Science.gov

Sample records for radiation induced crystallinity

  1. Tryptophan Cluster Protects Human ?D-Crystallin from Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Photoaggregation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Schafheimer, Nathaniel; King, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a significant risk factor for age-related cataract, a disease of the human lens and the most prevalent cause of blindness in the world. Cataract pathology involves protein misfolding and aggregation of the primary proteins of the lens, the crystallins. Human ?D-crystallin (H?D-Crys) is a major ?-crystallin in the nucleus of the human lens. We report here analysis of UVR-induced damage to H?D-Crys in vitro. Irradiation of solutions of recombinant H?D-Crys with UVA/UVB light produced a rise in solution turbidity due to polymerization of the monomeric crystallins into higher molecular weight aggregates. A significant fraction of this polymerized protein was covalently linked. Photoaggregation of H?D-Crys required oxygen and its rate was protein concentration and UVR dose dependent. To investigate the potential roles of individual tryptophan residues in photoaggregation, triple W:F mutants of H?D-Crys were irradiated. Surprisingly, despite reducing UVR absorbing capacity, multiple W:F H?D-Crys mutant proteins photoaggregated more quickly and extensively than wild type. The results reported here are consistent with previous studies that postulated that an energy transfer mechanism between the highly conserved pairs of tryptophan residues in H?D-Crys could be protective against UVR-induced photodamage. PMID:23683003

  2. Regulatory effect of Bcl-2 in ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis of the mouse crystalline lens

    PubMed Central

    DONG, YUCHEN; ZHENG, YAJUAN; XIAO, JUN; ZHU, CHAO; ZHAO, MEISHENG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of Bcl-2 during the process of apoptosis in the mouse crystalline lens. In total, 12 normal mice served as the control group and 12 Bcl-2 knockout (K.O) mice served as the experimental group. The mouse crystalline lens was sampled for the detection of Bcl-2 and caspase-3 expression following exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to determine Bcl-2 expression in the groups of normal mice receiving UV radiation or not receiving UV radiation. Samples of the murine crystalline lens were microscopically harvested and analyzed using western blotting. Apoptosis was detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Furthermore, caspase 3 activity was examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, and RT-qPCR was used to analyze caspase-3 expression levels. The results of the present study demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference in the level of Bcl-2 gene transcription between the two groups. In addition, UV radiation did not change the macrostructure of the crystalline lens in the group of normal mice or the group of Bcl-2 K.O mice. The results of the TUNEL assay indicated that the normal-UV group exhibited a more significant apoptosis level compared with the Bcl-2 K.O-UV group. Furthermore, the mRNA expression level of caspase-3 in the normal-UV group was significantly higher compared with the normal-nonUV group (P<0.05), while the levels in the Bcl-2 K.O-UV group were significantly higher compared with the Bcl-2 K.O and normal-nonUV groups (P<0.05). In addition, the mRNA expression level of caspase-3 was significantly higher in the normal-UV, as compared with the Bcl-2 K.O-UV group (P<0.05), and the variation trends in caspase-3 activity were consistent. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that Bcl-2 may have an important role in the promotion of UV-induced apoptosis in the crystalline lens. PMID:26998022

  3. Preparation of inorganic crystalline compounds induced by ionizing, UV and laser radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?uba, Vclav; Pavelkov, Tereza; Brta, Jan; Gbur, Tom; Vlk, Martin; Zavadilov, Alena; Indrei, Jakub; Do?ekalov, Zuzana; Pospil, Milan; M?ka, Viliam

    2012-09-01

    Results on preparation of nickel, zinc, yttrium, aluminum and cobalt oxides, zinc peroxide and hydroxide, yttrium and lutetium aluminum garnets and cobalt(II) aluminate via irradiation of aqueous solutions containing soluble metal salts and radical scavengers (formate anion or propan-2-ol) are summarized in this paper. Various physico-chemical and structural properties of prepared compounds (e.g. crystallinity, specific surface area, particle size) are also reported. All used variants of radiation method are rather convenient and simple, and yield nano-scale powder materials with interesting characteristics. Prepared materials generally have high chemical purity, high specific surface area and narrow distribution of particle size (ranging in tens of nm). Generally, accelerated electrons, gamma, and UV radiation yield materials with comparable properties and structural characteristics, but UV-radiation seems to be the most convenient for preparation of intricate compounds such as synthetic garnets and spinels, while ionizing radiation is better for preparation of compounds doped with foreign ions. Among discussed compounds, only zinc oxide, peroxide and hydroxide were prepared directly via irradiation. For preparation of other crystalline oxidic compounds, mild heat treatment of amorphous or weakly crystalline solid phase was necessary.

  4. The radiation-induced crystalline-to-amorphous transition in zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W.J. ); Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L. )

    1994-03-01

    A comprehensive understanding of radiation effects in zircon, ZrSiO[sub 4], over a broad range of time scales (0.5 h to 570 million years) has been obtained by a study of natural zircon, Pu-doped zircon, and ion-beam irradiated zircon. Radiation damage in zircon results in the simultaneous accumulation of both point defects and amorphous regions. The amorphization process is consistent with models based on the multiple overlap of particle tracks, suggesting that amorphization occurs as a result of a critical defect concentration. The amorphization dose increases with temperature in two stages (below 300 K and above 473 K) and is nearly independent of the damage source ([alpha]-decay events or heavy-ion beams) at 300 K. Recrystallization of completely amorphous zircon occurs above 1300 K and is a two-step process that involves the initial formation of pseudo-cubic ZrO[sub 2].

  5. High pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system for ex vivo measurement of mechanical properties of crystalline lenses with laser-induced microbubble interrogated by acoustic radiation force

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sangpil; Aglyamov, Salavat; Karpiouk, Andrei; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    A high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system for ex vivo measurement of mechanical properties of animal crystalline lens was developed and validated. We measured the bulk displacement of laser-induced microbubbles created at different positions within the lens using nanosecond laser pulses. An impulsive acoustic radiation force was applied to the microbubble, and spatio-temporal measurements of the microbubble displacement were assessed using a custom-made high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system consisting of two 25 MHz focused ultrasound transducers. One of these transducers was used to emit a train of ultrasound pulses and another transducer was used to receive the ultrasound echoes reflected from the microbubble. The developed system was operating at 1 MHz pulse repetition frequency. Based on measured motion of the microbubble, the Youngs moduli of surrounding tissue were reconstructed and the values were compared with those measured using indentation test. Measured values of Youngs moduli of 4 bovine lenses ranged from 2.60.1 to 261.4 kPa and there was good agreement between the two methods. Therefore, our studies, utilizing the high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system, suggest that the developed approach can be used to assess the mechanical properties of ex vivo crystalline lenses. Furthermore, the potential of the presented approach for in vivo measurements is discussed. PMID:22797709

  6. Intense and energetic radiation from crystalline undulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uggerhøj, U. I.; Wistisen, T. N.

    2015-07-01

    With the recent experimental confirmation of the existence of energetic radiation from a Small Amplitude, Small Period (SASP) crystalline undulator (Wistisen et al., 2014), the field of specially manufactured crystals, from which specific radiation characteristics can be obtained, has evolved substantially. In the present paper we show how the radiation spectra can be tuned, using electrons and positrons of energies from 100 MeV up to 20 GeV. The latter energy is relevant for possible experiments at the FACET facility at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), whereas 100 MeV has been chosen to show the potentialities connected to using crystalline undulators as radiation targets for Nuclear Waste Transmutation (NWT). Energies in the few hundred MeV range are relevant for the facilities at the MAinzer MIcrotron (MAMI). For the 20 GeV case we show explicitly that quantum corrections to the emission spectrum become very significant, an effect that may be observed in the near future using the FACET beam at SLAC.

  7. The influence of crystallinity on radiation stability of UHMWPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornacka, Ewa Maria; Przybytniak, Gra?yna; ?wi?szkowski, Wojciech

    2013-03-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) was studied using EPR spectroscopy and GC. Two samples of various degree of crystallinity, 85% and 53%, were investigated upon exposure to electron beam. In this study it was found that radicals generated following irradiation decay much faster in amorphous than in crystalline phase. The primary product generated in both phases is second ordered alkyl radical. EPR spectra detected for the sample containing 85% crystalline regions revealed a quintet of hyperfine splitting about 2.28 mT and the signal was tentatively assigned to the product of ?-fragmentation. The radiation yield of hydrogen for two studied samples of various crystallinity was similar.

  8. Analysis of strain-induced crystallinity in neutron-irradiated amorphous PET fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, B.

    2015-05-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber of 2.2 denier per filament has been irradiated with 4.44-MeV fast neutron beam at different low doses: 0.58-2,513.5 mGy. The variation of crystallinity because of neutron irradiation straining in PET filaments has been investigated. Study of the effects of irradiation by using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry technique confirms the radiation-induced microstrain-dependent crystallinity of PET fiber.

  9. Radiation stability test on multiphase glass ceramic and crystalline ceramic waste forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Jarvinen, Gordon; Crum, Jarrod; Turo, Laura; Riley, Brian; Brinkman, Kyle; Fox, Kevin; Amoroso, Jake; Marra, James

    2014-05-01

    A radiation stability study was performed on glass ceramic and crystalline ceramic waste forms. These materials are candidate host materials for immobilizing alkali/alkaline earth (Cs/Sr-CS) + lanthanide (LN) + transition metal (TM) fission product waste streams from nuclear fuel reprocessing. In this study, glass ceramics were fabricated using a borosilicate glass as a matrix in which to incorporate CS/LN/TM combined waste streams. The major phases in these multiphase materials are powellite, oxyaptite, pollucite, celsian, and durable residual glass phases. Al2O3 and TiO2 were combined with these waste components to produce multiphase crystalline ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites, pyrochlores and other minor metal titanate phases. For the radiation stability test, selected glass ceramic and crystalline ceramic samples were exposed to different irradiation environments including low fluxes of high-energy (∼1-5 MeV) protons and alpha particles generated by an ion accelerator, high fluxes of low-energy (hundreds of keV) krypton particles generated by an ion implanter, and in-situ electron irradiations in a transmission electron microscope. These irradiation experiments were performed to simulate self-radiation effects in a waste form. Ion irradiation-induced microstructural modifications were examined using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Our preliminary results reveal different radiation tolerance in different crystalline phases under various radiation damage environments. However, their stability may be rate dependent which may limit the waste loading that can be achieved.

  10. Radiation stability test on multiphase glass ceramic and crystalline ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Jarvinen, G. D.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Brinkman, Kyle; Fox, Kevin M.; Amoroso, Jake; Marra, James C.

    2014-02-03

    A radiation stability study was performed on glass ceramic and crystalline ceramic waste forms. These materials are candidate host materials for immobilizing alkali/alkaline earth (Cs/Sr-CS) + lanthanide (LN) + transition metal (TM) fission product waste streams from nuclear fuel reprocessing. In this study, glass ceramics were fabricated using a borosilicate glass as a matrix in which to incorporate CS/LN/TM combined waste streams. The major phases in these multiphase materials are powellite, oxyaptite, pollucite, celsian, and durable residual glass phases. Al2O3 and TiO2 were combined with these waste components to produce multiphase crystalline ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites, pyrochlores and other minor metal titanate phases. For the radiation stability test, selected glass ceramic and crystalline ceramic samples were exposed to different irradiation environments including low fluxes of high-energy (~1–5 MeV) protons and alpha particles generated by an ion accelerator, high fluxes of low-energy (hundreds of keV) krypton particles generated by an ion implanter, and in-situ electron irradiations in a transmission electron microscope. These irradiation experiments were performed to simulate self-radiation effects in a waste form. Ion irradiation-induced microstructural modifications were examined using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Our preliminary results reveal different radiation tolerance in different crystalline phases under various radiation damage environments. However, their stability may be rate dependent which may limit the waste loading that can be achieved.

  11. Amyloid fiber formation in human ?D-Crystallin induced by UV-B photodamage.

    PubMed

    Moran, Sean D; Zhang, Tianqi O; Decatur, Sean M; Zanni, Martin T

    2013-09-10

    ?D-Crystallin is an abundant structural protein of the lens that is found in native and modified forms in cataractous aggregates. We establish that UV-B irradiation of ?D-Crystallin leads to structurally specific modifications and precipitation via two mechanisms: amorphous aggregates and amyloid fibers. UV-B radiation causes cleavage of the backbone, in large measure near the interdomain interface, where side chain oxidations are also concentrated. 2D IR spectroscopy and expressed protein ligation localize fiber formation exclusively to the C-terminal domain of ?D-Crystallin. The native ?-sandwich domains are not retained upon precipitation by either mechanism. The similarities between the amyloid forming pathways when induced by either UV-B radiation or low pH suggest that the propensity for the C-terminal ?-sandwich domain to form amyloid ?-sheets determines the misfolding pathway independent of the mechanism of denaturation. PMID:23957864

  12. Radiation-induced pneumothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, D.M.; Littman, P.; Gefter, W.B.; Miller, W.T.; Raney, R.B. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of radiation therapy to the chest. The proposed pathogenesis is radiation-induced fibrosis promoting subpleural bleb formation that ruptures resulting in pneumothorax. We report on two young patients with primary sarcomas without pulmonary metastases who developed spontaneous pneumothorax after irradiation. Neither patient had antecedent radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis.

  13. Radiation-Induced Bioradicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondelaers, Win; Lahorte, Philippe

    This chapter is part one of a review in which the production and application of radiation-induced bioradicals is discussed. Bioradicals play a pivotal role in the complex chain of processes starting with the absorption of radiation in biological materials and ending with the radiation-induced biological after-effects. The general aspects of the four consecutive stages (physical, physicochemical, chemical and biological) are discussed from an interdisciplinary point of view. The close relationship between radiation dose and track structure, induced DNA damage and cell survival or killing is treated in detail. The repair mechanisms that cells employ, to insure DNA stability following irradiation, are described. Because of their great biomedical importance tumour suppressor genes involved in radiation-induced DNA repair and in checkpoint activation will be treated briefly, together with the molecular genetics of radiosensitivity. Part two of this review will deal with modern theoretical methods and experimental instrumentation for quantitative studies in this research field. Also an extensive overview of the applications of radiation-induced bioradicals will be given. A comprehensive list of references allows further exploration of this research field, characterised in the last decade by a substantial advance, both in fundamental knowledge and in range of applications.

  14. Radiation-Induced Attenuation In Integrated Optical Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Bruce D.

    1990-01-01

    Three materials commonly employed in opto-electronic intregrated circuits were evaluated for radiation-induced optical attenuation in the range 300 nm to 3000 nm. These include optically clear epoxy and crystalline lithium niobate after Co-60 exposure and crystalline tellurium dioxide after mixed gamma/fast-neutron exposure. In all these materials, however, induced loss was restricted to shorter wavelengths; attenuation induced at the telecommnications windows near 850, 1300 and 1550 nm was <0.1 dB/cm.

  15. Combining optical coherence tomography with acoustic radiation force for depth-dependent biomechanics of crystalline lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shang; Aglyamov, Salavat; Karpiouk, Andrei; Li, Jiasong; Emelianov, Stanislav; Manns, Fabrice; Larin, Kirill V.

    2014-03-01

    Noninvasively probing the biomechanical properties of crystalline lens has been challenging due to its unique features such as location inside the eye and being optically and ultrasonically transparent. Here we introduce a method of relying on the spectral analysis of the lens surface response to a mechanical stimulation for the depthdependent assessment of lens biomechanical properties. In this method, acoustic radiation force (ARF) is used to remotely induce the deformation on the surface of the crystalline lens, and a phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT) system, co-focused with ARF, utilized to monitor the localized temporal response of ARFinduced deformations on the lens surface. The dominant frequency from the amplitude spectra of the surface response is obtained as the indicator of the depthwise elasticity distribution. Pilot experiments were performed on tissue-mimicking layered phantoms and ex vivo porcine crystalline lens. Results indicate that the frequency response of the sample surface is contributed by the mechanical properties of layers located at different depths and the depthdependent elastic properties can be revealed from the amplitude spectrum. Further study will be focused on combining the experimental measurements with theoretical model and inverse numerical method for depth-resolved elastography of the crystalline lens.

  16. Radiation-induced ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of gas-phase radiation absorption on radiative ignition of various combustible materials under gravity conditions are studied. The physical models in this study range from a simple gas layer to a complex porous structure. Methyl methacrylate (MMA: C{sub 5}H{sub 8}O{sub 2}) vapor has been selected as a representative of participating gases in gas-phase radiation interactions. Its infrared radiation properties were measured using low-resolution spectral apparatus and then correlated in simple usable forms. As expected from its complex molecular structure, the infrared absorption capabilities of MMA vapor is much stronger than those of simpler hydrocarbon gases as well as water vapor and carbon dioxide. Radiation induced ignition was analyzed on the basis of simple theoretical models. Using Semenov's theory, results indicate a decrease in the critical surrounding temperature for a low Biot number system. For a high Biot number system, ignitability is defined through the use of Frank-Kamenetskii's critical parameter delta. One-dimensional transient models were developed for the analyses of radiation induced ignition of solid and porous solid fuels. The models include gas-phase radiation absorption, in-depth radiation interaction by the solid phase, Arrhenius-type chemical reaction, and natural convection. Predicted transmittance during ignition processes confirms the attenuation of incident radiation by pyrolyzed gases which has been already observed experimentally. An ignition process with gas-phase radiation absorption results in a quite different and widened ignition domain compared to that without gas-phase radiation absorption. Moreover, ignition is totally dependent on gas-phase radiation absorption under unfavorable conditions for a thermal runaway.

  17. Effects of ionizing radiation on the chemical structure, crystalline content and molecular weight distribution of various teflon resins

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, W.K.

    1981-01-01

    The radiation used in this work was 0.8 MeV electrons. The effects of post-irradiation annealing on the chemical composition and crystalline content are also analyzed. Radiation-induced changes in the chemical composition and the role of oxygen and water vapor in these changes was determined by infrared spectroscopy of PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) irradiated in ambient air, wet and dry oxygen atmosphere and under vacuum.

  18. Surfactant-induced postsynthetic modulation of Pd nanoparticle crystallinity.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Wang, C.; Wei, Y.; Zhu, L.; Li, D.; Jiang, J. S.; Markovic, N. M.; Stamenkovic, V. R.; Sun, S.

    2011-02-01

    Modulation of Pd nanoparticle (NP) crystallinity is achieved by switching the surfactants of different binding strengths. Pd NPs synthesized in the presence of weak binding surfactants such as oleylamine possess polyhedral shapes and a polycrystalline nature. When oleylamine is substituted by trioctylphosphine, a much stronger binding surfactant, the particles become spherical and their crystallinity decreases significantly. Moreover, the Pd NPs reconvert their polycrystalline structure when the surfactant is switched back to oleylamine. Through control experiments and molecular dynamics simulation, we propose that this unusual nanocrystallinity transition induced by surfactant exchange was resulted from a counterbalance between the surfactant binding energy and the nanocrystal adhesive energy. The findings represent a novel postsynthetic approach to tailoring the structure and corresponding functional performance of nanomaterials.

  19. Orientation dependence of shock-induced melting in crystalline aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleynik, Ivan; Budzevich, Mikalai; Zhakhovsky, Vasily; White, Carter

    2012-02-01

    The complete evolution of metastable states during shock-induced solid-liquid phase transitions in crystalline aluminum was observed in moving window molecular dynamics simulations. The orientation-dependent transition pathways towards orientation-independent final equilibrium states include both ``cold melting'' followed by resolidification in [110]- and [111]-oriented shock waves, and crystal overheating followed by melting in [100] shock waves. Such orientation-dependent dynamics of solid-liquid phase transitions takes place within an extended zone up to hundreds of nanometers behind the shock front, which makes it accessible for experimental observation.

  20. Shear-induced conformation change in ?-crystalline nylon6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabnejad, Saeid; Manzhos, Sergei; He, Chaobin; Shim, V. P. W.

    2014-12-01

    A study of shear deformation of ?-crystalline nylon6 is undertaken, using dispersion-corrected density functional theory. The shear stress-strain relationship and shear strength for interlayer shear deformation are computed. A conformation change induced by shear is identified along twinning deformation, whereby the conformation of chains, specifically the location of non-H-bonded hydrogen atoms, changes continuously. This paves a way for the modulation of properties of this group of materials by small shear deformation, if the non-H-bonded hydrogens are chemically substituted to form non-equivalent conformations when deformed.

  1. Radiation-Induced Bioradicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahorte, Philippe; Mondelaers, Wim

    This chapter represents the second part of a review in which the production and application of radiation-induced radicals in biological matter are discussed. In part one the general aspects of the four stages (physical, physicochemical, chemical and biological) of interaction of radiation with matter in general and biological matter in particular, were discussed. Here an overview is presented of modem technologies and theoretical methods available for studying these radiation effects. The relevance is highlighted of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations with respect to obtaining structural information on bioradicals, and a survey is given of the research studies in this field. We also discuss some basic aspects of modem accelerator technologies which can be used for creating radicals and we conclude with an overview of applications of radiation processing in biology and related fields such as biomedical and environmental engineering, food technology, medicine and pharmacy.

  2. Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585

  3. Radiation-induced schwannomas

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, A.B.; Reichenthal, E.; Borohov, H.

    1989-06-01

    The histopathology and clinical course of three patients with schwannomas of the brain and high cervical cord after therapeutic irradiation for intracranial malignancy and for ringworm of the scalp are described. Earlier reports in the literature indicated that radiation of the scalp may induce tumors in the head and neck. It is therefore suggested that therapeutic irradiation in these instances was a causative factor in the genesis of these tumors.

  4. Radiation Induced Genomic Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, William F.

    2011-03-01

    Radiation induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after irradiation of parental cells. The phenotype is well established both in vivo (Morgan 2003) and in vitro (Morgan 2003), and may be critical in radiation carcinogenesis (Little 2000, Huang et al. 2003). Instability can be induced by both the deposition of energy in irradiated cells as well as by signals transmitted by irradiated (targeted) cells to non-irradiated (non-targeted) cells (Kadhim et al. 1992, Lorimore et al. 1998). Thus both targeted and non-targeted cells can pass on the legacy of radiation to their progeny. However the radiation induced events and cellular processes that respond to both targeted and non-targeted radiation effects that lead to the unstable phenotype remain elusive. The cell system we have used to study radiation induced genomic instability utilizes human hamster GM10115 cells. These cells have a single copy of human chromosome 4 in a background of hamster chromosomes. Instability is evaluated in the clonal progeny of irradiated cells and a clone is considered unstable if it contains three or more metaphase sub-populations involving unique rearrangements of the human chromosome (Marder and Morgan 1993). Many of these unstable clones have been maintained in culture for many years and have been extensively characterized. As initially described by Clutton et al., (Clutton et al. 1996) many of our unstable clones exhibit persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (Limoli et al. 2003), which appear to be due dysfunctional mitochondria (Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2006). Interestingly, but perhaps not surprisingly, our unstable clones do not demonstrate a mutator phenotype (Limoli et al. 1997), but they do continue to rearrange their genomes for many years. The limiting factor with this system is the target the human chromosome. While some clones demonstrate amplification of this chromosome and thus lend themselves to prolonged study, many tend to eliminate or rearrange the target chromosome until it is too small for further rearrangement. The observed frequency of induced instability by low and high linear-energy-transfer radiations greatly exceeds that observed for nuclear gene mutations at similar doses; hence, mutation of a gene or gene family is unlikely to be the initiating mechanism. Once initiated however, there is evidence in the GM10115 model system that it can be perpetuated over time by dicentric chromosome formation followed by bridge breakage fusion cycles (Marder and Morgan 1993), as well as recombinational events involving interstitial telomere like repeat sequences (Day et al. 1998). There is also increasing evidence that inflammatory type reactions (Lorimore et al. 2001, Lorimore and Wright 2003), presumably involving reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as cytokines and chemokines might be involved in driving the ustable phenotype (Liaikis et al. 2007, Hei et al. 2008). To this end there is very convincing evidence for such reactions being involved in another non-targeted effect associated with ionizing radiation, the bystander effect (Hei et al. 2008). Clearly the link between induced instability and bystander effects suggests common processes and inflammatory type reactions will likely be the subject of future investigation.

  5. Locating microearthquakes induced by hydraulic fracturing in crystalline rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Leigh

    1987-09-01

    Microearthquakes induced by hydraulic fracturing in crystalline rock at a depth of 3.5 km were located with a precision of better than 30 m to obtain information about the geometry and dimensions of the fracture system produced. The induced microseismicity was monitored by a network of five borehole seismic stations; a total of about 800 induced events were reliably located from arrival times. Event locations show a tabular distribution that strikes 350° and dips 65° east, subparallel to the injection well. The injection was intended to produce a fracture system that would hydraulically connect two subparallel wells. A lack of fluid communication between them is consistent with a lack of induced microearthquakes near the target wellbore. The 150 m thickness of the zone of seismicity far exceeds the relative locational uncertainties. The injected fluid appears to have stimulated a zone of rock, rather than simply a single fracture. The distribution of microseismic events presumably envelops the zone of fluid paths created by the fracture experiment.

  6. Extreme UV induced dissociation of amorphous solid water and crystalline water bilayers on Ru(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Sturm, J. M.; Lee, Chris J.; Bijkerk, Fred

    2016-04-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV, λ = 13.5 nm) induced dissociation of water layers on Ru(0001) was investigated. We irradiated amorphous and crystalline water layers on a Ru crystal with EUV light, and measured the surface coverage of remaining water and oxygen as a function of radiation dose by temperature programmed desorption (TPD). The main reaction products are OH and H with a fraction of oxygen from fully dissociated water. TPD spectra from a series of exposures reveal that EUV promotes formation of the partially dissociated water overlayer on Ru. Furthermore, loss of water due to desorption and dissociation is also observed. The water loss cross sections for amorphous and crystalline water are measured at 9 ± 2 × 10- 19 cm2 and 5 ± 1 × 10- 19 cm2, respectively. Comparison between the two cross sections suggests that crystalline water is more stable against EUV induced desorption/dissociation. The dissociation products can oxidize the Ru surface. For this early stage of oxidation, we measured a smaller (compared to water loss) cross section at 2 × 10- 20 cm2, which is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the photon absorption cross section (at 92 eV) of gas phase water. The secondary electron (SE) contributions to the cross sections are also estimated. From our estimation, SE only forms a small part (20-25%) of the observed photon cross section.

  7. Induced seismicity in crystalline basement: Understanding the reasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, cases of induced seismicity have been reported for geothermal wells in aseismic regions. The use of geothermal energy naturally influences the reservoir as heat and water are withdrawn. However, most geothermal plants reinject the water so that pressure levels within the reservoir remain more or less stable. Despite this and despite low injection pressures, some of these reinjecting plants experience induced seismicity. One example is the well Unterhaching Gt2, close to Munich, Germany. Here, the reservoir is an approximately 500 m thick karstified limestone layer of the Upper Jurassic, in which extraction and reinjection take place. Flow rates of more than 100 l/s have been established with reinjection pressures below 10 bar. Nevertheless, induced seismicity occurs. Most of the events are below 1.0 but some reach up to 2.4 on the Richter scale. Due to their location, they can without any doubt be attributed to the reinjection process. However, the origin of the quakes is not within the reservoir but located in the crystalline basement. As the reinjection well cuts through a steeply inclined fault, a hydraulic connection between reservoir, borehole and basement is given if a hydraulically open fault is assumed. So far, it was impossible to find a correlation between the occurrence of induced seismicity and operating parameters of the geothermal plant like flow rate, injection pressure, or temperature. Therefore, thermo-hydraulic-mechanical numerical models of the subsurface have been developed to understand the interaction between different parameters and to possibly identify critical thresholds for the initiation of induced seismicity. Due to the large scale of the model, several kilometers in each direction, an equivalent porosity approach has been chosen for the hydraulic modeling of the karstic limestone layer. Flow within in the fault is also described by Darcy's law as the fault is not assumed to be a surface but a volume. This assumption is based on the analysis of seismic data of this region, which indicate a zone of damaged rock several tens of meters in diameter. Because of this approach to model the hydraulics, the pore pressure within the fault will most likely be the determining factor for the onset of induced seismicity. Therefore, it is of high interest to analyse the influence of the operating parameters of the geothermal plant on this parameter.

  8. The radiation destruction of crystalline polymersI. The effect of radiation crosslinking on crystallinities of polyesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiqun, Zhang; Danliang, Jin; Xinfang, Chen; Zhanchen, Chui; Yuxia, Luo; Hua, Li Shu

    1994-05-01

    Changes in crystallinity of crystalline polyethylene glycol terephthalate (PET) and polyhexamethylene terephthalate (PHT) irradiated by ?-ray (0-30 MGy) were investigated by means of a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The results of the first-run indicated that the melting point of both polyesters decreases with the increase of dose, and the half widths of melting peaks decrease at first and then increase with dose, that is there is a minimum half-width at some dose. The results of the second-run DSC indicate that the properties of recrystalline material are related to the crystal states in which the samples were irradiated. The entropies of fusion, ? S, were calculated from Tm and ? H. ? S decreases with dose increase for each polyester, and PHT, in which more crosslinking occurs, gives greater ? S than PET. The result is discussed from the point of view of crosslinking taking place within each crystal.

  9. Acousto-optic diffraction of multicolour Ar-laser radiation in crystalline quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, V. M.; Averin, S. V.; Voronko, A. I.; Kuznetsov, P. I.; Tikhomirov, S. A.; Shkerdin, G. N.; Bulyuk, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    We have studied acousto-optic Bragg diffraction of multicolour radiation, generated by an Ar laser in the blue-green region of the spectrum, on an acoustic wave propagating in crystalline quartz. It is shown that crystalline quartz significantly exceeds commonly used paratellurite in terms of phase matching of optical beams with a single acoustic wave. We have performed experiments on pulse modulation of Ar-laser radiation. It is shown that distortions introduced into optical pulses are substantially less when use is made of a quartz crystal rather than paratellurite.

  10. Errors inducing radiation overdoses.

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that equipments exposing radiation and used for therapeutic purposes should be often checked for possibly administering radiation overdoses to the patients. Technologists, radiation safety officers, radiologists, medical physicists, healthcare providers and administration should take proper care on this issue. "We must be beneficial and not harmful to the patients", according to the Hippocratic doctrine. Cases of radiation overdose are often reported. A series of cases of radiation overdoses have recently been reported. Doctors who were responsible, received heavy punishments. It is much better to prevent than to treat an error or a disease. A Personal Smart Card or Score Card has been suggested for every patient undergoing therapeutic and/or diagnostic procedures by the use of radiation. Taxonomy may also help. PMID:24251304

  11. Light-induced phosphorylation of crystallins in the retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunju; Chung, Hyewon; Lee, Sung Haeng; Jahng, Wan Jin

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphorylations have essential regulatory roles in visual signaling. Previously, we found that phosphorylation of several proteins in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is involved in anti-apoptotic signaling under oxidative stress conditions, including light exposure. In this study, we used a phosphoprotein enrichment strategy to evaluate the light-induced phosphoproteome of primary bovine RPE cells. Phosphoprotein-enriched extracts from bovine RPE cells exposed to light or dark conditions for 1h were separated by 2D SDS-PAGE. Serine and tyrosine phosphorylations were visualized by 2D phospho Western blotting and specific phosphorylation sites were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Light induced a marked increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of beta crystallin A3 and A4. The most abundant light-induced up-regulated phosphoproteins were crystallins of 15-25 kDa, including beta crystallin S and zeta crystallin. Phosphorylation of beta crystallin suggests an anti-apoptotic chaperone function of crystallins in the RPE. Other chaperones, cytoskeletal proteins, and proteins involved in energy balance were expressed at higher levels in the dark. A detailed analysis of RPE phosphoproteins provides a molecular basis for understanding of light-induced signal transduction and anti-apoptosis mechanisms. Our data indicates that phosphorylation of crystallins likely represents an important mechanism for RPE shielding from physiological and pathophysiological light-induced oxidative injury. PMID:21094180

  12. Detection of radiation deformation in crystalline polymers using the speckle photography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghandoor, H.; Hashem, A. A.; Sharaf, F.

    1995-02-01

    In order to measure the resulting deformation due to gamma irradiation of polymers, a new optical technique, namely speckle-photography, was established and used. Thin films of tetrafluroethene, with constant thickness were irradiated by different doses of gamma rays and the diffraction patterns of a laser beam passing through these films were recorded using the speckle photography technique. This technique has been applied to detect the radiation deformation in (Teflon) TFE, which is a crystalline polymer. A diffraction pattern due to the TFE thin layer is obtained and superimposed on the interference pattern displaying the speckle pattern pairs recorded on the same emulsion. The intensity of the obtained diffraction pattern was found to decrease by increasing the radiation dose from 5 to 12 Mrad from a Cobalt-60 source, and it vanishes at 12 Mrad dose. This may be attributed to the decrease in the degree of crystallinity of the TFE polymer with increasing radiation dose.

  13. Radiation-induced genomic instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenberg, A.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the heritable somatic effects of ionizing radiation exposures has relied upon the assumption that radiation-induced lesions were 'fixed' in the DNA prior to the first postirradiation mitosis. Lesion conversion was thought to occur during the initial round of DNA replication or as a consequence of error-prone enzymatic processing of lesions. The standard experimental protocols for the assessment of a variety of radiation-induced endpoints (cell death, specific locus mutations, neoplastic transformation and chromosome aberrations) evaluate these various endpoints at a single snapshot in time. In contrast with the aforementioned approaches, some studies have specifically assessed radiation effects as a function of time following exposure. Evidence has accumulated in support of the hypothesis that radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of the genome. This instability has been observed as a delayed expression of lethal mutations, as an enhanced rate of accumulation of non-lethal heritable alterations, and as a progressive intraclonal chromosomal heterogeneity. The genetic controls and biochemical mechanisms underlying radiation-induced genomic instability have not yet been delineated. The aim is to integrate the accumulated evidence that suggests that radiation exposure has a persistent effect on the stability of the mammalian genome.

  14. Crystalline polymorphism induced by charge regulation in ionic membranes

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Cheuk-Yui; Palmer, Liam C.; Kewalramani, Sumit; Qiao, Baofu; Stupp, Samuel I.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Bedzyk, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The crystallization of molecules with polar and hydrophobic groups, such as ionic amphiphiles and proteins, is of paramount importance in biology and biotechnology. By coassembling dilysine (+2) and carboxylate (1) amphiphiles of various tail lengths into bilayer membranes at different pH values, we show that the 2D crystallization process in amphiphile membranes can be controlled by modifying the competition of long-range and short-range interactions among the polar and the hydrophobic groups. The pH and the hydrophobic tail length modify the intermolecular packing and the symmetry of their crystalline phase. For hydrophobic tail lengths of 14 carbons (C14), we observe the coassembly into crystalline bilayers with hexagonal molecular ordering via in situ small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. As the tail length increases, the hexagonal lattice spacing decreases due to an increase in van der Waals interactions, as demonstrated by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. For C16 and C18 we observe a reentrant crystalline phase transition sequence, hexagonalrectangular-Crectangular-Prectangular-Chexagonal, as the solution pH is increased from 3 to 10.5. The stability of the rectangular phases, which maximize tail packing, increases with increasing tail length. As a result, for very long tails (C22), the possibility of observing packing symmetries other than rectangular-C phases diminishes. Our work demonstrates that it is possible to systematically exchange chemical and mechanical energy by changing the solution pH value within a range of physiological conditions at room temperature in bilayers of molecules with ionizable groups. PMID:24065818

  15. Crystalline nanostructures on Ge surfaces induced by ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Xin; Facsko, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Besides conventional low efficiency lithographic techniques broad ion beam irradiation is a simple and potentially mass productive technique to fabricate nanoscale patterns on various semiconductor surfaces. The main drawback of this method is that the irradiated semiconductor surfaces are amorphized, which strongly limits the potential application of these nanostructures in electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this work we report that high-quality crystalline nanostructure patterns are formed on Ge surfaces via Ar+ irradiation at elevated temperatures. This pattern formation process resembles the pattern formation in homoepitaxy. Therefore, the process is discussed based on a 'reverse epitaxy' mechanism.

  16. Radiation-induced SVC syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sahil Viplov; Koo, Douglas Junwoo

    2014-01-01

    A 69-year-old woman with a history of Hodgkin's lymphoma at age 17 was admitted to our hospital with 3?weeks of progressive dyspnoea on exertion. Her medical history and physical exam were concerning for superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome and while her workup did indeed reveal such, its aetiology was not due to a compressive mass associated with malignancy. Rather, she developed chronic thromboses in the setting of radiation-induced venous fibrosis. This case report details her case and explains the key clinical concerns, pathophysiology and incidence of radiation-induced SVC syndrome. PMID:24554686

  17. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  18. O-GlcNAcylation of ?B-crystallin regulates its stress-induced translocation and cytoprotection.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Vigneshwaran; Donofrio, Anthony J; Martin, Jody L

    2013-07-01

    Under normal conditions, the ubiquitously expressed ?B-crystallin functions as a chaperone. ?B-crystallin has been implicated in a variety of pathologies, consistent with a build-up of protein aggregates, such as neuromuscular disorders, myofibrillar myopathies, and cardiomyopathies. ?B-crystallins' cardioprotection is partially attributed to its translocation and binding to cytoskeletal elements in response to stress. The triggers for this translocation are not clearly understood. In the heart, ?B-crystallin undergoes at least three significant post-translational modifications: phosphorylation at ser-45 and 59 and O-GlcNAcylation (O-linked attachment of the monosaccharide ?-N-acetyl-glucosamine) at thr-170. Whether phosphorylation status drives translocation remains controversial. Therefore, we evaluated the role of ?B-crystallins' O-GlcNAcylation in its stress-induced translocation and cytoprotection in cardiomyocytes under stress. Immunoblotting and precipitation experiments with anti-O-GlcNAc antibody (CTD110.6) and glycoprotein staining (Pro-Q Emerald) both demonstrate robust stress-induced O-GlcNAcylation of ?B-crystallin. A non-O-GlcNAcylatable ?B-crystallin mutant (?B-T170A) showed diminished translocation in response to heat shock and robust phosphorylation at both ser-45 and ser-59. Cell survival assays show a loss of overexpression-associated cytoprotection with the non-glycosylatable mutant to multiple stresses. While ectopic expression of wild-type ?B-crystallin strongly stabilized ZsProSensor, a fusion protein rapidly degraded by the proteasome, the non-O-GlcNAcylatable version did not. Therefore, we believe the O-GlcNAcylation of ?B-crystallin is a dynamic and important regulator of both its localization and function. PMID:23543138

  19. Tensile and tribological properties of high-crystallinity radiation crosslinked UHMWPE

    SciTech Connect

    Bistolfi, Alessandro; Turell, Mary Beth; Lee, Ying-Lung; Bellare, Anuj

    2009-09-02

    Osteolysis due to particulate wear debris associated with ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) components of total joint replacement prostheses has been a major factor determining their in vivo lifetime. In recent years, radiation crosslinking has been employed to decrease wear rates in PE components, especially in acetabular cups of total hip replacement prostheses. A drawback of radiation crosslinking is that it leads to a crosslinked PE (or XPE) with lower mechanical properties compared with uncrosslinked PE. In contrast, high-crystallinity PEs are known to have several mechanical properties higher than conventional PE. In this study, we hypothesized that increasing the crystallinity of radiation crosslinked and remelted XPE would result in an increase in tensile properties without compromising wear resistance. High-pressure crystallization was performed on PE and XPE and analyzed for the resulting morphological alterations using differential scanning calorimeter, low voltage scanning electron microscopy, and ultrasmall angle X-ray scattering. Uniaxial tensile tests showed that high-pressure crystallization increased the tensile modulus and yield stress in both PE and XPE, decreased the ultimate strain and ultimate stress in PE but had no significant effect on ultimate strain or ultimate stress in XPE. Multidirectional wear tests demonstrated that high-pressure crystallization decreased the wear resistance of PE but had no effect on the wear resistance of XPE. In conclusion, this study shows that high-pressure crystallization can be effectively used to increase the crystallinity and modulus of XPE without compromising its superior wear resistance compared with PE.

  20. Flow-Induced Orientational Defects in Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jimmy; Leal, L. Gary

    1997-11-01

    Liquid-crystalline polymers (LCPs) hold great potential as high-performance materials but their processing has been hampered by the difficulty of controlling molecular orientation. In particular, orientational defect lines called disclinations tend to form during molding, which disrupt molecular order and severely compromise the strength of the finished article. In this talk we describe a numerical simulation which for the first time elucidates the flow mechanism for the generation of disclinations in an LCP. The Doi theory is used to model the evolution of the LCP configuration in an eccentric cylinder geometry. The rotational flow in the wide gap causes the preferred molecular orientation, represented by the "director", to vary periodically, a phenomenon known as "director tumbling". This generates a tumbling domain whose boundary consists of a pair of half-strength disclinations. The structure of the domain is consistent with experimental observations.

  1. Analysis of rapidly synthesized guest-filled porous complexes with synchrotron radiation: practical guidelines for the crystalline sponge method

    PubMed Central

    Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Clardy, Jon

    2015-01-01

    A detailed set of synthetic and crystallographic guidelines for the crystalline sponge method based upon the analysis of expediently synthesized crystal sponges using third-generation synchrotron radiation are reported. The procedure for the synthesis of the zinc-based metal–organic framework used in initial crystal sponge reports has been modified to yield competent crystals in 3 days instead of 2 weeks. These crystal sponges were tested on some small molecules, with two being unexpectedly difficult cases for analysis with in-house diffractometers in regard to data quality and proper space-group determination. These issues were easily resolved by the use of synchrotron radiation using data-collection times of less than an hour. One of these guests induced a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to create a larger unit cell with over 500 non-H atoms in the asymmetric unit. This led to a non-trivial refinement scenario that afforded the best Flack x absolute stereochemical determination parameter to date for these systems. The structures did not require the use of PLATON/SQUEEZE or other solvent-masking programs, and are the highest-quality crystalline sponge systems reported to date where the results are strongly supported by the data. A set of guidelines for the entire crystallographic process were developed through these studies. In particular, the refinement guidelines include strategies to refine the host framework, locate guests and determine occupancies, discussion of the proper use of geometric and anisotropic displacement parameter restraints and constraints, and whether to perform solvent squeezing/masking. The single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation process for the crystal sponges is also discussed. The presented general guidelines will be invaluable for researchers interested in using the crystalline sponge method at in-house diffraction or synchrotron facilities, will facilitate the collection and analysis of reliable high-quality data, and will allow construction of chemically and physically sensible models for guest structural determination. PMID:25537388

  2. Analysis of rapidly synthesized guest-filled porous complexes with synchrotron radiation: practical guidelines for the crystalline sponge method.

    PubMed

    Ramadhar, Timothy R; Zheng, Shao Liang; Chen, Yu Sheng; Clardy, Jon

    2015-01-01

    A detailed set of synthetic and crystallographic guidelines for the crystalline sponge method based upon the analysis of expediently synthesized crystal sponges using third-generation synchrotron radiation are reported. The procedure for the synthesis of the zinc-based metal-organic framework used in initial crystal sponge reports has been modified to yield competent crystals in 3 days instead of 2 weeks. These crystal sponges were tested on some small molecules, with two being unexpectedly difficult cases for analysis with in-house diffractometers in regard to data quality and proper space-group determination. These issues were easily resolved by the use of synchrotron radiation using data-collection times of less than an hour. One of these guests induced a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to create a larger unit cell with over 500 non-H atoms in the asymmetric unit. This led to a non-trivial refinement scenario that afforded the best Flack x absolute stereochemical determination parameter to date for these systems. The structures did not require the use of PLATON/SQUEEZE or other solvent-masking programs, and are the highest-quality crystalline sponge systems reported to date where the results are strongly supported by the data. A set of guidelines for the entire crystallographic process were developed through these studies. In particular, the refinement guidelines include strategies to refine the host framework, locate guests and determine occupancies, discussion of the proper use of geometric and anisotropic displacement parameter restraints and constraints, and whether to perform solvent squeezing/masking. The single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation process for the crystal sponges is also discussed. The presented general guidelines will be invaluable for researchers interested in using the crystalline sponge method at in-house diffraction or synchrotron facilities, will facilitate the collection and analysis of reliable high-quality data, and will allow construction of chemically and physically sensible models for guest structural determination. PMID:25537388

  3. Analysis of rapidly synthesized guest-filled porous complexes with synchrotron radiation: practical guidelines for the crystalline sponge method

    SciTech Connect

    Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Chen, Yu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    This report describes complete practical guidelines and insights for the crystalline sponge method, which have been derived through the first use of synchrotron radiation on these systems, and includes a procedure for faster synthesis of the sponges. These guidelines will be applicable to crystal sponge data collected at synchrotrons or in-house facilities, and will allow researchers to obtain reliable high-quality data and construct chemically and physically sensible models for guest structural determination. A detailed set of synthetic and crystallographic guidelines for the crystalline sponge method based upon the analysis of expediently synthesized crystal sponges using third-generation synchrotron radiation are reported. The procedure for the synthesis of the zinc-based metalorganic framework used in initial crystal sponge reports has been modified to yield competent crystals in 3 days instead of 2 weeks. These crystal sponges were tested on some small molecules, with two being unexpectedly difficult cases for analysis with in-house diffractometers in regard to data quality and proper space-group determination. These issues were easily resolved by the use of synchrotron radiation using data-collection times of less than an hour. One of these guests induced a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to create a larger unit cell with over 500 non-H atoms in the asymmetric unit. This led to a non-trivial refinement scenario that afforded the best Flack x absolute stereochemical determination parameter to date for these systems. The structures did not require the use of PLATON/SQUEEZE or other solvent-masking programs, and are the highest-quality crystalline sponge systems reported to date where the results are strongly supported by the data. A set of guidelines for the entire crystallographic process were developed through these studies. In particular, the refinement guidelines include strategies to refine the host framework, locate guests and determine occupancies, discussion of the proper use of geometric and anisotropic displacement parameter restraints and constraints, and whether to perform solvent squeezing/masking. The single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation process for the crystal sponges is also discussed. The presented general guidelines will be invaluable for researchers interested in using the crystalline sponge method at in-house diffraction or synchrotron facilities, will facilitate the collection and analysis of reliable high-quality data, and will allow construction of chemically and physically sensible models for guest structural determination.

  4. Optical properties and crystallinity of silver mirrors under a 35 krad cobalt-60 radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Po-Kai Chiang, Donyau; Lee, Chao-Te; Lin, Yu-Wei; Hsiao, Chien-Nan

    2015-09-15

    This study addresses the effects of thin film optical design and environmental radiation on the optical properties of silver mirrors. Different experimental thin film optical designs are selected, and the film stack is built using Macleod's approach. Mirror elements are exposed to the same dose of radiation and their properties are characterized using a spectrophotometer equipped with an integration sphere and an x-ray diffractometer. Spectrophotometric analyses of mirrors exposed to about 35 krad of {sup 60}Co radiations overall show that the B270 glass substrates coated with titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}), silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}), pure chrome, and pure silver effectively reduces radiation damage. The absorption spectrum of the TiO{sub 2} film in the visible region decreases after radiation and displays drifting. As thin metal films comparison, the silver thin film exhibits higher radiation resistance than the chrome thin film. The x-ray diffraction analysis on metal film layers reveals that crystallinity slightly increases when the silver thin film is irradiated.

  5. Radiation induced estane polymer crosslinking

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, M.; Foster, P.

    1997-12-01

    The exposure of polymeric materials to radiation has been known to induce the effects of crosslinking and degradation. The crosslinking phenomena comes about when two long chain polymers become linked together by a primary bond that extends the chain and increases the viscosity, molecular weight and the elastic modules of the polymer. This process has been observed in relatively short periods of time with fairly high doses of radiation, on the order of several megarads/hour. This paper address low dose exposure over long periods of time to determine what the radiation effects are on the polymeric binder material in PBX 9501. An experimental sample of binder material without explosives will be placed into a thermal and radiation field produced from a W-48 put mod 0. Another sample will be placed in a thermal environment without the radiation. The following is the test plan that was submitted to the Pantex process. The data presented here will be from the first few weeks of exposure and this test will be continued over the next few years. Subsequent data will hopefully be presented in the next compatibility and aging conference.

  6. Hydrogeologic controls on induced seismicity in crystalline basement rocks due to fluid injection into basal reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yipeng; Person, Mark; Rupp, John; Ellett, Kevin; Celia, Michael A; Gable, Carl W; Bowen, Brenda; Evans, James; Bandilla, Karl; Mozley, Peter; Dewers, Thomas; Elliot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A series of Mb 3.8-5.5 induced seismic events in the midcontinent region, United States, resulted from injection of fluid either into a basal sedimentary reservoir with no underlying confining unit or directly into the underlying crystalline basement complex. The earthquakes probably occurred along faults that were likely critically stressed within the crystalline basement. These faults were located at a considerable distance (up to 10 km) from the injection wells and head increases at the hypocenters were likely relatively small (∼70-150 m). We present a suite of simulations that use a simple hydrogeologic-geomechanical model to assess what hydrogeologic conditions promote or deter induced seismic events within the crystalline basement across the midcontinent. The presence of a confining unit beneath the injection reservoir horizon had the single largest effect in preventing induced seismicity within the underlying crystalline basement. For a crystalline basement having a permeability of 2 × 10(-17)  m(2) and specific storage coefficient of 10(-7) /m, injection at a rate of 5455 m(3) /d into the basal aquifer with no underlying basal seal over 10 years resulted in probable brittle failure to depths of about 0.6 km below the injection reservoir. Including a permeable (kz  = 10(-13)  m(2) ) Precambrian normal fault, located 20 m from the injection well, increased the depth of the failure region below the reservoir to 3 km. For a large permeability contrast between a Precambrian thrust fault (10(-12)  m(2) ) and the surrounding crystalline basement (10(-18)  m(2) ), the failure region can extend laterally 10 km away from the injection well. PMID:23745958

  7. Au induced low-temperature formation of preferentially (111)-oriented crystalline Ge on insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Hayato; Kudo, Kohei; Nomitsu, Tatsushi; Mochii, Ryosuke; Moto, Kenta; Takakura, Kenichiro; Tsunoda, Isao

    2016-04-01

    The effects of Au insertion in solid-phase crystallization for amorphous Ge films on SiO2/Si substrates were investigated to achieve oriented crystalline Ge. After high-temperature annealing above 300 °C, Au atoms were highly diffused in the amorphous Ge layer. The resulting crystalline Ge consisted of random grains formed by crystal nucleation in the entire Ge region. However, when annealing temperature was decreased to below 250 °C, Au atoms were localized at their initial position even after a long annealing (20 h). Moreover, formation of preferentially (111)-oriented crystalline Ge was achieved without using the metal-induced layer-exchange crystallization method. These results suggest that crystal nucleation preferentially occurs at the amorphous Ge/Au interface, and subsequently the nucleus growth progresses into the Ge layer.

  8. Laser ablation of single-crystalline silicon by radiation of pulsed frequency-selective fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiko, V. P.; Skvortsov, A. M.; Huynh, C. T.; Petrov, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the process of destruction of the surface of a single-crystalline silicon wafer scanned by the beam of a pulsed ytterbium-doped fiber laser radiation with a wavelength of λ = 1062 nm. It is established that the laser ablation can proceed without melting of silicon and the formation of a plasma plume. Under certain parameters of the process (radiation power, beam scan velocity, and beam overlap density), pronounced oxidation of silicon microparticles with the formation of a characteristic loose layer of fine powdered silicon dioxide has been observed for the first time. The range of lasing and beam scanning regimes in which the growth of SiO2 layer takes place is determined.

  9. Proximity-induced superconductivity in crystalline Cu and Co nanowires and nanogranular Co structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kompaniiets, M. Begun, E.; Porrati, F.; Huth, M.; Dobrovolskiy, O. V.; Neetzel, C.; Ensinger, W.

    2014-08-21

    We report an experimental study of proximity effect-induced superconductivity in crystalline Cu and Co nanowires and a nanogranular Co nanowire structure in contact with a superconducting W-based floating electrode (inducer). For electrical resistance measurements up to three pairs of Pt-based voltage leads were attached at different distances beside the inner inducer electrode, thus allowing us to probe the proximity effect over a length of 2–12 μm. Up to 30% resistance drops with respect to the normal-state value have been observed for the crystalline Co and Cu nanowires when sweeping the temperature below T{sub c} of the inducer (5.2 K). By contrast, relative R(T) drops were found to be an order of magnitude smaller for the nanogranular Co nanowire structure. Our analysis of the resistance data shows that the superconducting proximity length in crystalline Cu and Co is about 1 μm at 2.4 K, attesting to a long-range proximity effect in the Co nanowire. Moreover, this long-range proximity effect is insusceptible to magnetic fields up to 11 T, which is indicative of spin-triplet pairing. At the same time, proximity-induced superconductivity in the nanogranular Co nanowire is strongly suppressed due to the dominating Cooper pair scattering caused by its intrinsic microstructure.

  10. Ultrasound visualization of internal crystalline lens deformation using laser-induced microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpiouk, Andrei B.; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Glasser, Adrian; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2014-02-01

    The progressive loss of accommodation of the eye, called presbyopia, affects people with age and can result in a complete loss of accommodation by about age 55 years. It is generally accepted that presbyopia is due to an increase in stiffness of the lens. With increasing age, the stiffness of the crystalline lens nucleus increases faster than that of the cortex. During accommodation, the deformation of different parts of the crystalline lens is different and likely changes with age. However, a direct observation of crystalline lens deformation and strain distribution is difficult because although imaging methods such as OCT or Scheimpflug imaging can distinguish cortex and nucleus, they cannot determine their regional deformation. Here, patterns of laser-induced microbubbles were created in gelatin phantoms and different parts of excised animal crystalline lenses and their displacements in response to external deformation were tracked by ultrasound imaging. In the animal lenses, the deformation of the lens cortex was greater than that of nucleus and this regional difference is greater for a 27-month-old bovine lens than for a 6-month-old porcine lens. This approach enables visualization of localized, regional deformation of crystalline lenses and, if applied to lenses from animal species that undergo accommodation, may help to understand the mechanisms of accommodation and presbyopia, improve diagnostics, and, potentially, aid in the development of new methods of lens modifying presbyopia treatments.

  11. Shock induced radiation from minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, D.; Svendsen, B.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Schmitt and Ahrens (1983) have concluded that the type of optical emission produced during shock compression was dependent upon phase changes taking place during shock compression. The present study is concerned with new observations of shock-induced optical radiation from Al2O3, MgO, NaCl, KCl, x-cut and fused SiO2, and LiF at various pressures up to 75 GPa. The experimental setup used in the study is similar to that employed by Schmitt and Ahrens. An Image Converter Camera with a three-frame plug-in unit was added to take two or three exposures of the radiation field during shock wave propagation through the sample, taking into account exposure times in the range from 50 to 500 nsec. The greybody emissions observed in LiF, which undergoes no phase transition, imply that localized heating and perhaps melting occurs in this material during shock deformation.

  12. The ability of lens alpha crystallin to protect against heat-induced aggregation is age-dependent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J.; Emmons, T.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Alpha crystallin was prepared from newborn and aged bovine lenses. SDS-PAGE and tryptic peptide mapping demonstrated that both preparations contained only the alpha-A and alpha-B chains, with no significant contamination of other crystallins. Compared with alpha crystallin from the aged lens, alpha crystallin from the newborn lens was much more effective in the inhibition of beta L crystallin denaturation and precipitation induced in vitro by heat. Together, these results demonstrate that during the aging process, the alpha crystallins lose their ability to protect against protein denaturation, consistent with the hypothesis that the alpha crystallins play an important role in the maintenance of protein native structure in the intact lens.

  13. Mechanisms of crystalline silica-induced pulmonary toxicity revealed by global gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Sellamuthu, Rajendran; Umbright, Christina; Li, Shengqiao; Kashon, Michael; Joseph, Pius

    2015-01-01

    A proper understanding of the mechanisms underlying crystalline silica-induced pulmonary toxicity has implications in the management and potential prevention of the adverse health effects associated with silica exposure including silicosis, cancer and several auto-immune diseases. Human lung type II epithelial cells and rat lungs exposed to crystalline silica were employed as experimental models to determine global gene expression changes in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying silica-induced pulmonary toxicity. The differential gene expression profile induced by silica correlated with its toxicity in the A549 cells. The biological processes perturbed by silica exposure in the A549 cells and rat lungs, as identified by the bioinformatics analysis of the differentially expressed genes, demonstrated significant similarity. Functional categorization of the differentially expressed genes identified cancer, cellular movement, cellular growth and proliferation, cell death, inflammatory response, cell cycle, cellular development, and genetic disorder as top ranking biological functions perturbed by silica exposure in A549 cells and rat lungs. Results of our study, in addition to confirming several previously identified molecular targets and mechanisms involved in silica toxicity, identified novel molecular targets and mechanisms potentially involved in silica-induced pulmonary toxicity. Further investigations, including those focused on the novel molecular targets and mechanisms identified in the current study may result in better management and, possibly, reduction and/or prevention of the potential adverse health effects associated with crystalline silica exposure. PMID:22087542

  14. Control over the crystal phase, crystallinity, morphology of AgVO3 via protein inducing process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Shao, Mingwang; Xu, Hongyan; Wen, Chunye; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2012-01-15

    A facile and bio-inspired route for the preparation of pure and highly crystalline metastable ?-AgVO(3) is presented. Three kinds of proteins (bovine hemoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and lysozyme) were employed as inducer, which had substantial effects on the nucleation and growth of ?-AgVO(3). Moreover, the amount of proteins also played a key role over the morphology and crystalline of products. The VO(3)(-)/protein complex acted as a driver to induce the formation of metastable phase, which was confirmed by resonance Rayleigh scattering and UV-vis absorption spectra. The results indicated that tailoring an interaction between protein and inorganic molecules was the key in bio-inspired selective synthesis of metastable phase, which may find applications in the design of other new functional inorganic materials. PMID:22014392

  15. Milling induces disorder in crystalline griseofulvin and order in its amorphous counterpart

    SciTech Connect

    Otte, Andrew; Zhang, Yan; Carvajal, M. Teresa; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2012-04-02

    This study investigates two apparently similar thermal signatures, shaped as bimodal exotherms, observed when either the crystalline or the amorphous from of the drug are subjected to milling. Crystalline griseofulvin was cryomilled and the (quenched-melt) amorphous form was subjected to either cryomilling or grinding. The thermal and surface properties of the resulting samples were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and surface energy analysis. After milling, both the crystalline and the amorphous material revealed visually similar bimodal exothermic events when the heating rate was 20 C min{sup -1}. Under different heating rates, the pair of DSC peaks for the bimodal exotherm of each material behaved entirely different from each other. The two peaks of the bimodal event, as well as the glass transition, can be kinetically resolved for the ground amorphous form using standard mode DSC. In contrast, similar analysis was unable to resolve the bimodal exotherm or a glass transition in the case of the cryomilled crystals. Furthermore, cryomilled crystals do not exhibit a glass transition even when analyzed using modulated DSC. Synchrotron sourced X-ray analysis revealed that grinding the amorphous material results in the nucleation and growth of the crystalline form. Milling thus induces disorder in the crystals of griseofulvin but induces order in the amorphous form of the drug. The surface of the two milled systems consistently exhibited different energetics under a wide range of relative humidity conditions. These findings suggest that cryomilling induces both bulk and surface disorder, specifically, a certain level of dislocations on the crystal. In contrast, grinding the amorphous material lowers the activation energy for crystal formation, inducing nuclei formation and growth throughout the amorphous matrix.

  16. Analysis of rapidly synthesized guest-filled porous complexes with synchrotron radiation: Practical guidelines for the crystalline sponge method

    SciTech Connect

    Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Zheng, Shao -Liang; Chen, Yu -Sheng; Clardy, Jon

    2015-01-01

    A detailed set of synthetic and crystallographic guidelines for the crystalline sponge method based upon the analysis of expediently synthesized crystal sponges using third-generation synchrotron radiation are reported. The procedure for the synthesis of the zinc-based metal–organic framework used in initial crystal sponge reports has been modified to yield competent crystals in 3 days instead of 2 weeks. These crystal sponges were tested on some small molecules, with two being unexpectedly difficult cases for analysis with in-house diffractometers in regard to data quality and proper space-group determination. These issues were easily resolved by the use of synchrotron radiation using data-collection times of less than an hour. One of these guests induced a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to create a larger unit cell with over 500 non-H atoms in the asymmetric unit. This led to a non-trivial refinement scenario that afforded the best Flack x absolute stereochemical determination parameter to date for these systems. The structures did not require the use of PLATON/SQUEEZE or other solvent-masking programs, and are the highest-quality crystalline sponge systems reported to date where the results are strongly supported by the data. A set of guidelines for the entire crystallographic process were developed through these studies. In particular, the refinement guidelines include strategies to refine the host framework, locate guests and determine occupancies, discussion of the proper use of geometric and anisotropic displacement parameter restraints and constraints, and whether to perform solvent squeezing/masking. The single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation process for the crystal sponges is also discussed. The presented general guidelines will be invaluable for researchers interested in using the crystalline sponge method at in-house diffraction or synchrotron facilities, will facilitate the collection and analysis of reliable high-quality data, and will allow construction of chemically and physically sensible models for guest structural determination.

  17. Analysis of rapidly synthesized guest-filled porous complexes with synchrotron radiation: Practical guidelines for the crystalline sponge method

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Zheng, Shao -Liang; Chen, Yu -Sheng; Clardy, Jon

    2015-01-01

    A detailed set of synthetic and crystallographic guidelines for the crystalline sponge method based upon the analysis of expediently synthesized crystal sponges using third-generation synchrotron radiation are reported. The procedure for the synthesis of the zinc-based metal–organic framework used in initial crystal sponge reports has been modified to yield competent crystals in 3 days instead of 2 weeks. These crystal sponges were tested on some small molecules, with two being unexpectedly difficult cases for analysis with in-house diffractometers in regard to data quality and proper space-group determination. These issues were easily resolved by the use of synchrotron radiation using data-collectionmore » times of less than an hour. One of these guests induced a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to create a larger unit cell with over 500 non-H atoms in the asymmetric unit. This led to a non-trivial refinement scenario that afforded the best Flack x absolute stereochemical determination parameter to date for these systems. The structures did not require the use of PLATON/SQUEEZE or other solvent-masking programs, and are the highest-quality crystalline sponge systems reported to date where the results are strongly supported by the data. A set of guidelines for the entire crystallographic process were developed through these studies. In particular, the refinement guidelines include strategies to refine the host framework, locate guests and determine occupancies, discussion of the proper use of geometric and anisotropic displacement parameter restraints and constraints, and whether to perform solvent squeezing/masking. The single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation process for the crystal sponges is also discussed. The presented general guidelines will be invaluable for researchers interested in using the crystalline sponge method at in-house diffraction or synchrotron facilities, will facilitate the collection and analysis of reliable high-quality data, and will allow construction of chemically and physically sensible models for guest structural determination.« less

  18. Temperature dependence of the radiative recombination coefficient in crystalline silicon from spectral photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Hieu T. Macdonald, Daniel; Baker-Finch, Simeon C.

    2014-03-17

    The radiative recombination coefficient B(T) in crystalline silicon is determined for the temperature range 90363?K, and in particular from 270 to 350?K with an interval of 10?K, where only sparse data are available at present. The band-band absorption coefficient established recently by Nguyen et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 115, 043710 (2014)] via photoluminescence spectrum measurements is employed to compute the values of B(T) at various temperatures. The results agree very well with literature data from Trupke et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4930 (2003).] We present a polynomial parameterization describing the temperature dependence of the product of B(T) and the square of the intrinsic carrier density. We also find that B(T) saturates at a near constant value at room temperature and above for silicon samples with relatively low free carrier densities.

  19. Room-temperature method for minimizing light-induced degradation in crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroos, J.; Yli-Koski, M.; Haarahiltunen, A.; Savin, H.

    2012-12-01

    Although light-induced degradation (LID) in crystalline silicon is attributed to the formation of boron-oxygen recombination centers, copper contamination of silicon has recently been observed to result in similar degradation. As positively charged interstitial copper stays mobile at room temperature in silicon, we show that the bulk copper concentration can be reduced by depositing a large negative charge onto the wafer surface. Consequently, light-induced degradation is reduced significantly in both low- and high-resistivity boron-doped Czochralski-grown silicon.

  20. Radiation induced defects in superconductors of type 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyhardt, H. C.; Graeger, V.; Krebs, H. U.; Reichelt, J.; Wagner, H.; Wecker, J.

    1984-03-01

    The electrical conductivity of superconductors of the second type was investigated by the micromechanics of pinning of the flux filament lattice. The central question in the understanding of the flux pinning phenomena, namely the so-called simulation problem, was studied and answered on a model system of blisters and pores produced by high temperature ion irradiation of crystalline niobium. The radiation induced formation of blisters and the effect on ion irradiation on the structure, the topological and chemical ordering, and the reversible and irreversible properties of noncrystalline type II-superconductors are determined on Mo and Zr alloys.

  1. Radiation-induced moyamoya syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Snehal S.; Paulino, Arnold C. . E-mail: apaulino@tmh.tmc.edu; Mai, Wei Y.; Teh, Bin S.

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: The moyamoya syndrome is an uncommon late complication after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English-language articles, with radiation, radiotherapy, and moyamoya syndrome used as search key words, yielded 33 articles from 1967 to 2002. Results: The series included 54 patients with a median age at initial RT of 3.8 years (range, 0.4 to 47). Age at RT was less than 5 years in 56.3%, 5 to 10 years in 22.9%, 11 to 20 years in 8.3%, 21 to 30 years in 6.3%, 31 to 40 years in 2.1%, and 41 to 50 years in 4.2%. Fourteen of 54 patients (25.9%) were diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). The most common tumor treated with RT was low-grade glioma in 37 tumors (68.5%) of which 29 were optic-pathway glioma. The average RT dose was 46.5 Gy (range, 22-120 Gy). For NF-1-positive patients, the average RT dose was 46.5 Gy, and for NF-1-negative patients, it was 58.1 Gy. The median latent period for development of moyamoya syndrome was 40 months after RT (range, 4-240). Radiation-induced moyamoya syndrome occurred in 27.7% of patients by 2 years, 53.2% of patients by 4 years, 74.5% of patients by 6 years, and 95.7% of patients by 12 years after RT. Conclusions: Patients who received RT to the parasellar region at a young age (<5 years) are the most susceptible to moyamoya syndrome. The incidence for moyamoya syndrome continues to increase with time, with half of cases occurring within 4 years of RT and 95% of cases occurring within 12 years. Patients with NF-1 have a lower radiation-dose threshold for development of moyamoya syndrome.

  2. Radiation-induced parotid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.J.; Chaudhuri, P.K.; Wood, D.C.; Das Gupta, T.K.

    1981-03-01

    A retrospective analysis of 72 cases of primary malignant tumors of the parotid gland treated at the University of Illinois Hospital, Chicago, from 1950 through 1978 revealed that six of these had developed from two to 24 years after irradiation of the head or neck for various benign and malignant neoplastic conditions. At the time of irradiation, ages ranged from 7 to 73 years; the sex distribution was equal. From our findings and those in 26 cases reported by various other authors, the following criteria are proposed for the designation of a parotid tumor as being radiation induced: (1) well-documented radiation exposure; (2) part of irradiation must incorporate the gland in which the cancer subseqently arises; (3) exposure to a minimum of 300 rads; and (4) minimum latent period of two years. In view of the widespread use in the past of heat and neck irradiation of benign neoplastic disease, the surgeon should be aware of this possible link with parotid gland tumor.

