.; Yan, W.; Jin, W.; Zhuang, G.

2014-11-01

400

1987 Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects, Snowmass Village, CO, July 28-31, 1987, Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various papers on nuclear and space radiation effects are presented. The general topics addressed include: basic mechanisms of radiation effects, single-event phenomena, temperature and field effects, modeling and characterization of radiation effects, IC radiation effects and hardening, and EMP/SGEMP/IEMP phenomena. Also considered are: dosimetry/energy-dependent effects, sensors in and for radiation environments, spacecraft charging and space radiation effects, radiation effects and devices, radiation effects on isolation technologies, and hardness assurance and testing techniques.

1987-01-01

401

[System preserving radiation safety for Moscow population].  

PubMed

Radiation safety system functioning on Moscow territory enables to control potential dangerous sources, opportunely reveal and liquidate accidents and pollutions, forecast degree of radiation jeopardy according to its components. PMID:16568838

Pol'ski?, O G; Varshavski?, Iu V; Verbov, V V; Korenkov, I P; Frid, E S; Bobkov, Iu I; Shmonov, M G

2006-01-01

402

Trachypithecus cristatus (Primates: Cercopithecidae) LEE E. HARDING  

E-print Network

and Archipelago. It has a pointed crest and outward-projecting cheek hairs, and gray skin and pelage with some- graphed at Kuala Selangor Nature Park, Selangor, Malaysia, by L. Harding. MAMMALIAN SPECIES 42

Hayssen, Virginia

403

Warren G. Harding - Carrie Fulton Phillips Correspondence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the 29th president of the United States, Warren G. Harding signed the first child welfare program into law, supported the 8-hour day in response to striking railroad workers, and prepared the first federal budget. Still, most historians regard HardingâÂÂs presidency as a flop. Who was this early 20th century politician? These letters, representing a fourteen-year correspondence between Harding and his married lover, Carrie Fulton Phillips, shed new light on this question. Start with the excellent Overview, which explains the court order that kept these documents from public view for over fifty years. Then take a look at the Collection Items, where the letters have been individually scanned. Lastly, Articles and Essays contains timelines for Harding, Phillips, and their relationship.

2014-01-01

404

Policy: Hard choices and soft outcomes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asia's mega-deltas are densely populated and face multiple stressors including upstream development and sea-level rise. Adapting to these challenges requires difficult choices between hard and soft responses set within a strongly political context.

Conway, Declan

2015-02-01

405

7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration...counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided...the percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14...

2012-01-01

406

7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration...counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided...the percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14...

2013-01-01

407

7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration...counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided...the percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14...

2011-01-01

408

7 CFR 201.57 - Hard seeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration...counted as “hard seed.” If at the end of the germination period provided...the percentage of germination. For flatpea, continue the swollen seed in test for 14...

2014-01-01

409

Boundary conditions for polarized radiative transfer with incident radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Polarized radiative transfer in the presence of scattering in spectral lines and/or in continua may be cast in a reduced form for six reduced components of the radiation field. In this formalism, the six components of the reduced source function are angle-independent quantities. It thus drastically reduces the storage requirement of numerical codes and it is very well suited to solving polarized non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer problems in 3D media. Aims: This approach encounters a fundamental problem when the medium is illuminated by a polarized incident radiation, because there is a priori no way of relating the known (and measurable) Stokes parameters of the incident radiation to boundary conditions for the reduced equations. The origin of this problem is that there is no unique way of deriving the radiation-reduced components from its Stokes parameters (only the inverse operation is clearly defined). The method proposed here aims at enabling to work with arbitrary incident radiation field (polarized or unpolarized). Methods: In previous studies, an ad-hoc treatment of the boundary conditions, applied to cases where the incident radiation is unpolarized, has been used. In this paper, we show that it is possible to account for the incident radiation in a rigorous way without any assumption on its properties by expressing the radiation field as the sum of a directly transmitted radiation and of a diffuse radiation. This approach was first used by Chandrasekhar to solve the problem of diffuse reflection by planetary atmospheres illuminated by their host star. Results: The diffuse radiation field obeys a transfer equation with no incident radiation that may be solved in the reduced form. The first scattering of the incident radiation introduces primary creation terms in the six components of the reduced source function. Once the reduced polarized transfer problem is solved for the diffuse radiation field, its Stokes parameters can be computed. The full radiation field is then obtained by adding the directly transmitted radiation field computed in the Stokes formalism. Conclusions: In the case of an unpolarized incident radiation, the diffuse field approach allows us to validate the previously introduced ad-hoc expressions. The diffuse field approach however leads to more accurate computation of the source terms in the case where the incident radiation is anisotropic. It is the only possible approach when the incident radiation field is polarized. We perform numerical computations of test cases, showing that the emergent line-polarization may be significantly affected by the polarization of the incident radiation.