  3. Development of Micro and Nano Crystalline CVD Diamond TL/OSL Radiation Detectors for Clinical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboza-Flores, Marcelino

    2015-03-01

    Modern radiotherapy methods requires the use of high photon radiation doses delivered in a fraction to small volumes of cancer tumors. An accurate dose assessment for highly energetic small x-ray beams in small areas, as in stereotactic radiotherapy, is necessary to avoid damage to healthy tissue surrounding the tumor. Recent advances on the controlled synthesis of CVD diamond have demonstrated the possibility of using high quality micro and nano crystalline CVD as an efficient detector and dosimeter suitable for high energy photons and energetic particle beams. CVD diamond is a very attractive material for applications in ionizing radiation dosimetry, particularly in the biomedical field since the radiation absorption by a CVD diamond is very close to that of soft tissue. Furthermore, diamond is stable, non-toxic and radiation hard. In the present work we discuss the CVD diamond properties and dosimeter performance and discuss its relevance and advantages of various dosimetry methods, including thermally stimulated luminescence (TL) as well as optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The recent CVD improved method of growth allows introducing precisely controlled impurities into diamond to provide it with high dosimetry sensitivity. For clinical dosimetry applications, high accuracy of dose measurements, low fading, high sensitivity, good reproducibility and linear dose response characteristics are very important parameters which all are found in CVD diamonds specimens. In some cases, dose linearity and reproducibility in CVD diamond have been found to be higher than standard commercial TLD materials like LiF. In the present work, we discuss the state-of-the art developments in dosimetry applications using CVD diamond. The financial support from Conacyt (Mexico) is greatly acknowledged

  4. Nonreciprocal XeCl laser-induced aggregation of beta-crystallins in water solution.

    PubMed

    Chelnokov, Evgeny; Soustov, Lev; Sapogova, Natalia; Ostrovsky, Mikhail; Bityurin, Nikita

    2008-11-10

    The aggregation of a beta-crystallin water solution exposed to XeCl laser radiation demonstrates the dependence of scattering-exposure curve (scattering versus exposure) on laser intensity. The main features of this dependence can be understood by the relaxation of a partly denaturated state of a protein within some finite relaxation time. These photoactivated states originate from the absorption of UV photons. Two partly denaturated (photoactivated) monomers, as well as other aggregates, can aggregate, giving rise to sharply increasing probe light scattering after some lag time of irradiation. PMID:19581968

  5. Study of molecular mechanisms of UV-induced aggregation of crystallins and possibility of maintaining eye lens transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soustov, L. V.; Chelnokov, E. V.; Bityurin, N. M.; Kiselev, A. L.; Nemov, V. V.; Sergeev, Yu. V.; Ostrovsky, M. A.

    2006-03-01

    The effect of D-pantethine and L-carnosine on the rate of UV-induced (XeC1 laser λ = 308 nm) aggregation of a mixture of βL-crystallin and α-crystallin is studied. We also demonstrate that the suggested by us combination of short-chain peptides shows better protective properties with respect to UV-induced aggregation than known anti-cataract agents.

  6. Large deformation compression induced crystallinity degradation of conventional and highly crosslinked UHMWPEs.

    PubMed

    Sobieraj, Michael C; Kurtz, Steven M; Rimnac, Clare M

    2005-11-01

    The effect of a large compressive plastic deformation on the melt temperature (Tm), lamellar thickness, crystallinity, and density of four UHMWPEs (two conventional and two highly crosslinked) was examined. The materials were prepared from a single batch of medical grade GUR 1050 resin (Ticona, Bayport, TX, USA). The two conventional UHMWPEs were as-received (virgin) and gamma radiation sterilized at 30 kGy in a nitrogen atmosphere (radiation sterilized). The two highly crosslinked UHMWPEs were each irradiated at 100 kGy and then post-processed with one of either two thermal treatments: annealing, which was done below the melt transition temperature (Tm), at 110 degrees C for 2h (110 degrees C-annealed); and, remelting, which was done above Tm, at 150 degrees C (150 degrees C-remelted). Differences in changes upon compression between the materials were examined using ANCOVA analyses. The 150 degrees C-remelted material showed a significant change in Tm and lamellar thickness upon compressive plastic deformation whereas the other three UHMWPE materials did not. However, all of the materials showed significantly decreased crystallinity and density upon compressive deformation. The findings of this study support that microstructural evolution during compressive deformation is a function of UHMWPE formulation, as affected by irradiation and post-irradiation heat treatment. PMID:15935468

  7. CT of radiation-induced hepatic injury

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey, R.B. Jr.; Moss, A.A.; Quivey, J.M.; Federle, M.P.; Wara, W.M.

    1980-09-01

    The CT findings in three patients with radiation-induced hepatic injury are discussed. In each patient a sharply defined band of low density was identified within the liver in an area of prior radiation. The low density bands resolved on follow-up examination. Computed tomography is useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with suspected radiation hepatitis and in differentiating radiation change from metastatic disease.

  8. Molten sodium-induced graphitization towards highly crystalline and hierarchical porous graphene frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huanwen; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Xing-Long; Fan, Haosen; Luo, Zhong-Zhen; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Yan, Qingyu

    2015-09-01

    Mass production of high quality graphene platelets has attracted considerable interest for potential applications in various fields. Nevertheless, in literature, the graphite oxide (GO)-derived graphene is always lacking high crystallinity and hierarchical porosity. Herein, we report a new molten sodium-induced graphitization for mass-fabricating highly crystalline and porous graphene sheets. The 3D graphene hydrogels (GHs) obtained from GO by the hydrothermal self-assembly are directly annealed in molten sodium at 800 °C. As a result, the D band intensity in Raman spectroscopy is reduced significantly, while 2D band intensity is increased prominently, which is a typical characteristic of highly crystalline graphene. More importantly, the resulting Na-GFs-800 sample exhibits increased surface area and narrow mesopore size distribution (∼3.6 nm). The excellent supercapacitive performance of Na-GFs-800 has been demonstrated in an organic symmetric system. Meanwhile, the possible interaction mechanism between molten sodium and GHs has been proposed in the text.

  9. Radiation induced liver disease: A clinical update.

    PubMed

    Benson, R; Madan, R; Kilambi, R; Chander, S

    2016-03-01

    Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) or radiation hepatitis is a sub-acute form of liver injury due to radiation. It is one of the most dreaded complications of radiation which prevents radiation dose escalation and re-irradiation for hepatobiliary or upper gastrointestinal malignancies. This complication should be kept in mind whenever a patient is planned for irradiation of these malignancies. Although, incidence of RILD is decreasing due to better knowledge of liver tolerance, improved investigation modalities and modern radiation delivery techniques, treatment options are still limited. In this review article, we have focussed on patho-physiology, risk factors, prevention and management of RILD. PMID:26300327

  10. Micromechanical Modeling of Anisotropic Damage-Induced Permeability Variation in Crystalline Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yifeng; Hu, Shaohua; Zhou, Chuangbing; Jing, Lanru

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a study on the initiation and progress of anisotropic damage and its impact on the permeability variation of crystalline rocks of low porosity. This work was based on an existing micromechanical model considering the frictional sliding and dilatancy behaviors of microcracks and the recovery of degraded stiffness when the microcracks are closed. By virtue of an analytical ellipsoidal inclusion solution, lower bound estimates were formulated through a rigorous homogenization procedure for the damage-induced effective permeability of the microcracks-matrix system, and their predictive limitations were discussed with superconducting penny-shaped microcracks, in which the greatest lower bounds were obtained for each homogenization scheme. On this basis, an empirical upper bound estimation model was suggested to account for the influences of anisotropic damage growth, connectivity, frictional sliding, dilatancy, and normal stiffness recovery of closed microcracks, as well as tensile stress-induced microcrack opening on the permeability variation, with a small number of material parameters. The developed model was calibrated and validated by a series of existing laboratory triaxial compression tests with permeability measurements on crystalline rocks, and applied for characterizing the excavation-induced damage zone and permeability variation in the surrounding granitic rock of the TSX tunnel at the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada, with an acceptable agreement between the predicted and measured data.

  11. Radiation-induced gene responses

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Paunesku, T.; Shearin-Jones, P.; Oryhon, J.

    1996-12-31

    In the process of identifying genes that are differentially regulated in cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV), we identified a transcript that was repressed following the exposure of cells to a combination of UV and salicylate, a known inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Sequencing this band determined that it has identify to lactate dehydrogenase, and Northern blots confirmed the initial expression pattern. Analysis of the sequence of the LDH 5` region established the presence of NF-kappaB, Sp1, and two Ap-2 elements; two partial AP- 1; one partial RE, and two halves of E-UV elements were also found. Electromobility shift assays were then performed for the AP-1, NF- kappaB, and E-UV elements. These experiments revealed that binding to NF-kappaB was induced by UV but repressed with salicylic acid; UV did not affect AP-1 binding, but salicylic acid inhibited it alone or following UV exposure; and E-UV binding was repressed by UV, and salicylic acid had little effect. Since the binding of no single element correlated with the expression pattern of LDH, it is likely that multiple elements govern UV/salicylate-mediated expression.

  12. The C-terminal region of alpha-crystallin: involvement in protection against heat-induced denaturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Emmons, T.; Horwitz, J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the alpha-crystallins can protect other proteins against heat-induced denaturation and aggregation. To determine the possible involvement of the C-terminal region in this activity, the alpha-crystallins were subjected to limited tryptic digestion, and the amount of cleavage from the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the alpha-A and alpha-B crystallin chains was assessed using antisera specific for these regions. Limited tryptic digestion resulted in cleavage only from the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin. This trypsin-treated alpha-A crystallin preparation showed a decreased ability to protect proteins from heat-induced aggregation using an in vitro assay. Together, these results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin is important for its ability to protect against heat-induced aggregation, which is consistent with the hypothesis that post-translational changes that are known to occur at the C-terminal region may have significant effects on the ability of alpha-A crystallin to protect against protein denaturation in vivo.

  13. Degenerate crystalline silicon films by aluminum-induced crystallization of boron-doped amorphous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. D.; Luo, L. C.; Hsueh, T. J.; Hwang, S. B.

    2012-10-01

    Degenerate p-type crystalline silicon film with a hole concentration of 4 1021 cm-3 was investigated using aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) of boron-doped amorphous silicon (a-Si). The AIC mechanism is different from that in the undoped AIC-Si. Boron atoms accumulate at Al layer forming a boron bump and segregate the Al atoms into Si layer, resulting to the formation of AlSi alloy. The degeneracy is not attributed to boron doping but instead to the AlSi alloy. Observations show that Al and Si layer transfer occurs not at original interface of Al and Si, but at the boron bump.

  14. Evolution of Shock-Induced Orientation-Dependent Metastable States in Crystalline Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzevich, Mikalai M.; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V.; White, Carter T.; Oleynik, Ivan I.

    2012-09-01

    The evolution of orientation-dependent metastable states during shock-induced solid-liquid phase transitions in crystalline Al is followed using moving window molecular dynamics simulations. The orientation-dependent transition pathways towards an orientation-independent final state Hugoniot include both cold melting followed by recrystallization in [110]- and [111]-oriented shock waves and crystal overheating followed by melting in [100] shock waves. The orientation-dependent dynamics take place within a zone that can extend up to hundreds of nanometers behind the shock front.

  15. Formation kinetics of copper-related light-induced degradation in crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroos, J.; Savin, H.

    2014-12-01

    Light-induced degradation (LID) is a deleterious effect in crystalline silicon, which is considered to originate from recombination-active boron-oxygen complexes and/or copper-related defects. Although LID in both cases appears as a fast initial decay followed by a second slower degradation, we show that the time constant of copper-related degradation increases with increasing boron concentration in contrast to boron-oxygen LID. Temperature-dependent analysis reveals that the defect formation is limited by copper diffusion. Finally, interface defect density measurements confirm that copper-related LID is dominated by recombination in the wafer bulk.

  16. Formation kinetics of copper-related light-induced degradation in crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroos, J. Savin, H.

    2014-12-21

    Light-induced degradation (LID) is a deleterious effect in crystalline silicon, which is considered to originate from recombination-active boron-oxygen complexes and/or copper-related defects. Although LID in both cases appears as a fast initial decay followed by a second slower degradation, we show that the time constant of copper-related degradation increases with increasing boron concentration in contrast to boron-oxygen LID. Temperature-dependent analysis reveals that the defect formation is limited by copper diffusion. Finally, interface defect density measurements confirm that copper-related LID is dominated by recombination in the wafer bulk.

  17. Evolution of shock-induced orientation-dependent metastable states in crystalline aluminum.

    PubMed

    Budzevich, Mikalai M; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V; White, Carter T; Oleynik, Ivan I

    2012-09-21

    The evolution of orientation-dependent metastable states during shock-induced solid-liquid phase transitions in crystalline Al is followed using moving window molecular dynamics simulations. The orientation-dependent transition pathways towards an orientation-independent final state Hugoniot include both "cold melting" followed by recrystallization in [110]- and [111]-oriented shock waves and crystal overheating followed by melting in [100] shock waves. The orientation-dependent dynamics take place within a zone that can extend up to hundreds of nanometers behind the shock front. PMID:23005960

  18. Shear-induced conformation change in α-crystalline nylon6

    SciTech Connect

    Arabnejad, Saeid; Manzhos, Sergei; Shim, V. P. W.; He, Chaobin

    2014-12-01

    A study of shear deformation of α-crystalline nylon6 is undertaken, using dispersion-corrected density functional theory. The shear stress-strain relationship and shear strength for interlayer shear deformation are computed. A conformation change induced by shear is identified along twinning deformation, whereby the conformation of chains, specifically the location of non-H-bonded hydrogen atoms, changes continuously. This paves a way for the modulation of properties of this group of materials by small shear deformation, if the non-H-bonded hydrogens are chemically substituted to form non-equivalent conformations when deformed.

  19. Critical considerations for the qualitative and quantitative determination of process-induced disorder in crystalline solids.

    PubMed

    Newman, Ann; Zografi, George

    2014-09-01

    Solid-state instabilities in crystalline solids arise during processing primarily because a certain level of structural disorder has been introduced into the crystal. Many physical instabilities appear to be associated with the recrystallization of molecules from these disordered regions, while chemical instabilities arise from sufficient molecular mobility to allow solid-state chemical reactivity. In this Commentary we discuss the various forms of structural disorder, processing which can produce disorder, the quantitative analysis of process-induced order, and strategies to limit disorder and its effects. PMID:24623166

  20. Radiation-induced defect centers in glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, T. E.; Friebele, E. J.; Griscom, D. L.; Pannhorst, W.

    1989-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) was used to characterize the radiation-induced defect centers in low-thermal-expansion glass ceramics, including two types of Zerodur and Astrositall. The observed ESR spectra can be associated with different types of defect centers: a Zn+ center, several types of oxygen hole centers (OHCs), an aluminum-oxygen hole center (Al-OHC), an Fe3+ center, Ti3+ and Zr3+ centers, and three types of As centers. An Sb4+ center, which is not observed in Zerodur, is tentatively identified in Astrositall. From the effect of crystallization on the observed defect concentrations in Zerodur and computer simulation of the spectral lines of some of the centers, we infer that among the nine defect centers observed in the Zerodurs, the As-associated centers are located in the glassy phase and/or at the interface between the glassy and crystalline phases, Zn+ and Al-OHC are in the crystalline phase, and the rest (including most of the OHCs) are in the glassy phase. Radiation-induced compaction in these materials appears to be related to the generation of OHCs in the glass phase.

  1. Radiation-induced defect centers in glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, T.E.; Friebele, E.J.; Griscom, D.L.; Pannhorst, W.

    1989-01-15

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) was used to characterize the radiation-induced defect centers in low-thermal-expansion glass ceramics, including two types of Zerodur and Astrositall. The observed ESR spectra can be associated with different types of defect centers: a Zn/sup +/ center, several types of oxygen hole centers (OHCs), an aluminum-oxygen hole center (Al-OHC), an Fe/sup 3 +/ center, Ti/sup 3 +/ and Zr/sup 3 +/ centers, and three types of As centers. An Sb/sup 4 +/ center, which is not observed in Zerodur, is tentatively identified in Astrositall. From the effect of crystallization on the observed defect concentrations in Zerodur and computer simulation of the spectral lines of some of the centers, we infer that among the nine defect centers observed in the Zerodurs, the As-associated centers are located in the glassy phase and/or at the interface between the glassy and crystalline phases, Zn/sup +/ and Al-OHC are in the crystalline phase, and the rest (including most of the OHCs) are in the glassy phase. Radiation-induced compaction in these materials appears to be related to the generation of OHCs in the glass phase.

  2. Radiation-pressure-induced nonlinearity in microdroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Jung, Sunghwan; Lee, Aram; Xu, Yong

    2015-12-01

    High quality (Q ) factor whispering gallery modes (WGMs) can induce nonlinear effects in liquid droplets through mechanisms such as radiation pressure, Kerr nonlinearity, and thermal effects. However, such nonlinear effects, especially those due to radiation pressure, have yet to be thoroughly investigated and compared in the literature. In this study, we present an analytical approach that can exactly calculate the droplet deformation induced by the radiation pressure. The accuracy of the analytical approach is confirmed through numerical analyses based on the boundary element method. We show that the nonlinear optofluidic effect induced by the radiation pressure is stronger than the Kerr effect and the thermal effect under a large variety of realistic conditions. Using liquids with ultralow and experimentally attainable interfacial tension, we further confirm the prediction that it may only take a few photons to produce measurable WGM resonance shift through radiation-pressure-induced droplet deformation.

  3. Molecular insights into the progression of crystalline silica-induced pulmonary toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sellamuthu, Rajendran; Umbright, Christina; Roberts, Jenny R.; Cumpston, Amy; McKinney, Walter; Chen, Bean T.; Frazer, David; Li, Shengqiao; Kashon, Michael; Joseph, Pius

    2015-01-01

    Identification of molecular target(s) and mechanism(s) of silica-induced pulmonary toxicity is important for the intervention and/or prevention of diseases associated with exposure to silica. Rats were exposed to crystalline silica by inhalation (15 mg m?3, 6 h per day, 5 days) and global gene expression profile was determined in the lungs by microarray analysis at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks following termination of silica exposure. The number of significantly differentially expressed genes (>1.5-fold change and <0.01 false discovery rate P-value) detected in the lungs during the post-exposure time intervals analyzed exhibited a steady increase in parallel with the progression of silica-induced pulmonary toxicity noticed in the rats. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of a representative set of 10 genes confirmed the microarray findings. The number of biological functions, canonical pathways and molecular networks significantly affected by silica exposure, as identified by the bioinformatics analysis of the significantly differentially expressed genes detected during the post-exposure time intervals, also exhibited a steady increase similar to the silica-induced pulmonary toxicity. Genes involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, respiratory diseases, cancer, and tissue remodeling and fibrosis were significantly differentially expressed in the rat lungs; however, unresolved inflammation was the single most significant biological response to pulmonary exposure to silica. Excessive mucus production, as implicated by significant overexpression of the pendrin coding gene, SLC26A4, was identified as a potential novel mechanism for silica-induced pulmonary toxicity. Collectively, the findings of our study provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of crystalline silica-induced pulmonary toxicity in the rat. Published 2012. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:22431001

  4. Modification of microcrystalline cellulose by gamma radiation-induced grafting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrid, Jordan F.; Abad, Lucille V.

    2015-10-01

    Modified microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was prepared through gamma radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). Simultaneous grafting was employed wherein MCC with GMA in methanol was irradiated with gamma radiation in nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of different experimental factors such as monomer concentration, type of solvent and absorbed dose on the degree of grafting, Dg, were studied. The amount of grafted GMA, expressed as Dg, was determined gravimetrically. Information from grafted samples subjected to Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode showed peaks corresponding to GMA which indicates successful grafting. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystalline region of MCC was not adversely affected after grafting with GMA. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data showed that the decomposition of grafted MCC occurred at higher temperature compared to the base MCC polymer.

  5. Radiation effects and annealing kinetics in crystalline silicates, phosphates and complex Nb-Ta-Ti oxides. FInal Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.

    1987-08-10

    Interaction of heavy particles (alpha-recoil nuclei, fission fragments, implanted ions) with ceramics is complex because they have a wide range of structure types, complex compositions and chemical bonding is variable. Radiation damage can produce diverse results, but most commonly, crystalline periodic materials become either polycrystalline or aperiodic (metamict state). We studied the transition from crystalline to aperiodic state in natural materials that have been damaged by alpha recoil nuclei in the U and Th decay series and in synthetic, analogous structure types which have been amorphized by ion implantation. Transition from crystalline to aperiodic was followed by analysis of XRD, high resolution TEM, and EXAFS/XANE spectroscopy. Use of these techniques with increasing dose provided data on an increasing finer scale as the damage process progressed.

  6. Radiation-induced thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Maxon, H.R.

    1985-09-01

    Ionizing radiation has been demonstrated to result in a number of changes in the human thyroid gland. At lower radiation dose levels (between 10 and 1500 rads), benign and malignant neoplasms appear to be the dominant effect, whereas at higher dose levels functional changes and thyroiditis become more prevalent. In all instances, the likelihood of the effect is related to the amount and type of radiation exposure, time since exposure, and host factors such as age, sex, and heredity. The author's current approach to the evaluation of patients with past external radiation therapy to the thyroid is discussed. The use of prophylactic thyroxine (T4) therapy is controversial. While T4 therapy may not be useful in preventing carcinogenesis when instituted many years after radiation exposure, theoretically T4 may block TSH secretion and stimulation of damaged cells to undergo malignant transformation when instituted soon after radiation exposure.

  7. Radiation-induced genomic instability: radiation quality and dose response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Leslie E.; Nagar, Shruti; Kim, Grace J.; Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    Genomic instability is a term used to describe a phenomenon that results in the accumulation of multiple changes required to convert a stable genome of a normal cell to an unstable genome characteristic of a tumor. There has been considerable recent debate concerning the importance of genomic instability in human cancer and its temporal occurrence in the carcinogenic process. Radiation is capable of inducing genomic instability in mammalian cells and instability is thought to be the driving force responsible for radiation carcinogenesis. Genomic instability is characterized by a large collection of diverse endpoints that include large-scale chromosomal rearrangements and aberrations, amplification of genetic material, aneuploidy, micronucleus formation, microsatellite instability, and gene mutation. The capacity of radiation to induce genomic instability depends to a large extent on radiation quality or linear energy transfer (LET) and dose. There appears to be a low dose threshold effect with low LET, beyond which no additional genomic instability is induced. Low doses of both high and low LET radiation are capable of inducing this phenomenon. This report reviews data concerning dose rate effects of high and low LET radiation and their capacity to induce genomic instability assayed by chromosomal aberrations, delayed lethal mutations, micronuclei and apoptosis.

  8. Vibron Solitons and Soliton-Induced Infrared Spectra of Crystalline Acetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeno, S.

    1986-01-01

    Red-shifted infrared spectra at low temperatures of amide I (C=O stretching) vibrations of crystalline acetanilide measured by Careri et al. are shown to be due to vibron solitons, which are nonlinearity-induced localized modes of vibrons arising from their nonlinear interactions with optic-type phonons. A nonlinear eigenvalue equation giving the eigenfrequency of stationary solitons is solved approximately by introducing lattice Green's functions, and the obtained result is in good agreement with the experimental result. Inclusion of interactions with acoustic phonons yields the Debye-Waller factor in the zero-phonon line spectrum of vibron solitons, in a manner analogous to the case of impurity-induced localized harmonic phonon modes in alkali halides.

  9. Radiation-induced sarcoma of the thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Griem, K.L.; Robb, P.K.; Caldarelli, D.D.; Templeton, A.C. )

    1989-08-01

    A 23-year-old white man presented with a thyroid mass 12 years after receiving high-dose radiotherapy for a T2 and N1 lymphoepithelioma of the nasopharynx. Following subtotal thyroidectomy, a histopathologic examination revealed liposarcoma of the thyroid gland. The relationship between sarcomas and irradiation is described and Cahan and colleagues' criteria for radiation-induced sarcomas are reviewed. To our knowledge, we are presenting the first such case of a radiation-induced sarcoma of the thyroid gland.

  10. Radiation-induced apoptosis: Relevance to radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, W.C.; Ling, C.C.; Meyn, R.E.

    1995-11-01

    Radiation-induced apoptosis is reviewed in terms of: (a) the identification of apoptotic and necrotic cells, (b) observations in vitro and in vivo of radiation-induced apoptosis, (c) genes controlling apoptosis, (d) evidence that the target may be the plasma membrane or nuclear DNA, (e) quantitative comparisons of apoptotic death and reproductive (clonogenic) death, (f) the importance of radiation-induced apoptosis in radiotherapy, and (g) studies of radiation-induced apoptosis that are needed. High priority should be placed on determining the molecular pathways that are important in the expression and modulation of radiation-induced apoptosis. Specifically, the events that modulate the apoptosis that occurs in interphase before the cell can divide should be distinguished from the events before division that modulate the misrepair of DNA damage, that results in chromosomal aberrations observed in mitotic cells, which in turn cause the progeny of the dividing cell with aberrations to die by either apoptosis or necrosis. Then, molecular events that determine whether a cell that divides with or without a chromosomal aberration will produce progeny that apoptose or necrose need to be identified. These considerations are important for determining how modulation of radiation-induced apoptosis will affect the ultimate clonogenic survival, and possibly genomic instability in the surviving progeny. 78 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Radiation-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Rosiello, R.A.; Merrill, W.W. )

    1990-03-01

    The use of radiation therapy is limited by the occurrence of the potentially fatal clinical syndromes of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Radiation pneumonitis usually becomes clinically apparent from 2 to 6 months after completion of radiation therapy. It is characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, and alveolar infiltrates on chest roentgenogram and may be difficult to differentiate from infection or recurrent malignancy. The pathogenesis is uncertain, but appears to involve both direct lung tissue toxicity and an inflammatory response. The syndrome may resolve spontaneously or may progress to respiratory failure. Corticosteroids may be effective therapy if started early in the course of the disease. The time course for the development of radiation fibrosis is later than that for radiation pneumonitis. It is usually present by 1 year following irradiation, but may not become clinically apparent until 2 years after radiation therapy. It is characterized by the insidious onset of dyspnea on exertion. It most often is mild, but can progress to chronic respiratory failure. There is no known successful treatment for this condition. 51 references.

  12. Mesoscale modeling of strain induced solid state amorphization in crystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Lei

    Solid state amorphization, and in particular crystalline to amorphous transformation, can be observed in metallic alloys, semiconductors, intermetallics, minerals, and also molecular crystals when they undergo irradiation, hydrogen gas dissolution, thermal interdiffusion, mechanical alloying, or mechanical milling. Although the amorphization mechanisms may be different, the transformation occurs due to the high level of disorder introduced into the material. Milling induced solid state amorphization is proposed to be the result of accumulation of crystal defects, specifically dislocations, as the material is subjected to large deformations during the high energy process. Thus, understanding the deformation mechanisms of crystalline materials will be the first step in studying solid state amorphization in crystalline materials, which not only has scientific contributions, but also technical consequences. A phase field dislocation dynamics (PFDD) approach is employed in this work to simulate plastic deformation of molecular crystals. This PFDD model has the advantage of tracking all of the dislocations in a material simultaneously. The model takes into account the elastic interaction between dislocations, the lattice resistance to dislocation motion, and the elastic interaction of dislocations with an external stress field. The PFDD model is employed to describe the deformation of molecular crystals with pharmaceutical applications, namely, single crystal sucrose, acetaminophen, gamma-indomethacin, and aspirin. Stress-strain curves are produced that result in expected anisotropic material response due to the activation of different slip systems and yield stresses that agree well with those from experiments. The PFDD model is coupled to a phase transformation model to study the relation between plastic deformation and the solid state amorphization of crystals that undergo milling. This model predicts the amorphous volume fraction in excellent agreement with experimental observation. Finally, we incorporate the effect of stress free surfaces to model the behavior of dislocations close to these surfaces and in the presence of voids.

  13. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits glucose-induced membrane cholesterol crystalline domain formation through a potent antioxidant mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mason, R Preston; Jacob, Robert F

    2015-02-01

    Lipid oxidation leads to endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and foam cell formation during atherogenesis. Glucose also contributes to lipid oxidation and promotes pathologic changes in membrane structural organization, including the development of cholesterol crystalline domains. In this study, we tested the comparative effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid indicated for the treatment of very high triglyceride (TG) levels, and other TG-lowering agents (fenofibrate, niacin, and gemfibrozil) on lipid oxidation in human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as well as membrane lipid vesicles prepared in the presence of glucose (200 mg/dL). We also examined the antioxidant effects of EPA in combination with atorvastatin o-hydroxy (active) metabolite (ATM). Glucose-induced changes in membrane structural organization were measured using small angle x-ray scattering approaches and correlated with changes in lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) levels. EPA was found to inhibit LDL oxidation in a dose-dependent manner (1.0-10.0 µM) and was distinguished from the other TG-lowering agents, which had no significant effect as compared to vehicle treatment alone. Similar effects were observed in membrane lipid vesicles exposed to hyperglycemic conditions. The antioxidant activity of EPA, as observed in glucose-treated vesicles, was significantly enhanced in combination with ATM. Glucose treatment produced highly-ordered, membrane-restricted, cholesterol crystalline domains, which correlated with increased LOOH levels. Of the agents tested in this study, only EPA inhibited glucose-induced cholesterol domain formation. These data demonstrate that EPA, at pharmacologic levels, inhibits hyperglycemia-induced changes in membrane lipid structural organization through a potent antioxidant mechanism associated with its distinct, physicochemical interactions with the membrane bilayer. PMID:25449996

  14. Depth-dependent crystallinity of nano-crystalline silicon induced by step-wise variation of hydrogen dilution during hot-wire CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendse, C. J.; van Heerden, B. A.; Muller, T. F. G.; Cummings, F. R.; Oliphant, C. J.; Malgas, G. F.; Motaung, D. E.

    2015-06-01

    To induce an amorphous surface in a nano-crystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin film, the hydrogen dilution was reduced step-wise at fixed time intervals from 90 - 50% during the hotwire chemical vapour deposition process. This contribution reports on the structural properties of the resultant nc-Si:H thin film as a function of the deposition time. Raman spectroscopy, confirmed by high resolution transmission spectroscopy, indicates crystalline uniformity in the growth direction, accompanied by the progression of an amorphous surface layer as the deposition time is increased. The silicon- and oxygen bonding configurations were probed using infrared spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The growth mechanism is ascribed to the improved etching rate by atomic hydrogen in nano-crystalline silicon towards the film/substrate interface region. The optical properties were calculated by applying the effective medium approximation theory, where the existence of bulk and interfacial layers, as inferred from cross-sectional microscopy, were taken into account.

  15. Crystalline silica-induced leukotrieneB4-dependent inflammation promotes lung tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Satpathy, Shuchismita R.; Jala, Venkatakrishna R.; Bodduluri, Sobha R.; Krishnan, Elangovan; Hegde, Bindu; Hoyle, Gary; Fraig, Mostafa; Luster, Andrew D.; Haribabu, Bodduluri

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to crystalline silica (CS) causes silicosis, an irreversible lung inflammatory disease that may eventually lead to lung cancer. In this study, we demonstrate that in K-rasLA1 mice, CS exposure markedly enhances the lung tumor burden and genetic deletion of leukotriene B4 receptor1 (BLT1?/?) attenuates this increase. Pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation induced by CS is significantly reduced in BLT1?/?K-rasLA1 mice. CS exposure induces LTB4 production by mast cells and macrophages independent of inflammasome activation. In an air pouch model, CS-induced neutrophil recruitment is dependent on LTB4 production by mast cells and BLT1 expression on neutrophils. In an implantable lung tumor model, CS exposure results in rapid tumor growth and decrease survival that is attenuated in the absence of BLT1. These results suggest that LTB4/BLT1 axis sets the pace of CS-induced sterile inflammation that promotes lung cancer progression. This knowledge will facilitate development of immunotherapeutic strategies to fight silicosis and lung cancer. PMID:25923988

  16. [Like anticataract agents, the antiaggregants of lens crystallin. Communication 2. Study of the impact of chaperon-like (protective) activity of short-chain peptides on the rate of UV-induced aggregation of betaL-crystallins by eximer laser].

    PubMed

    Soustov, L V; Chelnokov, E V; Sapogova, N V; Bitiurin, N M; Nemov, V V; Karpova, O E; Sheremet, N L; Polunin, G S; Avetisov, S E; Ostrovski?, M A

    2008-01-01

    UV-induced aggregation of betaL-crystallin, one of the major lens proteins, was studied under its pulse radiation with XeCl laser at a wavelength of 308 nm. Unlike the in vitro tested dipeptides L-carnosine, N-acetyl carnosine, D-panthetine, and particularly their combination, the so-called new chaperon was demonstrated to slow down the rate of photoaggregatin of beta-crystallin. The new chaperon, a mixture of D-pathethine and N-acetyl carnosine was ascertained to protect a mixture of betaL- and alpha-crystallins from UV-induced aggregation to a greater extent than D-pathethine or N-acetyl carnosine used alone. An effective drug based on the new chaperon may be designed for the prevention of cataract in sight. PMID:18488460

  17. Influence of excipients in comilling on mitigating milling-induced amorphization or structural disorder of crystalline pharmaceutical actives.

    PubMed

    Balani, Prashant N; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H; Chan, Sui Yung

    2010-05-01

    The feasibility of using excipients to suppress the amorphization or structural disorder of crystalline salbutamol sulphate (SS) during milling was investigated. SS was subjected to ball-milling in the presence of alpha-lactose monohydrate (LAC), adipic acid (AA), magnesium stearate (MgSt), or polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). X-ray powder diffraction, dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), high sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry (HSDSC) were used to analyze the crystallinity of the milled mixtures. Comilling with crystalline excipients, LAC, AA, and MgSt proved effective in reducing the amorphization of SS. LAC, AA, or MgSt acting as seed crystals to induce recrystallization of amorphous SS formed by milling. During comilling, both SS and LAC turned predominantly amorphous after 45 min but transformed back to a highly crystalline state after 60 min. Amorphous content was below the detection limits of DVS (0.5%) and HSDSC (5%). Comilled and physical mixtures of SS and ALM were stored under normal and elevated humidity conditions. This was found to prevent subsequent changes in crystallinity and morphology of comilled SS:LAC as compared to significant changes in milled SS and physical mixture. These results demonstrate a promising application of comilling with crystalline excipients in mitigating milling induced amorphization of pharmaceutical actives. PMID:19902526

  18. Light-induced point defect reactions of residual iron in crystalline silicon after aluminum gettering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelbarey, D.; Kveder, V.; Schrter, W.; Seibt, M.

    2010-08-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy is used to study light-induced reactions of residual iron impurities after aluminum gettering (AlG) in crystalline silicon. White-light illumination at room temperature leads to the formation of a defect which is associated with a donor level at 0.33 eV above the valence band. This defect is stable up to about 175 C where it dissociates reversibly in case of small iron concentrations and irreversibly for high iron concentrations. Since marker experiments using gold and platinum diffusion show a high vacancy concentration after AlG a tentative identification of the new defect as the metastable iron-vacancy pair is proposed.

  19. Dynamics of light-induced FeB pair dissociation in crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Geerligs, L.J.; Macdonald, Daniel

    2004-11-29

    The dynamics of light-induced dissociation of iron-boron (FeB) pairs in p-type crystalline silicon is investigated. The dissociation is observed to be a single-exponential process which is balanced with thermal repairing. The dissociation rate is proportional to the square of the carrier generation rate and the inverse square of the FeB concentration. This suggests that the dissociation process involves two recombination or electron capture events. A proportionality constant of 5x10{sup -15} s describes the dissociation rate well in the absence of other significant recombination channels. The dissociation rate decreases in the presence of other recombination channels. These results can be used for reliable detection of iron in silicon devices and materials, and for further elucidation of the electronically driven FeB dissociation reaction.

  20. Triptolide Mitigates Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shanmin; Zhang, Mei; Chen, Chun; Cao, Yongbin; Tian, Yeping; Guo, Yangsong; Zhang, Bingrong; Wang, Xiaohui; Yin, Liangjie; Zhang, Zhenhuan; O'Dell, Walter; Okunieff, Paul; Zhang, Lurong

    2015-11-01

    Triptolide (TPL) may mitigate radiation-induced late pulmonary side effects through its inhibition of global pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we evaluated the effect of TPL in C57BL/6 mice, the animals were exposed to radiation with vehicle (15 Gy), radiation with TPL (0.25 mg/kg i.v., twice weekly for 1, 2 and 3 months), radiation and celecoxib (CLX) (30 mg/kg) and sham irradiation. Cultured supernatant of irradiated RAW 264.7 and MLE-15 cells and lung lysate in different groups were enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays at 33 h. Respiratory rate, pulmonary compliance and pulmonary density were measured at 5 months in all groups. The groups exposed to radiation with vehicle and radiation with TPL exhibited significant differences in respiratory rate and pulmonary compliance (480 ± 75/min vs. 378 ± 76/min; 0.6 ± 0.1 ml/cm H2O/p kg vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 ml/cm H2O/p kg). Seventeen cytokines were significantly reduced in the lung lysate of the radiation exposure with TPL group at 5 months compared to that of the radiation with vehicle group, including profibrotic cytokines implicated in pulmonary fibrosis, such as IL-1β, TGF- β1 and IL-13. The radiation exposure with TPL mice exhibited a 41% reduction of pulmonary density and a 25% reduction of hydroxyproline in the lung, compared to that of radiation with vehicle mice. The trichrome-stained area of fibrotic foci and pathological scaling in sections of the mice treated with radiation and TPL mice were significantly less than those of the radiation with vehicle-treated group. In addition, the radiation with TPL-treated mice exhibited a trend of improved survival rate compared to that of the radiation with vehicle-treated mice at 5 months (83% vs. 53%). Three radiation-induced profibrotic cytokines in the radiation with vehicle-treated group were significantly reduced by TPL treatment, and this partly contributed to the trend of improved survival rate and pulmonary density and function and the decreased severity of pulmonary fibrosis at 5 months. Our findings indicate that TPL could be a potential new agent to mitigate radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26488756

  1. Radiation-induced squamous sialometaplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Leshin, B.; White, W.L.; Koufman, J.A. )

    1990-07-01

    We describe a patient with recurrent acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma following radiation therapy. Mohs micrographic sections revealed extensive squamous sialometaplasia showing striking histologic similarity to the patient's squamous cell carcinoma. Criteria necessary to differentiate squamous sialometaplasia from neoplasm are presented. This differentiation is important to ensure adequate tumor resection without unnecessary sacrifice of tumor-free tissue.

  2. Radiation-induced instability and its relation to radiation carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullrich, R. L.; Ponnaiya, B.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: A model that identifies radiation-induced genetic instability as the earliest cellular event in the multi-step sequence leading to radiation-induced cancer was previously proposed. In this paper ongoing experiments are discussed which are designed to test this model and its predictions in mouse mammary epithelial cells. RESULTS: Several lines of evidence are presented that appear to support this model: first, the development of delayed mutations in p53 following irradiation in altered growth variants; secondly, the high frequencies for the induction of both instability and transformation following irradiation in mammary epithelial cells; and finally, the demonstration that susceptibility to the induction of cytogenetic instability is a heritable trait that correlates with susceptibility to transformation and radiation-induced mammary cancer. Mice resistant to transformation and mammary cancer development are also resistant to the development of instability after irradiation. In contrast, mice sensitive to transformation and cancer are also sensitive to the development of cytogenetic instability. CONCLUSIONS: Data from this laboratory and from the studies cited above suggest a specific, and perhaps unique, role for radiation-induced instability as a critical early event associated with initiation of the carcinogenic process.

  3. PH-Induced Nanosegregation of Ritonavir to Lyotropic Liquid Crystal of Higher Solubility Than Crystalline Polymorphs

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Spong, B.; Acciacca, A.; Fleisher, D.; Rodriguez-Hornedo, N.

    2009-05-27

    Birefringent spherical vesicles of ritonavir (RTV) are formed by increasing the pH of aqueous solutions from 1 to 3 or to 7 and by addition of water to ethanol solutions at room temperature. Increasing the pH creates supersaturation levels of 30--400. Upon this change in pH, the solutions become translucent, implying that some kind of RTV assembly was formed. Small spherical vesicles of narrow size distribution are detectable only after a few hours by optical microscopy. The vesicles show similar X-ray diffraction patterns and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) behavior to amorphous RTV prepared by melt-quenching crystalline RTV. Examination by polarized optical microscopy suggests that these are lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) assemblies. Small-angle X-ray scattering and synchrotron X-ray diffraction further support the presence of orientational order that is associated with a nematic structure. RTV self-organizes into various phases as a result of the supersaturation created in aqueous solutions. The LLC vesicles do not fuse but slowly transform to the polymorphs of RTV (in days), Form I and finally Form II. Amorphous RTV in aqueous suspension also undergoes a transformation to a mesophase of similar morphology. Transformation pathways are consistent with measured dissolution rates and solubilities: amorphous > LLC >> Form I > Form II. The dissolution and solubility of LLC is slightly lower than that of the amorphous phase and about 20 times higher than that of Form II. RTV also self-assembles at the air/water interface as indicated by the decrease in surface tension of aqueous solutions. This behavior is similar to that of amphiphilic molecules that induce LLC formation.

  4. Wave induced barrier transparency and melting of quasi-crystalline structures in two dimensional plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Amita

    2007-04-15

    The conservation of energy and enstrophy in two dimensional inviscid hydrodynamics leads to dual cascade behavior. The energy cascades towards long scales and the enstrophy is transferred to shorter scales. The interplay of these dynamical processes leads to self organization and formation of coherent patterns in the two dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence. It was shown by Kukharkin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 2486 (1995)] that this process of self organization occurs in an even more interesting fashion in the Hasegawa Mima (HM) equation [Phys. Fluids 21, 21 (1978)] This equation is a generalization of the two dimensional Navier Stokes hydrodynamics model in which there is a characteristic natural scale in the system (e.g., Larmor radius in the drift wave context). Kukharkin et al. observed that this scale acts as a barrier in the energy cascade, such that the cascade rate at the longer wavelength side of the barrier is smaller. This work has also shown that the accumulation of energy around the intrinsic scale leads to the formation of quasi-crystalline patterns. In the present paper it has been demonstrated that the presence of wave excitations leads to an increased cascade towards longer scales past the natural length scale barrier. It has also been demonstrated that wave excitations lead to the melting of quasi-crystalline structures. Another intriguing but interesting observation is that even though the faster cascade is induced by waves arising through an anisotropic inhomogeneity in one of the plasma parameters, the spectrum of the fluctuations continues to remain predominantly isotropic. A physical understanding of the observations is provided by illustrating a close connection between the Kelvin-Helmholtz destabilization of shear flows and the phenomenon of inverse cascade in 2D fluid flows.

  5. Imaging Radiation-Induced Normal Tissue Injury

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Mike E.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Tsien, Christina I.; Bailey, Janet E.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2013-01-01

    Technological developments in radiation therapy and other cancer therapies have led to a progressive increase in five-year survival rates over the last few decades. Although acute effects have been largely minimized by both technical advances and medical interventions, late effects remain a concern. Indeed, the need to identify those individuals who will develop radiation-induced late effects, and to develop interventions to prevent or ameliorate these late effects is a critical area of radiobiology research. In the last two decades, preclinical studies have clearly established that late radiation injury can be prevented/ameliorated by pharmacological therapies aimed at modulating the cascade of events leading to the clinical expression of radiation-induced late effects. These insights have been accompanied by significant technological advances in imaging that are moving radiation oncology and normal tissue radiobiology from disciplines driven by anatomy and macrostructure to ones in which important quantitative functional, microstructural, and metabolic data can be noninvasively and serially determined. In the current article, we review use of positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopy to generate pathophysiological and functional data in the central nervous system, lung, and heart that offer the promise of, (1) identifying individuals who are at risk of developing radiation-induced late effects, and (2) monitoring the efficacy of interventions to prevent/ameliorate them. PMID:22348250

  6. Radiation induced conductivity in space dielectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, R.; Paulmier, T.; Molinie, P.; Belhaj, M.; Dirassen, B.; Payan, D.; Balcon, N.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation-induced conductivity of some polymers was described mainly in literature by a competition between ionization, trapping/detrapping, and recombination processes or by radiation assisted ageing mechanisms. Our aim is to revise the effect of the aforementioned mechanisms on the complex evolution of Teflon FEP under space representative ionizing radiation. Through the definition of a new experimental protocol, revealing the effect of radiation dose and relaxation time, we have been able to demonstrate that the trapping/recombination model devised in this study agrees correctly with the observed experimental phenomenology at qualitative level and allows describing very well the evolution of radiation induced conductivity with irradiation time (or received radiation dose). According to this model, the complex behavior observed on Teflon FEP may be basically ascribed to the competition between electron/hole pairs generation and recombination: electrons are deeply trapped and act as recombination centers for free holes. Relaxation effects have been characterized through successive irradiations steps and have been again well described with the defined model at qualitative level: recombination centers created by the irradiation induce long term alteration on the electric properties, especially the effective bulk conductivity. One-month relaxation does not allow a complete recovery of the material initial charging behavior.

  7. Management of radiation-induced urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Matthias D.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation as a treatment option for prostate cancer has been chosen by many patients. One of the side effects encountered are radiation-induced urethral strictures which occur in up to 11% of patients. Radiation damage has often left the irradiated field fibrotic and with poor vascularization which make these strictures a challenging entity to treat. The mainstay of urologic management remains an urethroplasty procedure for which several approaches exist with variable optimal indication. Excision and primary anastomoses are ideal for shorter bulbar strictures that comprise the majority of radiation-induced urethral strictures. One advantage of this technique is that it does not require tissue transfers and success rates of 70-95% have consistently been reported. Substitution urethroplasty using remote graft tissue such as buccal mucosa are indicated if the length of the stricture precludes a tension-free primary anastomosis. Despite the challenge of graft survival in radiation-damaged and poorly vascularized recipient tissue, up to 83% of patients have been treated successfully although the numbers described in the literature are small. The most extensive repairs involve the use of tissue flaps, for example gracilis muscle, which may be required if the involved periurethral tissue is unable to provide sufficient vascular support for a post-operative urethral healing process. In summary, radiation-induced urethral strictures are a challenging entity. Most strictures are amenable to excision and primary anastomosis (EPA) with encouraging success rates but substitution urethroplasty may be indicated when extensive repair is needed. PMID:26816812

  8. Radiation induced conductivity in space dielectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, R.; Paulmier, T. Belhaj, M.; Dirassen, B.; Molinie, P.; Payan, D.; Balcon, N.

    2014-01-21

    The radiation-induced conductivity of some polymers was described mainly in literature by a competition between ionization, trapping/detrapping, and recombination processes or by radiation assisted ageing mechanisms. Our aim is to revise the effect of the aforementioned mechanisms on the complex evolution of Teflon{sup ®} FEP under space representative ionizing radiation. Through the definition of a new experimental protocol, revealing the effect of radiation dose and relaxation time, we have been able to demonstrate that the trapping/recombination model devised in this study agrees correctly with the observed experimental phenomenology at qualitative level and allows describing very well the evolution of radiation induced conductivity with irradiation time (or received radiation dose). According to this model, the complex behavior observed on Teflon{sup ®} FEP may be basically ascribed to the competition between electron/hole pairs generation and recombination: electrons are deeply trapped and act as recombination centers for free holes. Relaxation effects have been characterized through successive irradiations steps and have been again well described with the defined model at qualitative level: recombination centers created by the irradiation induce long term alteration on the electric properties, especially the effective bulk conductivity. One-month relaxation does not allow a complete recovery of the material initial charging behavior.

  9. Radiation-induced intestinal pseudoobstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Perino, L.E.; Schuffler, M.D.; Mehta, S.J.; Everson, G.T.

    1986-10-01

    A case of intestinal pseudoobstruction occurring 30 yr after radiation therapy is described. Mechanical causes of obstruction were excluded by laparotomy. Histology of full-thickness sections of the small bowel revealed vascular ectasia and sclerosis, serosal fibrosis, neuronal proliferation within the submucosa, and degeneration of the muscle fibers of the circular layer of the muscularis propria. On the basis of the clinical and histologic findings we conclude that, in this patient, intestinal pseudoobstruction was due to muscular and neuronal injury from abdominal irradiation.

  10. Radiation-induced hydrogen transfer in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyurin, Yu I.; Vlasov, V. A.; Dolgov, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents processes of hydrogen (deuterium) diffusion and release from hydrogen-saturated condensed matters in atomic, molecular and ionized states under the influence of the electron beam and X-ray radiation in the pre-threshold region. The dependence is described between the hydrogen isotope release intensity and the current density and the electron beam energy affecting sample, hydrogen concentration in the material volume and time of radiation exposure to the sample. The energy distribution of the emitted positive ions of hydrogen isotopes is investigated herein. Mechanisms of radiation-induced hydrogen transfer in condensed matters are suggested.

  11. Radiation-induced long thoracic nerve palsy

    SciTech Connect

    Pugliese, G.N.; Green, R.F.; Antonacci, A.

    1987-09-15

    The incidence of long thoracic nerve palsy after radical mastectomy has been documented to be approximately 10%. No cases have been reported after the more recent treatment for breast cancer, lumpectomy with axillary dissection. This more recent surgical procedure is customarily followed by aggressive radiation therapy to the remaining breast tissue. This is the first case report of a patient with radiation-induced long thoracic nerve palsy. The patient was a young woman who underwent left breast quadrantectomy and axillary dissection for breast cancer. After radiation therapy, she had isolated left long thoracic nerve palsy. The diagnosis was confirmed by electrodiagnostic studies. Almost full recovery occurred after 5 months.

  12. A report on radiation-induced gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Salvati, M.; Artico, M.; Caruso, R.; Rocchi, G.; Orlando, E.R.; Nucci, F. )

    1991-01-15

    Radiation-induced gliomas are uncommon, with only 73 cases on record to date. The disease that most frequently occasioned radiation therapy has been acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Three more cases are added here, two after irradiation for ALL and one after irradiation for tinea capitis. In a review of the relevant literature, the authors stress the possibility that the ALL-glioma and the retinoblastoma-glioma links point to syndromes in their own right that may occur without radiation therapy.56 references.

  13. Crystalline Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsapatsis, Michael (Inventor); Lai, Zhiping (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    In certain aspects, the invention features methods for forming crystalline membranes (e.g., a membrane of a framework material, such as a zeolite) by inducing secondary growth in a layer of oriented seed crystals. The rate of growth of the seed crystals in the plane of the substrate is controlled to be comparable to the rate of growth out of the plane. As a result, a crystalline membrane can form a substantially continuous layer including grains of uniform crystallographic orientation that extend through the depth of the layer.

  14. Radiation-Induced Effects in Pyrochlore and Nanoscale Materials Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, Jie; Weber, William J.; Jiang, Weilin; Wang, Lumin; Boatner, Lynn A.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2006-06-19

    Pyrochlore materials, A2B2O7, encompass a wide range of compositions and are technological important for energy and environment issues, for example, used as ionic conductor in solid oxide fuel cells and nuclear waste forms for the storage of actinides, particularly Pu. Here, the recent progresses in understanding ion beam irradiation-induced phenomena in pyrochlore compounds are briefly reviewed with the focus of ion beam-induced crystalline-to-amorphous and pyrochlore to fluorite structural transitions. Systematic ion irradiation studies of lanthanide pyrochlores in which B = Ti, Zr, and Sn have suggested that the radiation response of pyrochlore compounds is highly dependent on compositional changes. Both ionic size and the cation electronic configurations (e.g., bond-types) affect the structural distortion from the ideal fluorite structure and the response behavior of pyrochlore-structure types to ion beam irradiation. Ion beam-induced pyrochlore-to-fluorite structural transition occurs in all irradiated pyrochlore compositions, and the independent kinetics of cation and anion disordering processes were discussed. Numerous novel nanostructures have been created by utilizing the ion beam-induced amorphization, order-disorder transition and phase decomposition, such as amorphous and disordered nano-domains, perfectly latticed matched two-dimensional nanolayer, self-organized ripple structure, metallic nanoparticles and nanowires. The potential application of energetic particle irradiation for nano-engineering pyrochlore structured compounds is highlighted.

  15. Quercetin Inhibits Radiation-Induced Skin Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Jason A.; Li, Fei; Chung, Eun Joo; Hudak, Kathryn; White, Ayla; Krausz, Kristopher; Gonzalez, Frank; Citrin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Radiation induced fibrosis of the skin is a late toxicity that may result in loss of function due to reduced range of motion and pain. The current study sought to determine if oral delivery of quercetin mitigates radiation-induced cutaneous injury. Female C3H/HeN mice were fed control chow or quercetin-formulated chow (1% by weight). The right hind leg was exposed to 35 Gy of X rays and the mice were followed serially to assess acute toxicity and hind leg extension. Tissue samples were collected for assessment of soluble collagen and tissue cytokines. Human and murine fibroblasts were subjected to clonogenic assays to determine the effects of quercetin on radiation response. Contractility of fibroblasts was assessed with a collagen contraction assay in the presence or absence of quercetin and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?). Western blotting of proteins involved in fibroblast contractility and TGF-? signaling were performed. Quercetin treatment significantly reduced hind limb contracture, collagen accumulation and expression of TGF-? in irradiated skin. Quercetin had no effect on the radioresponse of fibroblasts or murine tumors, but was capable of reducing the contractility of fibroblasts in response to TGF-?, an effect that correlated with partial stabilization of phosphorylated cofilin. Quercetin is capable of mitigating radiation induced skin fibrosis and should be further explored as a therapy for radiation fibrosis. PMID:23819596

  16. Radiation-induced Genomic Instability and Radiation Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Varnum, Susan M.; Sowa, Marianne B.; Kim, Grace J.; Morgan, William F.

    2013-01-19

    The obvious relationships between reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory type responses and reactive chemokines and cytokines suggests a general stress response induced by ionizing radiation most likely leads to the non-targeted effects described after radiation exposure. We argue that true bystander effects do not occur in the radiation therapy clinic. But there is no question that effects outside the target volume do occur. These “out of field effects” are considered very low dose effects in the context of therapy. So what are the implications of non-targeted effects on radiation sensitivity? The primary goal of therapy is to eradicate the tumor. Given the genetic diversity of the human population, lifestyle and environment factors it is likely some combination of these will influence patient outcome. Non-targeted effects may contribute to a greater or lesser extent. But consider the potential situation involving a partial body exposure due to a radiation accident or radiological terrorism. Non-targeted effects suggest that the tissue at risk for demonstrating possible detrimental effects of radiation exposure might be greater than the volume actually irradiated.

  17. Radiation-induced meningiomas in pediatric patients

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, S.D.; Rockswold, G.L.; Chou, S.N.; Yock, D.; Berger, M.S.

    1988-04-01

    Radiation-induced meningiomas rarely have latency periods short enough from the time of irradiation to the clinical presentation of the tumor to present in the pediatric patient. Three cases of radiation-induced intracranial meningiomas in pediatric patients are presented. The first involved a meningioma of the right frontal region in a 10-year-old boy 6 years after the resection and irradiation of a 4th ventricular medulloblastoma. Review of our pediatric tumor cases produced a second case of a left temporal fossa meningioma presenting in a 15-year-old boy with a history of irradiation for retinoblastoma at age 3 years and a third case of a right frontoparietal meningioma in a 15-year-old girl after irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Only three cases of meningiomas presenting in the pediatric age group after radiation therapy to the head were detected in our review of the literature.

  18. Radiation-induced mutations and plant breeding

    SciTech Connect

    Naqvi, S.H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Ionizing radiation could cause genetic changes in an organism and could modify gene linkages. The induction of mutation through radiation is random and the probability of getting the desired genetic change is low but can be increased by manipulating different parameters such as dose rate, physical conditions under which the material has been irradiated, etc. Induced mutations have been used as a supplement to conventional plant breeding, particularly for creating genetic variability for specific characters such as improved plant structure, pest and disease resistance, and desired changes in maturity period; more than 200 varieties of crop plants have been developed by this technique. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has used this technique fruitfully to evolve better germplasm in cotton, rice, chickpea, wheat and mungbean; some of the mutants have become popular commercial varieties. This paper describes some uses of radiation induced mutations and the results achieved in Pakistan so far.

  19. Radiation-Induced Phase Transformations in Ilmenite-Group Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J. N.

    1997-12-31

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a powerful tool for characterizing and understanding radiation-induced structural changes in materials. We have irradiated single crystals of ilmenite (FeTiO{sub 3}) and geikielite (MgTiO{sub 3}) using ions and electrons to better understand the response of complex oxides to radiation. Ion irradiation experiments of bulk single crystals at 100 K show that ilmenite amorphized at doses of less than 1x10(exp15) Ar(2+)/sq cm and at a damage level in the peak damage region of 1 displacement per atom (dpa). Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction of a cross-sectioned portion of this crystal confirmed the formation of a 150 am thick amorphous layer. Geikielite proved to be more radiation resistant, requiring a flux of 2x10(exp 15) Xe(2+)/sq cm to induce amorphization at 100 K. This material did not amorphize at 470 K, despite a dose of 2.5 x10(exp 16) Xe(2+)/sq cm and a damage level as high as 25 dpa. Low temperature irradiations of electron- transparent crystals with 1 MeV Kr(+) also show that ilmenite amorphized after a damage level of 2.25 dpa at 175 K.Similar experiments on geikielite show that the microstructure is partially amorphous and partially crystalline after 10 dpa at 150 K. Concurrent ion and electron irradiation of both materials with 1 MeV Kr(+) and 0.9 MeV electrons produced dislocation loops in both materials, but no amorphous regions were formed. Differences in the radiation response of these isostructural oxides suggests that in systems with Mg-Fe solid solution, the Mg-rich compositions may be more resistant to structural changes.

  20. Cataracts induced by microwave and ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Lipman, R M; Tripathi, B J; Tripathi, R C

    1988-01-01

    Microwaves most commonly cause anterior and/or posterior subcapsular lenticular opacities in experimental animals and, as shown in epidemiologic studies and case reports, in human subjects. The formation of cataracts seems to be related directly to the power of the microwave and the duration of exposure. The mechanism of cataractogenesis includes deformation of heat-labile enzymes, such as glutathione peroxide, that ordinarily protect lens cell proteins and membrane lipids from oxidative damage. Oxidation of protein sulfhydryl groups and the formation of high-molecular-weight aggregates cause local variations in the orderly structure of the lens cells. An alternative mechanism is thermoelastic expansion through which pressure waves in the aqueous humor cause direct physical damage to the lens cells. Cataracts induced by ionizing radiation (e.g., X-rays and gamma rays) usually are observed in the posterior region of the lens, often in the form of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Increasing the dose of ionizing radiation causes increasing opacification of the lens, which appears after a decreasing latency period. Like cataract formation by microwaves, cataractogenesis induced by ionizing radiation is associated with damage to the lens cell membrane. Another possible mechanism is damage to lens cell DNA, with decreases in the production of protective enzymes and in sulfur-sulfur bond formation, and with altered protein concentrations. Until further definitive conclusions about the mechanisms of microwaves and ionizing radiation induced cataracts are reached, and alternative protective measures are found, one can only recommend mechanical shielding from these radiations to minimize the possibility of development of radiation-induced cataracts. PMID:3068822

  1. Cataracts induced by microwave and ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lipman, R.M.; Tripathi, B.J.; Tripathi, R.C.

    1988-11-01

    Microwaves most commonly cause anterior and/or posterior subcapsular lenticular opacities in experimental animals and, as shown in epidemiologic studies and case reports, in human subjects. The formation of cataracts seems to be related directly to the power of the microwave and the duration of exposure. The mechanism of cataractogenesis includes deformation of heat-labile enzymes, such as glutathione peroxide, that ordinarily protect lens cell proteins and membrane lipids from oxidative damage. Oxidation of protein sulfhydryl groups and the formation of high-molecular-weight aggregates cause local variations in the orderly structure of the lens cells. An alternative mechanism is thermoelastic expansion through which pressure waves in the aqueous humor cause direct physical damage to the lens cells. Cataracts induced by ionizing radiation (e.g., X-rays and gamma rays) usually are observed in the posterior region of the lens, often in the form of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Increasing the dose of ionizing radiation causes increasing opacification of the lens, which appears after a decreasing latency period. Like cataract formation by microwaves, cataractogenesis induced by ionizing radiation is associated with damage to the lens cell membrane. Another possible mechanism is damage to lens cell DNA, with decreases in the production of protective enzymes and in sulfur-sulfur bond formation, and with altered protein concentrations. Until further definitive conclusions about the mechanisms of microwaves and ionizing radiation induced cataracts are reached, and alternative protective measures are found, one can only recommend mechanical shielding from these radiations to minimize the possibility of development of radiation-induced cataracts. 74 references.

  2. Immunity induced by a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials is directly controlled by their chemistry.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gareth R; Fierens, Kaat; Preston, Stephen G; Lunn, Daniel; Rysnik, Oliwia; De Prijck, Sofie; Kool, Mirjam; Buckley, Hannah C; Lambrecht, Bart N; O'Hare, Dermot; Austyn, Jonathan M

    2014-06-01

    There is currently no paradigm in immunology that enables an accurate prediction of how the immune system will respond to any given agent. Here we show that the immunological responses induced by members of a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials are controlled purely by their physicochemical properties in a highly predictable manner. We show that structurally and chemically homogeneous layered double hydroxides (LDHs) can elicit diverse human dendritic cell responses in vitro. Using a systems vaccinology approach, we find that every measured response can be modeled using a subset of just three physical and chemical properties for all compounds tested. This correlation can be reduced to a simple linear equation that enables the immunological responses stimulated by newly synthesized LDHs to be predicted in advance from these three parameters alone. We also show that mouse antigen-specific antibody responses in vivo and human macrophage responses in vitro are controlled by the same properties, suggesting they may control diverse responses at both individual component and global levels of immunity. This study demonstrates that immunity can be determined purely by chemistry and opens the possibility of rational manipulation of immunity for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24799501

  3. Acceleration of potential-induced degradation by salt-mist preconditioning in crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Soh; Nishiyama, Naoki; Yoshino, Seiji; Ujiro, Takumi; Watanabe, Shin; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi; Tanahashi, Tadanori

    2015-08-01

    We examined the sequential effects of salt-mist stress followed by high-system-voltage stress on the power loss of crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules to determine whether a crucial failure as potential-induced degradation (PID) is accelerated by material-property changes caused by the long-term effects of a less harmful stress such as salt-mist spraying. Degradation profiles confirmed in this study show that PID is accelerated by certain types of salt-mist preconditioning. For the acceleration of PID, the contribution of sodium ions liberated from the front glass of the PV module seems to be excluded. Therefore, we consider that the sodium ions penetrating into the PV modules from the ambient environment may also cause degradation according to the proposed mechanisms of PID, as the sodium ions existing in the front glass cause PID. Furthermore, this type of degradation may indicate the wear-out phenomenon after a long-term exposure in the field (especially near the coast).

  4. Immunity induced by a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials is directly controlled by their chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gareth R.; Fierens, Kaat; Preston, Stephen G.; Lunn, Daniel; Rysnik, Oliwia; De Prijck, Sofie; Kool, Mirjam; Buckley, Hannah C.; OHare, Dermot; Austyn, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    There is currently no paradigm in immunology that enables an accurate prediction of how the immune system will respond to any given agent. Here we show that the immunological responses induced by members of a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials are controlled purely by their physicochemical properties in a highly predictable manner. We show that structurally and chemically homogeneous layered double hydroxides (LDHs) can elicit diverse human dendritic cell responses in vitro. Using a systems vaccinology approach, we find that every measured response can be modeled using a subset of just three physical and chemical properties for all compounds tested. This correlation can be reduced to a simple linear equation that enables the immunological responses stimulated by newly synthesized LDHs to be predicted in advance from these three parameters alone. We also show that mouse antigenspecific antibody responses in vivo and human macrophage responses in vitro are controlled by the same properties, suggesting they may control diverse responses at both individual component and global levels of immunity. This study demonstrates that immunity can be determined purely by chemistry and opens the possibility of rational manipulation of immunity for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24799501

  5. Radiation-induced brain injury: A review

    PubMed Central

    Greene-Schloesser, Dana; Robbins, Mike E.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Shaw, Edward G.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Chan, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (>6 months) to experience radiation-induced brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses >30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses >60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical radiation-induced cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a radiation-induced decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this radiation-induced brain injury. Given that radiation-induced cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain regions as well as their integration at clinically relevant doses and schedules. Recently developed techniques in neuroscience and neuroimaging provide not only an opportunity to accomplish this, but they also offer the opportunity to identify new biomarkers and new targets for interventions to prevent or ameliorate these late effects. PMID:22833841

  6. Delayed Radiation-Induced Vasculitic Leukoencephalopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, Philipp J.; Park, Henry S.; Knisely, Jonathan P.S.; Chiang, Veronica L.; Vortmeyer, Alexander O.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Recently, single-fraction, high-dosed focused radiation therapy such as that administered by Gamma Knife radiosurgery has been used increasingly for the treatment of metastatic brain cancer. Radiation therapy to the brain can cause delayed leukoencephalopathy, which carries its own significant morbidity and mortality. While radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy is known to be clinically different from that following fractionated radiation, pathological differences are not well characterized. In this study, we aimed to integrate novel radiographic and histopathologic observations to gain a conceptual understanding of radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy. Methods and Materials: We examined resected tissues of 10 patients treated at Yale New Haven Hospital between January 1, 2009, and June 30, 2010, for brain metastases that had been previously treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery, who subsequently required surgical management of a symptomatic regrowing lesion. None of the patients showed pathological evidence of tumor recurrence. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging data for each of the 10 patients were then studied retrospectively. Results: We provide evidence to show that radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy may present as an advancing process that extends beyond the original high-dose radiation field. Neuropathologic examination of the resected tissue revealed traditionally known leukoencephalopathic changes including demyelination, coagulation necrosis, and vascular sclerosis. Unexpectedly, small and medium-sized vessels revealed transmural T-cell infiltration indicative of active vasculitis. Conclusions: We propose that the presence of a vasculitic component in association with radiation-induced leukoencephalopathy may facilitate the progressive nature of the condition. It may also explain the resemblance of delayed leukoencephalopathy with recurring tumor on virtually all imaging modalities used for posttreatment follow-up.

  7. Ionizing Radiation-induced Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Meeseon; Moon, Kieun; Jo, Min-Heui; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Radiation risk has become well known through epidemiological studies of clinically or occupationally exposed populations, animal experiments, and in vitro studies; however, the study of radiation related or induced disease has been limited in Korea. This study is to find the level of occupational radiation exposure for various kinds of accidents, compensated occupational diseases, related studies, and estimations on future occupational disease risks. Research data of related institutions were additionally investigated. About 67% of 62,553 radiation workers had no exposure or less than 1.2 mSv per year. The 5 reported cases on radiation accident patients in Korea occurred during nondestructive testing. According to the recent rapid increase in the number of workers exposed to radiation, a higher social recognition of cancer, and an increasing cancer mortality rate, it is expected that occupational disease compensation will rapidly increase as well. Therefore, it is important to develop scientific and objective decision methods, such as probability of causation and screening dose in the establishment of an exposure and health surveillance system. PMID:21258594

  8. Assessing the changes in the biomechanical properties of the crystalline lens induced by cold cataract with air-pulse OCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Singh, M.; Liu, C.-H.; Han, Z.; Li, J.; Raghunathan, R.; Larin, K. V.

    2015-11-01

    A cataract is the increase in opacity of the crystalline lens that can pathologically degrade visual acuity. In this study, we utilized a phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography (OCE) system to study the effects of a cold cataract on the biomechanical properties of the porcine crystalline lens in vitro. The cold cataract was induced by placing the whole lens in a low temperature environment until the lens was obviously clouded. Air-pulse OCE measurements were conducted on 6 lenses before and after cold cataract induction. A low amplitude displacement (≤ 10 µm) was induced by a focused air-pulse and the temporal deformation profiles from the surface and within the lenses were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the stiffness of the porcine lens increased after induction of the cold cataract, and it demonstrated the feasibility of OCE to assess the biomechanical changes in the lens due to cataract.