Faurobert, M.; Mili?, I.; Atanackovi?, O.

2013-11-01

410

The strength of hard-rock pillars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of pillar failures in Canadian hard-rock mines indicate that the dominant mode of failure is progressive slabbing and spalling. Empirical formulas developed for the stability of hard-rock pillars suggest that the pillar strength is directly related to the pillar width-to-height ratio and that failure is seldom observed in pillars where the width-to-height ratio is greater than 2. Two-dimensional finite

C. d. Martin; W. g. Maybee

2000-01-01

411

EMP simulation for hardness verification testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A serious problem in the development of NEMP (nuclear electromagnetic pulse)-hardened systems is lack of adequate verification testing of the system hardness. The authors describe the development and use of a direct injection system designed specifically for threat-level hardness verification testing of complex systems with a number of electronic shelters interconnected by cables. Details of the theory and design of the synchronous injection system are presented. Experimental results related to the validity of the simulation technique are included.

Beilfuss, J.; Capobianco, J.; Gray, R.

412

Hard Versus Soft Law In International Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use and choice of hard and soft law in international gov-ernance has been the subject of ever-increasing scholarly interest. This law and social science literature has primarily assessed the relative strengths and weaknesses of hard- and soft-law instruments as alternatives for international governance, as well as how these instruments can be combined as mutually reinforcing complements to lead to

Gregory C Shaffer; Mark A Pollack

2011-01-01

413

Laser Ablatin of Dental Hard Tissue  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses ablation of dental hard tissue using pulsed lasers. It focuses particularly on the relevant tissue and laser parameters and some of the basic ablation processes that are likely to occur. The importance of interstitial water and its phase transitions is discussed in some detail along with the ablation processes that may or may not directly involve water. The interplay between tissue parameters and laser parameters in the outcome of the removal of dental hard tissue is discussed in detail.

Seka, W.; Rechmann, P.; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Fried, D.

2007-07-31

414

Testing the Hardness of Common Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity gives students practice and a chance to develop expertise in using the test for hardness in identifying common minerals. Following a discussion and an introduction to Moh's scale, the students will work in groups to test minerals whose identities are known against their standards (common substances whose hardnesses are known). Once the known minerals have been tested, the students can proceed to test unknown samples. A student worksheet and discussion questions are provided.

2005-10-06

415

Microstructural Characterization of Hard Ceramics Rohrer, G. S. (2014). Microstructural Characterization of Hard Ceramics. In V.K.  

E-print Network

Microstructural Characterization of Hard Ceramics Rohrer, G. S. (2014). Microstructural Characterization of Hard Ceramics. In V.K. Sarin (Editor-in-Chief) & L #12;Microstructural Characterization of Hard Ceramics p. 2 4. Summary

Rohrer, Gregory S.