  9. Radiation-induced autophagy: mechanisms and consequences.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Madhuri; Bhatt, Anant Narayan; Das, Asmita; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S; Sharma, Kulbhushan

    2016-03-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved, indispensable, lysosome-mediated degradation process, which helps in maintaining homeostasis during various cellular traumas. During stress, a context-dependent role of autophagy has been observed which drives the cell towards survival or death depending upon the type, time, and extent of the damage. The process of autophagy is stimulated during various cellular insults, e.g. oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, imbalances in calcium homeostasis, and altered mitochondrial potential. Ionizing radiation causes ROS-dependent as well as ROS-independent damage in cells that involve macromolecular (mainly DNA) damage, as well as ER stress induction, both capable of inducing autophagy. This review summarizes the current understanding on the roles of oxidative stress, ER stress, DNA damage, altered mitochondrial potential, and calcium imbalance in radiation-induced autophagy as well as the merits and limitations of targeting autophagy as an approach for radioprotection and radiosensitization. PMID:26764568

  10. Radiation-induced mutation at minisatellite loci

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrova, Y.E. |; Nesterov, V.N.; Krouchinsky, N.G.

    1997-10-01

    We are studying the radiation-induced increase of mutation rate in minisatellite loci in mice and humans. Minisatellite mutations were scored by multilocus DNA fingerprint analysis in the progeny of {gamma}-irradiated and non-irradiated mice. The frequency of mutation in offspring of irradiated males was 1.7 higher that in the control group. Germline mutation at human minisatellite loci was studied among children born in heavily polluted areas of the Mogilev district of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident and in a control population. The frequency of mutation assayed both by DNA fingerprinting and by eight single locus probes was found to be two times higher in the exposed families than in the control group. Furthermore, mutation rate was correlated with the parental radiation dose for chronic exposure {sup 137}Cs, consistent with radiation-induction of germline mutation. The potential use of minisatellites in monitoring germline mutation in humans will be discussed.

  11. Heat pump processes induced by laser radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.

    1980-01-01

    A carbon dioxide laser system was constructed for the demonstration of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation. The system consisted of a frequency doubling stage, a gas reaction cell with its vacuum and high purity gas supply system, and provisions to measure the temperature changes by pressure, or alternatively, by density changes. The theoretical considerations for the choice of designs and components are dicussed.

  12. Crystalline silicon growth in the aluminium-induced glass texturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ying; Law, Felix; Widenborg, Per I.; Aberle, Armin G.

    2012-12-01

    Aluminium-induced texturing (AIT) is a method to texture glass surfaces by utilising the reaction between aluminium (Al) and glass at high temperature (above 500 C) and a subsequent wet-chemical treatment that removes the reaction products. In this work, we studied the solid state reaction between a sputtered Al layer and a borosilicate glass sheet during AIT annealing. Raman spectroscopy showed that crystalline silicon (c-Si) is formed during the AIT process. An optical microscope was used to visualise the evolution of the c-Si growth. Plan-view scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations performed on samples after completed AIT reaction showed that separate c-Si clusters formed at the glass surface. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the c-Si clusters grew upwards and were on top of the glass surface. Cross-sectional SEM examination showed that the c-Si layer is not uniform and that crater-shaped nodules are embedded into the glass. The widths and depths of the nodules are in the micrometre range. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that the nodules consist mainly of aluminium oxide (Al2O3). X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the c-Si grains are preferentially (111) oriented. The activation energy of the reaction between Al and borosilicate glass is 3.00.2 eV based on in-situ XRD analysis of the c-Si growth. Finally, a phenomenological model of the AIT process is proposed and we suggest that the topology of the glass texture strongly depends on the size, depth and lateral separation of the Al2O3 nodules embedded in the glass.

  13. Amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunctions for nuclear radiation detector applications

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.T.; Hong, W.S.; Luke, P.N.; Wang, N.W.; Ziemba, F.P.

    1996-10-01

    Results on characterization of electrical properties of amorphous Si films for the 3 different growth methods (RF sputtering, PECVD [plasma enhanced], LPCVD [low pressure]) are reported. Performance of these a-Si films as heterojunctions on high resistivity p-type and n- type crystalline Si is examined by measuring the noise, leakage current, and the alpha particle response of 5mm dia detector structures. It is demonstrated that heterojunction detectors formed by RF sputtered films and PECVD films are comparable in performance with conventional surface barrier detectors. Results indicate that the a-Si/c-Si heterojunctions have the potential to greatly simplify detector fabrication. Directions for future avenues of nuclear particle detector development are indicated.

  14. Radiation induced genomic instability in bystander cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H.; Gu, S.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Hei, T.

    There is considerable evidence that exposure to ionizing radiation may induce a heritable genomic instability that leads to a persisting increased frequency of genetic and functional changes in the non-irradiated progeny of a wide variety of irradiated cells Genomic instability is measured as delayed expressions in chromosomal alterations micronucleus formation gene mutations and decreased plating efficiency During the last decade numerous studies have shown that radiation could induce bystander effect in non-irradiated neighboring cells similar endpoints have also been used in genomic instability studies Both genomic instability and the bystander effect are phenomena that result in a paradigm shift in our understanding of radiation biology In the past it seemed reasonable to assume that the production of single- and double-strand DNA breaks are due to direct energy deposition of energy by a charged particle to the nucleus It turns out that biology is not quite that simple Using the Columbia University charged particle microbeam and the highly sensitive human hamster hybrid AL cell mutagenic assay we irradiated 10 of the cells with a lethal dose of 30 alpha particles through the nucleus After overnight incubation the remaining viable bystander cells were replated in dishes for colony formation Clonal isolates were expanded and cultured for 6 consecutive weeks to assess plating efficiency and mutation frequency Preliminary results indicated that there was no significant decrease in plating efficiency among the bystander colonies when compared with

  15. Oxygen plasma etching-induced crystalline lattice transformation of colloidal photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Ding, Tao; Wang, Fei; Song, Kai; Yang, Guoqiang; Tung, Chen-Ho

    2010-12-15

    This communication describes the transformation of a colloidal crystalline lattice that was realized via oxygen plasma etching of colloidal crystals made of SiO2@PMMA core-shell microspheres. The plasma etching of the colloidal crystals proceeded nonuniformly from the top to the bottom of the colloidal crystals. The PMMA shell was etched away by the oxygen plasma in a layer-by-layer manner, and the silica core was drawn into the pit formed by the neighboring spheres in the layer below. Consequently, the crystalline lattice was transformed while the order was maintained. Scanning electron microscopy images and reflection spectra further confirmed the change in the crystalline structures. Colloidal crystals with sc and bcc lattices can be fabricated if the ratio of the polymer shell thickness to the silica core diameter is equal to certain values. More importantly, this approach may be applicable to the fabrication of various assembly structures with different inorganic particles. PMID:21090677

  16. Cathodoluminescence of radiation-induced zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Y.; Nishido, H.; Kayama, M.; Noumi, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Zircon occurs as a common accessory mineral in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, and maintains much information on thermal history, metamorphic process and natural radiation dose accumulated in the mineral. U-Pb zircon dating (e.g., SHRIMP) is an important tool to interpret a history of the minerals at a micrometer-scale, where cathodoluminescence (CL) image has been used for identification of internal zones and domains having different chemical compositions and/or structures with a high spatial resolution. The CL of zircon is derived from various types of emission centers, which are derived from impurities such as rare earth elements (REE) and structural defects. In fact, the CL features of zircon are closely related to metamorphic process and radiation from contained radionuclides as well as geochemical condition of its formation. Most zircon has yellow emission, which seems to be assigned to UO2 centers or radiation-induced defect during metamictization of the lattice by alpha particles from the decay of U and Th. In this study, the radiation effects on zircon CL have been studied for He+ ion-implanted samples annealed at various temperatures to clarify radiation-induced defect centers involved with the yellow CL emission in zircon. Single crystals of zircon from Malawi (MZ), Takidani granodiorite (TZ) and Kurobegawa granite (KZ) were selected for He+ ion implantation experiments. The polished plates of the samples were implanted by He+ ion 4.0 MeV corresponding to energy of alpha particle from 238 U and 232Th. CL spectra in the range from 300 to 800 nm with 1 nm step were measured by a scanning electron microscopy-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL). CL spectra of untreated and annealed zircon show emission bands at ~370 nm assigned to intrinsic defect centers and at ~480, ~580 and ~760 nm to trivalent Dy impurity centers (Cesbron et al., 1995; Gaft et al, 2005). CL emissions in the yellow-region were observed in untreated zircon. The TZ and KZ indicate youngest formation ages of 1.93-1.20 Ma and 1.7-0.9 Ma, respectively (Harayama,1994; Harayama et al., 2010) in the world. In this case, it is hardly to detect yellow CL emissions derived from radiation-induced defect center, suggesting low radiation dose of alpha radiation from 238U and 232Th on them. CL spectra of MZ, TZ and KZ showed an increase in the intensities of yellow emissions with an increase in radiation dose of He+ ion implantation, though He+ ion implantation reduces the intensities of their impurity centers. CL intensity in the yellow region depends on radiation dose of He+ ion implantation. Therefore, if the component of yellow emission could be deconvoluted from the CL spectra in zircon, its intensity will be used for an indicator to evaluate total exposure doses on it during geological age.

  17. Estrogen Protects against Radiation-Induced Cataractogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dynlacht, Joseph R.; Valluri, Shailaja; Lopez, Jennifer; Greer, Falon; DesRosiers, Colleen; Caperell-Grant, Andrea; Mendonca, Marc S.; Bigsby, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Cataractogenesis is a complication of radiotherapy when the eye is included in the treatment field. Low doses of densely ionizing space radiation may also result in an increased risk of cataracts in astronauts. We previously reported that estrogen (17-?-estradiol), when administered to ovariectomized rats commencing 1 week before ? irradiation of the eye and continuously thereafter, results in a significant increase in the rate and incidence of cataract formation and a decreased latent period compared to an ovariectomized control group. We therefore concluded that estrogen accelerates progression of radiation-induced opacification. We now show that estrogen, if administered continuously, but commencing after irradiation, protects against radiation cataractogenesis. Both the rate of progression and incidence of cataracts were greatly reduced in ovariectomized rats that received estrogen treatment after irradiation compared to ovariectomized rats. As in our previous study, estradiol administered 1 week prior to irradiation at the time of ovariectomy and throughout the period of observation produced an enhanced rate of cataract progression. Estrogen administered for only 1 week prior to irradiation had no effect on the rate of progression but resulted in a slight reduction in the incidence. We conclude that estrogen may enhance or protect against radiation cataractogenesis, depending on when it is administered relative to the time of irradiation, and may differentially modulate the initiation and progression phases of cataractogenesis. These data have important implications for astronauts and radiotherapy patients. PMID:19138041

  18. Radiation induced carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Amendola, B.E.; Amendola, M.A.; McClatchey, K.D.

    1985-07-01

    A squamous cell carcinoma presented in a 20 year old female nonsmoker three years after receiving a high dosage of radiation therapy to the base of the skull, face and entire neuroaxis and intense combination chemotherapy for a parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma of the paranasal sinuses is reported. The larynx received a dose of about 3,500 rads over an eight week period. This dosage in conjunction with the associated intense chemotherapy regimen given to the patient may explain the appearance of a radiation induced tumor in an unusually short latent period. This certainly represents a risk in young patients in whom an aggressive combined approach is taken and the physician should be aware of.

  19. Radiation-induced spinal cord hemorrhage (hematomyelia).

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam; Thamburaj, Krishnamurthy; Vijay, Kanupriya

    2014-10-23

    Intraspinal hemorrhage is very rare and intramedullary hemorrhage, also called hematomyelia, is the rarest form of intraspinal hemorrhage, usually related to trauma. Spinal vascular malformations such intradural arteriovenous malformations are the most common cause of atraumatic hematomyelia. Other considerations include warfarin or heparin anticoagulation, bleeding disorders, spinal cord tumors. Radiation-induced hematomyelia of the cord is exceedingly rare with only one case in literature to date. We report the case of an 8 year old girl with Ewing's sarcoma of the thoracic vertebra, under radiation therapy, presenting with hematomyelia. We describe the clinical course, the findings on imaging studies and the available information in the literature. Recognition of the clinical pattern of spinal cord injury should lead clinicians to perform imaging studies to evaluate for compressive etiologies. PMID:25568739

  20. Radiation-induced electron migration along DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Fuciarelli, A.F.; Sisk, E.C.; Miller, J.H.; Zimbrick, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    Radiation-induced electron migration along DNA is a mechanism by which randomly produced stochastic energy deposition events can lead to nonrandom types of damage along DNA manifested distal to the sites of the initial energy deposition. Electron migration along DNA is significantly influenced by the DNA base sequence and DNA conformation. Migration along 7 base pairs in oligonucleotides containing guanine bases was observed for oligonucleotides irradiated in solution which compares to average migration distances of 6 to 10 bases for Escherichia coli DNA irradiated in solution and 5.5 base pairs for Escherichia coli DNA irradiated in cells. Evidence also suggests that electron migration can occur preferentially in the 5{prime} to 3{prime} direction along DNA. Our continued efforts will provide information regarding the contribution of electron transfer along DNA to formation of locally multiply damaged sites created in DNA by exposure to ionizing radiation.

  1. Aloesin inhibits hyperpigmentation induced by UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Choi, S; Lee, S-K; Kim, J-E; Chung, M-H; Park, Y-I

    2002-09-01

    Skin hyperpigmentation is caused by the overproduction of melanin pigment, which is synthesized by the action of tyrosinase. We recently reported that aloesin inhibits tyrosinase activity. The present study was undertaken to test the inhibitory effect of aloesin on pigmentation in human skin after UV radiation. Experimental subjects were UV-irradiated (210 mJ) on the inner forearm. UV-irradiated regions were assigned to four groups: vehicle control, aloesin treated, arbutin treated, and aloesin and arbutin treated. Aloesin and/or arbutin were administered four times a day for 15 days. Aloesin treatment suppressed pigmentation by 34%, arbutin by 43.5%, and the cotreatment by 63.3% compared with the control (n = 15; P < 0.05). Moreover, aloesin treatment showed pigmentation suppression in a dose-dependent manner (n = 7; P < 0.05). These results raise the possibility that aloesin may be used as an agent that inhibits melanin formation induced by UV radiation. PMID:12372097

  2. Management of radiation-induced rectal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Laterza, Liboria; Cecinato, Paolo; Guido, Alessandra; Mussetto, Alessandro; Fuccio, Lorenzo

    2013-11-01

    Pelvic radiation disease is one of the major complication after radiotherapy for pelvic cancers. The most commonly reported symptom is rectal bleeding which affects patients' quality of life. Therapeutic strategies for rectal bleeding are generally ignored and include medical, endoscopic, and hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Most cases of radiation-induced bleeding are mild and self-limiting, and treatment is normally not indicated. In cases of clinically significant bleeding (i.e. anaemia), medical therapies, including stool softeners, sucralfate enemas, and metronidazole, should be considered as first-line treatment options. In cases of failure, endoscopic therapy, mainly represented by argon plasma coagulation and hyperbaric oxygen treatments, are valid and complementary second-line treatment strategies. Although current treatment options are not always supported by high-quality studies, patients should be reassured that treatment options exist and success is achieved in most cases if the patient is referred to a dedicated centre. PMID:24101202

  3. Radiation-induced osteosarcoma of the sphenoid bone

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, S.; Nishio, S.; Morioka, T.; Fukui, M.; Kitamura, K.; Hikita, K. )

    1989-10-01

    The case of a patient who developed osteosarcoma in the sphenoid bone 15 years after radiation therapy for a craniopharyngioma is reported. Radiation-induced osteosarcoma of the sphenoid bone has not been reported previously. Reported cases of radiation-induced osteosarcomas are reviewed.

  4. Radiation induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A brain weight deficit of about 70 mg was induced at doses of approximately 75-mGy and a deficit of 60 mg was induced at 100 mGy. This confirms the effects projected and observed by Wanner and Edwards. Although the data do not demonstrate a clear dose-response relationship between the 75-mGy and 100-mGy groups, the data are statistically consistent with a dose-response effect because of the overlapping confidence intervals. The lack of a statistically significant observation is most likely related to the small difference in doses and the limited numbers of animals examined. There are several factors that can influence the brain weight of guinea pig pups, such as caging and housing conditions, the sex of the animal, and litter size. These should be taken into account for accurate analysis. Dam weight did not appear to have a significant effect. The confirmation of a micrencephalic effect induced x rays at doses of 75-mGy during this late embryonic stage of development is consistent with the findings of small head size induced in those exposed prior to the eight week of conception at Hiroshima. This implies a mechanism for micrencephaly different from those previously suggested and lends credence to a causal relation between radiation and small head size in humans at low doses as reported by Miller and Mulvihill. 16 refs., 13 tabs.

  5. Optimized absorption of solar radiations in nano-structured thin films of crystalline silicon via a genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Alexandre; Muller, Jrme; Herman, Aline; Deparis, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    We developed a genetic algorithm to achieve optimal absorption of solar radiation in nano-structured thin films of crystalline silicon (c-Si) for applications in photovoltaics. The device includes on the front side a periodic array of inverted pyramids, with conformal passivation layer (a-Si:H or AlOx) and anti-reflection coating (SiNx). The device also includes on the back side a passivation layer (a-Si:H) and a flat reflector (ITO and Ag). The geometrical parameters of the inverted pyramids as well as the thickness of the different layers must be adjusted in order to maximize the absorption of solar radiations in the c-Si. The genetic algorithm enables the determination of optimal solutions that lead to high performances by evaluating only a reduced number of parameter combinations. The results achieved by the genetic algorithm for a 40?m thick c-Si lead to short-circuit currents of 37 mA/cm2 when a-Si:H is used for the front-side passivation and 39.1 mA/cm2 when transparent AlOx is used instead.

  6. Radiation-induced segregation, hardening, and IASCC

    SciTech Connect

    Eason, E.D.; Nelson, E.E.

    1995-12-31

    Intergranular cracking has been discovered after extended radiation exposure in several boiling water reactor (BWR) internal components made of austenitic stainless steel and nickel-based alloys. There are fewer field observations of intergranular cracking in pressurized water reactors (PWR), but failures have occurred in bolts, springs, and fuel cladding. There is concern for other PWR components, some of which will receive greater radiation doses than BWR components during the plant lifetime. This paper presents the results of an investigation on the connection between radiation induced segregation, hardening and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). A data base was developed containing the available data on austenitic stainless steel where the grain boundary composition was measured by Field Emission Gun-Scanning Transmission Election Microscopy (FEG-STEM), the stress corrosion susceptibility was measured by constant extension rate tests (CERT) in light water reactor environments, some estimate of irradiated strength was available and the irradiation was conducted in a power reactor. The data base was analyzed using advanced data analysis techniques, including tree-structured pattern recognition and transformation analysis codes. The most sensitive variables and optimal modeling forms were identified using these techniques, then preliminary models were calibrated using nonlinear least squares. The results suggest that more than one mechanism causes IASCC.

  7. Radiation-induced uterine changes: MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Arrive, L.; Chang, Y.C.; Hricak, H.; Brescia, R.J.; Auffermann, W.; Quivey, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    To assess the capability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to demonstrate postirradiation changes in the uterus, MR studies of 23 patients who had undergone radiation therapy were retrospectively examined and compared with those of 30 patients who had not undergone radiation therapy. MR findings were correlated with posthysterectomy histologic findings. In premenopausal women, radiation therapy induced (a) a decrease in uterine size demonstrable as early as 3 months after therapy ended; (b) a decrease in signal intensity of the myometrium on T2-predominant MR images, reflecting a significant decrease in T2 relaxation time, demonstrable as early as 1 month after therapy; (c) a decrease in thickness and signal intensity of the endometrium demonstrable on T2-predominant images 6 months after therapy; and (d) loss of uterine zonal anatomy as early as 3 months after therapy. In postmenopausal women, irradiation did not significantly alter the MR imaging appearance of the uterus. These postirradiation MR changes in both the premenopausal and postmenopausal uteri appeared similar to the changes ordinarily seen on MR images of the nonirradiated postmenopausal uterus.

  8. Theory Of Radiation-Induced Attenuation In Optical Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tsuen-Hsi; Johnston, Alan R.

    1996-01-01

    Improved theory of radiation-induced attenuation of light in optical fibers accounts for effects of dose rates. Based on kinetic aspects of fundamental physics of color centers induced in optical fibers by radiation. Induced attenuation is proportional to density of color centers, and part of this density decays by thermal-annealing/recombination process after irradiation.

  9. Electron beam-induced formation of crystalline nanoparticle chains from amorphous cadmium hydroxide nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Stoychev, Georgi V; Okhrimenko, Denis V; Appelhans, Dietmar; Voit, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) and especially quantum dot arrays have been attracting tremendous attention due to their potential applications in various high-tech devices, including QD lasers, solar cells, single photon emitters, QD memories, etc. Here, a dendrimer-based approach for the controlled synthesis of ultra-thin amorphous cadmium hydroxide nanofibers was developed. The fragmentation of the obtained nanofibers in crystalline nanoparticle chains under the irradiation with electron beam was observed in both ambient and cryo-conditions. Based on the experimental results, a model for the formation of amorphous nanofibers, as well as their transformation in crystalline nanoparticle chains is proposed. We foresee that these properties of the nanofibers, combined with the possibility to convert cadmium hydroxide into CdX (X=O, S, Se, Te), could result in a new method for the preparation of 2D and 3D QDs-arrays with numerous potential applications in high performance devices. PMID:26397918

  10. Alpha-decay-induced fracturing in zircon - The transition from the crystalline to the metamict state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Murakami, Takashi; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    1987-01-01

    Zonation due to alpha-decay damage in a natural single crystal of zircon from Sri Lanka is discussed. The zones vary in thickness on a scale from one to hundreds of microns. The uranium and thorium concentrations vary from zone to zone such that the alpha decay dose is between 0.2 x 10 to the 16th and 0.8 x 10 to the 16th alpha-events per milligram. The transition from the crystalline to the aperiodic metamict state occurs over this dose range. At doses greater than 0.8 x 10 to the 16th alpha events/mg there is no evidence for long-range order. This type of damage will accumulate in actinide-bearing, ceramic nuclear waste forms. The systematic pattern of fractures would occur in crystalline phases that are zoned with respect to actinide radionuclides.

  11. PREDICTING RADIATION-INDUCED VALVULAR HEART DAMAGE

    PubMed Central

    Cella, Laura; Oh, Jung Hun; Deasy, Joseph O; Palma, Giuseppe; Liuzzi, Raffaele; D’Avino, Vittoria; Conson, Manuel; Picardi, Marco; Salvatore, Marco; Pacelli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background To develop a predictive multivariate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for radiation-induced heart valvular damage (RVD). The influence of combined heart-lung irradiation on RVD development was included. Methods and Materials Multivariate logistic regression modeling with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) was used to build an NTCP model to predict RVD based on a cohort of 90 Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated with sequential chemo-radiation therapy. In addition to heart irradiation factors, clinical variables, along with left and right lung dose-volume histogram statistics, were included in the analysis. To avoid overfitting, 10-fold cross validation (CV) was used for LASSO logistic regression modeling, with 50 reshuffled cycles. Model performance was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) and Spearman’s correlation coefficient (Rs). Results At a median follow-up time of 55 months (range, 12–92 months) after the end of radiation treatment, twenty-seven out of 90 patients (30%) manifested at least one kind of RVD (mild or moderate), with a higher incidence of left-sided valve defects (64%). Fourteen prognostic factors were frequently selected (more than 100/500 model fits) by LASSO, which included mainly heart and left lung dosimetric variables along with their volume variables. The averaged cross-validated performance was AUC-CV = 0.685 and Rs = 0.293. The overall performance of a final NTCP model for RVD obtained applying LASSO logistic regression to the full dataset was satisfactory (AUC= 0.84, Rs= 0.55, p < 0.001). Conclusion LASSO proved to be an improved and flexible modeling method for variable selection. Applying LASSO, we showed, for the first time, the importance of jointly considering left lung irradiation and left lung volume size in the prediction of subclinical radiation related heart disease resulting in RVD. PMID:25800857

  12. Investigations on the liquid crystalline phases of cation-induced condensed DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, C. K. S.; Sundaresan, Neethu; Radhakrishnan Pillai, M.; Thomas, T.; Thomas, T. J.

    2005-10-01

    Viral and nonviral condensing agents are used in gene therapy to compact oligonucleotides and plasmid DNA into nanostructures for their efficient transport through the cell membranes. Whereas viral vectors are best by the toxic effects on the immune system, most of the nonviral delivery vehicles are not effective for use in clinical system. Recent investigations indicate that the supramolecular organization of DNA in the condensed state is liquid crystalline. The present level of understanding of the liquid crystalline phase of DNA is inadequate and a thorough investigation is required to understand the nature, stability, texture and the influence of various environmental conditions on the structure of the phase. The present study is mainly concerned with the physico-chemical investigations on the liquid crystalline transitions during compaction of DNA by cationic species such as polyamines and metallic cations. As a preliminary to the above investigation, studies were conducted on the evolution of mesophase transitions of DNA with various cationic counterion species using polarized light microscopy. These studies indicated significant variations in the phase behaviour of DNA in the presence of Li and other ions. Apart from the neutralization of the charges on the DNA molecule, these ions are found to influence selectively the hydration sphere of DNA that in turn influences the induction and stabilization of the LC phases. The higher stability observed with the liquid crystalline phases of Li--DNA system could be useful in the production of nanostructured DNA. In the case of the polyamine, a structural specificity effect depending on the nature, charge and structure of the polyamine used has been found to be favoured in the crystallization of DNA.

  13. Ion beam induced luminescence: Relevance to radiation induced bystander effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S. B.; McNeill, F. E.; Byun, S. H.; Prestwich, W. V.; Seymour, C.; Mothersill, C. E.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work is quantify the light emitted as a result of charged particle interaction in materials which may be of relevance to radiation induced "bystander effects" studies. We have developed a system which employs single photon counting to measure the light emitted from samples irradiated under vacuum by a charged particle beam. The system uses a fast photomultiplier tube with a peak cathode response at 420 nm. It has been tested in a proof-of-principle experiment using polystyrene targets. Light output, as a result of irradiation, was measured. The luminescence yield appears to have a non-linear behavior with the incident ion fluence: it rises exponentially to an asymptotic value. The target was irradiated with beam energies varying from 1 to 2 MeV and showed saturation at or before an incident fluence rate of 3 1013 H+/cm2 s. The average saturation value for the photon output was found to be 40 106 cps. Some measurements were performed using filters to study the emission at specific wavelengths. In the case of filtered light measurements, the photon output was found to saturate at 28 103, 10 106, and 35 106 cps for wavelengths of 280 5 nm, 320 5 nm and 340 5 nm respectively. The light output reaches a maximum value because of damage induced in the polymer. Our measurements indicate a "damage cross section" of the order of 10-14 cm2. The average radiant intensity was found to increase at wavelengths of 280 and 320 nm when the proton energy was increased. This was not found to occur at 340 nm. In conclusion, the light emission at specific wavelengths was found to depend upon the incident proton fluence and the proton energy. The wavelengths of the emitted light measured in this study have significance for the understanding of radiation induced bystander effects.

  14. Transcriptional regulation of crystallin, redox, and apoptotic genes by C-Phycocyanin in the selenite-induced cataractogenic rat model

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Rasiah Pratheepa; Ramkumar, Srinivasagan; Thankappan, Bency; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy; Balaji, Sadhasivam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to examine the constrictive potential of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC) in regulating changes imposed on gene expression in the selenite-induced cataract model. Methods Wistar rat pups were divided into three groups of eight each. On P10, Group I received an intraperitoneal injection of normal saline. Groups II and III received a subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (19 ?mol/kg bodyweight); Group III also received an intraperitoneal injection of C-PC (200 mg/kg bodyweight) on P914. Total RNA was isolated on P16, and the relative abundance of mRNA of the crystallin structural genes, redox components, and apoptotic cascade were ascertained with real-time PCR with reference to the internal control ?-actin. Results Real-time PCR analysis showed the crystallin genes (?A-, ?B1-, ?D-) and redox cycle components (Cat, SOD-1, Gpx) were downregulated, the apoptotic components were upregulated, and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 was downregulated in Group II. Treatment with 200 mg/kg bodyweight C-PC (Group III) transcriptionally regulated the instability of the expression of these genes, thus ensuring C-PC is a prospective anticataractogenic agent that probably delays the onset and progression of cataractogenesis induced by sodium selenite. Conclusions C-PC treatment possibly prevented cataractogenesis triggered by sodium selenite, by regulating the lens crystallin, redox genes, and apoptotic cascade mRNA expression and thus maintains lens transparency. C-PC may be developed as a potential antioxidant compound applied in the future to prevent and treat age-related cataract. PMID:25593511

  15. Delocalization of femtosecond laser radiation in crystalline Si in the mid-IR range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavedeev, E. V.; Kononenko, V. V.; Konov, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    The strong delocalization of the energy of femtosecond pulses in silicon appears to be an essential factor for preventing laser damage inside a crystal and seemingly excludes the possibility of direct laser writing in the bulk, at least in the one- and two-photon absorption (1 PA and 2 PA) wavelength regions. Previously, the prefocal depletion of the pulse energy and laser-induced free-carrier plasma defocusing of the light were considered to be the main causes of the unlocalized dissipation of light energy. Here, we consider whether the delocalization could be significantly reduced by using longer wavelengths, at which the role of 1 PA and 2 PA decreases and higher orders of nonlinearity come into play. We numerically simulate propagation of focused femtosecond pulses at a wavelength of 1.25.25 ?m. Plasma defocusing was found to be the crucial delocalization mechanism that prevents the enhancement of material excitation, even in the five-photon absorption region.

  16. X-ray scattering and diffraction from ion beam induced ripples in crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich; Grenzer, Joerg; Hanisch, Antje; Facsko, Stefan; Carbone, Geradina; Metzger, Till Hartmut

    2008-08-15

    We report on periodic ripple formation on Si(001) surfaces after bombardment with Xe{sup +} ions with energies between 5 and 35 keV under incidence angles of 65 deg. and 70 deg. The sputter process leads to the formation of a rippled amorphous surface layer, followed by a rippled interface toward crystalline material. Using grazing-incidence small-angle scattering and diffraction, we show that the surface morphology is exactly reproduced at the interface. In addition, we observe that the crystal lattice close to the interface is anisotropically expanded. The lattice expansion parallel to the ripples is larger than those perpendicular to them.

  17. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    SciTech Connect

    Bozzola, A. Kowalczewski, P.; Andreani, L. C.

    2014-03-07

    Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged as an alternative to standard thick wafers technology, but they are less efficient, because of incomplete absorption of sunlight, and non-radiative recombinations. In this paper, we focus on the case of crystalline silicon (c-Si) devices, and we present a full analytic electro-optical model for p-n junction solar cells with Lambertian light trapping. This model is validated against numerical solutions of the drift-diffusion equations. We use this model to investigate the interplay between light trapping, and bulk and surface recombination. Special attention is paid to surface recombination processes, which become more important in thinner devices. These effects are further amplified due to the textures required for light trapping, which lead to increased surface area. We show that c-Si solar cells with thickness of a few microns can overcome 20% efficiency and outperform bulk ones when light trapping is implemented. The optimal device thickness in presence of light trapping, bulk and surface recombination, is quantified to be in the range of 1080??m, depending on the bulk quality. These results hold, provided the effective surface recombination is kept below a critical level of the order of 100?cm/s. We discuss the possibility of meeting this requirement, in the context of state-of-the-art techniques for light trapping and surface passivation. We show that our predictions are within the capability of present day silicon technologies.

  18. Laser-Induced Forward Transfer-printing of focused ion beam pre-machined crystalline magneto-optic yttrium iron garnet micro-discs.

    PubMed

    Sones, C L; Feinaeugle, M; Sposito, A; Gholipour, B; Eason, R W

    2012-07-01

    We present femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer of focused ion beam pre-machined discs of crystalline magneto-optic yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films. Debris-free circular micro-discs with smooth edges and surface uniformity have been successfully printed. The crystalline nature of the printed micro-discs has not been altered by the LIFT printing process, as was confirmed via micro-Raman measurements. PMID:22772215

  19. Obstructive jaundice due to radiation-induced hepatic duct stricture

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekhara, K.L.; Iyer, S.K.

    1984-10-01

    A case of obstructive jaundice due to radiation-induced hepatic duct stricture is reported. The patient received postoperative radiation for left adrenal carcinoma, seven years prior to this admission. The sequelae of hepatobiliary radiation and their management are discussed briefly.

  20. Annealing kinetics of nanoindentation-induced polycrystalline high pressure phases in crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, S.; Bradby, J. E.; Williams, J. S.

    2007-03-01

    Transformation kinetics of nanoindented zones in silicon containing high pressure crystalline phases (Si III and Si XII) during annealing (100°C

  1. Temperature-induced reversible self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide and the structural transition from organogel to crystalline nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide (FF) into various nanoarchitectures has received great amounts of attention in recent years. Here, we report the temperature-induced reversible self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptide to microtubes, nanowires, or organogel in different solvents. We also find that the organogel in isopropanol transforms into crystalline flakes or nanowires when the temperature increases. The reversible self-assembly in polar solvents may be mainly controlled by electronic and aromatic interactions between the FF molecules themselves, which is associated with the dissociation equilibrium and significantly influenced by temperature. We found that the organogel in the isopropanol solvent made a unique transition to crystalline structures, a process that is driven by temperature and may be kinetically controlled. During the heating-cooling process, FF preferentially self-assembles to metastable nanofibers and organogel. They further transform to thermodynamically stable crystal structures via molecular rearrangement after introducing an external energy, such as the increasing temperature used in this study. The strategy demonstrated in this study provides an efficient way to controllably fabricate smart, temperature-responsive peptide nanomaterials and enriches the understanding of the growth mechanism of diphenylalanine peptide nanostructures. PMID:25520600

  2. Effects of ELL-associated factor 2 on ultraviolet radiation-induced cataract formation in mice

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, YANHUA; FU, RONGRONG; ZHAO, JIANGYUE; WU, DI; QIAO, GUANG; LI, RUOXI; ZHANG, JINSONG

    2015-01-01

    ELL-associated factor 2 (Eaf2) has an important role in crystalline lens development and maturation; however, its role in ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced cataract formation has remained elusive. The present study compared UV-induced cell apoptosis, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and changes in protein expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2), bcl-2-associated X protein (bax) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase in wild-type and Eaf2-knockout mice. The results showed that Eaf2 knockout can reduce UV-induced apoptosis in crystalline lenses and mitigate the formation of cataracts. Further functional studies indicated that Eaf2 can induce the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, increase the protein expression of the pro-apoptotic protein bax and inhibit the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2; thereby, Eaf2 promotes cell apoptosis and is implicated in the formation and development of cataracts. The present study laid a theoretical foundation for the development of drugs for cataract treatment. PMID:26328919

  3. Formation of titanium monoxide (001) single-crystalline thin film induced by ion bombardment of titanium dioxide (110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabón, B. M.; Beltrán, J. I.; Sánchez-Santolino, G.; Palacio, I.; López-Sánchez, J.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Rojo, J. M.; Ferrer, P.; Mascaraque, A.; Muñoz, M. C.; Varela, M.; Castro, G. R.; de La Fuente, O. Rodríguez

    2015-02-01

    A plethora of technological applications justify why titanium dioxide is probably the most studied oxide, and an optimal exploitation of its properties quite frequently requires a controlled modification of the surface. Low-energy ion bombardment is one of the most extended techniques for this purpose and has been recently used in titanium oxides, among other applications, to favour resistive switching mechanisms or to form transparent conductive layers. Surfaces modified in this way are frequently described as reduced and defective, with a high density of oxygen vacancies. Here we show, at variance with this view, that high ion doses on rutile titanium dioxide (110) induce its transformation into a nanometric and single-crystalline titanium monoxide (001) thin film with rocksalt structure. The discovery of this ability may pave the way to new technical applications of ion bombardment not previously reported, which can be used to fabricate heterostructures and interfaces.

  4. Impurity induced crystallinity and optical emissions in ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, N. R.; Acharya, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the growth of ZnO nanocrystallites doped with impurities such as B, N and S by green chemistry route using ultrasound. The effect of intrinsic defects and impurity doping on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures has been studied and discussed. Characterization studies carried out using x-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the change in lattice parameters and crystallinity of ZnO in the presence of dopant. This has been explained on the basis of the dopant substitution at regular anion and interstitial sites. Study on surface morphology by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) shows a change from particle-like structure to aligned nanorods nucleated at definite sites. Elemental analysis such as x-ray photon electron spectroscopy (XPS) has been carried out to ascertain the dopant configuration in ZnO. This has been corroborated by the results obtained from FTIR and Raman studies. UV-vis light absorption and PL studies show an expansion of the band gap which has been explained on the basis of Moss-Burstein shift in the electronic band gap of ZnO by impurity incorporation. The optical emissions corresponding to excitonic transition and defect centres present in the band gap of ZnO is found to shift towards lower/higher wavelength sides. New PL bands observed have been assigned to the transitions related to the impurity states present in the band gap of ZnO along with intrinsic defects.

  5. Formation of crystalline ?-Al2O3 induced by variable substrate biasing during reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prenzel, M.; Kortmann, A.; von Keudell, A.; Nahif, F.; Schneider, J. M.; Shihab, M.; Brinkmann, R. P.

    2013-02-01

    Reactive magnetron sputtering is a widely used technique to deposit various materials such as oxides and nitrides with a superior control of morphology and stoichiometry. The adjustment of the film properties at a given substrate temperature is believed to be affected by the average energy per incorporated atom during film growth, which is controlled by the ion-to-neutral ratio in the film forming growth flux and the energy of the incident ions. This concept is tested for alumina growth in an rf-magnetron discharge by keeping , the average energy of the incident ions Eions, and the ion-to-neutral flux ratio constant, but varying only the energy distribution of the incident ions (ion energy distribution-IED). The influence of the IED on film growth is monitored by observing the transition of the films between x-ray amorphous Al2O3 to ?-Al2O3. The results reveal that the substrate temperature necessary for the transition to ?-crystalline films can be lowered by almost 100 C, when the maximum energy of the incident ions is kept at 100 eV, while maintaining the energy per incorporated atom at 11 eV. This result is compared with TRIM calculations for the collision cascades of impacting ions.

  6. Contact-induced crystallinity for high-performance soluble acene-based transistors and circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, D. J.; Royer, J. E.; Park, S. K.; Subramanian, S.; Jurchescu, O. D.; Hamadani, B. H.; Moad, A. J.; Kline, R. J.; Teague, L. C.; Kirillov, O.; Richter, C. A.; Kushmerick, J. G.; Richter, L. J.; Parkin, S. R.; Jackson, T. N.; Anthony, J. E.

    2008-03-01

    The use of organic materials presents a tremendous opportunity to significantly impact the functionality and pervasiveness of large-area electronics. Commercialization of this technology requires reduction in manufacturing costs by exploiting inexpensive low-temperature deposition and patterning techniques, which typically lead to lower device performance. We report a low-cost approach to control the microstructure of solution-cast acene-based organic thin films through modification of interfacial chemistry. Chemically and selectively tailoring the source/drain contact interface is a novel route to initiating the crystallization of soluble organic semiconductors, leading to the growth on opposing contacts of crystalline films that extend into the transistor channel. This selective crystallization enables us to fabricate high-performance organic thin-film transistors and circuits, and to deterministically study the influence of the microstructure on the device characteristics. By connecting device fabrication to molecular design, we demonstrate that rapid film processing under ambient room conditions and high performance are not mutually exclusive.

  7. Strain-induced partially flat band, helical snake states and interface superconductivity in topological crystalline insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Evelyn; Fu, Liang

    2014-12-01

    Topological crystalline insulators in IV-VI compounds host novel topological surface states consisting of multi-valley massless Dirac fermions at low energy. Here we show that strain generically acts as an effective gauge field on these Dirac fermions and creates pseudo-Landau orbitals without breaking time-reversal symmetry. We predict the realization of this phenomenon in IV-VI semiconductor heterostructures, due to a naturally occurring misfit dislocation array at the interface that produces a periodically varying strain field. Remarkably, the zero-energy Landau orbitals form a flat band in the vicinity of the Dirac point, and coexist with a network of snake states at higher energy. We propose that the high density of states of this flat band gives rise to interface superconductivity observed in IV-VI semiconductor multilayers at unusually high temperatures, with non-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer behaviour. Our work demonstrates a new route to altering macroscopic electronic properties to achieve a partially flat band, and provides a starting point for realizing novel correlated states of matter.

  8. Prediction of Charge-Induced Molecular Alignment of Biomolecules Dissolved in Dilute Liquid-Crystalline Phases

    PubMed Central

    Zweckstetter, Markus; Hummer, Gerhard; Bax, Ad

    2004-01-01

    Alignment of macromolecules in nearly neutral aqueous lyotropic liquid-crystalline media such as bicelles, commonly used in macromolecular NMR studies, can be predicted accurately by a steric obstruction model (Zweckstetter and Bax, 2000). A simple extension of this model is described that results in improved predictions for both the alignment orientation and magnitude of protein and DNA solutes in charged nematic media, such as the widely used medium of filamentous phage Pf1. The extended model approximates the electrostatic interaction between a solute and an ordered phage particle as that between the solute's surface charges and the electric field of the phage. The model is evaluated for four different proteins and a DNA oligomer. Results indicate that alignment in charged nematic media is a function not only of the solute's shape, but also of its electric multipole moments of net charge, dipole, and quadrupole. The relative importance of these terms varies greatly from one macromolecule to another, and evaluation of the experimental data indicates that these terms scale differently with ionic strength. For several of the proteins, the calculated alignment is sensitive to the precise position of the charged groups on the protein surface. This suggests that NMR alignment measurements can potentially be used to probe protein electrostatics. Inclusion of electrostatic interactions in addition to steric effects makes the extended model applicable to all liquid crystals used in biological NMR to date. PMID:15189846

  9. Radiation induces senescence and a bystander effect through metabolic alterations.

    PubMed

    Liao, E-C; Hsu, Y-T; Chuah, Q-Y; Lee, Y-J; Hu, J-Y; Huang, T-C; Yang, P-M; Chiu, S-J

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest; however, the metabolic processes of senescent cells remain active. Our previous studies have shown that radiation induces senescence of human breast cancer cells that display low expression of securin, a protein involved in control of the metaphase-anaphase transition and anaphase onset. In this study, the protein expression profile of senescent cells was resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to investigate associated metabolic alterations. We found that radiation induced the expression and activation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that has an important role in glycolysis. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase A, which is involved in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, the release of lactate and the acidification of the extracellular environment, was also induced. Inhibition of glycolysis by dichloroacetate attenuated radiation-induced senescence. In addition, radiation also induced activation of the 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) pathways to promote senescence. We also found that radiation increased the expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) that facilitates the export of lactate into the extracellular environment. Inhibition of glycolysis or the AMPK/NF-?B signalling pathways reduced MCT1 expression and rescued the acidification of the extracellular environment. Interestingly, these metabolic-altering signalling pathways were also involved in radiation-induced invasion of the surrounding, non-irradiated breast cancer and normal endothelial cells. Taken together, radiation can induce the senescence of human breast cancer cells through metabolic alterations. PMID:24853433

  10. Swelling characteristics of konjac glucomannan superabsobent synthesized by radiation-induced graft copolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jia; Deng, Xiao; Lin, Xiangyang

    2013-02-01

    Graft copolymerization of konjac glucomannan (KGM) and acrylic acid was induced by 60Co-γ irradiation at room temperature. The effects of radiation dose and monomer-to-KGM ratio on grafting yield and equilibrium water absorbency were investigated. The KGM-based superabsorbent polymer (KSAP) could absorb water 625 times of its dry weight when the radiation dose was 5.0 kGy and monomer-to-KGM ratio was 5. The structure of KSAP was characterized by FTIR, XRD, and SEM. KSAP showed a lower crystallinity than KGM. The porous microstructure of KSAP was revealed by SEM. The diffusion mechanism of water in the hydrogel is consistent with the anomalous diffusion model. Cations, especially multivalent cations, greatly reduced water absorbency of KSAP. Rising temperature, acidic or basic solutions are not favorable for the swelling of KSAP.

  11. Plasma-assisted synthesis and pressure-induced structural transition of single-crystalline SnSe nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian Zhang, Affa; Zhu, Hongyang; Wu, Xiaoxin; Cui, Hang; Li, Dongmei; Jiang, Junru; Gao, Chunxiao; Wang, Qiushi; Cui, Qiliang

    2015-06-01

    Two-dimensional tin selenide (SnSe) nanosheets were synthesized using a plasma-assisted direct current arc discharge method. The structural characterization indicates that the nanosheets are single-crystalline with an average thickness of ~25 nm and a lateral dimension of ~500 nm. The high pressure behaviors of the as-synthesized SnSe nanosheets were investigated by in situ high-pressure synchrotron angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering up to ~30 GPa in diamond anvil cells at room temperature. A second-order isostructural continuous phase transition (Pnma --> Cmcm) was observed at ~7 GPa, which is considerably lower than the transition pressure of bulk SnSe. The reduction of transition pressure is induced by the volumetric expansion with softening of the Poisson ratio and shear modulus. Moreover, the measured zero-pressure bulk modulus of the SnSe nanosheets coincides with bulk SnSe. This abnormal phenomenon is attributed to the unique intrinsic geometry in the nanosheets. The high-pressure bulk modulus is considerably higher than the theoretical value. The pressure-induced morphology change should be responsible for the improved bulk modulus.Two-dimensional tin selenide (SnSe) nanosheets were synthesized using a plasma-assisted direct current arc discharge method. The structural characterization indicates that the nanosheets are single-crystalline with an average thickness of ~25 nm and a lateral dimension of ~500 nm. The high pressure behaviors of the as-synthesized SnSe nanosheets were investigated by in situ high-pressure synchrotron angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering up to ~30 GPa in diamond anvil cells at room temperature. A second-order isostructural continuous phase transition (Pnma --> Cmcm) was observed at ~7 GPa, which is considerably lower than the transition pressure of bulk SnSe. The reduction of transition pressure is induced by the volumetric expansion with softening of the Poisson ratio and shear modulus. Moreover, the measured zero-pressure bulk modulus of the SnSe nanosheets coincides with bulk SnSe. This abnormal phenomenon is attributed to the unique intrinsic geometry in the nanosheets. The high-pressure bulk modulus is considerably higher than the theoretical value. The pressure-induced morphology change should be responsible for the improved bulk modulus. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02131f

  12. Acid-induced dissociation of alpha A- and alpha B-crystallin homopolymers.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, A; Augusteyn, R C

    1993-01-01

    Homopolymers were constructed from the alpha A and alpha B polypeptides isolated from the lens protein alpha-crystallin. As the pH is lowered from 7.0 to 3.4, these homopolymers dissociate to smaller species with molecular masses ranging from 80 to 250 kDa for the alpha A and around 140 kDa for the alpha B dissociation products. The pKa for this dissociation was 3.8 +/- 0.2 for alpha A and 4.1 +/- 0.1 for alpha B homopolymers. Further decreases in pH, to 2.5, resulted in the presence of only denatured alpha B polypeptides, whereas the alpha A dissociation products remained intact. Fractionation of the acid dissociation products from the alpha A homopolymer at pH 2.5 yielded stable species with molecular masses of 220 +/- 30, 160 +/- 20, and 90 +/- 10 kDa. The majority of the population at acid pH consisted of the 160 kDa species. Conformational analysis of these species revealed that most of the secondary structure of the original alpha A homopolymer was retained but that the tertiary structure was perturbed. Fluorescence quenching and energy transfer measurements suggested that the molecule had undergone acid expansion, with the greatest perturbation observed in the smallest particles. The results from this work suggest that alpha A homopolymers are heterogeneous populations of aggregates of a "monomeric" molecule with a molecular mass of 160 kDa. This "monomeric" molecule may be formed from the association of two tetrameric units. PMID:8274652

  13. Ionizing radiation induces myofibroblast differentiation via lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Judge, J L; Owens, K M; Pollock, S J; Woeller, C F; Thatcher, T H; Williams, J P; Phipps, R P; Sime, P J; Kottmann, R M

    2015-10-15

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a common and dose-limiting side-effect of ionizing radiation used to treat cancers of the thoracic region. Few effective therapies are available for this disease. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by an accumulation of myofibroblasts and excess deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. Although prior studies have reported that ionizing radiation induces fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation and collagen production, the mechanism remains unclear. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is a key profibrotic cytokine that drives myofibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix production. However, its activation and precise role in radiation-induced fibrosis are poorly understood. Recently, we reported that lactate activates latent TGF-? through a pH-dependent mechanism. Here, we wanted to test the hypothesis that ionizing radiation leads to excessive lactate production via expression of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDHA) to promote myofibroblast differentiation. We found that LDHA expression is increased in human and animal lung tissue exposed to ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that ionizing radiation induces LDHA, lactate production, and extracellular acidification in primary human lung fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. We also demonstrate that genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of LDHA protects against radiation-induced myofibroblast differentiation. Furthermore, LDHA inhibition protects from radiation-induced activation of TGF-?. We propose a profibrotic feed forward loop, in which radiation induces LDHA expression and lactate production, which can lead to further activation of TGF-? to drive the fibrotic process. These studies support the concept of LDHA as an important therapeutic target in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:26254422

  14. Radiation-induced pulmonary change: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Libshitz, H.I.; Shuman, L.S.

    1984-02-01

    Four patterns of radiation change in the lung were identified in 53 computed tomographic studies of 41 patients at various times following completion of radiotherapy. (a) The homogeneous pattern shows slight increase in density uniformly involving irradiated portions of lung and is believed to represent a diffuse, minimal radiation pneumonitis. (b) Patchy consolidation is contained within irradiated lung but does not conform to the shape of the radiation field. It is analogous to radiation pneumonitis seen on chest radiographs. (c) Discrete consolidation that conforms to the radiation portal but does not uniformly involve it has several possible analogues. (d) Solid consolidation totally involves the irradiated lung and contains ectatic bronchi within it. This finding is analogous to radiation fibrosis. The temporal sequence and dose relationships of these appearances are discussed and related to those seen with conventional studies.

  15. The influence of crystallinity degree on the glycine decomposition induced by 1 MeV proton bombardment in space analog conditions.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Sergio; Mendes, Luiz A V; Bordalo, Vinicius; Guaman, Christian F M; Ponciano, Cssia R; da Silveira, Enio F

    2013-01-01

    Glycine is the simplest proteinaceous amino acid and is present in all life-forms on Earth. In aqueous solutions, it appears mainly as zwitterion glycine (+NH3CH2COO-); however, in solid phase, it may be found in amorphous or crystalline (?, ?, and ?) forms. The crystalline forms differ from each other by the packing of zwitterions in the unitary cells and by the number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. This molecular species has been extensively detected in carbonaceous meteorites and was recently observed in the cometary samples returned to Earth by NASA's Stardust spacecraft. In space, glycine is exposed to several radiation fields at different temperatures. We present an experimental study on the destruction of zwitterionic glycine crystals at room temperature by 1 MeV protons, in which the dependence of the destruction rates of the ?-glycine and ?-glycine crystals on bombardment fluence is investigated. The samples were analyzed in situ by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry at different proton fluences. The experiments occurred under ultrahigh vacuum conditions at the Van de Graaff accelerator lab at the Pontifical Catholic University at Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Brazil. For low fluences, the dissociation cross section of ?-glycine was observed to be 2.510(-14) cm2, a value roughly 5 times higher than the dissociation cross section found for ?-glycine. The estimated half-lives of ?-glycine and ?-glycine zwitterionic forms extrapolated to the Earth orbit environment are 910(5) and 410(6) years, respectively. In the diffuse interstellar medium the estimated values are 1 order of magnitude lower. These results suggest that pristine interstellar ?-glycine is the one most likely to survive the hostile environments of space radiation. A small feature around 1650-1700?cm(-1), tentatively attributed to an amide functional group, was observed in the IR spectra of irradiated samples, suggesting that cosmic rays may induce peptide bond synthesis in glycine crystals. Combining this finding with the fact that this form has the highest solubility among the other glycine polymorphs, we suggest that ?-glycine is the one most likely to have produced the first peptides on primitive Earth. PMID:23249407

  16. Microscopic Effects of Shock Metamorphism in Crystalline Rocks Correlated With Shock Induced Changes in Density, Haughton Impact Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, A. C.; Osinski, G.; Moser, D.

    2009-05-01

    Asteroid and comet impacts are an important geological process on all solid planetary bodies, including Earth, and involve pressures and temperatures that may reach several hundred GPa and several thousand K [1] over very limited spatial and temporal scales. This results in shock metamorphism and alters the target material on both megascopic and microscopic scales [2]. Many shock metamorphic features are unique to hypervelocity impact environments and are, therefore, diagnostic of such an event [1,2]. Of particular interest for this study is the effect of hypervelocity impact on the density of the target material. In the case of crystalline target rocks, shock metamorphism results in an increase of pore space and impact induced fractures which act to decrease the density. The Haughton impact structure is a well-preserved late Eocene (39 ± 2 Ma) complex impact structure, situated near the western end of Devon Island (75°22'N, 89°41'W) [3]. The geology of the area consists of a sedimentary sequence unconformably overlying crystalline Precambrian gneisses of the Canadian Shield. Since the impact, Devon Island has remained tectonically stable and Haughton remains well-preserved despite being subjected to several glaciations. The excellent preservation of the structure is largely due to the primarily cold and relatively dry environment that has existed in the Arctic since the Eocene [3]. Samples of crystalline material were collected from 36 sites within the impact breccia unit of the Haughton impact structure. These samples display a wide range of density and physical appearance. The type of shock effect(s) created depends upon the pressures and temperatures involved as well as the composition, density and material's location in the target. The samples found in the Haughton impact structure show a wide range of shock effects and thus were exposed to a variety of different conditions likely due to their in-situ positions relative to the impact. Polished thin sections from a representative selection of shocked and unshocked Precambrian gneiss from the Haughton impact structure were investigated in transmitted light with a petrographic microscope and each sample was assigned a shock level based on the identification of shock features. Features identified include kink banding in mica, planar deformation features in quarts and feldspar, and partial or complete melting of various minerals. The density of each sample was also measured. Preliminary results suggest a correlation between decreasing density and increasing shock level. These results may be important not only for understanding shock metamorphism, but also for astrobiology. Impact- induced density decreases in crystalline rocks present opportunities for microbial colonization that would not exist otherwise [4]. The colonization of the shocked material in craters represents a potential mechanism for pioneer organisms to invade an impact structure in the earliest stages of post-impact primary succession. This is a possible mechanism by which microbes may gain a foothold on planetary surfaces that do not have other hospitable habitats. This may be of particular relevance to Mars [4]. [1] Langenhorst, F., Bulletin of the Czech Geo. Survey, 2002. 77, (4): p. 265-282. [2] Therriault, A.M. et al. Bul- letin of the Czech Geo. Survey, 2002. 77, (4): p. 253-263. [3] Stöffler, D. (1971) Journal of Geo-physical Research, 79, (23) [4] Cockell, C.S. et al. Met. & Pl. Sci., 2002. 37, p. 1287-1298.

  17. Reorientation of the crystalline planes in confined single crystal nickel nanorods induced by heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Abha; Tyagi, Pawan K.; Rai, Padmnabh; Misra, D. S.; Ghatak, Jay; Satyam, P. V.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2006-08-01

    In a recent letter Tyagi et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253110 (2005)] have reported the special orientation of nickel planes inside multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with respect to the tube axis. Heavy ion irradiation has been performed with 1.5MeV Au2+ and 100MeV Au7+ ions on these nickel filled MWCNTs at fluences ranging from 1012to1015ions/cm2 at room temperature. Ion-induced modifications have been studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The diffraction pattern and the lattice imaging showed the presence of ion-induced planar defects on the tube walls and completely amorphized encapsulated nickel nanorods. The results are discussed in terms of thermal spike model.

  18. Induced Compton-scattering effects in radiation-transport approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D.R. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The method of characteristics is used to solve radiation transport problems with induced Compton scattering effects included. The methods used to date have only addressed problems in which either induced Compton scattering is ignored, or problems in which linear scattering is ignored. Also, problems which include both induced Compton scattering and spatial effects have not been considered previously. The introduction of induced scattering into the radiation transport equation results in a quadratic nonlinearity. Methods are developed to solve problems in which both linear and nonlinear Compton scattering are important. Solutions to scattering problems are found for a variety of initial photon energy distributions.

  19. Radiation-induced charge trapping in bipolar base oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Riewe, L.C.; Witczak, Schrimpf, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    Capacitance-voltage and thermally stimulated current methods are used to investigate radiation induced charge trapping in bipolar base oxides. Results are compared with models of oxide and interface trap charge buildup at low electric fields.

  20. Plasma-assisted synthesis and pressure-induced structural transition of single-crystalline SnSe nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Zhu, Hongyang; Wu, Xiaoxin; Cui, Hang; Li, Dongmei; Jiang, Junru; Gao, Chunxiao; Wang, Qiushi; Cui, Qiliang

    2015-06-28

    Two-dimensional tin selenide (SnSe) nanosheets were synthesized using a plasma-assisted direct current arc discharge method. The structural characterization indicates that the nanosheets are single-crystalline with an average thickness of ~25 nm and a lateral dimension of 500 nm. The high pressure behaviors of the as-synthesized SnSe nanosheets were investigated by in situ high-pressure synchrotron angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering up to ~30 GPa in diamond anvil cells at room temperature. A second-order isostructural continuous phase transition (Pnma ? Cmcm) was observed at ~7 GPa, which is considerably lower than the transition pressure of bulk SnSe. The reduction of transition pressure is induced by the volumetric expansion with softening of the Poisson ratio and shear modulus. Moreover, the measured zero-pressure bulk modulus of the SnSe nanosheets coincides with bulk SnSe. This abnormal phenomenon is attributed to the unique intrinsic geometry in the nanosheets. The high-pressure bulk modulus is considerably higher than the theoretical value. The pressure-induced morphology change should be responsible for the improved bulk modulus. PMID:26269801

  1. Consideration on Na diffusion and recovery phenomena in potential-induced degradation for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Hara, Yukiko; Jonai, Sachiko

    2016-02-01

    Potential-induced degradation (PID), which brings about a large rapid decrease in output power has been observed in megawatt-scale photovoltaic power plants. Na diffusion from a cover glass to a cell through an encapsulant is possibly the direct origin of PID for p-type crystalline Si photovoltaic modules. On the other hand, PID is suppressed when using an ionomer encapsulant instead of a conventional ethylene vinyl acetate encapsulant. Some researchers consider that the reason is the suppression of Na diffusion when using an ionomer encapsulant. However, there has been no direct observation of Na diffusion behavior to the best of our knowledge for the modules prepared using an ionomer encapsulant. In this study it was found for the first time that Na diffuses in p-type multicrystalline Si photovoltaic modules prepared using an ionomer encapsulant without PID, suggesting that Na diffusion is not a sufficient condition for PID to occur. Another feature of PID is the recovery phenomenon induced by applying reverse voltage after PID occurs. In this study it was also found that reverse voltage application in the initial stage is effective for suppressing PID.

  2. Heavy-ion radiation induced bystander effect in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shujian; Sun, Yeqing; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Wei; Cui, Changna

    2012-07-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect is defined as the induction of damage in neighboring non-hit cells by signals released from directly-irradiated cells. Recently, Low dose of high LET radiation induced bystander effects in vivo have been reported more and more. It has been indicated that radiation induced bystander effect was localized not only in bystander tissues but also in distant organs. Genomic, epigenetic, metabolomics and proteomics play significant roles in regulating heavy-ion radiation stress responses in mice. To identify the molecular mechanism that underlies bystander effects of heavy-ion radiation, the male mice head were exposed to 2000mGy dose of 12C heavy-ion radiation and the distant organ liver was detected on 1h, 6h, 12h and 24h after radiation, respectively. MSAP was used to monitor the level of polymorphic DNA methylation changes. The results show that heavy-ion irradiate mouse head can induce liver DNA methylation changes significantly. The percent of DNA methylation changes are time-dependent and highest at 6h after radiation. We also prove that the hypo-methylation changes on 1h and 6h after irradiation. But the expression level of DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a is not changed. UPLC/Synapt HDMS G2 was employed to detect the proteomics of bystander liver 1h after irradiation. 64 proteins are found significantly different between treatment and control group. GO process show that six of 64 which were unique in irradiation group are associated with apoptosis and DNA damage response. The results suggest that mice head exposed to heavy-ion radiation can induce damage and methylation pattern changed in distant organ liver. Moreover, our findings are important to understand the molecular mechanism of radiation induced bystander effects in vivo.

  3. Radiation-induced myeloid leukemia in murine models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The use of radiation therapy is a cornerstone of modern cancer treatment. The number of patients that undergo radiation as a part of their therapy regimen is only increasing every year, but this does not come without cost. As this number increases, so too does the incidence of secondary, radiation-induced neoplasias, creating a need for therapeutic agents targeted specifically towards incidence reduction and treatment of these cancers. Development and efficacy testing of these agents requires not only extensive in vitro testing but also a set of reliable animal models to accurately recreate the complex situations of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. As radiation-induced leukemic progression often involves genomic changes such as rearrangements, deletions, and changes in methylation, the laboratory mouse Mus musculus, with its fully sequenced genome, is a powerful tool in cancer research. This fact, combined with the molecular and physiological similarities it shares with man and its small size and high rate of breeding in captivity, makes it the most relevant model to use in radiation-induced leukemia research. In this work, we review relevant M. musculus inbred and F1 hybrid animal models, as well as methods of induction of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia. Associated molecular pathologies are also included. PMID:25062865

  4. Coherent microwave radiation from a laser induced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Shneider, M. N.; Miles, R. B.

    2012-12-24

    We propose a method for generation of coherent monochromatic microwave/terahertz radiation from a laser-induced plasma. It is shown that small-scale plasma, located in the interaction region of two co-propagating plane-polarized laser beams, can be a source of the dipole radiation at a frequency equal to the difference between the frequencies of the lasers. This radiation is coherent and appears as a result of the so-called optical mixing in plasma.

  5. Thermal cycling induced load on copper-ribbons in crystalline photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, R.; Kraemer, F.; Wiese, S.; Wolter, K.-J.; Bagdahn, J.

    2010-08-01

    Solar module lifetime is limited by the fatigue behavior of its cell interconnectors: the copper-ribbons. Every change in temperature induces thermo-mechanical stresses in the module components due to their thermo-mechanical mismatch. The purpose of this work is to quantify this load on the copper-ribbons between the individual cells of a cell string during a thermal cycling test by measuring cell displacement using digital image correlation and to compare the results to finite element analysis (FEM). Furthermore with help of FEM the influences of different materials were investigated, allowing material and layout optimizations with respect to copper-ribbon loading.

  6. Temporal and spatial changes in VEGF, ?A- and ?B-crystallin expression in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yi; Su, Chang; Wang, Jian-Tao; Du, Bei; Dong, Li-Jie; Liu, Ai-Hua; Li, Xiao-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Retinal neovascularization is an iconic change in retinopathies. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and ?-crystallins have been identified to mediate the pathogenesis of retinopathy. However, the special and temporal changes in their expression associated with retinal neovascularization have not yet been determined. Therefore, we examined the expression and distribution of VEGF, ?A- and ?B-crystallins in the retina using a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Methods: 90 C57/BL mice were randomly divided into the OIR and control groups. The OIR group at postnatal day 7 (P7) were kept at high oxidation state (75 5%) for 5 days before returned to normal environment. Retinal tissue was cut into sections. Oxygen induced retinal neovascularization and vascular structural changes were evaluated using retinal fluorescein angiography. The number of endothelial cell nuclei breaking through the retinal internal limiting membrane was counted after H&E staining. The mRNA expression levels of VEGF, ?A- and ?B-crystallins in the mouse retina were determined using real-time RT-PCR. The distribution of ?A- and ?B-crystallins in the retina was detected by fluorescent immunohistochemistry staining. Results: Oxygen induction triggered new blood vessel formation in the retina and impaired the structure of the retinal vascular network. The number of endothelial cell nuclei breaking through the retinal internal limiting membrane was significantly increased in the OIR group compared to the control group at P13, P17 and P21 (P < 0.01), reaching the peak on P17. The expression levels of VEGF, ?A- and ?B-crystalllins were also significantly different between the OIR and control groups. VEGF expression was highest on P15, ?A-crystallin expression was highest on P17, whereas ?B-crystallin expression kept increasing during the time frame of our study. Both ?A- and ?B-crystallins were expressed in the ganglion cell layer and the inner nuclear cell layer. While ?A- and ?B-crystallins were only located on the cell membrane in the outer ganglion cell layer, they were observed both on the cell membrane and in the cytoplasm in the inner layer of cells. Conclusion: Using our mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, we showed that the expression patterns of VEGF, ?A- and ?B-crystallins during retinal neovascularization in both spatially and temporally manners, providing significant insights into the molecular mechanisms of retinopathy and the associated neovascularization. PMID:26064225

  7. Charge-induced instability and macroscopic quantum nucleation phenomena at a crystalline 4He facet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmistrov, S. N.

    2012-06-01

    The existence of a charge-induced instability is well known for the 4He crystal surface in the rough state. Much less is known about the charge-induced instability at the 4He crystal surface in the smooth well-faceted state below the roughening transition temperature. To meet the lack, we examine here the latter case. As long as the electric field normal to the crystal facet is below the critical value the same as for the rough surface, the crystal faceting remains absolutely stable. Above the critical field, unlike the absolutely unstable state of the rough surface, the crystal facet crosses over to the metastable state separated from the crushed state with a potential barrier proportional to the square of the linear facet step energy. The onset and development of the instability at the charged crystal facet has much in common with the nucleation kinetics of first-order phase transitions. Depending on the temperature, the electric breaking strength is determined either by thermal activation at high temperatures or by quantum tunneling at sufficiently low temperatures.

  8. Liquid crystalline bispropargyl thermosets

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.; Douglas, E.P.

    1998-11-01

    A series of rigid-rod bispropargyl thermoset monomers have been synthesized. These monomers were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hot stage polarized optical microscopy. Enantiotropic or monotropic nematic liquid crystalline phases were observed for all but two monomers. Partial curing of these reactive liquid crystalline monomers resulted in the formation of stable liquid crystalline phases with broad nematic phase after partial curing. DSC investigations indicated that the onset temperature of thermally induced cross-linking was approximately 260 C and insensitive to the phase type. The rate of cure was insensitive to the phase in which the cure occurred due to the unusual reaction mechanism for the propargyl end group.

  9. Pressure-induced depolarization and resonance in Raman scattering of single-crystalline boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Junjie; Zhang Ling; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen Mingwei; Goto, Takashi

    2010-02-01

    We report polarized and resonant Raman scattering of single-crystal boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) at high pressures. Significant intensity enhancements of 270 and 1086 cm{sup -1} Raman bands of B{sub 4}C have been observed at quasihydrostatic pressures higher than approx20 GPa. The pressure-induced intensity change of the 1086 cm{sup -1} band is mainly due to the resonance between excitation energy and electronic transition, whereas the intensity change of 270 cm{sup -1} band is caused by the depolarization effect. Importantly, the first-order phase transition has not been found at high quasihydrostatic pressures and all the Raman intensity changes along with the corresponding high-pressure lattice distortion can be recovered during unloading.