416

Hard x ray highlights of AR 5395  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active Region 5395 produced an exceptional series of hard x ray bursts notable for their frequency, intensity, and impulsivity. Over the two weeks from March 6 to 19, 447 hard x ray flares were observed by the Hard X Ray Burst Spectrometer on Solar Maximum Mission (HXRBS/SMM), a rate of approx. 35 per day which exceeded the previous high by more than 50 percent. During one 5 day stretch, more than 250 flares were detected, also a new high. The three largest GOES X-flares were observed by HXRBS and had hard x ray rates over 100,000 s(exp -1) compared with only ten flares above 100,000(exp -1) during the previous nine years of the mission. An ongoing effort for the HXRBS group has been the correlated analysis of hard x ray data with flare data at other wavelengths with the most recent emphasis on those measurements with spatial information. During a series of bursts from AR 5395 at 1644 to 1648 UT on 12 March 1989, simultaneous observations were made by HXRBS and UVSP (Ultra Violet Spectrometer Polarimeter) on SMM, the two-element Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) interferometric array, and R. Canfield's H-alpha Echelle spectrograph at the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak. The data show strong correlations in the hard x ray, microwave, and UV lightcurves. This event will be the subject of a combined analysis.

Schwartz, R. A.; Dennis, Brian R.

1989-01-01

417

Radiation Monitoring Equipment Dosimeter Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft crews risk exposure to relatively high levels of ionizing radiation. This radiation may come from charged particles trapped in the Earth's magnetic fields, charged particles released by solar flare activity, galactic cosmic radiation, energetic photons and neutrons generated by interaction of these primary radiations with spacecraft and crew, and man-made sources (e.g., nuclear power generators). As missions are directed to higher radiation level orbits, viz., higher altitudes and inclinations, longer durations, and increased flight frequency, radiation exposure could well become a major factor for crew stay time and career lengths. To more accurately define the radiological exposure and risk to the crew, real-time radiation monitoring instrumentation, which is capable of identifying and measuring the various radiation components, must be flown. This presentation describes a radiation dosimeter instrument which was successfully flown on the Space Shuttle, the RME-3.

Hardy, Kenneth A.; Golightly, Michael J.; Quam, William

1992-01-01

418

Galactic Black Holes in the Hard State: A Multi-Wavelength View of Accretion and Ejection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The canonical hard state is associated with emission from all three fundamental accretion components: the accretion disk, the hot accretion disk corona and the jet. On top of these, the hard state also hosts very rich temporal variability properties (low frequency QPOs in the PDS, time lags, long time scale evolution). Our group has been working on the major questions of the hard state both observationally (with mult i-wavelength campaigns using RXTE, Swift, Suzaku, Spitzer, VLA, ATCA, SMARTS) and theoretically (through jet models that can fit entire SEDs). Through spectral and temporal analysis we seek to determine the geometry of accretion components, and relate the geometry to the formation and emission from a jet. In this presentation I will review the recent contributions of our group to the field, including the Swift results on the disk geometry at low accretion rates, the jet model fits to the hard state SEDs (including Spitzer data) of GRO J1655-40, and the final results on the evolution of spectral (including X-ray, radio and infrared) and temporal properties of elected black holes in the hard states. I will also talk about impact of ASTROSAT to the science objective of our group.

Kalemci; Tomsick, John A.; Migliari; Corbel; Markoff

2010-01-01

419

Effects of formulation conditions on micellar interactions and solution rheology in multi-component micellar systems  

E-print Network

Surfactants are crucial to the personal care industry due to their unique surface activity, cleansing, and self assembly properties. Typically, multi-component systems are used in order to maximize mildness, hard water ...

Nachbar, Leslie Sarah

2011-01-01

420

The nature of the hard state of Cygnus X-3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray binary Cygnus X-3 (Cyg X-3) is a highly variable X-ray source that displays a wide range of observed spectral states. One of the main states is significantly harder than the others, peaking at ~20 keV, with only a weak low-energy component. Due to the enigmatic nature of this object, hidden inside the strong stellar wind of its Wolf-Rayet companion, it has remained unclear whether this state represents an intrinsic hard state, with truncation of the inner disc, or whether it is just a result of increased local absorption. We study the X-ray light curves from RXTE/ASM and CGRO/BATSE in terms of distributions and correlations of flux and hardness and find several signs of a bimodal behaviour of the accretion flow that are not likely to be the result of increased absorption in a surrounding medium. Using INTEGRAL observations, we model the broad-band spectrum of Cyg X-3 in its apparent hard state. We find that it can be well described by a model of a hard state with a truncated disc, despite the low cut-off energy, provided the accreted power is supplied to the electrons in the inner flow in the form of acceleration rather than thermal heating, resulting in a hybrid electron distribution and a spectrum with a significant contribution from non-thermal Comptonization, usually observed only in soft states. The high luminosity of this non-thermal hard state implies that either the transition takes place at significantly higher L/LE than in the usual advection models, or the mass of the compact object is >~20Msolar, possibly making it the most-massive black hole observed in an X-ray binary in our Galaxy so far. We find that an absorption model as well as a model of almost pure Compton reflection also fit the data well, but both have difficulties explaining other results, in particular the radio/X-ray correlation.

Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Larsson, S.; Beckmann, V.; McCollough, M.; Hannikainen, D. C.; Vilhu, O.

2008-02-01

421

NuSTAR/XMM-Newton Detection of a Hard Cut-Off in Cen X-4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 is the closest known (1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. It had large outbursts in 1969 and 1979 but has been in quiescence ever since. Previous X-ray (0.5-10 keV) observations of the quiescent spectrum identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unknown origin. This is typical of the X-ray spectrum measured from quiescent neutron star transients, although the hard tail is not always clearly detected in other sources. We report here on a simultaneous observation of Cen X-4 with NuSTAR (114 ks, 3-79 keV) and XMM-Newton (26 ks, 0.3-10 keV) on 2013 January 20-23, providing the first sensitive measurement of the hard X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star transient. We clearly detect a turnover of the hard spectral tail above 10 keV, which is well fit by an 18 keV thermal bremsstrahlung model. This is the first indication of the temperature and spatial distribution of the electron population giving rise to the hard component in a quiescent neutron star transient. The observed emission measure suggests that there is a large amount of material far from the neutron star, with only a very small fraction accreting onto the neutron star. With the hard spectral component well measured by the NuSTAR data, we are also able to obtain tighter constraints on the neutron star atmosphere emission from the XMM-Newton data than previously possible.

Chakrabarty, Deepto; Tomsick, J.; Grefenstette, B.; Barret, D.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F.; Psaltis, D.; Stern, D.; Wik, D. R.; Zhang, W.

2014-01-01

422

Microstrip components for low cost millimeter waves missile seekers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of low cost photo-etched microstrip components and integrated circuits for missile seekers is reported. An antenna, hybrid and mixer are described suitable for incorporation into a single integrated circuit for either monopulse of sequential lobing seekers. Incorporation of all components into a single substrate offers advantages of direct incident radiation of IF conversion, no troublesome connectors between components,

H. G. Oltman; D. M. Weems; G. M. Lindgren; F. D. Walton

1979-01-01

423

The Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) for the ASTRO-H Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 6th Japanese X-ray satellite, ASTRO-H, is scheduled for launch in 2015. The hard X-ray focusing imaging system will observe astronomical objects with the sensitivity for detecting point sources with a brightness of 1/100,000 times fainter than the Crab nebula at > 10 keV. The Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) is a focal plane detector 12 m below the hard X-ray telescope (HXT) covering the energy range from 5 to 80 keV. The HXI is composed of a stacked Si/CdTe semiconductor detector module and surrounding BGO scintillators. The latter work as active shields for efficient reduction of background events caused by cosmic-ray particles, cosmic X-ray background, and in-orbit radiation activation. In this paper, we describe the detector system, and present current status of flight model development, and performance of HXI using an engineering model of HXI.

Sato, Goro; Kokubun, Motohide; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Enoto, Teruaki; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Harayama, Atsushi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuta, Junichiro; Kawaharada, Madoka; Laurent, Philippe; Lebrun, François; Limousin, Olivier; Makishima, Kazuo; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mori, Kunishiro; Nakamori, Takeshi; Noda, Hirofumi; Odaka, Hirokazu; Ohno, Masanori; Ohta, Masayuki; Saito, Shinya; Sato, Rie; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Takeda, Shinichiro; Terada, Yukikatsu; Uchiyama, Hideki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Watanabe, Shin; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yuasa, Takayuki