  10. IR-induced features of AgGaGeS4 crystalline semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydyuk, G. Ye.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Yakymchuk, O. V.; Reshak, A. H.; Wojciechowski, A.; Rakus, P.; Alzayed, N.; Chmiel, M.; Kityk, I. V.; Parasyuk, O. V.

    2012-03-01

    Complex investigations of the photoconductivity and photoinduced absorption together with the piezoelectric features were performed for the AgGaGeS4 semiconducting single crystals under the influence of 3.5 ?s CO2 (80 mJ) pulsed laser emitting at 10.6 ?m. These crystals are transparent in the wide spectral range 0.4-17 ?m, which allows operating due to their properties in the spectral range covering the excitation of the phonons and electron subsystem. The piezoelectric properties show substantial increment during illumination by microsecond CO2 laser and irreversible relaxation after swathing off the laser excitation. The temperature dependent studies of absorption and photoconductivity confirm the main role of intrinsic defects forming the tails of electronic states below the bottom of conduction band gap. Principal role of IR-induced electron-phonon interactions in the observed changes of the piezoelectricity is demonstrated.

  11. Genetic variation in radiation-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, Denis A.; Brady, Lauren; Halasa, Krzysztof; Morley, Michael; Solomon, Sonia; Cheung, Vivian G.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure through environmental, medical, and occupational settings is increasingly common. While radiation has harmful effects, it has utility in many applications such as radiotherapy for cancer. To increase the efficacy of radiation treatment and minimize its risks, a better understanding of the individual differences in radiosensitivity and the molecular basis of radiation response is needed. Here, we integrated human genetic and functional genomic approaches to study the response of human cells to radiation. We measured radiation-induced changes in gene expression and cell death in B cells from normal individuals. We found extensive individual variation in gene expression and cellular responses. To understand the genetic basis of this variation, we mapped the DNA sequence variants that influence expression response to radiation. We also identified radiation-responsive genes that regulate cell death; silencing of these genes by small interfering RNA led to an increase in radiation-induced cell death in human B cells, colorectal and prostate cancer cells. Together these results uncovered DNA variants that contribute to radiosensitivity and identified genes that can be targeted to increase the sensitivity of tumors to radiation. PMID:21844125

  12. On the strain-induced structural evolution upon uniaxial stretching of Poly(VinyliDene Fluoride): influence of secondary crystals and crystalline relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defebvin, Juliette; Barrau, Sophie; Stoclet, Grgory; Lefebvre, Jean-Marc; Polymer Engineering Science Team

    2015-03-01

    Development of more efficient piezoelectric devices tends to innovate and create materials able to combine flexibility and electro-mechanical conversion. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a semi-crystalline polymer that exhibits interesting piezoelectric properties. Besides PVDF is able to convert a mechanical solicitation into an electric energy and vice versa. However these physical properties are highly dependent on the polymer crystal structure. PVDF presents at least two main crystalline forms. The most common phase is the ?-phase that is non-polar. On the other hand, the ? phase is the most polar one and it can be obtained by a stretching of the ?-phase. Knowing the influence of the drawing conditions on the strain-induced structural evolution is thus of prime interest. To assess this point the strain-induced structural evolution of PVDF, stretched under different conditions, has been followed in-situ by means of WAXS/SAXS experiments. As a main result, this study shows that drawing conditions strongly affect both the ? to ? phase conversion degree and the crystalline morphology. Moreover the key role played by the crystalline relaxation of PVDF on the strain-induced structural evolution is also highlighted for the first time.

  13. Pressure- and temperature-induced transformations in crystalline polymers of C{sub 60}

    SciTech Connect

    Meletov, K. P.; Kourouklis, G. A.

    2012-10-15

    The great advantage of the C{sub 60} molecule is its potential for polymerization, due to which the molecule can be the building block of new all carbon materials. In addition, it contains, both sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} hybridized carbon atoms, which allows synthesizing new carbon materials with desired physicochemical properties using both types of carbon bonding. The one- and two-dimensional polymeric phases of C{sub 60} are prototype materials of this sort. Their properties, especially polymerization under pressure and room temperature via covalent bonding between molecules belonging to adjacent polymeric chains or polymeric layers, can be used for further development of new materials. The present review focuses on the study of the pressure-induced polymerization and thermodynamic stability of these materials and their recovered new phases by in-situ high-pressure Raman and X-ray diffraction studies. The phonon spectra show that the fullerene molecular cage in the high-pressure phases is preserved, while these polymers decompose under heat treatment into the initial fullerene C{sub 60} monomer.

  14. Effect of crystalline grain structures on the mechanical properties of twinning-induced plasticity steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Wang, Dan; Han, Fusheng

    2016-02-01

    In order to improve the mechanical properties of twinning-induced plasticity steel, the grain morphology was tailored by different solidification technologies combined with deformation and heat treatment processing routes. Three typical grain morphologies, i.e., equiaxed, columnar as well as equiaxed/columnar grains were formed, and their mechanical behaviors were comparatively studied. Among the three materials, the equiaxed grain material exhibited the highest strength but the lowest plasticity. Depending on the grain size, the smaller the grain size, the higher the strength, but the lower the elongation. The columnar grain material possessed the most excellent plasticity but the weakest strength. These properties presented a non-monotonic dependence on the dendrite spacing, and the moderate spacing resulted in the optimum combination of strength and plasticity. The equiaxed/columnar grain coexisted material showed interesting properties, i.e., the strength and plasticity were just between those of single grain-shaped materials. The three materials also presented different strain hardening behaviors particularly in the uniform deformation stage. The equiaxed grain material showed a constant strain hardening rate, while the columnar grain and equiaxed/columnar grain materials showed a progressively increasing rate with increasing the true strain.

  15. [Symptoms and treatment of radiation-induced reactions].

    PubMed

    Brzozowska, Anna; Idziak, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek; Mazurkiewicz, Maria

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the main methods of cancer treatment alone or in combination with chemotherapy. It is applied in about 60% of oncological patients. However, in spite of its clinical usefulness, radiotherapy is associated with a high risk of radiation-induced side effects, including dermatitis, enteritis, cystitis, pericarditis, pneumonia or depression, sexual function disorders, cardiomiopathy, coronary heart disease, anomalies of heart valves and development of second malignant tumor. The early diagnosis and proper treatment of radiation-induced side effects have a major impact on patients` quality of life and future prognosis. Radiation reactions can be categorized as acute or late, occurring before and after six months after radiotherapy. Among the most common acute reactions there were observed: skin rash, mucositis, nausea, vomiting, fever and radiation pneumonitis. Within reference to the late complications, we distinguish for instance fibrosis of organs, a radiation necrosis of bone, ulcers, fistulas, sexual dysfunction and the development of second malignant carcinomas. PMID:26039025

  16. Radiation-induced malignant and atypical peripheral nerve sheath tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, K.M.; Woodruff, J.M.; Ellis, F.T.; Posner, J.B.

    1980-04-01

    The reported peripheral nerve complications of therapeutic irradiation in humans include brachial and lumbar plexus fibrosis and cranial and peripheral nerve atrophy. We have encountered 9 patients with malignant (7) and atypical (2) peripheral nerve tumors occurring in an irradiated site suggesting that such tumors represent another delayed effect of radiation treatment on peripheral nerve. In all instances the radio-theray was within an acceptable radiation dosage, yet 3 patients developed local radiation-induced skin and bony abnormalities. The malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors developed only in the radiation port. Animal studies support the clinical observation that malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors can occur as a delayed effect of irradiation.

  17. Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Henschel, H.; Koehn, O.; Schmidt, H.U.; Kirchhof, J.; Unger, S.

    1998-06-01

    Eighteen single mode fibers doped with different rare earth elements are exposed to {sup 60}Co gamma radiation in order to estimate the radiation sensitivity of fiber amplifiers or fiber lasers and to find fibers with extremely high loss increase that are suited for dosimetry of low radiation levels. Induced loss measurements with varying dose rate confirmed the applicability of a simple dose rate transformation method also to rare earth doped fibers. Operation of a distributed fiber optic radiation sensor is demonstrated at a dose rate of less than 0.1 Gy/d.

  18. Relationship between cross-linking conditions of ethylene vinyl acetate and potential induced degradation for crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonai, Sachiko; Hara, Kohjiro; Tsutsui, Yuji; Nakahama, Hidenari; Masuda, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship in crystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules between the cross-linking level of copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA) as the encapsulant and the degree of degradation due to potential induced degradation (PID) phenomenon. We used three methods for the determination of cross-linking level of EVA: xylene method, which is one of the solvent extraction methods (SEM), curing degree by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and viscoelastic properties by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The results indicate that degradation of PV modules by PID test depends on the cross-linking level of EVA. The PV modules encapsulated by EVA with higher cross-linking level show lower degradation degree due to PID phenomenon. Also we showed that EVA with higher cross-linking level tended to be higher volume resistivity. This tendency is similar to that for electrical resistance value during the PID test. The PID test was also done by changing thickness of EVA between front cover glass and c-Si with the same cross-linking level. The PV modules encapsulated by thicker EVA between front cover glass and c-Si cell show lower degradation by PID. From these results, the PV modules encapsulated by EVA with higher cross-linking level, higher volume resistivity and increased thickness would be tolerant of PID phenomenon.

  19. Site specific oxidation of amino acid residues in rat lens γ-crystallin induced by low-dose γ-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ingu; Saito, Takeshi; Fujii, Norihiko; Kanamoto, Takashi; Chatake, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Noriko

    2015-10-30

    Although cataracts are a well-known age-related disease, the mechanism of their formation is not well understood. It is currently thought that eye lens proteins become abnormally aggregated, initially causing clumping that scatters the light and interferes with focusing on the retina, and ultimately resulting in a cataract. The abnormal aggregation of lens proteins is considered to be triggered by various post-translational modifications, such as oxidation, deamidation, truncation and isomerization, that occur during the aging process. Such modifications, which are also generated by free radical and reactive oxygen species derived from γ-irradiation, decrease crystallin solubility and lens transparency, and ultimately lead to the development of a cataract. In this study, we irradiated young rat lenses with low-dose γ-rays and extracted the water-soluble and insoluble protein fractions. The water-soluble and water-insoluble lens proteins were digested with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS. Specific oxidation sites of methionine, cysteine and tryptophan in rat water-soluble and -insoluble γE and γF-crystallin were determined by one-shot analysis. The oxidation sites in rat γE and γF-crystallin resemble those previously identified in γC and γD-crystallin from human age-related cataracts. Our study on modifications of crystallins induced by ionizing irradiation may provide useful information relevant to human senile cataract formation. PMID:26385181

  20. Radiation-induced cerebellar chondrosarcoma. Case report

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, M.; Perrin, R.G.; Platts, M.E.; Simpson, W.J.

    1984-07-01

    The authors report a case of chondrosarcoma arising in the cerebellum 16 years after treatment of a cerebellar malignant astrocytoma by subtotal resection and irradiation. It is thought that the chondrosarcoma arising within the intracranial cavity was a probable consequence of previous ionizing radiation.

  1. A model of radiation-induced myelopoiesis in space.

    PubMed

    Esposito, R D; Durante, M; Gialanella, G; Grossi, G; Pugliese, M; Scampoli, P; Jones, T D

    2001-01-01

    Astronauts' radiation exposure limits are based on experimental and epidemiological data obtained on Earth. It is assumed that radiation sensitivity remains the same in the extraterrestrial space. However, human radiosensitivity is dependent upon the response of the hematopoietic tissue to the radiation insult. It is well known that the immune system is affected by microgravity. We have developed a mathematical model of radiation-induced myelopoiesis which includes the effect of microgravity on bone marrow kinetics. It is assumed that cellular radiosensitivity is not modified by the space environment, but repopulation rates of stem and stromal cells are reduced as a function of time in weightlessness. A realistic model of the space radiation environment, including the HZE component, is used to simulate the radiation damage. A dedicated computer code was written and applied to solar particle events and to the mission to Mars. The results suggest that altered myelopoiesis and lymphopoiesis in microgravity might increase human radiosensitivity in space. PMID:11771552

  2. Radiation-Induced Heart Disease: Pathologic Abnormalities and Putative Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Taunk, Neil K.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Kostis, John B.; Goyal, Sharad

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a common diagnosis in women. Breast radiation has become critical in managing patients who receive breast conserving surgery, or have certain high-risk features after mastectomy. Most patients have an excellent prognosis, therefore understanding the late effects of radiation to the chest is important. Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) comprises a spectrum of cardiac pathology including myocardial fibrosis and cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, valvular disease, pericardial disease, and arrhythmias. Tissue fibrosis is a common mediator in RIHD. Multiple pathways converge with both acute and chronic cellular, molecular, and genetic changes to result in fibrosis. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of cardiac disease related to radiation therapy to the chest. Our understanding of these mechanisms has improved substantially, but much work remains to further refine radiation delivery techniques and develop therapeutics to battle late effects of radiation. PMID:25741474

  3. Radio frequency radiation-induced hyperthermia using Si nanoparticle-based sensitizers for mild cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamarov, Konstantin P.; Osminkina, Liubov A.; Zinovyev, Sergey V.; Maximova, Ksenia A.; Kargina, Julia V.; Gongalsky, Maxim B.; Ryabchikov, Yury; Al-Kattan, Ahmed; Sviridov, Andrey P.; Sentis, Marc; Ivanov, Andrey V.; Nikiforov, Vladimir N.; Kabashin, Andrei V.; Timoshenko, Victor Yu

    2014-11-01

    Offering mild, non-invasive and deep cancer therapy modality, radio frequency (RF) radiation-induced hyperthermia lacks for efficient biodegradable RF sensitizers to selectively target cancer cells and thus avoid side effects. Here, we assess crystalline silicon (Si) based nanomaterials as sensitizers for the RF-induced therapy. Using nanoparticles produced by mechanical grinding of porous silicon and ultraclean laser-ablative synthesis, we report efficient RF-induced heating of aqueous suspensions of the nanoparticles to temperatures above 45-50C under relatively low nanoparticle concentrations (<1 mg/mL) and RF radiation intensities (1-5 W/cm2). For both types of nanoparticles the heating rate was linearly dependent on nanoparticle concentration, while laser-ablated nanoparticles demonstrated a remarkably higher heating rate than porous silicon-based ones for the whole range of the used concentrations from 0.01 to 0.4 mg/mL. The observed effect is explained by the Joule heating due to the generation of electrical currents at the nanoparticle/water interface. Profiting from the nanoparticle-based hyperthermia, we demonstrate an efficient treatment of Lewis lung carcinoma in vivo. Combined with the possibility of involvement of parallel imaging and treatment channels based on unique optical properties of Si-based nanomaterials, the proposed method promises a new landmark in the development of new modalities for mild cancer therapy.

  4. Role of PPARs in Radiation-Induced Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ramanan, Sriram; Zhao, Weiling; Riddle, David R.; Robbins, Mike E.

    2010-01-01

    Whole-brain irradiation (WBI) represents the primary mode of treatment for brain metastases; about 200 000 patients receive WBI each year in the USA. Up to 50% of adult and 100% of pediatric brain cancer patients who survive >6 months post-WBI will suffer from a progressive, cognitive impairment. At present, there are no proven long-term treatments or preventive strategies for this significant radiation-induced late effect. Recent studies suggest that the pathogenesis of radiation-induced brain injury involves WBI-mediated increases in oxidative stress and/or inflammatory responses in the brain. Therefore, anti-inflammatory strategies can be employed to modulate radiation-induced brain injury. Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that belong to the steroid/thyroid hormone nuclear receptor superfamily. Although traditionally known to play a role in metabolism, increasing evidence suggests a role for PPARs in regulating the response to inflammation and oxidative injury. PPAR agonists have been shown to cross the blood-brain barrier and confer neuroprotection in animal models of CNS disorders such as stroke, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. However, the role of PPARs in radiation-induced brain injury is unclear. In this manuscript, we review the current knowledge and the emerging insights about the role of PPARs in modulating radiation-induced brain injury. PMID:19789638

  5. X-ray Radiation Induces Deprotonation of the Bilin Chromophore in Crystalline D. Radiodurans Phytochrome

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Feifei; Burgie, E. Sethe; Yu, Tao; Heroux, Annie; Schatz, George C.; Vierstra, Richard D.; Orville, Allen M.

    2015-02-04

    We report that in the red light-absorbing (Pr) state, the bilin chromophore of the Deinococcus radiodurans proteobacterial phytochrome (DrBphP) is hypersensitive to X-ray photons used in typical synchrotron X-ray protein crystallography experiments. This causes the otherwise fully protonated chromophore to deprotonate without additional major structural changes. Furthermore, these results have major implications for our understanding of the structural and chemical characteristics of the resting and intermediate states of phytochromes and other photoreceptor proteins.

  6. X-ray radiation induces deprotonation of the bilin chromophore in crystalline D. radiodurans phytochrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Feifei; Burgie, E Sethe; Yu, Tao; Hroux, Annie; Schatz, George C; Vierstra, Richard D; Orville, Allen M

    2015-03-01

    We report that in the red light-absorbing (Pr) state, the bilin chromophore of the Deinococcus radiodurans proteobacterial phytochrome (DrBphP) is hypersensitive to X-ray photons used in typical synchrotron X-ray protein crystallography experiments. This causes the otherwise fully protonated chromophore to deprotonate without additional major structural changes. These results have major implications for our understanding of the structural and chemical characteristics of the resting and intermediate states of phytochromes and other photoreceptor proteins. PMID:25650486

  7. Radiation-induced biomarkers for the detection and assessment of absorbed radiation doses

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Sudha; Kumar, Raj; Sultana, Sarwat; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Radiation incident involving living organisms is an uncommon but a very serious situation. The first step in medical management including triage is high-throughput assessment of the radiation dose received. Radiation exposure levels can be assessed from viability of cells, cellular organelles such as chromosome and different intermediate metabolites. Oxidative damages by ionizing radiation result in carcinogenesis, lowering of the immune response and, ultimately, damage to the hematopoietic system, gastrointestinal system and central nervous system. Biodosimetry is based on the measurement of the radiation-induced changes, which can correlate them with the absorbed dose. Radiation biomarkers such as chromosome aberration are most widely used. Serum enzymes such as serum amylase and diamine oxidase are the most promising biodosimeters. The level of gene expression and protein are also good biomarkers of radiation. PMID:21829314

  8. Disorder-induced anomalously signed Hall effect in crystalline GeTe/Sb2Te3 superlattice-like materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, H.; Yu, N. N.; Yang, Z.; Cheng, X. M.; Miao, X. S.

    2015-08-01

    Opposite to the almost persistent p-type conductivity of the crystalline chalcogenides along the GeTe-Sb2Te3 tie line, n-type Hall mobility is observed in crystalline GeTe/Sb2Te3 superlattice-like material (SLL) with a short period length. We suggest that this unusual carrier characteristic originates from the structural disorder introduced by the lattice strain and dangling bonds at the SLL interfaces, which makes the crystalline SLLs behave like the amorphous chalcogenides. Detailed structural disorder in crystalline SLL has been studied by Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as Variable-energy positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements. First-principles calculations results show that this structural disorder gives rise to three-site junctions that dominate the charge transport as the period length decreases and result in the anomalously signed Hall effect in the crystalline SLL. Our findings indicate a similar tetrahedral structure in the amorphous and crystalline states of SLLs, which can significantly reduce the entropy difference. Due to the reduced entropy loss and increased resistivity of crystalline phase introduced by disorder, it is not surprising that the SLLs exhibit extremely lower RESET current and power consumption.

  9. Characterization of radiation-induced emesis in the ferret

    SciTech Connect

    King, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Forty-eight ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were individually head-shielded and radiated with bilateral cobalt 60 gamma radiation at 100 cGy min at doses ranging between 49 and 601 cGy. The emetic threshold was observed at 69 cGy, the ED 50 was calculated as 77 cGy, and 100% incidence of emesis occurred at 201 cGy. With increasing doses of radiation, the latency to first emesis after radiation decreased dramatically, whereas the duration of the prodromal period increased. Two other sets of experiments suggest that dopaminergic mechanisms play a minor role in radiation-induced emesis in the ferret. Twenty-two animals were injected either intravenously or subcutaneously with 30 to 300 micrograms /kg of apomorphine. Fewer than 50% of the animals vomited to 300 micrograms/kg apomorphine; central dopaminergic receptor activation was apparent at all doses. Another eight animals received 1 mg/kg domperidone prior to either 201 (n=4) or 401 (n=4) cGy radiation and their emetic responses were compared with NaCi-injected-irradiated controls (n=8). At 201 cGy, domperidone significantly reduced only the total time in emetic behavior. At 401 cGy, domperidone had no salutary effect on radiation-induced emesis. The emetic responses of the ferret to radiation and apomorphine are compared with these responses in other vomiting species.

  10. Characterization of radiation-induced emesis in the ferret

    SciTech Connect

    King, G.L.

    1988-06-01

    Forty-eight ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were individually head-shielded and radiated with bilateral /sup 60/Co gamma radiation at 100 cGy min-1 at doses ranging between 49 and 601 cGy. The emetic threshold was observed at 69 cGy, the ED50 was calculated at 77 cGy, and 100% incidence of emesis occurred at 201 cGy. With increasing doses of radiation, the latency to first emesis after radiation decreased dramatically, whereas the duration of the prodromal period increased. Two other sets of experiments suggest that dopaminergic mechanisms play a minor role in radiation-induced emesis in the ferret. Twenty-two animals were injected either intravenously or subcutaneously with 30 to 300 micrograms/kg of apomorphine. Fewer than 50% of the animals vomited to 300 micrograms/kg apomorphine; central dopaminergic receptor activation was apparent at all doses. Another eight animals received 1 mg/kg domperidone prior to either 201 (n = 4) or 401 (n = 4) cGy radiation and their emetic responses were compared with NaCl-injected-irradiated controls (n = 8). At 201 cGy, domperidone significantly reduced only the total time in emetic behavior. At 401 cGy, domperidone had no salutary effect on radiation-induced emesis. The emetic responses of the ferret to radiation and apomorphine are compared with these responses in other vomiting species.

  11. Mitigation of radiation induced surface contamination

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Stulen, Richard H.

    2003-01-01

    A process for mitigating or eliminating contamination and/or degradation of surfaces having common, adventitious atmospheric contaminants adsorbed thereon and exposed to radiation. A gas or a mixture of gases is introduced into the environment of a surface(s) to be protected. The choice of the gaseous species to be introduced (typically a hydrocarbon gas, water vapor, or oxygen or mixtures thereof) is dependent upon the contaminant as well as the ability of the gaseous species to bind to the surface to be protected. When the surface and associated bound species are exposed to radiation reactive species are formed that react with surface contaminants such as carbon or oxide films to form volatile products (e.g., CO, CO.sub.2) which desorb from the surface.

  12. Pellet Induced Radiative Plasma Terminations on TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G. L.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Chang, Z.; Darrow, D. S.; Hill, K. W.; Taylor, G.; TFTR Team; Bush, C. E.; Gouge, M.; Milora, S.

    1996-11-01

    An experiment to study the plasma response to Krypton introduced by pellets into reactor grade discharges was performed on TFTR. The emphasis of these studies was on the dissipation of the plasma thermal energy by radiation and subsequent behavior of the plasma current. The experiments used Deuterium pellets with trace Kr injected into neutral beam heated plasmas (Te ? 5 keV). The 3.4 mm diameter x 3.4 mm length Kr doped Deuterium pellets were formed in the ORNL "Pipe Gun" Condensing Injector. Two pellets were injected within ? 2 msec at a speed of ? 1 - 1.4 km/sec for penetration nearly to the plasma core. The Deuterium pellets created a high density post pellet plasma, cooled by dilution and doped with Krypton to enhance radiation losses. Complete ( >= 90 % ) non-disruptive quenches of the plasma thermal energy were achieved. In other cases very slow current quenches ( ? 400 msec) were observed.

  13. Single-crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x detectors for direct detection of microwave radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Winkler, D.; Yurgens, A.

    2015-04-01

    We test radiation detectors made from single-crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x flakes put on oxidized Si substrates. The 100-nm-thick flakes are lithographically patterned into 4 12 ?m2 large rectangles embedded in thin-film log-spiral antennas. The SiO2 layer weakens the thermal link between the flakes and the bath. Two modes of radiation detection have been observed. For a bolometric type of sensors a responsivity of 300 V/W and a noise equivalent power of 30 nW/ ?{Hz } has been deduced at 70 K. Much more sensitive is the non-bolometric device showing characteristics similar to a Golay-type detector while being at least a thousand times faster. Making smaller (sub-?m) structures is expected to significantly improve the performance of these devices and makes them very competitive among other microwave and terahertz detectors.

  14. DECOHERENCE EFFECTS OF MOTION-INDUCED RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    P. NETO; D. DALVIT

    2000-12-01

    The radiation pressure coupling with vacuum fluctuations gives rise to energy damping and decoherence of an oscillating particle. Both effects result from the emission of pairs of photons, a quantum effect related to the fluctuations of the Casimir force. We discuss different alternative methods for the computation of the decoherence time scale. We take the example of a spherical perfectly-reflecting particle, and consider the zero and high temperature limits. We also present short general reviews on decoherence and dynamical Casimir effect.

  15. Radiation induced heart disease in hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lauk, S.; Trott, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive Wistar rats were given single doses of X rays to their heart. Irradiation decreased the blood pressure before any myocardial radiation damage was apparent. Male rats, which were more hypertensive than female rats, had a shorter survival time after local heart irradiation than female rats. Antihypertensive treatment with hydralazine did not increase the survival time. It is considered that myocardial hypertrophy is the cause of the increased susceptibility of spontaneously hypertensive rats to local heart irradiation.

  16. Biological determinants of radiation-induced human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Feig, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    This is the second in a three part series on the hypothetical risk from x-ray mammography. It will review those aspects of breast anatomy, histology, physiology, and pathology which are pertinent to radiation carcinogenesis. Radiation-induced breast cancers are histologically identical to the naturally occurring type in that they arise from the ductal epithelium and consist of a similar proportion of infiltrating and intraductal lesions. Possible explanations for the increased resistance to radiation effect in women over 30 years of age at time of exposure include regression of the glandular target tissue, hormonal changes, and parity. Examples of age-related sensitivity and hormonal dependence in other radiation-induced human and animal tumors will be discussed.

  17. Simple method to demonstrate radiation-inducible radiation resistance in microbial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, S.T.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    A simple method for detection of radiation-inducible radiation resistance was developed by irradiating aliquots (0.01 ml) of cell suspension on agar plates. Part of each experimental plate was subjected to an induction treatment, and subsequent radiation resistance was compared with that of untreated cells on the same plate. The UV radiation resistance of a Micrococcus sp. was increased approximately 1.6 times by an induction treatment. This simple procedure of irradiating cells in a fixed position on agar avoided washing, centrifugation, and cell enumeration required in traditional methods.

  18. Modulation of Radiation-Induced Apoptosis by Thiolamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warters, R. L.; Roberts, J. C.; Wilmore, B. H.; Kelley, L. L.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to the thiolamine radioprotector N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine (WR-1065) induced apoptosis in the mouse TB8-3 hybridoma after 60-minute (LD(sub50) = 4.5mM) or during a 20-hour (LD(sub50) = 0.15 mM) exposure. In contrast, a 20-hour exposure to 17 mM L-cysteine or 10 mM cysteamine was required to induce 50 percent apoptosis within 20 hours. Apoptosis was not induced by either a 60-minute or 20-hour exposure to 10 mM of the thiazolidime prodrugs ribose-cysteine (RibCys) or ribose-cysteamine (RibCyst). Thiolamine-induced apoptosis appeared to be a p53-independent process since it was induced by WR-1065 exposure in human HL60 cells. Exposure to WR-1065 (4mM for 15 minutes) or cysteine (10mM for 60 minutes) before and during irradiation protected cells against the induction of both DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis, while exposure to RibCys (10 mM for 3 hours) did not. Treatment with either WR-1065, cysteine, RibCys or RibCyst for 60 minutes beginning 60 minutes after irradiation did not affect the level of radiation-induced apoptosis. In contrast, treatment with either cysteine, cysteamine or RibCys for 20 hours beginning 60 minutes after irradiation enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis. Similar experiments could not be conducted with WR-1065 because of its extreme toxicity. Our results indicate that thiolamine enhancement of radiation-induced apoptosis is not involved in their previously reported capacity to reduce radiation-induced mutations.

  19. Inhibition of radiation-induced polyuria by histamine receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Donlon, M.A.; Melia, J.A.; Helgeson, E.A.; Wolfe, W.W.

    1986-03-01

    In previous studies the authors have demonstrated that gamma radiation results in polyuria, which is preceded by polydypsia. This suggests that the increased thirst elicited by radiation causes increased urinary volume (UV). Histamine, which is released following radiation exposure, also elicits drinking by nonirradiated rats when administered exogenously. In this study the authors have investigated both the role of water deprivation and the effect of histamine receptor antagonists (HRA) on radiation-induced polyuria. Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually in metabolic cages. Water was allowed ad libitum except in deprivation experiments where water was removed for 24 hr immediately following radiation. Cimetidine (CIM), an H2 HRA, and dexbromopheniramine (DXB), an H1 HRA, were administered i.p. (16 and 1 mg/kg, respectively) 30 min prior to irradiation (950 rads from a cobalt source). UV was determined at 24-hr intervals for 3 days preceding irradiation and 24 hr postirradiation. UV in DXB treated rats was significantly reduced 24 hr postirradiation (CON = 427 +/- 54%; DXB = 247 +/- 39% of preirradiated CON) compared to postirradiation control values. CIM did not affect postirradiation UV. These data suggest that radiation-induced polyuria is caused by polydypsia which is, in part, mediated by histamine induced by an H1 receptor.

  20. Neutron radiation induced degradation of diode characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, S. M.; Pepper, G. T.; Stone, R. E.

    1992-12-01

    Neutron radiation effects on diode current-voltage characteristics have been studied for a variety of diode over 1(10)(exp 13) - 3(10)(exp 15) n/sq cm 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence range. A classification scheme consisting of three types of neutron effects on diode forward characteristics is proposed here for the first time. For constant forward current I(sub F) higher than that in the generation-recombination regime, the diode voltage V(sub F) either increases with fluence phi (Type 1 diode), on V(sub F) first decreases with phi at lower fluence levels and then increases with phi at higher fluence levels (Type 2 diode), or V(sub F) decreases with phi at all fluence levels used in this work (Type 3 diode). Most of the previous results on p-n junction diodes correspond to Type 1 diode results. Type 2 diode results are rather rare in the literature. Several examples of Type 2 diode results are presented here. Type 3 diode results are reported here for other types of diodes not reported earlier. These results are explained qualitatively in terms of the theories for a p-n junction and for radiation effects on semiconductors. It is shown here that a type 3 diode could be developed as a high neutron fluence monitor with three orders of magnitude higher upper limit than the Harshaw p-i-n diode neutron fluence monitor under evaluation at the US Army Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Aberdeen, Md. The results also suggest a methodology for radiation hard diode development.

  1. Chemoprevention of Radiation Induced Rat Mammary Neoplasms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huso, David L.

    1999-01-01

    Radiations encountered in space include protons and heavy ions such as iron as well as their secondaries. The relative biological effect (RBE) of these ions is not known, particularly at the doses and dose-rates expected for planetary missions. Neutrons, are not particularly relevant to space travel, but have been found experimentally to have an increase in their RBE with decreasing dose. If a similar trend of increasing RBE with decreasing dose is present for heavy ions and protons during irradiation in space, the small doses received during space travel could potentially have substantial carcinogenic risk. Clearly more investigation of the effects of heavy ions and protons is needed before accurate risk assessment for prolonged travel in space can be done. One means to mitigate the increased risk of cancer due to radiation exposure in space is by developing effective countermeasures that can reduce the incidence of tumor development. Tamoxifen has recently been shown to be an effective chemopreventive agent in both animal models and humans for the prevention of mammary tumors. Tamoxifen is a unique drug, with a highly specific mechanism of action affecting a specific radiation-sensitive population of epithelial cells in the mammary gland. In human studies, the annual incidence of a primary tumor in the contralateral breast of women with previous breast cancer is about 8 per 1000, making them an exceedingly high-risk group for the development of breast cancer. In this high risk group, treated with tamoxifen, daily, for 2 years, the incidence of a new primary tumor in the contralateral breast was approximately one third of that noted in the non-tamoxifen treatment group. Tamoxifen antagonizes the action of estrogen by competing for the nuclear receptor complex thereby altering the association of the receptor complex and nuclear binding sites. Its effects in reducing the development of breast cancer could be accomplished by controlling clinically undetectable microcancers, arresting preneoplastic lesions, or correcting abnormal environments which predispose to high risk of malignant transformation.

  2. Si photoepitaxy induced by synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsumi, Yuichi

    1997-05-01

    Epitaxial Si films are grown on Si substrates by synchrotron radiation-excited gas-source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using disilane. It is demonstrated that the epitaxial temperature is lowered to 40 degrees Celsius. Selective epitaxial growth between Si/SiO2 substrate can be achieved irrespective of growth time at temperatures above 700 degrees Celsius. For the B doping using disilane/decaborane, it is confirmed that SR irradiation significantly decreases the doping temperatue (80 degrees Celsius) and electrical activation rate.

  3. Dynamics of plasma formation, relaxation, and topography modification induced by femtosecond laser pulses in crystalline and amorphous dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Puerto, D.; Siegel, J.; Gawelda, W.; Galvan-Sosa, M.; Solis, J.; Ehrentraut, L.; Bonse, J.

    2010-05-15

    We have studied plasma formation and relaxation dynamics along with the corresponding topography modifications in fused silica and sapphire induced by single femtosecond laser pulses (800 nm and 120 fs). These materials, representative of high bandgap amorphous and crystalline dielectrics, respectively, require nonlinear mechanisms to absorb the laser light. The study employed a femtosecond time-resolved microscopy technique that allows obtaining reflectivity and transmission images of the material surface at well-defined temporal delays after the arrival of the pump pulse which excites the dielectric material. The transient evolution of the free-electron plasma formed can be followed by combining the time-resolved optical data with a Drude model to estimate transient electron densities and skin depths. The temporal evolution of the optical properties is very similar in both materials within the first few hundred picoseconds, including the formation of a high reflectivity ring at about 7 ps. In contrast, at longer delays (100 ps-20 ns) the behavior of both materials differs significantly, revealing a longer lasting ablation process in sapphire. Moreover, transient images of sapphire show a concentric ring pattern surrounding the ablation crater, which is not observed in fused silica. We attribute this phenomenon to optical diffraction at a transient elevation of the ejected molten material at the crater border. On the other hand, the final topography of the ablation crater is radically different for each material. While in fused silica a relatively smooth crater with two distinct regimes is observed, sapphire shows much steeper crater walls, surrounded by a weak depression along with cracks in the material surface. These differences are explained in terms of the most relevant thermal and mechanical properties of the material. Despite these differences the maximum crater depth is comparable in both material at the highest fluences used (16 J/cm{sup 2}). The evolution of the crater depth as a function of fluence can be described taking into account the individual bandgap of each material.

  4. The Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, M; Fardid, R; Hadadi, Gh; Fardid, M

    2014-01-01

    The radiation-induced bystander effect is the phenomenon which non-irradiated cells exhibit effects along with their different levels as a result of signals received from nearby irradiated cells. Responses of non-irradiated cells may include changes in process of translation, gene expression, cell proliferation, apoptosis and cells death. These changes are confirmed by results of some In-Vivo studies. Most well-known important factors affecting radiation-induced bystander effect include free radicals, immune system factors, expression changes of some genes involved in inflammation pathway and epigenetic factors. PMID:25599062

  5. Mechanistic issues for modeling radiation-induced segregation

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, E.P.; Bruemmer, S.M.

    1993-03-01

    Model calculations of radiation-induced chromium depletion and radiation-induced nickel enrichment at grain boundaries are compared to measured depletions and enrichments. The model is calibrated to fit chromium depletion in commercial purity 304 stainless steel irradiated in boiling water reactor (BWR) environments. Predicted chromium depletion profiles and the dose dependence of chromium concentration at grain boundaries are in accord with measured trends. Evaluation of chromium and nickel profiles in three neutron, and two ion, irradiation environments reveal significant inconsistencies between measurements and predictions.

  6. Panretinal photocoagulation for radiation-induced ocular ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Augsburger, J.J.; Roth, S.E.; Magargal, L.E.; Shields, J.A.

    1987-08-01

    We present preliminary findings on the effectiveness of panretinal photocoagulation in preventing neovascular glaucoma in eyes with radiation-induced ocular ischemia. Our study group consisted of 20 patients who developed radiation-induced ocular ischemia following cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy for a choroidal or ciliary body melanoma. Eleven of the 20 patients were treated by panretinal photocoagulation shortly after the diagnosis of ocular ischemia, but nine patients were left untreated. In this non-randomized study, the rate of development of neovascular glaucoma was significantly lower (p = 0.024) for the 11 photocoagulated patients than for the nine who were left untreated.

  7. p38 and Src-ERK1/2 pathways regulate crystalline silica-induced chemokine release in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    vrevik, Johan; Lg, Marit; Schwarze, Per; Refsnes, Magne

    2004-10-01

    Crystalline silica has been shown to trigger pulmonary inflammation both in vivo and in vitro, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study we focus on the intracellular signaling pathways regulating chemokine release from lung epithelial cells after crystalline silica exposure. Our results show that silica particles induced a concentration- and time-dependent increase in interleukin (IL)-8 release from the human epithelial lung cell line A549. The IL-8 induction was significantly attenuated by inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), p38 (SB202190) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1 and -2 (PD98059), as well as a general protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor (genistein). However, IL-8 induction was most efficiently inhibited by the Src family kinase (SFK) inhibitor, PP2, suggesting a crucial role of SFKs in regulating silica-induced IL-8 release from A549 cells. Silica exposure induced phosphorylation of the MAPKs p38 and ERK1/2, but not JNK or ERK5. Silica also induced a significant phosphorylation of SFKs. Moreover, PP2 inhibited silica-induced phospho-ERK1/2 to near-control levels, whereas phospho-p38 was not significantly reduced by the SFK inhibitor. Our results suggest the presence of two separate signaling pathways which are important in the regulation of silica-induced IL-8 release from A549 cells; one involving SFK-dependent activation of ERK1/2, and the other activation of p38, at least partly independent of SFKs. Experiments with primary type 2 (T2) cells from rat lungs suggest that crystalline silica-induced release of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 is regulated through similar mechanisms. PMID:15240896

  8. Contribution of radiation-induced, nitric oxide-mediated bystander effect to radiation-induced adaptive response.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Ohnishi, T.

    There has been a recent upsurge of interest in radiation-induced adaptive response and bystander effect which are specific modes in stress response to low-dose low-dose rate radiation Recently we found that the accumulation of inducible nitric oxide NO synthase iNOS in wt p53 cells was induced by chronic irradiation with gamma rays followed by acute irradiation with X-rays but not by each one resulting in an increase in nitrite concentrations of medium It is suggested that the accumulation of iNOS may be due to the depression of acute irradiation-induced p53 functions by pre-chronic irradiation In addition we found that the radiosensitivity of wt p53 cells against acute irradiation with X-rays was reduced after chronic irradiation with gamma rays This reduction of radiosensitivity of wt p53 cells was nearly completely suppressed by the addition of NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO to the medium This reduction of radiosensitivity of wt p53 cells is just radiation-induced adaptive response suggesting that NO-mediated bystander effect may considerably contribute to adaptive response induced by radiation

  9. Radiation-induced sarcoma following radiotherapy for testicular tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, D.F. Jr.; Herr, H.W.

    1981-12-01

    We report 4 cases of soft tissue sarcoma following radiation therapy for testicular tumor. The tumors included leiomyosarcoma, fibroxanthosarcoma, reticulum cell sarcoma and spindle cell sarcoma. Each malignancy arose within the irradiated area after a long latent period (mean 12 years) and each was histologically proved. Total radiation doses ranged from 3,500 to 9,000 rad. Three patients died as a result of the second neoplasm. Radiation-induced sarcomas are rare but must be considered in the differential diagnosis of new tumor growth in patients treated previously with radiotherapy. Full evaluation of such new tumor growth, including tissue diagnosis, is necessary before additional therapy is prescribed.

  10. Pivotal role of augmented ?B-crystallin in tumor development induced by deficient TSC1/2 complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Chen, X; Li, C; Sun, Q; Chen, Y; Wang, Y; Peng, H; Liu, Z; Chen, R; Liu, K; Yan, H; Ye, B H; Kwiatkowski, D J; Zhang, H

    2014-08-21

    Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) and TSC2 are suppressors of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). mTOR is the major component of two protein complexes: mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2. Inactive mutation of either TSC1 or TSC2 unleashes mTOR signaling and consequently causes TSC, a benign tumor syndrome affecting multiple organs. We report here that expression of ?B-crystallin was upregulated in Tsc1-/- or Tsc2-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts, Eker rat uterine leiomyoma-derived Tsc2-deficient ELT3 cells, mutant Tsc2-associated mouse kidney tumors, and human lung lymphangioleiomyomatosis nodules. ?B-crystallin was transcriptionally activated by mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2): nuclear factor-kappa B (NF?B) signaling cascade. The augmented ?B-crystallin was critical for the migration, invasion and apoptotic resistance of Tsc2-defective cells. Disruption of ?B-crystallin suppressed Tsc2-null cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Therefore, enhanced ?B-crystallin has an essential role in TSC1/2 complex deficiency-mediated tumorigenesis, and inhibition of ?B-crystallin may complement the current therapy for TSC. PMID:24077282

  11. Weak MHD discontinuities in a radiation-induced flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, R.; Rai, A.; Upadhyay, R. P.

    1984-07-01

    The growth of MHD discontinuities in a radiation-induced flow field at very high temperature is studied. The growth and decay properties of the weak MHD discontinuities are discussed in terms of the influences of a time-dependent gasdynamic field, a radiation field, and a magnetic field with finite electrical conductivity. The effects of thermal radiation and conduction on the global behavior of the discontinuities is analyzed under a quasi-equilibrium and quasi-isotropic hypothesis concerning the differential approximation to a radiative heat transfer equation. It is shown that the time-dependent radiation field gives rise to a radiation-induced wave which has a small effect on the nonrelativistic flow properties of the gasdynamic field. Radiation stresses resist the steepening tendency of a compressive weak wave and stabilize it, whereas thermal conduction effects tend to destabilize the wave. The cases of diverging and converging waves are considered separately in order to determine when a shock discontinuity or a caustic will be formed or disallowed under curvature effects.

  12. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table.

  13. Radiation-induced endometriosis in Macaca mulatta

    SciTech Connect

    Fanton, J.W.; Golden, J.G. )

    1991-05-01

    Female rhesus monkeys received whole-body doses of ionizing radiation in the form of single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, X rays, and electrons. Endometriosis developed in 53% of the monkeys during a 17-year period after exposure. Incidence rates for endometriosis related to radiation type were: single-energy protons, 54%; mixed-energy protons, 73%; X rays, 71%; and electrons, 57%. The incidence of endometriosis in nonirradiated control monkeys was 26%. Monkeys exposed to single-energy protons, mixed-energy protons, and X rays developed endometriosis at a significantly higher rate than control monkeys (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Severity of endometriosis was staged as massive, moderate, and minimal. The incidence of these stages were 65, 16, and 19%, respectively. Observations of clinical disease included weight loss in 43% of the monkeys, anorexia in 35%, space-occupying masses detected by abdominal palpation in 55%, abnormal ovarian/uterine anatomy on rectal examination in 89%, and radiographic evidence of abdominal masses in 38%. Pathological lesions were endometrial cyst formation in 69% of the monkeys, adhesions of the colon in 66%, urinary bladder in 50%, ovaries in 86%, and ureters in 44%, focal nodules of endometrial tissue throughout the omentum in 59%, and metastasis in 9%. Clinical management of endometriosis consisted of debulking surgery and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy combined in some cases with total abdominal hysterectomy. Postoperative survival rates at 1 and 5 years for monkeys recovering from surgery were 48 and 36%, respectively.

  14. Paclitaxel-carboplatin induced radiation recall colitis.

    PubMed

    Kundak, Isil; Oztop, Ilhan; Soyturk, Mujde; Ozcan, Mehmet Ali; Yilmaz, Ugur; Meydan, Nezih; Gorken, Ilknur Bilkay; Kupelioglu, Ali; Alakavuklar, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Some chemotherapeutic agents can "recall" the irradiated volumes by skin or pulmonary reactions in cancer patients who previously received radiation therapy. We report a recall colitis following the administration of paclitaxel-containing regimen in a patient who had been irradiated for a carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A 63-year-old woman underwent a Wertheim operation because of uterine cervix carcinoma. After 8 years of follow-up, a local recurrence was observed and she received curative external radiotherapy (45 Gy) to the pelvis. No significant adverse events were observed during the radiotherapy. Approximately one year later, she was hospitalized because of metastatic disease with multiple pulmonary nodules, and a chemotherapy regimen consisting of paclitaxel and carboplatin was administered. The day after the administration of chemotherapy the patient had diarrhea and rectal bleeding. Histological examination of the biopsy taken from rectal hyperemic lesions showed a radiation colitis. The symptoms reappeared after the administration of each course of chemotherapy and continued until the death of the patient despite the interruption of the chemotherapy. In conclusion, the probability of recall phenomena should be kept in mind in patients who received previously with pelvic radiotherapy and treated later with cytotoxic chemotherapy. PMID:15237594

  15. [Radiation induced sarcoma of the shoulder girdle].

    PubMed

    Steinke, N M; Ostgaard, S E; Jensen, O M; Nordentoft, A M; Sneppen, O

    1991-06-01

    A well-known complication after irradiation of tissue is development of postradiation sarcomas, and the shoulder girdle is in this connexion a frequent location, because it relatively often is exposured to x-rays. During the period 1956 to 1989 121 patients with sarcomas located to the shoulder girdle were referred to the Sarcoma centre in Arhus. Of these, six were postradiation sarcomas. The indication for the initial irradiation was in two cases cancer of the breast, in one malignant lymfogranulomatosis, in one a metastasis from malignant melanoma and finally two cases of peritendinitis humeroscapularis. In average 15 years (7-26 years) elapsed from irradiation to the diagnosis of the sarcomas. There were four bone sarcomas, two located in the clavicles and 2 in the humeri. Of these, three were osteogenic sarcomas and one a malignant fibrous histiocytoma. There were two soft tissue sarcomas, both located subcutaneously with involvement of deep fascia and muscle. Both tumors were extraskeletal osteogenic sarcomas. Three patients died of tumor on an average after 11 months. Two died without tumor from other causes, and one patient is alive without tumor 11 years after the treatment. If a patients presents with pain at the side of prior radiation, the diagnosis postradiation sarcoma must be considered and the patient referred to the Sarcoma centre. Radiation therapy should not be used in patients with benign lesions. PMID:2058030

  16. Theory of Radiation-Induced Attenuation in Optical Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Duncan T. H.; Johnston, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    A new mathematical model for describing radiation-induced attenuation in optical fibers ispresented. Unlike the existing empirical power law, the new expression is dose- rate dependent andcan be used to predict low-dose-rate induced fiber loss occurring in space from the normally high-dose-rate results obtained in a ground-based laboratory. The new theory is in good agreement withthe experiment.

  17. Radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zargari, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of tinea capitis using radiotherapy was introduced at the beginning of the twentieth century. A variety of cancers including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are seen years after this treatment. Objective: We sought to determine the clinical characteristics of BCCs among irradiated patients. Methods: The clinical records of all patients with BCC in a clinic in north of Iran were reviewed. Results: Of the 58 cases of BCC, 29 had positive history for radiotherapy in their childhood. Multiple BCCs were seen in 79.3% and 10.3% of patients with history and without history of radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusions: X-ray radiation is still a major etiologic factor in developing BCC in northern Iran. Patients with positive history for radiotherapy have higher rate of recurrence. PMID:26114066

  18. The effect of thermal treatment of radiation-induced EPR signals of different polymorphic forms of trehalose.

    PubMed

    ari?, Iva; Joki?, Milan; Rakvin, Boris; Kveder, Marina; Maltar-Strme?ki, Nadica

    2014-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals induced by ?-radiation in different polymorphic forms of trehalose were studied with dosimetry applications in view. Dose response of trehalose in terms of the concentration of induced paramagnetic centers was studied in the dose range from 0.5 to 50 kGy. The dependences of the dose responses of anhydrous ?-crystalline trehalose (TRE(?)) and glassy trehalose (TRE(g)) on dose are linear up to 15 kGy, whereas the linearity of the dependence for trehalose dihydrate (TRE(h)) is limited to about 10 kGy. At doses above 15 kGy, the dependences get saturated for all three forms. The relative radiation sensitivities pointed to the following order of decreasing concentrations of radiation-induced paramagnetic centers in the forms: TRE(g)>TRE(?)>TRE(h). The results showed that at all three trehalose polymorphic forms are suitable for dosimetry, especially for retrospective dose measurements. Also, thermal stability and decay kinetics of the EPR signals of the different forms of trehalose were studied in isothermal annealing experiments. The kinetic parameters, which had been derived by fitting the Arrhenius function to the measured decay rate constants, indicated that the fading of the EPR signals varied from one polymorphic form of trehalose to another. This emphasizes the impact of the molecular packing in the vicinity of the radiation-induced paramagnetic centers on their stability. PMID:24246553

  19. Interleukin-32 Positively Regulates Radiation-Induced Vascular Inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Hanako; Yazlovitskaya, Eugenia M.; Lin, P. Charles

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To study the role of interleukin-32 (IL-32), a novel protein only detected in human tissues, in ionizing radiation (IR)-induced vascular inflammation. Methods and Materials: Irradiated (0-6 Gy) human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with or without various agents-a cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) inhibitor, a cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) inhibitor, or lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs)-were used to assess IL-32 expression by Northern blot analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Expression of cell adhesion molecules and leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells using human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) cells was also analyzed. Results: Ionizing radiation dramatically increased IL-32 expression in vascular endothelial cells through multiple pathways. Ionizing radiation induced IL-32 expression through nuclear factor {kappa}B activation, through induction of cPLA2 and LPC, as well as induction of Cox-2 and subsequent conversion of arachidonic acid to prostacyclin. Conversely, blocking nuclear factor {kappa}B, cPLA2, and Cox-2 activity impaired IR-induced IL-32 expression. Importantly, IL-32 significantly enhanced IR-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecules and leukocyte adhesion on endothelial cells. Conclusion: This study identifies IL-32 as a positive regulator in IR-induced vascular inflammation, and neutralization of IL-32 may be beneficial in protecting from IR-induced inflammation.

  20. Clarithromycin Attenuates Radiation-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Jun; Yi, Chin-ok; Heo, Rok Won; Song, Dae Hyun; Cho, Yu Ji; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Kang, Ki Mun; Roh, Gu Seob; Lee, Jong Deog

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common and unavoidable complication of thoracic radiotherapy. The current study was conducted to evaluate the ability of clarithromycin (CLA) to prevent radiation-induced pneumonitis, oxidative stress, and lung fibrosis in an animal model. C57BL/6J mice were assigned to control, irradiation only, irradiation plus CLA, and CLA only groups. Test mice received single thoracic exposures to radiation and/or oral CLA (100 mg/kg/day). Histopathologic findings and markers of inflammation, fibrosis, and oxidative stress were compared by group. On a microscopic level, CLA inhibited macrophage influx, alveolar fibrosis, parenchymal collapse, consolidation, and epithelial cell changes. The concentration of collagen in lung tissue was lower in irradiation plus CLA mice. Radiation-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, TNF receptor 1, acetylated nuclear factor kappa B, cyclooxygenase 2, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and matrix metallopeptidase 9 were also attenuated by CLA. Expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase 1, transforming growth factor-?1, connective tissue growth factor, and type I collagen in radiation-treated lungs were also attenuated by CLA. These findings indicate that CLA ameliorates the deleterious effects of thoracic irradiation in mice by reducing pulmonary inflammation, oxidative damage, and fibrosis. PMID:26114656

  1. SENSITIVITY TO RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER IN HEMOCHROMATOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of dose-response relationships for radiation-induced cancer in segments of the population with high susceptibility is critical for understanding the risks of low dose and low dose rates to humans. Clean-up levels for radionuclides will depend upon the fraction of t...

  2. Effect of sodium meclofenamate on ultraviolet radiation induced carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrus, J.L.; Ambrus, C.M.; Pickren, J.W.; Klein, E.

    1984-01-01

    Sodium meclofenamate (Meclomen), an antiprostaglandin antileukotriene agent, was found in previous studies to protect primates against x-ray induced brain edema, esophagitis and cystitis. In the present study, it appeared to protect hairless mice against the carcinogenic effect of ultraviolet B-radiation.

  3. Radiation-induced segregation in alloy X-750

    SciTech Connect

    Kenik, E.A.

    1996-12-31

    Microstructural and microchemical evolution of an Alloy X-750 heat under neutron irradiation was studied in order to understand the origin of irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking. Both clustering of point defects and radiation-induced segregation at interfaces were observed. Although no significant changes in the precipitate structure were observed, boundaries exhibited additional depletion of Cr and Fe and enrichment of Ni.

  4. Poor outcome in radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Karram, T.; Rinkevitch, D.; Markiewicz, W. )

    1993-01-15

    The purpose was to compare the outcome of patients with radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis versus patients with constiction due to another etiology. Twenty patients with constrictive pericarditis were seen during 1975-1986 at a single medical center. Six had radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis (Group A). The etiology was idiopathic in ten subjects and secondary to carcinomatous encasement, chronic renal failure, purulent infection and tuberculosis in one patient each (Group B, N = 14). Meang age was 53.4 [+-] 15.5 years. Extensive pericardiectomy was performed in 3/6 Group A and 13/14 Group B patients. All Group A patients died, 4 weeks - 11 years post-diagnosis (median = 10 months). Two Group A patients died suddenly, one died post-operatively of respiratory failure, another of pneumonia and two of recurrent carcinoma. Thirteen Group B patients are alive (median follow-up = 72 months). The only death in this group was due to metastatic cancer. The poor outcome with radiation-induced constriction is probably multi-factorial. Poor surgical outcome is to be expected in patients with evidence of recurrent tumor, high-dose irradiation, pulmonary fibrosis or associated radiation-induced myocardinal, valvular or coronary damage.

  5. Mast Cells Contribute to Radiation-Induced Vascular Hyperpermeability

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Ran; Monsky, Wayne L.; Lee, Chang Geol; Song, Chang Ho; Kim, Dong Heui; Jain, Rakesh K.; Fukumura, Dai

    2016-01-01

    Induction of vascular hyperpermeability is one of the early vascular responses to radiation exposure and is considered to contribute to subsequent fibrosis and tissue injuries. However, the mechanism underlying radiation-induced hyperpermeability has not yet been clearly elucidated. Here, we provide experimental evidence indicating that mast cells contribute to the increase in vascular permeability for albumin in normal mouse skin after irradiation. Vascular permeability in the skin of C3H mice increased after 2, 15 and 50 Gy irradiation, peaked at 24 h after irradiation and gradually decreased thereafter to the baseline level within 3–10 days. Both the extent and duration of hyperpermeability were dose dependent. We found significant degranulation of mast cells in the skin after 15 Gy irradiation. To further investigate the role of mast cells in the radiation-induced increase in vascular permeability, we measured vascular permeability in the skin of mast cell-deficient mice (WWv) and their wild-type littermates at 24 h after irradiation. Vascular permeability in WWv mice did not change, whereas that in wild-type mice significantly increased after irradiation. There were no appreciable changes in the total tissue levels of vascular endothelial growth factor or endothelial nitric oxide synthase after 15 Gy irradiation and there was no detectable expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Collectively, these results show that exposure to radiation induces vascular hyperpermeability in a dose-dependent manner and that mast cells contribute to this process. PMID:26771172

  6. Residual stress induced crystalline to amorphous phase transformation in Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Dhawan, Sahil; Vedeshwar, Agnikumar G.; Dhawan, Tanuj

    2014-07-28

    Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} quantum dots (QDs) were grown using a simple technique of vacuum thermal evaporation. QDs were found to be crystalline in nature by selected area electron diffraction (SAED) in TEM. Samples with thickness up to 20?nm did not show any significant residual strain. Residual stress effect on band gap of crystalline Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} was studied for films thicker than 20?nm. Residual strain was determined using SAED of the films with reference to powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Films thicker than 45?nm become amorphous as analyzed by both SAED and XRD. The optical absorption of films in the range 2560?nm indicates significantly varying optical band gap of films. The varying band gap with film thickness scales linearly very well with the variation of residual stress with film thickness. The residual stress dependence of band gap of crystalline films yields stress free band gap as 3.37 eV with pressure coefficient of band gap (?E{sub g}/?P){sub T}?=??29.3?meV/GPa. From this study, the crystalline to amorphous transformation in tetragonal form of M-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} has been determined to be at about 14?GPa. Both pressure coefficient of band gap and crystalline to amorphous transition for tetragonal M-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} have been determined for the first time in the literature.

  7. Radiation-induced dural fibrosarcoma with unusually short latent period

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatak, N.R.; Aydin, F.; Leshner, R.T. Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA )

    1993-05-01

    Although rare, the occurrence of radiation-induced intracranial neoplasms of various types is well known. Among these tumors, fibrosarcomas, especially in the region of seila turcica, seem to be the most common type. These tumors characteristically occur after a long latent period, usually several years, following radiation therapy. The authors now report a case of apparently radiation-induced fibrosarcoma with some unusual features in a 10-year-old boy who was treated with radiation for medulloblastoma. He received a total dose of 53.2 Gy radiation delivered at 1.8 per fraction with 6 MV acceleration using the standard craniospinal technique. An MRI at 15 months after the completion of radiotherapy showed a mass over the cerebral convexity, which increased two-fold in size within a period of 4 months. A well circumscribed tumor was removed from the fronto-parietal convexity. The tumor measured 5x4.5x1.5 cm and was attached to the dura with invasion of the overlying bone. Histologically, it displayed the characteristic features of a low-grade fibrosarcoma. The patient remains free of tumor 18 months after the surgery. This case emphasizes the potential risk for the development of a second neoplasm following therapeutic radiation and also documents, to the authors' knowledge, the shortest latent period reported so far between administration of radiotherapy and development of an intracranial tumor.

  8. Countermeasures for space radiation induced adverse biologic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, A. R.; Wan, X. S.

    2011-11-01

    Radiation exposure in space is expected to increase the risk of cancer and other adverse biological effects in astronauts. The types of space radiation of particular concern for astronaut health are protons and heavy ions known as high atomic number and high energy (HZE) particles. Recent studies have indicated that carcinogenesis induced by protons and HZE particles may be modifiable. We have been evaluating the effects of proton and HZE particle radiation in cultured human cells and animals for nearly a decade. Our results indicate that exposure to proton and HZE particle radiation increases oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, cataract development and malignant transformation in in vivo and/or in vitro experimental systems. We have also shown that these adverse biological effects can be prevented, at least partially, by treatment with antioxidants and some dietary supplements that are readily available and have favorable safety profiles. Some of the antioxidants and dietary supplements are effective in preventing radiation induced malignant transformation in vitro even when applied several days after the radiation exposure. Our recent progress is reviewed and discussed in the context of the relevant literature.

  9. Radiation-induced decomposition of explosives under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Giefers, Hubertus; Pravica, Michael; Yang, Wenge; Liermann, Peter

    2008-11-03

    We present high-pressure and high temperature studies of the synchrotron radiation-induced decomposition of powder secondary high explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) using white beam synchrotron radiation at the 16 BM-B and 16 BM-D sectors of the HP-CAT beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The radiation-induced decomposition rate TATB showed dramatic slowing with pressure up to 26.6 GPa (the highest pressure studied), implying a positive activation volume of the activated complex. The decomposition rate of PETN varied little with pressure up to 15.7 GPa (the highest pressure studied). Diffraction line intensities were measured as a function of time using energy-dispersive methods. By measuring the decomposition rate as a function of pressure and temperature, kinetic and other constants associated with the decomposition reactions were extracted.

  10. Radiation-induced lung injury: a hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, P.G.; Bryant, D.H.; Morgan, G.W.; Yeates, M.; Fernandez, V.; Penny, R.; Breit, S.N.

    1988-08-15

    Radiation pneumonitis occurs 6 to 12 weeks after thoracic irradiation, and is thought to be due to direct radiation-induced lung injury. Four patients who developed pneumonitis after unilateral thoracic irradiation for carcinoma of the breast were studied with bronchoalveolar lavage, gallium scan of the lung, and respiratory function tests. On the irradiated side of the chest, all four patients showed an increase in total cells recovered from the lavage fluid and a marked increase in the percentage of lymphocytes. When results for the unirradiated lung were compared with results for the irradiated lung, there was a comparable increase in total cells and percentage of lymphocytes. Gallium scans showed increases for both irradiated and unirradiated lungs. Prompt improvement was seen after corticosteroid therapy in all patients. The fact that abnormal findings occur equally in irradiated and unirradiated lung is inconsistent with simple direct radiation-induced injury and suggests an immunologically mediated mechanism such as a hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

  11. Radiation-induced mutagenicity and lethality in Salmonella typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Isildar, M.; Bakale, G.

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenic and lethal effects of ionizing radiation on histidine-deficient auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium were studied to improve the understanding of radiation damage to DNA. The auxotrophs were divided into two groups - one which is sensitive to base-pair substitutions and another sensitive to frameshifts. These groups were composed of parent-daughter pairs in which the chemical mutagenicity enhancing plasmid, pKM101, is absent in the parent strain and present in the daughter. Co-60 ..gamma..-radiation and 250 kV x-rays were used to irradiate the bacteria. Irradiation of the frameshift - sensitive strains which carry the pKm101 plasmid doubled the absolute number of induced revertants whereas irradiation of the base-pair substitution sensitive strain which also carries the pKm101 plasmid produced nearly no change in the number of induced revertants. A nearly negligible effect on the mutation rate was observed for all parent strains. (ACR)

  12. Radiation-induced genomic instability and its implications for radiation carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Lei; Snyder, Andrew R.; Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation-induced genomic instability is characterized by an increased rate of genetic alterations including cytogenetic rearrangements, mutations, gene amplifications, transformation and cell death in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after the initial insult. Chromosomal rearrangements are the best-characterized end point of radiation-induced genomic instability, and many of the rearrangements described are similar to those found in human cancers. Chromosome breakage syndromes are defined by chromosome instability, and individuals with these diseases are cancer prone. Consequently, chromosomal instability as a phenotype may underlie some fraction of those changes leading to cancer. Here we attempt to relate current knowledge regarding radiation-induced chromosome instability with the emerging molecular information on the chromosome breakage syndromes. The goal is to understand how genetic and epigenetic factors might influence the onset of chromosome instability and the role of chromosomal instability in carcinogenesis.

  13. Radiation-induced genomic instability and its implications for radiation carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Snyder, Andrew R; Morgan, William F

    2003-09-01

    Radiation-induced genomic instability is characterized by an increased rate of genetic alterations including cytogenetic rearrangements, mutations, gene amplifications, transformation and cell death in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after the initial insult. Chromosomal rearrangements are the best-characterized end point of radiation-induced genomic instability, and many of the rearrangements described are similar to those found in human cancers. Chromosome breakage syndromes are defined by chromosome instability, and individuals with these diseases are cancer prone. Consequently, chromosomal instability as a phenotype may underlie some fraction of those changes leading to cancer. Here we attempt to relate current knowledge regarding radiation-induced chromosome instability with the emerging molecular information on the chromosome breakage syndromes. The goal is to understand how genetic and epigenetic factors might influence the onset of chromosome instability and the role of chromosomal instability in carcinogenesis. PMID:12947391

  14. Mechanisms of radiation-induced gene responses

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Paunesku, T.

    1996-10-01

    In the process of identifying genes differentially expressed in cells exposed ultraviolet radiation, we have identified a transcript having a 26-bp region that is highly conserved in a variety of species including Bacillus circulans, yeast, pumpkin, Drosophila, mouse, and man. When the 5` region (flanking region or UTR) of a gene, the sequence is predominantly in +/+ orientation with respect to the coding DNA strand; while in the coding region and the 3` region (UTR), the sequence is most frequently in the +/-orientation with respect to the coding DNA strand. In two genes, the element is split into two parts; however, in most cases, it is found only once but with a minimum of 11 consecutive nucleotides precisely depicting the original sequence. The element is found in a large number of different genes with diverse functions (from human ras p21 to B. circulans chitonase). Gel shift assays demonstrated the presence of a protein in HeLa cell extracts that binds to the sense and antisense single-stranded consensus oligomers, as well as to the double- stranded oligonucleotide. When double-stranded oligomer was used, the size shift demonstrated as additional protein-oligomer complex larger than the one bound to either sense or antisense single-stranded consensus oligomers alone. It is speculated either that this element binds to protein(s) important in maintaining DNA is a single-stranded orientation for transcription or, alternatively that this element is important in the transcription-coupled DNA repair process.

  15. Radiation-induced mesotheliomas in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.F.; Haley, P.J.; Hubbs, A.F.; Hoover, M.D.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Mesotheliomas have been reported in rats that inhaled plutonium, but these tumors have not been extensively studied. To investigate a possible role for inhaled radionuclides in the induction of mesotheliomas, four life-span studies conducted at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute are reviewed. A total of 3076 F344 rats were exposed by inhalation to aerosols of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}, mixed uranium-plutonium oxide, or {sup 144}CeO{sub 2}. Results showed that a low incidence of pleural mesotheliomas was induced by either alpha- or beta-emitting radionuclides deposited and retained in the lung. Chronic alpha irradiation was more effective per unit dose in producing mesotheliomas than chronic beta irradiation of the lung by a factor of 15. 7 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs. (MHB)

  16. Ion induced structural modification and nano-crystalline formation of Zr-Al-Ni-Cu metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, S.; Sasase, M.; Takahiro, K.; Tsuchiya, B.; Inouye, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Shikama, T.

    2009-05-01

    The effect of the ion implantation on the phase transformation was studied for glassy and crystalline Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 alloys, using Au+ ions with 500 keV. For the glassy metal surface, nano-crystalline precipitates were effectively formed in the amorphous matrix by 500 keV Au ion irradiation at a fluence of the about 1016 cm-2. On the contrary, the long range ordering in the partly crystalline alloy was lost by the irradiation under the same condition. Moreover, the precipitation during the heat treatment near the crystallizing temperature was effectively suppressed in the ion implanted area. In the irradiated surface, the XPS valence band structure was drastically changed, while shifts of the binding energy were found in the core level electrons of Au 4f and Cu 2p, indicating a strong interaction between the implanted Au atoms and constituent atoms of the Zr-based alloy.