2014-07-01

424

Transverse-momentum resummation and the structure of hard factors at the NNLO  

E-print Network

In this proceeding we consider QCD radiative corrections to the production of colourless high-mass systems in hadron collisions. At small transverse momentum the logarithmically-enhanced contributions can be organized to all perturbative orders by a universal resummation formula that depends on a single process-dependent hard factor. We show that the hard factor is directly related to the all-order virtual amplitude of the corresponding partonic process by a universal (process independent) formula, which we explicitly evaluate up to two-loop level. Once the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) scattering amplitude is available, the corresponding hard factor is directly determined. It can be used in fully-exclusive perturbative calculations (via q$_T$ subtraction formalism) up to NNLO, in resummed calculations at full next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) accuracy, and also, it's a necessary ingredient to the next subsequent logarithmic order (N$^3$LL).

Leandro Cieri

2014-07-18

425

Hard and soft probe - medium interactions in a 3D hydro+micro approach at RHIC  

E-print Network

We utilize a 3D hybrid hydro+micro model for a comprehensive and consistent description of soft and hard particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. In the soft sector we focus on the dynamics of (multi-)strange baryons, where a clear strangeness dependence of their collision rates and freeze-out is observed. In the hard sector we study the radiative energy loss of hard partons in a soft medium in the multiple soft scattering approximation. While the nuclear suppression factor $R_{AA}$ does not reflect the high quality of the medium description (except in a reduced systematic uncertainty in extracting the quenching power of the medium), the hydrodynamical model also allows to study different centralities and in particular the angular variation of $R_{AA}$ with respect to the reaction plane, allowing for a controlled variation of the in-medium path-length.

S. A. Bass; T. Renk; J. Ruppert; C. Nonaka

2007-02-26

426

Radiation Chemistry and the Radiation Preservation of Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes common features in the radiation chemistry of food components, and illustrates how product yields are predicted. Presents data that pertain to the radiolysis of the nitrate ion, metmyoglobin, myosin, and tripalmitin. (CS)

Taub, Irwin A.

1981-01-01

427

On the realization of the generalized soft-and-hard surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boundary conditions generalizing those of the soft-and-hard surface were recently introduced as an example of an ideal boundary on which the complex Poynting vector cannot have a normal component. It was shown that under such conditions a boundary surface can be used as a polarization transformer for a reflected plane wave. The question of how to realize the generalized soft-and-hard surface is considered here. Various possibilities are discussed based on a medium interface, a slab of an anisotropic medium, and a configuration of antennas.

Viitanen, A. J.; Tretyakov, S. A.; Lindell, I. V.

2000-11-01

428

Quantitative analysis of incipient mineral loss in hard tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A coupled diffuse-photon-density-wave and thermal-wave theoretical model was developed to describe the biothermophotonic phenomena in multi-layered hard tissue structures. Photothermal Radiometry was applied as a safe, non-destructive, and highly sensitive tool for the detection of early tooth enamel demineralization to test the theory. Extracted human tooth was treated sequentially with an artificial demineralization gel to simulate controlled mineral loss in the enamel. The experimental setup included a semiconductor laser (659 nm, 120 mW) as the source of the photothermal signal. Modulated laser light generated infrared blackbody radiation from teeth upon absorption and nonradiative energy conversion. The infrared flux emitted by the treated region of the tooth surface and sub-surface was monitored with an infrared detector, both before and after treatment. Frequency scans with a laser beam size of 3 mm were performed in order to guarantee one-dimensionality of the photothermal field. TMR images showed clear differences between sound and demineralized enamel, however this technique is destructive. Dental radiographs did not indicate any changes. The photothermal signal showed clear change even after 1 min of gel treatment. As a result of the fittings, thermal and optical properties of sound and demineralized enamel were obtained, which allowed for quantitative differentiation of healthy and non-healthy regions. In conclusion, the developed model was shown to be a promising tool for non-invasive quantitative analysis of early demineralization of hard tissues.