  17. Expansion of nanosized pores in low-crystallinity nanoparticle-assembled plates via a thermally induced increase in solid-state density.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Fujiwara, Keiko; Uehira, Mayo; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Takeda, Shoji

    2013-09-01

    We investigated thermally induced changes in a low-crystallinity hydroxyapatite (HAp)-nanoparticle-assembled plate containing nanosized pores. We first prepared an aqueous dispersion of low-crystallinity HAp nanoparticles (particle size, 48 nm) via a wet chemical process and then prepared the nanoparticle-assembled plate by drying the dispersion on an oil substrate to prevent crack formation. Before the plates were subjected to heat treatments, they contained 7.9-nm-sized pores because of the gap between the nanoparticles, and their porosity was 60%. After the heat treatments (600-1100 °C) were performed for 1 h, the solid-state density determined using helium pycnometry increased from 2.85 to 3.21 g/cm(3), and the pore size increased from 7.9 to 250 nm. These results indicate that the pore size expanded because of increases in crystallinity and density, despite the large decrease in the total volume because of thermally induced sintering of the nanoparticles. PMID:23777865

  18. Role of the crystalline form of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Rutile, and not anatase, induces toxic effects in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Uboldi, Chiara; Urbán, Patricia; Gilliland, Douglas; Bajak, Edyta; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Ponti, Jessica; Rossi, François

    2016-03-01

    The wide use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) in industrial applications requires the investigation of their effects on human health. In this context, we investigated the effects of nanosized and bulk titania in two different crystalline forms (anatase and rutile) in vitro. By colony forming efficiency assay, a dose-dependent reduction of the clonogenic activity of Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts was detected in the presence of rutile, but not in the case of anatase NPs. Similarly, the cell transformation assay and the micronucleus test showed that rutile TiO2 NPs were able to induce type-III foci formation in Balb/3T3 cells and appeared to be slightly genotoxic, whereas anatase TiO2 NPs did not induce any significant neoplastic or genotoxic effect. Additionally, we investigated the interaction of TiO2 NPs with Balb/3T3 cells and quantified the in vitro uptake of titania using mass spectrometry. Results showed that the internalization was independent of the crystalline form of TiO2 NPs but size-dependent, as nano-titania were taken up more than their respective bulk materials. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the cytotoxic, neoplastic and genotoxic effects triggered in Balb/3T3 cells by TiO2 NPs depend on the crystalline form of the nanomaterial, whereas the internalization is regulated by the particle size. PMID:26571344

  19. Titanium carbide nanocube core induced interfacial growth of crystalline polypyrrole/polyvinyl alcohol lamellar shell for wide-temperature range supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Yu-Ting; Pan, Hsiao-An; Wu, Nae-Lih; Chen, Geroge Zheng

    2015-01-01

    This is the first investigation on electrically conducting polymers-based supercapacitor electrodes over a wide temperature range, from -18 C to 60 C. A high-performance supercapacitor electrode material consisting of TiC nanocube core and conformal crystalline polypyrrole (PPy)/poly-vinyl-alcohol (PVA) lamellar shell has been synthesized by heterogeneous nucleation-induced interfacial crystallization. PPy is induced to crystallize on the negatively charged TiC nanocube surfaces via strong interfacial interactions. In this organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite, the long chain PVA enables enhanced cycle life due to improved mechanical properties, and the TiC nanocube not only contributes to electron conduction, but also dictates the PPy morphology/crystallinity for maximizing the charging-discharging performance. The crystalline PPy/PAV layer on the TiC nanocube offers unprecedented high capacity (>350 F g-1-PPy at 300 mV s-1 with ?V = 1.6 V) and cycling stability in a temperature range from -18 C to 60 C. The presented hybrid-filler and interfacial crystallization strategies can be applied to the exploration of new-generation high-power conducting polymer-based supercapacitor materials.

  20. Radiation-induced DNA damage and chromatin structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rydberg, B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation in cells are clustered and not randomly distributed. For low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation this clustering occurs mainly on the small scales of DNA molecules and nucleosomes. For example, experimental evidence suggests that both strands of DNA on the nucleosomal surface can be damaged in single events and that this damage occurs with a 10-bp modulation because of protection by histones. For high LET radiation, clustering also occurs on a larger scale and depends on chromatin organization. A particularly significant clustering occurs when an ionizing particle traverses the 30 nm chromatin fiber with generation of heavily damaged DNA regions with an average size of about 2 kbp. On an even larger scale, high LET radiation can produce several DNA double-strand breaks in closer proximity than expected from randomness. It is suggested that this increases the probability of misrejoining of DNA ends and generation of lethal chromosome aberrations.

  1. Pulsed radiation-induced attenuation in certain optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, J.D. )

    1992-05-01

    Using the X-ray pulse from the HERMES II simulation machine at Sandia National Laboratories, the pulsed radiation-induced attenuation was measured in two optical fibers considered to be 'nonrad-hard': the 50-micron-core, graded-index fiber from Corning and the plastic (PMMA) fiber from the Mitsubishi Rayon Company. These fibers were exposed to radiation up to doses of 19.5 and 28 krad(Si), respectively. In addition, fits of their post-radiation recovery were made to the geminate recombination model, from which the recombination-rate and generation constants, characteristic of this theory, were determined. These parameters should be useful in determining the response of the fibers to radiation conditions other than those encountered here. 18 refs.

  2. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors).

  3. Liquid-crystalline self-organization of isocyanide-containing dendrimers induced by coordination to gold(I) fragments.

    PubMed

    Cordovilla, Carlos; Coco, Silverio; Espinet, Pablo; Donnio, Bertrand

    2010-02-01

    Dendritic polyisocyanides can be considered as promising polytopic ligands to generate a great diversity of metallodendrimers due to the ability of the isocyanide moiety to bind to various transition metals. Here, new isocyanide-containing dendrimers and their corresponding polynuclear gold complexes have been prepared, [G(i)(NC)(Z)] and [G(i)(NCAuR)(Z)], respectively, where G(i) is a poly(phenyl ether) dendrimer, i is the generation number (i = 0, 1, or 2), Z is the number of peripheral groups (Z = 3 x 2(i)), and AuR are the surface groups ([R = Cl, C[triple bond]C-C(6)H(4)-OC(12)H(25), C[triple bond]CC(6)H(2)(OC(12)H(25))(3)]. The compounds are derived from a highly flexible phenyl ether-based dendritic core, G(i), having the general formula G(0) = C(6)H(3)(OC(11)H(22)OC(6)H(4)-)(3), G(1) = C(6)H(3)[OC(11)H(22)OC(6)H(3)(OC(11)H(22)OC(6)H(4)-)(2)](3), G(2) = C(6)H(3)[OC(11)H(22)OC(6)H(3){OC(11)H(22)OC(6)H(3)(OC(11)H(22)OC(6)H(4)-)(2)}(2)](3)), growing from the trivalent phloroglucinol and with undecylene aliphatic spacers between each branching benzene ring and end-functionalized by isocyanide groups. As in their monomeric model counterparts, stable liquid-crystalline phases are induced upon complexation of the AuR gold moieties at the branch termini. The nature of the anionic ligand R promotes the appearance of smectic or columnar mesophases, the formation of which are governed by steric and dipolar interactions. Based on X-ray diffraction experiments, models describing the supramolecular organization of these metallodendrimers into smectic and columnar mesophases are proposed: columnar phases result from the one-dimensional stacking of molecular disks made of self-assembled supermolecules in oblate cylindrical conformation, while the smectic phases form by the lateral two-dimensional registry of the supermolecules in antiparallel head-to-head prolate conformation. PMID:20055502

  4. Aging masks detection of radiation-induced brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Olson, John; DAgostino, Ralph; Linville, Constance; Nicolle, Michelle M.; Robbins, Michael E.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.

    2011-01-01

    Fractionated partial or whole-brain irradiation (fWBI) is a widely used, effective treatment for primary and metastatic brain tumors, but it also produces radiation-induced brain injury, including cognitive impairment. Radiation-induced neural changes are particularly problematic for elderly brain tumor survivors who also experience age-dependent cognitive impairment. Accordingly, we investigated, i] radiation-induced cognitive impairment, and ii] potential biomarkers of radiation-induced brain injury in a rat model of aging. Fischer 344 Brown Norway rats received fractionated whole-brain irradiation (fWBI rats, 40 Gy, 8 fractions over 4 wk) or sham-irradiation (Sham-IR rats) at 12 months of age; all analyses were performed at 2630 months of age. Spatial learning and memory were measured using the Morris water maze (MWM), hippocampal metabolites were measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS), and hippocampal glutamate receptor subunits were evaluated using Western blots. Young rats (710 month-old) were included to control for age effects. The results revealed that both Sham-IR and fWBI rats exhibited age-dependent impairments in MWM performance; fWBI induced additional impairments in the reversal MWM. 1H MRS revealed age-dependent decreases in neuronal markers, increases in glial markers, but no detectable fWBI-dependent changes. Western blot analysis revealed age-dependent, but not fWBI-dependent, glutamate subunit declines. Although previous studies demonstrated fWBI-induced changes in cognition, glutamate subunits, and brain metabolites in younger rats, age-dependent changes in these parameters appear to mask their detection in old rats, a phenomenon also likely to occur in elderly fWBI patients >70 years of age. PMID:21338580

  5. Ionizing radiation-induced mutagenesis: radiation studies in Neurospora predictive for results in mammalian cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, H. H.; DeMarini, D. M.

    1999-01-01

    Ionizing radiation was the first mutagen discovered and was used to develop the first mutagenicity assay. In the ensuing 70+ years, ionizing radiation became a fundamental tool in understanding mutagenesis and is still a subject of intensive research. Frederick de Serres et al. developed and used the Neurospora crassa ad-3 system initially to explore the mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation. Using this system, de Serres et al. demonstrated the dependence of the frequency and spectra of mutations induced by ionizing radiation on the dose, dose rate, radiation quality, repair capabilities of the cells, and the target gene employed. This work in Neurospora predicted the subsequent observations of the mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Modeled originally on the mouse specific-locus system developed by William L. Russell, the N. crassa ad-3 system developed by de Serres has itself served as a model for interpreting the results in subsequent systems in mammalian cells. This review describes the primary findings on the nature of ionizing radiation-induced mutagenesis in the N. crassa ad-3 system and the parallel observations made years later in mammalian cells.

  6. Radiation-Induced Notch Signaling in Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lagadec, Chann; Vlashi, Erina; Alhiyari, Yazeed; Phillips, Tiffany M.; Bochkur Dratver, Milana; Pajonk, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To explore patterns of Notch receptor and ligand expression in response to radiation that could be crucial in defining optimal dosing schemes for γ-secretase inhibitors if combined with radiation. Methods and Materials: Using MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines, we used real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to study the Notch pathway in response to radiation. Results: We show that Notch receptor and ligand expression during the first 48 hours after irradiation followed a complex radiation dose–dependent pattern and was most pronounced in mammospheres, enriched for breast cancer stem cells. Additionally, radiation activated the Notch pathway. Treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor prevented radiation-induced Notch family gene expression and led to a significant reduction in the size of the breast cancer stem cell pool. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, if combined with radiation, γ-secretase inhibitors may prevent up-regulation of Notch receptor and ligand family members and thus reduce the number of surviving breast cancer stem cells.

  7. [Update - health risks induced by ionizing radiation from diagnostic imaging].

    PubMed

    Knsli, Claudio; Walter, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Ionizing radiation is the most thoroughly investigated exogenous noxa. Since the early 20th century it is well known that using ionizing radiation in diagnostic procedures causes cancer - physicians themselves frequently being struck by this disease in those early days of radiology. Radiation protection therefore plays an important role. Below doses of 100 Millisievert (mSv) however much research has to be accomplished yet because not only malignant tumors, but cardiovascular diseases, malformations and genetic sequelae attributable to low dose radiation have been described. Unborns, children and adolescents are highly vulnerable. Dose response correlations are subject to continuing discussions because data stem mostly from calculations studying Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Radiation exposure is not exactly known, and it is unknown, if observations of radiation induced diseases in this ethnicity can be generalized. Nowadays the main source of low dose ionizing radiation from medical diagnostics is due to computertomography (CT). Large recent clinical studies from the UK and Australia investigating cancer incidence after exposition to CT in childhood and adolescence confirm that low doses in the range of 5 mSv already significantly increase the risk of malignant diseases during follow up. Imaging techniques as ultrasound and magnetic resonance tomography therefore should be preferred whenever appropriate. PMID:24297861

  8. Inner-shell electron excitation effect on the structural change in amorphous and crystalline GaAs with brilliant X-ray irradiation using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Fumio; Saito, Nobuo; Kusano, Junichi; Takizawa, Kuniharu; Kawado, Seiji; Kato, Takanori; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Kagoshima, Yasushi; Ando, Masami

    1998-09-01

    Amorphous layers of gallium arsenide (a-GaAs) formed by heavy implantation of silicon ions and crystalline gallium arsenide (c-GaAs) were irradiated with monochromatized X-rays using brilliant synchrotron radiation. Infrared absorption measurements at low temperature for a-GaAs specimens showed that X-rays having an energy larger than the K-binding energy of As atoms created a much larger fraction of Si-Ga and Si-As bondings than in the as-implanted state. On the other hand, from photoluminescence measurements, it was confirmed that X-rays having a smaller energy than either of the K binding energies, enhanced the relaxation of the a-GaAs network, and created some defects in c-Ga-As. The mechanism for these structural changes is discussed from the viewpoint of relaxation processes after inner-shell electron excitation by X-rays.

  9. Radiation-induced optic neuropathy: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, J.; Mancuso, A.; Beck, R.; Moster, M.L.; Sedwick, L.A.; Quisling, R.G.; Rhoton, A.L. Jr.; Protzko, E.E.; Schiffman, J. )

    1991-03-01

    Optic neuropathy induced by radiation is an infrequent cause of delayed visual loss that may at times be difficult to differentiate from compression of the visual pathways by recurrent neoplasm. The authors describe six patients with this disorder who experienced loss of vision 6 to 36 months after neurological surgery and radiation therapy. Of the six patients in the series, two had a pituitary adenoma and one each had a metastatic melanoma, multiple myeloma, craniopharyngioma, and lymphoepithelioma. Visual acuity in the affected eyes ranged from 20/25 to no light perception. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed sellar and parasellar recurrence of both pituitary adenomas, but the intrinsic lesions of the optic nerves and optic chiasm induced by radiation were enhanced after gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) administration and were clearly distinguishable from the suprasellar compression of tumor. Repeated MR imaging showed spontaneous resolution of gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of the optic nerve in a patient who was initially suspected of harboring recurrence of a metastatic malignant melanoma as the cause of visual loss. The authors found the presumptive diagnosis of radiation-induced optic neuropathy facilitated by MR imaging with gadolinium-DTPA. This neuro-imaging procedure may help avert exploratory surgery in some patients with recurrent neoplasm in whom the etiology of visual loss is uncertain.

  10. Transient delay of radiation-induced apoptosis by phorbol acetate.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Gunilla; Czene, Stefan; Haghdoost, Siamak; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats

    2016-03-01

    The mechanisms of interference of a model tumour promoter 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) with radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral lymphocytes have been investigated. The cells were treated with TPA under various conditions and thereafter exposed to a single lethal dose of gamma radiation. Morphological and biochemical changes characteristic of apoptosis were followed up to 72h of post-irradiation time. Acute exposure to low concentration of TPA resulted in delay in the onset of radiation-induced apoptosis (determined as morphological changes and rate of mitochondrial demise) by 24-48h as compared to the irradiated, sham TPA-treated cells. The time course of this delay correlated well with confinement of the p53 protein to the cytoplasm and increase in bcl-2 levels at the nuclear periphery of irradiated cells. Our results indicate that confinement of p53 in the cytoplasm is one of the potential mechanisms by which TPA interferes with the process of radiation-induced apoptosis in human lymphocytes. PMID:26581877

  11. Chromosome aberrations induced by high-LET radiations.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Tetsuya; Ito, Hisao; George, Kerry; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2004-12-01

    Measurements of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes are currently the most sensitive and reliable indicator of radiation exposure that can be used for biological dosimetry. This technique has been implemented recently to study radiation exposures incurred by astronauts during space flight, where a significant proportion of the dose is delivered by high-LET particle exposure. Traditional methods for the assessing of cytogenetic damage in mitotic cells collected at one time point after exposure may not be suitable for measuring high-LET radiation effects due to the drastic cell cycle perturbations and interphase cell death induced by this type of exposure. In this manuscript we review the recent advances in methodology used to study high-LET induced cytogenetic effects and evaluate the use of chemically-induced Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) as an alternative to metaphase analysis. Published data on the cytogenetic effects of in vitro exposures of high-LET radiation is reviewed, along with biodosimetry results from astronauts after short or long space missions. PMID:15858388

  12. Chromosome aberrations induced by high-LET radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawata, Tetsuya; Ito, Hisao; George, Kerry; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes are currently the most sensitive and reliable indicator of radiation exposure that can be used for biological dosimetry. This technique has been implemented recently to study radiation exposures incurred by astronauts during space flight, where a significant proportion of the dose is delivered by high-LET particle exposure. Traditional methods for the assessing of cytogenetic damage in mitotic cells collected at one time point after exposure may not be suitable for measuring high-LET radiation effects due to the drastic cell cycle perturbations and interphase cell death induced by this type of exposure. In this manuscript we review the recent advances in methodology used to study high-LET induced cytogenetic effects and evaluate the use of chemically-induced Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) as an alternative to metaphase analysis. Published data on the cytogenetic effects of in vitro exposures of high-LET radiation is reviewed, along with biodosimetry results from astronauts after short or long space missions.

  13. Radiation-induced skin carcinomas of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Preston, D.; Alfandary, E.; Stovall, M.; Boice, J.D. Jr. )

    1991-03-01

    Radiation exposures to the scalp during childhood for tinea capitis were associated with a fourfold increase in skin cancer, primarily basal cell carcinomas, and a threefold increase in benign skin tumors. Malignant melanoma, however, was not significantly elevated. Overall, 80 neoplasms were identified from an extensive search of the pathology logs of all major hospitals in Israel and computer linkage with the national cancer registry. Radiation dose to the scalp was computed for over 10,000 persons irradiated for ringworm (mean 7 Gy), and incidence rates were contrasted with those observed in 16,000 matched comparison subjects. The relative risk of radiogenic skin cancer did not differ significantly between men or women or by time since exposure; however, risk was greatest following exposures in early childhood. After adjusting for sex, ethnic origin, and attained age, the estimated excess relative risk was 0.7 per Gy and the average excess risk over the current follow-up was 0.31/10(4) PY-Gy. The risk per Gy of radiation-induced skin cancer was intermediate between the high risk found among whites and no risk found among blacks in a similar study conducted in New York City. This finding suggests the role that subsequent exposure to uv radiation likely plays in the expression of a potential radiation-induced skin malignancy.

  14. Nature of radiation-induced defects in quartz.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bu; Yu, Yingtian; Pignatelli, Isabella; Sant, Gaurav; Bauchy, Mathieu

    2015-07-14

    Although quartz (?-form) is a mineral used in numerous applications wherein radiation exposure is an issue, the nature of the atomistic defects formed during radiation-induced damage has not been fully clarified. Especially, the extent of oxygen vacancy formation is still debated, which is an issue of primary importance as optical techniques based on charged oxygen vacancies have been utilized to assess the level of radiation damage in quartz. In this paper, molecular dynamics simulations are applied to study the effects of ballistic impacts on the atomic network of quartz. We show that the defects that are formed mainly consist of over-coordinated Si and O, as well as Si-O connectivity defects, e.g., small Si-O rings and edge-sharing Si tetrahedra. Oxygen vacancies, on the contrary, are found in relatively low abundance, suggesting that characterizations based on E' centers do not adequately capture radiation-induced structural damage in quartz. Finally, we evaluate the dependence on the incident energy, of the amount of each type of the point defects formed, and quantify unambiguously the threshold displacement energies for both O and Si atoms. These results provide a comprehensive basis to assess the nature and extent of radiation damage in quartz. PMID:26178116

  15. Charge gradient-induced on-surface growth of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag nanomembranes for long surface plasmon propagation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Haili; Xiong, Xiong; Wu, Dongmin; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Dong; Liu, Xia; Yang, Wensheng; Jin, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A facile strategy for the fabrication of ultralarge (edge length >50 ?m), single-crystalline Ag nanomembranes is reported in this work. The Ag nanomembrane with an atomically smooth surface demonstrates a much longer surface plasmonic propagation length as compared to vacuum-deposited polycrystalline Ag film, representing superior plasmonic properties. PMID:25531809

  16. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Knockout Abrogates Radiation Induced Pulmonary Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallahan, Dennis E.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi

    1997-06-01

    Increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1; CD54) is induced by exposure to ionizing radiation. The lung was used as a model to study the role of ICAM-1 in the pathogenesis of the radiation-induced inflammation-like response. ICAM-1 expression increased in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium and not in the endothelium of larger pulmonary vessels following treatment of mice with thoracic irradiation. To quantify radiation-induced ICAM-1 expression, we utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of anti-ICAM-1 antibody labeling of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells from human cadaver donors (HMVEC-L cells). Fluorochrome conjugates and UV microscopy were used to quantify the fluorescence intensity of ICAM in the irradiated lung. These studies showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Peak expression occurred at 24 h, while threshold dose was as low as 2 Gy. To determine whether ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into the irradiated lung, the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody was administered by tail vein injection to mice following thoracic irradiation. Inflammatory cells were quantified by immunofluorescence for leukocyte common antigen (CD45). Mice treated with the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody showed attenuation of inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to ionizing radiation exposure. To verify the requirement of ICAM-1 in the inflammation-like radiation response, we utilized the ICAM-1 knockout mouse. ICAM-1 was not expressed in the lungs of ICAM-1-deficient mice following treatment with thoracic irradiation. ICAM-1 knockout mice had no increase in the inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to thoracic irradiation. These studies demonstrate a radiation dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and show that ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into the irradiated lung.

  17. Vulcanization of polybutadiene latex induced by 60Co ? radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuguang; Huang, Yudong; Zhang, Chengwu; Hou, Jing; Zhang, Xuequan

    2008-06-01

    Polybutadiene latex (PBL) vulcanization induced by 60Co radiation and the influence of dose on crosslinking were investigated. Morphology and particle size distribution were examined by AFM and a particle size analyzer. The casting films were characterized for their swelling and mechanical properties as a function of dose. The particle size, swelling and tensile properties decreased with dose, while gel fraction and storage modulus increased. The PBL fits well with the Charlesby-Pinner equation in the radiation dose, up to 200 kGy.

  18. Evidence for Radiation-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation as a Major Cause of Radiation-Induced Death in Ferrets

    SciTech Connect

    Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Savage, Alexandria R.; Billings, Paul C.; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The studies reported here were performed as part of a program in space radiation biology in which proton radiation like that present in solar particle events, as well as conventional gamma radiation, were being evaluated in terms of the ability to affect hemostasis. Methods and Materials: Ferrets were exposed to 0 to 2 Gy of whole-body proton or gamma radiation and monitored for 30 days. Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, platelet clumping, thromboelastometry, and fibrin clot formation. Results: The lethal dose of radiation to 50% of the population (LD{sub 50}) of the ferrets was established at ∼1.5 Gy, with 100% mortality at 2 Gy. Hypocoagulability was present as early as day 7 postirradiation, with animals unable to generate a stable clot and exhibiting signs of platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and fibrin clots in blood vessels of organs. Platelet counts were at normal levels during the early time points postirradiation when coagulopathies were present and becoming progressively more severe; platelet counts were greatly reduced at the time of the white blood cell nadir of 13 days. Conclusions: Data presented here provide evidence that death at the LD{sub 50} in ferrets is most likely due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These data question the current hypothesis that death at relatively low doses of radiation is due solely to the cell-killing effects of hematopoietic cells. The recognition that radiation-induced DIC is the most likely mechanism of death in ferrets raises the question of whether DIC is a contributing mechanism to radiation-induced death at relatively low doses in large mammals.

  19. Evidence for Radiation-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation as a Major Cause of Radiation-Induced Death in Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Savage, Alexandria R.; Billings, Paul C.; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives(s) The studies reported here were performed as part of a program in space radiation biology in which proton radiation like that present in solar particle events (SPEs), as well as conventional gamma radiation, were being evaluated in terms of the ability to affect hemostasis. Methods and Materials Ferrets were exposed to 0 – 2 Gray (Gy) of whole body proton or gamma radiation and monitored for 30 days. Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, platelet clumping, thromboelastometry, and fibrin clot formation. Results The lethal dose of radiation to 50% of the population, known as the LD50, of ferrets was established at ~ 1.5 Gy, with 100% mortality at 2 Gy. Hypocoagulability was present as early as day 7 post-irradiation, with animals unable to generate a stable clot and exhibiting signs of platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and fibrin clots in blood vessels of organs. Platelet counts were at normal levels during the early times post-irradiation when coagulopathies were present and progressively becoming more severe; platelet counts were greatly reduced at the time of the white blood cell nadir of 13 days. Conclusions The data presented here provide evidence that death at the LD50 in ferrets is most likely due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These data question the current hypothesis that death at relatively low doses of radiation is solely due to the cell killing effects of hematopoietic cells. The recognition that radiation-induced DIC is the most likely mechanism of death in ferrets raises the question of whether DIC is a contributing mechanism to radiation induced death at relatively low doses in large mammals. PMID:24495588

  20. Radiation-induced cardiomyopathy as a function of radiation beam gating to the cardiac cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, David J.; Flanagan, Michael F.; Southworth, Jean B.; Hadley, Vaughn; Thibualt, Melissa Wei; Hug, Eugen B.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2004-04-01

    Portions of the heart are often unavoidably included in the primary treatment volume during thoracic radiotherapy, and radiation-induced heart disease has been observed as a treatment-related complication. Such complications have been observed in humans following radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease and treatment of the left breast for carcinoma. Recent attempts have been made to prevent re-stenosis following angioplasty procedures using external beam irradiation. These attempts were not successful, however, due to the large volume of heart included in the treatment field and subsequent cardiac morbidity. We suggest a mechanism for sparing the heart from radiation damage by synchronizing the radiation beam with the cardiac cycle and delivering radiation only when the heart is in a relatively hypoxic state. We present data from a rat model testing this hypothesis and show that radiation damage to the heart can be altered by synchronizing the radiation beam with the cardiac cycle. This technique may be useful in reducing radiation damage to the heart secondary to treatment for diseases such as Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer.

  1. Cosmic-ray induced radiation in low-orbit space objects

    SciTech Connect

    Sandmeier, H.A.

    1980-09-01

    The induced radiation whole body dose received by astronauts in earth orbit is calculated. The induced radiation results from the interaction of primary cosmic rays with the mass of the satellite or space station. (ACR)

  2. Caffeine ameliorates radiation-induced skin reactions in mice but does not influence tumour radiation response.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, S A; Mitra, A K; George, K C; Verma, N C

    2002-03-01

    Intramuscular administration of caffeine at a dose of 80 mg kg(-1) body weight to the gastrocnemius muscles of Swiss mice 5 min prior to local irradiation (35 Gy) of the leg delayed the progression of radiation-induced skin reactions in such animals. While 90% epilation with reddening of the skin was noted in animals treated with radiation alone, animals pretreated with caffeine suffered only partial hair loss with slight reddening of the skin on the 16th and 20th days post-irradiation. Beyond the 28th day, damage scores in irradiated feet for both the groups were similar (score 3) and remained unchanged until the 32nd day and then decreased and disappeared completely in both treatment groups by the 40th day after irradiation. In addition, the effect of caffeine on the radiation response of a mouse fibrosarcoma was investigated. Results showed that intratumoral administration of caffeine at a dose of 80 mg kg(-1) body weight 5 min prior to local exposure of tumours to 10 Gy of 60Co gamma-rays did not influence the response of tumours to radiation. The present study thus showed that although caffeine ameliorated radiation-induced skin reactions in the mouse leg, it did not affect the tumour radiation response, indicating its potential application in cancer radiotherapy. PMID:11929115

  3. Oxidative Stress Mediates Radiation Lung Injury by Inducing Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yu; Zhang Xiuwu; Rabbani, Zahid N.; Jackson, Isabel L.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Apoptosis in irradiated normal lung tissue has been observed several weeks after radiation. However, the signaling pathway propagating cell death after radiation remains unknown. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 15 Gy to the whole thorax. Pro-apoptotic signaling was evaluated 6 weeks after radiation with or without administration of AEOL10150, a potent catalytic scavenger of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Results: Apoptosis was observed primarily in type I and type II pneumocytes and endothelium. Apoptosis correlated with increased PTEN expression, inhibition of downstream PI3K/AKT signaling, and increased p53 and Bax protein levels. Transforming growth factor-{beta}1, Nox4, and oxidative stress were also increased 6 weeks after radiation. Therapeutic administration of AEOL10150 suppressed pro-apoptotic signaling and dramatically reduced the number of apoptotic cells. Conclusion: Increased PTEN signaling after radiation results in apoptosis of lung parenchymal cells. We hypothesize that upregulation of PTEN is influenced by Nox4-derived oxidative stress. To our knowledge, this is the first study to highlight the role of PTEN in radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity.

  4. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together, oral supplementation with antioxidants appears to be an effective approach for the radioprotection of hematopoietic cells against the cell killing effects of radiation, and for improving survival in irradiated animals. Preliminary data suggest similar antioxidant protective effects for animals exposed to potentially lethal doses of proton radiation. Studies were also performed to determine whether dietary antioxidants could affect the incidence rates of malignancies in CBA mice exposed to 300 cGy proton (1 GeV/n) radiation or 50 cGy iron ion (1 GeV/n) radiation [9]. Two antioxidant formulations were utilized in these studies; an AOX formulation containing the mixture of antioxidant agents developed from our previous studies and an antioxidant dietary formulation containing the soybean-derived protease inhibitor known as the Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI). BBI was evaluated in the form of BBI Concentrate (BBIC), which is the form of BBI utilized in human trials. BBIC has been utilized in human trials since 1992, as described [10]. The major finding in the long-term animal studies was that there was a reduced risk of malignant lymphoma in mice exposed to space radiations and maintained on diets containing the antioxidant formulations. In addition, the two different dietary countermeasures also reduced the yields of a variety of different rare tumor types, arising from both epithelial and connective tissue cells, observed in the animals exposed to space radiation. REFERENCES [1] Guan J. et al (2004) Radiation Research 162, 572-579. [2] Wan X.S. et al (2005) Radiation Research 163, 364-368. [3] Wan X.S. et al (2005) Radiation Research 163, 232-240. [4] Guan J. et al (2006) Radiation Research 165, 373-378. [5] Wan X.S. et al (2006) International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 64, 1475-1481. [6] Kennedy A.R. et al (2006) Radiation Research 166, 327-332. [7] Kennedy A.R. et al (2007) Radiation & Environmental Biophysics 46(2), 201-3. [8]Wambi, C., Sanzari, J., Wan, X.S., Nuth, M., Davis, J., Ko, Y.-H., Sayers, C.M., Baran, M., Ware, J.H. and Kennedy, A.R. Dietary antioxidants protect hematopoietic cells and improve animal survival following total body irradiation. Radiation Res. (in press) [9] Kennedy, A.R., Davis, J.G., Carlton, W. and Ware, J.H. Effects of dietary antioxidant supplementation on the development of malignancies and other neoplastic lesions in mice exposed to proton or iron ion radiation. Radiation Res. (submitted) [10] Kennedy, A.R. The Status of Human Trials Utilizing Bowman-Birk Inhibitor Concentrate from Soybeans. In: Soy in Health and Disease Prevention, edited by Michihiro Sugano, CRC Press Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, Chapter 12, pp. 207-223, 2005. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS; This work was supported by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute through NASA NCC 9-58.

  5. Kinetics and Mechanism of Lipid Mesophase Structural Changes Induced by Pressure and X-Radiation Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Anchi

    1995-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of structural changes occurring in phase transformations in liquid crystalline phases of hydrated lipids were studied using synchrotron -based time-resolved x-ray diffraction. Pressure-induced phase transitions. An experimental arrangement for studying hydrated lipid phase transitions under pressures up to 1800 bar and at temperatures up to 90^circC was developed. It was capable of performing both transient (pressure-jump) and stationary (pressure oscillation) relaxation kinetic measurements. The observables included x-ray diffraction and in-sample pressure and temperature. The setup was evaluated and used for studying the chain order/disorder transition in the lamellar phases of hydrated lipids. The lamellar gel (L_{beta '})-to-lamellar liquid crystalline (L_alpha) transition in hydrated 1,2-dihexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine was studied by constructing its pressure-temperature phase diagram in the range of 1 to 1200 bar and 65 to 90 ^ circC and using large amplitude (400 to 1300 bars) pressure-jumps. The phase diagram provided the phase boundary locations as well as the equilibrium thermomechanical properties of the material. The P-jumps showed that the limiting transit time of the L_{beta '}-to-L_alpha transition was ca. 1 s, while that of the reverse transition was <=q50 ms. Also observed was that the lipid responded rapidly to the P-jump in the L_{beta'} phase up to the rate-determining L_{ beta'}-to-Lalpha transition. Analysis of the structure response spectra for the main transition of hydrated 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero -3-phosphocholine and monoelaidin shows that the transition mechanism is consistent with the Avrami-Kolmogorov model with an effective growth dimensionality of ca. 1. A layer -by-layer transition mechanism was proposed. Results of the thermal response have been evaluated. X-Radiation damage induced structural and phase changes. The use of intense synchrotron x-radiation is limited by sample radiation damage. We found that x-ray damage effects dramatic changes in structure and mesophase behavior of hydrated lipid. Damage severity is sensitive to lipid headgroup identity and to lipid hydration. These results have improved our understanding of this undesirable process and have served to alert the community to the nature and severity of the problem.

  6. Caffeine Markedly Enhanced Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Erkang; Wu, Lijun

    2009-04-01

    In this paper it is shown that incubation with 2 mM caffeine enhanced significantly the MN (micronucleus) formation in both the 1 cGy ?-particle irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions. Moreover, caffeine treatment made the non-irradiated bystander cells more sensitive to damage signals. Treated by c-PTIO(2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide), a nitric oxide (NO) scavenger, the MN frequencies were effectively inhibited, showing that nitric oxide might be very important in mediating the enhanced damage. These results indicated that caffeine enhanced the low dose ?-particle radiation-induced damage in irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions, and therefore it is important to investigate the relationship between the radiosensitizer and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE).

  7. Pyridoxamine protects intestinal epithelium from ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Thotala, Dinesh; Chetyrkin, Sergei; Hudson, Billy; Hallahan, Dennis; Voziyan, Paul; Yazlovitskaya, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are the major cause of biological tissue damage during the exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The existing strategies to protect normal tissues from detrimental effects of IR suffer from several shortcomings including high toxic side effects, unfavorable administration routs or low efficacy. These shortcomings emphasize a need for radioprotective treatments that combine effectiveness with safety and ease of use. In this paper, we demonstrate that pyridoxamine, a ROS and RCS scavenger with a very favorable safety profile, can inhibit IR-induced gastrointestinal endothelial apoptosis in cell culture and in animal model. Pyridoxamine was more effective at protecting from radiation-induced apoptosis compared to Amifostine, a synthetic thiol compound and the only FDA approved radioprotector. We suggest that PM has a potential as an effective and safe radioprotective agent. PMID:19540915

  8. Opportunities for nutritional amelioration of radiation-induced cellular damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Nancy D.; Braby, Leslie A.; Ford, John; Lupton, Joanne R.

    2002-01-01

    The closed environment and limited evasive capabilities inherent in space flight cause astronauts to be exposed to many potential harmful agents (chemical contaminants in the environment and cosmic radiation exposure). Current power systems used to achieve space flight are prohibitively expensive for supporting the weight requirements to fully shield astronauts from cosmic radiation. Therefore, radiation poses a major, currently unresolvable risk for astronauts, especially for long-duration space flights. The major detrimental radiation effects that are of primary concern for long-duration space flights are damage to the lens of the eye, damage to the immune system, damage to the central nervous system, and cancer. In addition to the direct damage to biological molecules in cells, radiation exposure induces oxidative damage. Many natural antioxidants, whether consumed before or after radiation exposure, are able to confer some level of radioprotection. In addition to achieving beneficial effects from long-known antioxidants such as vitamins E and C and folic acid, some protection is conferred by several recently discovered antioxidant molecules, such as flavonoids, epigallocatechin, and other polyphenols. Somewhat counterintuitive is the protection provided by diets containing elevated levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, considering they are thought to be prone to peroxidation. Even with the information we have at our disposal, it will be difficult to predict the types of dietary modifications that can best reduce the risk of radiation exposure to astronauts, those living on Earth, or those enduring diagnostic or therapeutic radiation exposure. Much more work must be done in humans, whether on Earth or, preferably, in space, before we are able to make concrete recommendations.

  9. A Crystallin Fold in the Interleukin-4-inducing Principle of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs (IPSE/α-1) Mediates IgE Binding for Antigen-independent Basophil Activation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, N Helge; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Blindow, Silke; Barths, Daniela; Mewes, Astrid; Weimar, Thomas; Köhli, Thies; Bade, Steffen; Madl, Tobias; Frey, Andreas; Haas, Helmut; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Sattler, Michael; Schramm, Gabriele

    2015-09-01

    The IL-4-inducing principle from Schistosoma mansoni eggs (IPSE/α-1), the major secretory product of eggs from the parasitic worm S. mansoni, efficiently triggers basophils to release the immunomodulatory key cytokine interleukin-4. Activation by IPSE/α-1 requires the presence of IgE on the basophils, but the detailed molecular mechanism underlying activation is unknown. NMR and crystallographic analysis of IPSEΔNLS, a monomeric IPSE/α-1 mutant, revealed that IPSE/α-1 is a new member of the βγ-crystallin superfamily. We demonstrate that this molecule is a general immunoglobulin-binding factor with highest affinity for IgE. NMR binding studies of IPSEΔNLS with the 180-kDa molecule IgE identified a large positively charged binding surface that includes a flexible loop, which is unique to the IPSE/α-1 crystallin fold. Mutational analysis of amino acids in the binding interface showed that residues contributing to IgE binding are important for IgE-dependent activation of basophils. As IPSE/α-1 is unable to cross-link IgE, we propose that this molecule, by taking advantage of its unique IgE-binding crystallin fold, activates basophils by a novel, cross-linking-independent mechanism. PMID:26163514

  10. Effects of crystallinity on laser-induced voltage effect from Zn0.9Co0.1O thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X. F.; Lu, M. H.; Zhang, H.; Yan, H.; He, C. L.; Hao, R. Y.

    2013-11-01

    Co-doped ZnO epilayer films were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on vicinal cut silicon and sapphire substrates. Changes in deposition time were observed as a moderate effect on the quality of the films, and the influence of the thickness on thermoelectric signals from Zn0.9Co0.1O thin films were discussed. The effect of one of the main deposition parameters, the deposition time, on the crystallinity and electron mobility properties of the Zn0.9Co0.1O thin films grown on sapphire was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and laser-induced voltage (LIV) effect. It shown that the XRD rocking curve full-width half-maximun (FWHM) decreased as time increasing, and the LIV signals were observed along the tilting angle of the substrate orientation when the pulsed KrF excimer laser of 248 nm were irradiated on the films. When the films illuminated in pulse lasers, the highest signals occurred in the films with best crystalline quality, and the signals were higher in the films grown on sapphire than those on silicon substrates. It suggested that the electrical resistivity and electron mobility have close relations with not only the crystallinity but also with the interface of the thin films.

  11. Radiation induced heart disease: Pathogenesis, management and review literature.

    PubMed

    Madan, R; Benson, R; Sharma, D N; Julka, P K; Rath, G K

    2015-12-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is a very important part of multimodality cancer therapy. Addition of RT improves survival in many cancers, but there are some accompaniments of radiation. One of them is radiation induced heart disease (RIHD). RT for mediastinal lymphoma, breast, lung and oesophageal cancer is associated with the development of RIHD. The problem can be intensified with the addition of chemotherapy. Therapeutic modalities for RIHD are the same as in the non-irradiated population. However, surgery may be difficult in the irradiated patients. The long latent period is the reason why RIHD is not extensively studied. Survival of cancer patients has improved over past few decades, so RIHD is a growing concern especially in younger patients. In this review article, we have discussed the pathogenesis, clinical manifestation and management of RIHD along with impact of chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26296945

  12. Probabilistic methodology for estimating radiation-induced cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Williams, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    The RICRAC computer code was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide a versatile and convenient methodology for radiation risk assessment. The code allows as input essentially any dose pattern commonly encountered in risk assessments for either acute or chronic exposures, and it includes consideration of the age structure of the exposed population. Results produced by the analysis include the probability of one or more radiation-induced cancer deaths in a specified population, expected numbers of deaths, and expected years of life lost as a result of premature fatalities. These calculatons include consideration of competing risks of death from all other causes. The program also generates a probability frequency distribution of the expected number of cancers in any specified cohort resulting from a given radiation dose. The methods may be applied to any specified population and dose scenario.

  13. Interlaboratory comparison of radiation-induced attenuation in optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Friebele, E.J.; Lyons, P.B.; Blackburn, J.C.; Henschel, H.; Johan, A.; Krinsky, J.A.; Robinson, A.; Schneider, W.; Smith, D.; Taylor, E.W.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM; Harry Diamond Labs., Adelphi, MD; Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Trendanalysen , Euskirchen; Direction des Recherches, Etudes et Techni

    1989-08-01

    A comparison of the losses induced in step index multimode, graded index multimode and single mode fibers by pulsed radiation exposure has been made among 12 laboratories over a period of 5 years. The recoveries of the incremental attenuations from 10{sup -9} to 10{sup 1} s are reported. Although a standard set of measurement parameters was attempted, differences between the laboratories are evident; possible origins for these are discussed. 18 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Prosthodontic management of radiation induced xerostomic patient using flexible dentures

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Varsha; V, Yuvraj; Nair, Preeti P; Thomas, Shaji

    2012-01-01

    Xerostomia causes discomfort for complete denture wearers as the tissues become dry and friable due to lack of lubricating properties of saliva. Common problems faced by such patients are glossitis, mucositis, angular chelitis, dysgeusia and difficulty in chewing and swallowing. This case report describes a new method in addressing such issues by using flexible complete denture construction in radiation induced xerostomic patient with minimal tissue damage during and after denture construction procedures. PMID:22605708

  15. A mechanistic model for radiation-induced crystallization and amorphization in U{sub 3}Si

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, J.

    1994-06-01

    Radiation-induced amorphization is assessed. A rate-theory model is formulated wherein amorphous clusters are formed by the damage event These clusters are considered centers of expansion (CE), or excess-free-volume zones. Simultaneously, centers of compression (CC) are created in the material. The CCs are local regions of increased density that travel through the material as an elastic (e.g., acoustic) shock wave. The CEs can be annihilated upon contact with CCs (annihilation probability depends on height of the energy barrier), forming either a crystallized region indistinguishable from the host material, or a region with a slight disorientation (recrystallized grain). Recrystallized grains grow by the accumulation of additional CCs. Full amorphization is calculated on the basis of achieving a fuel volume fraction consistent with the close packing of spherical entities. Amorphization of a recrystallized grain is hindered by the grain boundary. Preirradiation of U{sub 3}Si above the critical temperature for amorphization results in of nanometer-size grains. Subsequent reirradiation below the critical temperature shows that the material has developed a resistance to radiation-induced amorphization higher dose needed to amorphize the preirradiated samples than now preirradiated samples. In the model, it is assumed that grain boundaries act as effective defect sinks, and that enhanced defect annihilation is responsible for retarding amorphization at low temperature. The calculations have been validated against data from ion-irradiation experiments with U{sub 3}Si. To obtain additional validation, the model has also been applied to the ion-induced motion of the interface between crystalline and amorphous phases of U{sub 3}Si. Results of this analysis are compared to data and results of calculations for ion bombardment of Si.

  16. Method and apparatus for characterization of electric field-induced aggregation in pre-crystalline protein solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamatsu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a method and an apparatus for the characterization of protein aggregation under an applied internal electric field. The method is based on a forward light scattering technique that is highly sensitive to aggregates in pre-crystalline protein solutions. Transparent conductive films are used as electrodes for a planar thin sample cell, which enables precise measurement of the forward light scattering at small angles through the electrodes. Evaluation of the protein aggregation under applied electric fields was demonstrated for a model lysozyme protein. In situ measurements of crystallizing lysozyme solutions under a low applied voltage revealed that the forward static light scattering profiles changed with time into power law profiles. This indicates the formation of lysozyme fractal clusters under applied electric fields in the pre-crystalline state. The method and the apparatus presented here can sensitively evaluate the promotion process in protein crystallization under an applied electric field.

  17. Adaptive radiation-induced epigenetic alterations mitigated by antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Autumn J.; Dolinoy, Dana C.; Huang, Dale; Skaar, David A.; Weinhouse, Caren; Jirtle, Randy L.

    2013-01-01

    Humans are exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) from a number of environmental and medical sources. In addition to inducing genetic mutations, there is concern that LDIR may also alter the epigenome. Such heritable effects early in life can either be positively adaptive or result in the enhanced formation of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Herein, we show that LDIR significantly increased DNA methylation at the viable yellow agouti (Avy) locus in a sex-specific manner (P=0.004). Average DNA methylation was significantly increased in male offspring exposed to doses between 0.7 and 7.6 cGy, with maximum effects at 1.4 and 3.0 cGy (P<0.01). Offspring coat color was concomitantly shifted toward pseudoagouti (P<0.01). Maternal dietary antioxidant supplementation mitigated both the DNA methylation changes and coat color shift in the irradiated offspring. Thus, LDIR exposure during gestation elicits epigenetic alterations that lead to positive adaptive phenotypic changes that are negated with antioxidants, indicating they are mediated in part by oxidative stress. These findings provide evidence that in the isogenic Avy mouse model, epigenetic alterations resulting from LDIR play a role in radiation hormesis, bringing into question the assumption that every dose of radiation is harmful.—Bernal, A. J., Dolinoy, D. C., Huang, D., Skaar, D. A., Weinhouse, C., Jirtle, R. J. Adaptive radiation-induced epigenetic alterations mitigated by antioxidants. PMID:23118028

  18. Radiation-induced grain boundary segregation in austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, S.M.; Charlot, L.A.; Vetrano, J.S.; Simonen, E.P.

    1994-11-01

    Radiation-induced segregation (RIS) to grain boundaries in Fe-Ni-Cr-Si stainless alloys has been measured as a function of irradiation temperature and dose. Heavy-ion irradiation was used to produce damage levels from 1 to 20 displacements per atom (dpa) at temperatures from 175 to 550{degrees}C. Measured Fe, Ni, and Cr segregation increased sharply with irradiation dose (from G to 5 dpa) and temperature (from 175 to about 350{degrees}C). However, grain boundary concentrations did not change significantly as dose or temperatures were further increased. Although interfacial compositions were similar, the width of radiation-induced enrichment or depletion profiles increased consistently with increasing dose or temperature. Impurity segregation (Si and P) was also measured, but only Si enrichment appeared to be radiation-induced. Grain boundary Si peaked at levels approaching 10 at% after irradiation doses to 10 dpa at an intermediate temperature of 325{degrees}C. No evidence of grain boundary silicide precipitation was detected after irradiation at any temperature. Equilibrium segregation of P was measured in the high-P alloys, but interfacial concentration did not increase with irradiation exposure. Comparisons to reported RIS in neutron-irradiated stainless steels revealed similar grain boundary compositional changes for both major alloying and impurity elements.

  19. Single-crystalline Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+x} detectors for direct detection of microwave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M. Winkler, D.; Yurgens, A.

    2015-04-13

    We test radiation detectors made from single-crystalline Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+x} flakes put on oxidized Si substrates. The 100-nm-thick flakes are lithographically patterned into 412??m{sup 2} large rectangles embedded in thin-film log-spiral antennas. The SiO{sub 2} layer weakens the thermal link between the flakes and the bath. Two modes of radiation detection have been observed. For a bolometric type of sensors a responsivity of ?300 V/W and a noise equivalent power of 30 nW/?(Hz) has been deduced at 70?K. Much more sensitive is the non-bolometric device showing characteristics similar to a Golay-type detector while being at least a thousand times faster. Making smaller (sub-?m) structures is expected to significantly improve the performance of these devices and makes them very competitive among other microwave and terahertz detectors.

  20. Crosstalk between telomere maintenance and radiation effects: A key player in the process of radiation-induced carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Grace; Ricoul, Michelle; Hempel, William M.; Azzam, Edouard I.; Sabatier, Laure

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that ionizing radiation induces chromosomal damage, both following direct radiation exposure and via non-targeted (bystander) effects, activating DNA damage repair pathways, of which the proteins are closely linked to telomeric proteins and telomere maintenance. Long-term propagation of this radiation-induced chromosomal damage during cell proliferation results in chromosomal instability. Many studies have shown the link between radiation exposure and radiation-induced changes in oxidative stress and DNA damage repair in both targeted and non-targeted cells. However, the effect of these factors on telomeres, long established as guardians of the genome, still remains to be clarified. In this review, we will focus on what is known about how telomeres are affected by exposure to low- and high-LET ionizing radiation and during proliferation, and will discuss how telomeres may be a key player in the process of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:24486376

  1. Theory and computation of photopolymerization-induced phase transition and morphology development in blends of crystalline polymer and photoreactive monomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathi, Pankaj; Kyu, Thein

    2009-03-01

    A hypothetical phase diagram of a crystalline polymer/photoreactive monomer mixture has been calculated on the basis of phase field (PF) free energy of crystal solidification in conjunction with Flory-Huggins (FH) free energy of liquid-liquid demixing to guide the morphology development during photopolymerization of poly(ethylene oxide)/triacrylate blend. The self-consistent solution of the combined PF-FH theory exhibits a crystalline-amorphous phase diagram showing the coexistence of solid+liquid gap bound by the liquidus and solidus lines, followed by an upper critical solution temperature at a lower temperature. When photopolymerization was triggered in the isotropic region, i.e., slightly above the crystal melting transition temperatures, the depressed melting transition line moves upward. When it surpasses the reaction temperature, both crystallization and phase separation occur. The temporal evolution of phase morphology is examined in the context of time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations coupled with the energy balance (heat conduction) equation using the aforementioned PF-FH free-energy densities. Of particular interest is that the emerged morphology in the crystalline blends depends on the competition between dynamics of liquid-liquid phase separation and/or liquid-solid phase transition (i.e., crystallization) and photopolymerization rates.

  2. Ionizing Radiation-Induced Cataract in Interventional Cardiology Staff

    PubMed Central

    Bitarafan Rajabi, Ahmad; Noohi, Feridoun; Hashemi, Hassan; Haghjoo, Majid; Miraftab, Mohammad; Yaghoobi, Nahid; Rastgou, Fereydon; Malek, Hadi; Faghihi, Hoshang; Firouzabadi, Hassan; Asgari, Soheila; Rezvan, Farhad; Khosravi, Hamidreza; Soroush, Sara; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of ionizing radiation has led to advances in medical diagnosis and treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of radiation cataractogenesis in the interventionists and staff performing various procedures in different interventional laboratories. Patients and Methods: This cohort study included 81 interventional cardiology staff. According to the working site, they were classified into 5 groups. The control group comprised 14 professional nurses who did not work in the interventional sites. Participants were assigned for lens assessment by two independent trained ophthalmologists blinded to the study. Results: The electrophysiology laboratory staff received higher doses of ionizing radiation (17.2 ± 11.9 mSv; P < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between the years of working experience and effective dose in the lens (P < 0.001). In general, our findings showed that the incidence of lens opacity was 79% (95% CI, 69.9-88.1) in participants with exposure (the case group) and our findings showed that the incidence of lenses opacity was 7.1% (95% CI:2.3-22.6) with the relative risk (RR) of 11.06 (P < 0.001). Conclusions: We believe that the risk of radiation-induced cataract in cardiology interventionists and staff depends on their work site. As the radiation dose increases, the prevalence of posterior eye changes increases. PMID:25789258

  3. Perinatal radiation-induced renal damage in the beagle

    SciTech Connect

    Jaenke, R.S.; Angleton, G.M. )

    1990-04-01

    The developing perinatal kidney is particularly sensitive to radiation. The pathogenesis of the radiation-induced lesion is related to the destruction of outer cortical developing nephrons and direct radiation injury with secondary hemodynamic alterations in remnant nephrons. In this study, which is part of a life span investigation of the effects of whole-body gamma radiation during prenatal and early postnatal life, dogs were given 0, 0.16, 0.83, or 1.25 Gy irradiation at either 55 days postcoitus or 2 days postpartum and were examined morphometrically and histopathologically at 70 days of age. Although irradiated dogs showed no reduction in the total number of nephrons per kidney, there was a significant increase in the total number and relative percentage of immature, dysplastic glomeruli. In addition, deeper cortical glomeruli of irradiated kidneys exhibited mesangial sclerosis similar to that associated with progressive renal failure in our previous studies. These findings are in accord with those reported at doses of 2.24 to 3.57 Gy and demonstrate that the perinatal kidney is affected by radiation doses much lower than previously demonstrated.

  4. Compression-induced texture change in NiMnGa-polymer composites observed by synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheerbaum, Nils; Hinz, Dietrich; Gutfleisch, Oliver; Skrotzki, Werner; Schultz, Ludwig

    2007-05-01

    Composites consisting of magnetic shape memory (MSM) particles embedded in a polyester matrix were prepared. Single-crystalline MSM particles were obtained by mortar grinding of melt-extracted and subsequently annealed Ni50.9Mn27.1Ga22.0 (at. %) fibers. The crystal structure of the martensite is tetragonal (5M) with c induced twin boundary motion in the MSM particles, as the compressed composite is easy to magnetize in the direction of compression and more difficult to magnetize in the perpendicular directions. The texture of all the embedded MSM particles is investigated before and after compression by means of synchrotron radiation. In the initial state, the MSM particles in the composite have a random texture, i.e., there is no preferred orientation of the c axis. After a 30% compression (height reduction), the MSM particles have a (004)-fiber texture in the direction of compression. This is unambiguous evidence for stress induced twin boundary motion within the MSM particles.

  5. Targets for, and consequences of, radiation-induced chromosomal instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Mark Isaac

    Chromosomal instability has been demonstrated in a human- hamster hybrid cell line, GM10115, after exposure to x- rays. Chromosomal instability in these cells is characterized by the appearance of novel chromosomal rearrangements multiple generations after exposure to ionizing radiation. To identify the cellular target(s) for radiation-induced chromosomal instability, cells were treated with 125I-labeled compounds. Labeling cells with 125I-iododeoxyuridine, which caused radiation damage to the DNA and associated nuclear structures, did induce chromosomal instability. While cell killing and first-division chromosomal rearrangements increased with increasing numbers of 125I decays, the frequency of chromosomal instability was independent of dose. Incorporation of an 125I-labeled protein, 125I-succinyl- concanavalin A, into either the plasma membrane or the cytoplasm, failed to elicit chromosomal instability. These results show that radiation damage to the nucleus, and not to extranuclear regions, contributes to the induction of chromosomal instability. To determine the role of DNA strand breaks as a molecular lesion responsible for initiating chromosomal instability, cells were treated with a variety of DNA strand breaking agents. Agents capable of producing complex DNA double strand breaks, including X-rays, Neocarzinostatin and bleomycin, were able to induce chromosomal instability. In contrast, double strand breaks produced by restriction endonucleases as well as DNA strand breaks produced by hydrogen peroxide failed to induce chromosomal instability. This demonstrates that the type of DNA breakage is important in the eventual manifestation of chromosomal instability. In order to understand the relationship between chromosomal instability and other end points of genomic instability, chromosomally stable and unstable clones were analyzed for sister chromatid exchange, delayed reproductive cell death, delayed mutation, mismatch repair and delayed gene amplification. Although individual clones within each group were significantly different from unirradiated clones for many of the endpoints, there was no significant correlation between chromosomal instability and the phenotypes of sister chromatid exchange, delayed mutation, and mismatch repair. Delayed gene amplification weakly correlated chromosomal instability (0.05 < p < 0.1) and delayed reproductive cell death correlated strongly (p < 0.05) with chromosomal instability. These data indicate that multiple pathways exist for inducing genomic instability in GM10115 cells after radiation exposure.

  6. Radiation-Induced Leukemia at Doses Relevant to Radiation Therapy: Modeling Mechanisms and Estimating Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuryak, Igor; Sachs, Rainer K.; Hlatky, Lynn; Mark P. Little; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Brenner, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Because many cancer patients are diagnosed earlier and live longer than in the past, second cancers induced by radiation therapy have become a clinically significant issue. An earlier biologically based model that was designed to estimate risks of high-dose radiation induced solid cancers included initiation of stem cells to a premalignant state, inactivation of stem cells at high radiation doses, and proliferation of stem cells during cellular repopulation after inactivation. This earlier model predicted the risks of solid tumors induced by radiation therapy but overestimated the corresponding leukemia risks. Methods: To extend the model to radiation-induced leukemias, we analyzed in addition to cellular initiation, inactivation, and proliferation a repopulation mechanism specific to the hematopoietic system: long-range migration through the blood stream of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from distant locations. Parameters for the model were derived from HSC biologic data in the literature and from leukemia risks among atomic bomb survivors v^ ho were subjected to much lower radiation doses. Results: Proliferating HSCs that migrate from sites distant from the high-dose region include few preleukemic HSCs, thus decreasing the high-dose leukemia risk. The extended model for leukemia provides risk estimates that are consistent with epidemiologic data for leukemia risk associated with radiation therapy over a wide dose range. For example, when applied to an earlier case-control study of 110000 women undergoing radiotherapy for uterine cancer, the model predicted an excess relative risk (ERR) of 1.9 for leukemia among women who received a large inhomogeneous fractionated external beam dose to the bone marrow (mean = 14.9 Gy), consistent with the measured ERR (2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2 to 6.4; from 3.6 cases expected and 11 cases observed). As a corresponding example for brachytherapy, the predicted ERR of 0.80 among women who received an inhomogeneous low-dose-rate dose to the bone marrow (mean = 2.5 Gy) was consistent with the measured ERR (0.62, 95% Cl =-0.2 to 1.9). Conclusions: An extended, biologically based model for leukemia that includes HSC initiation, inactivation, proliferation, and, uniquely for leukemia, long-range HSC migration predicts, %Kith reasonable accuracy, risks for radiationinduced leukemia associated with exposure to therapeutic doses of radiation.

  7. Heat induced damage detection in composite materials by terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzie?ski, Maciej; Mieloszyk, Magdalena; Rahani, Ehsan Kabiri; Kundu, Tribikram; Ostachowicz, Wies?aw

    2015-03-01

    In recent years electromagnetic Terahertz (THz) radiation or T-ray has been increasingly used for nondestructive evaluation of various materials such as polymer composites and porous foam tiles in which ultrasonic waves cannot penetrate but T-ray can. Most of these investigations have been limited to mechanical damage detection like inclusions, cracks, delaminations etc. So far only a few investigations have been reported on heat induced damage detection. Unlike mechanical damage the heat induced damage does not have a clear interface between the damaged part and the surrounding intact material from which electromagnetic waves can be reflected back. Difficulties associated with the heat induced damage detection in composite materials using T-ray are discussed in detail in this paper. T-ray measurements are compared for different levels of heat exposure of composite specimens.

  8. Radiation induced genome instability: multiscale modelling and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Sergey; Eidelman, Yuri

    2012-07-01

    Genome instability (GI) is thought to be an important step in cancer induction and progression. Radiation induced GI is usually defined as genome alterations in the progeny of irradiated cells. The aim of this report is to demonstrate an opportunity for integrative analysis of radiation induced GI on the basis of multiscale modelling. Integrative, systems level modelling is necessary to assess different pathways resulting in GI in which a variety of genetic and epigenetic processes are involved. The multilevel modelling includes the Monte Carlo based simulation of several key processes involved in GI: DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) generation in cells initially irradiated as well as in descendants of irradiated cells, damage transmission through mitosis. Taking the cell-cycle-dependent generation of DNA/chromosome breakage into account ensures an advantage in estimating the contribution of different DNA damage response pathways to GI, as to nonhomologous vs homologous recombination repair mechanisms, the role of DSBs at telomeres or interstitial chromosomal sites, etc. The preliminary estimates show that both telomeric and non-telomeric DSB interactions are involved in delayed effects of radiation although differentially for different cell types. The computational experiments provide the data on the wide spectrum of GI endpoints (dicentrics, micronuclei, nonclonal translocations, chromatid exchanges, chromosome fragments) similar to those obtained experimentally for various cell lines under various experimental conditions. The modelling based analysis of experimental data demonstrates that radiation induced GI may be viewed as processes of delayed DSB induction/interaction/transmission being a key for quantification of GI. On the other hand, this conclusion is not sufficient to understand GI as a whole because factors of DNA non-damaging origin can also induce GI. Additionally, new data on induced pluripotent stem cells reveal that GI is acquired in normal mature cells during genome reprogramming by the oncogene c-myc and three additional transcription factors. These and other data reveal the need for generalisation of current model of GI. One can expect that different early events of both DNA damaging and non-damaging origins merge in a single late pathway. To search for a deeper view we propose to redefine GI as genome destabilisation manifested in erosion of genome states and altered transitions between states. This changing view on GI may help to integrate the inducing factors of various origins in the single basic model of GI.

  9. Quantifying Local Radiation-Induced Lung Damage From Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; Hogeweg, Laurens E.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: Optimal implementation of new radiotherapy techniques requires accurate predictive models for normal tissue complications. Since clinically used dose distributions are nonuniform, local tissue damage needs to be measured and related to local tissue dose. In lung, radiation-induced damage results in density changes that have been measured by computed tomography (CT) imaging noninvasively, but not yet on a localized scale. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a method for quantification of local radiation-induced lung tissue damage using CT. Methods and Materials: CT images of the thorax were made 8 and 26 weeks after irradiation of 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% lung volume of rats. Local lung tissue structure (S{sub L}) was quantified from local mean and local standard deviation of the CT density in Hounsfield units in 1-mm{sup 3} subvolumes. The relation of changes in S{sub L} (DELTAS{sub L}) to histologic changes and breathing rate was investigated. Feasibility for clinical application was tested by applying the method to CT images of a patient with non-small-cell lung carcinoma and investigating the local dose-effect relationship of DELTAS{sub L}. Results: In rats, a clear dose-response relationship of DELTAS{sub L} was observed at different time points after radiation. Furthermore, DELTAS{sub L} correlated strongly to histologic endpoints (infiltrates and inflammatory cells) and breathing rate. In the patient, progressive local dose-dependent increases in DELTAS{sub L} were observed. Conclusion: We developed a method to quantify local radiation-induced tissue damage in the lung using CT. This method can be used in the development of more accurate predictive models for normal tissue complications.

  10. Field-Induced Crystalline-to-Amorphous Phase Transformation on the Si Nano-Apex and the Achieving of Highly Reliable Si Nano-Cathodes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yifeng; Deng, Zexiang; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Chaolun; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng

    2015-01-01

    Nano-scale vacuum channel transistors possess merits of higher cutoff frequency and greater gain power as compared with the conventional solid-state transistors. The improvement in cathode reliability is one of the major challenges to obtain high performance vacuum channel transistors. We report the experimental findings and the physical insight into the field induced crystalline-to-amorphous phase transformation on the surface of the Si nano-cathode. The crystalline Si tip apex deformed to amorphous structure at a low macroscopic field (0.6~1.65 V/nm) with an ultra-low emission current (1~10 pA). First-principle calculation suggests that the strong electrostatic force exerting on the electrons in the surface lattices would take the account for the field-induced atomic migration that result in an amorphization. The arsenic-dopant in the Si surface lattice would increase the inner stress as well as the electron density, leading to a lower amorphization field. Highly reliable Si nano-cathodes were obtained by employing diamond like carbon coating to enhance the electron emission and thus decrease the surface charge accumulation. The findings are crucial for developing highly reliable Si-based nano-scale vacuum channel transistors and have the significance for future Si nano-electronic devices with narrow separation. PMID:25994377

  11. Field-Induced Crystalline-to-Amorphous Phase Transformation on the Si Nano-Apex and the Achieving of Highly Reliable Si Nano-Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yifeng; Deng, Zexiang; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Chaolun; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng

    2015-01-01

    Nano-scale vacuum channel transistors possess merits of higher cutoff frequency and greater gain power as compared with the conventional solid-state transistors. The improvement in cathode reliability is one of the major challenges to obtain high performance vacuum channel transistors. We report the experimental findings and the physical insight into the field induced crystalline-to-amorphous phase transformation on the surface of the Si nano-cathode. The crystalline Si tip apex deformed to amorphous structure at a low macroscopic field (0.6~1.65 V/nm) with an ultra-low emission current (1~10 pA). First-principle calculation suggests that the strong electrostatic force exerting on the electrons in the surface lattices would take the account for the field-induced atomic migration that result in an amorphization. The arsenic-dopant in the Si surface lattice would increase the inner stress as well as the electron density, leading to a lower amorphization field. Highly reliable Si nano-cathodes were obtained by employing diamond like carbon coating to enhance the electron emission and thus decrease the surface charge accumulation. The findings are crucial for developing highly reliable Si-based nano-scale vacuum channel transistors and have the significance for future Si nano-electronic devices with narrow separation. PMID:25994377

  12. Field-Induced Crystalline-to-Amorphous Phase Transformation on the Si Nano-Apex and the Achieving of Highly Reliable Si Nano-Cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yifeng; Deng, Zexiang; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Chaolun; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng

    2015-05-01

    Nano-scale vacuum channel transistors possess merits of higher cutoff frequency and greater gain power as compared with the conventional solid-state transistors. The improvement in cathode reliability is one of the major challenges to obtain high performance vacuum channel transistors. We report the experimental findings and the physical insight into the field induced crystalline-to-amorphous phase transformation on the surface of the Si nano-cathode. The crystalline Si tip apex deformed to amorphous structure at a low macroscopic field (0.6~1.65 V/nm) with an ultra-low emission current (1~10 pA). First-principle calculation suggests that the strong electrostatic force exerting on the electrons in the surface lattices would take the account for the field-induced atomic migration that result in an amorphization. The arsenic-dopant in the Si surface lattice would increase the inner stress as well as the electron density, leading to a lower amorphization field. Highly reliable Si nano-cathodes were obtained by employing diamond like carbon coating to enhance the electron emission and thus decrease the surface charge accumulation. The findings are crucial for developing highly reliable Si-based nano-scale vacuum channel transistors and have the significance for future Si nano-electronic devices with narrow separation.

  13. Radiation-induced phase transformations in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, N.; Devanathan, R.; Sickafus, K.E.; Nastasi, M.

    1997-07-01

    Ion-irradiation was observed to transform MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel first to a metastable crystalline phase and then to an amorphous phase at cryogenic temperatures. Elastic stiffening of 15{percent} occurred upon formation of the metastable crystalline phase. A second transformation from the metastable crystalline spinel to an amorphous state was accompanied by elastic softening of 25{percent} relative to unirradiated spinel. This phase transformation behavior in spinel appears to be different from that in intermetallic compounds where only elastic softening associated with radiation damage accumulation is observed. A two-state radiation damage model is proposed to explain the observed phase transformations. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  14. Sensitivity to Radiation-Induced Cancer in Hemochromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bull. Richard J.; Anderson, Larry E.

    2000-06-01

    The objectives of this pilot project using HFE-knockout homozygotes and heterozygotes are to (1) determine whether the knock-out mice have greater sensitivity to radiation-induced cancer of the colon, liver and breast, (2) establish the dependence of this sensitivity on the accumulation of iron, (3) determine the extent to which cell replication and apoptosis occur in these target tissues with varying iron load, and (4) correlate the increases in sensitivity with changes in insulin-related signaling in tumors and normal tissue from each target organ. Three experimental designs will be used in the pilot project. The sequence of experiments is designed to first explore the influence of iron load on the response and demonstrate that HFE knockout mice are more sensitive than the wild type to radiation-induced cancer in one or more of three target tissues (liver, colon and breast). The dose response relationships with a broader set of radiation doses will be explored in the second experiment. The final experiment is designed to explore the extent to which heterozygotes display the increased susceptibility to cancer induction and to independently assess the importance of iron load to the initiation versus promotion of tumors.

  15. Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis

    SciTech Connect

    Cotrim, Ana P.; Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu; Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B.; Baum, Bruce J.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

  16. Radiation-induced recurrent intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.L.; Anuras, S.

    1981-06-01

    The syndrome of intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a complex of signs and symptoms of intestinal obstruction without evidence of mechanical obstruction of the intestinal lumen. A patient with radiation-induced intestinal pseudoobstruction is described. The patient is a 74-year old woman with a history of chronic diarrhea, recurrent episodes of crampy abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting since receiving a 13,000 rad radiation dose to the pelvis in 1954. She has been hospitalized on many occasions for symptoms and signs of bowel obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal contrast roentgenograms with small bowel follow-through done during these episodes revealed multiple dilated loops of small bowel with no obstructing lesion. Barium enemas revealed no obstructing lesion. Each episode resolved with conservative therapy. Other secondary causes for intestinal pseudo-obstruction were ruled out in our patient. She gave no history of familial gastrointestinal disorders. Although postirradiation motility abnormalities have been demonstrated experimentally this is the first report of radiation induced intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

  17. Dequalinium blocks macrophage-induced metastasis following local radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kaidar-Person, Orit; Rachman-Tzemah, Chen; Alishekevitz, Dror; Kotsofruk, Ruslana; Miller, Valeria; Nevelsky, Alexander; Daniel, Shahar; Raviv, Ziv; Rotenberg, Susan A.; Shaked, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    A major therapeutic obstacle in clinical oncology is intrinsic or acquired resistance to therapy, leading to subsequent relapse. We have previously shown that systemic administration of different cytotoxic drugs can induce a host response that contributes to tumor angiogenesis, regrowth and metastasis. Here we characterize the host response to a single dose of local radiation, and its contribution to tumor progression and metastasis. We show that plasma from locally irradiated mice increases the migratory and invasive properties of colon carcinoma cells. Furthermore, locally irradiated mice intravenously injected with CT26 colon carcinoma cells succumb to pulmonary metastasis earlier than their respective controls. Consequently, orthotopically implanted SW480 human colon carcinoma cells in mice that underwent radiation, exhibited increased metastasis to the lungs and liver compared to their control tumors. The irradiated tumors exhibited an increase in the colonization of macrophages compared to their respective controls; and macrophage depletion in irradiated tumor-bearing mice reduces the number of metastatic lesions. Finally, the anti-tumor agent, dequalinium-14, in addition to its anti-tumor effect, reduces macrophage motility, inhibits macrophage infiltration of irradiated tumors and reduces the extent of metastasis in locally irradiated mice. Overall, this study demonstrates the adverse effects of local radiation on the host that result in macrophage-induced metastasis. PMID:26348470

  18. In-Situ Measurement of Crystalline Silicon Modules Undergoing Potential-Induced Degradation in Damp Heat Stress Testing for Estimation of Low-Light Power Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, P.; Terwilliger, K.; Kurtz, S.

    2013-08-01

    The extent of potential-induced degradation of crystalline silicon modules in an environmental chamber is estimated using in-situ dark I-V measurements and applying superposition analysis. The dark I-V curves are shown to correctly give the module power performance at 200, 600 and 1,000 W/m2 irradiance conditions, as verified with a solar simulator. The onset of degradation measured in low light in relation to that under one sun irradiance can be clearly seen in the module design examined; the time to 5% relative degradation measured in low light (200 W/m2) was 28% less than that of full sun (1,000 W/m2 irradiance). The power of modules undergoing potential-induced degradation can therefore be characterized in the chamber, facilitating statistical analyses and lifetime forecasting.

  19. Hydrogen protects mice from radiation induced thymic lymphoma in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luqian; Zhou, Chuanfeng; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Fu; Li, Bailong; Chuai, Yunhai; Liu, Cong; Cai, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a well-known carcinogen, however the mechanism of radiation induced thymic lymphoma is not well known. Moreover, an easy and effective method to protect mice from radiation induced thymic lymphoma is still unknown. Hydrogen, or H(2), is seldom regarded as an important agent in medical usage, especially as a therapeutic gas. Here in this study, we found that H(2) protects mice from radiation induced thymic lymphoma in BALB/c mice. PMID:21448340

  20. Monte Carlo study of radiation-induced demagnetization using the two-dimensional Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samin, Adib; Cao, Lei

    2015-10-01

    A simple radiation-damage model based on the Ising model for magnets is proposed to study the effects of radiation on the magnetism of permanent magnets. The model is studied in two dimensions using a Monte Carlo simulation, and it accounts for the radiation through the introduction of a localized heat pulse. The model exhibits qualitative agreement with experimental results, and it clearly elucidates the role that the coercivity and the radiation particle's energy play in the process. A more quantitative agreement with experiment will entail accounting for the long-range dipole-dipole interactions and the crystalline anisotropy.

  1. G2-chromosome aberrations induced by high-LET radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, T.; Durante, M.; Furusawa, Y.; George, K.; Ito, H.; Wu, H.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    We report measurements of initial G2-chromatid breaks in normal human fibroblasts exposed to various types of high-LET particles. Exponentially growing AG 1522 cells were exposed to ?-rays or heavy ions. Chromosomes were prematurely condensed by calyculin A. Chromatid-type breaks and isochromatid-type breaks were scored separately. The dose response curves for the induction of total chromatid breaks (chromatid-type + isochromatid-type) and chromatid-type breaks were linear for each type of radiation. However, dose response curves for the induction of isochromatid-type breaks were linear for high-LET radiations and linear-quadratic for ?-rays. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE), calculated from total breaks, showed a LET dependent tendency with a peak at 55 keV/?m silicon (2.7) or 80 keV/?m carbon (2.7) and then decreased with LET (1.5 at 440 keV/?m). RBE for chromatid-type break peaked at 55 keV/?m (2.4) then decreased rapidly with LET. The RBE of 440 keV/?m iron particles was 0.7. The RBE calculated from induction of isochromatid-type breaks was much higher for high-LET radiations. It is concluded that the increased production of isochromatid-type breaks, induced by the densely ionizing track structure, is a signature of high-LET radiation exposure.

  2. Radiation Induced Cystitis and Proctitis - Prediction, Assessment and Management.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Supriya; Madan, Renu; Julka, Pramod K; Rath, Goura K

    2015-01-01

    Cystitis and proctitis are defined as inflammation of bladder and rectum respectively. Haemorrhagic cystitis is the most severe clinical manifestation of radiation and chemical cystitis. Radiation proctitis and cystitis are major complications following radiotherapy. Prevention of radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis has been investigated using various oral agents with minimal benefit. Bladder irrigation remains the most frequently adopted modality followed by intra-vesical instillation of alum or formalin. In intractable cases, surgical intervention is required in the form of diversion ureterostomy or cystectomy. Proctitis is more common in even low dose ranges but is self-limiting and improves on treatment interruption. However, treatment of radiation proctitis is broadly non-invasive or invasive. Non-invasive treatment consists of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), anti-oxidants, sucralfate, short chain fatty acids and hyperbaric oxygen. Invasive treatment consists of ablative procedures like formalin application, endoscopic YAG laser coagulation or argon plasma coagulation and surgery as a last resort. PMID:26320421

  3. DNA damage induced by the direct effect of radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoya, A.; Shikazono, N.; Fujii, K.; Urushibara, A.; Akamatsu, K.; Watanabe, R.

    2008-10-01

    We have studied the nature of DNA damage induced by the direct effect of radiation. The yields of single- (SSB) and double-strand breaks (DSB), base lesions and clustered damage were measured using the agarose gel electrophoresis method after exposing to various kinds of radiations to a simple model DNA molecule, fully hydrated closed-circular plasmid DNA (pUC18). The yield of SSB does not show significant dependence on linear energy transfer (LET) values. On the other hand, the yields of base lesions revealed by enzymatic probes, endonuclease III (Nth) and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg), which excise base lesions and leave a nick at the damage site, strongly depend on LET values. Soft X-ray photon (150 kVp) irradiation gives a maximum yield of the base lesions detected by the enzymatic probes as SSB and clustered damage, which is composed of one base lesion and proximate other base lesions or SSBs. The clustered damage is visualized as an enzymatically induced DSB. The yields of the enzymatically additional damages strikingly decrease with increasing levels of LET. These results suggest that in higher LET regions, the repair enzymes used as probes are compromised because of the dense damage clustering. The studies using simple plasmid DNA as a irradiation sample, however, have a technical difficulty to detect multiple SSBs in a plasmid DNA. To detect the additional SSBs induced in opposite strand of the first SSB, we have also developed a novel technique of DNA-denaturation assay. This allows us to detect multiply induced SSBs in both strand of DNA, but not induced DSB.

  4. Cerenkov emission induced by external beam radiation stimulates molecular fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Axelsson, Johan; Davis, Scott C.; Gladstone, David J.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Cerenkov emission is induced when a charged particle moves faster than the speed of light in a given medium. Both x-ray photons and electrons produce optical Cerenkov photons in everyday radiation therapy of tissue; yet, this phenomenon has never been fully documented. This study quantifies the emissions and also demonstrates that the Cerenkov emission can excite a fluorophore, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), embedded in biological phantoms. Methods: In this study, Cerenkov emission induced by radiation from a clinical linear accelerator is investigated. Biological mimicking phantoms were irradiated with x-ray photons, with energies of 6 or 18 MV, or electrons at energies 6, 9, 12, 15, or 18 MeV. The Cerenkov emission and the induced molecular fluorescence were detected by a camera or a spectrometer equipped with a fiber optic cable. Results: It is shown that both x-ray photons and electrons, at MeV energies, produce optical Cerenkov photons in tissue mimicking media. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Cerenkov emission can excite a fluorophore, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), embedded in biological phantoms. Conclusions: The results here indicate that molecular fluorescence monitoring during external beam radiotherapy is possible.

  5. DNA damage in cells exhibiting radiation-induced genomic instability

    SciTech Connect

    Keszenman, Deborah J.; Kolodiuk, Lucia; Baulch, Janet E.

    2015-02-22

    Cells exhibiting radiation induced genomic instability exhibit varied spectra of genetic and chromosomal aberrations. Even so, oxidative stress remains a common theme in the initiation and/or perpetuation of this phenomenon. Isolated oxidatively modified bases, abasic sites, DNA single strand breaks and clustered DNA damage are induced in normal mammalian cultured cells and tissues due to endogenous reactive oxygen species generated during normal cellular metabolism in an aerobic environment. While sparse DNA damage may be easily repaired, clustered DNA damage may lead to persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic events that can lead to genomic instability. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DNA damage signatures characterised by altered levels of endogenous, potentially mutagenic, types of DNA damage and chromosomal breakage are related to radiation-induced genomic instability and persistent oxidative stress phenotypes observed in the chromosomally unstable progeny of irradiated cells. The measurement of oxypurine, oxypyrimidine and abasic site endogenous DNA damage showed differences in non-double-strand breaks (DSB) clusters among the three of the four unstable clones evaluated as compared to genomically stable clones and the parental cell line. These three unstable clones also had increased levels of DSB clusters. The results of this study demonstrate that each unstable cell line has a unique spectrum of persistent damage and lead us to speculate that alterations in DNA damage signaling and repair may be related to the perpetuation of genomic instability.

  6. DNA damage in cells exhibiting radiation-induced genomic instability

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Keszenman, Deborah J.; Kolodiuk, Lucia; Baulch, Janet E.

    2015-02-22

    Cells exhibiting radiation induced genomic instability exhibit varied spectra of genetic and chromosomal aberrations. Even so, oxidative stress remains a common theme in the initiation and/or perpetuation of this phenomenon. Isolated oxidatively modified bases, abasic sites, DNA single strand breaks and clustered DNA damage are induced in normal mammalian cultured cells and tissues due to endogenous reactive oxygen species generated during normal cellular metabolism in an aerobic environment. While sparse DNA damage may be easily repaired, clustered DNA damage may lead to persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic events that can lead to genomic instability. In this study, we tested the hypothesismore » that DNA damage signatures characterised by altered levels of endogenous, potentially mutagenic, types of DNA damage and chromosomal breakage are related to radiation-induced genomic instability and persistent oxidative stress phenotypes observed in the chromosomally unstable progeny of irradiated cells. The measurement of oxypurine, oxypyrimidine and abasic site endogenous DNA damage showed differences in non-double-strand breaks (DSB) clusters among the three of the four unstable clones evaluated as compared to genomically stable clones and the parental cell line. These three unstable clones also had increased levels of DSB clusters. The results of this study demonstrate that each unstable cell line has a unique spectrum of persistent damage and lead us to speculate that alterations in DNA damage signaling and repair may be related to the perpetuation of genomic instability.« less

  7. Nicotinamide prevents ultraviolet radiation-induced cellular energy loss.

    PubMed

    Park, Joohong; Halliday, Gary M; Surjana, Devita; Damian, Diona L

    2010-01-01

    UV radiation is carcinogenic by causing mutations in the skin and also by suppressing cutaneous antitumor immunity. We previously found nicotinamide (vitamin B3) to be highly effective at reducing UV-induced immunosuppression in human volunteers, with microarray studies on in vivo irradiated human skin suggesting that nicotinamide normalizes subsets of apoptosis, immune function and energy metabolism-related genes that are downregulated by UV exposure. Using human adult low calcium temperature keratinocytes, we further investigated nicotinamide's effects on cellular energy metabolism. We found that nicotinamide prevented UV-induced cellular ATP loss and protected against UV-induced glycolytic blockade. To determine whether nicotinamide alters the effects of UV-induced oxidative stress posttranslationally, we also measured UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nicotinamide had no effect on ROS formation, and at the low UV doses used in these studies, equivalent to ambient daily sun exposure, there was no evidence of apoptosis. Hence, nicotinamide appears to exert its UV protective effects on the skin via its role in cellular energy pathways. PMID:20492562

  8. Multi-wavelength emission through self-induced second-order wave-mixing processes from a Nd3+ doped crystalline powder random laser.

    PubMed

    Moura, André L; Jerez, Vladimir; Maia, Lauro J Q; Gomes, Anderson S L; de Araújo, Cid B

    2015-01-01

    Random lasers (RLs) based on neodymium ions (Nd(3+)) doped crystalline powders rely on multiple light scattering to sustain laser oscillation. Although Stokes and anti-Stokes Nd(3+) RLs have been demonstrated, the optical gain obtained up to now was possibly not large enough to produce self-frequency conversion. Here we demonstrate self-frequency upconversion from Nd(3+) doped YAl3(BO3)4 monocrystals excited at 806 nm, in resonance with the Nd(3+) transition (4)I9/2 → (4)F5/2. Besides the observation of the RL emission at 1062 nm, self-converted second-harmonic at 531 nm, and self-sum-frequency generated emission at 459 nm due to the RL and the excitation laser at 806 nm, are reported. Additionally, second-harmonic of the excitation laser at 403 nm was generated. These results exemplify the first multi-wavelength source of radiation owing to nonlinear optical effect in a Nd(3+) doped crystalline powder RL. Contrary to the RLs based on dyes, this multi-wavelength light source can be used in photonic devices due to the large durability of the gain medium. PMID:26334517

  9. Multi-wavelength emission through self-induced second-order wave-mixing processes from a Nd3+ doped crystalline powder random laser

    PubMed Central

    Moura, André L.; Jerez, Vladimir; Maia, Lauro J. Q.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.

    2015-01-01

    Random lasers (RLs) based on neodymium ions (Nd3+) doped crystalline powders rely on multiple light scattering to sustain laser oscillation. Although Stokes and anti-Stokes Nd3+ RLs have been demonstrated, the optical gain obtained up to now was possibly not large enough to produce self-frequency conversion. Here we demonstrate self-frequency upconversion from Nd3+ doped YAl3(BO3)4 monocrystals excited at 806 nm, in resonance with the Nd3+ transition 4I9/2 → 4F5/2. Besides the observation of the RL emission at 1062 nm, self-converted second-harmonic at 531 nm, and self-sum-frequency generated emission at 459 nm due to the RL and the excitation laser at 806 nm, are reported. Additionally, second-harmonic of the excitation laser at 403 nm was generated. These results exemplify the first multi-wavelength source of radiation owing to nonlinear optical effect in a Nd3+ doped crystalline powder RL. Contrary to the RLs based on dyes, this multi-wavelength light source can be used in photonic devices due to the large durability of the gain medium. PMID:26334517

  10. Multi-wavelength emission through self-induced second-order wave-mixing processes from a Nd3+ doped crystalline powder random laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, André L.; Jerez, Vladimir; Maia, Lauro J. Q.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.

    2015-09-01

    Random lasers (RLs) based on neodymium ions (Nd3+) doped crystalline powders rely on multiple light scattering to sustain laser oscillation. Although Stokes and anti-Stokes Nd3+ RLs have been demonstrated, the optical gain obtained up to now was possibly not large enough to produce self-frequency conversion. Here we demonstrate self-frequency upconversion from Nd3+ doped YAl3(BO3)4 monocrystals excited at 806 nm, in resonance with the Nd3+ transition 4I9/2 → 4F5/2. Besides the observation of the RL emission at 1062 nm, self-converted second-harmonic at 531 nm, and self-sum-frequency generated emission at 459 nm due to the RL and the excitation laser at 806 nm, are reported. Additionally, second-harmonic of the excitation laser at 403 nm was generated. These results exemplify the first multi-wavelength source of radiation owing to nonlinear optical effect in a Nd3+ doped crystalline powder RL. Contrary to the RLs based on dyes, this multi-wavelength light source can be used in photonic devices due to the large durability of the gain medium.

  11. Treatment of radiation- and chemotherapy-induced stomatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Carnel, S.B.; Blakeslee, D.B.; Oswald, S.G.; Barnes, M. )

    1990-04-01

    Severe stomatitis is a common problem encountered during either radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Most therapeutic regimens are empirical, with no scientific basis. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of various topical solutions in the treatment of radiation- or chemotherapy-induced stomatitis. Eighteen patients were entered into a prospective double-blinded study to test several topical solutions: (1) viscous lidocaine with 1% cocaine; (2) dyclonine hydrochloride 1.0% (Dyclone); (3) kaolin-pectin solution, diphenhydramine plus saline (KBS); and (4) a placebo solution. Degree of pain relief, duration of relief, side effects, and palatability were evaluated. The results showed that Dyclone provided the most pain relief. Dyclone and viscous lidocaine with 1% cocaine provided the longest pain relief, which averaged 50 minutes This study provides objective data and defines useful guidelines for treatment of stomatitis.

  12. Radiation-induced cerebral meningioma: a recognizable entity

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, A.B.; Shalit, M.N.; Cohen, M.L.; Zandbank, U.; Reichenthal, E.

    1984-11-01

    The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical and histopathological findings in 201 patients with intracranial meningiomas operated on in the period 1978 to 1982. Forty-three of the patients (21.4%) had at some previous time received radiation treatment to their scalp, the majority for tinea capitis. The findings in these 43 irradiated patients were compared with those in the 158 non-irradiated patients. Several distinctive clinical and histological features were identified in the irradiated group, which suggest that radiation-induced meningiomas can be defined as a separate nosological subgroup. The use of irradiation in large numbers of children with tinea capitis in the era prior to the availability of griseofulvin may be responsible for a significantly increased incidence of intracranial meningiomas.

  13. Thermal instability of a fluid layer induced by radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W.M. )

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the thermal instability of a fluid layer above a solid boundary induced by incident radiative heat to the upper free surface is studied numerically. Eddington approximation is adopted for the equation of transfer, and the pseudospectral method is used to solve the linearized perturbed equations. The effects of Planck number, optical thickness, Biot number, emissivity of the lower plate, and transmissivity of the upper surface on the transition are analyzed for gray and nonscattering fluids. In general, decreasing the temperature difference between the lower plate and the upper surface by increasing the Planck number and the optical thickness, and by decreasing the emissivity and the transmissivity at fixed Biot number, delays the onset of instability. Biot number plays a unique role for nonradiating fluids, and dual roles for radiating fluids on the occurrence of instability.

  14. Solar radiation induced rotational bursting of interplanetary particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, J. G.

    1975-01-01

    It is suggested that the magnitudes of the two radiation-induced rotational bursting mechanisms (Radzieskii effect and windmill effect) have been overestimated and that they do not work significantly faster than the Poynting-Robertson effect in removing interplanetary particles. These two mechanisms are described, and serious doubts are raised regarding the derivation of their radiation pressure-torque proportionality constants, which are required for calculating their magnitudes. It is shown that both mechanisms will cause the alignment of elongated particles and, consequently, the polarization of zodiacal light. Since no positive polarization has been measured at the antisolar point, it is concluded that the magnitudes of the rotational bursting mechanisms are smaller than that of the Poynting-Robertson effect.

  15. Radiation induced cardiac valve disease in a man from Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Bose, Anita Subash Chandra; Shetty, Vijay; Sadiq, Adnan; Shani, Jacob; Jacobowitz, Israel

    2009-08-01

    A young man presented with a new heart murmur. History revealed that the patient was from Ukraine, which was affected by the Chernobyl nuclear plant explosion in 1986. Physical examination revealed murmurs of mitral regurgitation and aortic stenosis. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed severely calcified mitral and calcified tricuspid aortic valves with mitral and aortic regurgitation and aortic stenosis. Following valve replacement surgery, pathologic examination of the valves showed severe dystrophic calcifications and changes suggestive of a chronic inflammatory process such as radiation-induced valve disease. In the absence of another etiology explaining such severe valve disease in a young man, it can only be surmised that heavy radiation exposure from the nuclear plant caused this significant valve damage. PMID:19647162

  16. Erythrocyte Stiffness during Morphological Remodeling Induced by Carbon Ion Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baoping; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jizeng

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effect induced by carbon ion radiation (CIR) is still an unavoidable hazard to the treatment object. Thus, evaluation of its adverse effects on the body is a critical problem with respect to radiation therapy. We aimed to investigate the change between the configuration and mechanical properties of erythrocytes induced by radiation and found differences in both the configuration and the mechanical properties with involving in morphological remodeling process. Syrian hamsters were subjected to whole-body irradiation with carbon ion beams (1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy) or X-rays (2, 4, 6, and 12 Gy) for 3, 14 and 28 days. Erythrocytes in peripheral blood and bone marrow were collected for cytomorphological analysis. The mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were determined using atomic force microscopy, and the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-α1 was analyzed via western blotting. The results showed that dynamic changes were evident in erythrocytes exposed to different doses of carbon ion beams compared with X-rays and the control (0 Gy). The magnitude of impairment of the cell number and cellular morphology manifested the subtle variation according to the irradiation dose. In particular, the differences in the size, shape and mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were well exhibited. Furthermore, immunoblot data showed that the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-α1 was changed after irradiation, and there was a common pattern among its substantive characteristics in the irradiated group. Based on these findings, the present study concluded that CIR could induce a change in mechanical properties during morphological remodeling of erythrocytes. According to the unique characteristics of the biomechanical categories, we deduce that changes in cytomorphology and mechanical properties can be measured to evaluate the adverse effects generated by tumor radiotherapy. Additionally, for the first time, the current study provides a new strategy for enhancing the assessment of the curative effects and safety of clinical radiotherapy, as well as reducing adverse effects. PMID:25401336

  17. Investigation Into Radiation-Induced Compaction of Zerodur (trademark)

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.L.; Herren, K.; Hayden, M.; Mcdonald, K.; Sims, J.A.; Semmel, C.L.

    1996-03-01

    Zerodur is a low coefficient of thermal expansion glass-ceramic material. This property makes Zerodur an excellent material for high precision optical substrates. Functioning as a high precision optical substrate, a material must be dimensionally stable in the system operating environment. Published data indicate that Zerodur is dimensionally unstable when exposed to large doses of ionizing radiation. The dimensional instability is discussed as an increase in Zerodur density. This increase in density is described as a compaction. Experimental data showing proton-induced compaction of Zerodur is presented. The dependence of compaction on proton dose was determined to be a power law relationship.

  18. Investigation Into Radiation-Induced Compaction of Zerodur (trademark)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. L.; Herren, K.; Hayden, M.; McDonald, K.; Sims, J. A.; Semmel, C. L.

    1996-01-01

    Zerodur is a low coefficient of thermal expansion glass-ceramic material. This property makes Zerodur an excellent material for high precision optical substrates. Functioning as a high precision optical substrate, a material must be dimensionally stable in the system operating environment. Published data indicate that Zerodur is dimensionally unstable when exposed to large doses of ionizing radiation. The dimensional instability is discussed as an increase in Zerodur density. This increase in density is described as a compaction. Experimental data showing proton-induced compaction of Zerodur is presented. The dependence of compaction on proton dose was determined to be a power law relationship.

  19. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of Kapton.

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Eric F.; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Stringer, Thomas Arthur

    2010-10-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Kapton (polyimide) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil samples were irradiated with a 0.5 {mu}s pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E10 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 6E-17 and 2E-16 mhos/m per rad/s, depending on the dose rate and the pulse width.

  20. Management of radiation-induced accelerated carotid atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Loftus, C.M.; Biller, J.; Hart, M.N.; Cornell, S.H.; Hiratzka, L.F.

    1987-07-01

    Patients with long survival following cervical irradiation are at risk for accelerated carotid atherosclerosis. The neurologic presentation in these patients mimics naturally occurring atheromatous disease, but patients often present at younger ages and with less concurrent coronary or systemic vascular disease. Hypercholesterolemia also contributes to this accelerated arteriosclerosis. Angiographic findings in this disorder include disproportionate involvement of the distal common carotid artery and unusually long carotid lesions. Pathologic findings include destruction of the internal elastic lamina and replacement of the normal intima and media with fibrous tissue. This article describes two surgical patients with radiation-induced accelerated carotid atherosclerosis who typify the presentation and characteristics of this disease.

  1. Radiation-Induced Premelting of Ice at Silica Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeder, S.; Reichert, H.; Schroeder, H.; Mezger, M.; Okasinski, J. S.; Dosch, H.; Honkimaeki, V.; Bilgram, J.

    2009-08-28

    The existence of surface and interfacial melting of ice below 0 deg. C has been confirmed by many different experimental techniques. Here we present a high-energy x-ray reflectivity study of the interfacial melting of ice as a function of both temperature and x-ray irradiation dose. We found a clear increase of the thickness of the quasiliquid layer with the irradiation dose. By a systematic x-ray study, we have been able to unambiguously disentangle thermal and radiation-induced premelting phenomena. We also confirm the previously announced very high water density (1.25 g/cm{sup 3}) within the emerging quasiliquid layer.

  2. Facial reconstruction for radiation-induced skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Panje, W.R.; Dobleman, T.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Radiation-induced skin cancers can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically, a patient who has received orthovoltage radiotherapy for disorders such as acne, eczema, tinea capitis, skin tuberculosis, and skin cancer can expect that aggressive skin cancers and chronic radiodermatitis may develop subsequently. Cryptic facial cancers can lead to metastases and death. Prophylactic widefield excision of previously irradiated facial skin that has been subject to multiple recurrent skin cancers is suggested as a method of deterring future cutaneous malignancy and metastases. The use of tissue expanders and full-thickness skin grafts offers an expedient and successful method of subsequent reconstruction.

  3. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity in Teflon (PTFE).

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, E.

    2013-05-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity (RIC) in thin samples of Teflon (PTFE) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil (76.2 microns) samples were irradiated with a 0.5 %CE%BCs pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E11 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Details of the experimental apparatus and analysis are reported in this report on prompt RIC in Teflon.

  4. Chaos of radiative heat-loss-induced flame front instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinugawa, Hikaru; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Gotoda, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    We are intensively studying the chaos via the period-doubling bifurcation cascade in radiative heat-loss-induced flame front instability by analytical methods based on dynamical systems theory and complex networks. Significant changes in flame front dynamics in the chaotic region, which cannot be seen in the bifurcation diagrams, were successfully extracted from recurrence quantification analysis and nonlinear forecasting and from the network entropy. The temporal dynamics of the fuel concentration in the well-developed chaotic region is much more complicated than that of the flame front temperature. It exhibits self-affinity as a result of the scale-free structure in the constructed visibility graph.

  5. Environmental applications of radiation-induced defects in clay minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, T.

    2011-12-01

    Radiation effects on clay minerals have been studied over the last 35 years, providing a wealth of information on environmental and geological processes. They have been applied to the reconstruction of past radioelement migrations in the geosphere, the dating of clay minerals from soils or the evolution of the physico-chemical properties under irradiation. All known radiation-induced point defects in clay minerals are detected using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. They mostly consist in electron holes located on oxygen atoms of the structure, and can be differentiated through their nature and their thermal stability. For instance, several are associated to a π orbital on a Si-O bond. One defect, namely the A-center, is stable over geological periods at ambiant temperature. These point defects are produced mainly by ionizing radiations. By contrast to point defects, it was shown that electron or heavy ion irradiation easily produces amorphization in smectites. Two main applications of radiation-induced defects in clay minerals are derived : (i) the use of defects as tracers of past radioactivity. In geosystems where the age of the clay can be constrained, migrations of radioelements can be reconstructed in natural analogues of the far field of high level nuclear waste repositories. When the dose rate may be assumed constant over time, the paleodose is used to date clay populations, an approach applied to laterites of the Amazon basin. (ii) The influence of radiation on clay mineral properties that remains poorly documented, although it is an important issue in various domains such as the safety assessment of the high level nuclear waste repositories. In case of a leakage of transuranic elements from the radioactive wasteform, alpha recoil nuclei would amorphize smectite after a period much lower than the disposal lifetime. By contrast, amorphisation from ionizing radiation is unlikely over 1 million years. Furthermore, it was shown that amorphization greatly enhances the dissolution kinetics of smectite, a result that must be taken into account in the safety assessment of engineered barriers.

  6. X-radiation-induced differentiation of xenotransplanted human undifferentiated rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Takizawa, T.; Matsui, T.; Maeda, Y.; Okabe, S.; Mochizuki, M.; Tanaka, A.; Kawaguchi, K.; Fukayama, M.; Funata, N.; Koike, M.

    1989-01-01

    A serially xenotransplantable strain of undifferentiated embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma originating from the nasal cavity of a 42-year-old woman has been established in our laboratory. After radiotherapy for the tumor donor, distinct rhabdomyoblastic differentiation of the undifferentiated sarcoma cells appeared in the primary lesion, and it is a reasonable assumption that X-irradiation has a certain potentiality to induce morphologic differentiation of tumor cells. To study this possibility, tissue fragments of undifferentiated embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma that had grown to more than 10 mm after being transplanted to nude mice were selectively irradiated in situ. The degree of rhabdomyoblastic differentiation according to radiation dose was evaluated by light and electron microscopy and by immunostainability for myoglobin, creatine phosphokinase-MM, and desmin. Distinct morphologic differentiation of undifferentiated sarcoma cells could be induced by repeated X-irradiations at several-week intervals.

  7. Radiation Pressure Induced Nonlinear Optofluidics in Liquid Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Jung, Sunghwan; Xu, Yong; Lee, Aram

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we analyze a nonlinear optofluidic process associated with a high quality (Q) factor whispering gallery mode (WGM) in liquid droplets. Optical radiation pressure induced droplet deformation can produce a frequency shift proportional to the WGM power. Droplet deformation will be obtained both theoretically and numerically by boundary element method. We will show that the nonlinear optofluidic effect is stronger than temperature-induced nonlinearity. Using liquid properties that are experimentally attainable (e.g., oil drop in water), we find that measurable WGM resonance shift may be generated by only a few photons. This technique may also lead to the possibility of fluid viscosity and interfacial tension measurement by non-destructive optical forces. This research was partially supported by the National Science Foundation (CBET 1438112).

  8. Site-specific, synchrotron radiation induced surface photochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, R.A.; Simons, J.K.; Frigo, S.P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses recent research directed at understanding the nature of surface photochemistry driven by soft x-ray synchrotron radiation (SR). The research is motivated by the potential of x-rays for both high spatial resolution and site specificity. Although a number of systems indicate the potential for site specificity, the authors chose to study the system of SiF{sub 4}/Ge because the adsorbate`s photoabsorption spectrum is rich in structure near the Si 2p threshold (106 eV) while that of the substrate is structureless. This allows them to differentiate substrate-induced effects from those of the adsorbate. By performing time-dependent measurements of the changes induced in the photoemission spectra by SR, they have found that this system`s photochemistry is site-specific in the Si 2p region and have also determined the nature of the products produced by the reaction.

  9. Galactic cosmic ray-induced radiation dose on terrestrial exoplanets.

    PubMed

    Atri, Dimitra; Hariharan, B; Griemeier, Jean-Mathias

    2013-10-01

    This past decade has seen tremendous advancements in the study of extrasolar planets. Observations are now made with increasing sophistication from both ground- and space-based instruments, and exoplanets are characterized with increasing precision. There is a class of particularly interesting exoplanets that reside in the habitable zone, which is defined as the area around a star where the planet is capable of supporting liquid water on its surface. Planetary systems around M dwarfs are considered to be prime candidates to search for life beyond the Solar System. Such planets are likely to be tidally locked and have close-in habitable zones. Theoretical calculations also suggest that close-in exoplanets are more likely to have weaker planetary magnetic fields, especially in the case of super-Earths. Such exoplanets are subjected to a high flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) due to their weak magnetic moments. GCRs are energetic particles of astrophysical origin that strike the planetary atmosphere and produce secondary particles, including muons, which are highly penetrating. Some of these particles reach the planetary surface and contribute to the radiation dose. Along with the magnetic field, another factor governing the radiation dose is the depth of the planetary atmosphere. The higher the depth of the planetary atmosphere, the lower the flux of secondary particles will be on the surface. If the secondary particles are energetic enough, and their flux is sufficiently high, the radiation from muons can also impact the subsurface regions, such as in the case of Mars. If the radiation dose is too high, the chances of sustaining a long-term biosphere on the planet are very low. We have examined the dependence of the GCR-induced radiation dose on the strength of the planetary magnetic field and its atmospheric depth, and found that the latter is the decisive factor for the protection of a planetary biosphere. PMID:24143867

  10. Spectroscopic characterization of radiation-induced defects in gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qing

    Radiation damage studies of GaN provide insights into the fundamental properties of the material as well as the basic knowledge needed to predict degradation of GaN-based devices in space-based applications or other radiation environments. The main interests are in investigating the properties of radiation-induced defects at the microscopic level and providing data to evaluate the radiation hardness of the material. Selective damage of the N-sublattice is achieved with 0.42 MeV electron irradiation. Two new luminescence lines at 3.4732 eV and 3.4545 eV are detected by time-resolved photoluminescence after irradiation. The two lines are associated with the ground state bound exciton of a new donor B1 and its two-electron transition. The donor binding energy of B1 is determined as 24.9 +/- 0.4 meV, shallower than the impurity donors ON and Si Ga. Among the possible defects, the nitrogen vacancy (VN) is the best candidate for the new donor B1. In addition, a change under focused 267 nm laser beam is observed at cryogenic temperatures in the excitonic luminescence of the irradiated sample. The donor bound exciton intensity of ON and SiGa, the total band edge luminescence intensity, and the luminescence decay lifetime of free and bound excitons all increase with laser exposure time. In contrast, the relative intensity of the B 1 bound exciton emission decreases. The change is not observed with below bandgap illumination. We propose that the light-induced change reflects the illumination-assisted dissociation of non-radiative defect complexes O N-Ni and SiGa-Ni, and subsequently the migration of Ni and at least partial annihilation of N i at VN. The new donor B1 bound exciton emission and the light-induced change starts to disappear at annealing temperature around 300C, indicating the annihilation of the irradiation-induced vacancy and interstitial defects. An activation energy of 1.5 eV is obtained, which is proposed to be the sum of the dissociation energy of the ON-N i and SiGa-Ni complexes and the migration barrier of the Ni-. Irradiation with 25 MeV and 55 MeV protons causes damage in both Ga and N-sublattices. A radiation-induced increase in the yellow luminescence and red-shift of the YL peak are observed in a free-standing HVPE GaN after proton irradiation, indicating the introduction of Ga-vacancies. Time-resolved photoluminescence reveals a significant reduction of the carrier lifetime in addition to the decrease in luminescence intensity. Carrier lifetime degradation constants are in the range of 10-15 to 10-14 cm 2/ns, which is 5 to 25 times better than for GaAs. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. Effects of ionic conduction on hydrothermal hydrolysis of corn starch and crystalline cellulose induced by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Oono, Kiriyo; Onda, Ayumu; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Mitani, Tomohiko; Azuma, Jun-Ichi

    2016-02-10

    This study investigated the effects of ionic conduction of electrolytes under microwave field to facilitate hydrothermal hydrolysis of corn starch and crystalline cellulose (Avicel), typical model biomass substrates. Addition of 0.1M NaCl was effective to improve reducing sugar yield by 1.61-fold at unit energy (kJ) level. Although Avicel cellulose was highly recalcitrant to hydrothermal hydrolysis, addition of 0.1M MgCl2 improved reducing sugar yield by 6.94-fold at unit energy (kJ). Dielectric measurement of the mixture of corn starch/water/electrolyte revealed that ionic conduction of electrolytes were strongly involved in facilitating hydrothermal hydrolysis of polysaccharides. PMID:26686168

  12. Molecular-dynamics simulations of stacking-fault-induced dislocation annihilation in prestrained ultrathin single-crystalline copper films

    SciTech Connect

    Kolluri, Kedarnath; Gungor, M. Rauf; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2009-05-01

    We report results of large-scale molecular-dynamics simulations of dynamic deformation under biaxial tensile strain of prestrained single-crystalline nanometer-scale-thick face-centered cubic (fcc) copper films. Our results show that stacking faults, which are abundantly present in fcc metals, may play a significant role in the dissociation, cross slip, and eventual annihilation of dislocations in small-volume structures of fcc metals. The underlying mechanisms are mediated by interactions within and between extended dislocations that lead to annihilation of Shockley partial dislocations or formation of perfect dislocations. Our findings demonstrate dislocation starvation in small-volume structures with ultrathin film geometry, governed by a mechanism other than dislocation escape to free surfaces, and underline the significant role of geometry in determining the mechanical response of metallic small-volume structures.

  13. Crystalline phase transition information induced by high temperature susceptibility transformations in bulk PMP-YBCO superconductor growth in-situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C. P.; Chaud, X.; Beaugnon, E.; Zhou, L.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic susceptibility transformations of bulk HTSC PMP-YBCO growth have been investigated from 200 °C up to 1060 °C by the Faraday Balance in-situ. It revealed that the crystalline phase transitions of bulk PMP-YBCO growth in process. A new discovery of Y123 phase pre-formed then melted in heating stage has been found. It also discovered that Y123 crystal solidification started at 1004 °C in cooling stage. Before Y123 solidification the liquid phase CuO change to Cu2O reciprocally as well as the copper ion valence changed between divalent Cu2+ and trivalent Cu1+ each other. It was essential to keep quantities of CuO phase instead of the Cu2O for Y123 crystal solidification.

  14. Superconductivity induced by In substitution into the topological crystalline insulator Pb0.5Sn0.5Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J. A.; Liu, T. S.; Camino, F. E.; Tranquada, J. M.; Gu, G. D.

    2014-07-01

    Indium substitution turns the topological crystalline insulator (TCI) Pb0.5Sn0.5Te into a possible topological superconductor. To investigate the effect of the indium concentration on the crystal structure and superconducting properties of (Pb0.5Sn0.5)1-xInxTe, we have grown high-quality single crystals using a modified floating-zone method and have performed systematic studies for indium content in the range 0?x?0.35. We find that the single crystals retain the rocksalt structure up to the solubility limit of indium (x 0.30). Experimental dependencies of the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) and the upper critical magnetic field (Hc2) on the indium content x have been measured. The maximum Tc is determined to be 4.7 K at x =0.30, with ?0Hc2(T =0)?5 T.

  15. Method for increased sensitivity of radiation detection and measurement

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1994-01-01

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength. Reduced background is accomplished by more thorough annealing and enhanced radiation induced luminescence is obtained by treating the crystalline material to coalesce primary damage centers into secondary damage centers.

  16. Prediction of charge-induced molecular alignment: residual dipolar couplings at pH 3 and alignment in surfactant liquid crystalline phases.

    PubMed

    Zweckstetter, Markus

    2006-01-01

    Recently we reported that the alignment tensor of a biological macromolecule, which was dissolved in a dilute suspension of highly negatively charged filamentous phage at close to neutral pH, can be predicted from the molecule's 3D charge distribution and shape (Zweckstetter et al. 2004). Here it is demonstrated that this approach is also applicable to alignment of proteins in liquid crystalline phases formed by filamentous phage at low pH. Residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) predicted by our simple electrostatic model for the B1 domain of protein G in fd phage at pH 3 fit very well with the experimental values. The sign of charge-shape predicted one-bond (1)H-(15)N dipolar couplings for the B1 domain of protein G (GB1) was inverted at pH 3 compared to neutral pH, in agreement with experimental observations. Our predictions indicate that this is a feature specific for GB1. In addition, it is shown that RDCs induced in the protein ubiquitin by the presence of a positively charged surfactant system comprising cetylpyridinium bromide/hexanol/sodium bromide can be predicted accurately by a simple electrostatic alignment model. This shows that steric and electrostatic interactions dominate weak alignment of biomolecules for a wide range of pH values both in filamentous phage and in surfactant liquid crystalline phases. PMID:16249916

  17. Influence of radiation quality on mouse chromosome 2 deletions in radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Natalie; Finnon, Rosemary; Manning, Grainne; Bouffler, Simon; Badie, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    Leukaemia is the prevailing neoplastic disorder of the hematopoietic system. Epidemiological analyses of the survivors of the Japanese atomic bombings show that exposure to ionising radiation (IR) can cause leukaemia. Although a clear association between radiation exposure and leukaemia development is acknowledged, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. A hemizygous deletion on mouse chromosome 2 (del2) is a common feature in several mouse strains susceptible to radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (rAML). The deletion is an early event detectable 24h after exposure in bone marrow cells. Ultimately, 15-25% of exposed animals develop AML with 80-90% of cases carrying del2. Molecular mapping of leukaemic cell genomes identified a minimal deleted region (MDR) on chromosome 2 (chr2) in which a tumour suppressor gene, Sfpi1 is located, encoding the transcription factor PU.1, essential in haematopoiesis. The remaining copy of Sfpi1 has a point mutation in the coding sequence for the DNA-binding domain of the protein in 70% of rAML, which alters a single CpG sequence in the codon for arginine residue R235. In order to identify chr2 deletions and Sfpi.1/PU.1 loss, we performed array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on a unique panel of 79rAMLs. Using a custom made CGH array specifically designed for mouse chr2, we analysed at unprecedentedly high resolution (1.4M array- 148bp resolution) the size of the MDR in low LET and high-LET induced rAMLs (32 X-ray- and 47 neutron-induced). Sequencing of Sfpi1/PU.1DNA binding domain identified the presence of R235 point mutations, showing no influence of radiation quality on R235 type or frequency. We identified for the first time rAML cases with complex del2 in a subset of neutron-induced AMLs. This study allowed us to re-define the MDR to a much smaller 5.5Mb region (still including Sfpi1/PU.1), identical regardless of radiation quality. PMID:26520372

  18. Space-radiation-induced Photon Luminescence of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas; Lee, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    We report on the results of a study of the photon luminescence of the Moon induced by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and space radiation from the Sun, using the Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The model of the lunar surface is taken to be the chemical composition of soils found at various landing sites during the Apollo and Luna programs, averaged over all such sites to define a generic regolith for the present analysis. This then becomes the target that is bombarded by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) above 1 keV in FLUKA to determine the photon fluence albedo produced by the Moon's surface when there is no sunlight and Earthshine. This is to be distinguished from the gamma-ray spectrum produced by the radioactive decay of radiogenic constituents lying in the surface and interior of the Moon. From the photon fluence we derive the spectrum which can be utilized to examine existing lunar spectral data and to design orbiting instrumentation for measuring various components of the space-radiation-induced photon luminescence present on the Moon.

  19. The thermal stability of radiation-induced defects in illite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegler, T.; Allard, T.; Beaufort, D.; Cantin, J.-L.; Van Bardeleben, H. J.

    2015-08-01

    High-purity illite specimens from the Mesoproterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits of Kiggavik, Thelon basin, Nunavut (Canada), and Shea Creek (Athabasca basin, Saskatchewan, Canada) have been studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the thermal stability of the main radiation-induced defects and question the potential of using illite as a natural dosimeter. The observed spectra are complex as they can show in the same region several contributions: (1) an unstable native defect, (2) the main stable defect named Ai by reference to a previous study (Morichon et al. in Phys Chem Minerals 35:339-346, 2008), (3) a signal at g = 2.063 assigned to a new defect, not yet fully characterized, named Ai2 center and (4) impurities such as vanadyl complex or divalent manganese. Isochronal heating shows that the new signal corresponds to a stable species. Isothermal heating experiments at 400 and 450 C provide values of half-life extrapolated at room temperature and activation energy of 1.9-29,109 years and 1.3-1.4 eV, respectively, corresponding to the Ai center. These parameters allow the use of stable radiation-induced defects as a record of radioactivity down to the Paleoproterozoic period.

  20. The thermal stability of radiation-induced defects in illite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegler, T.; Allard, T.; Beaufort, D.; Cantin, J.-L.; von Bardeleben, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    High-purity illite specimens from the Mesoproterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits of Kiggavik, Thelon basin, Nunavut (Canada), and Shea Creek (Athabasca basin, Saskatchewan, Canada) have been studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the thermal stability of the main radiation-induced defects and question the potential of using illite as a natural dosimeter. The observed spectra are complex as they can show in the same region several contributions: (1) an unstable native defect, (2) the main stable defect named Ai by reference to a previous study (Morichon et al. in Phys Chem Minerals 35:339-346, 2008), (3) a signal at g = 2.063 assigned to a new defect, not yet fully characterized, named Ai2 center and (4) impurities such as vanadyl complex or divalent manganese. Isochronal heating shows that the new signal corresponds to a stable species. Isothermal heating experiments at 400 and 450 °C provide values of half-life extrapolated at room temperature and activation energy of 1.9-29,109 years and 1.3-1.4 eV, respectively, corresponding to the Ai center. These parameters allow the use of stable radiation-induced defects as a record of radioactivity down to the Paleoproterozoic period.

  1. Radiation-induced cardiovascular disease: impact of dose and volume.

    PubMed

    Mantini, Giovanna; Smaniotto, Daniela; Balducci, Mario; Dinapoli, Nicola; Campitelli, Maura; Corvari, Barbara; Simili, Andrea; Ciarniello, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    The radiation-induced cardiovascular pathology represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing therapeutic chest irradiation. There is a broad range of clinical manifestations probably associated with dose, volume and technique of irradiation. From the assumption that prevention is the best way to manage radiation-induced cardiotoxicity, based on the pathophysiogenesis of heart structures, a number of reports of the literature are reviewed. They consider the incidence of cardiovascular disease in patients affected by Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast cancer. The dosimetric prevention is takled in terms of therapeutic procedures and doses (IMRT, 3DCRT) with particular reference to the impact on cardiotoxicity of parameters as maximum heart distance (MHD), mean lung dose (MLD), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and V30. The different evaluation criteria of cardiotoxicity are reported, based on the review of the major scoring scales of acute and late complications, which have been worked out in the course of time (LENT-SOMA, RTOG, CTC v.2.0 and CTC v.3.0). The monitoring system of late toxicity used by the authors is presented. PMID:16294909

  2. Proton-induced radiation damage in germanium detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueckner, J.; Koerfer, M.; Waenke, H.; Schroeder, A. N. F.; Filges, D.; Dragovitsch, P.; Englert, P. A. J.; Starr, R.; Trombka, J. I.

    1991-01-01

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors will be used in future space missions for gamma-ray measurements and will be subject to interactions with energetic particles. To simulate this process, several large-volume n-type HPGe detectors were incrementally exposed to a particle fluence of up to 10 to the 8th protons/sq cm (proton energy: 1.5 GeV) at different operating temperatures (90 to 120 K) to induce radiation damage. Basic scientific and engineering data on detector performance were collected. During the incremental irradiation, the peak shape produced by the detectors showed a significant change from a Gaussian shape to a broad complex structure. After the irradiation, all detectors were thoroughly characterized by measuring many parameters. To remove the accumulated radiation damage, the detectors were stepwise-annealed at temperatures below 110 C, while kept in their specially designed cryostats. This study shows that n-type HPGe detectors can be used in charged-particle environments as high-energy resolution devices until a certain level of radiation damage is accumulated and that the damage can be removed at moderate annealing temperatures and the detector returned to operating condition.

  3. Radiation induced thyroid neoplasms 1920 to 1987: A vanishing problem

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, M.P.; Goetowski, P.G.; Kinsella, T.J.

    1989-06-01

    Radiation for benign diseases has been implicated as an etiologic factor in thyroid cancer. From 1930-60, over 2 million children may have been exposed to therapeutic radiation and it is estimated that up to 7% may develop thyroid cancer after a 5-40 year latency. Thyroid stimulating hormone, secondary to radioinduced hypothyroidism, has been implicated as causative in animals. Such data has led to expensive screening programs in high risk patients. Because of a decline in irradiation for benign diseases in children over the last 2 decades, we questioned whether the incidence of radiation induced thyroid neoplasms (RITN) was also decreasing. Twenty-six of 227 patients (11%) with thyroid malignancies seen at our institution from 1974-87 had a history of previous head and neck irradiation. These included 13 papillary, 3 follicular, and 7 mixed carcinomas as well as 2 lymphomas and 1 synovial cell sarcoma. None of these 26 patients had abnormal thyroid function tests at presentation. Mean latency from irradiation to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer was 25.4 years (6-55 year range). Compared to the reported increasing incidence of RITN from 1940-70, there appears to be a significant decrease since 1970. Based on our analysis, the use of expensive screening programs in high risk populations may no longer be warranted. Additionally, the routine use of thyroid replacement in previously irradiated chemically hypothyroid patients is not recommended.30 references.

  4. Molecular Mechanisms and Treatment of Radiation-Induced Lung Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Nian-Hua; Li, Jian Jian; Sun, Lun-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF) is a severe side effect of radiotherapy in lung cancer patients that presents as a progressive pulmonary injury combined with chronic inflammation and exaggerated organ repair. RILF is a major barrier to improving the cure rate and well-being of lung cancer patients because it limits the radiation dose that is required to effectively kill tumor cells and diminishes normal lung function. Although the exact mechanism is unclear, accumulating evidence suggests that various cells, cytokines and regulatory molecules are involved in the tissue reorganization and immune response modulation that occur in RILF. In this review, we will summarize the general symptoms, diagnostics, and current understanding of the cells and molecular factors that are linked to the signaling networks implicated in RILF. Potential approaches for the treatment of RILF will also be discussed. Elucidating the key molecular mediators that initiate and control the extent of RILF in response to therapeutic radiation may reveal additional targets for RILF treatment to significantly improve the efficacy of radiotherapy for lung cancer patients. PMID:23909719

  5. Molecular Mechanisms and Treatment of Radiation-Induced Lung Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Nian-Hua; Li, Jian Jian; Sun, Lun-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF) is a severe side effect of radiotherapy in lung cancer patients that presents as a progressive pulmonary injury combined with chronic inflammation and exaggerated organ repair. RILF is a major barrier to improving the cure rate and well-being of lung cancer patients because it limits the radiation dose that is required to effectively kill tumor cells and diminishes normal lung function. Although the exact mechanism is unclear, accumulating evidence suggests that various cells, cytokines and regulatory molecules are involved in the tissue reorganization and immune response modulation that occur in RILF. In this review, we will summarize the general symptoms, diagnostics, and current understanding of the cells and molecular factors that are linked to the signaling networks implicated in RILF. Potential approaches for the treatment of RILF will also be discussed. Elucidating the key molecular mediators that initiate and control the extent of RILF in response to therapeutic radiation may reveal additional targets for RILF treatment to significantly improve the efficacy of radiotherapy for lung cancer patients.

  6. Temperature Dependence of Radiation Induced Conductivity in Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Gillespie, Jodie; Hodges, Joshua; Hoffmann, R. C.; Abbott, J.; Hart, Steven; Hunt, Alan W.

    2009-03-01

    This study measures Radiation Induced Conductivity (RIC) of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) over temperatures ranging from 110 K to 350 K. RIC occurs when incident ionizing radiation deposits energy and excites electrons into the conduction band of insulators. Conductivity was measured when a voltage was applied across vacuum-baked, thin film LDPE polymer samples in a parallel plate geometry. RIC was calculated as the difference in sample conductivity under no incident radiation and under an incident 4 MeV electron beam at low incident fluxes of 10-4-10-1 Gr/sec. The steady-state RIC was found to agree well with the standard power law relation, ?RIC = kRIC?D?? between conductivity, ? and adsorbed dose rate, D?. Both the proportionality constant, kRIC, and the power, ?, were found to be temperature dependant above 250 K, with behavior consistent with photoconductivity models developed for localized trap states in disordered semiconductors. Below 250 K, kRIC and ? exhibited little change. The observed difference in temperature dependence might be related to a structural phase transition seen at T?256 K in prior studies of mechanical and thermodynamic properties of LDPE.

  7. Radiation-induced tumours of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, B F; Baris, G; Gregor, R T; Hilgers, F J; Balm, A J

    1995-04-01

    In order to study the induction of malignancy in normal tissues due to ionizing radiation, we reviewed the files of 2500 patients with a tumour of the head and neck treated at the Netherlands Cancer Institute (Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Ziekenhuis), Amsterdam, from 1977 to 1993. We then checked whether or not these patients had been previously irradiated. Patients with a thyroid carcinoma or skin cancer were excluded from the study, since it is generally known that previous irradiation is a risk factor in these tumours. Eighteen patients were found to have a malignancy within a previously irradiated area (0.70 per cent). The mean interval between radiation and diagnosis of the head and neck tumour was 36.5 years. There were five soft tissue sarcomas, nine squamous cell carcinomas and four salivary gland tumours. Fourteen patients were operated upon whereas four received palliative treatment only. The median survival of the total group was 3.5 years. Particularly, in young patients because of the better cancer therapy and prolonged survival one must be aware of the increased risk of radiation-induced tumours. PMID:7782698

  8. Robust Feedback Control of Flow Induced Structural Radiation of Sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heatwole, Craig M.; Bernhard, Robert J.; Franchek, Matthew A.

    1997-01-01

    A significant component of the interior noise of aircraft and automobiles is a result of turbulent boundary layer excitation of the vehicular structure. In this work, active robust feedback control of the noise due to this non-predictable excitation is investigated. Both an analytical model and experimental investigations are used to determine the characteristics of the flow induced structural sound radiation problem. The problem is shown to be broadband in nature with large system uncertainties associated with the various operating conditions. Furthermore the delay associated with sound propagation is shown to restrict the use of microphone feedback. The state of the art control methodologies, IL synthesis and adaptive feedback control, are evaluated and shown to have limited success for solving this problem. A robust frequency domain controller design methodology is developed for the problem of sound radiated from turbulent flow driven plates. The control design methodology uses frequency domain sequential loop shaping techniques. System uncertainty, sound pressure level reduction performance, and actuator constraints are included in the design process. Using this design method, phase lag was added using non-minimum phase zeros such that the beneficial plant dynamics could be used. This general control approach has application to lightly damped vibration and sound radiation problems where there are high bandwidth control objectives requiring a low controller DC gain and controller order.

  9. Radiation-induced defects in clay minerals: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, Th.; Balan, E.; Calas, G.; Fourdrin, C.; Morichon, E.; Sorieul, S.

    2012-04-01

    Extensive information has been collected on radiation effects on clay minerals over the last 35 years, providing a wealth of information on environmental and geological processes. The fields of applications include the reconstruction of past radioelement migrations, the dating of clay minerals or the evolution of the physico-chemical properties under irradiation. The investigation of several clay minerals, namely kaolinite, dickite, montmorillonite, illite and sudoite, by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy has shown the presence of defects produced by natural or artificial radiations. These defects consist mostly of electron holes located on oxygen atoms of the structure. The various radiation-induced defects are differentiated through their nature and their thermal stability. Most of them are associated with a π orbital on a Si-O bond. The most abundant defect in clay minerals is oriented perpendicular to the silicate layer. Thermal annealing indicates this defect in kaolinite (A-center) to be stable over geological periods at ambient temperature. Besides, electron or heavy ion irradiation easily leads to an amorphization in smectites, depending on the type of interlayer cation. The amorphization dose exhibits a bell-shaped variation as a function of temperature, with a decreasing part that indicates the influence of thermal dehydroxylation. Two main applications of the knowledge of radiation-induced defects in clay minerals are derived: (i) The use of defects as tracers of past radioactivity. In geological systems where the age of the clay can be constrained, ancient migrations of radioelements can be reconstructed in natural analogues of high level nuclear waste repositories. When the dose rate may be assumed constant over time, the paleodose is used to date clay populations, an approach applied to fault gouges or laterites of the Amazon basin. (ii) The influence of irradiation over physico-chemical properties of clay minerals. An environmental application concerns the performance assessment of the engineered barrier of nuclear waste disposals. In case of a leakage of transuranic elements from the radioactive waste form, alpha recoil nuclei can amorphize smectite after periods of the order of 1000 years according to a worst case scenario, whereas amorphization from ionizing radiation is unlikely. As amorphization greatly enhances the dissolution kinetics of smectite, the sensitivity of the smectites must be taken into account in the prediction of the long term behavior of engineered barriers.

  10. Image-based modeling of radiation-induced foci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costes, Sylvain; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Ponomarev, Artem; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Chen, James; Chou, William; Gascard, Philippe

    Several proteins involved in the response to DNA double strand breaks (DSB) form microscopically visible nuclear domains, or foci, after exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiation-induced foci (RIF) are believed to be located where DNA damage occurs. To test this assumption, we used Monte Carlo simulations to predict the spatial distribution of DSB in human nuclei exposed to high or low-LET radiation. We then compared these predictions to the distribution patterns of three DNA damage sensing proteins, i.e. 53BP1, phosphorylated ATM and γH2AX in human mammary epithelial. The probability to induce DSB can be derived from DNA fragment data measured experimentally by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. We first used this probability in Monte Carlo simulations to predict DSB locations in synthetic nuclei geometrically described by a complete set of human chromosomes, taking into account microscope optics from real experiments. Simulations showed a very good agreement for high-LET, predicting 0.7 foci/µm along the path of a 1 GeV/amu Fe particle against measurement of 0.69 to 0.82 foci/µm for various RIF 5 min following exposure (LET 150 keV/µm). On the other hand, discrepancies were shown in foci frequency for low-LET, with measurements 20One drawback using a theoretical model for the nucleus is that it assumes a simplistic and static pattern for DNA densities. However DNA damage pattern is highly correlated to DNA density pattern (i.e. the more DNA, the more likely to have a break). Therefore, we generalized our Monte Carlo approach to real microscope images, assuming pixel intensity of DAPI in the nucleus was directly proportional to the amount of DNA in that pixel. With such approach we could predict DNA damage pattern in real images on a per nucleus basis. Since energy is randomly deposited along high-LET particle paths, RIF along these paths should also be randomly distributed. As expected, simulations produced DNA-weighted random (Poisson) distributions. In contrast, the distributions of RIF obtained as early as 5 min after exposure to high LET (1 GeV/amu Fe) were non-random. This deviation from the expected DNA-weighted random pattern was further characterized by "relative DNA image measurements". This novel imaging approach showed that RIF were located preferentially at the interface between high and low DNA density regions, and were more frequent than predicted in regions with lower DNA density. The same preferential nuclear location was also measured for RIF induced by 1 Gy of low-LET radiation. This deviation from random behavior was evident only 5 min after irradiation for phosphorylated ATM RIF, while γH2AX and 53BP1 RIF showed pronounced deviations up to 30 min after exposure. These data suggest that RIF within a few minutes following exposure to radiation cluster into open regions of the nucleus (i.e. euchromatin). It is possible that DNA lesions are collected in these nuclear sub-domains for more efficient repair. If so, this would imply that DSB are actively transported within the nucleus, a phenomenon that has not yet been considered in modeling DNA misrepair following exposure to radiation. These results are thus critical for more accurate risk models of radiation and we are actively working on characterizing further RIF movement in human nuclei using live cell imaging.

  11. Comparative study of microwave radiation-induced magnetoresistive oscillations induced by circularly- and linearly- polarized photo-excitation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tianyu; Liu, Han-Chun; Wang, Zhuo; Wegscheider, W; Mani, Ramesh G

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure two dimensional electron system (2DES) under linearly- and circularly- polarized microwave excitation indicates a profound difference in the response observed upon rotating the microwave launcher for the two cases, although circularly polarized microwave radiation induced magnetoresistance oscillations observed at low magnetic fields are similar to the oscillations observed with linearly polarized radiation. For the linearly polarized radiation, the magnetoresistive response is a strong sinusoidal function of the launcher rotation (or linear polarization) angle, θ. For circularly polarized radiation, the oscillatory magnetoresistive response is hardly sensitive to θ. PMID:26450679

  12. Comparative study of microwave radiation-induced magnetoresistive oscillations induced by circularly- and linearly- polarized photo-excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Tianyu; Liu, Han -Chun; Wang, Zhuo; Wegscheider, W.; Mani, Ramesh G.

    2015-10-09

    A comparative study of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure two dimensional electron system (2DES) under linearly- and circularly- polarized microwave excitation indicates a profound difference in the response observed upon rotating the microwave launcher for the two cases, although circularly polarized microwave radiation induced magnetoresistance oscillations observed at low magnetic fields are similar to the oscillations observed with linearly polarized radiation. For the linearly polarized radiation, the magnetoresistive response is a strong sinusoidal function of the launcher rotation (or linear polarization) angle, θ. As a result, for circularly polarized radiation, the oscillatory magnetoresistive response is hardly sensitive to θ.

  13. Comparative study of microwave radiation-induced magnetoresistive oscillations induced by circularly- and linearly- polarized photo-excitation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Tianyu; Liu, Han-Chun; Wang, Zhuo; Wegscheider, W.; Mani, Ramesh G.

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure two dimensional electron system (2DES) under linearly- and circularly- polarized microwave excitation indicates a profound difference in the response observed upon rotating the microwave launcher for the two cases, although circularly polarized microwave radiation induced magnetoresistance oscillations observed at low magnetic fields are similar to the oscillations observed with linearly polarized radiation. For the linearly polarized radiation, the magnetoresistive response is a strong sinusoidal function of the launcher rotation (or linear polarization) angle, θ. For circularly polarized radiation, the oscillatory magnetoresistive response is hardly sensitive to θ. PMID:26450679

  14. Risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer and radiation protection standards

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, W.K. )

    1989-11-01

    At low doses, the primary biological effects of concern are stochastic in nature, i.e., they are more probable at higher doses, but their severity is independent of the dose. In the last decade, a new epidemiological information on radiation-induced cancer in humans has become available. In the Japanese survivors three new cycles of data (11 yr of experience) have accumulated, and a revised dosimetry system (DS86) has been introduced. UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) reevaluated the risk of cancer from all human sources, which include other human populations such as those treated for ankylosing spondylitis and for cancer of the cervix. UNSCEAR has also evaluated the cancer risk for each of nine organs. For radiation protection purposes (low doses and dose rates, adult populations mainly), nominal values of risk since the 1977-80 period have been {approximately}1%/Sv. This value will need to be increased in the light of the new estimates. Also, risk estimates for various tissues must be reconsidered, and weighting factors used by International Commission on Radiological Protection need to be reexamined. Recommendations on occupational and public dose limits must also be reconsidered. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements is in a comparatively good position with a recently produced set of recommendations that had higher cancer risk estimates in mind.

  15. Radiation-Induced Lymphocyte Apoptosis to Predict Radiation Therapy Late Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schnarr, Kara; Boreham, Douglas; Sathya, Jinka; Julian, Jim; Dayes, Ian S.

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To examine a potential correlation between the in vitro apoptotic response of lymphocytes to radiation and the risk of developing late gastrointestinal (GI)/genitourinary (GU) toxicity from radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Prostate cancer patients formerly enrolled in a randomized study were tested for radiosensitivity by using a radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis assay. Apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry-based Annexin-FITC/7AAD and DiOC{sub 6}/7AAD assays in subpopulations of lymphocytes (total lymphocytes, CD4+, CD8+ and CD4-/CD8-) after exposure to an in vitro dose of 0, 2, 4, or 8 Gy. Results: Patients with late toxicity after radiotherapy showed lower lymphocyte apoptotic responses to 8 Gy than patients who had not developed late toxicity (p = 0.01). All patients with late toxicity had apoptosis levels that were at or below the group mean. The negative predictive value in both apoptosis assays ranged from 95% to 100%, with sensitivity values of 83% to 100%. Apoptosis at lower dose points and in lymphocyte subpopulations had a weaker correlation with the occurrence of late toxicity. Conclusions: Lymphocyte apoptosis after 8 Gy of radiation has the potential to predict which patients will be spared late toxicity after radiation therapy. Further research should be performed to identify the specific subset of lymphocytes that correlates with late toxicity, followed by a corresponding prospective study.

  16. Involvement of prostaglandins and histamine in radiation-induced temperature responses in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Exposure of rats to 1-15 Gy of gamma radiation induced hyperthermia, whereas exposure to 20-150 Gy produced hypothermia. Since radiation exposure induced the release of prostaglandins (PGs) and histamine, the role of PGs and histamine in radiation-induced temperature changes was examined. Radiation-induced hyper- and hypothermia were antagonized by pretreatment with indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Intracerebroventricular administration of PGE2 and PGD2 induced hyper- and hypothermia, respectively. Administration of SC-19220, a specific PGE2 antagonist, attenuated PGE2- and radiation-induced hyperthermia, but it did not antagonize PGD2- or radiation-induced hypothermia. Consistent with an apparent role of histamine in hypothermia, administration of disodium cromoglycate (a mast cell stabilizer), mepyramine (H1-receptor antagonist), or cimetidine (H2-receptor antagonist) attenuated PGD2- and radiation-induced hypothermia. These results suggest that radiation-induced hyperthermia is mediated via PGE2 and that radiation-induced hypothermia is mediated by another PG, possibly PGD2, via histamine.

  17. Dosimetric Analysis of Radiation-induced Gastric Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Mary; Normolle, Daniel; Pan, Charlie C.; Dawson, Laura A.; Amarnath, Sudha; Ensminger, William D.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced gastric bleeding has been poorly understood. In this study, we described dosimetric predictors for gastric bleeding after fractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The records of 139 sequential patients treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for intrahepatic malignancies were reviewed. Median follow-up was 7.4 months. The parameters of a Lyman normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for the occurrence of {>=}grade 3 gastric bleed, adjusted for cirrhosis, were fitted to the data. The principle of maximum likelihood was used to estimate parameters for NTCP models. Results: Sixteen of 116 evaluable patients (14%) developed gastric bleeds at a median time of 4.0 months (mean, 6.5 months; range, 2.1-28.3 months) following completion of RT. The median and mean maximum doses to the stomach were 61 and 63 Gy (range, 46-86 Gy), respectively, after biocorrection of each part of the 3D dose distributions to equivalent 2-Gy daily fractions. The Lyman NTCP model with parameters adjusted for cirrhosis predicted gastric bleed. Best-fit Lyman NTCP model parameters were n=0.10 and m=0.21 and with TD{sub 50} (normal) = 56 Gy and TD{sub 50} (cirrhosis) = 22 Gy. The low n value is consistent with the importance of maximum dose; a lower TD{sub 50} value for the cirrhosis patients points out their greater sensitivity. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the Lyman NTCP model has utility for predicting gastric bleeding and that the presence of cirrhosis greatly increases this risk. These findings should facilitate the design of future clinical trials involving high-dose upper abdominal radiation.

  18. Electric-field-induced transition between the polarization-modulated and ferroelectric smectic- CS P*F liquid crystalline states studied using microbeam x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Michi; Link, Darren R.; Takanishi, Yoichi; Takahasi, Yumiko; Thisayukta, Jirakorn; Niwano, Hiroko; Coleman, David A.; Watanabe, Junji; Iida, Atsuo; Clark, Noel A.; Takezoe, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    We report x-ray microbeam studies of a bent-core liquid crystalline material with chiral citronellyl tails. This material has an equilibrium polarization-modulated smectic- CP (PM-SmCP) state exhibiting the B7 texture upon slow cooing from the isotropic while a metastable chiral synclinic ferroelectric Sm-CP state (Sm-CSPF*) is obtained on quenching from the isotropic. The polarization modulated phase PM-SmCSPF* shows typical x-ray patterns having multiple satellite peaks around the first-order layer reflection, indicating undulated layers, while the metastable Sm-CSPF* state exhibits a single layering peak indicating flat layers. The Sm-CSPF* state is also induced by the application of an electric field larger than the threshold field ( Eth ) and thermally returns to the polarization modulated PM-SmCSPF* structure.