Matvienko, Anna; Mandelis, Andreas; Hellen, Adam; Jeon, Raymond; Abrams, Stephen; Amaechi, Bennett

2009-02-01

429

Radiation Safety System  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this work is to provide an overview of a Radiation safety system (RSS) designed for protection from prompt radiation hazard at accelerator facilities. RSS design parameters, functional requirements and constraints are derived from hazard analysis and risk assessment undertaken in the design phase of the facility. The two main subsystems of a RSS are access control system (ACS) and radiation control system (RCS). In this text, a common approach to risk assessment, typical components of ACS and RCS, desirable features and general design principles applied to RSS are described.

Vylet, Vaclav; /Jefferson Lab; Liu, James C.; /SLAC; Walker, Lawrence S.; /Los Alamos

2012-04-04

430

Towards hard x-ray imaging at GHz frame rate  

SciTech Connect

Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard x-rays ( Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research and applications using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and x-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one x-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards x-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are: (a) avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

Wang Zhehui; Morris, C. L.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Luo, S.-N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-10-15

431

Engineering plug-in software components to support collaborative work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many software applications require co-operative work support, including collaborative editing, group awareness, versioning, messaging and automated notification and co- ordination agents. Most approaches hard-code such facilities into applications, with fixed functionality and limited ability to reuse groupware implementations. We describe our recent work in seamlessly adding such capabilities to component-based applications via a set of collaborative work-supporting plug-in software components.

John C. Grundy; John G. Hosking

2002-01-01

432

Heuristic Rule for Binary Superlattice Coassembly: Mixed Plastic Mesophases of Hard Polyhedral Nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sought-after ordered structures of mixtures of hard anisotropic nanoparticles can often be thermodynamically unfavorable due to the components' geometric incompatibility to densely pack into regular lattices. A simple compatibilization rule is identified wherein the particle sizes are chosen such that the order-disorder transition pressures of the pure components match (and the entropies of the ordered phases are similar). Using this rule with representative polyhedra from the truncated-cube family that form pure-component plastic crystals, Monte Carlo simulations show the formation of plastic-solid solutions for all compositions and for a wide range of volume fractions.

Khadilkar, Mihir R.; Escobedo, Fernando A.

2014-10-01

433

Heuristic rule for binary superlattice coassembly: mixed plastic mesophases of hard polyhedral nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Sought-after ordered structures of mixtures of hard anisotropic nanoparticles can often be thermodynamically unfavorable due to the components' geometric incompatibility to densely pack into regular lattices. A simple compatibilization rule is identified wherein the particle sizes are chosen such that the order-disorder transition pressures of the pure components match (and the entropies of the ordered phases are similar). Using this rule with representative polyhedra from the truncated-cube family that form pure-component plastic crystals, Monte Carlo simulations show the formation of plastic-solid solutions for all compositions and for a wide range of volume fractions. PMID:25361268

Khadilkar, Mihir R; Escobedo, Fernando A

2014-10-17

434

Measurement Of the Galactic X-ray/Gamma-ray Background Radiation: Contribution of Discrete Sources  

E-print Network

The Galactic background radiation near the Scutum Arm was observed simultaneously with RXTE and OSSE in order to determine the spectral shape and the origin of the emission in the hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray band. The spectrum in the 3 keV to 1 MeV band is well modeled by 4 components: a high energy continuum dominating above 500 keV that can be characterized by a power law of photon index ~ 1.6 (an extrapolation from measurements above ~ 1 MeV); a positron annihilation line at 511 keV and positronium continuum; a variable hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray component that dominates between 10-200 keV (with a minimum detected flux of ~ 7.7 x 10^-7 photons cm^-2 s^-1 keV^-1 deg^-2 at 100 keV averaged over the field of view of OSSE) and that is well modeled by an exponentially cut off power law of photon index ~ 0.6 and energy cut off at ~ 41 keV; and finally a thermal plasma model of solar abundances and temperature of 2.6 keV that dominates below 10 keV. We estimate that the contribution of bright discrete sources to the minimum flux detected by OSSE was ~ 46% at 60 keV and ~ 20% at 100 keV. The remaining unresolved emission may be interpreted either as truly diffuse emission with a hard spectrum (such as that from inverse Compton scattering) or the superposition of discrete sources that have very hard spectra.