  19. Interactions and chaperone function of ?A-crystallin with T5P ?C-crystallin mutant

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jack J-N

    2004-01-01

    T5P ?C-crystallin mutation is associated with Coppock-like cataract, one of the autosomal dominant congenital cataracts. It is not known why the abundant ?-crystallin cannot prevent the mutation-related aggregation. Our previous studies indicate that the mutation changes conformation and reduces solubility and stability, but it is not known whether it is these events or the loss of interaction with other crystallins that causes the cataract. It is also not known whether the ?-crystallin can protect T5P mutant as effectively from heat-induced aggregation as the wild-type (WT) ?C-crystallin. To investigate the mechanism of interactions and chaperone function between ?A- and ?C-crystallin, human ?A-crystallin and W9F mutant as well as WT ?C-crystallin and T5P mutant were cloned. Interactions between ?A- and ?C-crystallin were studied with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and chaperone activity was assessed by the suppression of heat-induced aggregation of substrate proteins. Conformational changes of substrate proteins were studied by spectroscopic measurements. The results indicate that the T5P mutant showed a slightly greater FRET than WT ?C-crystallin with ?A-crystallin, and ?A-crystallin could effectively prevent both WT and T5P ?C-crystallin from heat-induced aggregation. Spectroscopic measurements show that both ?A-crystallin and ?C-crystallin underwent only slight conformational change after chaperone binding. Together with previous results obtained with a two-hybrid system assay of interactions between ?A- and ?C-crystallin, the present FRET and chaperone results indicate that loss of interactions of T5P mutant with other crystallins may play a larger role than the protection afforded by chaperone-like activity in Coppock-like cataract. PMID:15322286

  20. A Case of Radiation-Induced Osteosarcoma after the Treatment of Pineoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Noah; Yoo, Heon; Shin, Sang Hoon; Gwak, Ho Shin

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has an important role in postoperative treatment of neoplasms originated from central nervous system, but may induce secondary malignancies like as sarcomas, gliomas, and meningiomas. The prognosis of radiation-induced osteosarcomas is known as poor, because they has aggressive nature invasive locally and intractable to multiple treatment strategies like as surgical resection, chemotherapy, and so on. We report a case of radiation-induced osteosarcoma developed from skull after 7 years of craniospinal radiotherapy for pineoblastoma. PMID:26605276

  1. Chemoprevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced skin cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ley, R D; Reeve, V E

    1997-01-01

    The use of chemical and physical sunscreening agents has increased dramatically during the last two to three decades as an effective means of preventing sunbum. The use of high sunprotection factor sunscreens has also been widely promoted for the prevention of skin cancer, including melanoma. Whereas sunscreens are undoubtedly effective in preventing sunbum, their efficacy in preventing skin cancer, especially melanoma, is currently under considerable debate. Sunscreens have been shown to prevent the induction of DNA damage that presumably results from the direct effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on DNA. DNA damage has been identified as an initiator of skin cancer formation. However, both laboratory and epidemiological studies indicate that sunscreens may not block the initiation or promotion of melanoma formation. These studies suggest that the action spectrum for erythema induction is different than the action spectrum for the induction of melanoma. Indeed, recent reports on the wavelength dependency for the induction of melanoma in a fish model indicate that the efficacy of ultraviolet A wavelengths (320-400 nm) to induce melanoma is orders of magnitude higher than would be predicted from the induction of erythema in man or nonmelanoma skin tumors in mice. Other strategies for the chemoprevention of skin cancer have also been reported. Low levels and degree of unsaturation of dietary fats protect against UVR-induced skin cancer in mice humens. Compounds with antioxidant activity, including green tea extracts (polyphenols), have been reported to inhibit UVR-induced skin carcinogenesis. PMID:9255591

  2. Radiation-induced amorphization of rare-earth titanate pyrochlores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Jie; Chen, Jian; Wang, L. M.; Ewing, Rodney C.; Farmer, J. Matt; Boatner, Lynn A.; Helean, K. B.

    2003-10-01

    Single crystals of the entire series of A2Ti2O7 (A=Sm to Lu, and Y) pyrochlore compounds were irradiated by 1-MeV Kr+ ions at temperatures from 293 to 1073 K, and the microstructure evolution, as a function of increasing radiation fluence, was characterized using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The critical amorphization temperature, Tc, generally increases from 480 to 1120 K with increasing A-site cation size (e.g., 0.977 for Lu3+ to 1.079 for Sm3+). An abnormally high susceptibility to ion beam damage was found for Gd2Ti2O7 (with the highest Tc of 1120 K). Factors influencing the response of titanate pyrochlores to ion irradiation-induced amorphization are discussed in terms of cation radius ratio, defect formation, and the tendency to undergo an order-disorder transition to the defect-fluorite structure. The resistance of the pyrochlore structure to ion beam-induced amorphization is not only affected by the relative sizes of the A- and B-site cations, but also the cation electronic configuration and the structural disorder. Pyrochlore compositions that have larger structural deviations from the ideal fluorite structure, as evidenced by the smaller 48f oxygen positional parameter, x, are more sensitive to ion beam-induced amorphization.

  3. Motion-induced radiation from electrons moving in Maxwell's fish-eye

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yangjie; Ang, L. K.

    2013-01-01

    In Čerenkov radiation and transition radiation, evanescent wave from motion of charged particles transfers into radiation coherently. However, such dissipative motion-induced radiations require particles to move faster than light in medium or to encounter velocity transition to pump energy. Inspired by a method to detect cloak by observing radiation of a fast-moving electron bunch going through it by Zhang et al., we study the generation of electron-induced radiation from electrons' interaction with Maxwell's fish-eye sphere. Our calculation shows that the radiation is due to a combination of Čerenkov radiation and transition radiation, which may pave the way to investigate new schemes of transferring evanescent wave to radiation. PMID:24166002

  4. Motion-induced radiation from electrons moving in Maxwell's fish-eye.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangjie; Ang, L K

    2013-01-01

    In ?erenkov radiation and transition radiation, evanescent wave from motion of charged particles transfers into radiation coherently. However, such dissipative motion-induced radiations require particles to move faster than light in medium or to encounter velocity transition to pump energy. Inspired by a method to detect cloak by observing radiation of a fast-moving electron bunch going through it by Zhang et al., we study the generation of electron-induced radiation from electrons' interaction with Maxwell's fish-eye sphere. Our calculation shows that the radiation is due to a combination of ?erenkov radiation and transition radiation, which may pave the way to investigate new schemes of transferring evanescent wave to radiation. PMID:24166002

  5. Mycobacterial Stationary Phase Induced by Low Oxygen Tension: Cell Wall Thickening and Localization of the 16-Kilodalton ?-Crystallin Homolog

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Adam F.; Spreadbury, Claire L.

    1998-01-01

    Most cases of tuberculosis are due to reactivation of endogenous infection which may have lain quiescent or dormant for decades. How Mycobacterium tuberculosis survives for this length of time is unknown, but it is hypothesized that reduced oxygen tension may trigger the tubercle bacillus to enter a state of dormancy. Mycobacterium bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis H37Rv were cultured under aerobic, microaerobic, and anaerobic conditions. Their ultrastructural morphology was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and protein expression profiles were compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). TEM revealed that the microaerobically and anaerobically cultured bacilli but not the aerobically cultured bacilli developed a strikingly thickened cell wall outer layer. The thickening was not observed in aerobically cultured stationary-phase bacilli or in anaerobically cultured Mycobacterium smegmatis. A highly expressed protein was detected by SDS-PAGE in microaerobic and anaerobic cultures and was identified as the 16-kDa small heat shock protein or ?-crystallin homolog. Immunolocalization by colloidal gold immunoelectron microscopy identified three patterns of protein distribution in M. bovis BCG cultured under low oxygen tension. The 16-kDa protein was strongly associated with the cell envelope, fibrous peptidoglycan-like structures, and intracellular and peripheral clusters. These results suggest that tubercle bacilli may adapt to low-oxygen conditions by developing a thickened cell wall and that the 16-kDa protein may play a role in stabilizing cell structures during long-term survival, thus helping the bacilli survive the low oxygen tension in granulomas. As such, the cell wall thickening and the 16-kDa protein may be markers for the dormant state of M. tuberculosis. PMID:9473032

  6. Research on radiation-induced color change of white topaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Wang; yong-bao, Gu

    2002-03-01

    In the present study, a method of producing sky blue topaz is studied. A 3-5 MeV scanning electron beam linear accelerator (which is currently used for processing semiconductor devices) was employed to change the color of white topaz under room-temperature conditions, together with a cooling device. A radiation-induced ion color center is formed in white topaz by an electron beam. To finish the irradiation, the total dose needs to be more than 510 7-110 8 Gy, the temperature of heat-treatment was between 180C and 280C in air conditions, after a while, a sky blue topaz was obtained. There was a bright color and no radioactivity was formed in the sky blue topaz by this production method.

  7. Plasma prostaglandin levels in radiation-induced enteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Lifshitz, S.; Savage, J.E.; Taylor, K.A.; Tewfik, H.H.; Van Orden, D.E.

    1982-02-01

    Increased prostaglandin synthesis has been implicated as a causative factor in the production of radiation induced enteritis. Seventeen patients selected to begin pelvic irradiation for treatment of gynecological cancer had plasma Prostaglandin E, Prostaglandin F, and 13, 14 dihydro 15 keto PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ metabolite determined by radioimmunoassay, prior to initiation of radiotherapy, at weekly intervals during treatment and at six weeks following completion of radiotherapy. A total of 362 prostaglandin determinations were performed. Thirteen patients (76%) developed significant diarrhea consisting of three or more watery bowel movements per day. Nine patients (53%) had intermittent colicky pain and six patients (35%) had nausea and vomiting during treatment. Statistical evaluation revealed no significant elevation of plasma prostaglandins during radiotherapy.

  8. Imaging for Assessment of Radiation-Induced Normal Tissue Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Jeraj, Robert; Cao Yue; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Hahn, Carol; Marks, Lawrence

    2010-03-01

    Imaging can provide quantitative assessment of radiation-induced normal tissue effects. Identifying an early sign of normal tissue damage with imaging would have the potential to predict organ dysfunction, thereby allowing reoptimization of treatment strategies based on individual patients' risks and benefits. Early detection with noninvasive imaging may enable interventions to mitigate therapy-associated injury before its clinical manifestation. Furthermore, successive imaging may provide an objective assessment of the impact of such mitigation therapies. However, many problems make application of imaging to normal tissue assessment challenging, and further work is required to establish imaging biomarkers as surrogate endpoints of clinical outcome. The performance of clinical trials in which normal tissue injury is a clearly defined endpoint would greatly aid in realization of these goals.

  9. Imaging for assessment of radiation-induced normal tissue effects.

    PubMed

    Jeraj, Robert; Cao, Yue; Ten Haken, Randall K; Hahn, Carol; Marks, Lawrence

    2010-03-01

    Imaging can provide quantitative assessment of radiation-induced normal tissue effects. Identifying an early sign of normal tissue damage with imaging would have the potential to predict organ dysfunction, thereby allowing reoptimization of treatment strategies based on individual patients' risks and benefits. Early detection with noninvasive imaging may enable interventions to mitigate therapy-associated injury before its clinical manifestation. Furthermore, successive imaging may provide an objective assessment of the impact of such mitigation therapies. However, many problems make application of imaging to normal tissue assessment challenging, and further work is required to establish imaging biomarkers as surrogate endpoints of clinical outcome. The performance of clinical trials in which normal tissue injury is a clearly defined endpoint would greatly aid in realization of these goals. PMID:20171509

  10. Characterization of gamma radiation inducible thioredoxin h from Spirogyra varians.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Minchul; Yang, Ho-Yeon; Lee, Seung-Sik; Kim, Dong-Ho; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Choi, Jong-il

    2013-08-15

    In this study, thioredoxin h (Trxh) was isolated and characterized from the fresh water green alga Spirogyra varians, which was one amongst the pool of proteins induced upon gamma radiation treatment. cDNA clones encoding S. varians thioredoxin h were isolated from a pre-constructed S. varians cDNA library. Trxh had a molecular mass of 13.5kDa and contained the canonical WCGPC active site. Recombinant Trxh showed the disulfide reduction activity, and exhibited insulin reduction activity. Also, Trxh had higher 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) reduction activity with Arabidopsis thioredoxin reductase (TR) than with Escherichia coli TR. Specific expression of the Trxh gene was further analyzed at mRNA and protein levels and was found to increase by gamma irradiation upto the absorbed dose of 3kGy, suggesting that Trxh may have potential functions in protection of biomolecules from gamma irradiation. PMID:23830452

  11. Ventricular Tachycardia Associated with Radiation-Induced Cardiac Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Beaty, Elijah H.; Ballany, Wassim; Trohman, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac tumors can lead to distinct electrocardiographic changes and ventricular arrhythmias. Benign and malignant cardiac tumors have been associated with ventricular tachycardia. When possible, benign tumors should be resected when ventricular arrhythmias are intractable. Chemotherapy can shrink malignant tumors and eliminate arrhythmias. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with breast sarcoma whom we diagnosed with myocardial metastasis after she presented with palpitations. The initial electrocardiogram revealed sinus rhythm with new right bundle branch block and ST-segment elevation in the anterior precordial leads. During telemetry, hemodynamically stable, sustained ventricular tachycardia with right ventricular localization was detected. Images showed a myocardial mass in the right ventricular free wall. Amiodarone suppressed the arrhythmia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ventricular tachycardia associated with radiation-induced undifferentiated sarcoma. We discuss the distinct electrocardiographic changes and ventricular arrhythmias that can be associated with cardiac tumors, and we review the relevant medical literature. PMID:25593527

  12. Radiation-induced effects and the immune system in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Punit; Asea, Alexzander

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) are standard therapeutic modalities for patients with cancers, and could induce various tumor cell death modalities, releasing tumor-derived antigens as well as danger signals that could either be captured for triggering anti-tumor immune response. Historic studies examining tissue and cellular responses to RT have predominantly focused on damage caused to proliferating malignant cells leading to their death. However, there is increasing evidence that RT also leads to significant alterations in the tumor microenvironment, particularly with respect to effects on immune cells and infiltrating tumors. This review will focus on immunologic consequences of RT and discuss the therapeutic reprogramming of immune responses in tumors and how it regulates efficacy and durability to RT. PMID:23251903

  13. Radiation induces turbulence in particle-laden fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, Rmi; Coletti, Filippo; Massot, Marc; Mani, Ali

    2014-07-15

    When a transparent fluid laden with solid particles is subject to radiative heating, non-uniformities in particle distribution result in local fluid temperature fluctuations. Under the influence of gravity, buoyancy induces vortical fluid motion which can lead to strong preferential concentration, enhancing the local heating and more non-uniformities in particle distribution. By employing direct numerical simulations this study shows that the described feedback loop can create and sustain turbulence. The velocity and length scale of the resulting turbulence is not known a priori, and is set by balance between viscous forces and buoyancy effects. When the particle response time is comparable to a viscous time scale, introduced in our analysis, the system exhibits intense fluctuations of turbulent kinetic energy and strong preferential concentration of particles.

  14. Radiation-induced polymerization for the immobilization of penicillin acylase

    SciTech Connect

    Boccu, E.; Carenza, M.; Lora, S.; Palma, G.; Veronese, F.M.

    1987-06-01

    The immobilization of Escherichia coli penicillin acylase was investigated by radiation-induced polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate at low temperature. A leak-proof composite that does not swell in water was obtained by adding the cross-linking agent trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate to the monomer-aqueous enzyme mixture. Penicillin acylase, which was immobilized with greater than 70% yield, possessed a higher Km value toward the substrate 6-nitro-3-phenylacetamidobenzoic acid than the free enzyme form (Km = 1.7 X 10(-5) and 1 X 10(-5) M, respectively). The structural stability of immobilized penicillin acylase, as assessed by heat, guanidinium chloride, and pH denaturation profiles, was very similar to that of the free-enzyme form, thus suggesting that penicillin acylase was entrapped in its native state into aqueous free spaces of the polymer matrix.

  15. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of alumina and sapphire.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, Eric F.

    2011-04-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Alumina and Sapphire at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Five mil thick samples were irradiated with pulses of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E7 to 1E9 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 1 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 1E10 and 1E9 mho/m/(rad/s), depending on the dose rate and the pulse width for Alumina and 1E7 to 6E7 mho/m/(rad/s) for Sapphire.

  16. Radiation-induced degradation of 4-chloroaniline in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snchez, M.; Wolfger, H.; Getoff, N.

    2002-12-01

    The radiation-induced decomposition of 4-chloroaniline (4-ClA) was studied under steady-state conditions using aqueous solutions saturated with air, pure oxygen, N 2O, argon and argon in the presence of t-Butanol. Using HPLC-method, the initial G-values of the substrate degradation as well as of a number of radiolytic products were determined. The formation of aminophenols, chlorophenols, aniline and phenol in addition to chloride, ammonia, formaldehyde and mixture of aldehydes as well as carboxylic acids was studied as a function of absorbed dose. Based on the experimental data, probable reaction mechanisms for the degradation of 4-ClA by ?-rays and the formation of the identified products are presented.

  17. Radiation-induced attenuation of high-OH optical fibers after hydrogen treatment in the presence of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, P.B; Looney, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    High purity, high-OH, optical fibers were irradiated in a hydrogen atmosphere to explore hydrogen binding into defects created by the ionizing radiation. Significant improvements in subsequent measurements of radiation-induced attenuation were observed. 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Bystander effects in radiation-induced genomic instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, William F.; Hartmann, Andreas; Limoli, Charles L.; Nagar, Shruti; Ponnaiya, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of GM10115 hamster-human hybrid cells to X-rays can result in the induction of chromosomal instability in the progeny of surviving cells. This instability manifests as the dynamic production of novel sub-populations of cells with unique cytogenetic rearrangements involving the "marker" human chromosome. We have used the comet assay to investigate whether there was an elevated level of endogenous DNA breaks in chromosomally unstable clones that could provide a source for the chromosomal rearrangements and thus account for the persistent instability observed. Our results indicate no significant difference in comet tail measurement between non-irradiated and radiation-induced chromosomally unstable clones. Using two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization we also investigated whether recombinational events involving the interstitial telomere repeat-like sequences in GM10115 cells were involved at frequencies higher than random processes would otherwise predict. Nine of 11 clones demonstrated a significantly higher than expected involvement of these interstitial telomere repeat-like sequences at the recombination junction between the human and hamster chromosomes. Since elevated levels of endogenous breaks were not detected in unstable clones we propose that epigenetic or bystander effects (BSEs) lead to the activation of recombinational pathways that perpetuate the unstable phenotype. Specifically, we expand upon the hypothesis that radiation induces conditions and/or factors that stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These reactive intermediates then contribute to a chronic pro-oxidant environment that cycles over multiple generations, promoting chromosomal recombination and other phenotypes associated with genomic instability.

  19. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Injury Induced by Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Lijian; Luo, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) as the result of nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks is a significant threat and a major medical concern. Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) injury is the primary cause of death after accidental or intentional exposure to a moderate or high dose of IR. Protecting HSCs from IR should be a primary goal in the development of novel medical countermeasures against radiation. Recent Advances: Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the mechanisms by which IR causes HSC damage. The mechanisms include (i) induction of HSC apoptosis via the p53-Puma pathway; (ii) promotion of HSC differentiation via the activation of the G-CSF/Stat3/BATF-dependent differentiation checkpoint; (iii) induction of HSC senescence via the ROS-p38 pathway; and (iv) damage to the HSC niche. Critical Issues: Induction of apoptosis in HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells is primarily responsible for IR-induced acute bone marrow (BM) injury. Long-term BM suppression caused by IR is mainly attributable to the induction of HSC senescence. However, the promotion of HSC differentiation and damage to the HSC niche can contribute to both the acute and long-term effects of IR on the hematopoietic system. Future Directions: In this review, we have summarized a number of recent findings that provide new insights into the mechanisms whereby IR damages HSCs. These findings will provide new opportunities for developing a mechanism-based strategy to prevent and/or mitigate IR-induced BM suppression. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1447–1462. PMID:24124731

  20. Radiation-induced leukemia: Comparative studies in mouse and man

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, M.

    1991-01-01

    We now have a clear understanding of the mechanism by which radiation-induced (T-cell) leukemia occurs. In irradiated mice (radiation-induced thymic leukemia) and in man (acute lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia, T-ALL) the mechanism of leukemogenesis is surprisingly similar. Expressed in the most elementary terms, T-cell leukemia occurs when T-cell differentiation is inhibited by a mutation, and pre-T cells attempt but fail to differentiate in the thymus. Instead of leaving the thymus for the periphery as functional T-cells they continue to proliferate in the thymus. The proliferating pre- (pro-) T-cells constitute the (early) acute T-cell leukemia (A-TCL). This model for the mechanism of T-cell leukemogenesis accounts for all the properties of both murine and human A-TCL. Important support for the model has recently come from work by Ilan Kirsch and others, who have shown that mutations/deletions in the genes SCL (TAL), SIL, and LCK constitute primary events in the development of T-ALL, by inhibiting differentiation of thymic pre- (pro-) T-cells. This mechanism of T-cell leukemogenesis brings several specific questions into focus: How do early A-TCL cells progress to become potently tumorigenic and poorly treatable Is it feasible to genetically suppress early and/or progressed A-TCL cells What is the mechanism by which the differentiation-inhibited (leukemic) pre-T cells proliferate During the first grant year we have worked on aspects of all three questions.

  1. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability in human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Yang, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    Karyotypes of human cells surviving X- and alpha-irradiation have been studied. Human mammary epithelial cells of the immortal, non-tumorigenic cell line H184B5 F5-1 M/10 were irradiated and surviving clones isolated and expanded in culture. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using dedicated software with an image analyzer. We have found that both high- and low-LET radiation induced chromosomal instability in long-term cultures, but with different characteristics. Complex chromosomal rearrangements were observed after X-rays, while chromosome loss predominated after alpha-particles. Deletions were observed in both cases. In clones derived from cells exposed to alpha-particles, some cells showed extensive chromosome breaking and double minutes. Genomic instability was correlated to delayed reproductive death and neoplastic transformation. These results indicate that chromosomal instability is a radiation-quality-dependent effect which could determine late genetic effects, and should therefore be carefully considered in the evaluation of risk for space missions.

  2. Radiation-induced tumor neoantigens: imaging and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Christopher D; Ali, Arif N; Diaz, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of tumor cells to ionizing radiation (IR) is widely known to induce a number of cellular changes. One way that IR can affect tumor cells is through the development of neoantigens which are new molecules that tumor cells express at the cell membrane following some insult or change to the cell. There have been numerous reports in the literature of changes in both tumor and tumor vasculature cell surface molecule expression following treatment with IR. The usefulness of neoantigens for imaging and therapeutic applications lies in the fact that they are differentially expressed on the surface of irradiated tumor cells to a greater extent than on normal tissues. This differential expression provides a mechanism by which tumor cells can be “marked” by radiation for further targeting. Drug delivery vehicles or imaging agents conjugated to ligands that recognize and interact with the neoantigens can help to improve tumor-specific targeting and reduce systemic toxicity with cancer drugs. This article provides a review of the molecules that have been reported to be expressed on the surface of tumor cells in response to IR either in vivo or in vitro. Additionally, we provide a discussion of some of the methods used in the identification of these antigens and applications for their use in drug delivery and imaging. PMID:21969260

  3. Radiation-induced sarcomas of the chest wall

    SciTech Connect

    Souba, W.W.; McKenna, R.J. Jr.; Meis, J.; Benjamin, R.; Raymond, A.K.; Mountain, C.F.

    1986-02-01

    Sixteen patients are presented who had sarcomas of the chest wall at a site where a prior malignancy had been irradiated. The first malignancies included breast cancer (ten cases), Hodgkin's disease (four cases), and others (two cases). Radiation doses varied from 4200 to 5500 R (mean, 4900 R). The latency period ranged from 5 to 28 years (mean, 13 years). The histologic types of the radiation-induced sarcomas were as follows: malignant fibrous histiocytoma, nine cases; osteosarcoma, six cases; and malignant mesenchymoma, one case. The only long-term survivor is alive and well 12 years after resection of a clavicular chondroblastic osteosarcoma. Three cases were recently diagnosed. Despite aggressive multimodality treatment, the remaining 13 patients have all died from their sarcomas (mean survival, 13.5 months). All patients have apparently been cured of their first malignancies. Chemotherapy was ineffective. No treatment, including forequarter amputation, appeared to palliate the patients with supraclavicular soft tissue sarcomas. Major chest wall resection offered good palliation for seven of eight patients with sarcomas arising in the sternum or lateral chest wall. Close follow-up is needed to detect signs of these sarcomas in the ever-increasing number of patients receiving therapeutic irradiation.

  4. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability in human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Yang, T. C.

    Karyotypes of human cells surviving X- and alpha-irradiation have been studied. Human mammary epithelial cells of the immortal, non-tumorigenic cell line H184B5 F5-1 M/10 were irradiated and surviving clones isolated and expanded in culture. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using dedicated software with an image analyzer. We have found that both high- and low-LET radiation induced chromosomal instability in long-term cultures, but with different characteristics. Complex chromosomal rearrangements were observed after X-rays, while chromosome loss predominated after alpha-particles. Deletions were observed in both cases. In clones derived from cells exposed to alpha-particles, some cells showed extensive chromosome breaking and double minutes. Genomic instability was correlated to delayed reproductive death and neoplastic transformation. These results indicate that chromosomal instability is a radiation-quality-dependent effect which could determine late genetic effects, and should therefore be carefully considered in the evaluation of risk for space missions.

  5. Radiation-induced tumors in transplanted ovaries. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Covelli, V.; Di Majo, V.; Bassani, B.; Metalli, P.; Silini, G.

    1982-04-01

    A comparison was made of tumor induction in the ovaries of whole-body-irradiation mice (250-kV X rays, doses of 0.25-4.00 Gy) or in ovaries irradiated in vivo and then transplanted intramuscularly into castrated syngeneic hosts. The form of the dose-induction relationships was similar in the two cases, showing a steeply rising branch at doses up to 0.75 Gy followed by a maximum and an elevated plateau up to 4.00 Gy. A higher incidence of tumors in transplanted organs was apparent for doses up to the maximum, which was attributed to castration-induced hormonal imbalance. Specific death rate analysis of mice dying with ovarian tumors showed that in this system radiation acts essentially by decreasing tumor latency. Ovarian tumors were classified in various histological types and their development in time was followed by serial sacrifice. Separate analysis of death rate of animals carrying different tumor classes allowed further resolution of the various components of the tumor induction phenomenon. It was thus possible to show that the overall death rate analysis masks a true effect of induction of granulosa cell tumors in whole-body-irradiation animals. The transplantation technique offers little advantage for the study of radiation induction of ovarian tumor.

  6. Are epigenetic mechanisms involved in radiation-induced bystander effects?

    PubMed

    Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The "non-targeted effects" of ionizing radiation including bystander effects and genomic instability are unique in that no classic mutagenic event occurs in the cell showing the effect. In the case of bystander effects, cells which were not in the field affected by the radiation show high levels of mutations, chromosome aberrations, and membrane signaling changes leading to what is termed "horizontal transmission" of mutations and information which may be damaging while in the case of genomic instability, generations of cells derived from an irradiated progenitor appear normal but then lethal and non-lethal mutations appear in distant progeny. This is known as "vertical transmission." In both situations high yields of non-clonal mutations leading to distant occurrence of mutation events both in space and time. This precludes a mutator phenotype or other conventional explanation and appears to indicate a generalized form of stress-induced mutagenesis which is well documented in bacteria. This review will discuss the phenomenology of what we term "non-targeted effects," and will consider to what extent they challenge conventional ideas in genetics and epigenetics. PMID:22629281

  7. Heterogeneous shock-induced thermal radiation in minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, K.-I.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    A 500-channel optical imaging intensifying and spectral digital recording system is used for recording the shock-induced radiation emitted from 406 to 821 nm from transparent minerals during the time interval that a shock wave propagates through the sample. The initial results obtained for single crystals of gypsum, calcite and halite in the 30 to 40 GPa (300 to 400 kbar) pressure range reveal grey-body emission spectra corresponding to temperatures in the 3000 to 4000 K range and emissivities ranging from 0.003 to 0.02. With gypsum and calcite, distinctive line spectra are superimposed on the thermal radiation. The observed color temperatures are greater than the Hugoniot temperature by a factor of 2 to 10; this is calculable on the basis of continuum thermodynamics and equation of state models for the shock states achieved in the three minerals. These observed high temperatures are thought to be real. It is concluded that a large number of closed spaced high temperature shear-band regions are being detected immediately behind the shock front.

  8. Radiation induced effects on mechanical properties of nanoporous gold foams

    SciTech Connect

    Caro, M. E-mail: efu@pku.edu.cn; Fu, E. G. E-mail: efu@pku.edu.cn; Wang, Y. Q.; Martinez, E.; Caro, A.; Mook, W. M.; Sheehan, C.; Baldwin, J. K.

    2014-06-09

    It has recently been shown that due to a high surface-to-volume ratio, nanoporous materials display radiation tolerance. The abundance of surfaces, which are perfect sinks for defects, and the relation between ligament size, defect diffusion, and time combine to define a window of radiation resistance [Fu et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 191607 (2012)]. Outside this window, the dominant defect created by irradiation in Au nanofoams are stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT). Molecular dynamics computer simulations of nanopillars, taken as the elemental constituent of foams, predict that SFTs act as dislocation sources inducing softening, in contrast to the usual behavior in bulk materials, where defects are obstacles to dislocation motion, producing hardening. In this work we test that prediction and answer the question whether irradiation actually hardens or softens a nanofam. Ne ion irradiations of gold nanofoams were performed at room temperature for a total dose up to 4 dpa, and their mechanical behavior was measured by nanoindentation. We find that hardness increases after irradiation, a result that we analyze in terms of the role of SFTs on the deformation mode of foams.

  9. Are Epigenetic Mechanisms Involved in Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects?

    PubMed Central

    Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation including bystander effects and genomic instability are unique in that no classic mutagenic event occurs in the cell showing the effect. In the case of bystander effects, cells which were not in the field affected by the radiation show high levels of mutations, chromosome aberrations, and membrane signaling changes leading to what is termed horizontal transmission of mutations and information which may be damaging while in the case of genomic instability, generations of cells derived from an irradiated progenitor appear normal but then lethal and non-lethal mutations appear in distant progeny. This is known as vertical transmission. In both situations high yields of non-clonal mutations leading to distant occurrence of mutation events both in space and time. This precludes a mutator phenotype or other conventional explanation and appears to indicate a generalized form of stress-induced mutagenesis which is well documented in bacteria. This review will discuss the phenomenology of what we term non-targeted effects, and will consider to what extent they challenge conventional ideas in genetics and epigenetics. PMID:22629281

  10. Interference detection in implantable defibrillators induced by therapeutic radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Uiterwaal, G.J.; Springorum, B.G.F.; Scheepers, E.; de Ruiter, G.S.; Hurkmans, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Background Electromagnetic fields and ionising radiation during radiotherapy can influence the functioning of ICDs. Guidelines for radiotherapy treatment were published in 1994, but only based on experience with pacemakers. Data on the influence of radiotherapy on ICDs is limited. Objectives We determined the risk to ICDs of interference detection induced by radiotherapy. Methods In our study we irradiated 11 ICDs. The irradiation was performed with a 6 megavolt photon beam. In each individual device test, a total of 20 Gray was delivered in a fractionated fashion. During each irradiation the output stimulation rate was monitored and electrogram storage was activated. In case of interference the test was repeated with the ICD outside and the lead(s) inside and outside the irradiation field. Results With the ICD inside the irradiation field, interference detection was observed in all ICDs. This caused pacing inhibition or rapid ventricular pacing. Ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) detection occurred, which would have caused tachycardia-terminating therapy. If the ICD was placed outside the irradiation field, no interference was observed. Conclusion Interference by ionising radiation on the ICDs is demonstrated both on bradycardia and tachycardia therapy. This can have consequences for patients. Recommendations for radiotherapy are presented in this article. ImagesFigure 1Figure 5 PMID:25696559

  11. Radiation-induced sarcomas of the head and neck

    PubMed Central

    Thiagarajan, Anuradha; Iyer, N Gopalakrishna

    2014-01-01

    With improved outcomes associated with radiotherapy, radiation-induced sarcomas (RIS) are increasingly seen in long-term survivors of head and neck cancers, with an estimated risk of up to 0.3%. They exhibit no subsite predilection within the head and neck and can arise in any irradiated tissue of mesenchymal origin. Common histologic subtypes of RIS parallel their de novo counterparts and include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma/sarcoma nitricoxide synthase, and fibrosarcoma. While imaging features of RIS are not pathognomonic, large size, extensive local invasion with bony destruction, marked enhancement within a prior radiotherapy field, and an appropriate latency period are suggestive of a diagnosis of RIS. RIS development may be influenced by factors such as radiation dose, age at initial exposure, exposure to chemotherapeutic agents and genetic tendency. Precise pathogenetic mechanisms of RIS are poorly understood and both directly mutagenizing effects of radiotherapy as well as changes in microenvironments are thought to play a role. Management of RIS is challenging, entailing surgery in irradiated tissue and a limited scope for further radiotherapy and chemotherapy. RIS is associated with significantly poorer outcomes than stage-matched sarcomas that arise independent of irradiation and surgical resection with clear margins seems to offer the best chance for cure. PMID:25493233

  12. Radiation-induced radioresistance of mammals and risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O.; Yonezawa, M.

    It is shown experimentally that a preliminary low dose exposure can induce radioresistance in mice in two (early and late) periods after preirradiation. The manifestation of such effects is reduced mortality of pre-exposed specimens after challenge acute irradiation, the reason of the animal death being the hematopoietic subsyndrome of the acute radiation syndrome. Therefore, proceeding from the radiobiological concept of the critical system, the theoretical investigation of the influence of preirradiation on mammalian radiosensitivity is conducted by making use of mathematical models of the vital body system, hematopoiesis. Modeling results make it possible to elucidate the mechanisms of the radioprotection effect of low level priming irradiation on mammals. Specifically, the state of acquired radioresistance in mice is caused by reduced radiosensitivity of lymphopoietic and thrombocytopoietic systems in the early period and by reduced radiosensitivity of granulocytopoietic system in the late period after preirradiation. It is important to emphasize that the evaluations of the duration of the early and late periods of postirradiation radioresistance in mice, carried out on the basis of the modeling and experimental investigations, practically coincide. All this demonstrates the effectiveness of joint modeling and experimental methods in studies and predictions of modification effects of preirradiation on mammalian radiosensitivity. The results obtained show the importance of accounting such effects in radiation risk assessments for cosmonauts and astronauts on long-term missions.

  13. Radiation induced copolymerization reactivity of different allyl monomers with styrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Yeliz; Balcan, Mehmet

    2012-07-01

    Radiation induced copolymerizations of electron donating such as allyl phenol (AP) and electron withdrawing such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) monomers with styrene (Sty) as a comonomer were studied in order to correlate the electronic behavior with copolymerization yield and molecular weight. The allyl monomers and comonomer were mixed in the same mol ratios under Ar atmosphere and copolymerized by using gamma radiation in various absorbed doses (55, 110, 165 kGy) obtained from a Co-60 source. Poly(AP-co-Sty), and poly(AITC-co-Sty) could have been prepared at all of the absorbed doses. The maximum copolymerization yields were calculated as a 16.35 and 6.52 percent for poly(AP-co-Sty) and poly(AITC-co-Sty), respectively. The molecular weights of poly(AP-co-Sty) copolymers are found to be higher in comparison to those of poly(AITC-co-Sty). Both results indicate that, under the same irradiation conditions, AP is more reactive on styrene than AITC is. Thus, the monomers having electron withdrawing (EW) substituents attached to allyl group may result in better copolymerization yield and molecular weight than those with electron donating (ED) substituents. Thermal stabilities of the poly(AP-co-Sty) copolymers are also higher than those of poly(AITC-co-Sty).

  14. Radiation induced effects on mechanical properties of nanoporous gold foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro, M.; Mook, W. M.; Fu, E. G.; Wang, Y. Q.; Sheehan, C.; Martinez, E.; Baldwin, J. K.; Caro, A.

    2014-06-01

    It has recently been shown that due to a high surface-to-volume ratio, nanoporous materials display radiation tolerance. The abundance of surfaces, which are perfect sinks for defects, and the relation between ligament size, defect diffusion, and time combine to define a window of radiation resistance [Fu et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 191607 (2012)]. Outside this window, the dominant defect created by irradiation in Au nanofoams are stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT). Molecular dynamics computer simulations of nanopillars, taken as the elemental constituent of foams, predict that SFTs act as dislocation sources inducing softening, in contrast to the usual behavior in bulk materials, where defects are obstacles to dislocation motion, producing hardening. In this work we test that prediction and answer the question whether irradiation actually hardens or softens a nanofam. Ne ion irradiations of gold nanofoams were performed at room temperature for a total dose up to 4 dpa, and their mechanical behavior was measured by nanoindentation. We find that hardness increases after irradiation, a result that we analyze in terms of the role of SFTs on the deformation mode of foams.

  15. RhoA GTPase regulates radiation-induced alterations in endothelial cell adhesion and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, Matthieu; Gaugler, Marie-Helene; Rodallec, Audrey; Bonnaud, Stephanie; Paris, Francois; Corre, Isabelle

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explore the role of RhoA in endothelial cell response to ionizing radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RhoA is rapidly activated by single high-dose of radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation leads to RhoA/ROCK-dependent actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation-induced apoptosis does not require the RhoA/ROCK pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation-induced alteration of endothelial adhesion and migration requires RhoA/ROCK. -- Abstract: Endothelial cells of the microvasculature are major target of ionizing radiation, responsible of the radiation-induced vascular early dysfunctions. Molecular signaling pathways involved in endothelial responses to ionizing radiation, despite being increasingly investigated, still need precise characterization. Small GTPase RhoA and its effector ROCK are crucial signaling molecules involved in many endothelial cellular functions. Recent studies identified implication of RhoA/ROCK in radiation-induced increase in endothelial permeability but other endothelial functions altered by radiation might also require RhoA proteins. Human microvascular endothelial cells HMEC-1, either treated with Y-27632 (inhibitor of ROCK) or invalidated for RhoA by RNA interference were exposed to 15 Gy. We showed a rapid radiation-induced activation of RhoA, leading to a deep reorganisation of actin cytoskeleton with rapid formation of stress fibers. Endothelial early apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation was not affected by Y-27632 pre-treatment or RhoA depletion. Endothelial adhesion to fibronectin and formation of focal adhesions increased in response to radiation in a RhoA/ROCK-dependent manner. Consistent with its pro-adhesive role, ionizing radiation also decreased endothelial cells migration and RhoA was required for this inhibition. These results highlight the role of RhoA GTPase in ionizing radiation-induced deregulation of essential endothelial functions linked to actin cytoskeleton.

  16. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis

    SciTech Connect

    Oliai, Caspian; Fisher, Brandon; Jani, Ashish; Wong, Michael; Poli, Jaganmohan; Brady, Luther W.; Komarnicky, Lydia T.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To provide a retrospective analysis of the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for treating hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and proctitis secondary to pelvic- and prostate-only radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients were treated with HBOT for radiation-induced HC and proctitis. The median age at treatment was 66 years (range, 15-84 years). The range of external-beam radiation delivered was 50.0-75.6 Gy. Bleeding must have been refractory to other therapies. Patients received 100% oxygen at 2.0 atmospheres absolute pressure for 90-120 min per treatment in a monoplace chamber. Symptoms were retrospectively scored according to the Late Effects of Normal Tissues-Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic (LENT-SOMA) scale to evaluate short-term efficacy. Recurrence of hematuria/hematochezia was used to assess long-term efficacy. Results: Four of the 19 patients were lost to follow-up. Fifteen patients were evaluated and received a mean of 29.8 dives: 11 developed HC and 4 proctitis. All patients experienced a reduction in their LENT-SOMA score. After completion of HBOT, the mean LENT-SOMA score was reduced from 0.78 to 0.20 in patients with HC and from 0.66 to 0.26 in patients with proctitis. Median follow-up was 39 months (range, 7-70 months). No cases of hematuria were refractory to HBOT. Complete resolution of hematuria was seen in 81% (n = 9) and partial response in 18% (n = 2). Recurrence of hematuria occurred in 36% (n = 4) after a median of 10 months. Complete resolution of hematochezia was seen in 50% (n = 2), partial response in 25% (n = 1), and refractory bleeding in 25% (n = 1). Conclusions: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is appropriate for radiation-induced HC once less time-consuming therapies have failed to resolve the bleeding. In these conditions, HBOT is efficacious in the short and long term, with minimal side effects.

  17. Fast laser annealing induced exchange bias in poly-crystalline BiFeO3/Co bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Q.; Ruan, X. Z.; Liu, B.; Xu, Z. Y.; Xu, Q. Y.; Shen, J. D.; Li, Q.; Wang, J.; You, B.; Tu, H. Q.; Gao, Y.; Zhang, W.; Xu, Y. B.; Du, J.

    2016-03-01

    The conventional field cooling process for antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic bilayer system might strongly damage the interface of BiFeO3 (BFO) with metallic ferromagnetic layer, leading to significant deterioration of exchange bias (EB). In this paper, a field cooling process with fast laser annealing has been proposed and applied on polycrystalline-BFO/Co bilayers, which can effectively modify the EB. In those samples with obvious EB, it is found that the exchange field (HE) increases abruptly when the laser fluence rises to a critical value, and decreases when the laser fluence is large enough. On the other hand, in those samples with negligible HE, EB could be easily induced after field cooling with proper laser fluence. In addition, the sign of HE could also be changed, depending on the direction of the cooling field. In contrast, after field cooling by conventional heat treatment, EB could be neither induced nor enhanced. The feasibility of fast laser annealing accompanied with field cooling to enhance or induce EB in the BFO/Co bilayer can be understood by much less interfacial diffusion in comparison with conventional field cooling.

  18. Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin in the radiation-induced fibrosarcoma-1 tumor causes enhanced radiation sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Pogue, Brian W; O'Hara, Julia A; Demidenko, Eugene; Wilmot, Carmen M; Goodwin, Isak A; Chen, Bin; Swartz, Harold M; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2003-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin (lipid form of benzoporphyrin derivative,benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A) was used to treat radiation-induced fibrosarcoma tumors before X-ray treatment. When verteporfin was injected 3 h before light irradiation, the tumor partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)) rose from a pretreatment value of 2.8 +/- 1 to 15.2 +/- 6.9 mm Hg immediately after light application was complete (P = 0.048). When the optical irradiation was given 15 min after verteporfin injection, the tumor pO(2) decreased slightly after treatment [i.e., 6.8 +/- 1.6 mm Hg (pretreatment) versus 4.1 +/- 0.3 mm Hg (posttreatment)], whereas control tumor pO(2) did not change significantly. In vitro study of the cellular oxygen consumption rate before and after PDT treatment indicated that the consumption rate decreased linearly with delivered optical dose and quantitatively matched the loss of cell viability as measured by a mitochondrial tetrazolium assay. Doppler measurements show that red cell flux is still patent immediately after treatment, indicating that oxygen should still be delivered to the tumor. Computational simulations of the oxygen supply from the vessels and the consumption from mitochondrial activity confirmed that if oxygen consumption is decreased in the presence of unhindered blood flow, the tumor oxygenation should rise, and the hypoxic fraction of the tumor should decrease. Combination treatments with PDT delivered (100 J/cm(2) optical dose, with 1 mg/kg benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A injected 3 h before treatment) after radiation treatment (10 Gy from 300 keV source) were compared with PDT delivered simultaneously with radiation. Tumor regrowth assay showed that the delays to reach double the tumor volume for PDT alone and radiation alone were 2.7 +/- 1.6 and 3.2 +/- 1.7 days, respectively. When radiation was given before PDT, the delay was 5.4 +/- 1.4 days, and when PDT was given at the same time as radiation, the delay was 8.1 +/- 1.5 days. This observation indicates that the combined effect in the latter case was greater than additive (P = 0.049). PMID:12615718

  19. Radiation-Induced Damage to Nucleic Acid Constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Heasook

    The objective of this research was to identify the primary free radical species produced by ionizing radiation in DNA. The ultimate goal would be to use these data obtained from model compounds to analyze radiation-induced damage in DNA itself. The different single crystals were studied in detail. The first was the sodium salt of guanosine-3 ^':5^' -cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP). The results of studies on crystals irradiated at 4.2^ circK distinguished two species. One of these species exhibited a non-exchangeable proton coupling that was characterized by ENDOR spectroscopy and shown to be sigma proton. The spin density on C8 was deduced from the ENDOR hyperfine coupling tensor and found to be 0.15. The second species also exhibited a non-exchangeable sigma proton coupling and a beta proton coupling. The spin densities on C8 and N9 were deduced from ENDOR measurements to be 0.09 and 0.36. The former is attributed to the oxidation product and the latter to the primary reduction product. These products are respectively the guanine cation and anion. The second single crystal studied was a sodium salt of 2^'-deoxyguanosine -5^'-monophosphate tetrahydrate. The ESR and ENDOR spectra obtained from this crystal after x-irradiation at 4.2^circK were complex and the paramagnetic species were tentatively identified as ionic species. The third DNA model compound studied was thymidine. Single crystal of thymidine were irradiated at 1.6^ circK and at 4.2^circ K. The lower temperature preserved a more primitive stage of the radiation damage process. ENDOR measurements distinguished three paramagnetic species. The most interesting component of the paramagnetic absorption in crystals irradiated at 1.6^circK is attributed to trapped electron. These electrons are stabilized by the electrostatic fields generated by hydroxy dipoles. The hyperfine couplings between the trapped electron and the proton of these polar groups were deduced from ENDOR measurements. The ESR and ENDOR measurements described in this report were carried out DNA model compounds x-irradiated and measured at lower temperatures than reported previously. The experiments have demonstrated that an earlier stage of radiation damage can sometimes be stabilized and characterized in single crystals by maintaining the sample at 1.4 ^circK. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.).

  20. Radiation-induced osteosarcomas in the pediatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Koshy, Matthew; Paulino, Arnold C. . E-mail: apaulino@tmh.tmc.edu; Mai, Wei Y.; Teh, Bin S.

    2005-11-15

    Purpose: Radiation-induced osteosarcomas (R-OS) have historically been high-grade, locally invasive tumors with a poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive literature review and analysis of reported cases dealing with R-OS in the pediatric population to identify the characteristics, prognostic factors, optimal treatment modalities, and overall survival of these patients. Methods and Materials: A MEDLINE/PubMed search of articles written in the English language dealing with OSs occurring after radiotherapy (RT) in the pediatric population yielded 30 studies from 1981 to 2004. Eligibility criteria included patients <21 years of age at the diagnosis of the primary cancer, cases satisfying the modified Cahan criteria, and information on treatment outcome. Factors analyzed included the type of primary cancer treated with RT, the radiation dose and beam energy, the latency period between RT and the development of R-OS, and the treatment, follow-up, and final outcome of R-OS. Results: The series included 109 patients with a median age at the diagnosis of primary cancer of 6 years (range, 0.08-21 years). The most common tumors treated with RT were Ewing's sarcoma (23.9%), rhabdomyosarcoma (17.4%), retinoblastoma (12.8%), Hodgkin's disease (9.2%), brain tumor (8.3%), and Wilms' tumor (6.4%). The median radiation dose was 47 Gy (range, 15-145 Gy). The median latency period from RT to the development of R-OS was 100 months (range, 36-636 months). The median follow-up after diagnosis of R-OS was 18 months (1-172 months). The 3- and 5-year cause-specific survival rate was 43.6% and 42.2%, respectively, and the 3- and 5-year overall survival rate was 41.7% and 40.2%, respectively. Variables, including age at RT, primary site, type of tumor treated with RT, total radiation dose, and latency period did not have a significant effect on survival. The 5-year cause-specific and overall survival rate for patients who received treatment for R-OS involving chemotherapy alone, surgery alone, and surgery plus chemotherapy was 17.3% and 17.3%, 56.6% and 50.3%, and 71.0% and 68.3%, respectively (p < 0.0001, log-rank test). Conclusion: The type of treatment for R-OS was the most significant factor for cause-specific and overall survival. Patients who develop R-OS should be aggressively treated, because the outcome is not as dismal as once thought.

  1. Intense pulsed light induced crystallization of a liquid-crystalline polymer semiconductor for efficient production of flexible thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hee Yeon; Park, Han-Wool; Kim, Soo Jin; Hong, Jae-Min; Kim, Tae Whan; Kim, Do Hwan; Lim, Jung Ah

    2016-02-01

    Here we demonstrated the split-second crystallization of a liquid-crystalline conjugated polymer semiconductor induced by irradiation with intense pulsed white light (IPWL) for the efficient improvement of electrical properties of flexible thin film transistors. A few seconds of IPWL irradiation of poly(didodecylquaterthiophene-alt-didodecylbithiazole) (PQTBTz-C12) thin films generated heat energy through the photo-thermal effect, leading to the crystallization of PQTBTz-C12 and formation of nodule-like nanostructures. The IPWL-induced crystallization of PQTBTz-C12 resulted in a threefold improvement in the field-effect mobility of thin film transistors compared to as-prepared devices. The conformational change of the PQTBTz-C12 chains was found to be strongly related to the irradiation fluence. As a proof-of-concept, the IPWL treatment was successfully applied to the PQTBTz-C12 layer in flexible transistors based on plastic substrates. The performance of these flexible devices was significantly improved after only 0.6 s of IPWL treatment, without deformation of the plastic substrate. PMID:26795202

  2. DETECTION OF LOW DOSE RADIATION INDUCED DNA DAMAGE USING TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL FLUORESCENCE ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence assay for radiation-induced DNA damage is reported. Changes in temperature-induced strand separation in both calf thymus DNA and plasmid DNA (puc 19 plasmid from Escherichia coli) were measured after exposure to low doses of radiation. Exposur...

  3. DETECTION OF LOW DOSE RADIATION INDUCED DNA DAMAGE USING TEMPERATURE DIFFERENNTIAL FLUORESENCE ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence assay for radiation-induced DNA damage is reported. Changes in temperature-induced strand separation in both calf thymus DNA and plasmid DNA (puc 19 plasmid from Escherichia coli) were measured after exposure to low doses of radiation. Exposures...

  4. Androgens induce oxidative stress and radiation resistance in prostate cancer cells though NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Lu, J P; Monardo, L; Bryskin, I; Hou, Z F; Trachtenberg, J; Wilson, B C; Pinthus, J H

    2009-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) facilitates the response of prostate cancer (PC) to radiation. Androgens have been shown to induce elevated basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PC, leading to adaptation to radiation-induced cytotoxic oxidative stress. Here, we show that androgens increase the expression of p22phox and gp91phox subunits of NADPH oxidase (NOX) and ROS production by NOX2 and NOX4 in PC. Pre-radiation treatment of 22Rv1 human PC cells with NOX inhibitors sensitize the cells to radiation similarly to ADT, suggesting that their future usage may spare the need for adjuvant ADT in PC patients undergoing radiation. PMID:19546883

  5. Dosimetric Analysis of Radiation-Induced Gastric Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mary; Normolle, Daniel; Pan, Charlie C.; Dawson, Laura A.; Amarnath, Sudha; Ensminger, William D.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Radiation-induced gastric bleeding has been poorly understood. In this study, we describe dosimetric predictors for gastric bleeding after fractionated radiotherapy and compare several predictive models. Materials & Methods The records of 139 sequential patients treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for intrahepatic malignancies between January 1999 and April 2002 were reviewed. Median follow-up was 7.4 months. Logistic regression and Lyman normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for the occurrence of ? grade 3 gastric bleed were fit to the data. The principle of maximum likelihood was used to estimate parameters for all models. Results Sixteen of 116 evaluable patients (14%) developed gastric bleeds, at a median time of 4.0 months (mean 6.5 months, range 2.128.3 months) following completion of RT. The median and mean of the maximum doses to the stomach were 61 and 63 Gy (range 46 Gy86 Gy), respectively, after bio-correction to equivalent 2 Gy daily fractions. The Lyman NTCP model with parameters adjusted for cirrhosis was most predictive of gastric bleed (AUROC=0.92). Best fit Lyman NTCP model parameters were n =0.10, and m =0.21, with TD50(normal) =56 Gy and TD50(cirrhosis) = 22 Gy. The low n value is consistent with the importance of maximum dose; a lower TD50 value for the cirrhosis patients points out their greater sensitivity. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Lyman NTCP model has utility for predicting gastric bleeding, and that the presence of cirrhosis greatly increases this risk. These findings should facilitate the design of future clinical trials involving high-dose upper abdominal radiation. PMID:22541965

  6. Poly lactic acid based foams prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS): A method to tune the crystallinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavia, Francesco Carfı; La Carrubba, Vincenzo; Brucato, Valerio

    2012-07-01

    Blends of Poly-L-Lactic Acid (PLLA) with two Poly-Lactic Acid (PLA) in different proportions (90/10 and 70/30) were utilized in order to produce biodegradable and biocompatible scaffolds for soft tissue engineering applications. The scaffolds were produced via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) starting from ternary systems where dioxane was the solvent and water the non-solvent. Morphology was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (average pore size and interconnection). Moreover a DSC analysis was carried out on the as-obtained scaffold in order to obtain information about theirs thermal properties (enthalpy of melt and crystallization). The results showed that is possible to prepare scaffolds of PLLA/PLA via TIPS. Moreover, the PLA seems to influences the TIPS process in terms of demixing temperatures. The data confirm that the morphology and the mechanical properties of the scaffold can be tuned, starting from PLLA blends and using PLA with different molecular weights.

  7. Effects of confinement, surface-induced orientations and strain on dynamical behaviors of bacteria in thin liquid crystalline films.

    PubMed

    Mushenheim, Peter C; Trivedi, Rishi R; Roy, Susmit Singha; Arnold, Michael S; Weibel, Douglas B; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2015-09-14

    We report on the organization and dynamics of bacteria (Proteus mirabilis) dispersed within lyotropic liquid crystal (LC) films confined by pairs of surfaces that induce homeotropic (perpendicular) or hybrid (homeotropic and parallel orientations at each surface) anchoring of the LC. By using motile vegetative bacteria (3 µm in length) and homeotropically aligned LC films with thicknesses that exceed the length of the rod-shaped cells, a key finding reported in this paper is that elastic torques generated by the LC are sufficiently large to overcome wall-induced hydrodynamic torques acting on the cells, thus leading to LC-guided bacterial motion near surfaces that orient LCs. This result extends to bacteria within LC films with hybrid anchoring, and leads to the observation that asymmetric strain within a hybrid aligned LC rectifies motions of motile cells. In contrast, when the LC film thickness is sufficiently small that confinement prevents alignment of the bacteria cells along a homeotropically aligned LC director (achieved using swarm cells of length 10-60 µm), the bacterial cells propel in directions orthogonal to the director, generating transient distortions in the LC that have striking "comet-like" optical signatures. In this limit, for hybrid LC films, we find LC elastic stresses deform the bodies of swarm cells into bent configurations that follow the LC director, thus unmasking a coupling between bacterial shape and LC strain. Overall, these results provide new insight into the influence of surface-oriented LCs on dynamical bacterial behaviors and hint at novel ways to manipulate bacteria using confined LC phases that are not possible in isotropic solutions. PMID:26224035

  8. Radiation-induced lung injury and inflammation in mice: role of inducible nitric oxide synthase and surfactant protein D.

    PubMed

    Malaviya, Rama; Gow, Andrew J; Francis, Mary; Abramova, Elena V; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2015-03-01

    Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated after exposure to radiation have been implicated in lung injury. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a pulmonary collectin that suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-mediated RNS production. Herein, we analyzed the role of iNOS and SP-D in radiation-induced lung injury. Exposure of wild-type (WT) mice to ?-radiation (8 Gy) caused acute lung injury and inflammation, as measured by increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein and cell content at 24?h. Radiation also caused alterations in SP-D structure at 24 h and 4 weeks post exposure. These responses were blunted in iNOS(-/-) mice. Conversely, loss of iNOS had no effect on radiation-induced expression of phospho-H2A.X or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. Additionally, at 24 h post radiation, cyclooxygenase expression and BAL lipocalin-2 levels were increased in iNOS(-/-) mice, and heme oxygenase (HO)-1(+) and Ym1(+) macrophages were evident. Loss of SP-D resulted in increased numbers of enlarged HO-1(+) macrophages in the lung following radiation, along with upregulation of TNF-?, CCL2, and CXCL2, whereas expression of phospho-H2A.X was diminished. To determine if RNS play a role in the altered sensitivity of SP-D(-/-) mice to radiation, iNOS(-/-)/SP-D(-/-) mice were used. Radiation-induced injury, oxidative stress, and tissue repair were generally similar in iNOS(-/-)/SP-D(-/-) and SP-D(-/-) mice. In contrast, TNF-?, CCL2, and CXCL2 expression was attenuated. These data indicate that although iNOS is involved in radiation-induced injury and altered SP-D structure, in the absence of SP-D, it functions to promote proinflammatory signaling. Thus, multiple inflammatory pathways contribute to the pathogenic response to radiation. PMID:25552309

  9. PAI-1-Dependent Endothelial Cell Death Determines Severity of Radiation-Induced Intestinal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Abderrahmani, Rym; Franois, Agnes; Buard, Valerie; Tarlet, Georges; Blirando, Karl; Hneino, Mohammad; Vaurijoux, Aurelie; Benderitter, Marc; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Milliat, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    Normal tissue toxicity still remains a dose-limiting factor in clinical radiation therapy. Recently, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (SERPINE1/PAI-1) was reported as an essential mediator of late radiation-induced intestinal injury. However, it is not clear whether PAI-1 plays a role in acute radiation-induced intestinal damage and we hypothesized that PAI-1 may play a role in the endothelium radiosensitivity. In vivo, in a model of radiation enteropathy in PAI-1 ?/? mice, apoptosis of radiosensitive compartments, epithelial and microvascular endothelium was quantified. In vitro, the role of PAI-1 in the radiation-induced endothelial cells (ECs) death was investigated. The level of apoptotic ECs is lower in PAI-1 ?/? compared with Wt mice after irradiation. This is associated with a conserved microvascular density and consequently with a better mucosal integrity in PAI-1 ?/? mice. In vitro, irradiation rapidly stimulates PAI-1 expression in ECs and radiation sensitivity is increased in ECs that stably overexpress PAI-1, whereas PAI-1 knockdown increases EC survival after irradiation. Moreover, ECs prepared from PAI-1 ?/? mice are more resistant to radiation-induced cell death than Wt ECs and this is associated with activation of the Akt pathway. This study demonstrates that PAI-1 plays a key role in radiation-induced EC death in the intestine and suggests that this contributes strongly to the progression of radiation-induced intestinal injury. PMID:22563394

  10. Single crystalline BaTiO{sub 3} thin films synthesized using ion implantation induced layer transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Young-Bae; Diest, Kenneth; Atwater, Harry A.

    2007-10-01

    Layer transfer of BaTiO{sub 3} thin films onto silicon-based substrates has been investigated. Hydrogen and helium ions were co-implanted to facilitate ion-implantation-induced layer transfer of films from BaTiO{sub 3} single crystals. From thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, we suggest that the dominant species during cavity nucleation and growth are H{sub 2}, H{sup +}, H{sub 2}O, Ba{sup 2+} and Ba-OH, and that the addition of hydrogen to the Ba-Ti-O system can effectively suppress volatile oxide formation during layer transfer and subsequent annealing. After ion implantation, BaTiO{sub 3} layers contain microstructural defects and hydrogen precipitates in the lattice, but after layer transfer, the single crystal is found to be stoichiometric. Using direct wafer bonding and layer splitting, single crystal BaTiO{sub 3} thin films were transferred onto amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Pt substrates. Micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the density of defects generated by ion implantation in BaTiO{sub 3} can be significantly reduced during post-transfer annealing, returning the transferred layer to its single crystal state. Characterization using piezoresponse force microscopy shows that the layer transferred thin films are ferroelectric, with domain structures and piezoresponse characteristics similar to that of bulk crystals.

  11. Mechanism of calcium disilicide-induced calcification of crystalline silicon surfaces in simulated body fluid under zero bias.

    PubMed

    Seregin, Vladimir V; Coffer, Jeffery L

    2008-10-01

    A dry-etch spark ablation method was used to produce calcium disilicide (CaSi2/Si) layers on silicon surfaces, and their biomineralization under zero bias was followed by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. CaSi2/Si wafers are bioinert at 25 degrees C and bioactive at 37 degrees C. Mechanistic insights regarding biomineralization were derived from an analysis of film growth morphology and chemical composition after various soaking periods in standard simulated body fluid (SBF). Changes in CaSi2/Si calcification behavior as a function of reaction temperature and pH, SBF concentration, and various surface modification processes were also employed for this purpose. During CaSi2/Si calcification under zero bias, calcium phosphate (CaP) growth is strongly dependent on the structural degradation of CaSi2/Si grains. Surface silanol groups, initially present on the as-prepared material, cannot induce CaP nucleation, which begins only upon delamination of CaSi2/Si layers. The calcium phosphate phases, which are present during various growth stages, possibly include a combination of Mg-substituted whitlockite, monetite, and tricalcium phosphate. PMID:18080303

  12. Radiation-induced removal of sulphadiazine antibiotics from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuankun; Hu, Jun; Wang, Jianlong

    2014-08-01

    The radiation-induced removal of sulphadiazine (SD) belonging to the heterocyclic sulphonamides pharmaceuticals was investigated by gamma irradiation at different conditions in laboratory scale. The influence of initial SD concentrations, pH values, 02 and N2 on SD degradation was determined. The experimental results showed that gamma-ray irradiation was efficient for removing SD from wastewater. SD could be completely removed at an absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The degradation kinetics of SD conformed to the first-order kinetic equation. When SD concentration was in the range of 10-30 mg/L, the dose constant (d) decreased with an increasing initial SD concentration. The mineralization of SD, in terms of total organic carbon removal, was not obvious at a low absorbed dose, but it increased to more than 75% at 100 kGy. The biodegradability of SD was improved after irradiation, suggesting that irradiation could be used as a pretreatment technology for treating SD-containing wastewater. The possible degradation pathway of SD was tentatively proposed based on the analysis of intermediate products during gamma irradiation. PMID:24956797

  13. Ultraviolet radiation-induced erythema in human skin.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Graham I; Young, Antony R

    2002-09-01

    We have evaluated UVR-induced erythema in previously unexposed buttock skin of volunteers of skin types I, II, III, and IV. Studies were done with solar-simulated radiation (SSR), UVB, and UVAI and we determined the just perceptible minimal erythema dose (MED) and, in some cases, quantified erythema with a reflectance device. The results show that there is a trend for increased SSR MED with skin type, with the MED of skin type IV being approximately twice that of skin type I, a smaller difference than one might have expected. However, there is a very considerable overlap of MED between skin types which shows that MED is a very poor indictor of skin type. Quantitative dose-response and time course studies with SSR and UVAI showed broadly similar responses when comparable MED-based exposures were given. We used our data to test the new concept of the standard erythema dose (SED) with two different erythema action spectra, and confirmed that the SED approach works with the different UVR sources that we studied. PMID:12231183

  14. Gamma radiation induced changes in nuclear waste glass containing Eu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, M.; Kadam, R. M.; Mishra, R. K.; Kaushik, C. P.; Tomar, B. S.; Godbole, S. V.

    2011-10-01

    Gamma radiation induced changes were investigated in sodium-barium borosilicate glasses containing Eu. The glass composition was similar to that of nuclear waste glasses used for vitrifying Trombay research reactor nuclear waste at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. Photoluminescence (PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques were used to study the speciation of the rare earth (RE) ion in the matrix before and after gamma irradiation. Judd-Ofelt ( J- O) analyses of the emission spectra were done before and after irradiation. The spin counting technique was employed to quantify the number of defect centres formed in the glass at the highest gamma dose studied. PL data suggested the stabilisation of the trivalent RE ion in the borosilicate glass matrix both before and after irradiation. It was also observed that, the RE ion distributes itself in two different environments in the irradiated glass. From the EPR data it was observed that, boron oxygen hole centre based radicals are the predominant defect centres produced in the glass after irradiation along with small amount of E’ centres. From the spin counting studies the concentration of defect centres in the glass was calculated to be 350 ppm at 900 kGy. This indicated the fact that bulk of the glass remained unaffected after gamma irradiation up to 900 kGy.

  15. A prospective longitudinal study on radiation-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Anteunis, L J; Wanders, S L; Hendriks, J J; Langendijk, J A; Manni, J J; de Jong, J M

    1994-11-01

    Recent clinical reports indicate that patients receiving radiotherapy that includes the auditory system in the treatment volume are likely to develop an irradiation-induced hearing loss. Although the early, presumed reversible, conductive hearing impairment due to secretory otitis media following radiotherapy is a sequela well known by radiation oncologists, permanent hearing loss, both conductive and sensorineural, is believed to be rare. A prospective study was performed enrolling patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for unilateral parotid tumors. Audiometric results prior to irradiation were compared with those obtained 2 years later. Up to 50% of the patients (9 of 18) developed a clinically relevant hearing loss in the irradiated ear, both conductive and/or sensorineural. The contralateral ear remained unaltered. The hearing loss was permanent in 6 patients (33%) and affected their quality of life. The data suggest that changes occur in the inner ear as well as in the auditory nerve and auditory brain stem with conventional irradiation schemes with daily fractions of 2 to 2.5 Gy with a total dose of 50 Gy. PMID:7977961

  16. Outcome of Carotid Artery Stenting for Radiation-Induced Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Dorresteijn, Lucille; Vogels, Oscar; Leeuw, Frank-Erik de; Vos, Jan-Albert; Christiaans, Marleen H.; Ackerstaff, Rob; Kappelle, Arnoud C.

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: Patients who have been irradiated at the neck have an increased risk of symptomatic stenosis of the carotid artery during follow-up. Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) can be a preferable alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy, which is associated with increased operative risks in these patients. Methods and Materials: We performed a prospective cohort study of 24 previously irradiated patients who underwent CAS for symptomatic carotid stenosis. We assessed periprocedural and nonprocedural events including transient ischemic attack (TIA), nondisabling stroke, disabling stoke, and death. Patency rates were evaluated on duplex ultrasound scans. Restenosis was defined as a stenosis of >50% at the stent location. Results: Periprocedural TIA rate was 8%, and periprocedural stroke (nondisabling) occurred in 4% of patients. After a mean follow-up of 3.3 years (range, 0.3-11.0 years), only one ipsilateral incident event (TIA) had occurred (4%). In 12% of patients, a contralateral incident event was present: one TIA (4%) and two strokes (12%, two disabling strokes). Restenosis was apparent in 17%, 33%, and 42% at 3, 12, and 24 months, respectively, although none of the patients with restenosed vessels became symptomatic. The length of the irradiation to CAS interval proved the only significant risk factor for restenosis. Conclusions: The results of CAS for radiation-induced carotid stenosis are favorable in terms of recurrence of cerebrovascular events at the CAS site.

  17. Does oxygen enhance the radiation-induced inactivation of penicillinase

    SciTech Connect

    Samuni, A.; Kalkstein, A.; Czapski, G.

    1980-04-01

    The radiation-induced inactivation of penicillinase (..beta..-lactamase, EC 3.5.2.6) in dilute aqueous solutions buffered with phosphate was studied by examining enzyme radiosensitivity in the presence of various gases (He, O/sub 2/, H/sub 2/, N/sub 2/O and N/sub 2/O + O/sub 2/). The introduction of either N/sub 2/O or O/sub 2/ was found to reduce the radiodamage. On the other hand, H/sub 2/ or N/sub 2/O + O/sub 2/ gas mixture enhanced the radiosensitivity. In the presence of formate and oxygen no enzyme inactivation was detected. The results indicated that the specific damaging efficiency of H atoms is more than twofold higher than that of OH radicals; therefore, in 50 mM phosphate buffer, where more than half the free radicals are H atoms, the H radicals are responsible for the majority of the damage. The superoxide radicals appeared to be completely inactive and did not contribute to enzyme inactivation. Oxygen affected the radiosensitivity in two ways: (1) it protected by converting e/sub aq//sup -/ and H into harmless O/sub 2/-radicals; and (2) it increased inactivation by enhancing the damage brought about by OH radicals (OER = 2.6). In oxygenated buffer the protection effect of oxygen exceeded that of sensitization, thus giving rise to a moderate overall protection effect.

  18. Ionizing radiation induces heritable disruption of epithelial cell interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Catherine C.; Henshall-Powell, Rhonda L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Talhouk, Rabih; Parvin, Bahram; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known human breast carcinogen. Although the mutagenic capacity of IR is widely acknowledged as the basis for its action as a carcinogen, we and others have shown that IR can also induce growth factors and extracellular matrix remodeling. As a consequence, we have proposed that an additional factor contributing to IR carcinogenesis is the potential disruption of critical constraints that are imposed by normal cell interactions. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether IR affected the ability of nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo tissue-specific morphogenesis in culture by using confocal microscopy and imaging bioinformatics. We found that irradiated single HMEC gave rise to colonies exhibiting decreased localization of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and connexin-43, proteins necessary for the establishment of polarity and communication. Severely compromised acinar organization was manifested by the majority of irradiated HMEC progeny as quantified by image analysis. Disrupted cell-cell communication, aberrant cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and loss of tissue-specific architecture observed in the daughters of irradiated HMEC are characteristic of neoplastic progression. These data point to a heritable, nonmutational mechanism whereby IR compromises cell polarity and multicellular organization.

  19. Investigations of radiation-induced and carrier-enhanced conductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, A., Jr.; Parker, L. W.; Yadlowski, E. J.; Hazelton, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    A steady-state carrier computer code, PECK (Parker Enhanced Carrier Kinetics), that predicts the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced in a dielectric by an electron beam was developed. The model, which assumes instantly-trapped holes, was then applied to experimental measurements on thin Kapton samples penetrated by an electron beam. Measurements at high bias were matched in the model by an appropriate choice for the trap-modulated electron mobility. A fractional split between front and rear currents measured at zone bias is explained on the basis of beam-scattering. The effects of carrier-enhanced conductivity (CEC) on data obtained for thick, free-surface Kapton samples is described by using an analytical model that incorporates field injection of carriers from the RIC region. The computer code, LWPCHARGE, modified for carrier transport, is also used to predict partial penetration effects associated with CEC in the unirradiated region. Experimental currents and surface voltages, when incorporated in the appropriate models, provide a value for the trap modulated mobility that is in essential agreement with the RIC results.

  20. Sodium bicarbonate induces crystalline wax generation, activates host-resistance, and increases imazalil level in rind wounds of oranges, improving the control of green mold during storage.

    PubMed

    Dore, Antonio; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Venditti, Tullio; D'Hallewin, Guy

    2010-06-23

    Imazalil (IMZ) was quantified in the flavedo and albedo (Citrus fruits outer and inner tissue of the exocarp) of wounded and unwounded Valencia L. Olinda oranges following a 2 min immersion at 25 degrees C in 50, 100, or 250 microg mL(-1) of the fungicide mixture with or without 3% sodium bicarbonate (SBC). The addition of SBC significantly reduced the decay incidence throughout 30 d of storage at 10 degrees C with 95% RH and 6 d of simulated marketing period at 25 degrees C and 75% RH. In unwounded oranges, IMZ uptake was not changed by the coapplication of SBC, and the fungicide was predominantly recovered in the flavedo. To the contrary, in the albedo of wounded fruit, the residue level increased by about 6-fold when the fungicide was applied with SBC. When SBC was coapplied to wounded fruit, the phytoalexin scoparone was induced in the albedo and the accumulation was not affected by IMZ. When fruit was treated with SBC, scanning electron microscopy observations evidenced a production of crystalline wax patches with branched stripes and the magnitude was positively correlated to the salt concentration in the mixture. The generation as fast as 24 h post-treatment, and the different morphology of the new wax suggests a displacement of intracuticular waxes which can affect the fungicide sorption and diffusion coefficient into the rind. PMID:20486661

  1. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Hari S.; Chu, Shaoping; Reimus, Paul William; Makedonska, Nataliia; Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Karra, Satish; Dittrich, Timothy M.

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  2. Radiation-induced changes affecting polyester based polyurethane binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierpoint, Sujita Basi

    The application of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers as binders in the high energy explosives particularly when used in weapons presents a significantly complex and challenging problem due to the impact of the aging of this polymer on the useful service life of the explosive. In this work, the effects of radiation on the aging of the polyester based polyurethane were investigated using both electron beam and gamma irradiation at various dose rates in the presence and absence of oxygen. It was found by means of GPC that, in the presence and absence of oxygen, the poly (ester urethane) primarily undergoes cross-linking, by means of a carbon-centered secondary alkyl radical. It was also concluded that the polymer partially undergoes scission of the backbone of the main chain at C-O, N-C, and C-C bonds. Substantial changes in the conditions of irradiation and in dose levels did not affect the cross-linking and scission yields. Experiments were also performed with EPR spectroscopy for the purpose of identifying the initial carbon-centered free radicals and for studying the decay mechanisms of these radicals. It was found that the carbon-centered radical which is produced via C-C scission (primary alkyl radical) is rapidly converted to a long-lived allylic species at higher temperatures; more than 80% radicals are converted to allyl species in 2.5 hours. In the presence of oxygen, the allyl radical undergoes a fast reaction to produce a peroxyl radical; this radical decays with a 1.7 hour half-life by pseudo first-order kinetics to negligible levels in 13 hours. FTIR measurements were conducted to identify the radiation-induced changes to the functional groups in the polyester polyurethane. These measurements show an increase in carbonyl, amine and carboxylic groups as a result of reaction of H atoms with R-C-O·, ·NH-R and R-COO·. The FTIR results also demonstrate the production of the unsaturation resulting from hydrogen atom transfer during intrachain conversion of the primary alkyl radical to the allyl species, prompt trans-vinylene production in tetramethylene units, and hydrogen atom abstraction by alkyl radicals on neighboring chains. The production of unsaturation is substantiated by the EPR studies. Finally, a free radical mechanism is proposed for the production of cross-linking in polyester polyurethane.

  3. Radiation-induced gene expression in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Jones, Tamako A.; Chesnut, Aaron; Smith, Anna L.

    2002-01-01

    We used the nematode C. elegans to characterize the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in a simple animal model emphasizing the unique effects of charged particle radiation. Here we demonstrate by RT-PCR differential display and whole genome microarray hybridization experiments that gamma rays, accelerated protons and iron ions at the same physical dose lead to unique transcription profiles. 599 of 17871 genes analyzed (3.4%) showed differential expression 3 hrs after exposure to 3 Gy of radiation. 193 were up-regulated, 406 were down-regulated and 90% were affected only by a single species of radiation. A novel statistical clustering technique identified the regulatory relationships between the radiation-modulated genes and showed that genes affected by each radiation species were associated with unique regulatory clusters. This suggests that independent homeostatic mechanisms are activated in response to radiation exposure as a function of track structure or ionization density.

  4. Comparative study of microwave radiation-induced magnetoresistive oscillations induced by circularly- and linearly- polarized photo-excitation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ye, Tianyu; Liu, Han -Chun; Wang, Zhuo; Wegscheider, W.; Mani, Ramesh G.

    2015-10-09

    A comparative study of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure two dimensional electron system (2DES) under linearly- and circularly- polarized microwave excitation indicates a profound difference in the response observed upon rotating the microwave launcher for the two cases, although circularly polarized microwave radiation induced magnetoresistance oscillations observed at low magnetic fields are similar to the oscillations observed with linearly polarized radiation. For the linearly polarized radiation, the magnetoresistive response is a strong sinusoidal function of the launcher rotation (or linear polarization) angle, θ. As a result, for circularly polarized radiation, the oscillatory magnetoresistive response ismore » hardly sensitive to θ.« less

  5. Enhanced homologous recombination is induced by alpha-particle radiation in somatic cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Po; Liu, Ping; Wu, Yuejin

    Almost 9 percent of cosmic rays which strike the earth's atmosphere are alpha particles. As one of the ionizing radiations (IR), its biological effects have been widely studied. However, the plant genomic instability induced by alpha-particle radiation was not largely known. In this research, the Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic for GUS recombination substrate was used to evaluate the genomic instability induced by alpha-particle radiation (3.3MeV). The pronounced effects of systemic exposure to alpha-particle radiation on the somatic homologous recombination frequency (HRF) were found at different doses. The 10Gy dose of radiation induced the maximal HRF which was 1.9-fold higher than the control. The local radiation of alpha-particle (10Gy) on root also resulted in a 2.5-fold increase of somatic HRF in non-radiated aerial plant, indicating that the signal(s) of genomic instability was transferred to non-radiated parts and initiated their genomic instability. Concurrent treatment of seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana with alpha-particle and DMSO(ROS scavenger) both in systemic and local radiation signifi- cantly suppressed the somatic HR, indicating that the free radicals produced by alpha-particle radiation took part in the production of signal of genomic instability rather than the signal transfer. Key words: alpha-particle radiation, somatic homologous recombination, genomic instability

  6. Curcumin Sensitizes Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells to Radiation via Suppression of Radiation-Induced NF-κB Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Fei-Ting; Liu, Yu-Chang; Liu, Tsu-Te; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

    2015-01-01

    The effects and possible underlying mechanism of curcumin combined with radiation in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in vitro were evaluated. The effects of curcumin, radiation, and combination of both on cell viability, apoptosis, NF-κB activation, and expressions of NF-κB downstream effector proteins were investigated with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), NF-κB reporter gene, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA), and Western blot assays in Huh7-NF-κB-luc2, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells. Effect of I kappa B alpha mutant (IκBαM) vector, a specific inhibitor of NF-κB activation, on radiation-induced loss of MMP was also evaluated. Results show that curcumin not only significantly enhances radiation-induced cytotoxicity and depletion of MMP but inhibits radiation-induced NF-κB activity and expressions of NF-κB downstream proteins in HCC cells. IκBαM vector also shows similar effects. In conclusion, we suggest that curcumin augments anticancer effects of radiation via the suppression of NF-κB activation. PMID:26539482

  7. Radiation induced failures of complementary metal oxide semiconductor containing pacemakers: a potentially lethal complication

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, A.A.; Serago, C.F.; Schwade, J.G.; Abitbol, A.A.; Margolis, S.C.

    1984-10-01

    New multi-programmable pacemakers frequently employ complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS). This circuitry appears more sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation when compared to the semiconductor circuits used in older pacemakers. A case of radiation induced runaway pacemaker in a CMOS device is described. Because of this and other recent reports of radiation therapy-induced CMOS type pacemaker failure, these pacemakers should not be irradiated. If necessary, the pacemaker can be shielded or moved to a site which can be shielded before institution of radiation therapy. This is done to prevent damage to the CMOS circuit and the life threatening arrythmias which may result from such damage.

  8. Mechanism of the Very Efficient Quenching of Tryptophan Fluorescence in Human ?D- and ?S-Crystallins: The ?-Crystallin Fold May Have Evolved To Protect Tryptophan Residues from Ultraviolet Photodamage

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Proteins exposed to UV radiation are subject to irreversible photodamage through covalent modification of tryptophans (Trps) and other UV-absorbing amino acids. Crystallins, the major protein components of the vertebrate eye lens that maintain lens transparency, are exposed to ambient UV radiation throughout life. The duplicated ?-sheet Greek key domains of ?- and ?-crystallins in humans and all other vertebrates each have two conserved buried Trps. Experiments and computation showed that the fluorescence of these Trps in human ?D-crystallin is very efficiently quenched in the native state by electrostatically enabled electron transfer to a backbone amide [Chen et al. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 11552?11563]. This dispersal of the excited state energy would be expected to minimize protein damage from covalent scission of the excited Trp ring. We report here both experiments and computation showing that the same fast electron transfer mechanism is operating in a different crystallin, human ?S-crystallin. Examination of solved structures of other crystallins reveals that the Trp conformation, as well as favorably oriented bound waters, and the proximity of the backbone carbonyl oxygen of the n ? 3 residues before the quenched Trps (residue n), are conserved in most crystallins. These results indicate that fast charge transfer quenching is an evolved property of this protein fold, probably protecting it from UV-induced photodamage. This UV resistance may have contributed to the selection of the Greek key fold as the major lens protein in all vertebrates. PMID:19358562

  9. Effects of helium and hydrogen on radiation-induced microstructural changes in austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyung-Ha; Ko, Eunsol; Lim, Sangyeop; Kwon, Junhyun

    2015-09-01

    Microstructural changes in austenitic stainless steel by helium, hydrogen, and iron ion irradiation were investigated with transmission electron microscopy. Typical radiation-induced changes, such as the formation of Frank loops in the matrix and radiation-induced segregation (RIS) or depletion at grain boundaries, were observed after ion irradiation. The helium ion irradiation led to the formation of cavities both at grain boundaries and in the matrix, as well as the development of smaller Frank loops. The hydrogen ion irradiation generated stronger RIS behavior at the grain boundaries compared to irradiation with helium and iron ions. The effects of helium and hydrogen on radiation-induced microstructural changes were discussed.

  10. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change and increase in scientific use can be maintained for the synchrotron x-ray source. A short summary of the present state of the synchrotron radiation-induced x-ray emission (SRIXE) method is presented here. Basically, SRIXE experiments can include any that depend on the detection. of characteristic x-rays produced by the incident x-ray beam born the synchrotron source as they interact with a sample. Thus, experiments done to measure elemental composition, chemical state, crystal, structure, and other sample parameters can be considered in a discussion of SRIXE. It is also clear that the experimentalist may well wish to use a variety of complementary techniques for study of a given sample. For this reason, discussion of computed microtomography (CMT) and x-ray diffraction is included here. It is hoped that this present discussion will serve as a succinct introduction to the basic ideas of SRIXE for those not working in the field and possibly help to stimulate new types of work by those starting in the field as well as by experienced practitioners of the art. The topics covered include short descriptions of (1) the properties of synchrotron radiation, (2) a description of facilities used for its production, (3) collimated microprobe, (4) focused microprobes, (5) continuum and monoenergetic excitation, (6) detection limits, (7) quantitation, (8) applications of SRIXE, (9) computed microtomography (CMT), and (10)chemical speciation using x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). An effort has been made to cite a wide variety of work from different laboratories to show the vital nature of the field.

  11. Radiation-induced epigenetic bystander effects demonstrated in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Ting; Xu, Shuyan; Xu, Shaoxin; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Bian, Po

    2015-05-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) in vivo in the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana ( A. thaliana ) have been well demonstrated in terms of effects on development and genetics. However, there is not yet robust evidence regarding RIBE-mediated epigenetic changes in plants. To address this, in the current work the roots of A. thaliana seedlings were locally irradiated with 10 Gy of ? particles, after which DNA methylation in bystander aerial plants were detected using the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) and bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP). Results showed that irradiation of the roots led to long-distance changes in DNA methylation patterns at some CCGG sites over the whole genome, specifically from hemi-methylation to non-methylation, and the methylation ratios, mainly at CG sites, strongly indicating the existence of RIBE-mediated epigenetic changes in higher plants. Root irradiation also influenced expressions of DNA methylation-related MET1, DRM2 and SUVH4 genes and demethylation-related DML3 gene in bystander aerial plants, suggesting a modulation of RIBE to the methylation machinery in plants. In addition, the multicopy P35S:GUS in A. thaliana line L5-1, which is silenced epigenetically by DNA methylation and histone modification, was transcriptionally activated through the RIBE. The transcriptional activation could be significantly inhibited by the treatment with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), indicative of a pivotal role of ROS in RIBE-mediated epigenetic changes. Time course analyses showed that the bystander signaling molecule(s) for transcriptional activation of multicopy P35S:GUS, although of unknown chemical nature, were generated in the root cells within 24 h postirradiation. PMID:25938771

  12. Ultraviolet radiation directly induces pigment production by cultured human melanocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, P.S.; Gilchrest, B.A.

    1987-10-01

    In humans the major stimulus for cutaneous pigmentation is ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Little is known about the mechanism underlying this response, in part because of the complexity of interactions in whole epidermis. Using a recently developed culture system, human melanocytes were exposed daily to a physiologic range of UVR doses from a solar simulator. Responses were determined 24 hours after the last exposure. There was a dose-related increase in melanin content per cell and uptake of /sup 14/C-DOPA, accompanied by growth inhibition. Cells from donors of different racial origin gave proportionately similar increases in melanin, although there were approximately tenfold differences in basal values. Light and electron microscopy revealed UVR-stimulated increases in dendricity as well as melanosome number and degree of melanization, analogous to the well-recognized melanocyte changes following sun exposure of intact skin. Similar responses were seen with Cloudman S91 melanoma cells, although this murine cell line required lower UVR dosages and fewer exposures for maximal stimulation. These data establish that UVR is capable of directly stimulating melanogenesis. Because cyclic AMP elevation has been associated in some settings with increased pigment production by cultured melanocytes, preliminary experiments were conducted to see if the effects of UVR were mediated by cAMP. Both alpha-MSH and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), as positive controls, caused a fourfold increase in cAMP level in human melanocytes and/or S91 cells, but following a dose of UVR sufficient to stimulate pigment production there was no change in cAMP level up to 4 hours after exposure. Thus, it appears that the UVR-induced melanogenesis is mediated by cAMP-independent mechanisms.

  13. Molecular responses of radiation-induced liver damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, WEI; XIAO, LEI; AINIWAER, AIMUDULA; WANG, YUNLIAN; WU, GE; MAO, RUI; YANG, YING; BAO, YONGXING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular responses involved in radiation-induced liver damage (RILD). Sprague-Dawley rats (6-weeks-old) were irradiated once at a dose of 20 Gy to the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. The rats were then sacrificed 3 days and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after irradiation and rats, which were not exposed to irradiation were used as controls. Weight measurements and blood was obtained from the rats and liver tissues were collected for histological and apoptotic analysis. Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis were performed to measure the expression levels of mRNAs and proteins, respectively. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were increased significantly in the RILD rats. Histological investigation revealed the proliferation of collagen and the formation of fibrotic tissue 12 weeks after irradiation. Apoptotic cells were observed predominantly 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation. The immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR and western blot analysis all revealed the same pattern of changes in the expression levels of the molecules assessed. The expression levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), nuclear factor (NF)-κB65, mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Smad3) and Smad7 and connective tissue growth factor were increased during the recovery period following irradiation up to 12 weeks. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, Smad7 and Smad4 were only increased during the early phase (first 4 weeks) of recovery following irradiation. In the RILD rat model, the molecular responses indicated that the TGF-β1/Smads and NF-κB65 signaling pathways are involved in the mechanism of RILD recovery. PMID:25483171

  14. Electrically Active Defects In Solar Cells Based On Amorphous Silicon/Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction After Irradiation By Heavy Xe Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmatha, Ladislav; Mikolek, Miroslav; Stuchlkov, L'ubica; Ksa, Arpd; ika, Milan; Hrub?n, Ladislav; Skuratov, Vladimir A.

    2015-11-01

    The contribution is focused on the diagnostics of structures with a heterojunction between amorphous and crystalline silicon prepared by HIT (Heterojunction with an Intrinsic Thin layer) technology. The samples were irradiated by Xe ions with energy 167 MeV and doses from 5 108 cm-2 to 5 1010 cm-2. Radiation defects induced in the bulk of Si and at the hydrogenated amorphous silicon and crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) interface were identified by Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS). Radiation induced A-centre traps, boron vacancy traps and different types of divacancies with a high value of activation energy were observed. With an increased fluence of heavy ions the nature and density of the radiation induced defects was changed.

  15. A Nonhuman Primate Model of Human Radiation-Induced Venocclusive Liver Disease and Hepatocyte Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Yannam, Govardhana Rao; Han, Bing; Setoyama, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Ito, Ryotaro; Brooks, Jenna M.; Guzman-Lepe, Jorge; Galambos, Csaba; Fong, Jason V.; Deutsch, Melvin; Quader, Mubina A.; Yamanouchi, Kosho; Kabarriti, Rafi; Mehta, Keyur; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; and others

    2014-02-01

    Background: Human liver has an unusual sensitivity to radiation that limits its use in cancer therapy or in preconditioning for hepatocyte transplantation. Because the characteristic veno-occlusive lesions of radiation-induced liver disease do not occur in rodents, there has been no experimental model to investigate the limits of safe radiation therapy or explore the pathogenesis of hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Methods and Materials: We performed a dose-escalation study in a primate, the cynomolgus monkey, using hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy in 13 animals. Results: At doses ≥40 Gy, animals developed a systemic syndrome resembling human radiation-induced liver disease, consisting of decreased albumin, elevated alkaline phosphatase, loss of appetite, ascites, and normal bilirubin. Higher radiation doses were lethal, causing severe disease that required euthanasia approximately 10 weeks after radiation. Even at lower doses in which radiation-induced liver disease was mild or nonexistent, latent and significant injury to hepatocytes was demonstrated by asialoglycoprotein-mediated functional imaging. These monkeys developed hepatic failure with encephalopathy when they received parenteral nutrition containing high concentrations of glucose. Histologically, livers showed central obstruction via an unusual intimal swelling that progressed to central fibrosis. Conclusions: The cynomolgus monkey, as the first animal model of human veno-occlusive radiation-induced liver disease, provides a resource for characterizing the early changes and pathogenesis of venocclusion, for establishing nonlethal therapeutic dosages, and for examining experimental therapies to minimize radiation injury.

  16. Deep Friction Massage in Treatment of Radiation-induced Fibrosis: Rehabilitative Care for Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Warpenburg, Mary J

    2014-10-01

    Treatment for invasive breast cancer usually involves some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and/or targeted therapy. For approximately 50% of patients, radiation therapy is a component of the therapies used. As a result, radiation-induced fibrosis is becoming a common and crippling side effect, leading to muscle imbalance with a lessened range of motion as well as pain and dysfunction of the vascular and lymphatic systems. No good estimates are available for how many patients experience complications from radiation. Radiation-induced fibrosis can affect the underlying fascia, muscles, organs, and bones within the primary target field and the larger secondary field that is caused by the scatter effect of radioactive elements. For breast cancer patients, the total radiation field may include the neck, shoulder, axillary, and thoracic muscles and the ribs for both the ipsilateral (cancer-affected) and contralateral sides. This case study indicates that therapy using deep friction massage can affect radiation-induced fibrosis beneficially, particularly in the thoracic muscles and the intercostals (ie, the muscles between the ribs). When delivered in intensive sessions using deep friction techniques, massage has the potential to break down fibrotic tissues, releasing the inflammation and free radicals that are caused by radiation therapy. In the course of the massage, painful and debilitating spasms resulting from fibrosis can be relieved and the progressive nature of the radiation-induced fibrosis interrupted. PMID:26770116

  17. Deep Friction Massage in Treatment of Radiation-induced Fibrosis: Rehabilitative Care for Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Warpenburg, Mary J.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment for invasive breast cancer usually involves some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and/or targeted therapy. For approximately 50% of patients, radiation therapy is a component of the therapies used. As a result, radiation-induced fibrosis is becoming a common and crippling side effect, leading to muscle imbalance with a lessened range of motion as well as pain and dysfunction of the vascular and lymphatic systems. No good estimates are available for how many patients experience complications from radiation. Radiation-induced fibrosis can affect the underlying fascia, muscles, organs, and bones within the primary target field and the larger secondary field that is caused by the scatter effect of radioactive elements. For breast cancer patients, the total radiation field may include the neck, shoulder, axillary, and thoracic muscles and the ribs for both the ipsilateral (cancer-affected) and contralateral sides. This case study indicates that therapy using deep friction massage can affect radiation-induced fibrosis beneficially, particularly in the thoracic muscles and the intercostals (ie, the muscles between the ribs). When delivered in intensive sessions using deep friction techniques, massage has the potential to break down fibrotic tissues, releasing the inflammation and free radicals that are caused by radiation therapy. In the course of the massage, painful and debilitating spasms resulting from fibrosis can be relieved and the progressive nature of the radiation-induced fibrosis interrupted. PMID:26770116

  18. Radiation-induced damage in GaAs particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.; Via, C. Da; O`Shea, V.; Pickford, A.; Raine, C.; Smith, K.

    1997-10-01

    The motivation for investigating the use of GaAs as a material for detecting particles in experiments for high-energy physics (HEP) arose from its perceived resistance to radiation damage. This is a vital requirement for detector materials that are to be used in experiments at future accelerators where the radiation environments would exclude all but the most radiation resistant of detector types.

  19. Mechanisms of radiation-induced skeletal cancer: Cells at risk and cell-specific radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Jee, W.S.S.

    1989-01-01

    Progress occurred in several areas. The activation of bone remodeling occurred before day 3 and the reversal phase occurred before day 14 of lactation and low calcium diet. These findings will enable us to better design future cell kinetics studies. A semi-automatic quantitative neutron-induced autoradiography system for bone sections containing plutonium-239 was developed and deployed. The same bone sections will be analyzed by dynamic histomorphometry. The system will generate much needed distribution values for cancellous and cortical boned and formic and resting surfaces needed in our calculations of cell-specific radiation dosimetry. The bone formation rate for 4 cortical bone sites was found to be less than 1%/yr. The rib was slightly higher at 5%/yr. These values were at least 30 times lower than those observed in various cancellous bone sites in the same animals. The long residence time of bone surface cells could partially explain the occurrence of cortical bone tumors in dogs administered alpha-emitting bone-seeking radionuclides. 2 tabs.

  20. Radiation induced changes in electronic and dielectric properties of polyoxymethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Sreepad, H. R.; Ravi, H. R.; Ahmed, Khaleel; Waghmare, Umesh V.

    2012-06-05

    First-principle calculations have been done for the Orthorhombic helical Polyoxymethylene. Electronic density of states calculation gives a value of 6.6 eV as the band gap. Phonon frequencies have been calculated at the Gamma point. Phonon modes show wave numbers ranging from 55 cm{sup -1} to 3020 cm{sup -1}. The value of Dielectric constant has been experimentally determined. The gamma irradiation of the sample causes variations in the electronic and dielectric properties of the material. Electrical conductivity increases with increase in dosage of irradiation. Percentage of crystallinity increases where as the value of dielectric constant decreases with increase in dosage of irradiation.

  1. Obtaining Solutions to Radiation-And Plasma Induced FAilure Modes From Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A.

    1998-01-01

    A number of performance-limiting spacecraft problems will be qualitatively discussed: Spacecraft Charging, Deep Dielectric Charging, Solar Cell Arcing, Antenna Sparking, High Voltage Power Shorts, Radiation-induced Defects in Semiconductors, and Degradation of Electronic Devices.

  2. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation. PMID:26157675

  3. [Malignant transformation of human fibroblasts by neutrons and by gamma radiation: Relationship to mutations induced

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    A brief overview if provided of selected reports presented at the International Symposium on Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation- and Chemical Carcinogen-Induced Cell Transformation held at Mackinac Island, Michigan on September 19-23, 1993.

  4. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2015-06-01

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation. PMID:26157675

  5. Serum microRNAs are early indicators of survival after radiation-induced hematopoietic injury

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Sanket S.; Fendler, Wojciech; Watson, Jacqueline; Hamilton, Abigail; Pan, Yunfeng; Gaudiano, Emily; Moskwa, Patryk; Bhanja, Payel; Saha, Subhrajit; Guha, Chandan; Parmar, Kalindi; Chowdhury, Dipanjan

    2015-01-01

    Accidental radiation exposure is a threat to human health that necessitates effective clinical planning and diagnosis. Minimally invasive biomarkers that can predict long-term radiation injury are urgently needed for optimal management after a radiation accident. We have identified serum microRNA (miRNA) signatures that indicate long-term impact of total body irradiation (TBI) in mice when measured within 24 hours of exposure. Impact of TBI on the hematopoietic system was systematically assessed to determine a correlation of residual hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with increasing doses of radiation. Serum miRNA signatures distinguished untreated mice from animals exposed to radiation and correlated with the impact of radiation on HSCs. Mice exposed to sublethal (6.5 Gy) and lethal (8 Gy) doses of radiation were indistinguishable for 3 to 4 weeks after exposure. A serum miRNA signature detectable 24 hours after radiation exposure consistently segregated these two cohorts. Furthermore, using either a radioprotective agent before, or radiation mitigation after, lethal radiation, we determined that the serum miRNA signature correlated with the impact of radiation on animal health rather than the radiation dose. Last, using humanized mice that had been engrafted with human CD34+ HSCs, we determined that the serum miRNA signature indicated radiation-induced injury to the human bone marrow cells. Our data suggest that serum miRNAs can serve as functional dosimeters of radiation, representing a potential breakthrough in early assessment of radiation-induced hematopoietic damage and timely use of medical countermeasures to mitigate the long-term impact of radiation. PMID:25972001

  6. The potential influence of radiation-induced microenvironments in neoplastic progression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a complete carcinogen, able both to initiate and promote neoplastic progression and is a known carcinogen of human and murine mammary gland. Tissue response to radiation is a composite of genetic damage, cell death and induction of new gene expression patterns. Although DNA damage is believed to initiate carcinogenesis, the contribution of these other aspects of radiation response are beginning to be explored. Our studies demonstrate that radiation elicits rapid and persistent global alterations in the mammary gland microenvironment. We postulate that radiation-induced microenvironments may affect epithelial cells neoplastic transformation by altering their number or susceptibility. Alternatively, radiation induced microenvironments may exert a selective force on initiated cells and/or be conducive to progression. A key impetus for these studies is the possibility that blocking these events could be a strategy to interrupt neoplastic progression.

  7. Gamma radiation induced effects in floppy and rigid Ge-containing chalcogenide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ailavajhala, Mahesh S.; Mitkova, Maria; Gonzalez-Velo, Yago; Barnaby, Hugh; Kozicki, Michael N.; Holbert, Keith; Poweleit, Christian; Butt, Darryl P.

    2014-01-28

    We explore the radiation induced effects in thin films from the Ge-Se to Ge-Te systems accompanied with silver radiation induced diffusion within these films, emphasizing two distinctive compositional representatives from both systems containing a high concentration of chalcogen or high concentration of Ge. The studies are conducted on blanket chalcogenide films or on device structures containing also a silver source. Data about the electrical conductivity as a function of the radiation dose were collected and discussed based on material characterization analysis. Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy, and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy provided us with data about the structure, structural changes occurring as a result of radiation, molecular formations after Ag diffusion into the chalcogenide films, Ag lateral diffusion as a function of radiation and the level of oxidation of the studied films. Analysis of the electrical testing suggests application possibilities of the studied devices for radiation sensing for various conditions.

  8. Gamma radiation induced effects in floppy and rigid Ge-containing chalcogenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailavajhala, Mahesh S.; Gonzalez-Velo, Yago; Poweleit, Christian; Barnaby, Hugh; Kozicki, Michael N.; Holbert, Keith; Butt, Darryl P.; Mitkova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We explore the radiation induced effects in thin films from the Ge-Se to Ge-Te systems accompanied with silver radiation induced diffusion within these films, emphasizing two distinctive compositional representatives from both systems containing a high concentration of chalcogen or high concentration of Ge. The studies are conducted on blanket chalcogenide films or on device structures containing also a silver source. Data about the electrical conductivity as a function of the radiation dose were collected and discussed based on material characterization analysis. Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy, and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy provided us with data about the structure, structural changes occurring as a result of radiation, molecular formations after Ag diffusion into the chalcogenide films, Ag lateral diffusion as a function of radiation and the level of oxidation of the studied films. Analysis of the electrical testing suggests application possibilities of the studied devices for radiation sensing for various conditions.

  9. Radiation-induced mechanical property changes in filled rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, A.; Weisgraber, T. H.; Gee, R. H.; Small, W.; Alviso, C. T.; Chinn, S. C.; Maxwell, R. S.

    2011-06-15

    In a recent paper we exposed a filled elastomer to controlled radiation dosages and explored changes in its cross-link density and molecular weight distribution between network junctions [A. Maiti et al., Phys. Rev. E 83, 031802 (2011)]. Here we report mechanical response measurements when the material is exposed to radiation while being under finite nonzero strain. We observe interesting hysteretic behavior and material softening representative of the Mullins effect, and materials hardening due to radiation. The net magnitude of the elastic modulus depends upon the radiation dosage, strain level, and strain-cycling history of the material. Using the framework of Tobolsky's two-stage independent network theory we develop a model that can quantitatively interpret the observed elastic modulus and its radiation and strain dependence.

  10. Effect of the crystallinity of silver nanoparticles on surface plasmon resonance induced enhancement of effective absorption cross-section of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanvi, Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R. K.; Kumar, Subodh; Saxena, Vibha; Aswal, D. K.

    2015-02-01

    The effective absorption cross-section of dye, and therefore, the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell can be increased by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of metal nanoparticles with enhanced dephasing time. Further, the dephasing time is proportional to the enhancement factor of electric field in the vicinity of nanoparticle surface, and is governed by size, shape, and dielectric constant of surrounding medium. In this paper, we demonstrate that crystallinity of silver nanoparticles plays an important role in enhancing the dephasing time of SPR. Our theoretical formulation indicates that the dephasing time is higher for single crystalline silver nanoparticles as compared to that of polycrystalline nanoparticles, which is attributed to the presence of scattering centers in the latter. This suggests that single crystalline silver nanoparticles are interesting candidates for the enhancement of effective absorption cross-section of dyes. In order to validate our theoretical formulation, we have synthesized single crystalline and polycrystalline silver nanoparticles and studied their effect on absorption cross-section of N719 dye. We observed that dye incorporated with single crystalline silver nanoparticles showed a significant enhancement as compared to polycrystalline silver nanoparticles (24.42% in solution, 21.01% in thin film form in single crystalline silver nanoparticles while 8.52% in solution, 7.97% in thin film form in polycrystalline silver nanoparticles, respectively).

  11. Pyruvate metabolism: A therapeutic opportunity in radiation-induced skin injury.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyun; Kang, Jeong Wook; Lee, Dong Won; Oh, Sang Ho; Lee, Yun-Sil; Lee, Eun-Jung; Cho, Jaeho

    2015-05-01

    Ionizing radiation is used to treat a range of cancers. Despite recent technological progress, radiation therapy can damage the skin at the administration site. The specific molecular mechanisms involved in this effect have not been fully characterized. In this study, the effects of pyruvate, on radiation-induced skin injury were investigated, including the role of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2) signaling pathway. Next generation sequencing (NGS) identified a wide range of gene expression differences between the control and irradiated mice, including reduced expression of PDK2. This was confirmed using Q-PCR. Cell culture studies demonstrated that PDK2 overexpression and a high cellular pyruvate concentration inhibited radiation-induced cytokine expression. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated radiation-induced skin thickening and gene expression changes. Oral pyruvate treatment markedly downregulated radiation-induced changes in skin thickness and inflammatory cytokine expression. These findings indicated that regulation of the pyruvate metabolic pathway could provide an effective approach to the control of radiation-induced skin damage. PMID:25797627

  12. Nonlinear-optical generation of short-wavelength radiation controlled by laser-induced interference structures

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, A K; Kimberg, V V

    1998-03-31

    A study is reported of the combined influence of laser-induced resonances in the energy continuum, of splitting of discrete resonances in the field of several strong radiations, and of absorption of the initial and generated radiations on totally resonant parametric conversion to the short-wavelength range. It is shown that the radiation power can be increased considerably by interference processes involving quantum transitions. (nonlinear optical phenomena and devices)

  13. Curvature-induced radiation of surface plasmon polaritons propagating around bends

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Keisuke; Noeckel, Jens U.; Deutsch, Miriam

    2007-06-15

    We present a theoretical study of the curvature-induced radiation of surface plasmon polaritons propagating around bends at metal-dielectric interfaces. We explain qualitatively how the curvature leads to distortion of the phase front, causing the fields to radiate energy away from the metal-dielectric interface. We then quantify, both analytically and numerically, radiation losses and energy transmission efficiencies of surface plasmon polaritons propagating around bends with varying radii as well as sign of curvature.

  14. Changes induced in spice paprika powder by treatment with ionizing radiation and saturated steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kispéter, J.; Bajúsz-Kabók, K.; Fekete, M.; Szabó, G.; Fodor, E.; Páli, T.

    2003-12-01

    The changes in spice paprika powder induced by ionizing radiation, saturated steam (SS) and their combination were studied as a function of the absorbed radiation dose and the storage time. The SS treatment lead to a decrease in color content (lightening) after 12 weeks of storage, together with the persistence of free radicals and viscosity changes for a longer period. The results suggest that ionizing radiation is a more advantageous method as concerns preservation of the quality of spice paprika.

  15. Nanostructuring induced enhancement of radiation hardness in GaN epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Ursaki, V. V.; Tiginyanu, I. M.; Volciuc, O.; Popa, V.; Skuratov, V. A.; Morkoc, H.

    2007-04-16

    The radiation hardness of as-grown and electrochemically nanostructured GaN epilayers against heavy ion irradiation was studied by means of photoluminescence (PL) and resonant Raman scattering (RRS) spectroscopy. A nanostructuring induced enhancement of the GaN radiation hardness by more than one order of magnitude was derived from the PL and RRS analyses. These findings show that electrochemical nanostructuring of GaN layers is a potentially attractive technology for the development of radiation hard devices.

  16. Evolved Cellular Mechanisms to Respond to Genotoxic Insults: Implications for Radiation-Induced Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Fleenor, Courtney J; Higa, Kelly; Weil, Michael M; DeGregori, James

    2015-10-01

    Human exposure to ionizing radiation is highly associated with adverse health effects, including reduced hematopoietic cell function and increased risk of carcinogenesis. The hematopoietic deficits manifest across blood cell types and persist for years after radiation exposure, suggesting a long-lived and multi-potent cellular reservoir for radiation-induced effects. As such, research has focused on identifying both the immediate and latent hematopoietic stem cell responses to radiation exposure. Radiation-associated effects on hematopoietic function and malignancy development have generally been attributed to the direct induction of mutations resulting from radiation-induced DNA damage. Other studies have illuminated the role of cellular programs that both limit and enhance radiation-induced tissue phenotypes and carcinogenesis. In this review, distinct but collaborative cellular responses to genotoxic insults are highlighted, with an emphasis on how these programmed responses impact hematopoietic cellular fitness and competition. These radiation-induced cellular programs include apoptosis, senescence and impaired self-renewal within the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool. In the context of sporadic DNA damage to a cell, these cellular responses act in concert to restore tissue function and prevent selection for adaptive oncogenic mutations. But in the contexts of whole-tissue exposure or whole-body exposure to genotoxins, such as radiotherapy or chemotherapy, we propose that these programs can contribute to long-lasting tissue impairment and increased carcinogenesis. PMID:26414506

  17. Spatial distribution of RF radiation induced by cascade shower in lunar regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filonenko, A. D.; Filonenko, V. A.

    2009-06-01

    The results of calculation of the radiation pattern of an electron-photon shower induced by an ultrahigh-energy particle on the Moons surface are reported. It is found that the inclusion of dielectric characteristics of the lunar regolith radically changes the rf radiation intensity distribution at the vacuum-regolith interface.

  18. A new CT-based method to quantify radiation-induced lung damage in patients.

    PubMed

    Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; Wiegman, Erwin M; Langendijk, Johannes A; Widder, Joachim; Coppes, Robert P; van Luijk, Peter

    2015-10-01

    A new method to assess radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) using CT-scans was developed. It is more sensitive in detecting damage and corresponds better to physician-rated radiation pneumonitis than routinely-used methods. Use of this method may improve lung toxicity assessment and thereby facilitate development of more accurate predictive models for RILT. PMID:26253950

  19. Radiation induced chemical activity at iron and copper oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, Sarah C.

    The radiolysis of three iron oxides, two copper oxides, and aluminum oxide with varying amounts of water were performed using gamma-rays and 5 MeV 4He ions. The adsorbed water on the surfaces was characterized using temperature programmed desorption and diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, which indicated that all of the oxides had chemisorbed water on the surface. Physisorbed water was observed on the Fe2O 3 and Al2O3 surfaces as well. Molecular hydrogen was produced from adsorbed water only on Fe2O3 and Al 2O3, while the other compounds did not show any hydrogen production due to the low amounts of water on the surfaces. Slurries of varying amounts of water were also examined for hydrogen production, and they showed yields that were greater than the yield for bulk water. However, the yields of hydrogen from the copper compounds were much lower than those of the iron suggesting that the copper oxides are relatively inert to radiation induced damage to nearby water. X-ray diffraction measurements did not show any indication of changes to the bulk crystal structure due to radiolysis for any of the oxides. The surfaces of the oxides were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the iron samples, FeO and Fe3O4, Raman spectroscopy revealed areas of Fe2O3 had formed following irradiation with He ions. XPS indicated the formation of a new oxygen species on the iron oxide surfaces. Raman spectroscopy of the copper oxides did not reveal any changes in the surface composition, however, XPS measurements showed a decrease in the amount of OH groups on the surface of Cu2O, while for the CuO samples the amount of OH groups were found to increase following radiolysis. Pristine Al2O3 showed the presence of a surface oxyhydroxide layer which was observed to decrease following radiolysis, consistent with the formation of molecular hydrogen.

  20. Epigenetic Analysis of Heavy-ion Radiation Induced Bystander Effects in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Yeqing; Cui, Changna; Xue, Bei

    Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect was defined as the induction of damage in neighboring non-hit cells by signals released from directly-irradiated cells. Recently, low dose of high LET radiation induced bystander effects in vivo have been reported more and more. It has been indicated that radiation induced bystander effect was localized not only in bystander tissues but also in distant organs. Genomic, epigenetic and proteomics plays significant roles in regulating heavy-ion radiation stress responses in mice. To identify the molecular mechanism that underlies bystander effects of heavy-ion radiation, the male Balb/c and C57BL mice were exposed head-only to 40, 200, 2000mGy dose of (12) C heavy-ion radiation, while the rest of the animal body was shielded. Directly radiation organ ear and the distant organ liver were detected on 1h, 6h, 12h and 24h after radiation, respectively. Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) was used to monitor the level of polymorphic genomic DNA methylation changed with dose and time effects. The results show that heavy-ion irradiated mouse head could induce genomic DNA methylation changes significantly in both the directly radiation organ ear and the distant organ liver. The percent of DNA methylation changes were time-dependent and tissue-specific. Demethylation polymorphism rate was highest separately at 1 h in 200 mGy and 6 h in 2000 mGy after irradiation. The global DNA methylation changes tended to occur in the CG sites. The results illustrated that genomic methylation changes of heavy ion radiation-induced bystander effect in liver could be obvious 1 h after radiation and achieved the maximum at 6 h, while the changes could recover gradually at 12 h. The results suggest that mice head exposed to heavy-ion radiation can induce damage and methylation pattern changed in both directly radiation organ ear and distant organ liver. Moreover, our findings are important to understand the molecular mechanism of radiation induced bystander effects in vivo.

  1. Mechanisms of radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity and implications for future clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Jenrow, Kenneth A.; Brown, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    To summarize current knowledge regarding mechanisms of radiation-induced normal tissue injury and medical countermeasures available to reduce its severity. Advances in radiation delivery using megavoltage and intensity-modulated radiation therapy have permitted delivery of higher doses of radiation to well-defined tumor target tissues. Injury to critical normal tissues and organs, however, poses substantial risks in the curative treatment of cancers, especially when radiation is administered in combination with chemotherapy. The principal pathogenesis is initiated by depletion of tissue stem cells and progenitor cells and damage to vascular endothelial microvessels. Emerging concepts of radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity suggest that the recovery and repopulation of stromal stem cells remain chronically impaired by long-lived free radicals, reactive oxygen species, and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines resulting in progressive damage after radiation exposure. Better understanding the mechanisms mediating interactions among excessive generation of reactive oxygen species, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activated macrophages, and role of bone marrow-derived progenitor and stem cells may provide novel insight on the pathogenesis of radiation-induced injury of tissues. Further understanding the molecular signaling pathways of cytokines and chemokines would reveal novel targets for protecting or mitigating radiation injury of tissues and organs. PMID:25324981

  2. Mechanisms of radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity and implications for future clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Ho; Jenrow, Kenneth A; Brown, Stephen L

    2014-09-01

    To summarize current knowledge regarding mechanisms of radiation-induced normal tissue injury and medical countermeasures available to reduce its severity. Advances in radiation delivery using megavoltage and intensity-modulated radiation therapy have permitted delivery of higher doses of radiation to well-defined tumor target tissues. Injury to critical normal tissues and organs, however, poses substantial risks in the curative treatment of cancers, especially when radiation is administered in combination with chemotherapy. The principal pathogenesis is initiated by depletion of tissue stem cells and progenitor cells and damage to vascular endothelial microvessels. Emerging concepts of radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity suggest that the recovery and repopulation of stromal stem cells remain chronically impaired by long-lived free radicals, reactive oxygen species, and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines resulting in progressive damage after radiation exposure. Better understanding the mechanisms mediating interactions among excessive generation of reactive oxygen species, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activated macrophages, and role of bone marrow-derived progenitor and stem cells may provide novel insight on the pathogenesis of radiation-induced injury of tissues. Further understanding the molecular signaling pathways of cytokines and chemokines would reveal novel targets for protecting or mitigating radiation injury of tissues and organs. PMID:25324981

  3. M-BAND Study of Radiation-Induced Chromosome Aberrations in Human Epithelial Cells: Radiation Quality and Dose Rate Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu

    2009-01-01

    The advantage of the multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique is its ability to identify both inter- (translocation to unpainted chromosomes) and intra- (inversions and deletions within a single painted chromosome) chromosome aberrations simultaneously. To study the detailed rearrangement of low- and high-LET radiation induced chromosome aberrations in human epithelial cells (CH184B5F5/M10) in vitro, we performed a series of experiments with Cs-137 gamma rays of both low and high dose rates, neutrons of low dose rate and 600 MeV/u Fe ions of high dose rate, with chromosome 3 painted with multi-binding colors. We also compared the chromosome aberrations in both 2- and 3-dimensional cell cultures. Results of these experiments revealed the highest chromosome aberration frequencies after low dose rate neutron exposures. However, detailed analysis of the radiation induced inversions revealed that all three radiation types induced a low incidence of simple inversions. Most of the inversions in gamma-ray irradiated samples were accompanied by other types of intra-chromosomal aberrations but few inversions were accompanied by inter-chromosomal aberrations. In contrast, neutrons and Fe ions induced a significant fraction of inversions that involved complex rearrangements of both inter- and intrachromosomal exchanges. The location of the breaks involved in chromosome exchanges was analyzed along the painted chromosome. The breakpoint distribution was found to be randomly localized on chromosome 3 after neutron or Fe ion exposure, whereas non-random distribution with clustering breakpoints was observed after -ray exposure. Our comparison of chromosome aberration yields between 2- and 3-dimensional cell cultures indicated a significant difference for gamma exposures, but not for Fe ion exposures. These experimental results indicated that the track structure of the radiation and the cellular/chromosome structure can both affect radiation-induced chromosome aberrations.

  4. [The correction of secondary radiation-induced immunodeficiencies].

    PubMed

    Iakovlev, G M; Smirnov, V S; Khavinson, V Kh; Morozov, V G

    1991-01-01

    The influence of the ionizing radiation upon the human organism is accompanied by the formation of the secondary radiative immunodeficiencies, which can be treated with the help of immunomodulating preparations of microbiotic, animal and plant origin, as well as compounds obtained by chemical synthesis. The comparative analysis of the various immunomodulators has shown that the peptide preparations of thymos and bone marrow, referred to the cytomedinum class (thymalinum, thymogenum, haemalinum) were most perspective for the correction of the secondary radiative immunodeficiencies. The scheme of thymalinum application in the treatment of radioactive affections of immune system is enclosed. PMID:2014661

  5. CT manifestations of radiation-induced change in chest tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Pagani, J.J.; Libshitz, H.I.

    1982-04-01

    The computed tomographic appearance of acute and chronic radiation change in the thorax is described. Acute radiation pneumonitis demonstrates patchy, confluent regions of increased pulmonary attenuation. Chronic changes include soft tissue density fibrotic changes that blend smoothly with the pleural surfaces and adjacent mediastinal structures. Also seen are bronchiectatic changes and distortion of normal intrathoracic anatomic relationships. Both the acute and chronic changes usually make linear lateral margins with adjacent aerated lung. Development of a discrete mass or focal cavitation after the radiation changes have become stable is suspect for recurrent tumor or infection.

  6. Cloud Induced Enhancement of Ground Level Solar Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inman, R.; Chu, Y.; Coimbra, C.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol and cloud cover are typically associated with long and short-term variability of all three solar radiation components at the ground level. Although aerosol attenuation can be a substantial factor for Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) in some microclimates, the strongest factor for ground level irradiance attenuation is cloud cover which acts on time-scales associated with strong solar power generation fluctuations. Furthermore, the driving effects of clouds on radiative energy budgets include shortwave cooling, as a result of absorption of incoming solar radiation, and longwave heating, due to reduced emission of thermal radiation by relatively cool cloud tops. Under special circumstances, the presence of clouds in the circumsolar region may lead to the reverse; a local increase in the diffuse downwelling solar radiation due to directional scattering from clouds. This solar beam effect exceed the losses resulting from the backscattering of radiation into space. Such conditions result in radiation levels that temporarily exceed the localized clear sky values. These phenomena are referred to as Cloud Enhancement Events (CEEs). There are currently two fundamental CEE mechanisms discussed in the literature. The first involves well-defined, and optically thick cloud edges close to, but not obscuring, the solar disk. The effect here is of producing little or no change in the normal beam radiation. In this case, cloud edges in the vicinity of the sun create a non-isotropic increase in the local diffuse radiation field with respect to the isotropic scattering of a clear-sky atmosphere. The second type of CEE allows for partial or full obstruction of the solar disk by an optically thin diffuser such as fine clouds, haze or fog; which results in an enhanced but still nearly isotropic diffuse radiation field. In this study, an entire year of solar radiation data and total sky images taken at 30 second resolution at the University of California, Merced (UCM) is used in conjunction with optimized clear sky models, statistical analysis, and wavelet transform methods to investigate the solar radiation Ramp Rates (RRs) associated with both of the fundamental CEE mechanisms. Results indicate that CEEs account for nearly 5% of the total daytime hours in this dataset and produce nearly 4% of the total energy over the year. In addition, wavelet transform techniques suggest that CEEs at UCM location operate on timescales ranging from 2 to 4 minutes. Our results allow estimation of the probability and magnitude of these RRs as well the percentage of annual excess energy production resulting from CEEs which could be used to offset ancillary services required to operate PV power systems.

  7. Non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation: I. Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    A long-standing dogma in the radiation sciences is that energy from radiation must be deposited in the cell nucleus to elicit a biological effect. A number of non-targeted, delayed effects of ionizing radiation have been described that challenge this dogma and pose new challenges to evaluating potential hazards associated with radiation exposure. These effects include induced genomic instability and non-targeted bystander effects. The in vitro evidence for non-targeted effects in radiation biology will be reviewed, but the question as to how one extrapolates from these in vitro observations to the risk of radiation-induced adverse health effects such as cancer remains open.

  8. Dynamics of radiation induced isomerization for HCN-CNH

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Kyungsun; Jung, Christof; Reichl, L. E.

    2006-07-21

    We have analyzed the dynamics underlying the use of sequential radiation pulses to control the isomerization between the HCN and the CNH molecules. The appearance of avoided crossings among Floquet eigenphases as the molecule interacts with the radiation pulses is the key to understanding the isomerization dynamics, both in the adiabatic and nonadiabatic regimes. We find that small detunings of the incident pulses can have a significant effect on the outcome of the isomerization process for the model we consider.

  9. [A case of prednisolone therapy for radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis].

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Masato; Nishimura, Taiji; Kurita, Susumu; Lee, Chorsu; Kondo, Yukihiro; Yamazaki, Keiichi

    2011-05-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis resulting from radiation to pelvic visceral malignant lesions often might be incurable and there have been no established definitive treatment. We experienced a case with severe radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis refractory to conventional therapy. The treatment with oral administration of prednisolone was performed and obtained a successful result. Gross hematuria disappeared in 2 weeks in this case. This experience suggested that oral administration of prednisolone could be considered the treatment for patients with radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis when usual treatments including transurethral electro-coagulation are unsuccessful. PMID:21846069

  10. Evidence that ultraviolet B radiation induces tolerance and impairs induction of contact hypersensitivity by different mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, T; Streilein, J W

    1994-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) have recently been implicated in the process by which ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) impairs the induction of contact hypersensitivity when dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) is painted on UVB-exposed skin. The evidence supports the hypothesis that UVB radiation converts trans- to cis-UCA in the epidermis which in turn causes the epidermis of UVB-susceptible mice to produce/contain excessive local amounts of TNF-alpha. When hapten is painted on TNF-alpha- or UVB-treated skin, contact hypersensitivity fails to develop. As UVB radiation also induces hapten-specific tolerance and suppressor T cells when hapten is applied to UVB-exposed skin of UVB-susceptible strains of mice, we examined whether TNF-alpha and/or UVB-irradiated UCA (UV-UCA) might be similarly involved in the mechanism by which UVB induces tolerance. We report that intracutaneously-injected TNF-alpha and UV-UCA altered the cutaneous environment such that when DNFB was painted on the injected site, hapten-specific tolerance was induced and suppressor cells were generated. However, the tolerance induced by UVB radiation and the tolerance that followed intracutaneous injection of UV-UCA were not reversed by neutralizing anti-TNF-alpha antibodies. Moreover, UV-UCA and TNF-alpha-induced tolerance and suppressor cells in both UVB-susceptible (UVB-S) and UVB-resistant mice, whereas UVB radiation induced tolerance only in UVB-S mice. We conclude that the mechanism by which UVB radiation induces tolerance in mice is separate and distinct from the mechanism by which UVB radiation impairs contact hypersensitivity induction. Moreover, our data support the view that the generation of suppressor cells and the development of hapten-specific tolerance may be mechanistically distinct. The possible molecular and cellular mediators of UVB-induced tolerance are discussed. PMID:8045590

  11. Prophylaxis and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Salvo, N; Barnes, E; van Draanen, J; Stacey, E; Mitera, G; Breen, D; Giotis, A; Czarnota, G; Pang, J; De Angelis, C

    2010-08-01

    Radiation therapy is a common treatment for cancer patients. One of the most common side effects of radiation is acute skin reaction (radiation dermatitis) that ranges from a mild rash to severe ulceration. Approximately 85% of patients treated with radiation therapy will experience a moderate-to-severe skin reaction. Acute radiation-induced skin reactions often lead to itching and pain, delays in treatment, and diminished aesthetic appearance-and subsequently to a decrease in quality of life. Surveys have demonstrated that a wide variety of topical, oral, and intravenous agents are used to prevent or to treat radiation-induced skin reactions. We conducted a literature review to identify trials that investigated products for the prophylaxis and management of acute radiation dermatitis. Thirty-nine studies met the pre-defined criteria, with thirty-three being categorized as prophylactic trials and six as management trials.For objective evaluation of skin reactions, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria and the U.S. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria were the most commonly used tools (65% of the studies). Topical corticosteroid agents were found to significantly reduce the severity of skin reactions; however, the trials of corticosteroids evaluated various agents, and no clear indication about a preferred corticosteroid has emerged. Amifostine and oral enzymes were somewhat effective in preventing radiation-induced skin reactions in phase II and phase III trials respectively; further large randomized controlled trials should be undertaken to better investigate those products. Biafine cream (Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ, U.S.A.) was found not to be superior to standard regimes in the prevention of radiation-induced skin reactions (n = 6).In conclusion, the evidence is insufficient to support the use of a particular agent for the prevention and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions. Future trials should focus on comparing agents and approaches that, in phase I and II trials, suggest efficacy. These future phase III randomized controlled trials must clearly distinguish between preventive and management strategies for radiation-induced dermatitis. Only then can evidence-based guidelines be developed, with the hope of standardizing the approach across centres and of improving the prevention and management of radiation-induced dermatitis. PMID:20697521

  12. Prophylaxis and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, N.; Barnes, E.; van Draanen, J.; Stacey, E.; Mitera, G.; Breen, D.; Giotis, A.; Czarnota, G.; Pang, J.; De Angelis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a common treatment for cancer patients. One of the most common side effects of radiation is acute skin reaction (radiation dermatitis) that ranges from a mild rash to severe ulceration. Approximately 85% of patients treated with radiation therapy will experience a moderate-to-severe skin reaction. Acute radiation-induced skin reactions often lead to itching and pain, delays in treatment, and diminished aesthetic appearance—and subsequently to a decrease in quality of life. Surveys have demonstrated that a wide variety of topical, oral, and intravenous agents are used to prevent or to treat radiation-induced skin reactions. We conducted a literature review to identify trials that investigated products for the prophylaxis and management of acute radiation dermatitis. Thirty-nine studies met the pre-defined criteria, with thirty-three being categorized as prophylactic trials and six as management trials. For objective evaluation of skin reactions, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria and the U.S. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria were the most commonly used tools (65% of the studies). Topical corticosteroid agents were found to significantly reduce the severity of skin reactions; however, the trials of corticosteroids evaluated various agents, and no clear indication about a preferred corticosteroid has emerged. Amifostine and oral enzymes were somewhat effective in preventing radiation-induced skin reactions in phase ii and phase iii trials respectively; further large randomized controlled trials should be undertaken to better investigate those products. Biafine cream (Ortho–McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ, U.S.A.) was found not to be superior to standard regimes in the prevention of radiation-induced skin reactions (n = 6). In conclusion, the evidence is insufficient to support the use of a particular agent for the prevention and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions. Future trials should focus on comparing agents and approaches that, in phase i and ii trials, suggest efficacy. These future phase iii randomized controlled trials must clearly distinguish between preventive and management strategies for radiation-induced dermatitis. Only then can evidence-based guidelines be developed, with the hope of standardizing the approach across centres and of improving the prevention and management of radiation-induced dermatitis. PMID:20697521

  13. Detection of highly conductive surface electron states in topological crystalline insulators Pb1−xSnxSe using laser terahertz radiation

    PubMed Central

    Egorova, S. G.; Chernichkin, V. I.; Ryabova, L. I.; Skipetrov, E. P.; Yashina, L. V.; Danilov, S. N.; Ganichev, S. D.; Khokhlov, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    We suggest a method for detection of highly conductive surface electron states including topological ones. The method is based on measurements of the photoelectromagnetic effect using terahertz laser pulses. In contrast to conventional transport measurements, the method is not sensitive to the bulk conductivity. The method is demonstrated on an example of topological crystalline insulators Pb1−xSnxSe. It is shown that highly conductive surface electron states are present in Pb1−xSnxSe both in the inverse and direct electron energy spectrum. PMID:26096529

  14. Detection of highly conductive surface electron states in topological crystalline insulators Pb1-xSnxSe using laser terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, S. G.; Chernichkin, V. I.; Ryabova, L. I.; Skipetrov, E. P.; Yashina, L. V.; Danilov, S. N.; Ganichev, S. D.; Khokhlov, D. R.

    2015-06-01

    We suggest a method for detection of highly conductive surface electron states including topological ones. The method is based on measurements of the photoelectromagnetic effect using terahertz laser pulses. In contrast to conventional transport measurements, the method is not sensitive to the bulk conductivity. The method is demonstrated on an example of topological crystalline insulators Pb1-xSnxSe. It is shown that highly conductive surface electron states are present in Pb1-xSnxSe both in the inverse and direct electron energy spectrum.

  15. Radiation induced synthesis of powder yttrium aluminium garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?uba, Vclav; Indrei, Jakub; M?ka, Viliam; Nikl, Martin; Beitlerov, Alena; Pospil, Milan; Jakubec, Ivo

    2011-09-01

    Yttrium-aluminium garnet powders were prepared from aqueous solutions containing yttrium nitrate and aluminium chloride or nitrate via irradiation with accelerated electrons or UV light and via consequent calcination of formed solid phase. UV light seems to be more convenient for yttrium-aluminium garnet preparation; both types of irradiation yield crystalline Y 3Al 5O 12 phase after 1 h calcination at 1000 C in air, but some amounts of yttrium oxide and aluminium oxide were also detected in calcinated solid phase formed under accelerated electrons irradiation. Preliminary radioluminescence and thermoluminescence measurements were performed to further evaluate prepared materials. Intensive radioluminescence typical for Ce 3+ doped structure was observed; thermoluminescence glow curves show distinctive peaks at 135-140 and 240-250 C.

  16. Numerical Investigation of Radiative Heat Transfer in Laser Induced Air Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, J.; Chen, Y. S.; Wang, T. S.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Radiative heat transfer is one of the most important phenomena in the laser induced plasmas. This study is intended to develop accurate and efficient methods for predicting laser radiation absorption and plasma radiative heat transfer, and investigate the plasma radiation effects in laser propelled vehicles. To model laser radiation absorption, a ray tracing method along with the Beer's law is adopted. To solve the radiative transfer equation in the air plasmas, the discrete transfer method (DTM) is selected and explained. The air plasma radiative properties are predicted by the LORAN code. To validate the present nonequilibrium radiation model, several benchmark problems are examined and the present results are found to match the available solutions. To investigate the effects of plasma radiation in laser propelled vehicles, the present radiation code is coupled into a plasma aerodynamics code and a selected problem is considered. Comparisons of results at different cases show that plasma radiation plays a role of cooling plasma and it lowers the plasma temperature by about 10%. This change in temperature also results in a reduction of the coupling coefficient by about 10-20%. The present study indicates that plasma radiation modeling is very important for accurate modeling of aerodynamics in a laser propelled vehicle.

  17. Effects induced by XeCl laser radiation and germicidal lamp radiation on E. coli strains survival and mutability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloni, F.; Alifano, P.; Lorusso, A.; Monaco, C.; Nassisi, V.; Tal, A.; Tredici, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this work the mutagenic effect on Escherichia coli strains induced by UV radiation emitted by a XeCl laser (? = 308 nm) has been analysed as a function of the exposure dose and compared with the effect induced by 254 nm radiation emitted by a conventional germicidal lamp. E. coli strains, wild-type (recA+) and mutant (recA1, defective in DNA damage repair systems), plated on LB agar, supplemented with rifampicin when requested, were irradiated by means of a germicidal lamp in the dose range 0 - 9 mJ/cm2. Similar strains were exposed to 308 nm pulsed laser radiation (? = 20 ns FWHM; max. pulse energy: 100 mJ) in the dose range 0-1.0 x 10 4 mJ/cm2. The discrepancy between the results obtained with the lamp and the laser on the mutation frequency, suggested that the biological response to the two radiation sources involves distinct mechanisms. This hypothesis was supported by the evidence that exposure to near-UV 308 nm induced mutagenesis in the recA-defective strain at an extent considerably higher than in the recA-proficient strain.

  18. Claudin-3 expression in radiation-exposed rat models: A potential marker for radiation-induced intestinal barrier failure

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Sehwan; Lee, Jong-geol; Bae, Chang-hwan; Lee, Seung Bum; Jang, Won-Suk; Lee, Sun-Joo; Lee, Seung-Sook; Park, Sunhoo

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Irradiation increased intestinal bacterial translocation, accompanied by claudin protein expression in rats. • Neurotensin decreased the bacterial translocation and restored claudin-3 expression. • Claudin-3 can be used as a marker in evaluating radiation induced intestinal injury. - Abstract: The molecular events leading to radiation-induced intestinal barrier failure are not well known. The influence of the expression of claudin proteins in the presence and absence of neurotensin was investigated in radiation-exposed rat intestinal epithelium. Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, irradiation, and irradiation + neurotensin groups, and bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph node and expression of claudins were determined. Irradiation led to intestinal barrier failure as demonstrated by significant bacterial translocation. In irradiated terminal ilea, expression of claudin-3 and claudin-4 was significantly decreased, and claudin-2 expression was increased. Administration of neurotensin significantly reduced bacterial translocation and restored the structure of the villi as seen by histologic examination. Among the three subtype of claudins, only claudin-3 expression was restored. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of neurotensin on the disruption of the intestinal barrier is associated with claudin-3 alteration and that claudin-3 could be used as a marker in evaluating radiation-induced intestinal injury.

  19. In vivo evidence for an endothelium-dependent mechanism in radiation-induced normal tissue injury

    PubMed Central

    Rannou, Emilie; Franois, Agns; Toullec, Aurore; Guipaud, Olivier; Buard, Valrie; Tarlet, Georges; Mintet, Elodie; Jaillet, Cyprien; Iruela-Arispe, Maria Luisa; Benderitter, Marc; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Milliat, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanism involved in side effects of radiation therapy, and especially the role of the endothelium remains unclear. Previous results showed that plasminogen activator inhibitor-type 1 (PAI-1) contributes to radiation-induced intestinal injury and suggested that this role could be driven by an endothelium-dependent mechanism. We investigated whether endothelial-specific PAI-1 deletion could affect radiation-induced intestinal injury. We created a mouse model with a specific deletion of PAI-1 in the endothelium (PAI-1KOendo) by a Cre-LoxP system. In a model of radiation enteropathy, survival and intestinal radiation injury were followed as well as intestinal gene transcriptional profile and inflammatory cells intestinal infiltration. Irradiated PAI-1KOendo mice exhibited increased survival, reduced acute enteritis severity and attenuated late fibrosis compared with irradiated PAI-1flx/flx mice. Double E-cadherin/TUNEL labeling confirmed a reduced epithelial cell apoptosis in irradiated PAI-1KOendo. High-throughput gene expression combined with bioinformatic analyses revealed a putative involvement of macrophages. We observed a decrease in CD68+cells in irradiated intestinal tissues from PAI-1KOendo mice as well as modifications associated with M1/M2 polarization. This work shows that PAI-1 plays a role in radiation-induced intestinal injury by an endothelium-dependent mechanism and demonstrates in vivo that the endothelium is directly involved in the progression of radiation-induced enteritis. PMID:26510580

  20. Management of late radiation-induced rectal injury after treatment of carcinoma of the uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Allen-Mersh, T.G.; Wilson, E.J.; Hope-Stone, H.F.; Mann, C.V.

    1987-06-01

    Sixty-one of 1418 (4.3 per cent) patients treated with radiation for carcinoma of the uterus from 1963 to 1983 had significant radiation-induced complications of the intestine develop which required a surgical opinion considering further management. Ninety-three per cent of these complications involved the rectum. Florid proctitis resolved within two years of onset in 33 per cent of the patients who were managed conservatively while 22 per cent of the patients died of disseminated disease within the same time period. Surgical treatment was eventually necessary in 39 per cent of the patients who were initially treated conservatively for radiation induced proctitis. Rectal excision with coloanal sleeve anastomosis produced a satisfactory result in eight of 11 patients with severe radiation injury involving the rectum. The incidence of radiation-induced and malignant rectovaginal fistula were similar (1 per cent), but disease-induced symptoms tended to occur earlier after primary treatment (a median of eight months) compared with radiation-induced symptoms (a median of 16 months).