Azita Valinia; Robert L. Kinzer; Francis E. Marshall

1999-12-14

435

Combustion synthesis of low exothermic component rich composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-sustaining combustion synthesis process for producing hard, tough, lightweight, low exothermic potential product (LEPP)\\/high exothermic potential product (HEPP) composites is based on the thermodynamic dependence of adiabatic temperature and product composition on the stoichiometry of the LEPP and HEPP reactants. For lightweight products the composition must be relatively rich in the LEPP component. LEPP rich composites are obtained by

Danny C. Halverson; Beverly Y. Lum; Zuhair A. Munir

1991-01-01

436

Combustion synthesis of low exothermic component rich composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a self-sustaining combustion synthesis process for producing hard, tough, lightweight, low exothermic potential product (LEPP)\\/high exothermic potential product (HEPP) composites based on the thermodynamic dependence of adiabatic temperature and product composition on the stoichiometry of the LEPP and HEPP reactants. For lightweight products the composition must be relatively rich in the LEPP component. LEPP rich composites are

D. C. Halverson; B. Y. Lum; Z. A. Munir

1991-01-01

437

Soils: man-caused radioactivity and radiation forecast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: One of the main tasks of the radiation safety guarantee is non-admission of the excess over critical radiation levels. In Russia they are man-caused radiation levels. Meanwhile any radiation measurement represents total radioactivity. That is why it is hard to assess natural and man-caused contributions to total radioactivity. It is

Gablin; Vassily

2007-01-01

438

Consciousness in Robots: The Hard Problem and Some Less Hard Problems  

E-print Network

Consciousness in Robots: The Hard Problem and Some Less Hard Problems B. J. MacLennan Department by consciousness in autonomous robots. We dis- tinguish intrinsic intentionality from consciousness, but argue- jective awareness) from the perspective of the theory of protophenomena. Index Terms ­ consciousness

Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

439

ESTIMATING THE DENSITY OF DRY SNOW LAYERS FROM HARDNESS, AND HARDNESS FROM DENSITY  

E-print Network

ESTIMATING THE DENSITY OF DRY SNOW LAYERS FROM HARDNESS, AND HARDNESS FROM DENSITY Daehyun Kim 1 ABSTRACT: At the ISSW 2000, Geldsetzer and Jamieson presented empirical relations between the density density and water equivalent (e.g. because the layer was too thin for the density sampler

Jamieson, Bruce

440

Instrumentation and data analysis for hard X ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of hard x ray astronomy is reviewed. The applicability of various hard x ray detectors in such new telescopes are discussed and the current status of hard x ray telescope design is reviewed. Background production mechanisms in hard x ray telescopes are discussed and some techniques for background reduction are also discussed. A simple method for estimating

Shuang Nan Zhang

1989-01-01

441

Hard breakup of the deuteron into two {Delta} isobars  

SciTech Connect

We study high-energy photodisintegration of the deuteron into two {Delta} isobars at large center of mass angles within the QCD hard rescattering model (HRM). According to the HRM, the process develops in three main steps: the photon knocks a quark from one of the nucleons in the deuteron; the struck quark rescatters off a quark from the other nucleon sharing the high energy of the photon; then the energetic quarks recombine into two outgoing baryons which have large transverse momenta. Within the HRM, the cross section is expressed through the amplitude of pn{yields}{Delta}{Delta} scattering which we evaluated based on the quark-interchange model of hard hadronic scattering. Calculations show that the angular distribution and the strength of the photodisintegration is mainly determined by the properties of the pn{yields}{Delta}{Delta} scattering. We predict that the cross section of the deuteron breakup to {Delta}{sup ++}{Delta}{sup -} is 4-5 times larger than that of the breakup to the {Delta}{sup +}{Delta}{sup 0} channel. Also, the angular distributions for these two channels are markedly different. These can be compared with the predictions based on the assumption that two hard {Delta} isobars are the result of the disintegration of the preexisting {Delta}{Delta} compone